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CONTENTS

1.0 2.0 3.0 4.0 5.0 6.0

INTRODUCTION..2 OBJECTIVE...3 THEORETICAL BACKGROUND APPARATUS......7

PROCEDURE.....8

SAMPLE CALCULATIONS.10

REFERENCES.......13

APPENDIX

8.1 8.2

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Heat Conduction Simple Bar 1.0 INTRODUCTION Conduction is defined as the transfer of energy from more energetic particles to adjacent less energetic particles as a result of interactions between the particles. In solids, conduction is the combined result of molecular vibrations and free electron mobility. Metals typically have high free electron mobility, which explains why they are good heat conductors. Conduction can be easily understood if we imagine two blocks, one very hot and the other cold. If we put these blocks in contact with one another but insulate them from the surroundings, thermal energy will be transferred from the hot to the cold block, as evidenced by the increase in temperature of the cold block. This mode of heat transfer between the two solid blocks is termed conduction. In heat transfer, conduction (or heat conduction) is the transfer of thermal energy between neighboring molecules in a substance due to a temperature gradient. It always takes place from a region of higher temperature to a region of lower temperature, and acts to equalize the temperature differences. Conduction takes place in all forms of matter, viz. solids, liquids, gases and plasmas, but does not require any bulk motion of matter. In solids, it is due to the combination of vibrations of the molecules in a lattice and the energy transport by free electrons. In gases and liquids, conduction is due to the collisions and diffusion of the molecules during their random motion. Conduction is the transfer of heat from one part of a substance to another part of the same substance, or from one substance to another in physical contact with it, without appreciable displacement of the molecules forming the substance. For example, the heat transfer in the metal bar mentioned previously is by conduction. Perhaps the simplest phenomenon that can be modeled by the heat equation is heat conduction in a long uniform rod. In most instances heat conduction occurs in three dimensions a situation that is complicated to analyze. In the laboratory, we use an apparatus that exhibits one-dimensional heat flow to demonstrate the basic concepts associated with the heat equation. Thus, in our experiment is to investigate Fouriers law for linear conduction of heat along a simple bar. More about Fourier law was explained in Theoretical Background part.

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Heat Conduction Simple Bar

2.0 OBJECTIVE The objective of this experiment is two-fold: 1. To investigate Fouriers law for linear conduction of heat along a simple bar. To conduct a series of experiments in thermal conduction in order to deduce the relationship between the heat transfer rate, the temperature difference, the cross-sectional area, and the length of model across which conduction takes placed.

3.0 THEORETICAL BACKGROUND Heat is a form of energy that can be transferred from one system to another as a result of a temperature difference. Meanwhile, heat transfer carried a meaning of science that deals with the determination of rates of energy transfer. There are three basic mechanisms of heat transfer which are: i) ii) iii) Conduction Convection Radiation

Conduction Conduction is a transfer of energy from the more energetic particles to an adjacent substance with less energetic particles. Conduction could take place in liquids, solids or gases. In solids, it is due to vibrations of the molecules in their lattice while in gas, it is due to the collisions and diffusion of the molecules due to their random motion. For steady state 1-Dimensional Heat Conduction, for problems where the temperature variation is only 1-dimensional such as along the x-coordinate direction, Fourier's Law of heat conduction simplies to the scalar equations:Page | 3

Heat Conduction Simple Bar

In this formula the heat flux q depends on a given temperature profile, T and thermal conductivity, k. The minus sign ensures that heat flows down the temperature gradient. In the above equation, represents the heat flow through a defined cross-sectional area A, measured in watts,

Integrating the 1D heat flow equation through a material's thickness where and are the temperatures at the two boundaries.

gives,

The negative sign indicates that heat is transferred in the direction of decreasing Temperature. More generally, Fourier's Law is a vector relationship which includes all directions of heat transfer:

The thermal conductivity, kvaries between different materials and can be a function of temperature, but it can be treated as a constant over small temperature ranges. Because of the enhancement of heat transfer by free electrons, thermal conductivity is analogous to electrical conductivity and as a result, metals that are good conductors of electricity are also good conductors of heat. In this experiment we will investigate Fourier's Law by finding the thermal conductivity, kfor brass. To do so we will calculate the cross sectional area, Ax of the bar and the slope, dT/dx from a plot of measured temperatures vs. length. We can then use these values in a rearranged version of Fourier's Law to find the thermal conductivity, k:

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Heat Conduction Simple Bar [ ]

In this experiment we will investigate conduction in an insulated long slender brass bar like the one in Figure 1. We will assume that the bar is of length L, a uniform hot temperature This imposed on one end, and a cold temperature Tcis imposed on the other. We will also assume, because the bar is insulated in the peripheral direction that all the heat flows in the axial direction due to an imposed temperature differential along the bar.

If a plane wall of thickness (x) and area (A) and thermal conductivity (k) supports a temperature difference (T) then the heat transfer rate by conduction is given by the equation:

=kA

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Heat Conduction Simple Bar

The thermal conductivity k varies between different materials and can be a function of temperature, but it can be treated as a constant over small temperature ranges. Because of the enhancement of heat transfer by free electrons, thermal conductivity is analogous to electrical conductivity and as a result, metals that are good conductors of electricity are also good conductors of heat. In this experiment we will investigate Fourier's Law by finding the thermal conductivity k for brass and comparing this value to the actual value from one or more references. To do so we will calculate the cross sectional area Ax of the bar and the slope dT/ dx from a plot of measured temperatures vs. length. We can then use these values in a rearranged version of Fourier's Law to find the thermal conductivity, k. Assuming a constant thermal conductivity throughout the material and a linear temperature distribution, this is:

=kA

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Heat Conduction Simple Bar 4.0 APPARATUS

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Heat Conduction Simple Bar

5.0 PROCEDURE 1. Firstly, the heater knob on the heat conduction control (control box) was turned fully counterclockwise (this is the OFF position). 2. Power supply and heat conduction controlwas turned ON. 3. An intermediate position was selected for the heater power control (e.g. 10 W) 4. The power was turned up on the heater to 10 Watts and allowed sufficient time about 10 minutes for a steady state to be achieved before recording the temperature (T) at all 9 sensor points and the input power reading on the wattmeter ( ). 5. Set up the time by using digital clock.

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Heat Conduction Simple Bar 6. After 10 minutes, the reading has been taken of all nine temperature measurement power by using heater power control.

7. This procedure was repeated for other input powers (e.g. 20 W and 30 W) up to maximum setting of the control.

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Heat Conduction Simple Bar 6.0 RESULT AND CALCULATION

BRASS SAMPLE

Diameter of the Cylinder = 25mm Cross Sectional Area ofthe Cylinder = 4.91 Sample Calculation: a) Cross Sectional Area Of The Cylinder = d2 = (0.025)2 = 4.91 10-4 10-4

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Heat Conduction Simple Bar 7.0 Graph:

90

80

70

60 Temperature, T (C)

50

40

30

20

10

0.02

0.04

Length, L (m)

0.06

0.08

Where; At 10W heat supplied At 20W heat supplied At 30W heat supplied

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Heat Conduction Simple Bar b) Since the value of area, and temperature distribution have been obtained, the value of thermal condtivity, k can be obtained by Fourier Equation.

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Heat Conduction Simple Bar 10.0 References: 1. http://www.mcs.utulsa.edu/~class_diaz/cs4533/flowheat/node4.html 2. http://www.engineeringtoolbox.com/thermal-conductivity-metals-d_858.html. 3. Thermodynamics An Engineering Approach Sixth Edition (SI Units) by Yunus A. Cengel And Michael A. Boles. (McGraw Hill) 4. Fundamentals of heat and mass transfer (sixth edition) Incropera Dewitt Bergmann Lavine

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