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ulsablllLy 8lghLs CommlsslonAnd ulsabled people can arLlclpaLe lully as Lqual ClLlzenAbsLracLWhen an

lndlvldual cannoL be ln conLrol of Lhelr llfe because of physlcal or soclal barrlers Lhls can cause a
dlsabllng envlronmenL An enabllng envlronmenL however could help a person Lo be more ln conLrol
of Lhelr llfe and allow Lhem Lo malnLaln more of Lhelr lndependence bellefs preferences prlvacy and
dlgnlLy As suggesLed ln unlL 6 1he envlronmenL can become a barrler Lo everyday llvlnglnLroducLlonln
Lhls 8esearch work upon Lhe dlsablllLy rlghLs commlsslon and dlsabled people can play a parL fully as
equal clLlzen dlsablllLy ls deflned as Lhe lnLeracLlon of dlverse human condlLlons by means of
envlronmenLal barrlers Lo full socleLy addlLlon 1hls modern vlew of dlsablllLy Lhough rellable wlLh Lhe
mlsslon and values of soclal work recelves lncompleLe noLlce ln soclal work seL of courses no doubL
Lhe commencemenL Lhrough an evaluaLlon of Lhe llLeraLure on dlsablllLy and Lhe locaLlon of dlsablllLy
Lheory lnslde academlc dlalogue Lhls arLlcle goes on Lo look aL dlsablllLy conLenL ln soclal work
prospecLus and llLeraLure LasLly a framework ls obLalnable Lo gulde soclal work Leacher ln addresslng
dlsablllLy as an consLlLuenL of human varleLy
LlLeraLure 8evlewulsablllLy erspecLlvesWhen an lndlvldual cannoL be ln conLrol of Lhelr llfe because of
physlcal or soclal barrlers Lhls can cause a dlsabllng envlronmenL An enabllng envlronmenL however
could help a person Lo be more ln conLrol of Lhelr llfe and allow Lhem Lo malnLaln more of Lhelr
lndependence bellefs preferences prlvacy and dlgnlLy As suggesLed ln unlL 6 1he envlronmenL can
become a barrler Lo everyday llvlng (unlL 6 p16)
lor many people 8rlLlsh LradlLlonal phrases such as Pome ls where Lhe hearL ls (unlL 6 p10) or
1heres no place llke home bear a relevanL slgnlflcance Lo Lhe way people llve or wanL Lo llve Lhelr
llves ln Lhe prlvacy of Lhelr own home where mosL care ofLen Lakes place WlLh reference Lo 1he MaLrlx
group sLudy (1984) CffprlnLs 9 alLhough Lhe changes ln houslng deslgn have been made Lo lnclude
beLLer sanlLaLlon and use of space and prlvacy houslng ofLen presenLs physlcal barrlers for dlsabled
people (unlL 6 p26) AlLhough adapLaLlons can someLlmes be made Lhls ls noL always posslble and can
mean LhaL people who need care may have Lo rely on oLhers Lhus loslng Lhelr lndependence Also lL can
be dlfflculL for some people Lo malnLaln Lhelr home (such as palnLlng decoraLlng) ln some areas Care
and 8epalr or SLaylng uL schemes have been developed (unlL 6 p 21) and people wlLh speclal needs
are able Lo have Lhelr homes adapLed Lo meeL Lhelr physlcal and care needs
Powever Lhere are conLralndlcaLlons Lo Lhls as speclal needs ln lLself could be dlsabllng lL ls a
colncldence LhaL Lhe very people LhaL have Lo puL up wlLh Lhese envlronmenLs are Lhe mosL
dlsempowered people ln our socleLy (unlL 6 p22) Many people wlLh or wlLhouL dlsablllLles make Lhe
besL of whaL Lhey have goL even lf Lhey canL manage Lhe sLalrs LhaL well or reach Lhe klLchen
cupboards eace and Polland suggesL LhaL our houslng could be more lncluslve and deslgned Lo make
llvlng easler (eace and Polland (2001) ln unlL 6 p22)
uk casesA ulsablllLy LxampleLsLher (AC 2 slde 1) ls an example of an lndlvldual who has experlenced a
dlsabllng envlronmenL and has Laken sLeps Lo make her envlronmenL more enabllng Pavlng been ln
hosplLal for Lhree years sufferlng from MulLlple Sclerosls LsLher desperaLely wanLed Lo go home
AlLhough she wenL home on occaslonal vlslLs she reporLs LhaL lL was very dlfflculL for her because her
flaL was on Lhe Lhlrd floor and lL was lmposslble Lo geL her wheelchalr lnLo Lhe llfL so she had Lo be
carrled up Lhe sLalrs Also her flaL was noL adapLed Lhe surfaces were Loo hlgh she could noL move
freely around Lhe flaL and could noL use Lhe baLh or LolleL She could noL go ouL and had Lo rely on
oLhers for everyLhlng whlch affecLed Lhe resL of Lhe famlly LsLher sald LhaL she felL very frusLraLed and
fed up 1herefore Lhe physlcal and soclal envlronmenL were dlsabllng for her
LvenLually LsLher was able Lo geL an adapLed home for her and her famlly Lo llve ln whlch made a huge
dlfference Lo her llfe and her lndependence AlLhough Lhe home was noL adapLed Lo meeL her speclflc
needs such as Lhe baLh and when lL ls lL wlll glve her furLher conLrol over her llfe
LsLher Lells of her feellng of freedom and how she doesnL have Lo depend on oLhers for everyLhlng she
also polnLs ouL Lhe poslLlve effecLs on Lhe resL of Lhe famlly and how her daughLer ls happy now LhaL she
has a garden Lo play ln
AlLhough LsLhers home llfe has lmproved and glven her back her lndependence Lhere are sLlll many
barrlers for her ln Lhe ouLslde envlronmenL She descrlbes how dlfflculL [usL a Lrlp Lo Lhe shops can be as
Lhere are ofLen sLeps or Lhe doors are narrow and Lhere lsnL enough room Lo Lurn her wheelchalr round
ln Lhe shop Lven Lhough LsLher may geL an elecLrlc wheelchalr Lo glve her more conLrol ouLslde Lhe
home many of Lhe exLernal barrlers wlll sLlll exlsL for her
ulsablllLy ulscrlmlnaLlon AcL 19931he ulsablllLy ulscrlmlnaLlon AcL 1993 made lL unlawful Lo refuse Lo
provlde servlces of a lower sLandard Lo dlsabled people on Lhe basls of Lhelr dlsablllLles (unlL 6 p16)
1hls could be used Lo challenge Lhe area of accesslblllLy Lo bulldlngs 1he acL also now requlres LhaL all
newly bullL homes wlll be accesslble as deflned by Lhe crlLerla of vlslLablllLy seL ouL by Lhe CenLre for
Accesslble LnvlronmenLs (CAL) (unlL 6 p16)
1here are Llmes when people may have Lo leave Lhelr homes and move lnLo resldenLlal care whlch can
provlde a more enabllng physlcal and soclal envlronmenL Lhan Lhey were able Lo achleve ln Lhelr own
home along wlLh more speclallsed care as accommodaLlon and care are lnLlmaLely enLwlned (unlL 6
p21)
Wlllcocks eace and kellaLer polnL ouL LhaL Lhe lmpacL of Lhe soclal and physlcal envlronmenL ln a
resldenLlal care home seLLlng can make a dlfference Lo Lhe resldenL ln Lerms of Lhe malnLenance of
prlvacy (u Wlllcocks Seace L kellaLer ln 1he 8eader p182) lndlvlduals may beneflL from havlng
Lhelr own prlvaLe space ln a home maklng lL more Lhelrs and enabllng Lhem Lo lead a more
lndependenL llfe buL wlLh help on hand lf neededWlllcocks eaces and kellaLors reporL ln 1he reader
sLaLes LhaL ConLrol of Lhe lmmedlaLe envlronmenL was someLhlng Lo whlch resldenLs aLLached
conslderable lmporLance such as conLrolllng Lhe heaLlng and belng able Lo open Lhe wlndows yeL ln
only a Lhlrd of homes resldenLs could do Lhls (1he 8eader p 84)LlberLy of Larley Pouse ls a good
example of a resldenLlal care seLLlng whlch empowers enabllng an lndlvldual Lo llve how Lhey choose
Lo glvlng resldenLs conLrol of Lhelr own llves wlLhln Lhe consLralnLs of such a seLLlng and wlLh sufflclenL
space and prlvacy Lo do so
Codes of pracLlce ln care seLLlngs wlLh underlylng prlnclples such as Lhose seL ouL ln 1he Wagner reporL
carlng cholce conLlnulLy change and common values (unlL 8 p123) are now becomlng commonplace
ln many care seLLlngs as good pracLlce ln llne wlLh Lhe Care SLandards AcL 2000(wwwdhgovuk)1he
new laws and sLandards should help lndlvlduals recelvlng care ln a care seLLlng or ln Lhelr own home
have Lhelr envlronmenLs alLered so LhaL Lhey can achleve maxlmum lndependence
Cne furLher way ln whlch enforcemenL of anLldlscrlmlnaLlon law falls Lo llve up Lo Lhe prlnclple of falr
redress ls wlLh respecL Lo Lhe ulsablllLy ulscrlmlnaLlon AcL Whlle ln cases of race or sex dlscrlmlnaLlon
Lhe vlcLlm can call upon Lhe Commlsslon for 8aclal LquallLy or Lhe Lqual CpporLunlLles Commlsslon Lo
lnvesLlgaLe Lhelr case and brlng lL Lo CourL for Lhem no such mechanlsm ls avallable for vlcLlms of
dlsablllLy dlscrlmlnaLlon 1he uuA 93 only provldes for an advlsory body Lhe naLlonal ulsablllLy Councll
whlch does noL have Lhe exLenslve powers of Lhe oLher Lwo sLaLuLory bodles When Lhe AcL was belng
debaLed ln Lhe Pouse of Lords Lord LesLer descrlbed Lhe Councll as a paLheLlcally powerless quango lf
Lhe law were concerned wlLh Lrue avallablllLy of redress for dlscrlmlnaLlon for all proLecLed clLlzens as lL
should be lL would glve Lhe dlsabled Lhe same enforcemenL rlghLs and opporLunlLles as lL granLs women
and members of raclal groups
1he ALLempL Lo Change SocleLal ALLlLudesA law reduces pre[udlce by dlscouraglng Lhe behavlour ln
whlch pre[udlce flnds expresslon ulscrlmlnaLlon leglslaLlon ls one area where Lhe law seeks Lo change
publlc oplnlon raLher Lhan follow lL lL seems falrly accepLable glven LhaL Lhe SLaLe ls under a duLy Lo
prevenL or correcL a harm caused Lo lLs clLlzens LhaL lL should use Lhe law Lo sLop Lhe harm occurrlng ln
Lhe flrsL place 1he quesLlon remalns however does our law work effecLlvely Lo change socleLal aLLlLudes
of blgoLry mlsogyny and pre[udlce agalnsL Lhe dlsabled as lL should? (8uys n ! lrled ! P 2004
241233)1here has been much dlscusslon noLably by !ohn Cardner and ChrlsLopher McCrudden as Lo
how Lhe law operaLes ln Lhls area wheLher lL ls based on Lhe lndlvldual [usLlce model or Lhe group
[usLlce model or a mlxLure of boLh 1he former of Lhese ls as lLs name suggesLs ls lndlvlduallsLlc ln
naLure concerned wlLh ensurlng [usLlce for Lhe lndlvldual lL ls crlLlclsed for noL recognlslng Lhe deep
sLrucLure of raclal dlscrlmlnaLlon whlch ls as ofLen lnsLlLuLlonal as lndlvldual 1he laLLer model ls
concerned wlLh furLherlng Lhe cause of mlnorlLy groups as a whole raLher Lhan [usL Lhose of lndlvlduals
8amforLh sees Lhe lndlvldual [usLlce model as belng Lhe dlrecL dlscrlmlnaLlon ln our leglslaLlon a legal
remedy effecLlng correcLlve [usLlce for Lhe lndlvldual afLer a harm has been commlLLed lndlrecL
dlscrlmlnaLlon ls he argues llnked Lo Lhe group [usLlce model a vehlcle for promoLlng dlsLrlbuLlve
[usLlce Cardner agrees wlLh Lhls and adds LhaL Lhls mlxLure of correcLlve and dlsLrlbuLlve [usLlce wlll lead
Lo evenLual lncoherence ulscrlmlnaLlon ls an ongolng conLlnuous problem whlle boLh soluLlons are
dlsconLlnuous and so nelLher ls ldeally equlpped Lo deal wlLh lL ls elLher of Lhese meLhods effecLlve ln
Lhe Lask of changlng peoples aLLlLudes and promoLlng Lhe ldea LhaL noL dlscrlmlnaLlng ls an advanLage
Lo a buslness noL a loss?1here ls of course Lhe LhreaL wlLh boLh forms LhaL lf an employer or a provlder
of servlces engages ln unlawful dlscrlmlnaLlon he wlll be sub[ecL Lo a CourL appearance Lhe expense LhaL
enLalls and a posslble order of moneLary reparaLlon 1hls may acL as a deLerrenL buL lL ls equally
arguable LhaL lL ls ln reallLy falrly lneffecLlve Many people dlscrlmlnaLe unwlLLlngly Lhe naLure of
pre[udlce belng LhaL lL ls ofLen deeprooLed and unconsclous ulrecL dlscrlmlnaLlon probably does noL
Lherefore achleve Lhe effecL lL should of helplng Lo break down pre[udlce ln socleLy lL works besL as a
remedy afLer Lhe lllegal acL of dlscrlmlnaLlon has occurred
LquallLy of lreedom and LquallLy of CpporLunlLylenwlck argues LhaL Lhe domlnanL Lheory underplnnlng
uk leglslaLlon on dlscrlmlnaLlon ls LhaL of equallLy of freedom Lhe ldea LhaL Lhe sLaLe ensures LhaL no
formal dlscrlmlnaLory mechanlsms exlsL leavlng lndlvlduals free Lo exerclse Lhelr LalenLs and ablllLles
or raLher Lo sLop lndlvlduals prevenLlng oLhers from dolng so ln oLher words lenwlck ls argulng LhaL our
law assumes LhaL once people have equal freedom Lhey also have equal opporLunlLy Lo geL a parLlcular
[ob or recelve a cerLaln servlce 1he volumlnous case law ln Lhls area shows LhaL Lhls assumpLlon ls lll
founded Legally everyone ls equal dlscrlmlnaLlon ls lllegal and yeL Lhese cases sLlll come Lo CourL As l
already dlscussed lL can be very dlfflculL for Lhe facL of leglslaLlon alone Lo change Lhe deeprooLed
blgoLed vlews of lndlvlduals who pracLlce dlscrlmlnaLlon lf Lhls ls so should addlLlonal sLeps be Laken Lo
ensure LhaL all lndlvlduals have Lhe same opporLunlLles noL [usL Lhe same freedoms and how much real
dlfference ls Lhere beLween Lhese Lwo concepLs? (Condrey S L 8rudney ! L 2003 2642)1here ls
much argumenL surroundlng wheLher equallLy of freedom and equallLy of opporLunlLy are
equlvalenL Lerms Cn a purely semanLlc level Lhere ls a dlfference freedom ls Lhe sLaLe of belng free Lo
acL whlle opporLunlLy ls a good chance a favourable occaslon 8elng as free Lo do someLhlng as Lhe
nexL lndlvldual ls dlfferenL Lo havlng as good a chance as succeedlng as LhaL person 1he baslc leglslaLlon
may glve equallLy of freedom r all are Lo be LreaLed equally and [udged on Lhe basls of Lhelr merlL noL
Lhelr skln colour or gender r buL lL does noL guaranLee success and lL does noL Lake lnLo accounL Lhe
dlsparaLe sLarLlng poslLlons of lndlvlduals ln advanLaged and nonadvanLaged groups lf Lhe runners ln a
sprlnL all sLarLed aL varylng dlsLances behlnd Lhe sLarLlng llne all would have Lhe same freedom Lo run
Lhe race buL Lhey would noL have equal opporLunlLy Lo wln Lhere would noL be equallLy of ouLcome
slnce some would be much more llkely Lo wln Lhan oLhers due Lo Lhelr sLarLlng poslLlons Should Lhe law
Lake accounL of and correcL Lhese dlsparlLles ln sLarLlng polnLs or should lL remaln wlLh Lhe concepL of
all belng LreaLed as equal even lf Lhe reallLy ls LhaL Lrue equallLy ls lmposslble?lf we accepL LhaL Lhe Lwo
phrases equallLy of freedom and equallLy of opporLunlLy are dlsLlncL and separaLe alLhough relaLed
concepLs Lhen we musL ask whlch should and whlch does underpln uk dlscrlmlnaLlon law As a baslc
concepL Lhe equallLy of belng free Lo acL should and lndeed does underpln our law WhaL Lhan of
equallLy of opporLunlLy how should lL be lnLerpreLed and should lL form parL of our law? (leldblum C
8 2001 1126)ALLempLs Lo achleve an equal ouLcome by poslLlve dlscrlmlnaLlon do noL flL well
LheoreLlcally wlLh Lhe model of formal equallLy LhaL wrlLers such as lenwlck clalm our law ls based on ln
pracLlce our law reaches a compromlse beLween formal equallLy and poslLlve acLlon ln a very weak
form under ss3338 of 88A 76 and Lhe equlvalenL provlslons of Lhe SuA 73 employers can underLake
pollcles such as encouraglng appllcaLlons from an underrepresenLed group ln employmenL
adverLlsemenL or resLrlcLlng access Lo Lralnlng faclllLles Lo Lhose who need lL mosL because of Llme Lhey
have Laken off work Lo have a famlly 1here ls no duLy Lo make such provlslons buL Lhere ls also no
allowance of general poslLlve acLlon under elLher sLaLuLe Lhe wordlng of s1(1) of boLh does noL permlL lL
(s1(1) of 88A 76 says LhaL a person dlscrlmlnaLes agalnsL anoLher person unlawfully lf on raclal grounds
he LreaLs LhaL oLher less favourably Lhan he LreaLs or would LreaL oLher persons) 1hls leaves Lhe
slLuaLlon where an employer can encourage Lhrough [ob adverLlslng members of a parLlcular under
represenLed group Lo apply for a [ob buL lf Lhey are sllghLly less well quallfled Lhan appllcanLs from Lhe
advanLaged group ln Lhe workforce Lhe employer cannoL legally glve Lhem Lhe [ob ln order Lo address
Lhe lnequallLy caused by years of lnsLlLuLlonallsed dlscrlmlnaLlon (llnn ! felffer u 2003)
Should we exLend our law Lo lnclude a deflnlLe form of poslLlve dlscrlmlnaLlon (or afflrmaLlve acLlon as
lL ls oLherwlse known)? 1he argumenL opposlng poslLlve dlscrlmlnaLlon ls sLrong boLh LheoreLlcally and
pracLlcally Cn a very baslc level lL can be sald Lo merely be dlscrlmlnaLlon ln reverse every blL as un[usL
as Lhe behavlour Lhe law ls Lrylng Lo eradlcaLe amongsL Lhe ma[orlLy Where you dlscrlmlnaLe poslLlvely
ln one persons favour you are dlscrlmlnaLlng agalnsL someone else and so Lhere ls no freedom of
equallLy any longer lL adversely affecLs Lhe candldaLe who was equally well quallfled for Lhe posL buL
who dld noL belong Lo a mlnorlLy group and so lL ls un[usL (llnn ! felffer u 2004)
1he Soclology of 8lghLsCne reacLlon Lo Lhe query of how Lo Lhlnk soclologlcally concernlng rlghLs has
been Lo move beyond counLrywlde surrounded clLlzenshlp and Lo appeal Lo Lhe unlversal 1hough nexL
Lo Lhe quesL for eLhlcal confldence (1urner) and Lhe raLher uncrlLlcal recelpL of LransnaLlonal
unlversallLy (Soysal) we also dlscover remlnders of Lhe lasLlng power of Lhe naLlonsLaLe and accounLs
of rlghLs parLlcularly human rlghLs as pollLlcally dlscussed (Cardner 8 P Campanella C ! 2001 37
31)
An addlLlonal usually soclologlcal approach Lo Lhe sub[ecL of rlghLs ls found ln an sLress on boundary
drawlng as ln 8rubakers (1992 23) scruLlnlzed of clLlzenshlp as `LogeLher an Lool and an ob[ecL of
communal closure and Lhe appllcaLlon of Lhls argumenL Lo Lhe growLh of poslLlons of lncompleLe
membershlp as a response Lo lnLernaLlonal mlgraLlon Moreover l have argued somewhere else LhaL
Lhls occurrence ls malnly Lo be undersLood as Lhe managemenL of dlsagreemenL ln whlch pollcy and
performance seek Lo sLrlke an equlllbrlum among concern over naLlonwlde resources whlch Lends Lo
boundary enLry and ongolng employer demand and Lhe declaraLlon of human rlghLs whlch poLenLlally
geL blgger enLry (Pahn P 2004 331370)
ulsablllLy and Puman 8lghLslf we analyzed Lhen we come Lo know LhaL Lhere are furLher Lhan 83 mllllon
people ln 8rlLaln by means of a dlsablllLy Cne ln seven ln ScoLland across all ages cerebral healLh
sensory loss cerebral and bodlly dlsablllLy says 8enson 8uL lLs Lhe colllslon of Lhe ln[ury LhaL ln
reallLy dlsables Communal aLLlLudes such as agelsm and dlsablelsm are communal consLrucLs So Lhe
commlsslon faces a huge educaLlve Lask Lo confronL Lhe sLlgma and lack of knowledge LhaL enclose
dlsablllLy 8enson Lalks regardlng a woman who was refused admlLLance Lo a daLlng agency slnce she
had a degeneraLlve brawny condlLlon lurLhermore on anoLher Llme a group of people by means of
learnlng complexlLles were evlcLed from a resLauranL slnce Lhey looked dlsslmllar (Pasler l 2003 pp
278284)
Accordlng Lo Lhe experL analysls Lhe rlghLs commlsslon has seL lLself one ob[ecLlve only buL lL ls a
deLermlned one a clvlllzaLlon where all dlsabled people can conLrlbuLe compleLely as equal clLlzens
Moreover lLs chalr ls 8erL Massle and Lhere are 14 addlLlonal commlssloners on behalf of a varleLy of
lnLeresLs such as Lhe commerce Lrade unlon and unpald secLors as well as ScoLland and Wales lus Len
of Lhe commlssloners are dlsabled ScoLlands flrsL Commlssloner for ulsablllLy ls Llalne noad Lhe
dlrecLor of group of people servlces aL SouLh Ayrshlre councll (!ohnson W C 8aldwln M 2003 21
773788)
ln Lhls regard from Lhe onseL Lhe commlsslon has glven a helpllne and lawful advlce plus pollcy
leadershlp Lo Lhe governmenL and oLhers Moreover 8enson says LhaL one of Lhe Lhrllllng Lhlngs Lo
come ouL from ScoLlands dlsablllLy rlghLs Lask force whlch head Lhe seLLlng up of Lhe commlsslon was
Lhe addlLlon of youLh servlces 1haL comprlse educaLlon he beams So well be llalslng lnLlmaLely by
means of Lhe ScoLLlsh LxecuLlve 8enson wanLs Lo be acqualnLed wlLh whaL happens Lo dlsabled people
who mlss ouL on Leachlng WhaL does LhaL denoLe for Lhem ln Lerms of way of llfe? Pls dream ls of
dlsabled people as vlgorous clLlzens re[ecLlng Lhe abuslve and ouLmoded dependence model
lurLhermore he Llp ouL LhaL Ldlnburgh ClLy Councll has a dlsablllLy commlLLee whlch permlL lL Lo
calculaLe lLs pollcles alongslde Lhe needs of Lhe dlsabled lf Lhey can do lL why canL all commlsslon?1he
rock layer for Lhe commlsslon wlll be Lhe conLenLlous ulsablllLy ulscrlmlnaLlon AcL whlch has Laken a
defeaL slnce lLs performance ln 1993 ulsbellever have crlLlclsed Lhe acL as badly drafLed chlefly ln lLs
meanlng of dlsablllLy (kalLon C Anderson u W 2003 6382)
LquallLy under LmploymenL ulscrlmlnaLlon AcLsLaw professor !ohn ! uonohue lll from Lhe unlverslLy of
Mlchlgan Law School argues LhaL over Llme Lhe developmenL of employmenL dlscrlmlnaLlon law has
come ouL of changlng concepLlons of equallLy ln Lhe uk Pe argues LhaL Lhere are Lhree concepLs of
equallLy and Lhe way ln whlch a workers labor ls valued whlch are Lhe caLalysLs of changes ln uk
employmenL dlscrlmlnaLlon law rA workers wage should equal Lhe value of Lhe lndlvlduals labor as
deLermlned by Lhe markeL
rWorkers value depends on dlscrlmlnaLlon agalnsL Lhe group
rA workers prlce depends as much on Lhe markeLs aLLlLudes abouL Lhe worker (or workers group) as
Lhe work lLself
rSo raLher Lhan a workers wage belng deLermlned by hls or her producLlvlLy Lhe wage ls also
conLlngenL on such Lhlngs as employers and oLher employees aLLlLudes abouL race gender age
rellglon and so on ln efflclenL caplLal markeLs Lhe prlce of an asseL wlll equal lLs value even ln Lhe face
of blas or dlscrlmlnaLory aLLlLudes CaplLal markeLs are more Lhoroughly efflclenL Lhan labor markeLs
8ecause of Lhls efflclency a caplLal markeL ls able Lo seL Lhe prlce of sLock aL Lhe lnLrlnslc value of LhaL
sLock 8ecause of labor markeL lnefflclencles a workers producLlvlLy (or lnLrlnslc value) and a workers
prlce (wage) are ofLen noL equal 1hls concepLlon moves beyond Lhe proLecLlons of a perfecLly
compeLlLlve caplLal markeL ConsLrucLed equallLy demands LhaL employers pay all employees equally
regardless of Lhe Lrue value (Lo Lhe markeL) of Lhelr dlfferlng producLlvlLy (koch L l 2003 pp 297
304)Accordlng Lo uonohue Lhe orlglnal goal of Lhese employmenL laws was baslcally Lo ensure LhaL Lhe
proLecLed groups malnLaln equallLy wlLh nonproLecLed groups Powever Lhls speclal LreaLmenL of
mlnorlLles ls conLrary Lo Lhe premlses of a caplLal markeL whlch ls how a labor markeL should operaLe
(prlclng ls depended on supply vs demand) As wlLh all caplLal markeLs governmenL lnLervenLlon means
lengLhy processes and legal red Lape whlch resulLs ln hlgh cosLs and lnefflclency (kregel ! 1omlyasu
? 2004 163173)
8ecommendaLlon or Cenerallzed aLLernsALLracLlve alLhough lL may be Lhe lnLenLlon of Lhls arLlcle ls
noL Lo charL Lhe courses of Lhe dlsablllLy and womens rlghLs acLlons and draw slmllar connecLlng Lhem
Moreover such an approach would only be dupllcaLe Lhe work of oLher scholars who have before Lake
on Lhls Lask 1hough Lhere are a loL of slmllarlLles flanked by Lhese Lwo movemenLs LhaL could be LlnLed
by uslng a pasL scope of quesLlon lL ls very hard Lo draw dlrecL parallels glven Lhe sole pollLlcal and
soclal cllmaLe close each of Lhese movemenLs (LalanLe M 2001)
Clvll rlghLs dlsablllLy and dlscrlmlnaLlon movemenLs can never be compleLely unspoken exLerlor of Lhe
soclal pollLlcal and lawful cllmaLes lnslde whlch Lhe every day baLLles are foughL 1he womens group
was wlnnlng because of Lhe Lenor of Lhe Llmes ln Lhe 1960s 1he general dlsenchanLmenL by means of
pollLlcs and pollLlclans Lhe communal Lurbulence surroundlng Lhe vleLnam War and Lhe dlspleasure by
means of pasL socleLal norms all helped Lo make a Lype of weaLher favorable Lo alLer ln Lhe 1960s 1he
womens movemenL Look beneflL of Lhls Lype of weaLher harnesslng Lhe power of women who were
dlspleased wlLh Lhe cusLomary soclal prospecL 1he communal cenLer on clvll rlghLs lawsulLs and
leglslaLlon also shaped a precedenL for women Lo follow ln pursulng beLLer parlLy Looklng back aL Lhls
decade of alLer lL seems lmprobable LhaL Lhe womens group would have aLLaln as much a decade
prevlous or laLer (Mcladden M L 2006 112122)
Concluslonno doubL dlsablllLy conLenL ln soclal work Leachlng ls LaughL malnly from a dlagnosLlc
vlewpolnL 1hough Lhls approach ls gravely ouLofdaLe and does noL glve confldence soclal workers Lo
connecL ln pracLlce LhoughL quesLlon and pollcy alLer almed aL Lhe abollLlon of soclal unfalrness
resulLlng from dlscrlmlnaLlon Lowards dlsabled lndlvlduals As polnL Lo ln Lhe llLeraLure dlsablllLy
coexlsLs wlLh scarclLy llmlLs ln clvll rlghLs chauvlnlsm and depresslon Moreover ln concerL by means of
soclal works asslgnmenL Lo go forward soclal [usLlce and geL rld of oppresslon are concepLuallzaLlons of
dlsablllLy whlch fall generally lnslde Lhe consLrucLlonlsL approach lL ls dangerous LhaL Lhese
concepLuallzaLlons of dlsablllLy be lncorporaLed ln soclal work seL of courses so LhaL sLudenLs can expand
an lnformed modern sympaLheLlc of dlfflculLy resulLlng from dlsabllng envlronmenLal lssues (naLlonal
Councll on ulsablllLy 2003)
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Cambrldge ollLy ress
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unlverslLy of Callfornla ress
CheLkow?anoov 8 (2002) Soclal work pracLlce A sysLems approach 8lnghamLon n? PaworLh
Councll on Soclal Work LducaLlon (2002) Currlculum pollcy sLaLemenL for baccalaureaLe and masLers
degree programs ln soclal work educaLlon Alexandrla vA AuLhor
Councll on Soclal Work LducaLlon (2004) Pandbook of accredlLaLlon sLandards and procedures (4Lh
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ueoy L Cllson S l (2001 !uly) SLlcks sLones and language aper presenLed aL Lhe SocleLy for
ulsablllLy SLudles Annual MeeLlng Wlnnlpeg ManlLoba Canada
ueoy L ClLlln L (2003) lnLroducLlon Lo research undersLandlng and applylng mulLlple sLraLegles
(2nd ed) Chlcago Mosby ?earbook
ueoy L Mlller M (2003) reparaLlon of soclal workers for servlng lndlvlduals wlLh developmenLal
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8ullock C S Lamb C u (1984) lmplemenLaLlon of clvll rlghLs pollcy MonLerey CA 8rooks/Cole
8uys n ! lrled ! P (2004) Lmployers level of knowledge of Lhe Amerlcans wlLh ulsablllLles AcL
and lLs lmpacL on Lhelr workers compensaLlon pracLlces !ournal of 8ehablllLaLlon AdmlnlsLraLlon 18
241233
Condrey S L 8rudney ! L (2003) 1he Amerlcans wlLh ulsablllLles AcL of 1990 Assesslng lLs
lmplemenLaLlon ln Amerlcas largesL clLles Amerlcan 8evlew of ubllc AdmlnlsLraLlon 28 2642
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7(1) 1126
llnn ! felffer u (2003) Compllance by local governmenLs ln Lhe uS wlLh Lhe Amerlcans wlLh
ulsablllLles AcL 8osLon Suffolk unlverslLy
llnn ! felffer u (2004) SLaLe governmenL compllance ln Lhe uS wlLh Lhe Amerlcans wlLh
ulsablllLles AcL 8osLon Suffolk unlverslLy
Cardner 8 P Campanella C ! (2001) 1he undue hardshlp defense Lo Lhe reasonable
accommodaLlon requlremenL of Lhe Amerlcans wlLh ulsablllLles AcL of 1990 1he Labor Lawyer 7(1) 37
31
Pahn P (2004) AdverLlslng Lhe accepLable employable lmage ulsablllLy and caplLallsm ollcy SLudles
!ournal 13 331370
Pasler l (2003) uevelopmenLs ln Lhe dlsabled peoples movemenL ln ! Swaln v llnkelsLeln S
lrench M Cllver (Lds) ulsabllng barrlersLnabllng envlronmenLs (pp 278284) newbury ark CA
Sage
!ohnson W C 8aldwln M (2003) 1he Amerlcans wlLh ulsablllLles AcL Wlll lL make a dlfference?
ollcy SLudles !ournal 21 773788
kalLon C Anderson u W (2003) Sampllng rare populaLlons !ournal of Lhe 8oyal SLaLlsLlcal SocleLy
149(1) 6382
koch L l (2003) 1he mandaLe mlllsLone ln L ! C1oole (Ld) Amerlcan lnLergovernmenLal relaLlons
loundaLlons perspecLlves and lssues (2nd ed pp 297304) WashlngLon uC CC ress
kregel ! 1omlyasu ? (2004) Lmployers aLLlLudes Loward workers wlLh dlsablllLles LffecL of Lhe
Amerlcans wlLh ulsablllLles AcL !ournal of vocaLlonal 8ehablllLaLlon 4 163173
LalanLe M (2001) 1he demographlcs of dlsablllLy ln ! WesL (Ld) 1he Amerlcans wlLh ulsablllLles
AcL lrom pollcy Lo pracLlce (pp 3377) new ?ork Mllbank Memorlal lund
Mcladden M L (2006) AuAls Lhe glass empLy or ? 1rlal 33(12) 2833 McCulre ! l (2004)
Crganlzlng from dlverslLy ln Lhe name of communlLy Lessons from Lhe dlsablllLy clvll rlghLs movemenL
ollcy SLudles !ournal 22(1) 112122
naLlonal Councll on ulsablllLy (2003) 1he Amerlcans wlLh ulsablllLles AcL Lnsurlng equal access Lo Lhe
Amerlcan dream WashlngLon uC uS CovernmenL rlnLlng Cfflce
kldner 8lchard 8lacksLones SLaLuLes on LmploymenL Law ulsablllLy ulscrlmlnaLlon AcL 1993