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This is the author-version of a conference paper published as: Aktarujjaman, M. and Kashem, M.A. and Negnevitsky, M. and Ledwich, Gerard (2006) Smoothing Output Power of a Doubly Fed Wind Turbine with an Energy Storage System . In Proceedings Australian Universities Power Engineering Conference 2006, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia.

Copyright 2006 (please consult author) Accessed from http://eprints.qut.edu.au

Smoothing Output Power of a Doubly Fed Wind Turbine with an Energy Storage System
M.Aktarujjaman, M.A. Kashem, M. Negnevitsky School of Engineering University of Tasmania Tasmania, Australia mda0@utas.edu.au G. Ledwich School of Engineering Systems Queensland University of Technology Brisbane, Australia ABSTRACT
Wind energy sources are characterized by irregularity and unpredictability. In normal operation, random properties of wind and blade rotational turbulence can produce unwanted fluctuation on the voltage and power supplied into the system. Power output of a wind turbine is a function of wind speed. Wind turbine is a source of power fluctuations due to the nature of wind speed. This fluctuating power will have its impact on power balance and voltage at the point of common coupling. Small variation of wind speed could cause a large variation in the extracted power. As a result, large voltage fluctuation may result in voltage variations outside the regulation limit at connection point. In this paper, a method has been developed to reduce output power fluctuations of a wind turbine with an energy storage system using stator side converter. The developed method has been tested through modelling a doubly fed wind turbine and a battery storage system, using SimPowerSystems tools of MATLAB and simulated for operation as a grid connected system. 1. INTRODUCTION

Renewable energy resources are promising generation sources for power provider due to advance technology, low production cost, and environmental friendly. Furthermore, cost of fossil fuel is driving force for choosing energy production from renewable energy resources such as wind, solar, biomass etc. Among them wind power has been considered as a strong alternative for traditional power system. Advance turbine technology has reached in range of multi MW age. Multi MW generation capabilities of wind power with better control (Doubly Fed Induction Generator, DFIG) can increase the contribution of renewable energy into the power grid. Wind energy source is characterised by irregularity and unpredictability. Average wind power is a function of wind speed and the speed of wind is a random process. Furthermore, during normal operation, blade rotational turbulence and tower shadow also produce fluctuation

which is a function of the mechanical torque. Energy storage can provide a faster active power compensation to reduce the power fluctuations and flicker. and reduced rating of a converter [3]. Wind power generation is often connected to a weak grid. Wind turbine’s inertia can compensate a certain amount of power fluctuation. The control behaviour of the DC link energy storage system has been modelled and observed. with long line and limited power exporting capabilities. random properties of wind. The response of the output power of wind turbine with storage is more robust. wind turbine is a source of fluctuating torque. PROBLEM STATEMENT During normal operation conditions. However. Wind power is often associated with power variation and power fluctuation. the response of the system voltage and frequency are highly sensitive to the power generation and consumption. Fluctuating power also causes an unwanted start-stop cycle of secondary generating stations such as diesel generators [2]. Due to those facts. A weak grid is poorly interconnected. the storage system has the capability to compensate enough real power to the system for smoothing instantaneous fluctuations of wind or loads [4]. a favourable location of wind source is often located far from traditional power generation or strong grid. which can be used for sink or source of active power. This fluctuating torque is responsible for fluctuating the real power of the generator. Theoretically. when a wind turbine is feeding power to a small grid or a stand alone load. far from main generation unit or isolated or has relatively low spinning reserves [1]. In a weak system. Among them Doubly Fed Induction Generator (is an attractive option because of allows the variable speed operation. positive feedback occurs between the power fluctuation and the voltage fluctuation with respect to the same input torque and so the power fluctuation may also increase . which is responsible for producing unwanted fluctuations of the power supplied into the Point of Common Coupling (PCC). The main improvement of a recent configuration with a storage system in the DC link is providing an extra spinning reserve facility for the wind system. In a weak system or an isolated system. Different wind generation technologies are available in market. 2. the key elements of power fluctuation of the wind turbine have been discussed and identified. tower shadow and blade rotational turbulence can produce unwanted fluctuation on the mechanical torque. A storage system can rapidly compensate active power to the system. this power fluctuation can be a severe problem for the system stability. control of the real and reactive power. Fluctuate power can often cause the violation of voltage and frequency limits in the weak system.into the mechanical torque. Also the improvement of the system has been simulated and results are presented. This eliminates the impact of fluctuation from wind gust and keeps the output power of wind turbine more stable for the grid. In addition. In this paper.

Fig. (2). The generator uses a wound-rotor induction machine where the rotor terminals are fed via a back-to-back PWM voltage source converter [6-7]. tower shadow and blade rotational speed. The control system is able to control real and reactive power independently. Sn = Rated capacity (VA). 3. Due to those facts. The total output power of a wind generator can be explained as below: P = Pbase ± ΔP (1) The total output power of the wind turbine is a combination of the base power and the power fluctuation caused by the wind speed.1 shows a typical arrangement of a DFIG equipped with a wind turbine and a battery storage . The fluctuating power can be expressed in the form of the fluctuating torque and slip as follows [5]: s dt P T h d Δ = Δ m − Δ (2) Where Sn p J h 2 ⎟ ⎟⎠ ⎞ ⎜ ⎜⎝ ⎛ = ω ω = inertial constant. which depends on the rate of change of the wind speed. ΔP =Fluctuating power. SYSTEMS AND COMPONENTS MODELLING The system consists of a DFIG with dc-ac and ac-dc converters. Pbase is the fluctuation free mean power. loads and grid. Fluctuating input torque makes this scenario even more severe in absence of an appropriate compensator. The power fluctuation has its own magnitude and frequency.[5]. The rate of the wind speed-change is proportional to the unwanted power variations and fluctuations for the load in a stand alone system or a weak grid. In a large wind power generation unit (> 1 MW).ω =Angular velocity (rad/sec). a wind turbine can be considered as a source of active and reactive power fluctuations. it is seen that the fluctuating torque and fluctuating slip are the key contributors for creating an unwanted power fluctuation in the output power. while the stator side converter will controls the fluctuating power supply and may also be used to supply reactive power to the system. battery storage. ΔTm =Fluctuating torque. The rotor side converter is responsible for controlling the speed of the generator and stator reactive power. p =Number of pole pairs. even a small variation of the wind speed can cause a large variation in the power generated. Δs =Fluctuating slip. In Eq. J =Moment of inertia.

The stator side converter controls the instantaneous real power exchange between the stator and the storage system. The tip speed ratio is the ratio of the speed at the tip of the blades to the speed of the wind and can be defined as [8]: v ωR λ = ⎪ ⎪ ⎩ ⎪ ⎪ ⎨ ⎧ = 0 P(v) P P rated wind (5) Fig.5 A v3 wind = ρ r (3) where ρ is the air density [kg/m2 ]. describes the wind power between cut-in wind speed and rated wind speed. Total power of a wind turbine can be defined as [8]: P 0. P(v) . Diagram of DFIG wind turbine with storage system Storage controller receives control signals from the available wind energy and the grid system. Controller Rotor Side Converter Stator Side Converter DFIG Wind Turbine Load Bus DC Link Battery Load L Grid Fig. which is expressed as for vr < v ≤ vo for i r v < v ≤ v for i o v > v > v where i v . The wind power output is given by the power curve. respectively.2 shows a typical power curve of commercially available wind turbine [8]: 0 200 . rated and cut-off wind speed. 3. The storage system provides instantaneous active power compensation through the stator side converter to the turbine output power as well as the DC link voltage stabilisation. The function. WIND TURBINE MODEL Wind turbine is a non-linear system whose output depends on optimal values of various parameters. r v and o v are the cut-in.1. The state of charge of the storage system also plays major role on the storage participation of the system mode of operation. depending on the wind speed.system connected to the DC link of the back to back PWM converter. The mechanical power of wind turbine can be determined by [8]: Pmech = PwindCp (λ .β ) (4) where p C is the performance coefficient and is a function of the tip speed ratio and pitch angle.1. r A is the area swept by the rotor and v is the wind speed.

Cp .8 1 1. the performance coefficient Cp will decrease. of a wind turbine varies with wind speed.6 0.4 0. Fig.4 0. This characteristics makes the wind turbine self-regulating its output power by operating at lower efficiency for high wind speed.8 1 1. As it can be seen that initially the wind speed increases.6 0.2 0.3 0.Cp for two different wind speeds. If the wind speed increases further than the value at the maximum performance coefficent.5 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 30 rpm 40 rpm Wind Speed[m/s] Performance Coefficent.2 6 m/s 8 m/s 10 m/s 12 m/s Turbine speed Turbine output power Turbine Power Characteristics Fig.2.2 0 0. the value of performance coeffecient also increases. 0 0.2 1.2 0.] Fig. DOUBLY FED INDUCTION GENERATOR (DFIG) MODEL Direct and quadrature axes (d-q) representation of the DFIG is used for analysis.2: power curve of wind turbine Fig.4: Turbine Power Characteristics 3. It also shows that higher efficiency can be obtained on low wind speed and for low rpm of the rotor blade [8]: 0 0.4 0.4 shows the power characteristic curve of the wind turbine for different wind speeds.1 0.2 0.400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 1600 0 5 10 15 20 25 NEG M 64/1500 Wind Speed[m/s] Power[kW.3: Cp-wind speed curve of wind turbine The performance coefficient.4 -0. simulation and control. 3 shows performance coefficients. The equations of the asynchronous machine in the d-q reference frame are [10-11]: ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎩ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎨ ⎧ = + + = + − = + + = + − r rd rq rq r rq r rq rd rd r rd s sd sq sq s sq s sq sd . Cp Fig.

Vr : stator and rotor voltage. From the equations for the rotor fluxes.Rr : stator and rotor resistances. Ls . Ir : stator and rotor current.sd s sd dt d VRI dt VRId dt d VRI dt VRId ω φ ω φ ω φ ω φ φ φ φ φ (6) where stator and rotor fluxes are expressed in function of the current by: ⎪ ⎩ ⎪ ⎨ ⎧ = = = = ⎪ ⎪ + + + + rq r rq m sq rd r rd m sd sq s sq m rq sd s sd m rd LILI LILI LILI LILI φ φ φ φ (7) Where Vs . Lr : stator and rotor self inductance. Is . Lm : mutual inductance.φrd and φrq . ω : Angular velocity (rad/sec). Rs . the following expressions for the rotor currents Ird and Irq are derived [11]: r rd m sd rd L . φ : flux linkage.

r rq m sq rq L LI I + = φ (8) In the generating mode. we obtain ⎟ ⎟⎠ ⎞ ⎜ ⎜⎝ ⎛ + = − + − r rq m sq sd s sd s s sq s m L LI VRILIL φ ω ω ⎟ ⎟⎠ ⎞ ⎜ ⎜⎝ ⎛ + = − − + r rd m sd sq s sq s s sd s m L VRILILLI φ ω ω (9) Rearranging the above equations. and can be defined as . the stator voltage can be expressed as a function of the voltage behind transient reactance by [11]: Vsd = −Rs Isd + X Isq + ed ' Vsq = −Rs Isq − X Isd + eq ' (10) The synchronous reactance and transient reactance are defined as s sL X ω = . ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ ⎞ ⎜ ⎜ ⎝ ⎛ = − r m ssL XLL 2 'ω (11) d e and q e are respectively the direct and quadrature components of the voltage behind transient reactance.ILI + = φ .

rd r sm qL eLφ ω = (12) where.rq r sm dL eLφ ω = − . we obtain [11]: r rq rd rd r rd dt VRIdω φ φ = + − s rq rd r rd m sd rs dt d L RLIω φ φ φ − + ⎟ ⎟⎠ ⎞ ⎜ ⎜⎝ ⎛ + = r rd rq rq r rq dt d VRIω φ φ = + + s rs rq r rq m sq .d sm r rq e L L ω φ = − (13) Substituting Eqs. (8) and (13) into the equation (6) for the rotor voltage. q sm r rd e L L ω φ = .

rs dt d L LI Rω φ φ φ + + ⎟ ⎟⎠ ⎞ ⎜ ⎜⎝ ⎛ + = (14) Taking the derivatives for ed and eq we get [ ( ) ] [ ( ) ] ⎪ ⎭ ⎪ ⎪ ⎬ ⎫ = − − − + − = − − − − + rd s d r m q sd s os q rq s q r m d sq s os d ⎪ Vse L eXXIL t e dt d Vse L eXXIL t e dt d ω ω ω ω ' ' 1 1 (15) The transient open circuit time constant is defined as [11]: r r os R t = L (16) From Eq.(15). the general from of the derivative is .

(17) will became [ ( ) ] L eXXIjL t rs r m ss ss V js e ω ω ω 0 = − 1 − − ' − + (18) In Eq. δ δ d q Vr e Vs I sI r φ r Fig.[ ( ) ] L eXXIjL t e dt d rs r m ss ss V js e ω ω ω = − 1 − − ' − + (17) At steady state. the rotor voltage is the anti-phase with the internal voltage e . Fig. slip is positive. Eq. The magnitude and sign of the rotor voltage is approximately proportional to the magnitude of the slip [11]. (18). the Eq.5 shows the normal operating conditions of the DFIG [11]. slip is negative.(18) can be reduced to the following form. Hence. Thus the rotor voltage is approximately the product of the internal voltage and the slip. the rotor voltage is in phase with the internal voltage. (e) = dt d 0. In the super-synchronous operation mode. for normal operating values of s . the divider term is small compared with the final two terms. the magnitude of the internal voltage is slightly varies.5: Vector representation of the DFIG . V se L L r r m≅ (19) The ratio between the mutual and rotor reactance is usually close to the unity. e . So. In the sub-synchronous operation mode.

For reactive power control. 3. we will have [10] φ =φ and = 0 qm φ Then. Assuming that the required reactive power to the stator is Qs .3. δ (torque angle) is the angle between the air gap flux and rotor current vectors seen in the synchronous reference frame. With the alignment of the air gap flux to the d-axis of the reference frame. the rotor speed and the rotor position must be known for the rotor current vector projection [10].11]: ( ) Qs = ωs vsqisd − vsd isq 2 3 (24) If the air gap flux is constant then the reactive power can be controlled by controlling the d-axis component of the rotor current dr i . STATOR SIDE AND ROTOR SIDE CONVERTER Stator Side Converter (SSC) is used to control the required real power for smoothing the output power. 3. The qaxis component of rotor current can be used to control the torque of the generator. (21).4. the torque equation is reduced as a function of the q-axis component of the rotor current[10. φ sinδ 22 3 e dqm irdq T = p (21) where φdqm =φsdq − isdqLs and φdqm =φrdq − irdqLr 3. REACTIVE POWER CONTROL Reactive power of the DFIG can be controlled through the rotor current vector to realize unity or leading power factor operation.11]: φ sinδ 22 3 e dm irq T = p dqm dm ( ) dmirq qmird = p φ −φ 22 3 (22) The electromechanical torque can be viewed as the result of the interaction between rotor current and air gap flux. which can be expressed as a function of the d-axis component of the rotor current by [10.The DFIG torque in per unit can be expressed as voltage behind reactance as follows [11]. Reference power is compared with generator output . regardless of the selection of the reference frame. s d sd q qs e eIeI T ω + = (20) It can be also expressed as a function of air-gap flux and rotor current [10]. TORQUE CONTROL In Eq.5.

which is then compare with the d-axis component of line current. and the PI controller produces the q-axis component of the current reference for the inner current control loop. and Pw are the charging. STORAGE SYSTEM The purpose of the energy storage is to smooth the stochastic wind variations in order to obtain firm power output to DFIG. The control of the Rotor Side Converter (RSC) is vary much similar with the control given [6-7]. If the wind power output exceeds the desired level. The PI controller is used for regulating the difference. The storage system is used for stabilising the DC link voltage with storage limitation. the measured reactive power is compared with the reference reactive power. discharging. In reactive power control. 6: Stator Side Converter Controller According to the system requirement. + PI Pr ef Pgrid Qref Qgrid + PI + PI + PI id _ref iq_ref id iq dq to abc abc to dq SSC ia. Pd . reactive power can be controlled through reactive power control loop as shown in Fig. Then P-I controller is responsible for producing current reference for inner current control loop. The energy storage system can be characterised by its charging efficiency ηch and discharging efficiency ηdch as follows [12]: . the excess power is used to charge the storage through stator side converter. desired and actual wind power. Stored energy can be used when wind power output is less than desired level. P-I controller is used for regulation.power. The charging and discharging power of the energy storage system can be calculated on the basis of available wind power output as follows [12]: for Pw ≤ Pd for Pw > Pd (25) for Pw > Pd for Pw ≤ Pd (26) where Pch Pdch .6. 6. respectively.ib. 3.ic c b a S S S Fig. The control system is responsible for creating enough air gap flux through injecting the rotor current to meet the real and reactive power requirements of the system.

Investigations are conducted on the effect of the storage system. (29) ( ) 2 min 2 2 E = 1 C V −V (30) where E.Vmax and Vmin are the stored energy. Prated . Wind model speed varies within the 8-12 m/s speed range. Fig. (31) can be used to identify the value of the capacitor for the energy storage system. SIMULATION RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Simulation has been carried out using MATLAB SimPowerSystems. converter power ratings. the stored energy will be equivalent to the charging and the discharged energy and the charging power will be the same as the discharging power. All simulations are run with the 500 sec duration with the same wind variation. Power of Stator Side Converter (SSC).5 MW DFIG wind turbines. and wind speed. VV C PconR Prated t − = (31) Capacitor is the key element of the storage system.Ech =ηch (Pch ). Power of Rotor Side Converter (RSC). DC link voltage. The voltage across the storage system would vary roughly within ±10% of the DC link voltage. depending on the amount of energy stored. Eq. Simulation results show the effectiveness of DFIG in the sub-synchronous and super synchronous speed of operations. respectively. Large amount of capacitor is used for modeling of a storage system. capacitor. Three cases have been investigated and results are presented. 4. In the case of charging and discharging system with 100% efficient. Generator speed. machine’s rated power. The wind firm consists of 6× 1. A 9 MW wind firm is connected with the grid. The capacitor value can be calculated as follows: max ( ) 2 min 2 max 2. maximum and minimum DC link voltages. In the system without any storage.Pch (27) dch ( dch ) dch dch P EP η = (28) where Ech and Edch are the stored and discharged energy respectively.C. The rating of the storage system must be less than the converter’s rating. PconR . The size of the storage size for DFIG can be calculated as [3]: E P P t conR rated = . The following responses are examined: wind power output.7 shows the responses and behaviors of the turbine output and the .

Fig. wind output power faces more power variation. SSC’s power exchanging behavior has delayed significantly than the behavior shown in Fig. Variation effect of the generator speed can be found in the output of the wind power shown in Fig. DC link faces over and under voltage situation. Figs 7(c) and 7(d) show the power exchanging behavior of two back-to-back PWM ⎩ ⎨ ⎧ − = 0 wd ch PP P ⎩ ⎨ ⎧ − = 0 dw dch PP P converters. 7 (b). The stabilisation of DC link voltage depends on the quick power exchanging capability of SSC. 7 (a) shows the variation of wind power. SSC provides instant support for the DC link with help of DFIG stator power. 8 (a) that the variation of wind output power is comparatively smoother than the system without storage arrangement shown in Fig.7 (d) shows that the RSC is exchanging power between the DFIG rotor and the DC link for helping to build enough air gap flux for DFIG in the generating mode of operation.7 (f). 7 (a). It is seen in Fig. With the response of power taking or feeding by the RSC. 7(c).25 MW in the low wind speed situation whereas the maximum power is approximately 6 MW. 7(c) shows that the SSC is exchanging power between the DFIG stator terminal and the DC link for stabilizing DC link voltage. which is also varying.controller during the wind variation. Fig. A storage system (C=10000 F) is connected in the DC link. The power exporting and importing of SSC to and from the DFIG stator terminal is smoother than Fig. Furthermore. The power exchanging behaviors of the SSC and RSC are shown in Figs 8 (c) and 8 (d). DC link voltage has to be stabilized by the SSC. Frequent power taking and feeding by the SSC may create more power fluctuation for the output power. Fig. As a result. 7 (a). The minimum power is exported to the system is approximately 2.7 (c). The generator speed shown in Fig. Fig. the stabilization of DC link voltage has . The variation of DC link voltage (Fig.8 shows the responses and behaviors of the DFIG output and the controller during the wind variation. which prevents the rapid changing behavior of the power output of the DFIG stator terminal. In this arrangement.7 (e) is largely affected by the variation of wind speed shown in Fig. Most of the power variation is seen between 3 MW and 4 MW. It is seen that the wind variation lies between 7 m/s and 13 m/s. 8 (b)) is also less compared to Fig. 7(b) shows the variation of DC link voltage.

5 1200 1200.8 0.1 Generator Speed Time (s) Speed in p.5 DC link Voltage Time (s) Vdc 0 100 200 300 400 500 0 2 4 6 Wind Power Time (s) Power in MW a) b) c) d) e) f) Fig. 0 100 200 300 400 500 0. d) Power of RSC.u 0 100 200 300 400 500 6 8 10 12 14 Wind Speed Time (s) S p e e d in m / s 0 100 200 300 400 500 -1 0 1 . c) Power of SSC. a) wind power. Figs 8 (e) and 8(f) show the generator speed and wind speed are similar to 7 (e) and 7(f) respectively. e) Generator rotor speed.u 0 100 200 300 400 500 6 8 10 12 14 Wind Speed Time (s) Speed in m/s 0 100 200 300 400 500 -1 0 1 x 106 Power of RSC Time (s) Power in Watt 0 100 200 300 400 500 -1 0 1 x 106 Power of SSC Time (s) Power in Watt 0 100 200 300 400 500 1199.8 1 Generator Speed Time (s) S p e e d in p .9 1 1. f) wind speed. 0 100 200 300 400 500 0. b) DC link Voltage.improved. because test has been conducted with the same wind variation.7: Responses of DFIG without storage system.

The variation of wind speed and the responses of the generator speed are shown in Figs 9(f) and 9(e). a large storage system (C=1000000F) is connected with the DC link. c) Power of SSC. e) Generator rotor speed. 0 100 200 300 400 500 0.5 DC link Voltage Time (s) V d c in V o lt 0 100 200 300 400 500 0 2 4 6 Wind Power Time (s) P o w e r in M W a) b) c) e) f) d) Fig.10.x 106 Power of RSC Time (s) P o w e r in W a t t 0 100 200 300 400 500 -1 0 1 x 106 Power of SSC Time (s) P o w e r in W a t t 0 100 200 300 400 500 1199.9 shows the responses and behaviors of the DFIG output and controller during the same wind variation. Next.u 0 100 200 300 400 500 6 8 10 12 14 Wind speed Time (s) .8 1 Generator speed Time (s) S p e e d in p . SSC’s steady operation will provide more firm power to the grid. f) Wind speed. respectively. The output wind power in Fig. three curves show that the nature of output power of the wind turbine without storage and the improvement of power smoothing using storage for the same wind variation. 9 (b) shows that the energy storage system stabilises the DC link voltage significantly.9 (a) is smoother than the case shown in Fig. Figs 9 (c) and 9(d) show the behaviour of SSC and RSC with large energy storage system during wind variation. 10 shows overall view of the energy storage effect on the DFIG power output. Fig. b) DC link Voltage.8: Responses of DFIG with storage system a) wind power. 8(a). d) Power of RSC. Fig. In Fig.5 1200 1200. Fig. 7(a) and Fig.

5 1200 1200.6 0. The results show the enhancement of power quality and the ability of the storage system to produce more clean power to the grid system. d) Power of RSC.10: Power variation curve for DFIG with and without storage 5.2 1. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS .8 1 1.8 4.9: Responses of DFIG with large storage system a) wind power. It can reduce the negative impact of stator side converter’s power import and export from the stator terminal of DFIG and ensure maximum power extraction from the wind and deliver to the system.5 DC link voltage Time (s) V dc in V olt 0 100 200 300 400 500 0 2 4 6 Wind Power Time (s) P ower in M W a) b) c) d) e) f) Fig. 6. e) Generator rotor speed. CONCLUSIONS In this paper. b) DC link Voltage. Using same stator side converter of DFIG will eliminate the need of an extra converter for the energy storage system and reduce the system cost significantly.6 1. c) Power of SSC. power smoothing capability of a DFIG with energy storage system in the DC link has been investigated with the help of SimPowerSystem toolbox of MATLAB. The control system in the proposed arrangement of DFIG is able to reduce power fluctuation with help of storage system.9 x 105 Power of SSC Time (s) P ow e r in W a tt 0 100 200 300 400 500 1199.4 1.4 0.S p e e d in m /s 0 100 200 300 400 500 -1 0 1 x 106 Power of RSC Time (s) P ow e r in W a tt 0 100 200 300 400 500 4. f) Wind speed. It also provides more system reliability due to the capability of providing instantaneous real power for the system.7 4.2 0. 0 100 200 300 400 500 0.8 Time (s) Power in MW Power variation DFIG with storage DFIG without Storage Wind Power Fig.

181-186. Alejandro. 603–614. 2004. F.M Hughes.This research has been funded by the Australian Research Council under ARC Linkage Grant K0014223 “Integration of Distributed and Renewable Power Generation into Electricity Grid Systems”. M. IEEE Trans on Industry Applications. Elect. June 1997. 3.M. May 1996. pp. 2. Nordic Wind Power Conference. [6] A. 3.R. [5] Go. Takata. Power Appl. Pe˜na. IEEE press. Inst. EE in Japan. [4] W. Norway.. “Renewable and Efficient Electric Power Systems”.3. New Jersey. The authors also would like to thank Aurora Energy. Lachs. No.IEEE PESC 2004. “ Rotor Flux Magnitude and Angle Control Strategy for Doubly Fed Induction Generator”. [11] O. and R. Katayama. Strbac. 2005. IEEE Int. Joss. Miyaku. Vol. “Study on Power fluctuation Characteristics of Wind Energy Converters with Fluctuating Turbine Torque”.M. 51. vol. “Energy Storage in Power Systems”. July 1999. No. No. Jenkins and G..124-B. Zinger. and T. May/June 1995. Hoboken. E. Vol.12311239. Conference on Power Electronics and Drive Systems. [10] Longya Xu and W. 421–441. pp. Masters. M. Miller. Vol. Nanahara. 2004. Muljadi.” IEEE Trans.” Wind Energy J. Trondheim. 2005. [9] Jukka V. July 2004.A. Tasmania for their support.31 . Lund. pp. Aachen. Doctoral Thesis. C´ardenas. Wiley-Interscience. June 2004. Blasco-Gimenez. Elect. Tabatabaci-Yazdi. Paatero and Peter D. Anaya-Lara. On Energy Conversion. M. [12] Magnus Korpas. G. Asher. and G.. October 2004.” Proc. [2] R.4. REFERENCES [1] O. Ind. Peña. pp. PEDs’99. pp. Wind Energy. “ Torque and Reactive power control of a Doubly Fed Induction Machine by Position Sensorless Scheme”. no. Norwegian University of Science and Technology.. J. J. and D.636-642. vol. “Issues Regarding the Integration of Induction Wind Turbines in Weak Electrical Networks”. . [3] C. N. Clare. “A Variable Speed Wind Turbine Power Control”. and H. Eng. IEEE Trans. pp. Cheng. R. C. 2006. “Control strategies for power smoothing using a flywheel driven by a sensorless vector-controlled induction machine operating in a wide speed range.843-848. “Effect of Energy Storage on Variations in Wind Power. vol.2004. “Doubly Fed Induction Generator using back-to-back PWM converters and its application to variable speed wind-energy generation. no. Electron. N. “Distributed Energy Systems with Wind Power and Energy Storage”. Asher. “Integration of Energy Storage with a Doubly-Fed Induction Machine for Wind Power Generation”. 8. translated from Denki Gakkai Ronbunshi.143. 12. No. Abbey and G. 231–241.153.1-2 March. [7] R. vol. [8] G. Germany. 10. pp. Clare.

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