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Functional Overview

SEL-710 Motor Protection Relay


Voltage Input* 3,2,1

Sequential Events Recorder Event Reports, Motor Start Reports, Motor Operating Statistics, Load Profiles, and Motor Start Trends SEL ASCII, Ethernet*, Modbus TCP, IEC 61850*, NEW Modbus RTU, Telnet, FTP, and DeviceNet* Communications Front-Panel LED Programmable Targets Two Inputs and Three Outputs Standard I/O Expansion*Additional Contact Inputs, Contact Outputs, Analog Inputs, Analog Outputs, and RTD Inputs Single or Dual Ethernet, Copper or Fiber-Optic Communications Port* Battery-Backed Clock, IRIG-B Time Synchronization** Instantaneous Metering Programmable Front Pushbuttons and LED Indicators Forward/Reverse Start Protection Advanced SELOGIC Control Equations 32 Programmable Display Messages

27
Undervoltage

59
Overvoltage
G 50 Q P

55
Power Factor

VAR

60

Reactive Power Loss-of-Potential

49
Motor Thermal Overload

46
Current Unbalance

Load Jam
Load Jam

66
Starts-Per-Hour Time Between Starts

Overcurrent Phase Residual Neg. Seq.

37
1

47
Phase Reversal

LC/71
Load Control Percent TCU Current Power*

81 O U
Frequency Over Under

50N
Neutral Overcurrent

Undercurrent Underpower*

87
PTC Thermistor**

NEW

49P

Current Differential

PTC Overtemperature

RTD Inputs*

49R
and Trip

38
Bearing Temperature

MIRRORED BITS Communications Low-Voltage Starting Two-Speed Motor Protection


* Optional Functions ** Select When Ordering

NEW

Internal* or External* RTD Inputs Temp., Alarm,

14
Motor Load

Speed Switch

AccuTrack Thermal Model


The SEL-710 Motor Protection Relay takes the next logical step in motor monitoring and control. While other motor relays assume a constant value for rotor resistance, the SEL-710 dynamically calculates motor slip and uses this information to precisely track motor temperature using the AccuTrack Thermal Model. Rotor resistance changes depending on slip and generates heat, especially during starting, when current and slip are highest. If your motor protection uses a constant rotor resistance for thermal protection, it could be off by a factor of three or more. By correctly calculating rotor temperature, the AccuTrack Thermal Model reduces the time between starts. It also gives the motor more time to reach its rated speed before tripping.
1.0 0.9 0.8 10 9 8 7 6

I2t Relay Saved Cooling Time SEL-710 Rotor Temperature

Temperature (per unit of limit)

0.7 0.6

Current

0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0

5 4 3 2 1 0 0 2 4

Motor Current

Rotor Resistance

10

12

14

16

18

20

Seconds

Accurate thermal modeling provides protection that maximizes motor availability while providing excellent protection from damage.

SmartGridsandMicrogrids
Whataretheyreally?
by BruceA.Mork,Ph.D.,P.E. WayneW.Weaver,Ph.D.,P.E.
DepartmentofElectrical&ComputerEngineering

PresentedattheMinnesotaPowerSystemsConference BrooklynCenter,MN November35,2009

MichiganTech

QuickOverviewofEEPower
Sixfaculty,35gradstudents,60UGs Respondingtoworkforceneeds:
14onlinecourses:EE3010 EE6210 OnlineMSEE(~40enrolled) Onlinecertificate,advancedcertificate(~25enrolled) DOETransportationelectrificationprogram

Stateoftheartlabs
Relaying PowerElectronics MotorDrives

Power&EnergyResearchCenter
Multidisciplinary,industrypartners

Motivationforthispresentation
Steadilyincreasingmediabuzz,littlesubstantive information. Onlyasmallsubsetofpossibilitiesarebeing discussed.Smartmeter smartgrid. Littlepracticalsenseforwhatispossible:
a)now,andb)intheforeseeablefuture,and Whatarethetechnologyandfinancialbottlenecks? IEEEPESGeneralMeetinginCalgary Moreusefulinforecentlypublished Mipsycon,MondaySeminar,ThursdayTutorials

Sincethispresentationwasscheduled,

Howdoyou defineSmartGrid?
Wikipedia:deliverselectricityfromsuppliersto
consumersusingdigitaltechnologytocontrolappliancesat consumer'shomestosaveenergy,reducecostandincrease reliabilityandtransparency.

GreenEnergyAct(Canada):Anicknameforanever
wideningpaletteofutilityapplicationsthatenhanceand automatethemonitoringandcontrolofelectricaldistribution.

DOE: TheSmartGridtransformsthecurrentgridtoonethat
functionsmorecooperatively,responsivelyandorganically.

EngineersDefinition
Thatdepends Basically:embeddedprocessors+sensors+data sharing,communications&distributedcontrol. Generation4orG4. Policymakers&media:smartmetersandenergy marketing. Transmission/operations:wideareamonitoring& control&protection,specialswitchingops. Distribution:automation,reliability,timeofday metering,integrationofDR,renewables.

ComponentsofaSmartGrid
Hardware
Sensors,Embeddedprocessors Integrationwithotherhardware

BasicSoftware
SCADA,Energymanagement Vectorprocessors

Communications
Slow(existingSCADAorEMS,moreorless) Highspeed,highbandwidth(needtodevelop)

TransmissionApplications
Phasor measurementunits(PMUs)and synchrophasors. Gridintegrationofrenewables, Advancedmetering,operations WideArea:WAM,WAC,WAMPAC
Emergencycontrol VoltageStability:DynamicVAr control,avoiding voltagecollapse AngleStability:Loadshedding,Intelligentsystem separation

Systemrestoration:remotetielineclosing.

EmergencyControl
(figurefromKundur)

DistributionApplications
AMI Applicationofsmartmeters Realtimepricing Demandsidemanagement Distributionautomation
Automatichighspeedtransfer,reconfiguration

DR(DistributedResources),DG(DistGen) CES(CommunityEnergyStorage) Optimizingefficiency,reliability,carbonfootprint

OnCustomerSideofMeter
LoadManagement(coordinatedw/utility) Integrationofenergyresourcesasmicrogrid
InterconnectionwithUtility InterruptibleLoads(waterheater,heat,AC) Electricorhybridelectricvehicle Generation:solar,wind,microhydro Energystorage:battery Optimalcontrolaccordingtogoalofcustomer

Requirements,Concerns
Communicationsbandwidthforfast wideareaapplications Timedelays,GPStimetagging Interoperability Informationoverload,databasesharing Cybersecurity Informationsecurity,privacy Complexity,reliabilityoftechnology applicationsthemselves.

References
1. 2. 3. 4. U.S.DepartmentofEnergy,TheSmartGrid:AnIntroduction. http://www.oe.energy.gov/SmartGridIntroduction.htm IECTC57:IEC61850architectureforsubstationautomation,IEC 61970/61968 theCommonInformationModelCIM. IEEEC37.118 synchrophasors IEEEP2030DraftGuideforSmartGridInteroperabilityofEnergy Technology andInformationTechnologyOperationwiththeElectricPowerSystem,and EndUseApplicationsandLoads. http://grouper.ieee.org/groups/scc21/2030/2030_index.html IEEEPower&EnergyMagazine,Sept/Oct2009,SmartGrid:Whatisit Really IEEEPotentialsMagazine,Sep/Oct2009,CascadingPowerGridFailures ASEEPrism,Oct2009,UntanglingtheGrid.

5. 6. 7.

Observations
Itsearlyoninanewseriesoftechnologies. Vendorscompetingformarketshare,new standardsaredeveloping. Trytotakeaholisticviewofthesystemand interaction/interoperability
Generation Transmission Distribution Customerside:microgrid,greenbuildings

OnCustomerSideofMeter
LoadManagement(coordinatedw/utility) Integrationofenergyresourcesasmicrogrid
InterconnectionwithUtility InterruptibleLoads(waterheater,heat,AC) Electricorhybridelectricvehicle Generation:solar,wind,microhydro Energystorage:battery Optimalcontrolaccordingtogoalofcustomer

WhatisaMicroGrid?
Small,independentpowersystem Increasedreliabilitywithdistributedgeneration Increaseefficiencywithreducedtransmissionlength andCHP Easierintegrationofalternativeenergysources PROBLEM:Control Damping/Stability Islanding Loadsharing EnergyManagement

ComponentsofaMicrogrid
Defining
MultipleDistributedGenerationPoints ControlSystem/EnergyManagement

Additional
UtilityInterconnectionSwitch PointofCommon Coupling(PCC) EnergyStorage

Microgrid Application
Communities/Neighborhoods Corporate/AcademicCampuses Buildings Militarybasecamps NavalSystems

CommunityMicrogrid Structure

PCC

CorporateBuilding/Campus Microgrids
HVAC

PCC

CHP

HomeMicrogrids

SmartAppliances

Energy Storage

Solar

PCC

PHEV

DCHomeMicrogrid

SmartAppliances

Energy Storage

Solar

PCC

PHEV

N.America

MajorMicrogrid TestSites

CERTS/AEP DolanOH(100kVA) NorthernPowerSystems WaitsfieldVT(500 kVA) BCHydro BostonBarBC(10MVA)

Asia
ShimizuCorp TokyoJapan(500kVA) SendaiJapan(1MVA)

Europe
Kythnos IslandGreece(15kVA) DEMOTEC KasselGermany

StandardsforMicrogrid
AtPCC IEEE1547: StandardsforInterconnecting DistributedResourceswithElectricPower Systems UL1741:Inverters,Convertersand ControllersforuseinIndependentPower Systems Harmonics AntiIslanding

AntiIslanding
UL1741TestLoadCircuitatPCC ResonantRLCload Techniquesincludephase/frequencydrift

TechnicalHurdles: ControlandCommunications
Gridconnection
Syncandreconnect PowerExport

CentralizedControlSystem
Globaloptimization Singlepointoffailure

Distributedcontrol
Modularity/flexibility Localoptimization

Communication/ControlStructure
Utility Reciprocating Generator Fuel Cell H2 Storage Electrolyser

PCC

Batteries Communication User

Wind

Biomass Users Pluggin Hybrid Super Capacitors

Droop:TraditionalParalleling Method

P + P2 = PL 1 Q1 + Q2 = QL

Microgrid Study

PCC

DroopinaMicrogrid

AdvanceDistributedControl
Everyelement ofpowersystemhasmultiple objectives/commitments
PointofLoadConverter:Serviceloadpower,maintainstability EnergySources:Supplypower,maintainstability Distribution:Routeenergymostefficiently,maintainstability

Systemevents/faultscandestabilize. Actiontakenbyoneelements influenceallother components.

GameTheoreticMethod:Determineoptimal localtrajectorygivenanticipatedtrajectories ofallothercomponents.

GameTheoreticApproachto EnergyManament
Convertcomponentsintoequivalentimpedances. Theindividualdynamicsare 2 ( vi ) & ei = Pin Pout = Pi ri

& ri = ui
Individualsinteractthroughthesystem I = YV Theneachcomponentwillhaveanobjective

J i (ui , u i ) = f i ( Y, I, V , t , u )dt

Foranequilibrium(Nashequilibrium)

J i (ui* , u i* ) J i (ui , u i* )

Examplesystemwith2Players
2 y27 V2 7 y79 R8 y57 5 8 y89 9 y39 V3 6
600

P5
600 400

y69

P6

R5
P (W)
5

y45 4

y46 y14

R6
P (W) 2
6

400 200 0 2 2 1 R6 () 0 0 1 R5 ()

200 0 2 2 1 R6 () 0 0 1 R5 ()

1 V1

GameBasedEnergyManagement
ObjectiveFunctions Loads Sources Storage GameRules Teams Stakelberg (leader/follower) Win gamebymaintainingstable, efficientsystem

Summary
Microgrid isabroaddefinitionofasmall powersystem Benefitsincludereliability,efficiency, renewables Challenges:
Control Communications UtilityinterfaceatPCC

SolutiontoGame
Solution isanequilibriumpoint(Nash)wereeachplayer
2 L5(R6)
600 400
P (W) 600 400 200 0 2 2 1 R6 () 0 0 1 R5 ()

1.5 R6 () 1 0.5 0 0
NE

L6(R5)

P (W)

200 0 2 1 R6 () 0 0 2 2 1 R5 ()

0.5

1 R5 ()

1.5

CERTSMicrogrid

Eto, Joseph, Robert Lasseter, Ben Schenkman, John Stevens, Harry Volkommer, Dave Klapp, Ed Linton, Hector Hurtado, Jean Roy, Nancy Jo Lewis. Consortium for Electric Reliability Technology Solutions (CERTS). 2008. CERTS Microgrid Laboratory Test Bed. California Energy Commission, Public Interest Energy Research Program. CEC-500-2008-XXX.

MathematicalCouplingof Microgrid Elements

& x1 = f1 ( x1 , v1 , i1 , u1 )

& x2 = f 2 ( x2 , v2 , i2 , u2 )

& xi = f i ( xi , vi , ii , ui )