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M. S. Ramaiah School of Advanced St udies, Bangalore


PEMP ESE505
Day -5
Rectifiers
Session Speaker
Stanley J.
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M. S. Ramaiah School of Advanced St udies, Bangalore
PEMP ESE505
Session Objectives
To understand the operation and characteristic
of diodes
To understand the performance parameters of
diode rectifier
To study the effect of load inductance on the
load current
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M. S. Ramaiah School of Advanced St udies, Bangalore
PEMP ESE505
Session Topics
Single phase half wave rectifiers
Single phase half wave rectifiers with RL load
Single phase full wave rectifiers
Single phase Full wave rectifier with RL Load
Bridge rectifier
Bridge rectifier with RL load
Three phase bridge rectifier
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M. S. Ramaiah School of Advanced St udies, Bangalore
PEMP ESE505
Rectifier
A rectifier is a circuit that converts an ac signal
into a unidirectional signal.
The half-wave rectifier is the simplest power
electronics circuit that is used for low-cost
power supplies for electronics like radios
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M. S. Ramaiah School of Advanced St udies, Bangalore
PEMP ESE505
Single-Phase Half-wave Rectifier
During the positive half-cycle of the input voltage,
diode D1 conducts and the input voltage appears
across the load.
During the negative half-cycle of the input voltage,
the diode is a blocking condition and the output
voltage is zero
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M. S. Ramaiah School of Advanced St udies, Bangalore
PEMP ESE505
Single-Phase Half-wave Rectifier
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M. S. Ramaiah School of Advanced St udies, Bangalore
PEMP ESE505
Waveforms for input voltage and current
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M. S. Ramaiah School of Advanced St udies, Bangalore
PEMP ESE505
Single-Phase Half-wave Rectifier
2 2
2
2
1 1
dc dc dc ac rms rms
dc
ac rms dc
ac
rms ac
dc dc
rms
dc
P V I P V I
P
V V V
P
V V
FF RF
V V
V
RF FF
V
q
= =
= = +
= =
| |
= =
|
\ .
Output DC and AC power
Efficiency of rectifier
Form Factor
Ripple Factor
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M. S. Ramaiah School of Advanced St udies, Bangalore
PEMP ESE505
Single-Phase Half-wave Rectifier
2
2 2
1
2
1 1
1 1
( )
cos
1
cos cos
dc
s s
s s s
s s
s S S
s S S
S peak
S
P
TUF DF
VI
I I I
HF
I I
VI I
PF
VI I
I
CF
I
|
| |
= =
| |

= =
|
\ .
= =
=
Transformer utilization
Factor
Harmonic Factor
Power Factor
Crest Factor
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M. S. Ramaiah School of Advanced St udies, Bangalore
PEMP ESE505
Half-wave Rectifier with RL Load
Due to inductive load, the conductive period of
diode D1 will extend beyond 180o until the
current becomes zero
The average Vl of the inductor is zero
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M. S. Ramaiah School of Advanced St udies, Bangalore
PEMP ESE505
Half-wave Rectifier with RL Load
The average output voltage and output current is
( )
( )
( )
0
( )
1
sin
2
1 cos
2
1 cos
2
o dc m
m
m
o dc
V V d
V
V
I
R
t o
u u
t
t o
t
t o
t
+
=
= + (

= + (

}
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M. S. Ramaiah School of Advanced St udies, Bangalore
PEMP ESE505
Half-wave Rectifier with RL Load
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M. S. Ramaiah School of Advanced St udies, Bangalore
PEMP ESE505
Half-wave Rectifier with RL Load
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M. S. Ramaiah School of Advanced St udies, Bangalore
PEMP ESE505
Full-Wave Rectifier (center-tapped)
There is no dc current flowing through the
transformer, there is no dc saturation problem of the
transformer core
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M. S. Ramaiah School of Advanced St udies, Bangalore
PEMP ESE505
Full-Wave Rectifier (center-tapped)
The average output voltage is
( )
0
2 2
sin
2
m
o dc m
V
V V d
t
u u
t t
= =
}
The rms value of the output voltage and
current is
2 2
( )
0
( )
2
sin
2
2
2
m
o rms m
m
o rms
V
V V d
V
I
R
t
u u
t
= =
=
}
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M. S. Ramaiah School of Advanced St udies, Bangalore
PEMP ESE505
Full-Wave Rectifier (center-tapped)
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M. S. Ramaiah School of Advanced St udies, Bangalore
PEMP ESE505
Full-Wave Bridge Rectifier
During the positive half cycle of the input voltage, the
power is supplied to the load through diodes D1 and
D2.
During the negative half cycle, diode D3 and D4
Conduct.
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M. S. Ramaiah School of Advanced St udies, Bangalore
PEMP ESE505
Bridge Rectifier (motor load)
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M. S. Ramaiah School of Advanced St udies, Bangalore
PEMP ESE505
Bridge Rectifier (RL load)
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M. S. Ramaiah School of Advanced St udies, Bangalore
PEMP ESE505
Bridge Rectifier (RL load)
( )
( )
( / )
1
2
2 1
2 sin 0
2
sin
tan ( / )
o
o s o
R L t
o
di
L Ri E V t for i
dt
V E
i t Ae
Z R
Z R L L R
e
e u
e u e

+ + = >
= +
= + =
Case 1: Continuous conduction, I
o
>0
Case 2: Discontinuous conduction, Io =0
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M. S. Ramaiah School of Advanced St udies, Bangalore
PEMP ESE505
Bridge Rectifier (RL load)
( )
( )
( / )
( / )( / )
0
2 2
sin
1
0 0
R L t
o
R L
V E
i t e
Z e R
for t and i
t e
e u
e u t

(
= +
(


s s >
Case 1: Continuous conduction, I
o
>0
Case 2: Discontinuous conduction, I
o
=0
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
( / )( / )
0
1
tan
2 2
sin sin
0
sin , ( ) 0
sin sin 0
cos cos
R L t
o
o
m
V E V E
i t e
Z R Z R
for i
E
At t i t
V
x x
e
o e
o |
u
e u o u
o e | e |
| u o u
u u

(
= +
(

s
= = = =
| |
+ =
|
\ .
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M. S. Ramaiah School of Advanced St udies, Bangalore
PEMP ESE505
Boundary of continuous and
discontinuous (single-phase)
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M. S. Ramaiah School of Advanced St udies, Bangalore
PEMP ESE505
Multiphase Rectifiers
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M. S. Ramaiah School of Advanced St udies, Bangalore
PEMP ESE505
Three-Phase Bridge Rectifier
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M. S. Ramaiah School of Advanced St udies, Bangalore
PEMP ESE505
Waveforms and Conduction Times
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M. S. Ramaiah School of Advanced St udies, Bangalore
PEMP ESE505
3-Phase Bridge Rectifier (RL Load)
Figure 3.15
2
2 sin
3 3
2 sin 0
ab ab
o
o ab o
v V t for t
di
L Ri E V t for i
dt
t t
e e
e
= s s
+ + = >
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M. S. Ramaiah School of Advanced St udies, Bangalore
PEMP ESE505
Three-Phase Bridge Rectifier (RL load)
( )
( )
( / )
1
2
2 1
2 sin 0
2
sin
tan ( / )
o
o ab o
R L t
ab
o
di
L Ri E V t for i
dt
V E
i t Ae
Z R
Z R L L R
e
e u
e u e

+ + = >
= +
= + =
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M. S. Ramaiah School of Advanced St udies, Bangalore
PEMP ESE505
Three-Phase Bridge (RL load)
( )
( ) ( )
( / )( / 3 )
( / )( / 3 )
0
sin 2 / 3 sin / 3
2
sin
1
/ 3 2 / 3 0
R L t
ab
o
R L
V E
i t e
Z e R
for t and i
o e
t e
t u t u
e u
t e t

(
= +
(


s s >
Case 1: Continuous conduction, I
o
>0
Case 2: Discontinuous conduction, I
o
=0
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
( / )( / 3 )
( / )( / 3 )
( )
2tan
( )
2tan
0 ( .3.47)
sin 2 / 3 sin / 3
2
0
1
sin 2 / 3 sin / 3
( ) cos
2
1
o
R L
ab
R L
ab
Setting I in Eq
e
V E
Z e R
e
E
x
V
e
t e
t e
t
u
t
u
t u t u
t u t u
u u

=
(

=
(


(

(
~ =
(
(

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M. S. Ramaiah School of Advanced St udies, Bangalore
PEMP ESE505
Boundary of continuous and
discontinuous (three-phase)
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M. S. Ramaiah School of Advanced St udies, Bangalore
PEMP ESE505
DC Filters
Filters can be used to smooth out the dc output
voltage of the rectifier and these are known as
dc filters.
The DC filters are usually of L, C and LC type
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M. S. Ramaiah School of Advanced St udies, Bangalore
PEMP ESE505
AC Filters
Due to rectification action, the input current of the
rectifier contains harmonics and ac filter is used to
filter out some of the harmonics from the supply
system.
AC filter is normally of LC type.
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M. S. Ramaiah School of Advanced St udies, Bangalore
PEMP ESE505
Single-Phase Rectifier with C-Filter
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M. S. Ramaiah School of Advanced St udies, Bangalore
PEMP ESE505
Single-Phase Rectifier with C-Filter
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
4
2 2 4 2
1
2(4 1)
m
o dc m
e
r pp
m
rms ripple
e
rms ripple
o dc
e
V
V V
fRC
V
V
V
fRC
V
RF
V
fRC
=
= =
= =

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M. S. Ramaiah School of Advanced St udies, Bangalore
PEMP ESE505
Output Voltage with C-Filter
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M. S. Ramaiah School of Advanced St udies, Bangalore
PEMP ESE505
Summary
Diode rectifiers convert an ac voltage to a dc
voltage.
The output voltage contain ripples which can
be removed by filters.
Depending on time constant of the load, the
load current may be discontinuous.
Line inductances cause overlap and reduce the
effective dc output voltage.