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Intermodal Transport: Movimiento de carga (especialmente contenedores) utilizando dos o ms mtodos de transporte en sucesin.

Heated container: Contenedor calorfico con aislamiento y mantenimiento de la temperatura. Tpico ISO, nm.: 33. Flat Container: Algunas veces conocido como flat-rack. Una plataforma contenedor sin superestructura. pero la cima y el fondo lleva vrtices con agujeros tipo ISO para su enganche. Tpico ISO, nm.: 60. Flat Container: Algunas veces conocido como flat-rack. Una plataforma contenedor sin superestructura. pero la cima y el fondo lleva vrtices con agujeros tipo ISO para su enganche. Tpico ISO, nm.: 60.

Intermodal Container Chassis

What is ISO Intermodal Chassis We are a manufacturer container chassis and container trailers in China. ISO intermodal chassis is an standard and efficient trailer to transport all kinds of ISO containers, the chassis type reduce curb weight (kerb weight) of the trailer. Features Optional air suspension Less curb weight Extendable chassis ia an option Leaf spring/Air suspension Double pipe air shoe brake 24 voltage electric system Specification (Contact us for detailed spec) Type 20 FT 40 FT (2 axles) 40 FT (3 axles)

The above data is owned by TIANDI Heavy Industries


Size (mm) 7,200X2,480X1,60 0 12,250X2,490X1,39 0 12,467X2,460X1,61 0

Type

20 FT

40 FT (2 axles)

40 FT (3 axles)

Gross Weight (kg) Curb Weight (kg) Capacit y (kg) 24,000 30,480 30,480 3,400 3,750 5,760 27,400 34,230 36,240

What Quality and Sizes We Offer The chassis is made of 16Mn steel and welded by automatic submerged arc welding machine and meet with ISO9001: 2000 and CCC approval. We also have 45', 48' and 53 foot container chassis for sale.

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Containerization From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Jump to: navigation, search This article's lead section may not adequately summarize its contents. Please consider expanding the lead to provide an accessible overview of the article's key points. (May 2010)

Shipping containers at the Port Newark-Elizabeth Marine Terminal in New Jersey, USA

A container-freight train on the West Coast Main Line near Nuneaton, England

A container ship being loaded by a portainer crane in Copenhagen Harbour Containerization (British:containerisation) is a system of freight transport based on a range of steel intermodal containers (also 'shipping containers', 'ISO containers' etc). Containers are built to standardised dimensions, and can be loaded and unloaded, stacked, transported efficiently over long distances, and transferred from one mode of transport to anothercontainer ships, rail and semi-trailer truckswithout being opened. The system was developed after World War II, led to greatly reduced transport costs, and supported a vast increase in international trade.

Contents [hide] 1 History 1.1 Origins 1.2 Purpose-built ships 1.3 Towards standards 1.4 Effects 1.5 Twenty-first century 2 Container standards 2.1 ISO standard 2.2 Air freight containers 2.3 Other container system standards 3 Issues 3.1 Additional fuel costs 3.2 Hazards 3.3 Empty containers 3.4 Loss at sea 3.5 Trade union challenges 4 Other uses for containers 5 BBC tracking project 6 See also 7 References 8 Further reading 9 External links [edit] History

[edit] Origins Containerisation has its origins in early coal mining regions in England from the late 18th century on. In 1795 Bejamin Outram opened the Little Eaton Gangway upon which coal was carried in wagons built at his Butterley Ironworks. The horse-drawn wheeled wagons on the Gangway took the form of containers, which, loaded with coal, could be transhipped from canal barges on the Derby Canal which Outram had also promoted.[1] By the 1830s, railroads on several continents were carrying containers that could be transferred to other modes of transport. The Liverpool and Manchester Railway in the United Kingdom was one such. "Simple rectangular timber boxes, four to a wagon, they were used to convey coal from the Lancashire collieries to Liverpool, where they were transferred to horse drawn carts by crane."[2]Originally used for moving coal on and off barges, 'loose boxes' were used to containerize coal from the late 1780s, at places like the Bridgewater Canal. By the 1840s, iron boxes were in use as well as wooden ones. The early 1900s saw the adoption of closed container boxes designed for movement between road and rail. In the United Kingdom, several railway companies were using similar containers by the beginning of the 20th century and in the 1920s the Railway Clearing House standardised the RCH container. Five- or ten-foot-long, wooden and non-stackable, these early standard containers were a great success, but the standard remained UK-specific.[citation needed] From 1926 to 1947 in the US, the Chicago North Shore and Milwaukee Railway carried motor carrier vehicles and shippers' vehicles loaded on flatcars between Milwaukee, Wisconsin and Chicago, Illinois. Beginning in 1929, Seatrain Lines carried railroad boxcars on its sea vessels to transport goods between New York and Cuba.[3] In the mid-1930s, the Chicago Great Western Railway and then the New Haven Railroad began "piggy-back" service (transporting highway freight trailers on flatcars) limited to their own railroads. By 1953, the CB&Q, the Chicago and Eastern Illinois and the Southern Pacific railroads had joined the innovation. Most cars were surplus flatcars equipped with new decks. By 1955, an additional 25 railroads had begun some form of piggy-back trailer service. During WWII the Australian Army used containers to help overcome the various breaks of gauge. These non-stackable containers were about these size of the later 20 foot ISO container and perhaps made mainly of wood . [4] In 1955, former trucking company owner Malcom McLean worked with engineer Keith Tantlinger to develop the modern intermodal container. The challenge was to design a shipping container that could efficiently be loaded onto ships and held securely on long sea voyages. The result was a 8 feet (2.4 m) tall by 8 ft (2.4 m) wide box in 10 ft (3.0 m)-long units constructed from 25 mm (0.98 in) thick corrugated steel. The design incorporated a twistlock mechanism atop each of the four corners, allowing the container to be easily secured and lifted using cranes. After helping McLean make the successful design, Tantlinger convinced him to give the patented designs to the industry; this began international standardization of shipping containers.[5]

Toward the end of World War II, the United States Army used specialized containers to speed the loading and unloading of transport ships. The army used the term "transporters" to identify the containers, for shipping household goods of officers in the field. A "transporter" was a reusable container, 8.5 feet (2.6 m) long, 6.25 feet (1.91 m) wide, and 6.83 feet (2.08 m) high, made of rigid steel with a carrying capacity of 9,000 pounds. During the Korean War the transporter was evaluated for handling sensitive military equipment and, proving effective, was approved for broader use. Theft of material, damage to wooden crates, and prolonged handling time by longshoremen at the Port of Busan,[citation needed] convinced the army that steel containers were needed. In 1952 the army began using the term CONEX, short for "Container Express". The first major shipment of CONEXes, containing engineering supplies and spare parts, was made by rail from the Columbus General Depot in Georgia to the Port of San Francisco, then by ship to Yokohama, Japan, and then to Korea, in late 1952; shipment times were almost halved. By the time of the Vietnam War the majority of supplies and materials were shipped with the CONEX. After the U.S. Department of Defense standardized an 8'8' cross section container in multiples of 10' lengths for military use, it was rapidly adopted for shipping purposes.[6][7] These standards were adopted in the United Kingdom for containers, and largely displaced wooden containers in the 1950s.[citation needed] The railways of the USSR had their own small containers.[8] [edit] Purpose-built ships

Containers waiting at the South Korean port of Busan. Main article: Container ship The first vessels purpose-built to carry containers began operation in Denmark in 1951. In the U.S., ships began carrying containers in 1951, between Seattle and Alaska. The world's first intermodal container system used the purpose-built container ship the Clifford J. Rodgers, built in Montreal in 1955 and owned by the White Pass and Yukon Route. Its first trip carried 600 containers between North Vancouver, British Columbia and Skagway, Alaska, on November 26, 1955; in Skagway, the containers were unloaded to purpose-built railroad cars for transport north to the Yukon, in the first intermodal service using trucks, ships and railroad cars. Southbound containers were loaded

by shippers in the Yukon and moved by rail, ship and truck to their consignees, without opening. This first intermodal system operated from November 1955 for many years.[citation needed] The U.S. container shipping industry dates to April 26, 1956, when trucking entrepreneur McLean put 58 containers aboard a refitted tanker ship, the Ideal-X, and sailed them from Newark to Houston.[9] What was new in the USA about McLean's innovation was the idea of using large containers that were never opened in transit between shipper and consignee and that were transferable on an intermodal basis, among trucks, ships and railroad cars. McLean had initially favored the construction of "trailerships"taking trailers from large trucks and stowing them in a ships cargo hold. This method of stowage, referred to as roll-on/roll-off, was not adopted because of the large waste in potential cargo space onboard the vessel, known as broken stowage. Instead, McLean modified his original concept into loading just the containers, not the chassis, onto the ships, hence the designation container ship or "box" ship.[10][11] (See also pantechnicon van and trolley and lift van.) [edit] Towards standards During containerization's first 20 years, many container sizes and corner fittings were used; there were dozens of incompatible container systems in the U.S. alone. Among the biggest operators, the Matson Navigation Company had a fleet of 24-foot (7.3 m) containers while Sea-Land Service, Inc used 35-foot (11 m) containers. The standard sizes and fitting and reinforcement norms that now exist evolved out of a series of compromises among international shipping companies, European railroads, U.S. railroads, and U.S. trucking companies. Four important ISO (International Organization for Standardization) recommendations standardized containerization globally[12] January 1968: R-668 defined the terminology, dimensions and ratings July 1968: R-790 defined the identification markings January 1970: R-1161 made recommendations about corner fittings October 1970: R-1897 set out the minimum internal dimensions of general purpose freight containers In the United States, containerization and other advances in shipping were impeded by the Interstate Commerce Commission (ICC), which was created in 1887 to keep railroads from using monopolist pricing and rate discrimination but fell victim to regulatory capture. By the 1960s, ICC approval was required before any shipper could carry different items in the same vehicle, or change rates. The United States' present fully integrated systems became possible only after the ICC's regulatory oversight was cut back (and abolished in 1995); trucking and rail were deregulated in the 1970s and maritime rates were deregulated in 1984.[13] Double-stack rail transport, where containers are stacked two high on railway cars, was introduced in 1984, with the first use in the United States.[citation needed]

[edit] Effects Containerization greatly reduced the expense of international trade and increased its speed, especially of consumer goods and commodities. It also dramatically changed the character of port cities worldwide. Prior to highly mechanized container transfers, crews of 20-22 longshoremen would pack individual cargoes into the hold of a ship. After containerization, large crews of longshoremen were no longer necessary at port facilities and the profession changed drastically. Meanwhile the port facilities needed to support containerization changed. One effect was the decline of some ports and the rise of others. At the Port of San Francisco, the former piers used for loading and unloading were no longer required, but there was little room to build the vast holding lots needed for container transport. As a result the Port of San Francisco virtually ceased to function as a major commercial port, but the neighboring port of Oakland emerged as the second largest on the West Coast of America. A similar fate met the relation between the ports of Manhattan and New Jersey. In the UK, longshoremen's unions protested the change to containerization, resulting in the elimination of London and Liverpool as major ports. Meanwhile, Britain's Felixtowe and Rotterdam in the Netherlands emerged as major ports. In general, inland ports on waterways incapable of deep draft ship traffic also declined from containerization in favor of seaports. With intermodal containers, the job of sorting and packing containers could be performed far from the point of embarcation. [edit] Twenty-first century

A converted container used as an office at a building site As of 2009[update] approximately 90% of non-bulk cargo worldwide is moved by containers stacked on transport ships;[14] 26% of all container transhipment is carried out in China.[15] For

example in 2009 there were 105,976,701 transhipments in China (both international and coastal; excluding Hong Kong), 21,040,096 in Hong Kong (which is listed separately), and only 34,299,572 in the United States. In 2005 some 18 million containers made over 200 million trips per year. Some ships can carry over 14,500 Twenty-foot equivalent units (TEU), for example the Emma Mrsk, 396 m long, launched August 2006. It has been predicted that, at some point, container ships will be constrained in size only by the depth of the Straits of Malacca, one of the world's busiest shipping lanes, linking the Indian Ocean to the Pacific Ocean. This so-called Malaccamax size constrains a ship to dimensions of 470 m (1,540 ft) in length and 60 m (200 ft) wide.[11] However, few initially foresaw the extent of the influence of containerization on the shipping industry. In the 1950s Harvard University economist Benjamin Chinitz predicted that containerization would benefit New York by allowing it to ship its industrial goods more cheaply to the Southern United States than other areas, but did not anticipate that containerization might make it cheaper to import such goods from abroad. Most economic studies of containerization merely assumed that shipping companies would begin to replace older forms of transportation with containerization, but did not predict that the process of containerization itself would have a more direct influence on the choice of producers and increase the total volume of trade.[11] The widespread use of ISO standard containers has driven modifications in other freight-moving standards, gradually forcing removable truck bodies or swap bodies into standard sizes and shapes (though without the strength needed to be stacked), and changing completely the worldwide use of freight pallets that fit into ISO containers or into commercial vehicles. Improved cargo security is also an important benefit of containerization. The cargo is not visible to the casual viewer and thus is less likely to be stolen; the doors of the containers are usually sealed so that tampering is more evident. Some containers are fitted with electronic monitoring devices and can be remotely monitored for changes in air pressure, which happens when the doors are opened. This reduced the thefts that had long plagued the shipping industry. Use of the same basic sizes of containers across the globe has lessened the problems caused by incompatible rail gauge sizes in different countries. The majority of the rail networks in the world operate on a 1,435 mm (4 ft 8 12 in) gauge track known as standard gauge, but many countries (such as Russia, India, Finland, and Lithuania) use broader gauges, while many others in Africa and South America use narrower gauges on their networks. The use of container trains in all these countries makes trans-shipment between different gauge trains easier. Containers have become a popular way to ship private cars and other vehicles overseas using 20 or 40ft containers. Unlike roll-on/roll-off vehicle shipping, personal effects can be loaded into the container with the vehicle, allowing for easy international relocation.[citation needed] [edit] Container standards [edit] ISO standard Main article: Intermodal container

There are five common standard lengths, 20-ft (6.1 m), 40-ft (12.2 m), 45-ft (13.7 m), 48-ft (14.6 m), and 53-ft (16.2 m). United States domestic standard containers are generally 48 ft (15 m) and 53-ft (rail and truck). Container capacity is often expressed in twenty-foot equivalent units (TEU, or sometimes teu). An equivalent unit is a measure of containerized cargo capacity equal to one standard 20 ft (length) 8 ft (width) container. As this is an approximate measure, the height of the box is not considered, for instance the 9 ft 6 in (2.9 m) High cube and the 4-ft 3-in (1.3 m) half height 20 ft (6.1 m) containers are also called one TEU. The maximum gross mass for a 20 ft (6.1 m) dry cargo container is 24,000 kg, and for a 40-ft (including the 2.87 m (9 ft 6 in) high cube container), it is 30,480 kg. Allowing for the tare mass of the container, the maximum payload mass is therefore reduced to approximately 22,000 kg for 20 ft (6.1 m), and 27,000 kg for 40 ft (12 m) containers.[16] The original choice of 8-foot (2.4 m) height for ISO containers was made in part to suit a large proportion of railway tunnels, though some had to be modified. With the arrival of even taller containers, further enlargement is proving necessary.[17] [edit] Air freight containers

A number of LD-designation Unit Load Device containers Main article: Unit load device While major airlines use containers that are custom designed for their aircraft and associated ground handling equipment the IATA has created a set of standard aluminium container sizes of up to 11.52 m3 (407 cu ft) in volume. [edit] Other container system standards Some other container systems (in date order) are: Haus-zu-Haus (house to house; Germany)[citation needed] ARKAS[citation needed] (1922) NYC container [18]

Japanese railway containers: Containers used by the Japan Freight Railway Company[citation needed] (1925) Mack [19] (1927) English Railway container [20] [21] [22] (1928) Victorian Railways - refrigerted container [23] (1929) International Competition [24] (1930) GWR Container [25] (1931) [26] International Chamber of Commerce (1933) International Container Bureau [27] (1936) SAR Wolseley break of gauge [28] (1946) Queensland Railways milk container, 2000 gallons, road-rail [29] (1978) RACE (Australia) (1998) PODS (2005?) SECU (Sweden, Finland, UK) - big 95 t container. [edit] Issues [edit] Additional fuel costs

A double stacked container train in Oklahoma, USA Containerization increases the fuel costs and reduces the capacity of the transport as the container itself, in addition to its contents, must be transported; stackable standardised containers are usually heavier than packaging with less stringent requirements. For certain bulk products this makes containerization unattractive. However, for most goods the increased fuel costs and decreased transport efficiencies are as of 2011[update] more than offset by the savings in

handling costs. On railways the maximum weight of the container is far from the railcar's maximum weight capacity, and the ratio of goods to railcar is much lower than in a break-bulk situation. In some areas (mostly the USA, Canada and India) containers can be carried double stacked by rail, but this is usually not possible in other rail systems. [edit] Hazards Containers have been used to smuggle contraband. The vast majority of containers are never subjected to scrutiny due to the large number of containers in use. In recent years there have been increased concerns that containers might be used to transport terrorists or terrorist materials into a country undetected. The U.S. government has advanced the Container Security Initiative (CSI), intended to ensure that high-risk cargo is examined or scanned, preferably at the port of departure. [edit] Empty containers Containers are intended to be used constantly, being loaded with new cargo for a new destination soon after having been emptied of previous cargo. This is not always possible, and in some cases, the cost of transporting an empty container to a place where it can be used is considered to be higher than the worth of the used container. Shipping lines and Container Leasing Companies have become expert at repositioning empty containers from areas of low or no demand, such as the US West Coast, to areas of high demand such as China. However, damaged or retired containers may also be recycled in the form of shipping container architecture, or the steel content salvaged. In the summer of 2010, a world wide shortage of containers developed as shipping increased postrecession, while new container production had largely ceased.[30] [edit] Loss at sea Containers occasionally fall from the ships, usually during storms; between 2,000[31] and 10,000 containers are lost at sea each year.[32] For instance, on November 30, 2006, a container washed ashore on the Outer Banks of North Carolina USA, along with thousands of bags of its cargo of Doritos Chips. Containers lost in rough waters are smashed by cargo and waves and often sink quickly.[31] Although not all containers sink, they seldom float very high out of the water, making them a shipping hazard that is difficult to detect. Freight from lost containers has provided oceanographers with unexpected opportunities to track global ocean currents, notably a cargo of Friendly Floatees.[33] In 2007 the International Chamber of Shipping and the World Shipping Council began work on a code of practice for container storage, including crew training on parametric rolling, safer stacking, the marking of containers and security for above-deck cargo in heavy swell.[34][35] In 2011, the MV Rena ran aground off the coast of New Zealand. As the ship listed, some containers were lost, while others were held on board at a precarious angle. [edit] Trade union challenges

Some of the biggest battles in the container revolution were waged in Washington, D.C. Intermodal shipping got a huge boost in the early 1970s when carriers won permission to quote combined rail-ocean rates. Later, non-vessel-operating common carriers won a long court battle with a U.S. Supreme Court decision against contracts that attempted to require that union labor be used for stuffing and stripping containers at off-pier locations.[36] [edit] Other uses for containers Shipping container architecture is the use of containers as the basis for housing and other functional buildings for people, either as temporary or permanent housing, and either as a main building or as a cabin or workshop. Containers can also be used as sheds or storage areas in industry and commerce. Containers are also beginning to be used to house computer data centers, although these are normally specialized containers. [edit] BBC tracking project Main article: The Box (BBC container) On September 5, 2008 the BBC embarked on a year-long project to study international trade and globalization by tracking a shipping container on its journey around the world.[37][38] [edit] See also 2000s energy crisis List of world's busiest container ports Little Eaton Gangway Shipping portal Tanktainers Unit load Less than container load Full container load [edit] References ^ Ripley, David (1993). The Little Eaton Gangway and Derby Canal (Second ed.). Oakwood Press. ISBN 0-8536-1431-8. ^ Essery, R. J, Rowland. D. P. & Steel W. O. British Goods Wagons from 1887 to the Present Day. Augustus M. Kelly Publishers. New York USA. 1979 Page 92

^ Seatrain: Railroad or steamship line?, Robert E. Mohowski, Classic Trains, Spring 2011, pp. 64-73 ^ With Iron Rails p8.26 by David Burke 1988, SRANSW ^ McGough, Roger (Narrator), McAulay, Graeme (Director & Producer), Crossley-Holland, Dominic (Executive Producer) (2010). The Box that Changed Britain (documentary). BBC. ^ "History & Development of the Container". U.S. Army Transportation Museum. United States Army Transportation School. Retrieved: 2007-12-29 ^ CONEX. Defense Technical Information Center (DTIC) ^ Photos of containers in Baku ^ Marc Levinson (2006). The Box: How the Shipping Container Made the World Smaller and the World Economy Bigger. Princeton Univ. Press. p. 1. ISBN 0-691-12324-1. http://www.pupress.princeton.edu/titles/8131.html. ^ Cudahy, Brian J., "The Containership Revolution: Malcom McLeans 1956 Innovation Goes Global". TR News. (c/o National Academy of Sciences). Number 246. SeptemberOctober 2006. (Adobe Acrobat *.PDF document) ^ a b c Levinson (2006), The Box. ^ Rushton, A., Oxley, J., Croucher, P. (2004). The Handbook of Logistics and Distribution Management. Kogan Page: London. ^ Postrel, Virginia (2006-03-23). "The Box that Changed the World". Dynamist.com. http://www.dynamist.com/weblog/archives/002097.html. Retrieved 2008-02-14. ^ Ebeling, C. E. (Winter 2009). "Evolution of a Box". Invention and Technology 23 (4): 89. ISSN 8756-7296. ^ http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/IS.SHP.GOOD.TU ^ "Shipping containers". Emase. http://www.emase.co.uk/data/cont.html. Retrieved 2007-02-10. ^ http://railwaysafrica.com/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=3493&Itemid=36 ^ "ENGINEERING.". The Argus (Melbourne, Vic. : 1848 - 1956) (Melbourne, Vic.: National Library of Australia): p. 11. 16 February 1922. http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article4701552. Retrieved 25 October 2011. ^ "FREIGHT HANDLING.". The West Australian (Perth, WA : 1879 - 1954) (Perth, WA: National Library of Australia): p. 4. 30 July 1925. http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article31871575. Retrieved 29 October 2011.

^ "NEW TRANSPORT METHOD.". Examiner (Launceston, Tas. : 1900 - 1954) (Launceston, Tas.: National Library of Australia): p. 11 Edition: DAILY. 7 June 1929. http://nla.gov.au/nla.newsarticle51548804. Retrieved 25 October 2011. ^ "COMMERCIAL.". The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954) (NSW: National Library of Australia): p. 13. 13 May 1929. http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article28047495. Retrieved 26 October 2011. ^ "RAILWAY CONTAINERS.". The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954) (NSW: National Library of Australia): p. 9. 2 January 1936. http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article17216389. Retrieved 27 October 2011. ^ "THE COUNTRY PAGE.". The Argus (Melbourne, Vic. : 1848 - 1956) (Melbourne, Vic.: National Library of Australia): p. 26. 12 December 1928. http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article3974817. Retrieved 27 October 2011. ^ "THROUGH ROAD, RAIL AND WATER TRAFFIC.". Morning Bulletin (Rockhampton, Qld. : 1878 1954) (Rockhampton, Qld.: National Library of Australia): p. 10. 26 April 1929. http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article54650672. Retrieved 28 October 2011. ^ "NEW RAILWAY CONTAINER.". The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954) (NSW: National Library of Australia): p. 11. 8 September 1930. http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article16701153. Retrieved 25 October 2011. ^ ["INTERNATIONAL CONTAINER.". The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954) (NSW: National Library of Australia): p. 9. 31 December 1931. http://nla.gov.au/nla.newsarticle16814839. Retrieved 26 October 2011. ICC] ^ "INTERNATIONAL CONTAINER BUREAU.". The Sydney Morning Herald (NSW : 1842 - 1954) (NSW: National Library of Australia): p. 13. 18 April 1933. http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article16972758. Retrieved 27 October 2011. ^ "New Freight Containers For S.E. Railway Services.". The Advertiser (Adelaide, SA : 1931 - 1954) (Adelaide, SA: National Library of Australia): p. 19. 23 April 1936. http://nla.gov.au/nla.newsarticle35426150. Retrieved 26 October 2011. ^ "MILK BUSINESS.". Cairns Post (Qld. : 1909 - 1954) (Qld.: National Library of Australia): p. 4. 14 February 1946. http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article42483056. Retrieved 26 October 2011. ^ http://www.universalcargo.com/blog/bid/49979/Shipping-Container-Shortage-Pushing-UpPrices ^ a b Containers Overboard! TT Club (Maritime insurers). Accessed: 26 February 2011. ^ Podsada, Janice. (2001-06-19) 'Lost Sea Cargo: Beach Bounty or Junk?', National Geographic News.[1] Retrieved 2007-04-17

^ "Rubber Duckies Map The World" - CBS News - July 31, 2003 ^ Murdoch & Tozer. A Masters guide to Container Securing Lloyd's Register & Standard P&I Club. Accessed: 26 February 2011. ^ "Banana box slip a worry". Lloyd's List Daily Commercial News (Informa Australia). 2008-02-07. http://www.lloydslistdcn.com.au/informaoz/LLDCN/home.jsp?source=fresh. Retrieved 2008-0214. ^ 854 F.2d 1338, 129 L.R.R.M. (BNA) 2001, 1988 A.M.C. 2409, 272 U.S.App.D.C. 129, 57 USLW 2147, 109 Lab.Cas. P 10,681, NEW YORK SHIPPING ASSOCIATION, INC., International Longshoremen's Association, AFL-CIO, Council of North Atlantic Shipping Associations, Atlantic Container Line, Ltd., Dart Containerline Company, Limited, Hapag-Lloyd Aktiengesellschaft, "Italia" S.P.A.N., Nedlloyd Lines B.V., Puerto Rico Maritime Shipping Authority, Sea-Land Service, Inc., Trans Freight Lines, Inc., and United States Lines, Inc., Petitioners, v. FEDERAL MARITIME COMMISSION and United States of America, Respondents. NEW YORK SHIPPING ASSOCIATION, INC., et al., Petitioners, v. FEDERAL MARITIME COMMISSION and United States of America, Respondents, American Trucking Assoc., Inc., American Warehousemen's Assoc., West Gulf Maritime Assoc., National Customs Brokers & Forwarders Association of America, Inc., International Association of NVOCCs, et al., Intervenors. Nos. 82-1347, 87-1370. United States Court of Appeals, District of Columbia Circuit. Argued Dec. 17, 1987. Decided Aug. 9, 1988. ^ "The Box takes off on global journey". BBC News. 2008-09-08. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/business/7600180.stm. ^ "BBC - The Box". BBC. 5 September 2008. http://bbc.co.uk/thebox. Retrieved 2008-09-05. [edit] Further reading William Gibson (August 2007). Spook Country. Putnam Publishing Group. ISBN 0-399-15430-2. Novel set in U.S., wherein mystery surrounding a containerized shipment serves as the MacGuffin Brian J. Cudahy (April 2006). Box Boats. Fordham University Press. ISBN 0-8232-2568-2. http://fordhampress.com/detail.html?isbn=9780823225682. How Container Ships Changed the World Frank Broeze (2002). The Globalisation of the Oceans. International Maritime Economic History Association. ISBN 0-9730073-3-8. Containerisation from the 1950s to the Present Stewart Taggart (October 1999). "The 20-Ton Packet". Wired Magazine. http://www.wired.com/wired/archive/7.10/ports.html. "Port Industry Statistics". American Association of Port Authorities. http://www.aapaports.org/Industry/content.cfm?ItemNumber=900.

Marc Levinson (2006). The Box: How the Shipping Container Made the World Smaller and the World Economy Bigger. Princeton University Press. ISBN 0-691-12324-1. Arthur Donovan & Joseph Bonney (2006). The Box that changed the world: Fifty years of Container Shipping - an illustrated history. Commopnwealth Business Media. ISBN 978-1-891131-95-0. ASTM D 5728 Standard Practice for Securement of Cargo in Intermodal and Unimodal Surface Transport "Transport Information Service : containers". German Insurance Association. http://www.tisgdv.de/tis_e/containe/inhalt1.htm. types, inspection, climate, stowage, securing, capacity "Container Handbook". German Insurance Association. 2006. http://www.containerhandbuch.de/chb_e/. "Emergency Response Guidebook" (PDF). Transport Canada, the U.S. Department of Transportation, and the Secretariat of Communications and Transport of Mexico. 2004. http://hazmat.dot.gov/pubs/erg/erg2004.pdf. a guidebook for first responders during the initial phase of a dangerous goods/hazardous materials incident "Container Dimensions and Capacity". Export 911. http://www.export911.com/e911/ship/dimen.htm. "Introduction to Container Transportation". http://www.walshsurveyor.com/ships/articles/container-transportation/index.htm. - A good pictorial introduction to containers [edit] External links Look up containerization or isotainer in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

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[show]v d eIntermodal containers Overview Containerization Intermodal freight transport International Container Bureau ISO 6346 (BIC code) Twenty-foot equivalent unit

Transport Handling Types

Container ship Double-stack Well car Container terminal Container crane Reach stacker Rubber tyred gantry crane Sidelifter Straddle carrier Twistlock Refrigerated container SECU The Box BBC Box Container (board game) Container Shipping Information Service Shipping container architecture Sun Modular Datacenter

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[show]v d eRail transport freight equipment Autorack Boxcar (US) Coil car Container Covered hopper Covered wagon Refrigerator car (US) Refrigerated van (EU) Roadrailer Stock car Tank car Flatcar Gondola (US) Hopper car Open wagon (EU) Modalohr Schnabel car Double-stack car Mineral wagon Slate wagon Caboose (US) Brake van (EU) Work trains Scale test car Clearance car Crane (railroad) Rotary snowplow

Enclosed equipment

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Contenedor
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Contenedores de 40 pies en un buque portacontenedores.

Un contenedor o container es un recipiente de carga para el transporte areo, martimo o fluvial, transporte terrestre y transporte multimodal. Las dimensiones del contenedor se encuentran normalizadas para facilitar su manipulacin. Por extensin, se llama contenedor a un embalaje de grandes dimensiones utilizado para transportar objetos voluminosos o pesados: motores, maquinaria, pequeos vehculos, etc. Es conocido tambin por su nombre en ingls, container. Los contenedores suelen estar fabricados principalmente de acero corten, pero tambin los hay de aluminio y algunos otros de madera contrachapada reforzados con fibra de vidrio. En la mayor parte de los casos, el suelo es de madera, aunque ya hay algunos de bamb. Interiormente llevan un recubrimiento especial anti-humedad, para evitar las humedades durante el viaje. Otra caracterstica definitoria de los contenedores es la presencia, en cada una de sus esquinas, de alojamientos para los twistlocks, que les permiten ser enganchados por gras especiales, as como su trincaje tanto en buques como en camiones. El primer transporte de mercancas con contenedores fue el 26 de abril de 1956. Corri a cargo de Malcom MacLean que hizo el trayecto desde Nueva York a Houston.

Contenido
[ocultar]

1 Tipos de contenedores 2 Dimensiones del contenedor 3 Carga mxima 4 Identificacin 5 Gras 6 Reutilizacin de contenedores 7 Vase tambin 8 Enlaces externos

[editar] Tipos de contenedores

Terminal de carga de contenedores en Nueva Jersey (Estados Unidos).Transporte contenedores con camin basculante

Existen diferentes tipos de contenedores:

Dry Van: son los contenedores estndar. Cerrados hermticamente y sin refrigeracin o ventilacin. Metlicos: como los estndar, pero sin cerrar hermticamente y sin refrigeracin. Empleados comnmente para el trasporte de residuos y basuras por carretera. High Cube: contenedores estndar mayoritariamente de 40 pies su caracterstica principal es su sobre altura (9.6 pies). Reefer: Contenedores refrigerados, ya sea de 40 o 20 pies, pero que cuentan con un sistema de conservacin de fro o calor y termostato. Deben ir conectados en el buque y en la terminal, incluso en el camin si fuese posible o en un generador externo, funcionan bajo corriente trifsica. Algunas de las marcas que se dedican a fabricarlos: Carrier, Mitsubishi, Thermo King, Daikin. Open Top: de las mismas medidas que los anteriores, pero abiertos por la parte de arriba. Puede sobresalir la mercanca pero, en ese caso, se pagan suplementos en funcin de cunta carga haya dejado de cargarse por este exceso. Flat Rack: carecen tambin de paredes laterales e incluso, segn casos, de paredes delanteras y posteriores. Se emplean para cargas atpicas y pagan suplementos de la misma manera que los open top. Open Side: su mayor caracterstica es que es abierto en uno de sus lados, sus medidas son de 20' o 40'. Se utiliza para cargas de mayores dimensiones en longitud que no se pueden cargar por la puerta del contenedor. Tank o Contenedor Cisterna: para transportes de lquidos a granel. Se trata de una cisterna contenida dentro de una serie de vigas de acero que delimitan un paraledeppedo cuyas dimensiones son equivalentes a las de un "Dry van". De esta forma, la cisterna disfruta de las ventajas inherentes a un contenedor: pueden apilarse y viajar en cualquiera de los medios de transporte tpicos del transporte intermodal. En algunas fotos de este artculo pueden distinguirse contenedores cisterna. Flexi-Tank: para transportes de lquidos a granel. Suponen una alternativa al contenedor cisterna. Un flexi-tank consiste en un contenedor estndar (Dry Van), normalmente de 20 pies, en cuyo interior se fija un depsito flexible de polietileno de un solo uso denominado flexibag.

Contenedor de 10 pies.

Se est estudiando el establecimiento de una serie de nuevas medidas como el eurocontenedor, adecuado para los palets europeos, o europalets (palets con 80 cm de ancho por 120 cm de largo), pero est muy lejos de ser un estndar, dado que los buques portacontenedores estn preparados para los contenedores mencionados anteriormente.

[editar] Dimensiones del contenedor


Existen diferentes medidas para contenedores variando en largo y alto:

El ancho se fija en 8 pies (2,44 metros) El alto vara entre 8 pies y 6 pulgadas (2,59 m) 9 pies y 6 pulgadas (2,90 m). El largo vara entre 8 pies (2,44 metros); 10 pies (3,05 m); 20 pies (6,10 m); 40 pies (12,19 m); 45 pies (13,72 m); 48 pies (14,63 m) y 53 pies (16,15 m).

Lo ms extendido a nivel mundial son los equipos de 20 y 40 pies, con un volumen interno aproximado de 32,6 m3 y 66,7 m3 respectivamente. Las dimensiones de los contenedores estn reguladas por la norma ISO 6346. En Europa los ms utilizados son los estndares de 20 y 40 pies.
Medidas (interiores) de los contenedores ms utilizados tipo Dry Van 20 pies, 20 x 8 x 86" 40 pies, 40 x 8 x 86" 40 pies High Cube, 40 x 8

x 96" Tara Carga mxima Peso bruto 2.300 kg / 5.070 lb 3.750 kg / 8.265 lb 3.940 kg / 8.685 lb

28.180 kg / 62.130 lb

28.750 kg / 63.385 lb

28.560 kg / 62.965 lb

30.480 kg / 67.200 lb

32.500 kg / 71.650 lb

32.500 kg / 71.650 lb

Uso ms frecuente

Carga seca normal: bolsas, Carga seca normal: bolsas, Especial para cargas pals, cajas, tambores, pals, cajas, tambores, voluminosas: tabaco, etc. etc. carbn. 5.898 mm / 194" 2.352 mm / 79" 2.393 mm / 710" 32,6 m3 / 1.172 ft3 12.025 mm / 396" 2.352 mm / 79" 2.393 mm / 710" 67,7 m3 / 2.390 ft3 12.032 mm / 396" 2.352 mm / 79" 2.698 mm / 810" 76,4 m3 / 2.700 ft3

Largo Ancho Altura Capacidad

[editar] Carga mxima


La carga mxima puede variar segn la naviera y el tipo de contenedor. Los contenedores ms normalizados internacionalmente de 20 pies tienen un peso bruto mximo de unas 29 t (es decir, la carga ms la tara o peso del contenedor) y los de 40 pies de unas 32 t. Aunque, como muchas veces se traslada el contenedor va terrestre desde la zona de carga al puerto, hay que atenerse a la legislacin vigente en cada pas sobre pesos mximos en camiones. La tara o peso del contenedor puede variar desde 1,8 t hasta 4 t para los de 20 pies y de 3,2 t hasta 4,8 t para los de 40 pies.

[editar] Identificacin

Identificacin HOYU751013-6 de un contenedor de 20 pies para lquidos a granel.

La identificacin de contenedores se efecta mediante una combinacin alfanumrica de 11 dgitos. Las primeras tres letras identifican al propietario y son asignadas a las compaas por el BIC (Bureau International des Containers et du Trasnport Intermodal). La cuarta letra toma los siguientes valores:

U para identificar a los contenedores propiamente dichos. J para el equipo auxiliar adosable. Z para chasis o trailers de transporte vial.

luego siguen 6 dgitos numricos y por ltimo un dgito verificador para asegurar la correcta relacin con los 10 anteriores. Este dgito verificador es de suma importancia pues garantiza en transmisiones y en el ingreso a sistemas asistidos por ordenadores su correcta escritura. Se calcula mediante un algoritmo que se detalla a continuacin. En primer lugar, las letras reciben un valor de acuerdo con la siguiente tabla:
Tabla de asignacin de valores numricos al alfabeto A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z

10 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 23

2 4

2 5

2 6

2 7

2 8

2 9

3 0

3 1

3 2

3 4

3 5

3 6

3 7

3 8

Nota: el valor 11 y sus mltiplos 22 y 33 se ignoran.

Tomando como ejemplo el contenedor de la fotografa: HOYU 751013 dgito verificador 6, se efecta la suma de cada uno de los 10 primeros dgitos multiplicados por una potencia creciente de 2. H=18 entonces 18 x 2^0= 18x1= 18 O=26 entonces 26 x 2^1= 26x2= 52 Y=37 entonces 37 x 2^2= 37x4=148 U=32 entonces 32 x 2^3= 32x8=256 7=7 entonces 7 x 2^4= 7x16=112 5=5 entonces 5 x 2^5= 5x32=160 1=1 entonces 1 x 2^6= 1x64= 64 0=0 entonces 0 x 2^7= 0x128= 0 1=1 entonces 1 x 2^8= 1x256=256 3=3 entonces 3 x 2^9= 3x512=1536 La sumatoria las cifras anteriores, que es igual a 2602, se divide por 11.

Se ignora la parte decimal

Se multiplica por 11

La diferencia entre la suma original, 2602, y este nmero, 2596, es el dgito verificador o dgito de control. En este caso, 6.

Si el valor resultante es 10 el dgito verificador es 0. Todos los sistemas digitales efectan este clculo en el momento del ingreso de un contenedor, la no validacin del dgito notifica al operador que algn dato es incorrecto.

[editar] Gras
La revolucin en el transporte que signific la aparicin de los contenedores no estara completa sin las gras especficas para su manejo. Las hay de diversos tipos, por lo que es difcil hacer una clasificacin nica, aunque la ms comn es la siguiente:

Gra prtico (Gantry crane): Gra que consta de un puente elevado o prtico soportado por dos patas a modo de un arco angulado, con capacidad para desplazar los contenedores en los tres sentidos posibles (vertical, horizontal y lateralmente), maniobrando sobre rales (Rail Gantry Crane o Trastainer) o sobre neumticos (Rubber Tire Gantry, RTG) en un espacio limitado. Gra apiladora de alcance (Reacher-staker crane): Permiten alcanzar con contenedores estibas de uno sobre tres y formar bloques de hasta cuatro filas. Gra de puerto (Quay crane o Portainer): Gra con la que se introducen los contenedores en un barco portacontenedores.

Gra prtico en la terminal ferroviaria de Lrida (Espaa).

[editar] Reutilizacin de contenedores


-

Reutilizacin de contenedores martimos en un centro de capacitacin - Detalle de los accesos a los diversos niveles.

Reutilizacin de contenedores martimos en un centro de capacitacin.

Con el incremento del uso de los contenedores para el transporte martimo y terrestre de mercaderas, se da tambin el fenmeno del descarte de estos contenedores una vez que han cumplido su vida til (variable entre 7 y 14 aos). Es cada vez ms frecuente por lo tanto su reutilizacin como, por ejemplo, para la construccin de edificios para varios usos como puede ser, bodegas, oficinas temporales, para campamentos de obras en construccin en locales de difcil acceso, centros de capacitacin, etc. Los contenedores, en los patios y en los buques pueden ser apilados, cuando estn llenos, hasta 5 niveles. Las estructuras portantes de los contenedores son las 12 aristas del mismo. Esto debe tomarse en cuenta cuando se pretende utilizarlos como estructuras autoportantes como las que se muestran en las figuras.

[editar] Vase tambin


Elemento unitario de carga (ULD). Equivalente areo del contenedor martimo. TEU (unidad de medida) (siglas de Twenty Equivalent Unit). Twistlock