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1 SEGURANÇA: FUNDAMENTOS ......................................................................................................................................... 4
1.1 Introdução ................................................................................................................................................................ 4
1.2 Segurança: o conceito .............................................................................................................................................. 4
1.3 Segurança e as ferramentas de rede......................................................................................................................... 6
1.4 Nosso objetivo .......................................................................................................................................................... 7
2 0 FIREWALL: DUAS SOLUÇÕES EM AMBIENTE LINUX...................................................................................................... 9
2.1 Uma palavra inicial sobre firewalls ......................................................................................................................... 9
2.2 Firewalls e acesso remoto: o Secure Shell ............................................................................................................. 10
2.3 Firewalls: solução Linux ........................................................................................................................................ 15
2.4 A filtragem de pacotes ............................................................................................................................................ 16
2.5 IPCHAINS (The Enhanced IP Firewalling Chains Software for Linux) ................................................................ 17
2.6 The SINUS Firewall - a TCP/IP packet filter for Linux ......................................................................................... 32
3 MONITORAÇÃO DA REDE ............................................................................................................................................... 56
3.1 Os scanners de rede................................................................................................................................................ 56
3.2 Saint: Security Administrator's Integrated Network Tool....................................................................................... 72
+8/B9= ................................................................................................................................................. 80
+8/B9 +$ ....................................................................................................................................................................... 81
+8/B9 ,$ ....................................................................................................................................................................... 82
+8/B9 -$ ....................................................................................................................................................................... 90
+8/B9 .$ ......................................................................................................................................................................... 96
+8/B9 /$ ......................................................................................................................................................................... 99
,3,6391<+03+ 1/<+6 ..................................................................................................................... 100

SOBRE O AUTOR DA APOSTILA .................................................................................................... 102

*18 )5(( '2&80(17$7,21 /,&(16( ....................................................................................... 103

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1 Segurança: Fundamentos

1.1 Introdução

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1.3 Segurança e as ferramentas de rede

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*O risco é a possibilidade que um intruso possa ter sucesso ao tentar invadir seus computadores. Um intruso pode, ao
acessar seus arquivos, danificar dados críticos? Não se esqueça, também, que ao possuir uma conta de sua rede, o
intruso pode se passar por você.

*As ameaças serão sempre no sentido de se obter acesso não-autorizado em sua rede ou computador. Há portanto
vários tipos de intrusos e, então, diferentes tipos de ameaça a sua rede.

*Há o curioso: esse tipo de intruso se interessa pelo tipo de dado e sistema você possui.

*Há o malicioso: esse quer em síntese derrubar o seu sistema, destruir dados, destruir os documento publicados no
seu Web server, etc. É o chamado cracker.

*Há o intruso de “alto-nível” (High-Profile): ele quer obter popularidade mostrando suas habilidades ao invadir seu
sistema.

*Há o competidor: esse que conhecer seus dados para obter algum ganho com isso.

*Por fim, “vulnerabilidade” descreve o quão bem protegido é seu computador, e o que se perderá se alguém obter
acesso não-autorizado a algum(ns) computador(res).

Portanto, crie uma política de segurança para sua rede que seja simples e genérica e que todos os usuários
possam prontamente compreender e seguir. Você pode proteger dados tanto quanto respeitar a privacidade dos
usuários

1.4 Nosso objetivo

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1
RFC é o acrônimo de Request for Comments, um enorme conjunto de documentos organizados pela INTERNIC reunindo

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informações sobre TCP/IP e outros protocolos, assim como Redes, segurança, correio eletrônico, etc.

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2 0 Firewall: duas soluções em ambiente Linux

2.1 Uma palavra inicial sobre firewalls

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Definindo:
Um firewall é todo sistema conjunto de hardware e software que
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potencialmente perigosos, visto que não autorizados.

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2
Definiçao retirada de SCO OpenServer© Internet Services (v.5.0.4 may 1997), p. 11.

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2.2 Firewalls e acesso remoto: o Secure Shell


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3
A autenticação RSA é baseada numa chave pública de criptografia. Uma chave para criptografar e a outra para
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jamais poderemos derivar esta chave de descriptografar da outra.

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2.3 Firewalls: solução Linux

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Em 'general setup':
1. turn networking support => ATIVO

Em 'networking options':
1. turn network firewalls => ATIVO

4
O Linux IPCHAINS-HOWTO por exemplo apresenta 4 diferentes cenários possíveis.

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2. turn TCP/IP networking => ATIVO


3. turn IP forwarding/gatewaying => ATIVO
4. turn IP firewalling => ATIVO
5. turn IP firewall packet logging => ATIVO
6. turn IP masquerading => ATIVO
7. turn IP accounting => ATIVO
8. turn IP tunneling => DESATIVO
9. turn IP aliasing => ATIVO (pode-se optar por seu uso modular...)
10. turn IP (PC/TCP mode) => DESATIVO
11. turn IP (reverse ARP) => DESATIVO
12. turn drop source routed frames => ATIVO

Em 'network device support':


1. turn network device support => ATIVO
2. turn net driver support => ATIVO
3. turn ethernet (10/100 mbit.) => ATIVO

2.4 A filtragem de pacotes

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2.5 IPCHAINS (The Enhanced IP Firewalling Chains Software for Linux)


O Ipchains5, escrito por Rusty Russel (ipchains@rustcorp.com), tem a habilidade de filtrar os pacotes que passam pelo
kernel. Não é um software simples, mas conhecendo o seu mecanismo e seus conceitos o administrador de rede pode
escolher a política de segurança de sua rede. A versão trabalhada aqui será a 1.3.8 (ipchains-1.3.8-3.i386.rpm).
Para lidar com um pacote o kernel do Linux possui três regras principais, que o Ipchains chama de firewall chains ou
chains - não usaremos tradução para a palavra chains/chain, iremos portanto conservá-la em inglês. São elas:

IP INPUT CHAIN: quando um pacote entra ...


IP OUTPUT CHAIN: quando um pacote sai ...
IP FORWARD CHAIN: quando um pacote é roteado para
outra máquina ...

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5
Uma questão terminológica: o aluno não deve confundir ipchains com o antigo ipfwadm: o primeiro está em
distribuições com o kernel 2.2.x e o último no kernel 2.0.x; os parâmetros são essencialmente diferentes, portanto não
servem os scripts feitos para o ipfwadm.

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ftp 21 tcp
ssh 22 tcp/udp
telnet 23 tcp
smtp 25 tcp
whois 43 tcp
finger 79 tcp
www 80 tcp
pop-3 110 tcp/udp
https 443 tcp/udp

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6
Pode-se consultar também o RFC 177 para uma lista completa das portas.

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Consulte a documentação sobre o tema, principalmente sobre o comando ifconfig, que configura e lista as interfaces
existentes num host.

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SERVIDOR Linux {[eth0] 200.255.210.2
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{ 192.168.0.1, 192.168.0.2 , etc.}

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No Firewall...
Desligamos os serviços desnecessários, deixando o SSH para conexão remota com
o servidor somente. E vamos proteger nossa intranet...

ipchains -A input -p tcp -s 172.16.0.0 -j DENY


ipchains -A input -p tcp -s 192.168.0.1/10 -j DENY
ipchains -A input -p tcp -s ! 200.255.210.2 ssh -j DENY

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No Servidor...

Como nosso servidor irá ter serviços da Internet públicos precisamos liberá-
los...

ipchains -A input -p tcp -s 0.0.0.0/0 -d 255.210.02 www -j ACCEPT


ipchains -A input -p tcp -s 0.0.0.0/0- -d 255.210.02 ftp -j ACCEPT
Inclua aqui todos
os serviços que serão oferecidos...

ipchains -A input -p tcp -s 192.168.0.1/10 -j DENY


(Fechando nossa intranet...)
ipchains -A input -p tcp -i lo -j ACCEPT
(Abrindo interface 'lo'...)
ipchains -P forward DENY
ipchains -A forward -s 192.168.0.1/10 -d 200.255.210.2 -j MASQ
(Usando a técnica do mascaramento de IPs...)

-Ou seja: qualquer faixa de IPs...

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2.6 The SINUS Firewall - a TCP/IP packet filter for Linux


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Há uma versão estável para versões de kernel mais antigos.
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8
Há uma versão estável para versões de kernel mais antigos.

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9
Se você optar por recompilar o kernel, não execute o 'make clean' no fim do processo! Pois sabidamente ele apagará
todos os arquivos *.o gerados...

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Flooding em inglês quer dizer inundação...

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“Um dos mais fascinantes buracos na segurança, e que foi primeiramente descrito por Morris. Em suma: usa-se uma
predição dos números de sequência TCP para construir uma sequência de pacote TCP sem em qualquer momento ter
recebido qualquer resposta do servidor. Isto lhe permite enganar (spoof) um host confiável numa rede local.”

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Contra-Ataque. A História da captura do Pirata Cibernético mais procurado dos Estados Unidos. Ed. Companhia da
Letras, 1996, p. 104 ss.
14
“Security Problems in the TCP/IP Protocol Suite”. Computer Communication Review, Vol. 19, nº2, p. 32.

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José Luiz Nunes Poyares Paulo Roberto Ribeiro Guimarães


Diretor Administrativo Diretor Institucional

CIPSGA
Rua Professora Ester de Melo, numero 202,
Parte, Benfica, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, CEP. 20930-010;
Telefone (Fax/Dados): 021-5564201;
e-mail: administracao@cipsga.org.br
CNPJ: 03179614-0001/70

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