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This is the author-version of a conference paper published as: Aktarujjaman, M. and Kashem, M.A. and Negnevitsky, M. and Ledwich, Gerard (2006) Smoothing Output Power of a Doubly Fed Wind Turbine with an Energy Storage System . In Proceedings Australian Universities Power Engineering Conference 2006, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia.

Copyright 2006 (please consult author) Accessed from http://eprints.qut.edu.au

Smoothing Output Power of a Doubly Fed Wind Turbine with an Energy Storage System
M.Aktarujjaman, M.A. Kashem, M. Negnevitsky School of Engineering University of Tasmania Tasmania, Australia mda0@utas.edu.au G. Ledwich School of Engineering Systems Queensland University of Technology Brisbane, Australia ABSTRACT
Wind energy sources are characterized by irregularity and unpredictability. In normal operation, random properties of wind and blade rotational turbulence can produce unwanted fluctuation on the voltage and power supplied into the system. Power output of a wind turbine is a function of wind speed. Wind turbine is a source of power fluctuations due to the nature of wind speed. This fluctuating power will have its impact on power balance and voltage at the point of common coupling. Small variation of wind speed could cause a large variation in the extracted power. As a result, large voltage fluctuation may result in voltage variations outside the regulation limit at connection point. In this paper, a method has been developed to reduce output power fluctuations of a wind turbine with an energy storage system using stator side converter. The developed method has been tested through modelling a doubly fed wind turbine and a battery storage system, using SimPowerSystems tools of MATLAB and simulated for operation as a grid connected system. 1. INTRODUCTION

Renewable energy resources are promising generation sources for power provider due to advance technology, low production cost, and environmental friendly. Furthermore, cost of fossil fuel is driving force for choosing energy production from renewable energy resources such as wind, solar, biomass etc. Among them wind power has been considered as a strong alternative for traditional power system. Advance turbine technology has reached in range of multi MW age. Multi MW generation capabilities of wind power with better control (Doubly Fed Induction Generator, DFIG) can increase the contribution of renewable energy into the power grid. Wind energy source is characterised by irregularity and unpredictability. Average wind power is a function of wind speed and the speed of wind is a random process. Furthermore, during normal operation, blade rotational turbulence and tower shadow also produce fluctuation

with long line and limited power exporting capabilities. which is a function of the mechanical torque. positive feedback occurs between the power fluctuation and the voltage fluctuation with respect to the same input torque and so the power fluctuation may also increase . Wind power generation is often connected to a weak grid. this power fluctuation can be a severe problem for the system stability. Fluctuating power also causes an unwanted start-stop cycle of secondary generating stations such as diesel generators [2]. 2. which can be used for sink or source of active power. PROBLEM STATEMENT During normal operation conditions. This eliminates the impact of fluctuation from wind gust and keeps the output power of wind turbine more stable for the grid. Different wind generation technologies are available in market. Due to those facts. Energy storage can provide a faster active power compensation to reduce the power fluctuations and flicker. far from main generation unit or isolated or has relatively low spinning reserves [1]. wind turbine is a source of fluctuating torque. the key elements of power fluctuation of the wind turbine have been discussed and identified. the storage system has the capability to compensate enough real power to the system for smoothing instantaneous fluctuations of wind or loads [4]. The control behaviour of the DC link energy storage system has been modelled and observed. In this paper. However. which is responsible for producing unwanted fluctuations of the power supplied into the Point of Common Coupling (PCC). The response of the output power of wind turbine with storage is more robust. The main improvement of a recent configuration with a storage system in the DC link is providing an extra spinning reserve facility for the wind system. Theoretically. random properties of wind. In a weak system or an isolated system. tower shadow and blade rotational turbulence can produce unwanted fluctuation on the mechanical torque. A storage system can rapidly compensate active power to the system. the response of the system voltage and frequency are highly sensitive to the power generation and consumption. a favourable location of wind source is often located far from traditional power generation or strong grid. A weak grid is poorly interconnected.into the mechanical torque. and reduced rating of a converter [3]. Among them Doubly Fed Induction Generator (is an attractive option because of allows the variable speed operation. Also the improvement of the system has been simulated and results are presented. Fluctuate power can often cause the violation of voltage and frequency limits in the weak system. control of the real and reactive power. This fluctuating torque is responsible for fluctuating the real power of the generator. when a wind turbine is feeding power to a small grid or a stand alone load. In a weak system. Wind power is often associated with power variation and power fluctuation. In addition. Wind turbine’s inertia can compensate a certain amount of power fluctuation.

Fig. even a small variation of the wind speed can cause a large variation in the power generated. 3. SYSTEMS AND COMPONENTS MODELLING The system consists of a DFIG with dc-ac and ac-dc converters. while the stator side converter will controls the fluctuating power supply and may also be used to supply reactive power to the system. The total output power of a wind generator can be explained as below: P = Pbase ± ΔP (1) The total output power of the wind turbine is a combination of the base power and the power fluctuation caused by the wind speed. Due to those facts. In Eq. Sn = Rated capacity (VA). ΔTm =Fluctuating torque. loads and grid. The fluctuating power can be expressed in the form of the fluctuating torque and slip as follows [5]: s dt P T h d Δ = Δ m − Δ (2) Where Sn p J h 2 ⎟ ⎟⎠ ⎞ ⎜ ⎜⎝ ⎛ = ω ω = inertial constant. Fluctuating input torque makes this scenario even more severe in absence of an appropriate compensator.1 shows a typical arrangement of a DFIG equipped with a wind turbine and a battery storage . Pbase is the fluctuation free mean power. ΔP =Fluctuating power. p =Number of pole pairs. The power fluctuation has its own magnitude and frequency. tower shadow and blade rotational speed. In a large wind power generation unit (> 1 MW). which depends on the rate of change of the wind speed. Δs =Fluctuating slip.[5]. The rate of the wind speed-change is proportional to the unwanted power variations and fluctuations for the load in a stand alone system or a weak grid. The control system is able to control real and reactive power independently. it is seen that the fluctuating torque and fluctuating slip are the key contributors for creating an unwanted power fluctuation in the output power. J =Moment of inertia. battery storage. a wind turbine can be considered as a source of active and reactive power fluctuations. (2). The rotor side converter is responsible for controlling the speed of the generator and stator reactive power.ω =Angular velocity (rad/sec). The generator uses a wound-rotor induction machine where the rotor terminals are fed via a back-to-back PWM voltage source converter [6-7].

3.system connected to the DC link of the back to back PWM converter. r A is the area swept by the rotor and v is the wind speed. The mechanical power of wind turbine can be determined by [8]: Pmech = PwindCp (λ .β ) (4) where p C is the performance coefficient and is a function of the tip speed ratio and pitch angle. The stator side converter controls the instantaneous real power exchange between the stator and the storage system. P(v) . describes the wind power between cut-in wind speed and rated wind speed.5 A v3 wind = ρ r (3) where ρ is the air density [kg/m2 ]. Total power of a wind turbine can be defined as [8]: P 0. The storage system provides instantaneous active power compensation through the stator side converter to the turbine output power as well as the DC link voltage stabilisation. The state of charge of the storage system also plays major role on the storage participation of the system mode of operation. depending on the wind speed. WIND TURBINE MODEL Wind turbine is a non-linear system whose output depends on optimal values of various parameters. respectively. The wind power output is given by the power curve. Diagram of DFIG wind turbine with storage system Storage controller receives control signals from the available wind energy and the grid system. r v and o v are the cut-in.1. rated and cut-off wind speed. The function.1. Controller Rotor Side Converter Stator Side Converter DFIG Wind Turbine Load Bus DC Link Battery Load L Grid Fig. which is expressed as for vr < v ≤ vo for i r v < v ≤ v for i o v > v > v where i v .2 shows a typical power curve of commercially available wind turbine [8]: 0 200 . The tip speed ratio is the ratio of the speed at the tip of the blades to the speed of the wind and can be defined as [8]: v ωR λ = ⎪ ⎪ ⎩ ⎪ ⎪ ⎨ ⎧ = 0 P(v) P P rated wind (5) Fig.

3 0. the value of performance coeffecient also increases.8 1 1.] Fig.4: Turbine Power Characteristics 3. 3 shows performance coefficients.3: Cp-wind speed curve of wind turbine The performance coefficient. As it can be seen that initially the wind speed increases. Fig.2 6 m/s 8 m/s 10 m/s 12 m/s Turbine speed Turbine output power Turbine Power Characteristics Fig.Cp for two different wind speeds.4 -0.4 0.5 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 30 rpm 40 rpm Wind Speed[m/s] Performance Coefficent. If the wind speed increases further than the value at the maximum performance coefficent.Cp .2 0.2 1.8 1 1. the performance coefficient Cp will decrease.6 0.2: power curve of wind turbine Fig.4 shows the power characteristic curve of the wind turbine for different wind speeds.6 0. simulation and control.2 0.400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 1600 0 5 10 15 20 25 NEG M 64/1500 Wind Speed[m/s] Power[kW.2 0 0. of a wind turbine varies with wind speed.2.4 0. DOUBLY FED INDUCTION GENERATOR (DFIG) MODEL Direct and quadrature axes (d-q) representation of the DFIG is used for analysis. This characteristics makes the wind turbine self-regulating its output power by operating at lower efficiency for high wind speed.4 0. It also shows that higher efficiency can be obtained on low wind speed and for low rpm of the rotor blade [8]: 0 0. The equations of the asynchronous machine in the d-q reference frame are [10-11]: ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎩ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎨ ⎧ = + + = + − = + + = + − r rd rq rq r rq r rq rd rd r rd s sd sq sq s sq s sq sd .2 0. Cp Fig.1 0. 0 0.

Ls .Vr : stator and rotor voltage.sd s sd dt d VRI dt VRId dt d VRI dt VRId ω φ ω φ ω φ ω φ φ φ φ φ (6) where stator and rotor fluxes are expressed in function of the current by: ⎪ ⎩ ⎪ ⎨ ⎧ = = = = ⎪ ⎪ + + + + rq r rq m sq rd r rd m sd sq s sq m rq sd s sd m rd LILI LILI LILI LILI φ φ φ φ (7) Where Vs . Ir : stator and rotor current.φrd and φrq . Lm : mutual inductance. φ : flux linkage. the following expressions for the rotor currents Ird and Irq are derived [11]: r rd m sd rd L . Rs . From the equations for the rotor fluxes. ω : Angular velocity (rad/sec). Lr : stator and rotor self inductance. Is .Rr : stator and rotor resistances.

we obtain ⎟ ⎟⎠ ⎞ ⎜ ⎜⎝ ⎛ + = − + − r rq m sq sd s sd s s sq s m L LI VRILIL φ ω ω ⎟ ⎟⎠ ⎞ ⎜ ⎜⎝ ⎛ + = − − + r rd m sd sq s sq s s sd s m L VRILILLI φ ω ω (9) Rearranging the above equations. ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ ⎞ ⎜ ⎜ ⎝ ⎛ = − r m ssL XLL 2 'ω (11) d e and q e are respectively the direct and quadrature components of the voltage behind transient reactance.ILI + = φ . r rq m sq rq L LI I + = φ (8) In the generating mode. the stator voltage can be expressed as a function of the voltage behind transient reactance by [11]: Vsd = −Rs Isd + X Isq + ed ' Vsq = −Rs Isq − X Isd + eq ' (10) The synchronous reactance and transient reactance are defined as s sL X ω = . and can be defined as .

d sm r rq e L L ω φ = − (13) Substituting Eqs. q sm r rd e L L ω φ = . (8) and (13) into the equation (6) for the rotor voltage.rq r sm dL eLφ ω = − . we obtain [11]: r rq rd rd r rd dt VRIdω φ φ = + − s rq rd r rd m sd rs dt d L RLIω φ φ φ − + ⎟ ⎟⎠ ⎞ ⎜ ⎜⎝ ⎛ + = r rd rq rq r rq dt d VRIω φ φ = + + s rs rq r rq m sq . rd r sm qL eLφ ω = (12) where.

rs dt d L LI Rω φ φ φ + + ⎟ ⎟⎠ ⎞ ⎜ ⎜⎝ ⎛ + = (14) Taking the derivatives for ed and eq we get [ ( ) ] [ ( ) ] ⎪ ⎭ ⎪ ⎪ ⎬ ⎫ = − − − + − = − − − − + rd s d r m q sd s os q rq s q r m d sq s os d ⎪ Vse L eXXIL t e dt d Vse L eXXIL t e dt d ω ω ω ω ' ' 1 1 (15) The transient open circuit time constant is defined as [11]: r r os R t = L (16) From Eq. the general from of the derivative is .(15).

(18) can be reduced to the following form. the divider term is small compared with the final two terms.5: Vector representation of the DFIG . Fig. δ δ d q Vr e Vs I sI r φ r Fig. In the sub-synchronous operation mode. So.(17) will became [ ( ) ] L eXXIjL t rs r m ss ss V js e ω ω ω 0 = − 1 − − ' − + (18) In Eq. Eq. (18).5 shows the normal operating conditions of the DFIG [11]. the magnitude of the internal voltage is slightly varies. slip is negative. the rotor voltage is the anti-phase with the internal voltage e . Thus the rotor voltage is approximately the product of the internal voltage and the slip. the Eq. the rotor voltage is in phase with the internal voltage. Hence. slip is positive.[ ( ) ] L eXXIjL t e dt d rs r m ss ss V js e ω ω ω = − 1 − − ' − + (17) At steady state. The magnitude and sign of the rotor voltage is approximately proportional to the magnitude of the slip [11]. e . In the super-synchronous operation mode. V se L L r r m≅ (19) The ratio between the mutual and rotor reactance is usually close to the unity. for normal operating values of s . (e) = dt d 0.

3. the rotor speed and the rotor position must be known for the rotor current vector projection [10]. δ (torque angle) is the angle between the air gap flux and rotor current vectors seen in the synchronous reference frame.5. s d sd q qs e eIeI T ω + = (20) It can be also expressed as a function of air-gap flux and rotor current [10]. 3. For reactive power control. we will have [10] φ =φ and = 0 qm φ Then. regardless of the selection of the reference frame. STATOR SIDE AND ROTOR SIDE CONVERTER Stator Side Converter (SSC) is used to control the required real power for smoothing the output power. φ sinδ 22 3 e dqm irdq T = p (21) where φdqm =φsdq − isdqLs and φdqm =φrdq − irdqLr 3. which can be expressed as a function of the d-axis component of the rotor current by [10. REACTIVE POWER CONTROL Reactive power of the DFIG can be controlled through the rotor current vector to realize unity or leading power factor operation. Reference power is compared with generator output . the torque equation is reduced as a function of the q-axis component of the rotor current[10. (21).3.The DFIG torque in per unit can be expressed as voltage behind reactance as follows [11]. The qaxis component of rotor current can be used to control the torque of the generator. Assuming that the required reactive power to the stator is Qs .4. With the alignment of the air gap flux to the d-axis of the reference frame.11]: φ sinδ 22 3 e dm irq T = p dqm dm ( ) dmirq qmird = p φ −φ 22 3 (22) The electromechanical torque can be viewed as the result of the interaction between rotor current and air gap flux.11]: ( ) Qs = ωs vsqisd − vsd isq 2 3 (24) If the air gap flux is constant then the reactive power can be controlled by controlling the d-axis component of the rotor current dr i . TORQUE CONTROL In Eq.

The charging and discharging power of the energy storage system can be calculated on the basis of available wind power output as follows [12]: for Pw ≤ Pd for Pw > Pd (25) for Pw > Pd for Pw ≤ Pd (26) where Pch Pdch . + PI Pr ef Pgrid Qref Qgrid + PI + PI + PI id _ref iq_ref id iq dq to abc abc to dq SSC ia.ic c b a S S S Fig. The control of the Rotor Side Converter (RSC) is vary much similar with the control given [6-7]. The PI controller is used for regulating the difference. the measured reactive power is compared with the reference reactive power. 6: Stator Side Converter Controller According to the system requirement. respectively. If the wind power output exceeds the desired level.6. The storage system is used for stabilising the DC link voltage with storage limitation. In reactive power control. The energy storage system can be characterised by its charging efficiency ηch and discharging efficiency ηdch as follows [12]: . STORAGE SYSTEM The purpose of the energy storage is to smooth the stochastic wind variations in order to obtain firm power output to DFIG.ib. Then P-I controller is responsible for producing current reference for inner current control loop. The control system is responsible for creating enough air gap flux through injecting the rotor current to meet the real and reactive power requirements of the system. Stored energy can be used when wind power output is less than desired level. the excess power is used to charge the storage through stator side converter. 3.power. desired and actual wind power. which is then compare with the d-axis component of line current. P-I controller is used for regulation. and the PI controller produces the q-axis component of the current reference for the inner current control loop. reactive power can be controlled through reactive power control loop as shown in Fig. and Pw are the charging. 6. discharging. Pd .

Simulation results show the effectiveness of DFIG in the sub-synchronous and super synchronous speed of operations. and wind speed. In the system without any storage. Three cases have been investigated and results are presented. PconR .Pch (27) dch ( dch ) dch dch P EP η = (28) where Ech and Edch are the stored and discharged energy respectively. The wind firm consists of 6× 1. maximum and minimum DC link voltages. The rating of the storage system must be less than the converter’s rating.C. In the case of charging and discharging system with 100% efficient. DC link voltage. converter power ratings. Eq. SIMULATION RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Simulation has been carried out using MATLAB SimPowerSystems. respectively.7 shows the responses and behaviors of the turbine output and the . Generator speed. Prated .Vmax and Vmin are the stored energy. All simulations are run with the 500 sec duration with the same wind variation.Ech =ηch (Pch ). A 9 MW wind firm is connected with the grid. (29) ( ) 2 min 2 2 E = 1 C V −V (30) where E. the stored energy will be equivalent to the charging and the discharged energy and the charging power will be the same as the discharging power.5 MW DFIG wind turbines. The size of the storage size for DFIG can be calculated as [3]: E P P t conR rated = . The capacitor value can be calculated as follows: max ( ) 2 min 2 max 2. (31) can be used to identify the value of the capacitor for the energy storage system. VV C PconR Prated t − = (31) Capacitor is the key element of the storage system. depending on the amount of energy stored. Power of Stator Side Converter (SSC). The following responses are examined: wind power output. Investigations are conducted on the effect of the storage system. 4. machine’s rated power. Large amount of capacitor is used for modeling of a storage system. The voltage across the storage system would vary roughly within ±10% of the DC link voltage. Fig. Power of Rotor Side Converter (RSC). Wind model speed varies within the 8-12 m/s speed range. capacitor.

SSC provides instant support for the DC link with help of DFIG stator power. 7(c) shows that the SSC is exchanging power between the DFIG stator terminal and the DC link for stabilizing DC link voltage. Fig. which prevents the rapid changing behavior of the power output of the DFIG stator terminal. the stabilization of DC link voltage has . SSC’s power exchanging behavior has delayed significantly than the behavior shown in Fig. 7 (a) shows the variation of wind power.7 (f). 7(b) shows the variation of DC link voltage. The power exchanging behaviors of the SSC and RSC are shown in Figs 8 (c) and 8 (d). The variation of DC link voltage (Fig. Variation effect of the generator speed can be found in the output of the wind power shown in Fig. Most of the power variation is seen between 3 MW and 4 MW. wind output power faces more power variation. It is seen in Fig. In this arrangement. Fig. With the response of power taking or feeding by the RSC. The stabilisation of DC link voltage depends on the quick power exchanging capability of SSC. 7 (a). DC link faces over and under voltage situation. Frequent power taking and feeding by the SSC may create more power fluctuation for the output power. 7 (a). It is seen that the wind variation lies between 7 m/s and 13 m/s. Fig. Fig. 7(c). which is also varying. A storage system (C=10000 F) is connected in the DC link.8 shows the responses and behaviors of the DFIG output and the controller during the wind variation.7 (e) is largely affected by the variation of wind speed shown in Fig.controller during the wind variation.25 MW in the low wind speed situation whereas the maximum power is approximately 6 MW. As a result.7 (d) shows that the RSC is exchanging power between the DFIG rotor and the DC link for helping to build enough air gap flux for DFIG in the generating mode of operation. The minimum power is exported to the system is approximately 2. The power exporting and importing of SSC to and from the DFIG stator terminal is smoother than Fig. The generator speed shown in Fig.7 (c). 7 (b). Figs 7(c) and 7(d) show the power exchanging behavior of two back-to-back PWM ⎩ ⎨ ⎧ − = 0 wd ch PP P ⎩ ⎨ ⎧ − = 0 dw dch PP P converters. Furthermore. 8 (b)) is also less compared to Fig. DC link voltage has to be stabilized by the SSC. 8 (a) that the variation of wind output power is comparatively smoother than the system without storage arrangement shown in Fig.

b) DC link Voltage. 0 100 200 300 400 500 0. because test has been conducted with the same wind variation.7: Responses of DFIG without storage system. c) Power of SSC.1 Generator Speed Time (s) Speed in p.u 0 100 200 300 400 500 6 8 10 12 14 Wind Speed Time (s) Speed in m/s 0 100 200 300 400 500 -1 0 1 x 106 Power of RSC Time (s) Power in Watt 0 100 200 300 400 500 -1 0 1 x 106 Power of SSC Time (s) Power in Watt 0 100 200 300 400 500 1199.improved.8 0. a) wind power.9 1 1. 0 100 200 300 400 500 0.5 DC link Voltage Time (s) Vdc 0 100 200 300 400 500 0 2 4 6 Wind Power Time (s) Power in MW a) b) c) d) e) f) Fig. Figs 8 (e) and 8(f) show the generator speed and wind speed are similar to 7 (e) and 7(f) respectively. d) Power of RSC. f) wind speed.8 1 Generator Speed Time (s) S p e e d in p .u 0 100 200 300 400 500 6 8 10 12 14 Wind Speed Time (s) S p e e d in m / s 0 100 200 300 400 500 -1 0 1 .5 1200 1200. e) Generator rotor speed.

Fig. Figs 9 (c) and 9(d) show the behaviour of SSC and RSC with large energy storage system during wind variation.10. b) DC link Voltage.9 (a) is smoother than the case shown in Fig.u 0 100 200 300 400 500 6 8 10 12 14 Wind speed Time (s) .x 106 Power of RSC Time (s) P o w e r in W a t t 0 100 200 300 400 500 -1 0 1 x 106 Power of SSC Time (s) P o w e r in W a t t 0 100 200 300 400 500 1199. e) Generator rotor speed. SSC’s steady operation will provide more firm power to the grid. 10 shows overall view of the energy storage effect on the DFIG power output.5 DC link Voltage Time (s) V d c in V o lt 0 100 200 300 400 500 0 2 4 6 Wind Power Time (s) P o w e r in M W a) b) c) e) f) d) Fig. d) Power of RSC. respectively. Fig. three curves show that the nature of output power of the wind turbine without storage and the improvement of power smoothing using storage for the same wind variation. The output wind power in Fig. In Fig. 0 100 200 300 400 500 0. f) Wind speed. Next. 7(a) and Fig. a large storage system (C=1000000F) is connected with the DC link.8 1 Generator speed Time (s) S p e e d in p . Fig.8: Responses of DFIG with storage system a) wind power. 8(a).9 shows the responses and behaviors of the DFIG output and controller during the same wind variation. The variation of wind speed and the responses of the generator speed are shown in Figs 9(f) and 9(e). c) Power of SSC. 9 (b) shows that the energy storage system stabilises the DC link voltage significantly.5 1200 1200.

e) Generator rotor speed.8 4.5 1200 1200. The control system in the proposed arrangement of DFIG is able to reduce power fluctuation with help of storage system. b) DC link Voltage. The results show the enhancement of power quality and the ability of the storage system to produce more clean power to the grid system.S p e e d in m /s 0 100 200 300 400 500 -1 0 1 x 106 Power of RSC Time (s) P ow e r in W a tt 0 100 200 300 400 500 4.6 1. Using same stator side converter of DFIG will eliminate the need of an extra converter for the energy storage system and reduce the system cost significantly.5 DC link voltage Time (s) V dc in V olt 0 100 200 300 400 500 0 2 4 6 Wind Power Time (s) P ower in M W a) b) c) d) e) f) Fig.9: Responses of DFIG with large storage system a) wind power.2 0. d) Power of RSC. CONCLUSIONS In this paper. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS . power smoothing capability of a DFIG with energy storage system in the DC link has been investigated with the help of SimPowerSystem toolbox of MATLAB.6 0. c) Power of SSC.4 0.8 1 1.2 1.8 Time (s) Power in MW Power variation DFIG with storage DFIG without Storage Wind Power Fig. 0 100 200 300 400 500 0. It can reduce the negative impact of stator side converter’s power import and export from the stator terminal of DFIG and ensure maximum power extraction from the wind and deliver to the system.10: Power variation curve for DFIG with and without storage 5. f) Wind speed. 6.4 1.9 x 105 Power of SSC Time (s) P ow e r in W a tt 0 100 200 300 400 500 1199. It also provides more system reliability due to the capability of providing instantaneous real power for the system.7 4.

. Asher.4. 3. No. Katayama. F. Elect. IEEE Int. June 2004. Clare. June 1997. Vol. pp. C. Wiley-Interscience. N. 2005. [8] G. pp. EE in Japan.153. and H. Muljadi. Conference on Power Electronics and Drive Systems. no. Masters. “Distributed Energy Systems with Wind Power and Energy Storage”. July 2004. Strbac. Norwegian University of Science and Technology. Germany. Miller. 181-186. M. “ Rotor Flux Magnitude and Angle Control Strategy for Doubly Fed Induction Generator”. vol.3. Clare. Hoboken. “Effect of Energy Storage on Variations in Wind Power. Tabatabaci-Yazdi. Ind. 51. pp.124-B. N. [10] Longya Xu and W.IEEE PESC 2004. Cheng.M. and R. May 1996. vol. pp. . 3. October 2004. Eng. R. No. May/June 1995.2004. July 1999. Pe˜na. M. J. Zinger. 2004. The authors also would like to thank Aurora Energy. Tasmania for their support. [3] C. “Integration of Energy Storage with a Doubly-Fed Induction Machine for Wind Power Generation”. “ Torque and Reactive power control of a Doubly Fed Induction Machine by Position Sensorless Scheme”. Nanahara. No. Alejandro. “Energy Storage in Power Systems”. Lund.. Nordic Wind Power Conference. 231–241. Aachen. Anaya-Lara. Lachs.1-2 March.M Hughes. IEEE Trans. Inst. Electron. and G. Elect. “Doubly Fed Induction Generator using back-to-back PWM converters and its application to variable speed wind-energy generation. J.. Trondheim. and T. Wind Energy.R.” IEEE Trans. New Jersey. PEDs’99.A. 2005.843-848. C´ardenas. Power Appl. 2. Miyaku. REFERENCES [1] O. no.636-642.12311239. Vol. “Renewable and Efficient Electric Power Systems”. Asher. Norway. [5] Go. and D. [7] R. [6] A.143. “Study on Power fluctuation Characteristics of Wind Energy Converters with Fluctuating Turbine Torque”.” Proc. 12. [11] O. 421–441. vol. 8. “A Variable Speed Wind Turbine Power Control”. On Energy Conversion. IEEE Trans on Industry Applications. No.This research has been funded by the Australian Research Council under ARC Linkage Grant K0014223 “Integration of Distributed and Renewable Power Generation into Electricity Grid Systems”. 2006. 2004.” Wind Energy J. Paatero and Peter D. IEEE press. Doctoral Thesis. pp. G. vol.M. Peña. [12] Magnus Korpas. [2] R. Jenkins and G. pp. “Issues Regarding the Integration of Induction Wind Turbines in Weak Electrical Networks”. M.. 10. translated from Denki Gakkai Ronbunshi. Vol. “Control strategies for power smoothing using a flywheel driven by a sensorless vector-controlled induction machine operating in a wide speed range. [9] Jukka V. [4] W. E. Abbey and G. Blasco-Gimenez. Takata. pp. 603–614. Joss.31 .

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