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Evolution is the theory that all living things have changed in response to environmental conditions by the natural selection

of randomly occurring mutations, developing from the simplest forms to complex forms which are more prolific and stronger, due to their better adaptation to their environment. provided this insight that establishes a great chain connecting the distant
past to the present.

The well known showed that simple components can react abiotically (or in the absence of life) to give rise to biologically important compounds such as components of proteins and nucleic acids.
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At the molecular level, evolution is the history of the emergence of more complex biomolecules from simpler organic monomeric units or even from inorganic counterparts.
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From macromolecules come supramolecular complexes which now become integral parts and components of living cells.
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One of the important molecules of life is what we know as genes - but are actually chemically, deoxyribonucleic acids (DNA) - that define biological structure and maintain cellular integrity. These genes encode proteins that make up cellular structures and carry out many activities in the cell, particularly catalytic activity, that increases rates of cellular reactions producing large numbers of complex molecules. The "decoding" or expression of coded genetic info in DNA into proteins is made possible by another molecule - the ribonucleic acids

This trio of macromolecules - DNA, RNA and proteins - is present in all cells. The rest are polysaccharides, water, inorganic ions and a large array of small organic molecules.

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The central dogma of molecular biology illustrated in the figure below shows the organizing principle in the flow of genetic information: DNA to RNA to protein.
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Consequently, RNA is generally believed to have been the initial genetic system, and an early stage of chemical evolution is thought to have been based on self-replicating RNA molecules a period of evolution known as the RNA world.

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Another approach to classification has also been established - the three classification scheme (nicknamed the "tree of life").
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The universal phylogenetic "tree of life" as determined by RNA sequences et. al. Proc. Nat'1. Acad. Sci. USA analyses (from the work of 87:4578, 1 990). The tree is based on comparisons of the nucleotide sequence of a ribosomal RNA subunit in the different species belonging to the three divisions. The lengths of the lines represent the numbers of evolutionary changes that have occurred in this molecule in each lineage. Figure from Albefts, Bruce et. al. 2002. Molecular Biology of the Cell. 4th ed. Garland Publishing, New York.

This system has shown that some of the organisms that were traditionally classed together as "bacteria" are as widely divergent in their evolutionary origin as is any prokaryote from any eukaryote. The prokaryotes in this scheme comprise two distinct groups that diverged early in history of life: the BACTERIA (or eubacteria = true bacteria) and the ARCHAEA (or archaebacteria = early bacteria). The third division or domain is EUCARYA which include all eukaryotes.

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Archaebacteria are sometimes called extremophles because they are common inhabitants of extreme environments. It includes three groups: 1) strict anaerobes that produce methane from CO2 and H2 2) - require very high salt concentrations 3) - require high temperatures and acid conditions for growth, typically B0-90oC and pH2

Complete genomes are being obtained for organisms from all the th?ee domains; some genomes have been completely sequenced as shown in the figure below.
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A lithotrophic bacterium. Beggiatoa, which lives in sulfurous environments, gets its energy by oxidizing H2S and can fix carbon even in the dark. Note the yellow deposits of sulfur inside the cells. (Courtesy of Ralph Wwolfe; /nage from A|befts, Bruce et. a|.2002. Molecular Biology ofthe Cell. 4th ed. Garland Publishing, New York; Figure above from Lehninger, Albeft et. aI.1993. Principles of Biochemistry.2nd ed. Wotth Publishers, New York.)

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2. Cell Dossesses oenetic information.

- basic structural and functional unit of all

organisms - a small compartment bounded by a semipermeable membrane filled with concentrated aqueous solution of chemicals and non-living products of its activities that is able to carry on independently all the basic life functions

All the information - to build an organism along with all its structures, run all its activities and make more of themselves are stored and encoded in the collection of its genes packaged into a set of chromosomes. The information is hereditary and are stored in the cell's DNA.

1. Cell structure is highly complex

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Based on inherited instructions on its DNA, cells

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has to maintain but all of

reproduce by division on which the contents of "mother" cell, after faithfully dupticating its genetic material (DNA) is distributed into two "daughter" cells, usually equally.

these parts are put in order and in their proper places consistently. As a
consequence, /ess error is

tolerated in the nature and interactions of the parfs placed in a system that is regulated and controlled.

Photo lrom Lodish, HaNey el. al.2004. Moleculat CeI Biology. 51r ed.W.L. Freeman and company, New York.

4. Cellacquires and utilizes energy. Virtually, all of the energy required by life on the earth's surface arrives in the form of electromagnetic radiation from the sun-which photosynthetic cells trap by their light-absorbing pigments present in cell membranes. The light energy is converted by photosynthesis into chemical energy that is stored as sucrose or starch.

5. Cellengages in metabolism.
Metabolism is the sum total of all the chemical reactions in the cell. The chem ica I tra nsformations that proceeds require enzymes that greatly increase the rate at which a chemicaI reaction occurs.
6. Cellengages in mechanical activities.

For animal cells, energy

comes in the form of

sugar glucose (usually from the degradation of starch or glycogen). Glucose in cells are metabolized in such a way that it's energy content is stored in a readily available form (such as ATP).

Dynamic, mechanical changes are carried out by the cell: transport of materials from place to place, assembly and disassembly of structures or the cell itself moves from one site to another.

7.

Cell senses and responds to changes in the environment.

8. Cell is

iapable of self-regulation.

For multi-cellular organisms like plants and animals. their cells have special -'interact" structures called receptors that with substances in the environment. The interaction is communicated to the interior of the cell. The cell may respond by altering some metabolic activities, prepare for cell division, initiate movement or commit suicide (apoptosis).

The complex system of cells require that they put proper order and organization to all the materials that make up their structure and, to all their mechanical and metabolic activities especially in the acquisition of energy to sustain themselves and to reproduce. The requirement is satisfied by constant regulation. The importance of regulation is greatly magnified by its breakdown. The cell may lose many of its important functions or becomes aberrant that it is transformed into an uncontrolled cell as in the case of cancer cells.

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Prokaryotes from an evolutionary point of view, are considered to be "ancestors" of eukaryotic cells. In the current three domain classification scheme, prokaryotes are divided into two major divisions: the ARCHAEA (or achaebacteria) and the BACTERIA (or eubacteria).

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meihanogens ( prokaryotes converting CO2 and H2 gases into methane gas); halcphiies (prokaryotes that live in extremely salty environments); thermcacidcphi les (prokaryotes that live at very high temperatures and very low pH).

The types of prokaryotes belonging to the domain Bacteria includes the myeaplasma, the smallest living cells. it also includes the most complex prokaryotes - the cyanabaeteria, which has elaborate arrays of cytoplasmic membranes serving as sites of photosynthesis. Aside from photosynthesis, many cyanobacteria are also capable of nitrogen fixation - the conversion of N2 gas into reduced forms of nitrogen such as ammonia that is used by cells in the synthesis of nitrogen- containing compounds like nucleotides and amino acids.

Other species under the Domain Bacteria

Prokaryotes are typified by the best-andmost-studied prokaryotic cell, Eset'seri*kia *efi"


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- Frsteobacteria:

a diverse group including photosynthetic sulphur bacteria (using H2S as an electron donor in photosynthetic pathways), mitochondria relatives, and some human pathogens (Salmonella, Vibrio cholerae)

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probably the first oxygenic photosynthetic organisms, they are similar structurally and physiologically to chloroplasts in eukaryotes.

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formation from ADP.


The interior of the cell consists of the rrt'LGF9=${tt and the iir!{i**id region. In the DNA-free region of the cytoplasm are the ribosomes which are sites of protein synthesis. An E. coli has about 15,000 ribosomes aside from thousands of copies of each of different enzyrnes, metabolites, cofactors and various inorganic ions.

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F** !:J*ci*+irl is the DNA-containing region. It contains a single, circular molecule of DNA. Aside from the DNA in the nucleoid, the cytoplasm of many bacterial species have sma ller extrachromosomal, ci rcu lar DNA called
resistance to one or more antibiotics upon the bacterial cell. They are of extreme usefulness to the molecular biologist because they can be
pl+er-id.s. These plasmids may confer

The genome of E, coli'


A cluster of E coli cells. (B) A diagram of the E coli genome of 493g,22Lnacleotide pairs (for E, cori strain K-12), The diagram is circular because the DNAof E coli, like that of other procaryotes' forms a single, closed loop. Protein-coding genes are shown as yellow or orange bars, depending on the DNA strand from which they are transcribed; genes encoding only RNA molecules are indicated by green arrows, Some genes are transcribed from one strand of the DNA double helix (in a clockwise direction in this diagram), others from the other strand (counterclockwise). (Ar courtesy of Tony Brain and the Science

(A)

easily manipulated, separated and reincorporated to cells, cut and accommodate foreign gene inserts used in the techniques in genetic engineering.

Photo Library; B. after F' R. Blattner et al.. Science 2771L453-L462/ 1997. O AAAS')

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There are two basic classes o

prokaryotic and eukaryotrc. There are


several features that distinguish the two types but there are also structures common to all -the cell membrane, the DNA and the DNAcontaining region and the cytoplasm.
rllt)PL.r,n rn,Jrtrn \i,I

Some other activities are also shared by the two types:

similarity in mechanism for transcription ,and translation of the genetic information.and also similar I
,

ribosomes;
.

shared metabolic pathways like glycolysis and the TCA cycle;

.lrfi

:: + ' i:.si

.:,.,.

:';{rr,li .":,

similar mechanism for photosy,nthesis (cyanobacteria and g'reen plants); similarity in the conservation of ,chemical energy as ATP {in Plasma membrane of 'pr.o'karyotes and the mitochond r'ial membrane of eukaryotes). '

.Sorr.cs Kary, GercH. 2002. cd and Mdectlat Biolagy corcepls ahd E\@nhenb 7 ed John Wy
Lehnihger,

and

Abed et.

1993 Pnndples of Eiochenistry

ed. wanh Pubrshes Naw Yo*

The most outstanding difference is the presence or absence of the nucleus which became the basis for the terms: prokaryotic - (pro=before, karyon = nucleus) eukaryotic - (eu=true, karyon = nucleus),
The genetic material of a prokaryotic cell is found in a nucleoid: a poorly demarcated region of the cell that lacks a boundary membrane to separate it from the surrounding cytoplasm. On the other hand, eukaryotes possess a nucleus: a region bounded by a complex membranous structure called the nuclear envelope.

Characteristic Cellular Organization

Prokaryotes

mainly unicellular

Eu ka ryotes mainly multicellular; with differentiation of many cell types

Cell Size Genome

0.2 - 10 pm in diameter DNA with nonhistone


protei ns; i n

5-100pmin
diameter
DNA

nucleoid, not surrounded by


membrane

complexed with histones and nonhistone

proteins in chromosome;
chromosomes in nucleus with

membranous
envelope
RNA and
Above:The nucleoid region in prokaryotic cells; Right: an electron micrograph of eukaryotic nucleus, the dense region in the middle is the nucleolus.
LdhnkqeL Abert et. d.1993 Pnndples of Abchenislry

RNA and

RNA

protein

proteins synthesized in

synthesized in
nucleus;

the same compartment


0.5 sm
New YoB

proteins in cytoplasm

ed.

Woft tublishe6

Characteristic
Cell Division

Prokaryotes

Eukaryotes Mitosis including

fission or

Characteristic Nutrition

budding; no mitosis

mitotic
spindle; centrioles in many species almost always diploid or polyploid mitochondria, chloroplasts (in plants, some algae), endoplasmic reticulum,
Golgi

karyotes absorption; ingestion; some photosynthesis photosynthesis in some ryotes absorption;


Pro ka
Eu

species Energy Metabolism


no

oxidative
enzymes packaged in

Ploidy

usually haploid

mitochondria; oxidative
enzymes bound to plasma

Compartmentalization (Membranebounded

absent

organelles)

membrane; great variation in metabolic pattern


Intracellu lar Movement
none

mitochondria:a more unified pattern of oxidative metabolism

complexes, lysosomes (in animals), etc. Cytoskeleton


none

cytoplasmic streaming,
endocytosis, phagocytosis, mitosis, vesicle

complex, with microtubules, intermediate

transport

filaments, actin filaments