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Tom Mathew

B. Tech IV Semester Transportation Systems Engineering Civil Engineering Department Indian Institute of Technology Bombay Powai, Mumbai 400076, India August 24, 2011

Contents

1 Transportation systems analysis 2 Introduction to Travel Demand Modeling 3 Data Collection 4 Trip Generation 5 Trip Distribution 6 Modal Split 7 Trip Assignment 8 Fundamental parameters of trac ow 9 Fundamental relations of trac ow 10 Trac stream models 11 Trac data collection 12 Microscopic trac ow modeling 13 Modeling Trac Characteristics 14 Macroscopic trac ow modeling 15 Cell transmission models 16 Trac intersections 17 Trac signs 18 Road markings 1 9 14 22 27 37 44 53 62 71 82 90 100 108 110 120 128 134

19 Trac rotaries 20 Trac signal design-I 21 Trac signal design-II 22 Trac signal design-III 23 HCM Method of Signal Design 24 Coordinated signal design 25 Area Trac Control 26 Parking 27 Congestion Studies

1.1 Goal of Transportation System Analysis

In the last couple of decades transportation systems analysis (TSA) has emerged as a recognized profession. More and more government organizations, universities, researchers, consultants, and private industrial groups around the world are becoming truly multi-modal in their orientation and are as opting a systematic approach to transportation problems.

1.1.1

Characteristics

1. Multi-modal: Covering all modes or transport; air, land, and sea and both passenger and freight. 2. Multi-sector: Encompassing the problem,s and viewpoints of government, private industry, and public. 3. Multi-problem: Ranging across a spectrum of issues that includes national and international policy, planning of regional system, the location and design of specic facilities, carrier management issues, regulatory, institutional and nancial policies. 4. Multi-objective: National and regional economic development, urban development, environment quality, and social quality, as well as service to users and nancial and economic feasibility. 5. Multi-disciplinary: Drawing on the theories and methods of engineering, economics, operation research, political science, psychology, other natural and social sciences, management and law.

1.1.2

Context

1. Planning range: Urban transportation planning, producing long range plans for 5-25 years for multi-modal transportation systems in urban areas as well as short range programs of action for less than ve years. 2. Passenger transport: Regional passenger transportation, dealing with inter-city passenger transport by air, rail, and highway and possible with new modes. Tom Mathew, IIT Bombay 1 August 24, 2011

Flow Prediction

Process of analysis

Figure 1:1: Role of transportation system analyst 3. Freight transport: routing and management, choice of dierent modes of rail and truck. 4. International transport: Issues such as containerization, inter-modal co-ordination.

1.1.3

Goal of TSA

In spite of the diversity of problems types, institutional contexts and technical perspectives their is an underlying unity: a body of theory and set of basic principles to be utilizes in every analysis of transportation systems. The core of this is the transportation system analysis approach. The focus of this is the interaction between the transportation and activity systems of region. This approach is to intervene, delicately and deliberately in the complex fabric of society to use transport eectively in coordination with other public and private actions to achieve the goals of that society. For this the analyst must have substantial understanding of the transportation systems and their interaction with activity systems; which requires understanding of the basic theoretical concepts and available empirical knowledge.

1.1.4

Role of TSA

The methodological challenge of transportation systems is to conduct a systematic analysis in a particular situation which is valid, practical, and relevant and which assist in clarifying the issues to debated. The core of the system analysis is the prediction of ows, which must be complemented by the predication for other impacts. Refer Fig. 1:1 Predication is only a part of the process of analysis and technical analysis is only a part of the broader problem, and the role of the professional transportation system analysis is to model the process of bringing about changes in the society through the means of transport.

1.1.5

Transportation system analysis can lead to dierent application specialties and they include: 1. highway engineering 2. freight transportation 3. marine transportation Tom Mathew, IIT Bombay 2 August 24, 2011

CE415 Transportation Engineering II 4. transportation management 5. airport planning 6. port planning and development 7. transportation regulation 8. transportation economics 9. environmental impacts

1.1.6

Transportation system analysis can also lead to dierent methodological specialties and they include: 1. Demand analysis, estimation and forecasting 2. transportation system performance like delays, waiting time, mobility, etc. 3. policy analysis and implementation 4. urban planning and development 5. land-use management

1.1.7

Finally, transportation system analysis can lead to dierent professional specialties and they include: 1. technical analyst 2. project managers 3. community interaction 4. policy analyst

1.2

1.2.1

Background: A changing world

The strong interrelationship and the interaction between transportation and the rest of the society especially in a rapidly changing world is signicant to a transportation planner. Among them four critical dimensions of change in transportation system can be identied; which form the background to develop a right perspective. Tom Mathew, IIT Bombay 3 August 24, 2011

1. Change in the demand: When the population, income, and land-use pattern changes, the pattern of demand changes; both in the amount and spatial distribution of that demand. 2. Changes in the technology: As an example, earlier, only two alternatives (bus transit and rail transit) were considered for urban transportation. But, now new system like LRT, MRTS, etc oer a variety of alternatives. 3. Change in operational policy: Variety of policy options designed to improve the eciency, such as incentive for car-pooling, road pricing etc. 4. Change in values of the public: Earlier all beneciaries of a system was monolithically considered as users. Now, not one system can be benecial to all, instead one must identify the target groups like rich, poor, young, work trip, leisure, etc.

1.2.2

The rst step in formulation of a system analysis of transportation system is to examine the scope of analytical work. The basic premise is the explicit treatment of the total transportation system of region and the interrelations between the transportation and socioeconomic context. P1 The total transportation system must be viewed as a single multi-modal system. P2 Considerations of transportation system cannot be separated from considerations of social, economic, and political system of the region. This follows the following steps for the analysis of transportation system: S1 Consider all modes of transportation S2 Consider all elements of transportation like persons, goods, carriers (vehicles), paths in the network facilities in which vehicles are going, the terminal, etc. S3 Consider all movements of movements of passengers and goods for every O-D pair. S4 Consider the total tip for every ows for every O-D over all modes and facilitates. As an example consider the the study of inter-city passenger transport in metro cities. Consider all modes: i.e rail, road, air, buses, private automobiles, trucks, new modes like LRT, MRTS, etc. Consider all elements like direct and indirect links, vehicles that can operate, terminals, transfer points, intra-city transit like taxis, autos, urban transit. Consider diverse pattern of O-D of passenger and good. Consider service provided for access, egress, transfer points and mid-block travel etc. Once all these components are identied, the planner can focus on elements that are of real concern. Tom Mathew, IIT Bombay 4 August 24, 2011

3

T

Transportation System

F

1 Flows

A

Activity System

1.2.3

Interrelationship of T&A

Transportation system is tightly interrelated with socio-economic system. Transportation aect the growth and changes of socio-economic system, and will triggers changes in transportation system. The whole system of interest can be dened by these basic variables: T The transportation system including dierent modes, facilities like highways, etc. A The socio-economic activity system like work, land-use, housing, schools, etc. Activity system is dened as the totality of social, economic, political, and other transactions taking place over space and time in a given region. F The ow pattern which includes O-D, routes, volume or passenger/goods, etc. Three kinds or relationships can be identied as shown in Fig. 1:2 and can be summaries as follows: F is determined by T and A. Current F will cause changes over time in A through the pattern of T and through the resources consumed in providing T . Current F will also cause changes over time in T due to changes in A Note that A is not a simple variable as it looks. Also note that transportation is not the sole agency causing changes in A.

1.2.4

The mode of fullling the objective of intervening the system of TAF is important. The three major player in the TAF system are: User The users of the transportation system will decided when where and how to travel. Operator The operator of a particular facility or service operator will decide the mode of operation, routes, schedule, facilities, etc.

Transport Options

Technology Network Links Vehicles Operations Policy

Impacts

User

TAF

Operator

Systemm

GovtGovernment

Phycal

Activity Options

Travel Other options Functional

Figure 1:3: Impact of TAF system Government Government will decided on taxes, subsidies, construction of new facilities, governing law, fares, etc. Their intervention can be in either transportation or activity system. The transportation options available to impart changes in the system are: 1. Technology (eg. articulated bus, sky bus, etc.); 2. Network (eg. grid or radial); 3. Link characteristics (eg. signalized or yover at an intersection); 4. Vehicles (eg. increase the eet size); 5. System operating policy (eg. increase frequency or subsidy); and 6. Organizational policy (eg. private or public transit system in a city). On the other hand, some of the activity options are: 1. Travel demand which is the aggregate result of all the individual travel decisions. The decision can be travel by train or bus, shortest distance route or shortest travel time route, when (time) and how (mode) to travel, etc. 2. Other options Most of the social, economic, and political actors in the activity system decide when, how, or where to conduct activities. For example, the choice of school is aected by the transportation facility, or the price of real estate inuenced by the transportation facilities. The impacts of the transportation and activity options mentioned above diverse impact as illustrated in g. 1:3

1.2.5

Prediction of ows

Any proposed change in transportation system will trigger a change in system activity which needs a procedure to predict the impacts. The impact depend upon the pattern of ows resulting from particular ows. The core of any TSA is th prediction of changes in ows which is the most signicant impact of change in transportation system. Consider present transportation system T and activity system A. A particular change in transportation system will be dened in terms of changes in T . T = T T A = A A F F

(1.1)

Initially, T , A, and F exist in an equilibrium, i.e., specication of transportation system T at any point in time and of activity system A implies the pattern of ows, F . The basic hypothesis underlying this statement is that there is a market for transportation which can be separated out from other markets. This is type 1 relationship and can be separated out from type 2 and type 3 relationships (Fig. 1:2). Introducing two more variables, the rst indicated the service characteristics expressed by F like travel time, fare, comfort, etc. which is denoted as S and the volume of ow in the network denoted as V , following relations can be stated. 1. Specication of transportation system T establishes service function fj which indicate how the level of service varies as a function of the transportation option and the volume of ows; i.e. S = fj (T, V ) (1.2) 2. Specication of the activity system options, A establishes demand function, fd , which gives the volume of ow as function of activity system and level of service; i.e. V = fd (A, S) (1.3)

3. The ow pattern F consists of the volume V using the system and level of service S; i.e. F = (V, S) (1.4)

for a particular T and A, the ow pattern that will actually occur can be found by the solution of service function and demand function: = = (T, A) Tom Mathew, IIT Bombay S V fj (T, V ) fd (A, S) (V o , S o ), (fj , fd ) [f (A, T ) V o, S o 7

i.e.

S(t)

Fj

S(t)

T constant

A constant

Fd

Fd

Vo

Vo V1

Figure 1:4: Graphical representation of ow prediction The above relations are shown in Fig. 1:4.

2.1 Overview

This chapter provides an introduction to travel demand modeling, the most important aspect of transportation planning. First we will discuss about what is modeling, the concept of transport demand and supply, the concept of equilibrium, and the traditional four step demand modeling. We may also point to advance trends in demand modeling.

2.2

Transport modeling

Modeling is an important part of any large scale decision making process in any system. There are large number of factors that aect the performance of the system. It is not possible for the human brain to keep track of all the player in system and their interactions and interrelationships. Therefore we resort to models which are some simplied, at the same time complex enough to reproduce key relationships of the reality. Modeling could be either physical, symbolic, or mathematical In physical model one would make physical representation of the reality. For example, model aircrafts used in wind tunnel is an example of physical models. In symbolic model, with the complex relations could be represented with the help of symbols. Drawing time-space diagram of vehicle movement is a good example of symbolic models. Mathematical model is the most common type when with the help of variables, parameters, and equations one could represent highly complex relations. Newtons equations of motion or Einsteins equation E = mc2 , can be considered as examples of mathematical model. No model is a perfect representation of the reality. The important objective is that models seek to isolate key relationships, and not to replicate the entire structure. Transport modeling is the study of the behavior of individuals in making decisions regarding the provision and use of transport. Therefore, unlike other engineering models, transport modeling tools have evolved from many disciplines like economics, psychology, geography, sociology, and statistics.

Supply

Cost

2.3

The concept of demand and supply are fundamental to economic theory and is widely applied in the eld to transport economics. In the area of travel demand and the associated supply of transport infrastructure, the notions of demand and supply could be applied. However, we must be aware of the fact that the transport demand is a derived demand, and not a need in itself. That is, people travel not for the sake of travel, but to practice in activities in dierent locations The concept of equilibrium is central to the supply-demand analysis. It is a normal practice to plot the supply and demand curve as a function of cost and the intersection is then plotted in the equilibrium point as shown in Figure 2:1 The demand for travel T is a function of cost C is easy to conceive. The classical approach denes the supply function as giving the quantity T which would be produced, given a market price C. Since transport demand is a derived demand, and the benet of transportation on the non-monetary terms(time in particular), the supply function takes the form in which C is the unit cost associated with meeting a demand T. Thus, the supply function encapsulates response of the transport system to a given level of demand. In other words, supply function will answer the question what will be the level of service of the system, if the estimated demand is loaded to the system. The most common supply function is the link travel time function which relates the link volume and travel time.

2.4

Travel demand modeling aims to establish the spatial distribution of travel explicitly by means of an appropriate system of zones. Modeling of demand thus implies a procedure for predicting what travel decisions people would like to make given the generalized travel cost of each alternatives. The base decisions include the choice of destination, the choice of the mode, and the choice of the route. Although various modeling approaches are adopted, we will discuss only the classical transport model popularly known as four-stage model(FSM). The general form of the four stage model is given in Figure 2:2. The classic model is presented as a sequence of four sub models: trip generation, trip distribution, modal split, trip Tom Mathew, IIT Bombay 10 August 24, 2011

Database

Network Baseyear data, zones data Trip generation Trip distribution Modal split Trip assignment Output link flows, trip matrix

Figure 2:2: General form of the four stage modeling assignment. The models starts with dening the study area and dividing them into a number of zones and considering all the transport network in the system. The database also include the current (base year) levels of population, economic activity like employment, shopping space, educational, and leisure facilities of each zone. Then the trip generation model is evolved which uses the above data to estimate the total number of trips generated and attracted by each zone. The next step is the allocation of these trips from each zone to various other destination zones in the study area using trip distribution models. The output of the above model is a trip matrix which denote the trips from each zone to every other zones. In the succeeding step the trips are allocated to dierent modes based on the modal attributes using the modal split models. This is essentially slicing the trip matrix for various modes generated to a mode specic trip matrix. Finally, each trip matrix is assigned to the route network of that particular mode using the trip assignment models. The step will give the loading on each link of the network. The classical model would also be viewed as answering a series of questions (decisions) namely how many trips are generated, where they are going, on what mode they are going, and nally which route they are adopting. The current approach is to model these decisions using discrete choice theory, which allows the lower level choices to be made conditional on higher choices. For example, route choice is conditional on the mode choice. This hierarchical choices of trip is shown in Figure 2:3 The highest level to nd all the trips Ti originating from a zone is calculated based on the data and aggregate cost term Ci ***. Based on the aggregate travel cost Cij ** from zone i to the destination zone j, the probability pm|ij of trips going to zone j is computed and subsequently the trips Tij ** from zone i to zone j by all modes and all routes are computed. Next, the mode choice model compute the probability pm|ij of choosing mode m based on the travel cost Cjm * from zone i to zone j, by mode m is determined. Similarly, the route choice gives the trips Tijmr from zone i to zone j by mode m through route r can be computed. Finally the travel demand is loaded to the supply model, as stated earlier, will Tom Mathew, IIT Bombay 11 August 24, 2011

Ti Tij Tijm Tijmr

Data

Trip frequency (Ci) Destination choice Cij Mode choice Cijm Route choice Cijmr

Figure 2:3: Demand supply equilibrium produce a performance level. The purpose of the network is usually measured in travel time which could be converted to travel cost. Although not practiced ideally, one could feed this back into the higher levels to achieve real equilibrium of the supply and demand.

2.5

Summary

In a nutshell, travel demand modeling aims at explaining where the trips come from and where they go,and what modes and which routes are used. It provides a zone wise analysis of the trips followed by distribution of the trips, split the trips mode wise based on the choice of the travelers and nally assigns the trips to the network. This process helps to understand the eects of future developments in the transport networks on the trips as well as the inuence of the choices of the public on the ows in the network.

2.6

Problems

(a) link volume (b) link cost (c) level of service (d) none of the above

2. What is the rst stage of four-stage travel demand modeling? (a) Trip generation (b) Trip distribution (c) Modal split Tom Mathew, IIT Bombay 12 August 24, 2011

2. Data Collection

2.7

Solutions

1. Link travel time function relates travel time and (a) link volume (b) link cost (c) level of service (d) none of the above 2. What is the rst stage of four-stage travel demand modeling? (a) Trip distribution (b) Trip generation (c) Modal split (d) Trac assignment

13

3. Data Collection

3.1 Overview

The four-stage modeling, an important tool for forecasting future demand and performance of a transportation system, was developed for evaluating large-scale infrastructure projects. Therefore, the four-stage modeling is less suitable for the management and control of existing software. Since these models are applied to large systems, they require information about travelers of the area inuenced by the system. Here the data requirement is very high, and may take years for the data collection, data analysis, and model development. In addition, meticulous planning and systematic approach are needed for accurate data collection and processing. This chapter covers three important aspects of data collection, namely, survey design, household data collection, and data analysis. Finally, a brief discussion of other important surveys is also presented.

3.2

Survey design

Designing the data collection survey for the transportation projects is not easy. It requires considerable experience, skill, and a sound understanding of the study area. It is also important to know the purpose of the study and details of the modeling approaches, since data requirement is inuenced by these. Further, many practical considerations like availability of time and money also has a strong bearing on the survey design. In this section, we will discuss the basic information required from a data collection, dening the study area, dividing the area into zones, and transport network characteristics.

3.2.1

Information needed

Typical information required from the data collection can be grouped into four categories, enumerated as below. 1. Socio-economic data: Information regarding the socio-economic characteristics of the study area. Important ones include income, vehicle ownership, family size, etc. This information is essential in building trip generation and modal split models.

14

2 1 3

3. Data Collection

8 6

7 4 5

Figure 3:1: zoning of a study area 2. Travel surveys: Origin-destination travel survey at households and trac data from cordon lines and screen lines (dened later). Former data include the number of trips made by each member of the household, the direction of travel, destination, the cost of the travel, etc. The latter include the trac ow, speed, and travel time measurements. These data will be used primarily for the calibration of the models, especially the trip distribution models. 3. Land use inventory: This includes data on the housing density at residential zones, establishments at commercial and industrial zones. This data is especially useful for trip generation models. 4. Network data: This includes data on the transport network and existing inventories. Transport network data includes road network, trac signals, junctions etc. The service inventories include data on public and private transport networks. These particulars are useful for the model calibration, especially for the assignment models.

3.2.2

Study area

Once the nature of the study is identied, the study area can be dened to encompass the area of expected policy impact. The study area need not be conrmed by political boundaries, but bounded by the area inuenced by the transportation systems. The boundary of the study area is dened by what is called as external cordon or simply the cordon line. A sample of the zoning of a study area is shown in gure 3:1 Interactions with the area outside the cordon are dened via external stations which eectively serve as doorways to trips, into, out of, and through the study area. In short, study area should be dened such that majority of trips have their origin and destination in the study area and should be bigger than the area-of-interest covering the transportation project.

3.2.3

Zoning

Once the study area is dened, it is then divided into a number of small units called trac analysis zones (TAZ) or simply zones. The zone with in the study area are called internal zones. Tom Mathew, IIT Bombay 15 August 24, 2011

3. Data Collection

Zones are modeled as if all their attributes and properties were concentrated in a single point called the zonecentroid. The centroids are connected to the nearest road junction or rail station by centroid connectors. Both centroid and centroid connectors are notional and it is assumed that all people have same travel cost from the centroid to the nearest transport facility which is the average for a zone. The intersection from outside world is normally represented through external zones. The external zones are dened by the catchment area of the major transport links feeding to the study area. Although the list is not complete, few guidelines are given below for selecting zones. 1. zones should match other administrative divisions, particularly census zones. 2. zones should have homogeneous characteristics, especially in land use, population etc. 3. zone boundaries should match cordon and screen lines, but should not match major roads. 4. zones should be as smaller in size as possible so that the error in aggregation caused by the assumption that all activities are concentrated at the zone centroids is minimum.

3.2.4

Network

Transport network consists of roads,junctions, bus stops, rails, railway station etc. Normally road network and rail network are represented separately. Road network is considered as directed graph of nodes and links. Each node and links have their own properties. Road link is normally represented with attributes like starting node, ending node, road length, free ow speed, capacity, number of lanes or road width, type of road like divided or undivided etc. Road junctions or nodes are represented with attributes like node number, starting nodes of all links joining the current node, type of intersection (uncontrolled, round about, signalized, etc.). Similarly public transport network like bus transit network and rail network are represented, but with attributes relevant to them. These may include frequency of service, fare of travel, line capacity, station capacity etc. This completes the inventory of base-year transportation facility.

3.3

Household data

To understand the behavior and factors aecting the travel, one has got the origin of travel when the decision for travel is made. It is where people live as family which is the household. Therefore household data is considered to be the most basic and authentic information about the travel pattern of a city. Ideally one should take the details of all the people in the study to get complete travel details. However, this is not feasible due to large requirement of time and resources needed. In addition this will cause diculties in handling these large data in modeling stage. Therefore, same sample households are randomly selected and survey is conducted to get the household data. Higher sample size is required fro large population size, and vice-versa. Normally minimum ten percent samples are required for population less than 50,000. But for a population more than one million require only one percent for the same accuracy. Tom Mathew, IIT Bombay 16 August 24, 2011

3. Data Collection

3.3.1

Questionnaire design

The next step in the survey is the questionnaire design. A good design will ensure better response from the respondent and will signicantly improve the quality of data. Design of questionnaire is more of an art than a science. However few guiding principles can be laid out. The questionnaire should be simple, direct, should take minimum time, and should cause minimum burden to the respondent. Traditional household survey has three major sections; household characteristics, personal characteristics, and trip details. Household characteristics This section includes a set of questions designed to obtain socioeconomic information about the household. Relevant questions are:number of members in the house, no.of employed people, number of unemployed people, age and sex of the members in the house etc., number of two-wheelers in the house, number of cycles, number of cars in the house etc., house ownership and family income. Personal characteristics This part includes questions designed to classify the household members(older than 5) according to the following aspects:relation to the head of the household (e.g. wife, son), sex, age, possession of a driving license, educational level, and activity. Trip data This part of the survey aims at detecting and characterizing all trips made by the household members identied in the rst part. A trip is normally dened as any movement greater than 300 meters from an origin to a destination with a given purpose. Trips are characterized on the basis of variables such as: origin and destination, trip purpose, trip start and ending times, mode used, walking distance, public-transport line and transfer station or bus stop (if applicable).

3.3.2

Survey administration

Once the questionnaire is ready, the next step is to conduct the actual survey with the help of enumerators. Enumerators has to be trained rst by brieng them about the details of the survey and how to conduct the survey. They will be given random household addresses and the questionnaire set. They have to rst get permission to be surveyed from the household. They may select a typical working day for the survey and ask the members of the household about the details required in the questionnaire. They may take care that each member of the household should answer about their own travel details, except for children below 12 years. Trip details of children below 5 years are normally ignored. Since the actual survey may take place any time during the day, the respondents are required to answer the question about the travel details of the previous day. There are many methods of the administration of the survey and some of them are discussed below: 1. Telephonic: The enumerator may use telephone to x an appointment and then conduct detailed telephonic interview. This is very popular in western countries where phone penetration is very high. 2. Mail back: The enumerator drops the questionnaire to the respondent and asks them to ll the details and mail them back with required information. Care should be taken to design the questionnaire so that it is self explanatory. Tom Mathew, IIT Bombay 17 August 24, 2011

3. Data Collection

3. Face-to-face In this method, the enumerator visits the home of the respondent and asks the questions and lls up the questionnaire by himself. This is not a very socially acceptable method in the developed countries, as these are treated as intrusion to privacy. However, in many developed countries, especially with less educated people, this is the most eective method.

3.4

Data preparation

The raw data collected in the survey need to be processed before direct application in the model. This is necessary, because of various errors, except in the survey both in the selection of sample houses as well as error in lling details. In this section, we will discuss three aspects of data preparation; data correction, data expansion, and data validation.

3.4.1

Data correction

Various studies have identied few important errors that need to be corrected, and are listed below. 1. Household size correction It may be possible that while choosing the random samples, one may choose either larger or smaller than the average size of the population as observed in the census data and correction should be made accordingly. 2. Socio-demographic corrections It is possible that there may be dierences between the distribution of the variables sex, age, etc. between the survey, and the population as observed from the census data. This correction is done after the household size correction. 3. Non-response correction It is possible that there may not be a response from many respondents, possible because they are on travel everyday. Corrections should be made to accommodate this, after the previous two corrections. 4. Non-reported trip correction In many surveys people underestimate the non-mandatory trips and the actual trips will be much higher than the reported ones. Appropriate correction need to be applied for this.

3.4.2

Sample expansion

The second step in the data preparation is to amplify the survey data in order to represent the total population of the zone. This is done with the help of expansion factor which is dened as the ratio of the total number of household addressed in the population to that of the surveyed. A simple expansion factor Fi for the zone i could be of the following form. Fi = a bd (3.1)

18

3. Data Collection

where a is the total number of household in the original population list, b is the total number of addresses selected as the original sample, and d is the number of samples where no response was obtained.

3.4.3

Validation of results

In order to have condence on the data collected from a sample population, three validation tests are adopted usually. The rst simply considers the consistency of the data by a eld visit normally done after data entry stage. The second validation is done by choosing a computational check of the variables. For example, if age of a person is shown some high unrealistic values like 150 years. The last is a logical check done for the internal consistency of the data. For example, if the age of a person is less than 18 years, then he cannot have a driving license. Once these corrections are done, the data is ready to be used in modeling.

3.5

Other surveys

In addition to the household surveys, these other surveys are needed for complete modeling involving four stage models. Their primary use is for the calibration and validation of the models, or act as complementary to the household survey. These include O-D surveys, road side interviews, and cordon and screen line counts.

3.5.1

O-D survey

Sometime four small studies, or to get a feel of the O-D pattern without doing elaborate survey, work space interviews are conducted to nd the origin-destination of employers in a location. Although they are biased in terms of the destination, they are random in terms of the mode of travel.

3.5.2

These provide trips not registered in a household survey, especially external-internal trips. This involves asking questions to a sample of drivers and passengers of vehicles crossing a particular location. Unlike household survey, the respondent will be asked with few questions like origin, destination, and trip purpose. Other information like age, sex, and income can also be added, but it should be noted that at road-side, drivers will not be willing to spend much time for survey.

3.5.3

These provide useful information about trips from and to external zones. For large study area, internal cordon-line can be dened and surveying can be conducted. The objective of the survey is primarily to collect the origin and destination zones and for this many suitable methods can Tom Mathew, IIT Bombay 19 August 24, 2011

3. Data Collection

be adopted. It could be either recording the license plate number at all the external cordon points or by post-card method. Screen lines divide the study area into large natural zones, like either sides of a river, with few crossing points between them. The procedure for both cordon-line and screen-line survey are similar to road-side interview. However, these counts are primarily used for calibration and validation of the models.

3.6

Summary

Data collection is one of the most important steps in modeling. Only if accurate data is available, modeling becomes successful. Survey design is discussed in detail. Household data gives important information required for data collection. Questionnaire should be simple, less time consuming and should be designed such that the required information is obtained with less burden on the respondent. Data collected should be prepared well before application. Various corrections should be made in data collection before they are used in modeling. Finally, other types of surveys are also discussed.

3.7

Problems

(a) Travel survey data (b) Land-use inventory data (c) Network data (d) None of these

2. Which of the following is not a criterion for zoning? (a) zones should match other administrative divisions, particularly census zones. (b) zones should have homogeneous characteristics, especially in land use, population etc. (c) zone boundaries should match cordon and screen lines, but should not match major roads. (d) zones should have regular geometric shape.

3.8

Solutions

(a) Travel survey data

20

CE415 Transportation Engineering II (b) Land-use inventory data (c) Network data (d) None of these 2. Which of the following is not a criterion for zoning?

3. Trip Generation

(a) zones should match other administrative divisions, particularly census zones. (b) zones should have homogeneous characteristics, especially in land use, population etc. (c) zone boundaries should match cordon and screen lines, but should not match major roads. (d) zones should have regular geometric shape

21

4. Trip Generation

4.1 Overview

Trip generation is the rst stage of the classical rst generation aggregate demand models. The trip generation aims at predicting the total number of trips generated and attracted to each zone of the study area. In other words this stage answers the questions to how many trips originate at each zone, from the data on household and socioeconomic attributes. In this section basic denitions, factors aecting trip generation, and the two main modeling approaches; namely growth factor modeling and regression modeling are discussed.

4.1.1

Types of trip

Some basic denitions are appropriate before we address the classication of trips in detail. We will attempt to clarify the meaning of journey, home based trip, non home based trip, trip production, trip attraction and trip generation. Journey is an out way movement from a point of origin to a point of destination, where as the word trip denotes an outward and return journey. If either origin or destination of a trip is the home of the trip maker then such trips are called home based trips and the rest of the trips are called non home based trips. Trip production is dened as all the trips of home based or as the origin of the non home based trips. See gure 4:1 Trips can be classied by trip purpose, trip time of the day, and by person type. Trip

Production Home Production Attraction Attraction Work Home based trips

Figure 4:1: trip types Tom Mathew, IIT Bombay 22 August 24, 2011

4. Trip Generation

generation models are found to be accurate if separate models are used based on trip purpose. The trips can be classied based on the purpose of the journey as trips for work, trips for education, trips for shopping, trips for recreation and other trips. Among these the work and education trips are often referred as mandatory trips and the rest as discretionary trips. All the above trips are normally home based trips and constitute about 80 to 85 percent of trips. The rest of the trips namely non home based trips, being a small proportion are not normally treated separately. The second way of classication is based on the time of the day when the trips are made. The broad classication is into peak trips and o peak trips. The third way of classication is based on the type of the individual who makes the trips. This is important since the travel behavior is highly inuenced by the socio economic attribute of the traveler and are normally categorized based on the income level, vehicle ownership and house hold size.

4.1.2

The main factors aecting personal trip production include income, vehicle ownership, house hold structure and family size. In addition factors like value of land, residential density and accessibility are also considered for modeling at zonal levels. The personal trip attraction, on the other hand, is inuenced by factors such as roofed space available for industrial, commercial and other services. At the zonal level zonal employment and accessibility are also used. In trip generation modeling in addition to personal trips, freight trips are also of interest. Although the latter comprises about 20 percent of trips, their contribution to the congestion is signicant. Freight trips are inuenced by number of employees, number of sales and area of commercial rms.

4.2

Growth factor modes tries to predict the number of trips produced or attracted by a house hold or zone as a linear function of explanatory variables. The models have the following basic equation: Ti = fi ti (4.1) where Ti is the number of future trips in the zone and ti is the number of current trips in that zone and fi is a growth factor. The growth factor fi depends on the explanatory variable such as population (P) of the zone , average house hold income (I) , average vehicle ownership (V). The simplest form of fi is represented as follows fi = Pid Iid Vid Pic Iic Vic (4.2)

where the subscript d denotes the design year and the subscript c denotes the current year.

23

4. Trip Generation

Given that a zone has 275 household with car and 275 household without car and the average trip generation rates for each groups is respectively 5.0 and 2.5 trips per day. Assuming that in the future, all household will have a car, nd the growth factor and future trips from that zone, assuming that the population and income remains constant. Solution Current trip rate ti = 275 2.5 + 275 5.0 = 2062.5 trips / day. Growth factor Fi =

Vid Vic

550 275

= 2.0

Therefore, no. of future trips Ti = Fi ti = 2.0 2062.5 = 4125 trips / day. The above example also shows the limitation of growth factor method. If we think intuitively, the trip rate will remain same in the future. Therefore the number of trips in the future will be 550 house holds 5 trips per day = 2750 trips per day . It may be noted from the above example that the actual trips generated is much lower than the growth factor method. Therefore growth factor models are normally used in the prediction of external trips where no other methods are available. But for internal trips , regression methods are more suitable and will be discussed in the following section.

4.3

Regression methods

Ti = f (x1 , x2 , x3 , ....xi , ...xk ) (4.3)

Where xis are prediction factor or explanatory variable. The most common form of trip generation model is a linear function of the form Ti = a0 + a1 x1 + a2 x2 + ...ai xi ... + ak xk (4.4)

where ai s are the coecient of the regression equation and can be obtained by doing regression analysis. The above equations are called multiple linear regression equation, and the solutions are tedious to obtain manually. However for the purpose of illustration, an example with one variable is given. Example Let the trip rate of a zone is explained by the household size done from the eld survey. It was found that the household size are 1, 2, 3 and 4. The trip rates of the corresponding household is as shown in the table below. Fit a linear equation relating trip rate and household size. Tom Mathew, IIT Bombay 24 August 24, 2011

4. Trip Generation

Solution The linear equation will have the form y = bx + a where y is the trip rate, and x is the household size, a and b are the coecients. For a best t, b is given by b = a x x2 y xy = = = = = + + + = y = x = b = = a = y = nxy xy nx2 (x)2 y b x 3 1 + 3 2 + 3 3 + 3 4 = 30 3 (12 ) + 3 (22 ) + 3 (32 ) + 3 (42 ) = 90 5 + 9 + 12 + 17 = 43 11+12+12 22+24+23 34+35+33 46+47+44 127 43/12 = 3.58 30/12 = 2.5 nxy xy nx2 (x)2 ((12 127) (30 43)) = 1.3 ((12 90) (30)2 ) y b = 3.58 1.3 2.5 = +0.33 x 1.3x 0.33

4.4

Summary

Trip generation forms the rst step of four-stage travel modeling. It gives an idea about the total number of trips generated to and attracted from dierent zones in the study area. Growth factor modeling and regression methods can be used to predict the trips. They are discussed in detail in this chapter.

25

4. Trip Distribution

4.5

Problems

1. The trip rate (y) and the corresponding household sizes (x) from a sample are shown in table below. Compute the trip rate if the average household size is 3.25 (Hint: use regression method). Householdsize(x) 1 2 3 4 1 3 4 5 3 4 5 8 3 5 7 8

Solution Fit the regression equation as below. x x2 y xy = = = = + + + = y = x = b = = a = y = 3 1 + 3 2 + 3 3 + 3 4 = 30 3 (12 ) + 3 (22 ) + 3 (32 ) + 3 (42 ) = 90 7 + 12 + 16 + 21 = 56 11+13+13 23+24+25 34+35+37 45+48+48 163 56/12 = 4.67 30/12 = 2.5 nxy xy nx2 (x)2 ((12 163) (30 56)) = 1.533 ((12 90) (30)2 ) y b = 4.67 1.533 2.5 = 0.837 x 0.837 + 1.533x

When average household size =3.25, number of trips becomes, y = 0.837 + 1.533 3.25 = 5.819

26

5. Trip Distribution

5.1 Overview

The decision to travel for a given purpose is called trip generation. These generated trips from each zone is then distributed to all other zones based on the choice of destination. This is called trip distribution which forms the second stage of travel demand modeling. There are a number of methods to distribute trips among destinations; and two such methods are growth factor model and gravity model. Growth factor model is a method which respond only to relative growth rates at origins and destinations and this is suitable for short-term trend extrapolation. In gravity model, we start from assumptions about trip making behavior and the way it is inuenced by external factors. An important aspect of the use of gravity models is their calibration, that is the task of xing their parameters so that the base year travel pattern is well represented by the model.

5.2

5.2.1

Trip matrix

The trip pattern in a study area can be represented by means of a trip matrix or origindestination (O-D)matrix. This is a two dimensional array of cells where rows and columns represent each of the zones in the study area. The notation of the trip matrix is given in gure 5:1. The cells of each row i contain the trips originating in that zone which have as destinations the zones in the corresponding columns. Tij is the number of trips between origin i and destination j. Oi is the total number of trips between originating in zone i and Dj is the total number of trips attracted to zone j. The sum of the trips in a row should be equal to the total number of trips emanating from that zone. The sum of the trips in a column is the number of trips attracted to that zone. These two constraints can be represented as: j Tij = Oi i Tij = Dj If reliable information is available to estimate both Oi and Dj , the model is said to be doubly constrained. In some cases, there will be information about only one of these constraints, the model is called singly constrained.

27

5. Trip Distribution

5.2.2

Generalized cost

One of the factors that inuences trip distribution is the relative travel cost between two zones. This cost element may be considered in terms of distance, time or money units. It is often convenient to use a measure combining all the main attributes related to the dis-utility of a journey and this is normally referred to as the generalized cost of travel. This can be represented as cij = a1 tv + a2 tw + a3 tt + a4 Fij + a5 j + (5.1) ij ij ij where tv is the in-vehicle travel time between i and j, tw is the walking time to and from stops, ij ij tt is the waiting time at stops, Fij is the fare charged to travel between i and j, j is the ij parking cost at the destination, and is a parameter representing comfort and convenience, and a1 , a2 , .... are the weights attached to each element of the cost function.

5.3

5.3.1

Uniform growth factor

If the only information available is about a general growth rate for the whole of the study area, then we can only assume that it will apply to each cell in the matrix, that is a uniform growth rate. The equation can be written as: Tij = f tij (5.2)

where f is the uniform growth factor tij is the previous total number of trips, Tij is the expanded total number of trips. Advantages are that they are simple to understand, and they are useful for short-term planning. Limitation is that the same growth factor is assumed for all zones as well as attractions. Zones 1 2 . . . 1 T11 T21 ... Ti1 2 T12 T22 ... Ti2 ... Tn2 D2 i Tij , ... ... ... ... ... j T1j T2j ... Tij ... ... ... ... ... n T1n T2n ... Tin Productions O1 O2 . . . Oi . . . On T ij Tij .

28

5. Trip Distribution

5.3.2

Example

Trips originating from zone 1, 2, and 3 of a study area are 78, 92 and 82 respectively and those terminating at zones 1, 2, and 3 are given as 88, 96 and 78 respectively. If the growth factor is 1.3 and the base year trip matrix is as given below, nd the expanded origin-constrained growth trip table. 1 2 3 dj 1 20 36 22 88 2 30 32 34 96 3 oi 28 78 24 92 26 82 78 252

Solution Given growth factor = 1.3, Therefore, multiplying the growth factor with each of the cells in the matrix gives the solution as shown below. 1 2 3 Dj 1 2 3 26 39 36.4 46.8 41.6 31.2 28.6 44.2 33.8 101.4 124.8 101.4 Oi 101.4 119.6 106.2 327.6

5.3.3

When information is available on the growth in the number of trips originating and terminating in each zone, we know that there will be dierent growth rates for trips in and out of each zone and consequently having two sets of growth factors for each zone. This implies that there are two constraints for that model and such a model is called doubly constrained growth factor model. One of the methods of solving such a model is given by Furness who introduced balancing factors ai and bj as follows: Tij = tij ai bj (5.3) In such cases, a set of intermediate correction coecients are calculated which are then appropriately applied to cell entries in each row or column. After applying these corrections to say each row, totals for each column are calculated and compared with the target values. If the dierences are signicant, correction coecients are calculated and applied as necessary. The procedure is given below: 1. Set bj = 1 2. With bj solve for ai to satisfy trip generation constraint. 3. With ai solve for bj to satisfy trip attraction constraint. 4. Update matrix and check for errors. 5. Repeat steps 2 and 3 till convergence. Tom Mathew, IIT Bombay 29 August 24, 2011

5. Trip Distribution

1 1 Here the error is calculated as: E = |Oi Oi | + |Dj Dj | where Oi corresponds to the 1 actual productions from zone i and Oi is the calculated productions from that zone. Similarly 1 Dj are the actual attractions from the zone j and Dj are the calculated attractions from that zone.

5.3.4

The advantages of this method are: 1. Simple to understand. 2. Preserve observed trip pattern. 3. Useful in short term-planning. The limitations are: 1. Depends heavily on the observed trip pattern. 2. It cannot explain unobserved trips. 3. Do not consider changes in travel cost. 4. Not suitable for policy studies like introduction of a mode. Example The base year trip matrix for a study area consisting of three zones is given below. 1 2 3 dj 1 20 36 22 88 2 30 32 34 96 3 oi 28 78 24 92 26 82 78 252

The productions from the zone 1,2 and 3 for the horizon year is expected to grow to 98, 106, and 122 respectively. The attractions from these zones are expected to increase to 102, 118, 106 respectively. Compute the trip matrix for the horizon year using doubly constrained growth factor model using Furness method. Solution The sum of the attractions in the horizon year, i.e. Oi = 98+106+122 = 326. The sum of the productions in the horizon year, i.e. Dj = 102+118+106 = 326. They both are found to be equal. Therefore we can proceed. The rst step is to x bj = 1, and nd balancing factor ai . ai = Oi /oi , then nd Tij = ai tij So a1 = 98/78 = 1.26 a2 = 106/92 = 1.15 a3 = 122/82 = 1.49 Further T11 = t11 a1 = 20 1.26 = 25.2. Similarly T12 = t12 a2 = 36 1.15 = 41.4. etc. Multiplying a1 with the rst row of the matrix, a2 with the second row and so on, matrix obtained is as shown below. Tom Mathew, IIT Bombay 30 August 24, 2011

CE415 Transportation Engineering II 1 2 3 d1 j Dj 1 2 3 oi 25.2 37.8 35.28 98 41.4 36.8 27.6 106 32.78 50.66 38.74 122 99.38 125.26 101.62 102 118 106

5. Trip Distribution

Also d1 = 25.2 + 41.4 + 32.78 = 99.38 j In the second step, nd bj = Dj /d1 and Tij = tij bj . For example b1 = 102/99.38 = 1.03, j 1 b2 = 118/125.26 = 0.94 etc.,T11 = t1 1 b1 = 25.2 1.03 = 25.96 etc. Also Oi = 25.96 + 35.53 + 36.69 = 98.18. The matrix is as shown below: 1 2 3 bj Dj 1 2 3 oi Oi 25.96 35.53 36.69 98.18 98 42.64 34.59 28.70 105.93 106 33.76 47.62 40.29 121.67 122 1.03 0.94 1.04 102 118 106

1 1 2 3 Oi Oi 25.96 35.53 36.69 98.18 98 42.64 34.59 28.70 105.93 106 33.76 47.62 40.29 121.67 122 102.36 117.74 105.68 325.78 102 118 106 326

1 2 3 dj Dj

1 Therefore error can be computed as ; Error = |Oi Oi | + |Dj dj | Error = |98.18 98| + |105.93 106| + |121.67 122| + |102.36 102| + |117.74 118| + |105.68 106| = 1.32

5.4

Gravity model

This model originally generated from an analogy with Newtons gravitational law. Newtons gravitational law says, F = G M1 M2 / d2 Analogous to this, Tij = C Oi Dj / cn Introducing ij some balancing factors, Tij = Ai Oi Bj Dj f (cij ) where Ai and Bj are the balancing factors, f (cij ) is the generalized function of the travel cost. This function is called deterrence function because it represents the disincentive to travel as distance (time) or cost increases. Some of the versions of this function are: f (cij ) = ecij f (cij ) = cn ij f (cij ) = cn ecij ij Tom Mathew, IIT Bombay 31 August 24, 2011

5. Trip Distribution

The rst equation is called the exponential function, second one is called power function where as the third one is a combination of exponential and power function. The general form of these functions for dierent values of their parameters is as shown in gure. As in the growth factor model, here also we have singly and doubly constrained models. The expression Tij = Ai Oi Bj Dj f (cij ) is the classical version of the doubly constrained model. Singly constrained versions can be produced by making one set of balancing factors Ai or Bj equal to one. Therefore we can treat singly constrained model as a special case which can be derived from doubly constrained models. Hence we will limit our discussion to doubly constrained models. As seen earlier, the model has the functional form, Tij = Ai Oi Bj Dj f (cij ) Tij =

i i

Ai OiBj Dj f (cij )

(5.4)

But Tij = Dj

i

(5.5)

Therefore, Dj = Bj Dj

i

Ai Oi f (cij )

(5.6)

Bj depends on Ai which can be found out by the following equation: Ai = 1 j Bj Dj f (cij ) (5.8)

We can see that both Ai and Bj are interdependent. Therefore, through some iteration procedure similar to that of Furness method, the problem can be solved. The procedure is discussed below: 1. Set Bj = 1, nd Ai using equation 5.8 2. Find Bj using equation 5.7

1 1 3. Compute the error as E = |Oi Oi | + |Dj Dj | where Oi corresponds to the actual 1 productions from zone i and Oi is the calculated productions from that zone. Similarly 1 Dj are the actual attractions from the zone j and Dj are the calculated attractions from that zone.

4. Again set Bj = 1 and nd Ai , also nd Bj . Repeat these steps until the convergence is achieved.

32

5. Trip Distribution

The productions from zone 1, 2 and 3 are 98, 106, 122 and attractions to zone 1,2 and 3 are 102, 118, 106. The function f (cij ) is dened as f (cij ) = 1/c2 The cost matrix is as shown ij below 1.0 1.2 1.8 (5.9) 1.2 1.0 1.5 1.8 1.5 1.0 Solution The rst step is given in Table 5:1 The second step is to nd Bj . This can be Table 5:1: Step1: Computation of parameter Ai Bj Dj f (cij ) Ai = DJ f (cij ) Bj Dj f (cij ) 102 118 106 102 118 106 102 118 106 1.0 0.69 0.31 0.69 1.0 0.44 0.31 0.44 1.00 102.00 81.42 32.86 70.38 118 46.64 31.62 51.92 106 216.28

i 1

j 1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 3

1 Bj Dj f (cij )

0.00462

235.02

0.00425

189.54

0.00527

found out as Bj = 1/ Ai Oi f (cij ), where Ai is obtained from the previous step. The detailed computation is given in Table 5:2. The function f (cij ) can be written in the matrix form as: Table Oi 98 106 122 98 106 122 98 106 122 5:2: Step2: Computation of parameter Bj f (cij ) Ai Oi f (cij ) Ai Oi f (cij ) Bj = 1/ Ai Oif (cij ) 1.0 0.4523 0.694 0.3117 0.9618 1.0397 0.308 0.1978 0.69 0.3124 1.0 0.4505 1.0458 0.9562 0.44 0.2829 0.31 0.1404 0.44 0.1982 0.9815 1.0188 1.00 0.6429

i 1 1 2 3 1 2 2 3 1 3 2 3

CE415 Transportation Engineering II Table 5:3: Step3: Final Table 1 2 3 Ai Oi 48.01 35.24 15.157 0.00462 98 32.96 50.83 21.40 0.00425 106 21.14 31.919 69.43 0.00527 122 1.0397 0.9562 1.0188 102 118 106 102.11 117.989 105.987

5. Trip Distribution

1 2 3 Bj Dj 1 Dj

Then Tij can be computed using the formula Tij = Ai Oi Bj Dj f (cij ) (5.11)

For eg, T11 = 102 1.0397 0.00462 98 1 = 48.01. Oi is the actual productions from the 1 zone and Oi is the computed ones. Similar is the case with attractions also. The results are 1 shown in table 5:3. Oi is the actual productions from the zone and Oi is the computed ones. Similar is the case with attractions also. 1 1 Therefore error can be computed as ; Error = |Oi Oi | + |Dj Dj | Error = |98 98.407|+|106105.19|+|122122.489|+||102102.11|+|118117.989|+|106105.987| = 2.03

5.5

Summary

The second stage of travel demand modeling is the trip distribution. Trip matrix can be used to represent the trip pattern of a study area. Growth factor methods and gravity model are used for computing the trip matrix. Singly constrained models and doubly constrained growth factor models are discussed. In gravity model, considering singly constrained model as a special case of doubly constrained model, doubly constrained model is explained in detail.

5.6

Problems

The trip productions from zones 1, 2 and 3 are 110, 122 and 114 respectively and the trip attractions to these zones are 120,108, and 118 respectively. The cost matrix is given below. The function f (cij ) = c1 ij

1.0 1.2 1.8 1.2 1.0 1.5 1.8 1.5 1.0 Compute the trip matrix using doubly constrained gravity model. Provide one complete iteration. Tom Mathew, IIT Bombay 34 August 24, 2011

5. Trip Distribution

Solution The rst step is given in Table 5:4 The second step is to nd Bj . This can be Table 5:4: Step1: Computation of parameter Ai Bj Dj f (cij ) Ai = DJ f (cij ) Bj Dj f (cij ) 120 108 118 120 108 118 120 108 118 1.0 0.833 0.555 0.833 1.0 0.667 0.555 0.667 1.00 120.00 89.964 65.49 99.96 108 78.706 66.60 72.036 118 275.454

i 1

j 1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 3

1 Bj Dj f (cij )

0.00363

286.66

0.00348

256.636

0.00389

found out as Bj = 1/ Ai Oif (cij ), where Ai is obtained from the previous step. The function f (cij ) can be written in the matrix form as:

1.0 0.833 0.555 1.0 0.667 0.833 0.555 0.667 1.0 Then Tij can be computed using the formula Tij = Ai Oi Bj Dj f (cij )

(5.12)

(5.13)

For eg, T11 = 102 1.0397 0.00462 98 1 = 48.01. Oi is the actual productions from the 1 zone and Oi is the computed ones. Similar is the case with attractions also. This step is given 1 in Table 5:6 Oi is the actual productions from the zone and Oi is the computed ones. Similar Table Oi 110 122 114 110 122 114 110 122 114 5:5: Step2: Computation of parameter Bj Ai Oi f (cij ) Bj = 1/ Ai Oif (cij ) f (cij ) Ai Oi f (cij ) 1.0 0.3993 0.833 0.3536 0.9994 1.048 0.555 0.2465 0.833 0.3326 1.0 0.4245 1.05 0.9494 0.667 0.2962 0555 0.2216 0.667 0.2832 0.9483 1.054 1.00 0.44346

i 1 1 2 3 1 2 2 3 1 3 2 3

35

CE415 Transportation Engineering II Table 5:6: 1 2 48.01 34.10 42.43 43.53 29.53 30.32 1.048 0.9494 120 108 119.876 107.95 Step 3: 3 27.56 35.21 55.15 1.054 118 117.92 Final Table Ai Oi 0.00363 110 0.00348 122 0.00389 114

5. Modal Split

1 2 3 Bj Dj 1 Dj

is the case with attractions also. 1 1 Therefore error can be computed as ; Error = |Oi Oi | + |Dj Dj | Error = |110 109.57| + |122 121.17| + |114 115| + |120 119.876 + |108 107.95| + |118 117.92| = 2.515

36

6. Modal Split

6.1 Overview

The third stage in travel demand modeling is modal split. The trip matrix or O-D matrix obtained from the trip distribution is sliced into number of matrices representing each mode. First the signicance and factors aecting mode choice problem will be discussed. Then a brief discussion on the classication of mode choice will be made. Two types of mode choice models will be discussed in detail. ie binary mode choice and multinomial mode choice. The chapter ends with some discussion on future topics in mode choice problem.

6.2

Mode choice

The choice of transport mode is probably one of the most important classic models in transport planning. This is because of the key role played by public transport in policy making. Public transport modes make use of road space more eciently than private transport. Also they have more social benets like if more people begin to use public transport , there will be less congestion on the roads and the accidents will be less. Again in public transport, we can travel with low cost. In addition, the fuel is used more eciently. Main characteristics of public transport is that they will have some particular schedule, frequency etc. On the other hand, private transport is highly exible. It provides more comfortable and convenient travel. It has better accessibility also. The issue of mode choice, therefore, is probably the single most important element in transport planning and policy making. It aects the general eciency with which we can travel in urban areas. It is important then to develop and use models which are sensitive to those travel attributes that inuence individual choices of mode.

6.3

The factors may be listed under three groups: 1. Characteristics of the trip maker : The following features are found to be important: (a) car availability and/or ownership; Tom Mathew, IIT Bombay 37 August 24, 2011

6. Modal Split

(c) household structure (young couple, couple with children, retired people etc.); (d) income; (e) decisions made elsewhere, for example the need to use a car at work, take children to school, etc; (f) residential density. 2. Characteristics of the journey: Mode choice is strongly inuenced by: (a) The trip purpose; for example, the journey to work is normally easier to undertake by public transport than other journeys because of its regularity and the adjustment possible in the long run; (b) Time of the day when the journey is undertaken. (c) Late trips are more dicult to accommodate by public transport. 3. Characteristics of the transport facility: There are two types of factors.One is quantitative and the other is qualitative. Quantitative factors are: (a) relative travel time: in-vehicle, waiting and walking times by each mode; (b) relative monetary costs (fares, fuel and direct costs); (c) availability and cost of parking Qualitative factors which are less easy to measure are: (a) comfort and convenience (b) reliability and regularity (c) protection, security A good mode choice should include the most important of these factors.

6.4

6.4.1

Trip-end modal split models

Traditionally, the objective of transportation planning was to forecast the growth in demand for car trips so that investment could be planned to meet the demand. When personal characteristics were thought to be the most important determinants of mode choice, attempts were made to apply modal-split models immediately after trip generation. Such a model is called trip-end modal split model. In this way dierent characteristics of the person could be preserved and used to estimate modal split. The modal split models of this time related the choice of mode only to features like income, residential density and car ownership. Tom Mathew, IIT Bombay 38 August 24, 2011

6. Modal Split

The advantage is that these models could be very accurate in the short run, if public transport is available and there is little congestion. Limitation is that they are insensitive to policy decisions example: Improving public transport, restricting parking etc. would have no eect on modal split according to these trip-end models.

6.4.2

This is the post-distribution model; that is modal split is applied after the distribution stage. This has the advantage that it is possible to include the characteristics of the journey and that of the alternative modes available to undertake them. It is also possible to include policy decisions. This is benecial for long term modeling.

6.4.3

Mode choice could be aggregate if they are based on zonal and inter-zonal information. They can be called disaggregate if they are based on household or individual data.

6.5

Binary logit model is the simplest form of mode choice, where the travel choice between two modes is made. The traveler will associate some value for the utility of each mode. if the utility of one mode is higher than the other, then that mode is chosen. But in transportation, we have disutility also. The disutility here is the travel cost. This can be represented as cij = a1 tv + a2 tw + a3 tt + a4 tnij + a5 Fij + a6 j + ij ij ij (6.1)

where tv is the in-vehicle travel time between i and j, tw is the walking time to and from stops, ij ij tt is the waiting time at stops, Fij is the fare charged to travel between i and j, j is the ij parking cost, and is a parameter representing comfort and convenience. If the travel cost is low, then that mode has more probability of being chosen. Let there be two modes (m=1,2) 1 then the proportion of trips by mode 1 from zone i to zone j is(Pij ) Let c1 be the cost of ij traveling from zone i to zonej using the mode 1, and c2 be the cost of traveling from zonei to ij zone j by mode 2,there are three cases: 1. if c2 - c1 is positive, then mode 1 is chosen. ij ij 2. if c2 - c1 is negative, then mode 2 is chosen. ij ij 3. if c2 - c1 = 0 , then both modes have equal probability. ij ij This relationship is normally expressed by a logit curve as shown in gure 6:1 Therefore the proportion of trips by mode 1 is given by

1 Pij

1 Tij /Tij

1 2

39

6. Modal Split

p1 ij

1.0 B 2

B1

0.5

c2 c 1 ij ij

Figure 6:1: logit function Table 6:1: tu ij car 20 bus 30 ai 0.03 Trip characterisitcs tw tt fij j ij ij 18 4 5 3 9 0.04 0.06 0.1 0.1

This functional form is called logit, where cij is called the generalized cost and is the parameter 1 for calibration. The graph in gure 6:1 shows the proportion of trips by mode 1 (Tij /Tij ) against cost dierence. Example Let the number of trips from zone i to zone j is 5000, and two modes are available which has the characteristics given in Table 6:1. Compute the trips made by mode bus, and the fare that is collected from the mode bus. If the fare of the bus is reduced to 6, then nd the fare collected. Table 6:2: tu ij ar 20 bus 30 ai .03 Binary logit model tw tt fij j ij ij 18 4 5 3 9 .04 .06 .1 .1 example: solution cij pij Tij 2.08 .52 2600 2.18 .475 2400

40

6. Modal Split

Cost of travel by car (Equation)=ccar = 0.03 20 + 18 0.06 + 4 0.1 = 2.08 Cost of travel by bus (Equation)=cbus = 0.03 30 + 0.04 5 + 0.06 3 + 0.1 9 = 2.18 Probability of choosing mode car (Equation)= pcar = ij Probability of choosing mode bus (Equation)= pbus = ij

e2.08 e2.08 +e2.18 e2.18 e2.08 +e2.18

= 0.52 = 0.475

car Proportion of trips by car = Tij = 50000.52 = 2600 bus Proportion of trips by bus = Tij = 50000.475 = 2400 bus Fare collected from bus = Tij Fij = 24009 = 21600

When the fare of bus gets reduced to 6, Cost function for bus= cbus = 0.03 30 + 0.04 5 + 0.06 3 + 0.1 6 = 1.88 Probability of choosing mode bus (Equation)=pbus = ij

e1.88 e2.08 +e1.88

= 0.55

bus Proportion of trips by bus = Tij = 50000.55 = 2750 bus Fare collected from the bus Tij Fij = 27506 = 16500

6.6

The binary model can easily be extended to multiple modes. The equation for such a model can be written as: 1 ecij 1 (6.3) Pij = m ecij

6.6.1

Example

Let the number of trips from i to j is 5000, and three modes are available which has the characteristics given in Table 6:3: Compute the trips made by the three modes and the fare required to travel by each mode.

41

CE415 Transportation Engineering II Table 6:3: Trip characteristics tv twalk tt Fij ij ij ij ij coecient 0.03 0.04 0.06 0.1 0.1 car 20 18 4 bus 30 5 3 6 train 12 10 2 4 -

6. Modal Split

Table 6:4: Multinomial logit model problem: solution tv twalk tt Fij ij C eC pij Tij ij ij ij 0.03 0.04 0.06 0.1 0.1 20 18 4 2.8 0.06 0.1237 618.5 30 5 3 6 - 1.88 0.15 0.3105 1552.5 12 10 2 4 - 1.28 0.28 0.5657 2828.5

Solution Cost of travel by car (Equation)=ccar = 0.03 20 + 18 0.1 + 4 0.1 = 2.8 Cost of travel by bus (Equation)=cbus = 0.03 30 + 0.04 5 + 0.06 3 + 0.1 6 = 1.88 Cost of travel by train (Equation)=ctrain = 0.03 12 + 0.04 10 + 0.06 2 + 0.1 4 = 1.28 Probability of choosing mode car (Equation)pcar = ij Probability of choosing mode bus (Equationpbus = ij

e2.8 e2.8 +e1.88 +e1.28 e1.88 e2.8 +e1.88 +e1.28

car Proportion of trips by car,Tij = 50000.1237 = 618.5

bus Proportion of trips by bus, Tij = 50000.3105 = 1552.5 train Similarly, proportion of trips by train,Tij = 50000.5657 = 2828.5 We can put all this in the form of a table as shown below 6:4: bus Fare collected from the mode bus = Tij Fij = 1552.56 = 9315 train Fare collected from mode train = Tij Fij = 2828.54 = 11314

42

CE415 Transportation Engineering II Table 6:5: Trip characteristics tv twalk tt Fij ij ij ij ij coecient 0.05 0.04 0.07 0.2 0.2 car 25 22 6 bus 35 8 6 8 train 17 14 5 6 -

6. Trip Assignment

6.7

Summary

Modal split is the third stage of travel demand modeling. The choice of mode is inuenced by various factors. Dierent types of modal split models are there. Binary logit model and multinomial logit model are dealt in detail in this chapter.

6.8

Problems

1. The total number of trips from zone i to zone j is 4200. Currently all trips are made by car. Government has two alternatives- to introduce a train or a bus. The travel characteristics and respective coecients are given in table 6:5. Decide the best alternative in terms of trips carried. Solution First, use binary logit model to nd the trips when there is only car and bus. Then, again use binary logit model to nd the trips when there is only car and train. Finally compare both and see which alternative carry maximum trips. Cost of travel by car=ccar = 0.05 25 + 0.2 22 + 0.2 6 = 6.85 Cost of travel by bus=cbus = 0.05 35 + 0.04 8 + 0.07 6 + 0.2 8 = 4.09

Case 1: Considering introduction of bus, Probability of choosing car, pcar = ij = 0.059 Probability of choosing bus, pbus = ij

e4.09 e6.85 +e4.09

= 0.9403

e6.85 e6.85 +e2.96

Case 2: Considering introduction of train, Probability of choosing car pcar = ij = 0.02003 Probability of choosing train ptrain = ij

e2.96 e6.85 +e2.96

= 0.979

Trips carried by each mode car bus Case 1: Tij = 42000.0596 = 250.32 Tij = 42000.9403 = 3949.546 car train Case 2: Tij = 42000.02 = 84.00 Tij = 42000.979 = 4115.8 Hence train will attract more trips, if it is introduced. Tom Mathew, IIT Bombay 43 August 24, 2011

7. Trip Assignment

7.1 Overview

The process of allocating given set of trip interchanges to the specied transportation system is usually referred to as trip assignment or trac assignment. The fundamental aim of the trac assignment process is to reproduce on the transportation system, the pattern of vehicular movements which would be observed when the travel demand represented by the trip matrix, or matrices, to be assigned is satised. The major aims of trac assignment procedures are: 1. To estimate the volume of trac on the links of the network and obtain aggregate network measures. 2. To estimate inter zonal travel cost. 3. To analyze the travel pattern of each origin to destination(O-D) pair. 4. To identify congested links and to collect trac data useful for the design of future junctions.

7.2

As the ow increases towards the capacity of the stream, the average stream speed reduces from the free ow speed to the speed corresponding to the maximum ow. This can be seen in the graph shown below. That means trac conditions worsen and congestion starts developing. The inter zonal ows are assigned to the minimum paths computed on the basis of free-ow link impedances (usually travel time). But if the link ows were at the levels dictated by the assignment, the link speeds would be lower and the link travel time would be higher than those corresponding to the free ow conditions. So the minimum path computed prior to the trip assignment will not be the minimum after the trips ae assigned. A number of iterative procedures are done to converge this dierence. The relation between the link ow and link impedance is called the link cost function and is given by the equation as shown below: x t = t0 [1 + ( ) ] k Tom Mathew, IIT Bombay 44 (7.1) August 24, 2011

7. Trip Assignment

travel time

flow (x)

Figure 7:1: Two Link Problem with constant travel time function where t and x is the travel time and ow, respectively on the link, t0 is the free ow travel time, and k is the practical capacity. The parameters and are specic the type of link and is to be calibrated from the eld data. In the absense of any eld data, following values could the assumed: = 0.15, and = 4.0. The types of trac assignment models are all-or-nothing assignment (AON), incremental assignment, capacity restraint assignment, user equilibrium assignment (UE), stochastic user equilibrium assignment (SUE), system optimum assignment (SO), etc. The frequently used models all-or-nothing, user equilibrium, and system optimum will be discussed in detail here.

7.3

All-or-nothing assignment

In this method the trips from any origin zone to any destination zone are loaded onto a single, minimum cost, path between them. This model is unrealistic as only one path between every O-D pair is utilized even if there is another path with the same or nearly same travel cost. Also, trac on links is assigned without consideration of whether or not there is adequate capacity or heavy congestion; travel time is a xed input and does not vary depending on the congestion on a link. However, this model may be reasonable in sparse and uncongested networks where there are few alternative routes and they have a large dierence in travel cost. This model may also be used to identify the desired path : the path which the drivers would like to travel in the absence of congestion. In fact, this models most important practical application is that it acts as a building block for other types of assignment techniques.It has a limitation that it ignores the fact that link travel time is a function of link volume and when there is congestion or that multiple paths are used to carry trac. Example To demonstrate how this assignment works, an example network is considered. This network has two nodes having two paths as links. Let us suppose a case where travel time is not a function of ow as shown in other words it is constant as shown in the gure below.

Solution The travel time functions for both the links is given by: Tom Mathew, IIT Bombay 45 August 24, 2011

x1 t1 =10

7. Trip Assignment

1

t2 = 15 x2

Figure 7:2: Two Link Problem with constant travel time function t1 = 10 t2 = 15 and total ows from 1 to 2 is given by. q12 = 12 Since the shortest path is Link 1 all ows are assigned to it making x1 =12 and x2 = 0.

7.4

The user equilibrium assignment is based on Wardrops rst principle, which states that no driver can unilaterally reduce his/her travel costs by shifting to another route. User Equilibrium (UE) conditions can be written for a given O-D pair as: fk (ck u) = 0 : k ck u >= 0 : k (7.2) (7.3)

where fk is the ow on path k, ck is the travel cost on path k, and u is the minimum cost. Equation 7.3 can have two states. 1. If ck u = 0, from equation 7.2 fk 0. This means that all used paths will have same travel time. 2. If ck u 0, then from equation 7.2 fk = 0. This means that all unused paths will have travel time greater than the minimum cost path. where fk is the ow on path k, ck is the travel cost on path k, and u is the minimum cost. Assumptions in User Equilibrium Assignment 1. The user has perfect knowledge of the path cost. 2. Travel time on a given link is a function of the ow on that link only. 3. Travel time functions are positive and increasing.

46

7. Trip Assignment

The solution to the above equilibrium conditions given by the solution of an equivalent nonlinear mathematical optimization program, Minimize Z =

a xa 0

ta (xa )dx,

(7.4)

subjected to

k

rs fk = qrs

: r, s

rs rs a,k fk s k

xa =

r rs fk 0 xa 0

: a

: k, r, s : aA

rs where k is the path, xa equilibrium ows in link a, ta travel time on link a, fk ow on path rs k connecting O-D pair r-s, qrs trip rate between r and sand a,k is a denitional constraint and is given by r,s a,k =

(7.5)

The equations above are simply ow conservation equations and non negativity constraints, respectively. These constraints naturally hold the point that minimizes the objective function. These equations state user equilibrium principle.The path connecting O-D pair can be divided into two categories : those carrying the ow and those not carrying the ow on which the travel time is greater than (or equal to)the minimum O-D travel time. If the ow pattern satises these equations no motorist can better o by unilaterally changing routes. All other routes have either equal or heavy travel times. The user equilibrium criteria is thus met for every O-D pair. The UE problem is convex because the link travel time functions are monotonically increasing function, and the link travel time a particular link is independent of the ow and other links of the networks. To solve such convex problem Frank Wolfe algorithm is useful. Example Let us suppose a case where travel time is not a function of ow as shown in other words it is constant as shown in the gure below.

x1 t1 = 10+3x1

1

t2 =15+2x2 x2

Figure 7:3: Two Link Problem with constant travel time function

47

CE415 Transportation Engineering II Solution Substituting the travel time in equation yield to min Z(x) =

x1 0

7. Trip Assignment

x2

0 2 3x1

+ 15x2 +

subject to x1 + x2 = 12 Substituting x2 = 12 x1 , in the above formulation will yield the unconstrained formulation as below : min Z(x) = 10x1 + 3x2 2(12 x1 )2 1 + 15(12 x1 ) + 2 2

Dierentiate the above equation x1 and equate to zero, and solving for x1 and then x2 leads to the solution x1 = 5.8, x2 = 6.2.

7.5

The system optimum assignment is based on Wardrops second principle, which states that drivers cooperate with one another in order to minimize total system travel time. This assignment can be thought of as a model in which congestion is minimized when drivers are told which routes to use. Obviously, this is not a behaviorally realistic model, but it can be useful to transport planners and engineers, trying to manage the trac to minimize travel costs and therefore achieve an optimum social equilibrium. Minimize Z =

a

xa ta (xa )

(7.6)

subject to

k rs fk = qrs : r, s rs rs a,k fk : a

xa =

r s k

rs fk 0 : k, r, s xa 0 : a A

rs xa equilibrium ows in link a, ta travel time on link a, fk ow on path k connecting O-D pair r-s, qrs trip rate between r and s.

48

7. Trip Assignment

To demonstrate how the assignment works, an example network is considered. This network has two nodes having two paths as links. Let us suppose a case where travel time is not a function of ow or in other words it is constant as shown in the gure below.

x1 t1 = 10+3x1

1

t2 =15+2x2 x2

Figure 7:4: Two Link Problem with constant travel time function

Solution Substituting the travel time in equation , we get the following: min Z(x) = x1 (10 + 3x1 ) + x2 (15 + 2x2 ) = 10x1 + 3x1 2 + 15x2 + 2x2 2 Substituting x2 = x1 12 min Z(x) == 10x1 + 3x1 2 + 15(12 x1 ) + 2(12 x1 )2 (7.13) (7.14) (7.11) (7.12)

Dierentiate the above equation to zero, and solving for x1 and then x2 leads to the solution x1 = 5.3,x2 = 6.7 which gives Z(x) = 327.55

7.6

Let us discuss briey some other assignments like incremental assignment, capacity restraint assignment, stochastic user equilibrium assignment and dynamic assignment.

7.6.1

Incremental assignment

Incremental assignment is a process in which fractions of trac volumes are assigned in steps.In each step, a xed proportion of total demand is assigned, based on all-or-nothing assignment. After each step, link travel times are recalculated based on link volumes. When there are many increments used, the ows may resemble an equilibrium assignment ; however, this method Tom Mathew, IIT Bombay 49 August 24, 2011

7. Trip Assignment

does not yield an equilibrium solution. Consequently, there will be inconsistencies between link volumes and travel times that can lead to errors in evaluation measures. Also, incremental assignment is inuenced by the order in which volumes for O-D pairs are assigned, raising the possibility of additional bias in results.

7.6.2

Capacity restraint assignment attempts to approximate an equilibrium solution by iterating between all-or-nothing trac loadings and recalculating link travel times based on a congestion function that reects link capacity. Unfortunately, this method does not converge and can ip-op back and forth in loadings on some links.

7.6.3

User equilibrium assignment procedures based on Wardrops principle assume that all drivers perceive costs in an identical manner. A solution to assignment problem on this basis is an assignment such that no driver can reduce his journey cost by unilaterally changing route. Van Vilet considered as stochastic assignment models, all those models which explicitly allows non minimum cost routes to be selected. Virtually all such models assume that drivers perception of costs on any given route are not identical and that the trips between each O-D pair are divided among the routes with the most cheapest route attracting most trips. They have important advantage over other models because they load many routes between individual pairs of network nodes in a single pass through the tree building process,the assignments are more stable and less sensitive to slight variations in network denitions or link costs to be independent of ows and are thus most appropriate for use in uncongested trac conditions such as in o peak periods or lightly tracked rural areas.

7.6.4

Dynamic Assignment

Dynamic user equilibrium,expressed as an extension of Wardrops user equilibrium principle, may be dened as the state of equilibrium which arises when no driver can reduce his disutility of travel by choosing a new route or departure time,where disutility includes, schedule delay in addition in to costs generally considered. Dynamic stochastic equilibrium may be similarly dened in terms of perceived utility of travel. The existence of such equilibrium in complex networks has not been proven theoretical and even if they exist the question of uniqueness remains open.

7.7

Summary

Trac assignment is the last stage of trac demand modeling. There are dierent types of trac assignment models. All-or-nothing, User-equilibrium, and System-optimum assignment models are the commonly used models. All-or-nothing model is an unrealistic model since only one path between every O-D pair is utilised and they can give satisfactory results only when the Tom Mathew, IIT Bombay 50 August 24, 2011

7. Trip Assignment

network is least congested. User-equilibrium assignment is based on Wardrops rst principle and its conditions are based on certain assumptions. Wardrops second principle is utilized by System-optimum method and it tries to minimise the congestion by giving prior information to drivers regarding the respective routes to be chosen. Other assignment models are also briey explained.

7.8

Problems

Calculate the system travel time and link ows by doing user equilibrium assignment for the network in the given gure 7:5. Verify that the ows are at user equilibrium.

x1 t1 = 12+3x1

1

t2 =10+5x2 x2

Solution Substituting the travel time in the respective equation yield to min Z(x) =

x1 0

x2

0 3x2 1

+ 10x2 +

subject to x1 + x2 = 12 Substituting x2 = 12 x1 , in the above formulation will yield the unconstrained formulation as below : min Z(x) = 12x1 + 3x2 5(12 x1 )2 1 + 10(12 x1 ) + min Z(x) = 4x2 58x1 + 480 1 2 2

Dierentiate the above equation x1 and equating to zero, dz(x) = 0 58 + 8x1 = 0orx1 = 7.25Hencex2 = 12 7, 25 = 4.75 dx Tom Mathew, IIT Bombay 51 August 24, 2011

t1 = 12 + 3 7.25 = 33.75t2 = 10 + 5 4.75 = 33.75i.e.t1 = t2 It follows that the travel times are at user equilibrium.

52

8.1 Overview

Trac engineering pertains to the analysis of the behavior of trac and to design the facilities for a smooth, safe and economical operation of trac. Trac ow, like the ow of water, has several parameters associated with it. The trac stream parameters provide information regarding the nature of trac ow, which helps the analyst in detecting any variation in ow characteristicis. Understanding trac behavior requires a thorough knowledge of trac stream parameters and their mutual relationships. In this chapter the basic concepts of trac ow is presented.

8.2

The trac stream includes a combination of driver and vehicle behavior. The driver or human behavior being non-uniform, trac stream is also non-uniform in nature. It is inuenced not only by the individual characteristics of both vehicle and human but also by the way a group of such units interacts with each other. Thus a ow of trac through a street of dened characteristics will vary both by location and time corresponding to the changes in the human behavior. The trac engineer, but for the purpose of planning and design, assumes that these changes are within certain ranges which can be predicted. For example, if the maximum permissible speed of a highway is 60 kmph, the whole trac stream can be assumed to move on an average speed of 40 kmph rather than 100 or 20 kmph. Thus the trac stream itself is having some parameters on which the characteristics can be predicted. The parameters can be mainly classied as : measurements of quantity, which includes density and ow of trac and measurements of quality which includes speed. The trac stream parameters can be macroscopic which characterizes the trac as a whole or microscopic which studies the behavior of individual vehicle in the stream with respect to each other. As far as the macroscopic characteristics are concerned, they can be grouped as measurement of quantity or quality as described above, i.e. ow, density, and speed. While the microscopic characteristics include the measures of separation, i.e. the headway or separation between vehicles which can be either time or space headway. The fundamental stream characteristics Tom Mathew, IIT Bombay 53 August 24, 2011

8.3

Speed

Speed is considered as a quality measurement of travel as the drivers and passengers will be concerned more about the speed of the journey than the design aspects of the trac. It is dened as the rate of motion in distance per unit of time. Mathematically speed or velocity v is given by, d v= (8.1) t where, v is the speed of the vehicle in m/s, d is distance traveled in m in time t seconds. Speed of dierent vehicles will vary with respect to time and space. To represent these variation, several types of speed can be dened. Important among them are spot speed, running speed, journey speed, time mean speed and space mean speed. These are discussed below.

8.3.1

Spot Speed

Spot speed is the instantaneous speed of a vehicle at a specied location. Spot speed can be used to design the geometry of road like horizontal and vertical curves, super elevation etc. Location and size of signs, design of signals, safe speed, and speed zone determination, require the spot speed data. Accident analysis, road maintenance, and congestion are the modern elds of trac engineer, which uses spot speed data as the basic input. Spot speed can be measured using an enoscope, pressure contact tubes or direct timing procedure or radar speedometer or by time-lapse photographic methods. It can be determined by speeds extracted from video images by recording the distance traveling by all vehicles between a particular pair of frames.

8.3.2

Running speed

Running speed is the average speed maintained over a particular course while the vehicle is moving and is found by dividing the length of the course by the time duration the vehicle was in motion. i.e. this speed doesnt consider the time during which the vehicle is brought to a stop, or has to wait till it has a clear road ahead. The running speed will always be more than or equal to the journey speed, as delays are not considered in calculating the running speed

8.3.3

Journey speed

Journey speed is the eective speed of the vehicle on a journey between two points and is the distance between the two points divided by the total time taken for the vehicle to complete the journey including any stopped time. If the journey speed is less than running speed, it indicates that the journey follows a stop-go condition with enforced acceleration and deceleration. The spot speed here may vary from zero to some maximum in excess of the running speed. A uniformity between journey and running speeds denotes comfortable travel conditions. Tom Mathew, IIT Bombay 54 August 24, 2011

8.3.4

Time mean speed is dened as the average speed of all the vehicles passing a point on a highway over some specied time period. Space mean speed is dened as the average speed of all the vehicles occupying a given section of a highway over some specied time period. Both mean speeds will always be dierent from each other except in the unlikely event that all vehicles are traveling at the same speed. Time mean speed is a point measurement while space mean speed is a measure relating to length of highway or lane, i.e. the mean speed of vehicles over a period of time at a point in space is time mean speed and the mean speed over a space at a given instant is the space mean speed.

8.4

Flow

There are practically two ways of counting the number of vehicles on a road. One is ow or volume, which is dened as the number of vehicles that pass a point on a highway or a given lane or direction of a highway during a specic time interval. The measurement is carried out by counting the number of vehicles, nt , passing a particular point in one lane in a dened period t. Then the ow q expressed in vehicles/hour is given by q= nt t (8.2)

Flow is expressed in planning and design eld taking a day as the measurement of time.

8.4.1

Variations of Volume

The variation of volume with time, i.e. month to month, day to day, hour to hour and within a hour is also as important as volume calculation. Volume variations can also be observed from season to season. Volume will be above average in a pleasant motoring month of summer, but will be more pronounced in rural than in urban area. But this is the most consistent of all the variations and aects the trac stream characteristics the least. Weekdays, Saturdays and Sundays will also face dierence in pattern. But comparing day with day, patterns for routes of a similar nature often show a marked similarity, which is useful in enabling predictions to be made. The most signicant variation is from hour to hour. The peak hour observed during mornings and evenings of weekdays, which is usually 8 to 10 per cent of total daily ow or 2 to 3 times the average hourly volume. These trips are mainly the work trips, which are relatively stable with time and more or less constant from day to day.

8.4.2

Since there is considerable variation in the volume of trac, several types of measurements of volume are commonly adopted which will average these variations into a single volume count to be used in many design purposes. Tom Mathew, IIT Bombay 55 August 24, 2011

1. Average Annual Daily Trac(AADT) : The average 24-hour trac volume at a given location over a full 365-day year, i.e. the total number of vehicles passing the site in a year divided by 365. 2. Average Annual Weekday Trac(AAWT) : The average 24-hour trac volume occurring on weekdays over a full year. It is computed by dividing the total weekday trac volume for the year by 260. 3. Average Daily Trac(ADT) : An average 24-hour trac volume at a given location for some period of time less than a year. It may be measured for six months, a season, a month, a week, or as little as two days. An ADT is a valid number only for the period over which it was measured. 4. Average Weekday Trac(AWT) : An average 24-hour trac volume occurring on weekdays for some period of time less than one year, such as for a month or a season. The relationship between AAWT and AWT is analogous to that between AADT and ADT. Volume in general is measured using dierent ways like manual counting, detector/sensor counting, moving-car observer method, etc. Mainly the volume study establishes the importance of a particular route with respect to the other routes, the distribution of trac on road, and the uctuations in ow. All which eventually determines the design of a highway and the related facilities. Thus, volume is treated as the most important of all the parameters of trac stream.

8.5

Density

Density is dened as the number of vehicles occupying a given length of highway or lane and is generally expressed as vehicles per km. One can photograph a length of road x, count the number of vehicles, nx , in one lane of the road at that point of time and derive the density k as, nx k= (8.3) x This is illustrated in gure 8:1. From the gure, the density is the number of vehicles between the point A and B divided by the distance between A and B. Density is also equally important as ow but from a dierent angle as it is the measure most directly related to trac demand. Again it measures the proximity of vehicles in the stream which in turn aects the freedom to maneuver and comfortable driving.

8.6

Derived characteristics

From the fundamental trac ow characteristics like ow, density, and speed, a few other parameters of trac ow can be derived. Signicant among them are the time headway, distance headway and travel time. They are discussed one by one below.

56

B

A

8.6.1

Time headway

The microscopic character related to volume is the time headway or simply headway. Time headway is dened as the time dierence between any two successive vehicles when they cross a given point. Practically, it involves the measurement of time between the passage of one rear bumper and the next past a given point. If all headways h in time period, t, over which ow has been measured are added then,

nt 1

hi = t But the ow is dened as the number of vehicles nt measured in time interval t, that is, q= nt = t nt nt 1 hi = 1 hav

(8.4)

(8.5)

where, hav is the average headway. Thus average headway is the inverse of ow. Time headway is often referred to as simply the headway.

8.6.2

Distance headway

Another related parameter is the distance headway. It is dened as the distance between corresponding points of two successive vehicles at any given time. It involves the measurement from a photograph, the distance from rear bumper of lead vehicle to rear bumper of following vehicle at a point of time. If all th space headways in distance x over which the density has been measured are added,

nx 1

nx 1

(8.6)

si

1 sav

(8.7)

57

distance

distance time

(b)

time (c)

Figure 8:2: Time space diagram for a single vehicle Where, sav is average distance headway. The average distance headway is the inverse of density and is sometimes called as spacing.

8.6.3

Travel time

Travel time is dened as the time taken to complete a journey. As the speed increases, travel time required to reach the destination also decreases and viceversa. Thus travel time is inversely proportional to the speed. However, in practice, the speed of a vehicle uctuates over time and the travel time represents an average measure.

8.7

Time-space diagram

Time space diagram is a convenient tool in understanding the movement of vehicles. It shows the trajectory of vehicles in the form of a two dimensional plot. Time space diagram can be plotted for a single vehicle as well as multiple vehicles. They are discussed below.

8.7.1

Single vehicle

Taking one vehicle at a time, analysis can be carried out on the position of the vehicle with respect to time. This analysis will generate a graph which gives the relation of its position on a road stretch relative to time. This plot thus will be between distance x and time t and x will be a functions the position of the vehicle for every t along the road stretch. This graphical representation of x(t) in a (t, x) plane is a curve which is called as a trajectory. The trajectory provide an intuitive, clear, and complete summary of vehicular motion in one dimension. In gure 8:2(a), the the distance x goes on increasing with respect to the origin as time progresses. The vehicle is moving at a smooth condition along the road way. In gure 8:2(b), Tom Mathew, IIT Bombay 58 August 24, 2011

the vehicle at rst moves with a smooth pace after reaching a position reverses its direction of movement. In gure 8:2(c), the vehicle in between becomes stationary and maintains the same position. From the gure, steeply increasing section of x(t) denote a rapidly advancing vehicle and horizontal portions of x(t) denote a stopped vehicle while shallow sections show a slow-moving vehicle. A straight line denotes constant speed motion and curving sections denote accelerated motion; and if the curve is concave downwards it denotes acceleration. But a curve which is convex upwards denotes deceleration.

8.7.2

Miultiple Vehicles

Time-space diagram can also be used to determine the fundamental parameters of trac ow like speed, density and volume. It can also be used to nd the derived characteristics like space headway and time headway. Figure 8:3 shows the time-space diagram for a set of vehicles traveling at constant speed. Density, by denition is the number of vehicles per unit length. From the gure, an observer looking into the stream can count 4 vehicles passing the stretch of road between x1 and x2 at time t. Hence, the density is given as k= 4 vehicles x2 x1 (8.8)

We can also nd volume from this time-space diagram. As per the denition, volume is the number of vehicles counted for a particular interval of time. From the gure 8:3 we can see that 6 vehicles are present between the time t1 and t2 . Therefore, the volume q is given as q= 3 vehicles t2 t1 (8.9)

Again the averages taken at a specic location (i.e., time ranging over an interval) are called time means and those taken at an instant over a space interval are termed as space means. Another related denition which can be given based on the time-space diagram is the headway. Space headway is dened as the distance between corresponding points of two successive vehicles at any given time. Thus, the vertical gap between any two consecutive lines represents space headway. The reciprocal of density otherwise gives the space headway between vehicles at that time. Similarly, time headway is dened as the time dierence between any two successive vehicles when they cross a given point. Thus, the horizontal gap between the vehicles represented by the lines gives the time headway. The reciprocal of ow gives the average time headway between vehicles at that point.

8.8

Summary

Speed, ow and density are the basic parameters of trac ow. Dierent measures of speed are used in trac ow analysis like spot speed, time mean speed, space mean speed etc. TimeTom Mathew, IIT Bombay 59 August 24, 2011

x2 spacing (s) distance

headway(h) x1

t1

t Time

t2

Figure 8:3: Time space diagram for many vehicles space diagram also can be used for determining these parameters. Speed and ow of the trac stream can be computed using moving observer method.

8.9

Problems

(a) Spot speed (b) Journey speed (c) Running speed (d) Time mean speed

2. Which of the following is not a derived characteristic? (a) Time headway (b) Distance headway (c) Travel time (d) Density

8.10

Solutions

1. The instantaneous speed of a vehicle at a specied location is called (a) Spot speed (b) Journey speed (c) Running speed Tom Mathew, IIT Bombay 60 August 24, 2011

2. Which of the following is not a derived characteristic? (a) Time headway (b) Distance headway (c) Travel time (d) Density

61

9.1 Overview

Speed is one of the basic parameters of trac ow and time mean speed and space mean speed are the two representations of speed. Time mean speed and space mean speed and the relationship between them will be discussed in detail in this chapter. The relationship between the fundamental parameters of trac ow will also be derived. In addition, this relationship can be represented in graphical form resulting in the fundamental diagrams of trac ow.

9.2

As noted earlier, time mean speed is the average of all vehicles passing a point over a duration of time. It is the simple average of spot speed. Time mean speed vt is given by, vt = 1 n vi , n i=1 (9.1)

where v is the spot speed of ith vehicle, and n is the number of observations. In many speed studies, speeds are represented in the form of frequency table. Then the time mean speed is given by, n qi vi vt = i=1 , (9.2) n i=1 qi where qi is the number of vehicles having speed vi , and n is the number of such speed categories.

9.3

The space mean speed also averages the spot speed, but spatial weightage is given instead of temporal. This is derived as below. Consider unit length of a road, and let vi is the spot speed 1 of ith vehicle. Let ti is the time the vehicle takes to complete unit distance and is given by vi . If there are n such vehicles, then the average travel time ts is given by, ts = Tom Mathew, IIT Bombay ti 1 1 = n n vi 62 (9.3) August 24, 2011

qi No. speed range average speed (vi ) volume of ow (qi ) vi qi vi 1 2-5 3.5 1 3.5 2.29 2 6-9 7.5 4 30.0 0.54 3 10-13 11.5 0 0 0 4 14-17 15.5 7 108.5 0.45 total 12 142 3.28

n 1 i=1 vi

1 . ts

This is simply the harmonic mean of the spot speed. If the spot speeds are expressed as a frequency table, then, n i=1 qi vs = n qi (9.5)

i=1 vi

where qi vehicle will have vi speed and ni is the number of such observations. Example 1 If the spot speeds are 50, 40, 60,54 and 45, then nd the time mean speed and space mean speed. Solution Time mean speed vt is the average of spot speed. Therefore, vt = vi = 50+40+60+54+45 = n 5 249 = 49.8 Space mean speed is the harmonic mean of spot speed.Therefore, vs = n1 = 5

1 1 1 1 1 + 40 + 60 + 54 + 45 50

5 0.12

vi

= 48.82

Example 2 The results of a speed study is given in the form of a frequency distribution table. Find the time mean speed and space mean speed. speed range frequency 2-5 1 6-9 4 10-13 0 14-17 7 Solution The time mean speed and space mean speed can be found out from the frequency table given below. First, the average speed is computed, which is the mean of the speed range. For example, for the rst speed range, average speed, vi = 2+5 = 3.5 seconds. The volume of 2 qi ow qi for that speed range is same as the frequency. The terms vi .qi and vi are also tabulated, Tom Mathew, IIT Bombay 63 August 24, 2011

10 m/s 50 20 m/s 100 10 m/s 50 20 m/s 10 m/s 50

10 m/s 50 20 m/s 100 10 m/s

ns = 60/5 = 12 nf = 60/5 = 12

ks = 1000/50 = 20 kf = 1000/100 = 10

Figure 9:1: Illustration of relation between time mean speed and space mean speed and their summations in the last row. Time mean speed can be computed as, vt = q 12 142 = 11.83 Similarly, space mean speed can be computed as, vs = qii = 3.28 = 3.65 12

vi

qi vi qi

9.4

Inorder to understand the concept of time mean speed and space mean speed, following illustration will help. Let there be a road stretch having two sets of vehicle as in gure 9:1. The rst vehicle is traveling at 10m/s with 50 m spacing, and the second set at 20m/s with 100 m spacing. Therefore, the headway of the slow vehicle hs will be 50 m divided by 10 m/s which is 5 sec. Therefore, the number of slow moving vehicles observed at A in one hour ns will be 60/5 = 12 vehicles. The density K is the number of vehicles in 1 km, and is the inverse of spacing. Therefore, Ks = 1000/50 = 20 vehicles/km. Therefore, by denition, time mean speed vt is given by vt = 1210+1220 = 15 m/s. Similarly, by denition, space mean speed is 24 the mean of vehicle speeds over time. Therefore, vs = 2010+1020 = 13.3 m/s This is same as 30 the harmonic mean of spot speeds obtained at location A; ie vs = 12 1 24 1 = 13.3 m/s. It +12 20 10 may be noted that since harmonic mean is always lower than the arithmetic mean, and also as observed , space mean speed is always lower than the time mean speed. In other words, space mean speed weights slower vehicles more heavily as they occupy the road stretch for longer duration of time. For this reason, in many fundamental trac equations, space mean speed is preferred over time mean speed.

9.5

The relation between time mean speed and space mean speed can be derived as below. Consider a stream of vehicles with a set of substream ow q1 ,q2 , . . . qi , . . . qn having speed v1 ,v2 , . . . vi , . . . vn . The fundamental relation between ow(q), density(k) and mean speed vs is, q = k vs Tom Mathew, IIT Bombay 64 (9.6) August 24, 2011

Therefore for any substream qi , the following relationship will be valid. qi = ki vi The summation of all substream ows will give the total ow q. qi = q Similarly the summation of all substream density will give the total density k. ki = k Let fi denote the proportion of substream density ki to the total density k, fi = ki k (9.10) (9.9) (9.8) (9.7)

Space mean speed averages the speed over space. Therefore, if ki vehicles has vi speed, then space mean speed is given by, ki vi vs = (9.11) k Time mean speed averages the speed over time.Therefore, vt = Substituting in 9.7 vt can be written as, vt = ki vi 2 q (9.13) qi vi q (9.12)

Rewriting the above equation and substituting 9.11, and then substituting 11.7, we get, ki 2 vt = k vi k kfi vi 2 = q fi vi 2 = vs By adding and subtracting vs and doing algebraic manipulations, vt can be written as, vt = fi (vs + (vi vs ))2 vs (9.14)

65

v km B 8 7 6 5 4 3

A 2 1

Figure 9:2: Illustration of relation between fundamental parameters of trac ow fi (vs )2 + (vi vs )2 + 2.vs .(vi vs ) = vs 2 fi vs fi (vi vs )2 2.vs .fi (vi vs ) = + + vs vs vs (9.15) (9.16)

The third term of the equation will be zero because fi (vi vs ) will be zero, since vs is the mean speed of vi . The numerator of the second term gives the standard deviation of vi . fi by denition is 1.Therefore, vt = vs fi + vt = vs + 2 vs 2 +0 vs (9.17) (9.18)

Hence, time mean speed is space mean speed plus standard deviation of the spot speed divided by the space mean speed. Time mean speed will be always greater than space mean speed since standard deviation cannot be negative. If all the speed of the vehicles are the same, then spot speed, time mean speed and space mean speed will also be same.

9.6

The relationship between the fundamental variables of trac ow, namely speed, volume, and density is called the fundamental relations of trac ow. This can be derived by a simple concept. Let there be a road with length v km, and assume all the vehicles are moving with v km/hr.(Fig 9:2). Let the number of vehicles counted by an observer at A for one hour be n1 . By denition, the number of vehicles counted in one hour is ow(q). Therefore, n1 = q (9.19)

Similarly, by denition, density is the number of vehicles in unit distance. Therefore number of vehicles n2 in a road stretch of distance v1 will be density distance.Therefore, n2 = k v (9.20)

Since all the vehicles have speed v, the number of vehicles counted in 1 hour and the number Tom Mathew, IIT Bombay 66 August 24, 2011

qmax

B A

flow(q)

k0

k1

kmax

k2

kjam

density (k)

Figure 9:3: Flow density curve of vehicles in the stretch of distance v will also be same.(ie n1 = n2 ). Therefore, q =kv (9.21)

This is the fundamental equation of trac ow. Please note that, v in the above equation refers to the space mean speed.

9.7

The relation between ow and density, density and speed, speed and ow, can be represented with the help of some curves. They are referred to as the fundamental diagrams of trac ow. They will be explained in detail one by one below.

9.7.1

Flow-density curve

The ow and density varies with time and location. The relation between the density and the corresponding ow on a given stretch of road is referred to as one of the fundamental diagram of trac ow. Some characteristics of an ideal ow-density relationship is listed below: 1. When the density is zero, ow will also be zero,since there is no vehicles on the road. 2. When the number of vehicles gradually increases the density as well as ow increases. 3. When more and more vehicles are added, it reaches a situation where vehicles cant move. This is referred to as the jam density or the maximum density. At jam density, ow will be zero because the vehicles are not moving. 4. There will be some density between zero density and jam density, when the ow is maximum. The relationship is normally represented by a parabolic curve as shown in gure 9:3

67

uf

speed u

k0

density (k)

kj am

Figure 9:4: Speed-density diagram The point O refers to the case with zero density and zero ow. The point B refers to the maximum ow and the corresponding density is kmax . The point C refers to the maximum density kjam and the corresponding ow is zero. OA is the tangent drawn to the parabola at O, and the slope of the line OA gives the mean free ow speed, ie the speed with which a vehicle can travel when there is no ow. It can also be noted that points D and E correspond to same ow but has two dierent densities. Further, the slope of the line OD gives the mean speed at density k1 and slope of the line OE will give mean speed at density k2 . Clearly the speed at density k1 will be higher since there are less number of vehicles on the road.

9.7.2

Speed-density diagram

Similar to the ow-density relationship, speed will be maximum, referred to as the free ow speed, and when the density is maximum, the speed will be zero. The most simple assumption is that this variation of speed with density is linear as shown by the solid line in gure 9:4. Corresponding to the zero density, vehicles will be owing with their desire speed, or free ow speed. When the density is jam density, the speed of the vehicles becomes zero. It is also possible to have non-linear relationships as shown by the dotted lines. These will be discussed later.

9.7.3

Speed ow relation

The relationship between the speed and ow can be postulated as follows. The ow is zero either because there is no vehicles or there are too many vehicles so that they cannot move. At maximum ow, the speed will be in between zero and free ow speed. This relationship is shown in gure 9:5. The maximum ow qmax occurs at speed u. It is possible to have two dierent speeds for a given ow.

68

uf u2

speed u

u1 u0

q flow q

Qmax

speed u

speed u

density k

flow q

qmax

flow q density k

9.7.4

Combined diagrams

The diagrams shown in the relationship between speed-ow, speed-density, and ow-density are called the fundamental diagrams of trac ow. These are as shown in gure 9:6

9.8

Summary

Time mean speed and space mean speed are two important measures of speed. It is possible to have a relation between them and was derived in this chapter. Also, time mean speed will be always greater than or equal to space mean speed. The fundamental diagrams of trac ow are vital tools which enables analysis of fundamental relationships. There are three diagrams speed-density, speed-ow and ow-density. They can be together combined in a single diagram as discussed in the last section of the chapter. Tom Mathew, IIT Bombay 69 August 24, 2011

9.9

Problems

(a) the harmonic mean of spot speeds (b) the sum of spot speeds (c) the arithmetic mean of spot speeds (d) the sum of journey speeds

2. Which among the following is the fundamental equation of trac ow? (a) q =

k v

(b) q = k v

(d) q = k 2 v

(c) v = q k

9.10

Solutions

1. Space mean speed is (a) the harmonic mean of spot speeds (b) the sum of spot speeds (c) the arithmetic mean of spot speeds (d) the sum of journey speeds 2. Which among the following is the fundamental equation of trac ow? (a) q =

k v

(b) q = k v

(d) q = k 2 v

(c) v = q k

70

10.1 Overview

To gure out the exact relationship between the trac parameters, a great deal of research has been done over the past several decades. The results of these researches yielded many mathematical models. Some important models among them will be discussed in this chapter.

10.2

Macroscopic stream models represent how the behaviour of one parameter of trac ow changes with respect to another. Most important among them is the relation between speed and density. The rst and most simple relation between them is proposed by Greenshield. Greenshield assumed a linear speed-density relationship as illustrated in gure 10:1 to derive the model. The equation for this relationship is shown below. v = vf vf .k kj (10.1)

where v is the mean speed at density k, vf is the free speed and kj is the jam density. This equation ( 10.1) is often referred to as the Greenshields model. It indicates that when density

uf

speed u

k0

density (k)

kjam

Figure 10:1: Relation between speed and density Tom Mathew, IIT Bombay 71 August 24, 2011

uf

speed, u

u0

q flow, q

qmax

qmax

B A

flow(q)

k0

k1

kmax

k2

kjam

density (k)

Figure 10:3: Relation between ow and density 1 becomes zero, speed approaches free ow speed (ie. v vf when k 0). Once the relation between speed and ow is established, the relation with ow can be derived. This relation between ow and density is parabolic in shape and is shown in gure 10:3. Also, we know that q = k.v Now substituting equation 10.1 in equation 10.2, we get q = vf .k vf 2 k kj

q v

(10.2)

Similarly we can nd the relation between speed and ow. For this, put k = and solving, we get kj 2 q = kj .v v vf

72

This relationship is again parabolic and is shown in gure 10:2. Once the relationship between the fundamental variables of trac ow is established, the boundary conditions can be derived. The boundary conditions that are of interest are jam density, freeow speed, and maximum ow. To nd density at maximum ow, dierentiate equation 10.3 with respect to k and equate it to zero. ie., dq = 0 dk vf vf .2k = 0 kj kj k = 2 Denoting the density corresponding to maximum ow as k0 , k0 = kj 2 (10.5)

Therefore, density corresponding to maximum ow is half the jam density Once we get k0 , we can derive for maximum ow, qmax . Substituting equation 10.5 in equation 10.3 qmax = vf . kj vf kj . 2 kj 2 kj kj = vf . vf . 2 4 vf .kj = 4

2

Thus the maximum ow is one fourth the product of free ow and jam density. Finally to get the speed at maximum ow, v0 , substitute equation 10.5 in equation 10.1 and solving we get, v0 = vf v0 = vf kj . kj 2 (10.6)

10.3

Inorder to use this model for any trac stream, one should get the boundary values, especially free ow speed (vf ) and jam density (kj ). This has to be obtained by eld survey and this is called calibration process. Although it is dicult to determine exact free ow speed and jam density directly from the eld, approximate values can be obtained from a number of speed and Tom Mathew, IIT Bombay 73 August 24, 2011

density observations and then tting a linear equation between them. Let the linear equation be y = a + bx such that y is density k and x denotes the speed v. Using linear regression method, coecients a and b can be solved as, xi yi n xi . n yi i=1 i=1 n. n xi 2 ( n xi )2 i=1 i=1 a = y b x b = n Alternate method of solving for b is, b =

n i=1 (xi x)(yi n 2 i=1 (xi x) n i=1

(10.7) (10.8)

y)

(10.9)

where xi and yi are the samples, n is the number of samples, and x and y are the mean of xi and yi respectively. Problem For the following data on speed and density, determine the parameters of the Greenshields model. Also nd the maximum ow and density corresponding to a speed of 30 km/hr. v k 171 5 129 15 20 40 70 25 Solution Denoting y = v and x = k, solve for a and b using equation 10.8 and equation 10.9. The solution is tabulated as shown below. x(k) 171 129 20 70 390 y(v) 5 15 40 25 85 (xi x) 73.5 31.5 -77.5 -27.5 (yi y ) -16.3 -6.3 18.7 3.7 (xi x)(yi y ) -1198.1 -198.5 -1449.3 -101.8 -2947.7 (xi x2 ) 5402.3 992.3 6006.3 756.3 13157.2

2947.7 13157.2

x = x = 390 = 97.5, y = y = 85 = 21.3. From equation 10.9, b = n 4 n 4 = 21.3 + 0.297.5 = 40.8 So the linear regression equation will be, v = 40.8 0.2k

v

= -0.2 a = y b x (10.10)

Here vf = 40.8 and kf = 0.2 This implies, kj = 40.8 = 204 veh/km The basic parameters of 0.2 j Greenshields model are free ow speed and jam density and they are obtained as 40.8 kmph and 204 veh/km respectively. To nd maximum ow, use equation 10.6, i.e., qmax = 40.8204 = 4 Tom Mathew, IIT Bombay 74 August 24, 2011

speed, v

density, k

Figure 10:4: Greenbergs logarithmic model 2080.8 veh/hr Density corresponding to the speed 30 km/hr can be found out by substituting v = 30 in equation 10.10. i.e, 30 = 40.8 - 0.2 k Therefore, k = 40.830 = 54 veh/km 0.2

10.4

In Greenshields model, linear relationship between speed and density was assumed. But in eld we can hardly nd such a relationship between speed and density. Therefore, the validity of Greenshields model was questioned and many other models came up. Prominent among them are Greenbergs logarithmic model, Underwoods exponential model, Pipes generalized model, and multiregime models. These are briey discussed below.

10.4.1

kj k

Greenberg assumed a logarithmic relation between speed and density. He proposed, v = v0 ln (10.11)

This model has gained very good popularity because this model can be derived analytically. (This derivation is beyond the scope of this notes). However, main drawbacks of this model is that as density tends to zero, speed tends to innity. This shows the inability of the model to predict the speeds at lower densities.

10.4.2

Trying to overcome the limitation of Greenbergs model, Underwood put forward an exponential model as shown below. k v = vf .e k0 (10.12) Tom Mathew, IIT Bombay 75 August 24, 2011

speed, v

Density, k

Figure 10:5: Underwoods exponential model where vf The model can be graphically expressed as in gure 10:5. is the free ow speedm and ko is the optimum density, i.e. the densty corresponding to the maximum ow. In this model, speed becomes zero only when density reaches innity which is the drawback of this model. Hence this cannot be used for predicting speeds at high densities.

10.4.3

Further developments were made with the introduction of a new parameter (n) to provide for a more generalised modelling approach. Pipes proposed a model shown by the following equation. k v = vf [1 kj

n

(10.13)

When n is set to one, Pipes model resembles Greenshields model. Thus by varying the values of n, a family of models can be developed.

10.4.4

Multiregime models

All the above models are based on the assumption that the same speed-density relation is valid for the entire range of densities seen in trac streams. Therefore, these models are called single-regime models. However, human behaviour will be dierent at dierent densities. This is corraborated with eld observations which shows dierent relations at dierent range of densities. Therefore, the speed-density relation will also be dierent in dierent zones of densities. Based on this concept, many models were proposed generally called multi-regime models. The most simple one is called a two-regime model, where separate equations are used to represent the speed-density relation at congested and uncongested trac.

76

qA, vA, kA

qB , vB , kB

vA qA qB

A B

vB

flow

kA

density

kB

kj

10.5

Shock waves

The ow of trac along a stream can be considered similar to a uid ow. Consider a stream of trac owing with steady state conditions, i.e., all the vehicles in the stream are moving with a constant speed, density and ow. Let this be denoted as state A (refer gure 10:6. Suddenly due to some obstructions in the stream (like an accident or trac block) the steady state characteristics changes and they acquire another state of ow, say state B. The speed, density and ow of state A is denoted as vA , kA , and qA , and state B as vB , kB , and qB respectively. The ow-density curve is shown in gure 10:7. The speed of the vehicles at state A is given by the line joining the origin and point A in the graph. The time-space diagram of the trac stream is also plotted in gure 10:8. All the lines are having the same slope which implies that they are moving with constant speed. The sudden change in the characteristics of the stream leads to the formation of a shock wave. There will be a cascading eect of the vehicles in the upstream direction. Thus shock wave is basically the movement of the point that demarcates the two stream conditions. This is clearly marked in the gure 10:7. Thus the shock waves produced at state B are propagated in the backward direction. The speed of the vehicles at state B is the line joining the origin and point B of the ow-density curve. Slope of the line AB gives the speed of the shock wave (refer gure 10:7). If speed of the shock-wave is represented asAB , then qA qB AB = (10.14) kA kB The above result can be analytically solved by equating the expressions for the number vehicles leaving the upstream and joining the downstream of the shock wave boundary (this assumption Tom Mathew, IIT Bombay 77 August 24, 2011

distance

time

Figure 10:8: Shock wave : time-distance diagram is true since the vehicles cannot be created or destroyed. Let NA be the number of vehicles leaving the section A. Then, NA = qB t. The relative speed of these vehicles with respect to the shock wave will be vA AB . Hence, NA = kA (vA AB ) t Similarly, the vehicles entering the state B is given as NB = kA (vB AB ) t Equating equations 10.15 and 10.16, and solving for AB as follows will yeild to: NA kA (vA AB ) t kA vA t kA AB t kA AB t kB AB t AB (kA kB ) = = = = = NB kB (vB AB ) t kB vB t kB AB t kA vA kB vB qA qB (10.16) (10.15)

This will yeild the following expression for the shock-wave speed. AB = qA qB kA kB (10.17)

In this case, the shock wave move against the direction of trac and is therefore called a backward moving shock wave. There are other possibilities of shockwaves such as forward moving shockwaves and stationary shockwaves. The forward moving shockwaves are formed when a stream with higher density and higher ow meets a stream with relatively lesser density and ow. For example, when the width of the road increases suddenly, there are chances for a forward moving shockwave. Stationary shockwaves will occur when two streams having the same ow value but dierent densities meet. Tom Mathew, IIT Bombay 78 August 24, 2011

10.6

Macroscopic ow models

If one looks into trac ow from a very long distance, the ow of fairly heavy trac appears like a stream of a uid. Therefore, a macroscopic theory of trac can be developed with the help of hydrodynamic theory of uids by considering trac as an eectively one-dimensional compressible uid. The behaviour of individual vehicle is ignored and one is concerned only with the behaviour of sizable aggregate of vehicles. The earliest trac ow models began by writing the balance equation to address vehicle number conservation on a road. Infact, all trac ow models and theories must satisfy the law of conservation of the number of vehicles on the road. Assuming that the vehicles are owing from left to right, the continuity equation can be written as k(x, t) q(x, t) + =0 (10.18) t x where x denotes the spatial coordinate in the direction of trac ow, t is the time, k is the density and q denotes the ow. However, one cannot get two unknowns, namely k(x, t) by and q(x, t) by solving one equation. One possible solution is to write two equations from two regimes of the ow, say before and after a bottleneck. In this system the ow rate before and after will be same, or k1 v1 = k2 v2 (10.19) From this the shockwave velocity can be derived as v(to )p = q2 q1 k2 k1 (10.20)

This is normally referred to as Stocks shockwave formula. An alternate possibility which Lighthill and Whitham adopted in their landmark study is to assume that the ow rate q is determined primarily by the local density k, so that ow q can be treated as a function of only density k. Therefore the number of unknown variables will be reduced to one. Essentially this assumption states that k(x,t) and q (x,t) are not independent of each other. Therefore the continuity equation takes the form k(x, t) q(k(x, t)) + =0 t x (10.21)

However, the functional relationship between ow q and density k cannot be calculated from uid-dynamical theory. This has to be either taken as a phenomenological relation derived from the empirical observation or from microscopic theories. Therefore, the ow rate q is a function of the vehicular density k; q = q(k). Thus, the balance equation takes the form k(x, t) q(k(x, t)) + =0 t x (10.22)

Now there is only one independent variable in the balance equation, the vehicle density k. If initial and boundary conditions are known, this can be solved. Solution to LWR models are

79

dq(k) (10.23) dk This velocity vk is positive when the ow rate increases with density, and it is negative when the ow rate decreases with density. In some cases, this function may shift from one regime to the other, and then a shock is said to be formed. This shockwave propagate at the velocity vs = q(k2 ) q(k1 ) k2 k1 (10.24)

where q(k2 ) and q(k1 ) are the ow rates corresponding to the upstream density k2 and downstream density k1 of the shockwave. Unlike Stocks shockwave formula there is only one variable here.

10.6.1

Extented Topics

1. Multi regine model (formulation of both two and three regime models) 2. Catastrophe Theory 3. Three dimentional models and plots

10.7

Summary

Trac stream models attempt to establish a better relationship between the trac parameters. These models were based on many assumptions, for instance, Greenshields model assumed a linear speed-density relationship. Other models were also discussed in this chapter. The models are used for explaining several phenomena in connection with trac ow like shock wave.

10.8

Problems

1. Stationary shockwaves will occur (a) when two streams having the same ow value but dierent densities meet. (b) when two streams having the dierent ow value but same densities meet. (c) when two streams having the same ow value and densities meet. (d) when two streams with dierent speeds meet. 2. Linear relationship between speed and density was assumed in (a) Greenbergs model (b) Greenshields model Tom Mathew, IIT Bombay 80 August 24, 2011

CE415 Transportation Engineering II (c) Pipes generalized model (d) Underwoods model

10.8.1

Solutions

1. Stationary shockwaves will occur when two streams having the same ow value but different densities meet. 2. Linear relationship between speed and density was assumed in Greenshields model

81

11.1 Overview

Unlike many other disciplines of the engineering, the situations that are interesting to a trac engineer cannot be reproduced in a laboratory. Even if road and vehicles could be set up in large laboratories, it is impossible to simulate the behavior of drivers in the laboratory. Therefore, trac stream characteristics need to be collected only from the eld. There are several methods of data collection depending on the need of the study and some important ones are described in this chapter.

11.2

Data requirements

The most important trac characteristics to be collected from the eld includes sped, travel time, ow and density. Some cases, spacing and headway are directly measured. In addition, the occupancy, ie percentage of time a point on the road is occupied by vehicles is also of interest. The measurement procedures can be classied based on the geographical extent of the survey into ve categories: (a) measurement at point on the road, (b) measurement over a short section of the road (less than 500 metres) (c) measurement over a length of the road (more than about 500 metres) (d) wide area samples obtained from number of locations, and (e) the use of an observer moving in the trac stream. In each category, numerous data collection are there. However, important and basic methods will be discussed.

11.2.1

Measurements at a point

The most important point measurement is the vehicle volume count. Data can be collected manually or automatically. In manual method, the observer will stand at the point of interest and count the vehicles with the help of hand tallies. Normally, data will be collected for short interval of 5 minutes or 15 minutes etc. and for each types of vehicles like cars, two wheelers, three wheelers, LCV, HCV, multi axle trucks, nonmotorised trac like bullock cart, hand cart etc. From the ow data, ow and headway can be derived. Modern methods include the use of inductive loop detector, video camera, and many other technologies. These methods helps to collect accurate information for long duration. In video cameras, data is collected from the eld and is then analyzed in the lab for obtaining results. Tom Mathew, IIT Bombay 82 August 24, 2011

x

enoscope

observer

Base length

Figure 11:1: Illustration of measurement over short section using enoscope Radars and microwave detectors are used to obtain the speed of a vehicle at a point. Since no length is involved, density cannot be obtained by measuring at a point.

11.2.2

The main objective of this study is to nd the spot speed of vehicles. Manual methods include the use of enoscope. In this method a base length of about 30-90 metres is marked on the road. Enoscope is placed at one end and observer will stand at the other end. He could see the vehicle passing the farther end through enoscope and starts the stop watch. Then he stops the stop watch when the vehicle passes in front of him. The working of the enoscope is shown in gure 11:1. An alternative method is to use pressure contact tube which gives a pressure signal when vehicle moves at either end. Another most widely used method is inductive loop detector which works on the principle of magnetic inductance. Road will be cut and a small magnetic loop is placed. When the metallic content in the vehicle passes over it, a signal will be generated and the count of the vehicle can be found automatically. The advantage of this detector is that the counts can be obtained throughout the life time of the road. However, chances of errors are possible because noise signals may be generated due to heavy vehicle passing adjacent lanes. When dual loops are used and if the spacing between them is known then speed also can be calculated in addition to the vehicle cost.

11.2.3

This is normally used to obtain variations in speed over a stretch of road. Usually the stretch will be having a length more than 500 metres. We can also get density. Most traditional method uses aerial photography. From a single frame, density can be measured, but not speed or volumes. In time lapse photography, several frames are available. If several frames are obtained over short time intervals, speeds can be measured from the distance covered between the two frames and time interval between them.

83

11.2.4

Determination of any of the two parameters of the trac ow will provide the third one by the equation q = u.k. Moving observer method is the most commonly used method to get the relationship between the fundamental stream characteristics. In this method, the observer moves in the trac stream unlike all other previous methods. Consider a stream of vehicles moving in the north bound direction. Two dierent cases of motion can be considered. The rst case considers the trac stream to be moving and the observer to be stationary. If no is the number of vehicles overtaking the observer during a period, t, then ow q is nt0 , or n0 = q t (11.1) The second case assumes that the stream is stationary and the observer moves with speed vo . If np is the number of vehicles overtaken by observer over a length l, then by denition, density k is nlp , or np = k l (11.2) or np = k.vo .t (11.3) where v0 is the speed of the observer and t is the time taken for the observer to cover the road stretch. Now consider the case when the observer is moving within the stream. In that case mo vehicles will overtake the observer and mp vehicles will be overtaken by the observer in the Tom Mathew, IIT Bombay 84 August 24, 2011

test vehicle. Let the dierence m is given by m0 - mp , then from equation 11.1 and equation 11.3, m = m0 mp = q t k vo t (11.4) This equation is the basic equation of moving observer method, which relates q, k to the counts m, t and vo that can be obtained from the test. However, we have two unknowns, q and k, but only one equation. For generating another equation, the test vehicle is run twice once with the trac stream and another one against trac stream, i.e. mw = = ma = = q q q q tw tw ta ta + + k vw tw kl k va ta kl (11.5) (11.6)

where, a, w denotes against and with trac ow. It may be noted that the sign of equation 11.6 is negative, because test vehicle moving in the opposite direction can be considered as a case when the test vehicle is moving in the stream with negative velocity. Further, in this case, all the vehicles will be overtaking, since it is moving with negative speed. In other words, when the test vehicle moves in the opposite direction, the observer simply counts the number of vehicles in the opposite direction. Adding equation 11.5 and 11.6, we will get the rst parameter of the stream, namely the ow(q) as: mw + ma q= (11.7) tw + ta Now calculating space mean speed from equation 11.5, mw = q kvw tw q = q vw v q l = q v tw l 1 = q 1 v tw tavg = q 1 tw If vs is the mean stream speed, then average travel time is given by tavg = tavg mw ) = tw tavg = tw (1 q tw mw l tavg = tw = , q v

l . vs

Therefore,

85

Rewriting the above equation, we get the second parameter of the trac ow, namely the mean speed vs and can be written as, l vs = (11.8) tw mw q Thus two parameters of the stream can be determined. Knowing the two parameters the third parameter of trac ow density (k) can be found out as k= q vs (11.9)

For increase accuracy and reliability, the test is performed a number of times and the average results are to be taken. Example 1 The length of a road stretch used for conducting the moving observer test is 0.5 km and the speed with which the test vehicle moved is 20 km/hr. Given that the number of vehicles encountered in the stream while the test vehicle was moving against the trac stream is 107, number of vehicles that had overtaken the test vehicle is 10, and the number of vehicles overtaken by the test vehicle is 74, nd the ow, density and average speed of the stream. Solution Time taken by the test vehicle to reach the other end of the stream while it is moving along with the trac is tw = 0.5 = 0.025 hr Time taken by the observer to reach 20 the other end of the stream while it is moving against the trac is ta = tw = 0.025 hr Flow is given by equation, q = 107+(1074) = 860 veh/hr Stream speed vs can be found out from 0.025+0.025 0.5 equationvs = 0.025 10.74 = 5 km/hr Density can be found out from equation as k = 860 = 5 860 172veh/km Example 2 The data from four moving observer test methods are shown in the table. Column 1 gives the sample number, column 2 gives the number of vehicles moving against the stream, column 3 gives the number of vehicles that had overtaken the test vehicle, and last column gives the number of vehicles overtaken by the test vehicle. Find the three fundamental stream parameters for each set of data. Also plot the fundamental diagrams of trac ow. Sample no. 1 2 3 4 1 107 113 30 79 2 3 10 74 25 41 15 5 18 9

Solution From the calculated values of ow, density and speed, the three fundamental diagrams can be plotted as shown in gure 11:3. Tom Mathew, IIT Bombay 86 August 24, 2011

Sample no. 1 2 3 4

ma 107 113 30 79

mo 10 25 15 18

mp 74 41 5 9

q=

ma +mw ta +tw

u=

l tw ma q

k= 171 129 20 70

q v

speed u

speed u

20 70 129171 density k

87

11.3

Summary

Trac engineering studies dier from other studies in the fact that they require extensive data from the eld which cannot be exactly created in any laboratory. Speed data are collected from measurements at a point or over a short section or over an area. Trac ow data are collected at a point. Moving observer method is one in which both speed and trac ow data are obtained by a single experiment.

11.4

Problems

1. In the moving observer experiment, if the density is k, speed of the observer is vo , length of the test stretch is l, t is the time taken by the observer to cover the road stretch, the number of vehicles overtaken by the observer np is given by, (a) np = k.t (b) np = k.l (c) np =

k vo .t

(d) np = k.vo .t 2. If the length of the road stretch taken for conducting moving observer experiment is 0.4 km, time taken by the observer to move with the trac is 5 seconds, number of vehicles moving with the test vehicle in the same direction is 10, ow is 10 veh/sec, nd the mean speed. (a) 50 m/s (b) 100 m/s (c) 150 m/s (d) 200 m/s

11.5

Solutions

1. In the moving observer experiment, if the density is k, speed of the observer is vo , length of the test stretch is l, t is the time taken by the observer to cover the road stretch, the number of vehicles overtaken by the observer np is given by, (a) np = k.t (b) np = k.l (d) np = k.vo .t (c) np =

k vo .t

88

2. If the length of the road stretch taken for conducting moving observer experiment is 0.4 km, time taken by the observer to move with the trac is 5 seconds, number of vehicles moving with the test vehicle in the same direction is 10, ow is 10 veh/sec, nd the mean speed. (b) 100 m/s (c) 150 m/s (d) 200 m/s Solution: Given that l=0.4 km, tw =5seconds, mw =10,q=10 veh/sec, substituting in equation,vs = tw lmw =100m/s.

q

(a) 50 m/s

89

12.1 Overview

Macroscopic modeling looks at trac ow from a global perspective, whereas microscopic modeling, as the term suggests, gives attention to the details of trac ow and the interactions taking place within it. This chapter gives an overview of microscopic approach to modeling trac and then elaborates on the various concepts associated with it. A microscopic model of trac ow attempts to analyze the ow of trac by modeling driver-driver and driver-road interactions within a trac stream which respectively analyzes the interaction between a driver and another driver on road and of a single driver on the dierent features of a road. Many studies and researches were carried out on drivers behavior in dierent situations like a case when he meets a static obstacle or when he meets a dynamic obstacle. Several studies are made on modeling driver behavior in another following car and such studies are often referred to as car following theories of vehicular trac.

12.2

Notation

Longitudinal spacing of vehicles are of particular importance from the points of view of safety, capacity and level of service. The longitudinal space occupied by a vehicle depend on the physical dimensions of the vehicles as well as the gaps between vehicles. For measuring this longitudinal space, two microscopic measures are used- distance headway and distance gap. Distance headway is dened as the distance from a selected point (usually front bumper) on the lead vehicle to the corresponding point on the following vehicles. Hence, it includes the length of the lead vehicle and the gap length between the lead and the following vehicles. Before going in to the details, various notations used in car-following models are discussed here with the help of gure 12:1. The leader vehicle is denoted as n and the following vehicle as (n + 1). Two characteristics at an instant t are of importance; location and speed. Location and speed t of the lead vehicle at time instant t are represented by xt and vn respectively. Similarly, the n t location and speed of the follower are denoted by xt n+1 and vn+1 respectively. The following vehicle is assumed to accelerate at time t + T and not at t, where T is the interval of time required for a driver to react to a changing situation. The gap between the leader and the follower vehicle is therefore xt xt . n n+1 Tom Mathew, IIT Bombay 90 August 24, 2011

Direction of traffic

vn+1 n+1

vn

n Leader

xn

Follower

xn+1

xn xn+1

12.3

Car following theories describe how one vehicle follows another vehicle in an uninterrupted ow. Various models were formulated to represent how a driver reacts to the changes in the relative positions of the vehicle ahead. Models like Pipes, Forbes, General Motors and Optimal velocity model are worth discussing.

12.3.1

Pipes model

The basic assumption of this model is A good rule for following another vehicle at a safe distance is to allow yourself at least the length of a car between your vehicle and the vehicle ahead for every ten miles per hour of speed at which you are traveling According to Pipes car-following model, the minimum safe distance headway increases linearly with speed. A disadvantage of this model is that at low speeds, the minimum headways proposed by the theory are considerably less than the corresponding eld measurements.

12.3.2

Forbes model

In this model, the reaction time needed for the following vehicle to perceive the need to decelerate and apply the brakes is considered. That is, the time gap between the rear of the leader and the front of the follower should always be equal to or greater than the reaction time. Therefore, the minimum time headway is equal to the reaction time (minimum time gap) and the time required for the lead vehicle to traverse a distance equivalent to its length. A disadvantage of this model is that, similar to Pipes model, there is a wide dierence in the minimum distance headway at low and high speeds.

12.3.3

The General Motors model is the most popular of the car-following theories because of the following reasons: 1. Agreement with eld data; the simulation models developed based on General motors car following models shows good correlation to the eld data. Tom Mathew, IIT Bombay 91 August 24, 2011

2. Mathematical relation to macroscopic model; Greenbergs logarithmic model for speeddensity relationship can be derived from General motors car following model. In car following models, the motion of individual vehicle is governed by an equation, which is analogous to the Newtons Laws of motion. In Newtonian mechanics, acceleration can be regarded as the response of the particle to stimulus it receives in the form of force which includes both the external force as well as those arising from the interaction with all other particles in the system. This model is the widely used and will be discussed in detail later.

12.3.4

The concept of this model is that each driver tries to achieve an optimal velocity based on the distance to the preceding vehicle and the speed dierence between the vehicles. This was an alternative possibility explored recently in car-following models. The formulation is based on the assumption that the desired speed vndesired depends on the distance headway of the nth t vehicle. i.e.vndesired = v opt (xt ) where vopt is the optimal velocity function which is a function n of the instantaneous distance headway xt . Therefore at is given by n n

t at = [1/ ][V opt (xt ) vn ] n n

(12.1)

1 where is called as sensitivity coecient. In short, the driving strategy of nth vehicle is that, it tries to maintain a safe speed which inturn depends on the relative position, rather than relative speed.

12.4

12.4.1

Basic Philosophy

The basic philosophy of car following model is from Newtonian mechanics, where the acceleration may be regarded as the response of a matter to the stimulus it receives in the form of the force it receives from the interaction with other particles in the system. Hence, the basic philosophy of car-following theories can be summarized by the following equation [Response]n [Stimulus]n (12.2)

for the nth vehicle (n=1, 2, ...). Each driver can respond to the surrounding trac conditions only by accelerating or decelerating the vehicle. As mentioned earlier, dierent theories on carfollowing have arisen because of the dierence in views regarding the nature of the stimulus. The stimulus may be composed of the speed of the vehicle, relative speeds, distance headway etc, and hence, it is not a single variable, but a function and can be represented as, at = fsti (vn , xn , vn ) n (12.3)

92

where fsti is the stimulus function that depends on the speed of the current vehicle, relative position and speed with the front vehicle.

12.4.2

Follow-the-leader model

The car following model proposed by General motors is based on follow-the leader concept. This is based on two assumptions; (a) higher the speed of the vehicle, higher will be the spacing between the vehicles and (b) to avoid collision, driver must maintain a safe distance with the vehicle ahead. t Let xt is the gap available for (n + 1)th vehicle, and let xsaf e is the safe distance, vn+1 n+1 t and vn are the velocities, the gap required is given by,

t xt = xsaf e + vn+1 n+1

(12.4)

t xn xt = xsaf e + vn+1 n+1

(12.5)

t t vn vn+1 = .at n+1 1 t t at = [vn vn+1 ] n+1

General Motors has proposed various forms of sensitivity coecient term resulting in ve generations of models. The most general model has the form, at = n+1

t l,m (vn+1 )m (xt xt )l n+1 n t t vn vn+1

(12.6)

where l is a distance headway exponent and can take values from +4 to -1, m is a speed exponent and can take values from -2 to +2, and is a sensitivity coecient. These parameters are to be calibrated using eld data. This equation is the core of trac simulation models. In computer, implementation of the simulation models, three things need to be remembered: 1. A driver will react to the change in speed of the front vehicle after a time gap called the reaction time during which the follower perceives the change in speed and react to it. 2. The vehicle position, speed and acceleration will be updated at certain time intervals depending on the accuracy required. Lower the time interval, higher the accuracy. 3. Vehicle position and speed is governed by Newtons laws of motion, and the acceleration is governed by the car following model. Therefore, the governing equations of a trac ow can be developed as below. Let T is

93

the reaction time, and t is the updation time, the governing equations can be written as, 1 tt xt = xtt + vn t + att t2 n n 2 n t l,m (vn+1 )m tT tT (vn vn+1 ) at n+1 = tT xtT )l (xn n+1

t tt vn = vn + att t n

The equation 12.7 is a simulation version of the Newtons simple law of motion v = u + at and 1 equation 12.8 is the simulation version of the Newtons another equation s = ut + 2 at2 . The acceleration of the follower vehicle depends upon the relative velocity of the leader and the follower vehicle, sensitivity coecient and the gap between the vehicles. Problem Let a leader vehicle is moving with zero acceleration for two seconds from time zero. Then he accelerates by 1 m/s2 for 2 seconds, then decelerates by 1m/s2 for 2 seconds. The initial speed is 16 m/s and initial location is 28 m from datum. A vehicle is following this vehicle with initial speed 16 m/s, and position zero. Simulate the behavior of the following vehicle using General Motors Car following model (acceleration, speed and position) for 7.5 seconds. Assume the parameters l=1, m=0 , sensitivity coecient (l,m ) = 13, reaction time as 1 second and scan interval as 0.5 seconds. Solution The rst column shows the time in seconds. Column 2, 3, and 4 shows the acceleration, velocity and distance of the leader vehicle. Column 5,6, and 7 shows the acceleration, velocity and distance of the follower vehicle. Column 8 gives the dierence in velocities between the leader and follower vehicle denoted as dv. Column 9 gives the dierence in displacement between the leader and follower vehicle denoted as dx. Note that the values are assumed to be the state at the beginning of that time interval. At time t=0, leader vehicle has a velocity of 16 m/s and located at a distance of 28 m from a datum. The follower vehicle is also having the same velocity of 16 m/s and located at the datum. Since the velocity is same for both, dv = 0. At time t = 0, the leader vehicle is having acceleration zero, and hence has the same speed. The location of the leader vehicle can be found out from equation as, x = 28+160.5 = 36 m. Similarly, the follower vehicle is not accelerating and is maintaining the same speed. The location of the follower vehicle is, x = 0+160.5 = 8 m. Therefore, dx = 36-8 =28m. These steps are repeated till t = 1.5 seconds. At time t = 2 seconds, leader vehicle accelerates at the rate of 1 m/s2 and continues to accelerate for 2 seconds. After that it decelerates for a period of two seconds. At t= 2.5 seconds, velocity of leader vehicle changes to 16.5 m/s. Thus dv becomes 0.5 m/s at 2.5 seconds. dx also changes since the position of leader changes. Since the reaction time is 1 second, the follower will react to the leaders change in acceleration at 2.0 seconds only after 3 seconds. Therefore, at t=3.5 seconds, the follower responds to the leaders change in acceleration given by equation i.e., a = 130.5 = 0.23 m/s2 . That is the current ac28.23 celeration of the follower vehicle depends on dv and reaction time of 1 second. The follower Tom Mathew, IIT Bombay 94 August 24, 2011

20

Leader

19 18

Follower

Velocity

17 16 15 0 5 10 15 20 25 30

Time(seconds)

1.5

Leader Follower

Acceleration

0.5

0.5

1.5

10

15

20

25

30

Time(seconds)

Figure 12:3: Acceleration vz Time will change the speed at the next time interval. i.e., at time t = 4 seconds. The speed of the follower vehicle at t = 4 seconds is given by equation as v= 16+0.2310.5 = 16.12 The location of the follower vehicle at t = 4 seconds is given by equation as x = 56+160.5+ 1 0.2310.52 2 = 64.03 These steps are followed for all the cells of the table. The earliest car-following models considered the dierence in speeds between the leader and the follower as the stimulus. It was assumed that every driver tends to move with the same speed as that of the corresponding leading vehicle so that at = n 1 t+1 t (v vn+1 ) n (12.10)

1 where is a parameter that sets the time scale of the model and can be considered as a measure of the sensitivity of the driver. According to such models, the driving strategy is to follow the leader and, therefore, such car-following models are collectively referred to as the follow the leader model. Eorts to develop this stimulus function led to ve generations of

95

t (1) t 0.00 0.50 1.00 1.50 2.00 2.50 3.00 3.50 4.00 4.50 5.00 5.50 6.00 6.50 7.00 7.50 8.00 8.50 9.00 9.50 10.00 10.50 11.00 11.50 12.00 12.50 13.00 13.50 14.00 14.50 15.00 15.50 16.00 16.50 17.00 17.50 18.00 18.50 19.00 19.50 20.00 20.50

a(t) (2) a(t) 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 -1.00 -1.00 -1.00 -1.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00

Table 12:1: Car-following example v(t) x(t) a(t) v(t) x(t) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) v(t) x(t) a(t) v(t) x(t) 16.00 28.00 0.00 16.00 0.00 16.00 36.00 0.00 16.00 8.00 16.00 44.00 0.00 16.00 16.00 16.00 52.00 0.00 16.00 24.00 16.00 60.00 0.00 16.00 32.00 16.50 68.13 0.00 16.00 40.00 17.00 76.50 0.00 16.00 48.00 17.50 85.13 0.23 16.00 56.00 18.00 94.00 0.46 16.12 64.03 17.50 102.88 0.67 16.34 72.14 17.00 111.50 0.82 16.68 80.40 16.50 119.88 0.49 17.09 88.84 16.00 128.00 0.13 17.33 97.45 16.00 136.00 -0.25 17.40 106.13 16.00 144.00 -0.57 17.28 114.80 16.00 152.00 -0.61 16.99 123.36 16.00 160.00 -0.57 16.69 131.78 16.00 168.00 -0.45 16.40 140.06 16.00 176.00 -0.32 16.18 148.20 16.00 184.00 -0.19 16.02 156.25 16.00 192.00 -0.08 15.93 164.24 16.00 200.00 -0.01 15.88 172.19 16.00 208.00 0.03 15.88 180.13 16.00 216.00 0.05 15.90 188.08 16.00 224.00 0.06 15.92 196.03 16.00 232.00 0.05 15.95 204.00 16.00 240.00 0.04 15.98 211.98 16.00 248.00 0.02 15.99 219.98 16.00 256.00 0.01 16.00 227.98 16.00 264.00 0.00 16.01 235.98 16.00 272.00 0.00 16.01 243.98 16.00 280.00 0.00 16.01 251.99 16.00 288.00 -0.01 16.01 260.00 16.00 296.00 0.00 16.01 268.00 16.00 304.00 0.00 16.00 276.00 16.00 312.00 0.00 16.00 284.00 16.00 320.00 0.00 16.00 292.00 16.00 328.00 0.00 16.00 300.00 16.00 336.00 0.00 16.00 308.00 16.00 344.00 0.00 16.00 316.00 16.00 352.00 0.00 16.00 324.00 16.00 360.00 0.00 16.00 332.00 96

dv (8) dv 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.50 1.00 1.50 1.88 1.16 0.32 -0.59 -1.33 -1.40 -1.28 -0.99 -0.69 -0.40 -0.18 -0.02 0.07 0.12 0.12 0.10 0.08 0.05 0.02 0.01 0.00 -0.01 -0.01 -0.01 -0.01 -0.01 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00

dx (9) dx 28.00 28.00 28.00 28.00 28.00 28.13 28.50 29.13 29.97 30.73 31.10 31.03 30.55 29.87 29.20 28.64 28.22 27.94 27.80 27.75 27.76 27.81 27.87 27.92 27.97 28.00 28.02 28.02 28.02 28.02 28.02 28.01 28.00 28.00 28.00 28.00 28.00 28.00 28.00 28.00 28.00 28.00 August 24, 2011

car-following models, and the most general model is expressed mathematically as follows. at+T = n+1

tT l,m [vn+1 ]m tT tT (vn vn+1 ) tT xtT ]l [xn n+1

(12.11)

where l is a distance headway exponent and can take values from +4 to -1, m is a speed exponent and can take values from -2 to +2, and is a sensitivity coecient. These parameters are to be calibrated using eld data.

12.5

Simulation Models

Simulation modeling is an increasingly popular and eective tool for analyzing a wide variety of dynamical problems which are dicult to be studied by other means. Usually, these processes are characterized by the interaction of many system components or entities.

12.5.1

Applications of simulation

Trac simulations models can meet a wide range of requirements: 1. Evaluation of alternative treatments 2. Testing new designs 3. As an element of the design process 4. Embed in other tools 5. Training personnel 6. Safety Analysis

12.5.2

Simulation models are required in the following conditions 1. Mathematical treatment of a problem is infeasible or inadequate due to its temporal or spatial scale 2. The accuracy or applicability of the results of a mathematical formulation is doubtful, because of the assumptions underlying (e.g., a linear program) or an heuristic procedure (e.g., those in the Highway Capacity Manual) 3. The mathematical formulation represents the dynamic trac/control environment as a simpler quasi steady state system. 4. There is a need to view vehicle animation displays to gain an understanding of how the system is behaving Tom Mathew, IIT Bombay 97 August 24, 2011

12.5.3

Simulation models are classied based on many factors like 1. Continuity (a) Continuous model (b) Discrete model 2. Level of detail (a) Macroscopic models (b) Mesoscopic models (c) Microscopic models 3. Based on Processes (a) Deterministic (b) Stochastic

12.6

Summary

Microscopic trac ow modeling focuses on the minute aspects of trac stream like vehicle to vehicle interaction and individual vehicle behavior. They help to analyze very small changes in the trac stream over time and space. Car following model is one such model where in the stimulus-response concept is employed. Optimal models and simulation models were briey discussed.

12.7

Problems

1. The minimum safe distance headway increases linearly with speed. Which model follows this assumption? (a) Forbes model (b) Pipes model (c) General motors model (d) Optimal velocity model 2. The most popular of the car following models is Tom Mathew, IIT Bombay 98 August 24, 2011

CE415 Transportation Engineering II (a) Forbes model (b) Pipes model (c) General motors model (d) Optimal velocity model

12.8

Solutions

1. The minimum safe distance headway increases linearly with speed. Which model follows this assumption? (a) Forbes model (b) Pipes model (c) General motors model (d) Optimal velocity model 2. The most popular of the car following models is (a) Forbes model (b) Pipes model (c) General motors model

99

13.1 Modeling time-headways

Modeling inter arrival time or time headway or simply headway is he time interval between the successive arrival of two vehicles at a given point. This is a continuous variable and can be treated as a random variable.

13.1.1

One can observe three types of ow in the eld: 1. Low volume ow (a) Headway follow a random process as there is no interaction between the arrival of two vehicles. (b) The arrival of one vehicle is independent of the arrival of other vehicle. (c) The minimum headway is governed by the safety criteria. (d) A negative exponential distribution can be used to model such ow 2. High volume ow (a) This is characterized by near constant headway (b) The ow is very high and is near to the capacity (c) The mean is very low and so is the variance (d) A normal distribution can used to model such ow 3. Intermediate ow (a) Some vehicle travel independently and some vehicle has interaction (b) More dicult to analyzed and has more application in the eld. (c) Pearson Type III Distribution can be used which is a very general case of negative exponential distribution and normal distribution.

100

13.1.2

1 t e = et if = 1

0

et dt = et

=1

(13.2)

h 0

et dt

h 0

= 1 et = e

h

From the PDF of possson distribution we have the probability of x vehicle arriving in time interval t as p(x) and is given by p(x) = mx em x! (13.3)

where m is the mean arrival rate in the time interval t. The mean arrival rate is given as V m = 3600 t where V is the hourly ow rate. If the probability of no vehicle in the interval t is given as p(0), then this probability is same as the probability that the headway greater than or equal to t. Therefore, p(x = 0) = em = p(h t) = e

t

where =

1

V 3600

13.1.3

Normal distribution

101 August 24, 2011

(t)2 1 e 22 2

(13.7)

(t)2 1 e 22 2 t+t (t+t)2 1 e 22 p(h t + t) = 2 p(t h t + t) = p(h t + t) p(h t)

p(h t) =

(13.8)

The normal distribution has two parameters; and The is simple mean headway or inverse of average ow rate given by = 1 ( 3600 ) V (13.9)

Since headways cannot be negative, has to be calculated, not from observation, but empirically. First specify the theoretical minimum headway possible, say and set it as mean minus twice standard deviation. = 2 = 2 (13.10) (13.11)

For example, if the hourly ow rate is 1500 vehicles and the minimum expected headways is 0.5 second, then, =

3600 1500

0.5 = 0.95 2

(13.12)

The integration of the pdf of normal distribution is not available in a closed form solution. Therefore, one has to numerically integrate or normalize the given distribution having mean and sd to a standard normal distribution ( = 0 and sd = 1) whose values are available as standard tables. The transformation is give as: p[t h (t + t)] = p t h (t + t) t (t + t) p h = p h (13.13) (13.14)

102

CE415 Transportation Engineering II For example if q=1600 veh/hr, then = (assuming = 0.5 sec).

3600 1600

2.250.5 2

p[1.5 h 2.0] = p[h 2.0] p[h 1.5] 1.5 2.25 2.0 2.25 p h = p h 0.875 0.875 = p [h 0.29] p [h 0.86] = 0.3859 0.1949 (from tables) = 0.191.

13.1.4

f (t) = (K) [(t )]K1 e(t) = (K) [t]K1 et = (K1)! [t]K1 et = et

where is parameter that is function of , K, and ; K is a user specied parameter between 0 and ; is a user selected parameter greater than 0 and called as the shift patmeter; and () is the gamma function ((K) = (K 1)!). Then p(h t) = Prob of h/w lying b/w t and t + t is p(t h < (t + t)) = Approximating p(t h < (t + t)) = The solution steps 1. Input , 2. = 0.5 ensuring h/w is greater than 0.5 3. K = 4. =

K t t

f (t)dt

(13.20)

f (t)dt

(t+t)

f (t)dt

(13.21)

f (t) + f (t + t) t 2

(13.22)

103

if 1 K 2 (K 1)(K 1) if K > 2

x K1 dx, 0 e x

(13.23)

6. Solve for f (t) using Equation 13.20 7. Solve for p(t h < (t + t)) using Equation 13.22 Example An obseravtion from 3424 samples is given table below. Mean headway observed was 3.5 seconds and the standard deviation 2.6 seconds. Fit a (i) negatie expoetial distribution, (ii) normal distrbution and (iii) Person Type III Distribution. Table 13:1: Obsered headway distribution t t+dt p (obs) 0.0 0.5 0.012 0.5 1.0 0.064 1.0 1.5 0.114 1.5 2.0 0.159 2.0 2.5 0.157 2.5 3.0 0.130 3.0 3.5 0.088 3.5 4.0 0.065 4.0 4.5 0.043 4.5 5.0 0.033 5.0 5.5 0.022 5.5 6.0 0.019 6.0 6.5 0.014 6.5 7.0 0.010 7.0 7.5 0.012 7.5 8.0 0.008 8.0 8.5 0.005 8.5 9.0 0.007 9.0 9.5 0.005 9.5 > 0.033 Total 1.00

Solutions

104

Table 13:2: Solution using negative exponential distribution t t+dt p (obs) Pobs=p*N p(h >= t) N-exp (p) P=p*N 0.0 0.5 0.012 41.1 1.000 0.133 455.8 0.5 1.0 0.064 219.1 0.867 0.115 395.1 1.0 1.5 0.114 390.3 0.751 0.100 342.5 1.5 2.0 0.159 544.4 0.651 0.087 296.9 2.0 2.5 0.157 537.6 0.565 0.075 257.4 2.5 3.0 0.130 445.1 0.490 0.065 223.1 3.0 3.5 0.088 301.3 0.424 0.056 193.4 3.5 4.0 0.065 222.6 0.368 0.049 167.7 4.0 4.5 0.043 147.2 0.319 0.042 145.4 4.5 5.0 0.033 113.0 0.276 0.037 126.0 5.0 5.5 0.022 75.3 0.240 0.032 109.2 5.5 6.0 0.019 65.1 0.208 0.028 94.7 6.0 6.5 0.014 47.9 0.180 0.024 82.1 6.5 7.0 0.010 34.2 0.156 0.021 71.2 7.0 7.5 0.012 41.1 0.135 0.018 61.7 7.5 8.0 0.008 27.4 0.117 0.016 53.5 8.0 8.5 0.005 17.1 0.102 0.014 46.4 8.5 9.0 0.007 24.0 0.088 0.012 40.2 9.0 9.5 0.005 17.1 0.076 0.010 34.8 9.5 > 0.033 113.0 0.066 0.066 226.8 Total 1.000 3424 1.000 3424

13.1.5 13.1.6

Modeling vehicle arrival Modeling speed Estimation of population and sample means

105

Table 13:3: Solution using normal distribution h t+dt p (obs) P=p*N p(h <= t) p(t < h < t + 0.5) 0.0 0.5 0.012 41.09 0.010 0.013 0.5 1.0 0.064 219.14 0.023 0.025 1.0 1.5 0.114 390.34 0.048 0.043 1.5 2.0 0.159 544.42 0.091 0.067 2.0 2.5 0.157 537.57 0.159 0.094 2.5 3.0 0.13 445.12 0.252 0.117 3.0 3.5 0.088 301.31 0.369 0.131 3.5 4.0 0.065 222.56 0.500 0.131 4.0 4.5 0.043 147.23 0.631 0.117 4.5 5.0 0.033 112.99 0.748 0.094 5.0 5.5 0.022 75.33 0.841 0.067 5.5 6.0 0.019 65.06 0.909 0.043 6.0 6.5 0.014 47.94 0.952 0.025 6.5 7.0 0.01 34.24 0.977 0.013 7.0 7.5 0.012 41.09 0.990 0.006 7.5 8.0 0.008 27.39 0.996 0.002 8.0 8.5 0.005 17.12 0.999 0.001 8.5 9.0 0.007 23.97 1.000 0.000 9.0 9.5 0.005 17.12 1.000 0.000 9.5 > 0.033 112.99 1.000 0.010 3424

P=p*N 44.289 85.738 148.673 230.928 321.299 400.433 447.033 447.033 400.433 321.299 230.928 148.673 85.738 44.289 20.492 8.493 3.153 1.048 0.312 33.716

106

h 0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 3.5 4.0 4.5 5.0 5.5 6.0 6.5 7.0 7.5 8.0 8.5 9.0 9.5

Table 13:4: Solution using Pearson type III distribution t+dt p (obs) P=p*N f(t) p(t < h < t + 0.5) P=p*N 0.5 0.012 41.09 0.000 0.00 1.0 0.064 219.14 0.000 0.066 225.91 1.5 0.114 390.34 0.264 0.127 433.26 2.0 0.159 544.42 0.242 0.114 389.45 2.5 0.157 537.57 0.213 0.099 339.13 3.0 0.13 445.12 0.183 0.085 291.12 3.5 0.088 301.31 0.157 0.072 247.86 4.0 0.065 222.56 0.133 0.061 209.90 4.5 0.043 147.23 0.112 0.052 177.08 5.0 0.033 112.99 0.095 0.044 148.97 5.5 0.022 75.33 0.079 0.037 125.04 6.0 0.019 65.06 0.067 0.031 104.78 6.5 0.014 47.94 0.056 0.026 87.67 7.0 0.01 34.24 0.047 0.021 73.28 7.5 0.012 41.09 0.039 0.018 61.18 8.0 0.008 27.39 0.033 0.015 51.04 8.5 0.005 17.12 0.027 0.012 42.54 9.0 0.007 23.97 0.023 0.010 35.44 9.5 0.005 17.12 0.019 0.009 29.51 > 0.033 112.99 0.016 0.102 350.83 x 3424

107

14.1 Introdcution

If one looks into trac ow from a very long distance, the ow of fairly heavy trac appears like a stream of a uid. Therefore, a macroscopic theory of trac can be developed with the help of hydrodynamic theory of uids by considering trac as an eectively one-dimensional compressible uid. The behaviour of individual vehicle is ignored and one is concerned only with the behaviour of sizable aggregate of vehicles. The earliest trac ow models began by writing the balance equation to address vehicle number conservation on a road. Infact, all trac ow models and theories must satisfy the law of conservation of the number of vehicles on the road. Assuming that the vehicles are owing from left to right, the continuity equation can be written as k(x, t) q(x, t) + =0 (14.1) t x where x denotes the spatial coordinate in the direction of trac ow, t is the time, k is the density and q denotes the ow. However, one cannot get two unknowns, namely k(x, t) by and q(x, t) by solving one equation. One possible solution is to write two equations from two regimes of the ow, say before and after a bottleneck. In this system the ow rate before and after will be same, or k1 v1 = k2 v2 (14.2) From this the shockwave velocity can be derived as v(to )p = q2 q1 k2 k1 (14.3)

This is normally referred to as Stocks shockwave formula. An alternate possibility which Lighthill and Whitham adopted in their landmark study is to assume that the ow rate q is determined primarily by the local density k, so that ow q can be treated as a function of only density k. Therefore the number of unknown variables will be reduced to one. Essentially this assumption states that k(x,t) and q (x,t) are not independent of each other. Therefore the continuity equation takes the form k(x, t) q(k(x, t)) + =0 t x Tom Mathew, IIT Bombay 108 (14.4)

However, the functional relationship between ow q and density k cannot be calculated from uid-dynamical theory. This has to be either taken as a phenomenological relation derived from the empirical observation or from microscopic theories. Therefore, the ow rate q is a function of the vehicular density k; q = q(k). Thus, the balance equation takes the form k(x, t) q(k(x, t)) + =0 t x (14.5)

Now there is only one independent variable in the balance equation, the vehicle density k. If initial and boundary conditions are known, this can be solved. Solution to LWR models are kinematic waves moving with velocity dq(k) (14.6) dk This velocity vk is positive when the ow rate increases with density, and it is negative when the ow rate decreases with density. In some cases, this function may shift from one regime to the other, and then a shock is said to be formed. This shockwave propagate at the velocity vs = q(k2 ) q(k1 ) k2 k1 (14.7)

where q(k2 ) and q(k1 ) are the ow rates corresponding to the upstream density k2 and downstream density k1 of the shockwave. Unlike Stocks shockwave formula there is only one variable here.

109

15.1 Introduction

In the classical methods to explain macroscopic behaviour of trac, like hydrodynamic theory, dierential equations need to be solved to predict trac evolution. However in situations of sudden high density variations, like bottlenecking, the hydrodynamic model calls for a shock wave (an ad-hoc). Hence these equations are essentially piecewise continuous which are dicult to solve. Cell transmission models are developed as a discrete analogue of these dierential equations in the form of dierence equations which are easy to solve and also take care of high density changes. In this lecture note the hydrodynamic model and cell transmission model and their equivalence is discussed. The cell transmission model is explained in two parts, rst with only a source and a sink, and then it is extended to a network. In the rst part, the concepts of basic ow advancement equations of CTM and a generalized form of CTM are presented. In addition, the phenomenon of instability is also discussed. In the second part, the network representation and topologies are established, after which the model is discussed in terms of a linear program formulation for merging and diverging.

15.2

The cell transmission model simulates trac conditions by proposing to simulate the system with a time-scan strategy where current conditions are updated with every tick of a clock. The road section under consideration is divided into homogeneous sections called cells, numbered from i = 1 to I. The lengths of the sections are set equal to the distances travelled in light trac by a typical vehicle in one clock tick. Under light trac condition, all the vehicles in a cell can be assumed to advance to the next with each clock tick. i.e, ni+1 (t + 1) = ni (t) (15.1)

where, ni (t) is the number of vehicles in cell i at time t. However equation 15.1 is not reasonable when ow exceeds the capacity. Hence a more robust set of ow advancement equations are presented next.

110

Qi1(t), Ni1(t) t ni1(t) Qi(t), Ni(t) ni(t) Qi+1(t), Ni+1(t) ni+1(t)

t + 1 ni(t + 1)

15.2.1

First, two constants associated with each cell are dened, namely,Ni (t) and Qi (t) 1. Ni (t) is the maximum number of vehicles that can be present in cell i at time t, it is the product of the cells length and its jam density. 2. Qi (t) is the maximum number of vehicles that can ow into cell i when the clock advances from t to t + 1 (time interval t), it is the minimum of the capacity of cells from i 1 and i. It is called the capacity of cell i. It represents the maximum ow that can be transferred from i 1 to i. Now the ow advancement equation can be written as: ni (t + 1) = ni (t) + yi(t) yi+1 (t) (15.2)

where, ni (t + 1) is the cell occupancy at time t + 1, ni (t) the cell occupance at time t, yi (t) is the inow at time t, yi+1(t) is the outow at time t. The ows are related to the current conditions at time t as indicated below: yi (t) = min [ni1 (t), Qi (t), Ni (t) ni (t)] (15.3)

where, ni1 (t) is the number of vehicles in cell i 1 at time t, Qi (t) is the capacity ow into i for time interval t, and Ni (t) - ni (t) is the amount of empty space in cell i at time t.

15.2.2

Boundary conditions

Boundary conditions are specied by means of input and output cells. The output cell, a sink for all exiting trac, should have innite size (NI+1 = ) and a suitable, possibly time-varying, capacity. Input cells are a cell pair. A source cell numbered 00 with an innite number of vehicles (n00 (O) = ) that discharges into an empty gate cell 00 of innite size, N0 (t) = . The inow capacity Q0 (t) of the gate cell is set equal to the desired link input ow for time interval t + 1.

111

vkj/2 qmax -v

ka

kb

15.2.3

Consider equation 15.2 and equation 15.3, they are discrete approximations to the hydrodynamic model with a density- ow (k-q) relationship in the shape of an isoscaled trapezoid, as in Fig.15:2. This relationship can be expressed as: q = min [vk , qmax , v(kj k)], f or 0 k kj , Flow conservation is given by, k(x, t) q(x, t) = (15.5) x t To demonstrate the equivalence of the discrete and continuous approaches, the clock tick set to be equal to t and choose the unit of distance such that vt = 1. Then the cell length is 1, v is also 1, and the following equivalences hold: x i, kj N, qmax Q, and k(x, t) ni (t) with these conventions, it can be easily seen that the equation 15.4 & equation 15.3 are equivalent. Equation 15.6 can be equivalently written as: yi (t) yi+1 (t) = ni (t) + ni+1 (t + 1) (15.6) This represents change in ow over space equal to change in occupancy over time. Rearranging terms of this equation we can arrive at equation 15.3, which is the same as the basic ow advancement equation of the cell transmission model. . (15.4)

15.2.4

Generalized CTM

Generalized CTM is an extension of the cell transmission model that would approximate the hydrodynamic model for an equation of state that allows backward waves with speed w v (see Fig. 15:3 ). This is a realistic model, since on many occassions speed of backward wave will not be same as the free ow speed.

112

F low

kj

1 1 +w v

qmax w

ka

kb

Density

Figure 15:3: Flow-density relationship for the generalized CTM yi (t) = min [ni1 (t), Qi (t), w/v[Ni(t) ni (t)]] (15.7)

A small modication is made in the above equation to avoid the error caused due to numerical spreading. Equation 15.7 is rewritten as yi (t) = min [ni1 (t), Qi (t), [Ni( t) ni (t)]] where, (15.8)

15.2.5

Numerical example 1

Consider a 1.25 km homogeneous road with v = 50 kmph, kj = 180 vpkm and qmax = 3000 vph. Initially trac is owing undisturbed at 80% of capacity: q = 2400 VPH. Then, a partial lane blockage lasting 2 min occurs one third of the distance from the end of the road. The blockage eectively restricts ow to 20% of the maximum. Clearly, a queue is going to build and dissipate behind the restriction. Predict the evolution of the trac. Take one clock tick as 30 seconds.

Solution : Initialization of the table: Choosing clock tick as 30seconds.(i.e1/120th of an hr.) Cell length=50/120=5/12th of a km. Number of cells=1.25*12/5=3. Cell constants: N= 180*5/12=75 Q=3000/120=25. 2min=120s=4 clock ticks. Initial occupancy=2400/120=20. Tom Mathew, IIT Bombay 113 August 24, 2011

Q=25,N=75 Q=25,N=75

Q=5,N=75

t=1

20

20

20

20

t=2

Q=20,N=75

35

Q=25,N=75 Q=25,N=75

t=1

20

20

20

20

20

t=2

20

Table at the start of the simulation. (see Fig. ??) Note: Simulation need not be started in any specic order, it can be started from any cell in the row corresponding to the current clock tick. For illustration, consider cell 2 at time 2 in the nal table (see Fig.??), its entry depends on the cells marked with rectangles. By ow conservation law: Occupancy = Storage + Inow-Outow Here, Storage = 20. For inow use equation 15.3 Inow= min [20,min(25,25),(75-20)]= 20 Outow= min [20,min(25,5),(75-20)]= 5 Occupancy= 20+20-5=35. For cell 1 at time 2, Inow= min [20,min(25,25),(75-20)]= 20 Outow= min [20,min(25,25),(75-20)]= 20 Occupancy= 20+20-20=20. For cell 3 at time 2, Inow= min [20, min (25,5),(75-20)]= 5 Outow= 20 (:.sink cell takes all the vehicles in previous cell) Occupancy= 20+5-20=5.

114

|1(j)| = 0 |(j)| = 1

|1(j)|=1 |(j)| = 0

15.2.6

Numerical example 2

Consider a 1.25 km homogeneous road with v = 50 kmph, kj = 180 vpkm and qmax = 3000 vph. Initially trac is owing undisturbed at 80% of capacity: q = 2400 VPH. Then, a partial lane blockage lasting 2 min occurs l/3 of the distance from the end of the road. The blockage eectively restricts ow to 20% of the maximum. Clearly, a queue is going to build and dissipate behind the restriction. Predict the evolution of the trac. Take one clock tick as 6 seconds. Solution: This problem is same as the earlier problem, only change being the clock tick. The simulation is done for this smaller clock tick; the results are shown in Fig. ?? One can clearly observe the pattern in which the cells are getting updated. After the decrease in capacity on last one-third segment queuing is slowly building up and the backward wave can be appreciated through the rst arrow. The second arrow shows the dissipation of queue and one can see that queue builds up at a faster than it dissipates. This simple illustration shows how CTM mimics the trac conditions.

15.3

15.3.1

General

As sequel to his rst paper on CTM, Daganzo (1995) published rst paper on CTM applied to network trac. In this section application of CTM to network trac considering merging and diverging is discussed. Some basic notations: (The notations used from here on, are adopted from Ziliaskopoulos (2000)) 1 = Set of predecessor cells. = Set of successor cells.

15.3.2

Network topologies

The notations introduced in previous section are applied to dierent types of cells, as shown in Fig. 15:4 Some valid and invalid representations in a network are shown in Fig 6.

115

Cell j

|1(j)| = 1 |(j)| = 1

Cell j

|1(j)| > 1

|(j)| = 1

Cell j

|1(j)| = 1

|(j)| > 1

k k

Figure 15:10: Valid representations Tom Mathew, IIT Bombay 116 August 24, 2011

B_{k} k E_{k}

15.3.3

Ordinary link

Consider an ordinary link with a beginning cell and ending cell, which gives the ow between two cells is simplied as explained below. yk (t) SI (t) RI (t) yk (t) = = = = min(nBk (t), min[QBk (t), QEk (t)], Ek [NEk(t) nEk(t)]) min(QI, nI) min(QI , I , [NI nI ]) min(SBk , REk ) (15.9) (15.10) (15.11) (15.12)

From equations one can see that a simplication is done by splitting yk (t) in to SBk and REk terms. S represents sending capacity and R represents receiving capacity. During time periods when SBk < REk the ow on link k is dictated by upstream trac conditionsas would be predicted from the forward moving characteristics of the Hydrodynamic model. Conversely, when SBk > REk , ow is dictated by downstream conditions and backward moving characteristics.

15.3.4

Consider two cells merging, here we have a beginning cell and its complimentary merging into ending cell, the constraints on the ow that can be sent and received are given by equation 15.15 and equation 15.15. yk (t) SBk yck (t) SCk yk (t) + yck (t) REk (15.13) (15.14) (15.15)

where, SI (t) is the min (QI , nI ), and RI (t) is the min (QI , I, [NI nI ]). A number of combinations of yk (t) + yck (t) are possible satisfying the above said constraints. Similarly for diverging a number of possible outows to dierent links is possible satisfying corresponding constraints, hence this calls for an optimization problem. Ziliaskopoulos (2000), has given this LP formulations for both merging and diverging, this has been discussed later

117

Bk k

Ek ck

Ck

15.4

15.4.1

Conclusion

Summary

CTM is a discrete approximation of hydrodynamic model. System evolution is based on dierence equations. Unlike hydrodynamic model, it explains the phenomenon of Instability. Lesser the time per clock tick lesser are the size of cells and more accurate results would be obtained. But a compromise is needed between accuracy and computational eort. Largest possible cell size which would suciently give the details needed must be chosen. CTM has many applications in DTA, NDP, trac operations, emergency evacuations etc. There is a vast scope for improvement and applications of this model.

15.4.2

CTM is consistent with hydrodynamic theory, which is a widely used model for studying macroscopic behavior of the trac. It is simple and suciently accurate for planning purposes. Here two ecient modeling approaches are used, one is Linear Programming, whose characteristics well known and the other is Parallel computing.These are important from the perspective of computational speed and eciency. CTM can be used to provide real time information to the drivers. CTM has been used in developing a system optimal signal optimization formulation. CTM based Dynamic Trac Assignment have shown good results. CTM has its application in Network Design Problems.(NDP) Dynamic network models based on CTM can also be applied to evaluate the performance of emergency evacuation plans. Tom Mathew, IIT Bombay 118 August 24, 2011

15.4.3

Limitations

CTM is for a typical vehicle in network trac, work is needed for the multi-modal representation of trac. Cell length cannot be varied. Change in the model has to be brought without loss of generality, to relax the constraint on arbitrary selection of cell length, which will facilitate the modelers to select variable cell lengths that are best aligned with the geometry. CTM is largely deterministic, stochastic variables are needed to be introduced to represent the random human behavior. Mesoscopic features can be introduced so that concepts like lane changing behavior etc. can be studied.

119

16.1 Overview

Intersection is an area shared by two or more roads. This area is designated for the vehicles to turn to dierent directions to reach their desired destinations. Its main function is to guide vehicles to their respective directions. Trac intersections are complex locations on any highway. This is because vehicles moving in dierent direction wan to occupy same space at the same time. In addition, the pedestrians also seek same space for crossing. Drivers have to make split second decision at an intersection by considering his route, intersection geometry, speed and direction of other vehicles etc. A small error in judgment can cause severe accidents. It also causes delay and it depends on type, geometry, and type of control. Overall trac ow depends on the performance of the intersections. It also aects the capacity of the road. Therefore, both from the accident perspective and the capacity perspective, the study of intersections very important for the trac engineers especially in the case of urban scenario.

16.2

Conicts at an intersection

Conicts at an intersection are dierent for dierent types of intersection. Consider a typical four-legged intersection as shown in gure. The number of conicts for competing through movements are 4, while competing right turn and through movements are 8. The conicts between right turn tracs are 4, and between left turn and merging trac is 4. The conicts created by pedestrians will be 8 taking into account all the four approaches. Diverging trac also produces about 4 conicts. Therefore, a typical four legged intersection has about 32 dierent types of conicts. This is shown in gure 16:1. The essence of the intersection control is to resolve these conicts at the intersection for the safe and ecient movement of both vehicular trac and pedestrians. Two methods of intersection controls are there: time sharing and space sharing. The type of intersection control that has to be adopted depends on the trac volume, road geometry, cost involved, importance of the road etc.

120

Conflicts in a traffic signal 4 Through traffic

P P

4 Diverging P 8 Pedestrian

Total = 32 Conflicts

P P

16.3

The control of an intersection can be exercised at dierent levels. They can be either passive control, semi control, or active control. In passive control, there is no explicit control on the driver . In semi control, some amount of control on the driver is there from the trac agency. Active control means the movement of the trac is fully controlled by the trac agency and the drivers cannot simply maneuver the intersection according to his choice.

16.3.1

Passive control

When the volume of trac is less, no explicit control is required. Here the road users are required to obey the basic rules of the road. Passive control like trac signs, road markings etc. are used to complement the intersection control. Some of the intersection control that are classied under passive control are as follows: 1. No control If the trac coming to an intersection is low, then by applying the basic rules of the road like driver on the left side of the road must yield and that through movements will have priority than turning movements. The driver is expected to obey these basic rules of the road. 2. Trac signs: With the help of warning signs, guide signs etc. it is able to provide some level of control at an intersection. Give way control, two-way stop control, and all-way stop control are some examples. The GIVE WAY control requires the driver in the minor road to slow down to a minimum speed and allow the vehicle on the major road to proceed. Two way stop control requires the vehicle drivers on the minor streets should see that the conicts are avoided. Finally an all-way stop control is usually used when it is dicult to dierentiate between the major and minor roads in an intersection. In such a case, STOP sign is placed on all the approaches to the intersection and the driver on all the approaches are required to stop the vehicle. The vehicle at the right side will get priority over the left approach. The trac control at at-grade intersection Tom Mathew, IIT Bombay 121 August 24, 2011

may be uncontrolled in cases of low trac. Here the road users are required to obey the basic rules of the road. Passive control like trac signs, road markings etc. are used to complement the intersection control. 3. Trac signs plus marking: In addition to the trac signs, road markings also complement the trac control at intersections. Some of the examples include stop line marking, yield lines, arrow marking etc.

16.3.2

Semi control

In semi control or partial control, the drivers are gently guided to avoid conicts. Channelization and trac rotaries are two examples of this. 1. Channelization: The trac is separated to ow through denite paths by raising a portion of the road in the middle usually called as islands distinguished by road markings. The conicts in trac movements are reduced to a great extent in such a case. In channelized intersections, as the name suggests, the trac is directed to ow through dierent channels and this physical separation is made possible with the help of some barriers in the road like trac islands, road markings etc. 2. Trac rotaries: It is a form of intersection control in which the trac is made to ow along one direction around a trac island. The essential principle of this control is to convert all the severe conicts like through and right turn conicts into milder conicts like merging, weaving and diverging. It is a form of at-grade intersection laid out for the movement of trac such that no through conicts are there. Free-left turn is permitted where as through trac and right-turn trac is forced to move around the central island in a clock-wise direction in an orderly manner. Merging, weaving and diverging operations reduces the conicting movements at the rotary.

16.3.3

Active control

Active control implies that the road user will be forced to follow the path suggested by the trac control agencies. He cannot maneuver according to his wish. Trac signals and grade separated intersections come under this classication. 1. Trac signals: Control using trac signal is based on time sharing approach. At a given time, with the help of appropriate signals, certain trac movements are restricted where as certain other movements are permitted to pass through the intersection. Two or more phases may be provided depending upon the trac conditions of the intersection. When the vehicles traversing the intersection is very large, then the control is done with the help of signals. The phases provided for the signal may be two or more. If more than two phases are provided, then it is called multiphase signal. The signals can operate in several modes. Most common are xed time signals and vehicle actuated signals. In xed time signals, the cycle time, phases and interval of each signal Tom Mathew, IIT Bombay 122 August 24, 2011

is xed. Each cycle of the signal will be exactly like another. But they cannot cater to the needs of the uctuating trac. On the other hand, vehicle actuated signals can respond to dynamic trac situations. Vehicle detectors will be placed on the streets approaching the intersection and the detector will sense the presence of the vehicle and pass the information to a controller. The controller then sets the cycle time and adjusts the phase lengths according to the prevailing trac conditions. 2. Grade separated intersections: The intersections are of two types. They are at-grade intersections and grade-separated intersections. In at-grade intersections, all roadways join or cross at the same vertical level. Grade separated intersections allows the trac to cross at dierent vertical levels. Sometimes the topography itself may be helpful in constructing such intersections. Otherwise, the initial construction cost required will be very high. Therefore, they are usually constructed on high speed facilities like expressways, freeways etc. These type of intersection increases the road capacity because vehicles can ow with high speed and accident potential is also reduced due to vertical separation of trac.

16.4

As we discussed earlier, grade-separated intersections are provided to separate the trac in the vertical grade. But the trac need not be those pertaining to road only. When a railway line crosses a road, then also grade separators are used. Dierent types of grade-separators are yovers and interchange. Flyovers itself are subdivided into overpass and underpass. When two roads cross at a point, if the road having major trac is elevated to a higher grade for further movement of trac, then such structures are called overpass. Otherwise, if the major road is depressed to a lower level to cross another by means of an under bridge or tunnel, it is called under-pass. Interchange is a system where trac between two or more roadways ows at dierent levels in the grade separated junctions. Common types of interchange include trumpet interchange, diamond interchange , and cloverleaf interchange. 1. Trumpet interchange: Trumpet interchange is a popular form of three leg interchange. If one of the legs of the interchange meets a highway at some angle but does not cross it, then the interchange is called trumpet interchange. A typical layout of trumpet interchange is shown in gure 16:2. 2. Diamond interchange: Diamond interchange is a popular form of four-leg interchange found in the urban locations where major and minor roads crosses. The important feature of this interchange is that it can be designed even if the major road is relatively narrow. A typical layout of diamond interchange is shown in gure 16:3. 3. Clover leaf interchange: It is also a four leg interchange and is used when two highways of high volume and speed intersect each other with considerable turning movements. The main advantage of cloverleaf intersection is that it provides complete separation of trac. Tom Mathew, IIT Bombay 123 August 24, 2011

124

1 11 0 00 1 11 0 00 11 00 11 00 1 0 1 0 1 0 11 00 11 00 11 00 11 00 11 00

11 00 11 00

1 0 1 0

1 0 1 0 11 00 11 00 11 00 11 00 1 0 1 10 00 1 01 1 0

1 0 1 10 00 1 01 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 11 0 00 1 1 0 0

1 0 1 01 10 00 1 1 0 11 00 11 00 11 00 11 00 11 00 11 1 1 00 0 0 1 1 0 0

Figure 16:4: Cloverleaf interchange In addition, high speed at intersections can be achieved. However, the disadvantage is that large area of land is required. Therefore, cloverleaf interchanges are provided mainly in rural areas. A typical layout of this type of interchange is shown in gure 16:4.

16.5

Channelized intersection

Vehicles approaching an intersection are directed to denite paths by islands, marking etc. and this method of control is called channelization. Channelized intersection provides more safety and eciency. It reduces the number of possible conicts by reducing the area of conicts available in the carriageway. If no channelizing is provided the driver will have less tendency to reduce the speed while entering the intersection from the carriageway. The presence of trac islands, markings etc. forces the driver to reduce the speed and becomes more cautious while maneuvering the intersection. A channelizing island also serves as a refuge for pedestrians and makes pedestrian crossing safer. Channelization of trac through a three-legged intersection (refer gure 16:5) and a four-legged intersection (refer gure 16:6) is shown in the gure.

16.6

Summary

Trac intersections are problem spots on any highway, which contribute to a large share of accidents. For safe operation, these locations should be kept under some level of control depending upon the trac quantity and behavior. Based on this, intersections and interchanges are constructed, the dierent types of which were discussed in the chapter.

125

111 000 111 000 111 000 111 000 111 000 111 000 111 000 111 000 111 000 111 000 111 000 11111111111 00000000000 11111111111 00000000000 11111111111 00000000000 11111111111 00000000000

11111 00000 11111 00000 11111 00000 11111 00000 11111 00000

111 000 111 000 111 000 111 000 111 000 111 000 111 000 111 000 111 000 111 000 111 000 1111111111 0000000000 1111111111 0000000000 1111111111 0000000000 111111 000000 111111 000000 111111 000000 111111 000000 111111 000000 111111 000000 111 000 111 000 111 000 111 000 111 000 111 000 111 000 111 000 111 000 111 000 111 000 1111111111 0000000000 1111111111 0000000000 1111111111 0000000000 1111111111 0000000000

126

16.7

Problems

1. The GIVE WAY control (a) requires the driver in the minor road to slow down to a minimum speed and allow the vehicle on the major road to proceed. (b) requires the driver in the major road to slow down to a minimum speed and allow the vehicle on the minor road to proceed. (c) requires the drivers on both minor and major roads to stop. (d) is similar to one way control. 2. Trac signal is an example of (a) Passive control (b) No control (c) Active control (d) none of these

16.8

Solutions

1. The GIVE WAY control (a) requires the driver in the minor road to slow down to a minimum speed and allow the vehicle on the major road to proceed. (b) requires the driver in the major road to slow down to a minimum speed and allow the vehicle on the minor road to proceed. (c) requires the drivers on both minor and major roads to stop. (d) is similar to one way control. 2. Trac signal is an example of (a) Passive control (b) No control (c) Active control

127

17.1 Overview

Trac control device is the medium used for communicating between trac engineer and road users. Unlike other modes of transportation, there is no control on the drivers using the road. Here trac control devices comes to the help of the trac engineer. The major types of trac control devices used are- trac signs, road markings , trac signals and parking control. This chapter discusses trac control signs. Dierent types of trac signs are regulatory signs, warning signs and informatory signs.

17.2

1. The control device should fulll a need : Each device must have a specic purpose for the safe and ecient operation of trac ow. The superuous devices should not be used. 2. It should command attention from the road users: This aects the design of signs. For commanding attention, proper visibility should be there. Also the sign should be distinctive and clear. The sign should be placed in such a way that the driver requires no extra eort to see the sign. 3. It should convey a clear, simple meaning: Clarity and simplicity of message is essential for the driver to properly understand the meaning in short time. The use of color, shape and legend as codes becomes important in this regard. The legend should be kept short and simple so that even a less educated driver could understand the message in less time. 4. Road users must respect the signs: Respect is commanded only when the drivers are conditioned to expect that all devices carry meaningful and important messages. Overuse, misuse and confusing messages of devices tends the drivers to ignore them. 5. The control device should provide adequate time for proper response from the road users: This is again related to the design aspect of trac control devices. The sign boards should be placed at a distance such that the driver could see it and gets sucient Tom Mathew, IIT Bombay 128 August 24, 2011

time to respond to the situation. For example, the STOP sign which is always placed at the stop line of the intersection should be visible for atleast one safe stopping sight distance away from the stop line.

17.3

Communication tools

A number of mechanisms are used by the trac engineer to communicate with the road user. These mechanisms recognize certain human limitations, particularly eyesight. Messages are conveyed through the following elements. 1. Color: It is the rst and most easily noticed characteristics of a device. Usage of dierent colors for dierent signs are important. The most commonly used colors are red, green, yellow, black, blue, and brown . These are used to code certain devices and to reinforce specic messages. Consistent use of colors helps the drivers to identify the presence of sign board ahead. 2. Shape : It is the second element discerned by the driver next to the color of the device. The categories of shapes normally used are circular, triangular, rectangular, and diamond shape. Two exceptional shapes used in trac signs are octagonal shape for STOP sign and use of inverted triangle for GIVE WAY (YIELD) sign. Diamond shape signs are not generally used in India. 3. Legend : This is the last element of a device that the drive comprehends. This is an important aspect in the case of trac signs. For the easy understanding by the driver, the legend should be short, simple and specic so that it does not divert the attention of the driver. Symbols are normally used as legends so that even a person unable to read the language will be able to understand that. There is no need of it in the case of trac signals and road markings. 4. Pattern: It is normally used in the application of road markings, complementing trac signs. Generally solid, double solid and dotted lines are used. Each pattern conveys different type of meaning. The frequent and consistent use of pattern to convey information is recommended so that the drivers get accustomed to the dierent types of markings and can instantly recognize them.

17.4

There are several hundreds of trac signs available covering wide variety of trac situations. They can be classied into three main categories. 1. Regulatory signs: These signs require the driver to obey the signs for the safety of other road users.

129

2. Warning signs:These signs are for the safety of oneself who is driving and advice the drivers to obey these signs. 3. Informative signs: These signs provide information to the driver about the facilities available ahead, and the route and distance to reach the specic destinations In addition special type of trac sign namely work zone signs are also available. These type of signs are used to give warning to the road users when some construction work is going on the road. They are placed only for short duration and will be removed soon after the work is over and when the road is brought back to its normal condition. The rst three signs will be discussed in detail below.

17.4.1

Regulatory signs

These signs are also called mandatory signs because it is mandatory that the drivers must obey these signs. If the driver fails to obey them, the control agency has the right to take legal action against the driver. These signs are primarily meant for the safety of other road users. These signs have generally black legend on a white background. They are circular in shape with red borders. The regulatory signs can be further classied into : 1. Right of way series: These include two unique signs that assign the right of way to the selected approaches of an intersection. They are the STOP sign and GIVE WAY sign For example, when one minor road and major road meets at an intersection, preference should be given to the vehicles passing through the major road. Hence the give way sign board will be placed on the minor road to inform the driver on the minor road that he should give way for the vehicles on the major road. In case two major roads are meeting, then the trac engineer decides based on the trac on which approach the sign board has to be placed. Stop sign is another example of regulatory signs that comes in right of way series which requires the driver to stop the vehicle at the stop line. 2. Speed series: Number of speed signs may be used to limit the speed of the vehicle on the road. They include typical speed limit signs, truck speed, minimum speed signs etc. Speed limit signs are placed to limit the speed of the vehicle to a particular speed for many reasons. Separate truck speed limits are applied on high speed roadways where heavy commercial vehicles must be limited to slower speeds than passenger cars for safety reasons. Minimum speed limits are applied on high speed roads like expressways, freeways etc. where safety is again a predominant reason. Very slow vehicles may present hazard to themselves and other vehicles also. 3. Movement series: They contain a number of signs that aect specic vehicle maneuvers. These include turn signs, alignment signs, exclusion signs, one way signs etc. Turn signs include turn prohibitions and lane use control signs. Lane use signs make use of arrows to specify the movements which all vehicles in the lane must take. Turn signs are used to safely accommodate turns in unsignalized intersections. Tom Mathew, IIT Bombay 130 August 24, 2011

0000000000 1111111111 1111111111 0000000000 1111111111 0000000000 1111111111 0000000000 1111111111 0000000000 1111111111 0000000000 1111111111 0000000000 1111111111 0000000000 1111111111 0000000000 1111111111 0000000000 1111111111 0000000000 1111111111 0000000000 1111111111 0000000000 1111111111 0000000000 1111111111 0000000000 0000000000 1111111111 1111111111 0000000000 1111111111 0000000000 1111111111 0000000000 1111111111 0000000000

GIVE WAY

STOP

1 0 1 0 1 0

1 0 1 0 1 0

50

Figure 17:1: Examples of regulatory signs ( stop sign, give way sign, signs for no entry, sign indicating prohibition for right turn, vehicle width limit sign, speed limit sign) 4. Parking series: They include parking signs which indicate not only parking prohibitions or restrictions, but also indicate places where parking is permitted, the type of vehicle to be parked, duration for parking etc. 5. Pedestrian series: They include both legend and symbol signs. These signs are meant for the safety of pedestrians and include signs indicating pedestrian only roads, pedestrian crossing sites etc. 6. Miscellaneous: Wide variety of signs that are included in this category are: a KEEP OF MEDIAN sign, signs indicating road closures, signs restricting vehicles carrying hazardous cargo or substances, signs indicating vehicle weight limitations etc. Some examples of the regulatory signs are shown in gure 17:1. They include a stop sign, give way sign, signs for no entry, sign indicating prohibition for right turn, vehicle width limit sign, speed limit sign etc.

17.4.2

Warning signs

Warning signs or cautionary signs give information to the driver about the impending road condition. They advice the driver to obey the rules. These signs are meant for the own safety of drivers. They call for extra vigilance from the part of drivers. The color convention used for this type of signs is that the legend will be black in color with a white background. The shape used is upward triangular or diamond shape with red borders. Some of the examples for this type of signs are given in g 17:2 and includes right hand curve sign board, signs for narrow road, sign indicating railway track ahead etc.

17.4.3

Informative signs

Informative signs also called guide signs, are provided to assist the drivers to reach their desired destinations. These are predominantly meant for the drivers who are unfamiliar to the place. The guide signs are redundant for the users who are accustomed to the location. Tom Mathew, IIT Bombay 131 August 24, 2011

Figure 17:2: Examples of cautionary signs ( right hand curve sign board, signs for narrow road, sign indicating railway track ahead)

1111111111 0000000000 1111111111 0000000000 1111111111 0000000000 1111111111 0000000000 11111111 00000000 1111111111 0000000000 11111111 00000000 1111111111 0000000000 11111111 00000000 1111111111 0000000000 11111111 00000000 1111111111 0000000000 11111111 00000000 1111111111 0000000000 11111111 00000000 1111111111 0000000000 1111 0000 11111111 00000000 1111111111 0000000000 1111 0000 11111111 00000000 1111111111 0000000000 1111 0000 11111111 00000000 1111111111 0000000000 1111 0000 11111111 00000000 1111111111 0000000000 1111 0000 11111111 00000000 1111111111 0000000000 1111 0000 11111111 00000000 1111111111 0000000000 1111 0000 11111111 00000000 1111111111 0000000000 1111 0000 11111111 00000000 1111111111 0000000000 11111111 00000000 1111111111 0000000000 11111111 00000000 1111111111 0000000000 11111111 00000000 1111111111 0000000000 1111111111 0000000000 1111111111 0000000000 1111111111 0000000000 1111111111 0000000000 1111111111 0000000000 111111111 000000000 111111111 000000000 111111111 000000000 111111111 000000000 1111111 0000000 111111111 000000000 1111111 0000000 111111111 000000000 1111111 0000000 111111111 000000000 1111111 0000000 111111111 000000000 111 000 1111111 0000000 111111111 000000000 111 000 1111111 0000000 111111111 000000000 111 000 1111111 0000000 111111111 000000000 111 111 000 000 111 000 1111111 0000000 111111111 000000000 111 111 000 000 111 000 1111111 0000000 111111111 000000000 111 111 000 000 111 000 1111111 0000000 111111111 000000000 111 111 000 000 111 000 111 000 1111111 0000000 111111111 000000000 111 111 000 000 111 000 111 000 1111111 0000000 111111111 000000000 111 000 1111111 0000000 111111111 000000000 111 000 1111111 0000000 111111111 000000000 111 000 1111111 0000000 111111111 000000000 1111111 0000000 111111111 000000000 1111111 0000000 111111111 000000000 111111111 000000000 111111111 000000000 111111111 000000000 111111111 000000000 111111111 000000000 111111111 000000000 111111111 000000000 111111111 000000000 111111111 000000000 111111111 000000000 111111111 000000000 111111111 000000000 111111111 000000000 111111111 000000000 111111111 000000000 111111111 000000000 111111111 000000000 111111111 000000000 111111111 000000000 111111111 000000000 111111111 000000000 111111111 000000000 111111111 000000000 111111111 000000000 111111111 000000000 111111111 000000000 111111111 000000000 111111111 000000000 111111111 000000000 111111111 000000000 111111111 000000000

NH 8

Figure 17:3: Examples of informative signs (route markers, destination signs, mile posts, service centre information etc) Some of the examples for these type of signs are route markers, destination signs, mile posts, service information, recreational and cultural interest area signing etc. Route markers are used to identify numbered highways. They have designs that are distinctive and unique. They are written black letters on yellow background. Destination signs are used to indicate the direction to the critical destination points, and to mark important intersections. Distance in kilometers are sometimes marked to the right side of the destination. They are, in general, rectangular with the long dimension in the horizontal direction. They are color coded as white letters with green background. Mile posts are provided to inform the driver about the progress along a route to reach his destination. Service guide signs give information to the driver regarding various services such as food, fuel, medical assistance etc. They are written with white letters on blue background. Information on historic, recreational and other cultural area is given on white letters with brown background. In the gure 17:3 we can see some examples for informative signs which include route markers, destination signs, mile posts, service centre information etc..

17.5

Summary

Trac signs are means for exercising control on or passing information to the road users. They may be regulatory, warning, or informative. Among the design aspects of the signs, the size, shape, color and location matters. Some of the signs along with examples were discussed in this chapter. A few web sites discussing on trac signs are giben below: www.aptransport.org/html/signs.htm, www.indiacar.com/infobank/Trac-signs.htm. Tom Mathew, IIT Bombay 132 August 24, 2011

17.6

Problems

1. Regulatory signs are also called (a) Mandatory signs (b) Cautionary signs (c) Informative signs (d) Warning signs 2. Stop sign comes under (a) Regulatory signs (b) Cautionary signs (c) Informative signs (d) none of these

17.7

Solutions

1. Regulatory signs are also called (a) Mandatory signs (b) Cautionary signs (c) Informative signs (d) Warning signs 2. Stop sign comes under (a) Regulatory signs (b) Cautionary signs (c) Informative signs (d) none of these

133

18.1 Overview

The essential purpose of road markings is to guide and control trac on a highway. They supplement the function of trac signs. The markings serve as a psychological barrier and signify the delineation of trac path and its lateral clearance from trac hazards for the safe movement of trac. Hence they are very important to ensure the safe, smooth and harmonious ow of trac. Various types of road markings like longitudinal markings, transverse markings, object markings and special markings to warn the driver about the hazardous locations in the road etc. will be discussed in detail in this chapter.

18.2

The road markings are dened as lines, patterns, words or other devices, except signs, set into applied or attached to the carriageway or kerbs or to objects within or adjacent to the carriageway, for controlling, warning, guiding and informing the users. The road markings are classied as longitudinal markings, transverse markings, object markings, word messages, marking for parkings, marking at hazardous locations etc.

18.3

Longitudinal markings

Longitudinal markings are placed along the direction of trac on the roadway surface, for the purpose of indicating to the driver, his proper position on the roadway. Some of the guiding principles in longitudinal markings are also discussed below. Longitudinal markings are provided for separating trac ow in the same direction and the predominant color used is white. Yellow color is used to separate the trac ow in opposite direction and also to separate the pavement edges. The lines can be either broken, solid or double solid. Broken lines are permissive in character and allows crossing with discretion, if trac situation permits. Solid lines are restrictive in character and does not allow crossing except for entry or exit from a side road or premises or to avoid a stationary obstruction. Double solid lines indicate severity in restrictions and should not be crossed except in case of emergency. There can also be a combination of solid and broken lines. In such a case, a Tom Mathew, IIT Bombay 134 August 24, 2011

150 3m

4.5 m

1.5m

3m

3m

4.5 m

Figure 18:2: Centre line and lane marking for a four lane road solid line may be crossed with discretion, if the broken line of the combination is nearer to the direction of travel. Vehicles from the opposite directions are not permitted to cross the line. Dierent types of longitudinal markings are centre line, trac lanes, no passing zone, warning lines, border or edge lines, bus lane markings, cycle lane markings.

18.3.1

Centre line

Centre line separates the opposing streams of trac and facilitates their movements. Usually no centre line is provided for roads having width less than 5 m and for roads having more than four lanes. The centre line may be marked with either single broken line, single solid line, double broken line, or double solid line depending upon the road and trac requirements. On urban roads with less than four lanes, the centre line may be single broken line segments of 3 m long and 150 mm wide. The broken lines are placed with 4.5 m gaps (gure 18:1). On curves and near intersections, gap shall be reduced to 3 metres. On undivided urban roads with at least two trac lanes in each direction, the centre line marking may be a single solid line of 150 mm wide as in gure 18:2, or double solid line of 100 mm wide separated by a space of 100 mm as shown in gure 18:3. The centre barrier line marking for four lane road is shown in gure 18:4.

18.3.2

The subdivision of wide carriageways into separate lanes on either side of the carriage way helps the driver to go straight and also curbs the meandering tendency of the driver. At intersections, these trac lane lines will eliminate confusion and facilitates turning movements. Thus trac Tom Mathew, IIT Bombay 135 August 24, 2011

1.5m 100 3m

100 mm 150 mm 1.5m 3m

Figure 18:4: Centre barrier line marking for four lane road lane markings help in increasing the capacity of the road in addition ensuring more safety. The trac lane lines are normally single broken lines of 100 mm width. Some examples are shown in gure 18:5 and gure 18:6.

18.3.3

No passing zones

No passing zones are established on summit curves, horizontal curves, and on two lane and three lane highways where overtaking maneuvers are prohibited because of low sight distance. It may be marked by a solid yellow line along the centre or a double yellow line. In the case of a double yellow line, the left hand element may be a solid barrier line, the right hand may be a either a broken line or a solid line . These solid lines are also called barrier lines. When a solid

100

3.0 m

Figure 18:5: Lane marking for a four lane road with solid barrier line Tom Mathew, IIT Bombay 136 August 24, 2011

1.5 m 3.0 m

4.5 m

Figure 18:6: Trac lane marking for a four lane road with broken centre line

Figure 18:7: Barrier line marking for a four lane road line is to the right of the broken line, the passing restriction shall apply only to the opposing trac. Some typical examples are shown in gure 18:7 and gure 18:8. In the latter case, the no passing zone is staggered for each direction.

18.3.4

Warning lines

Warning lines warn the drivers about the obstruction approaches. They are marked on horizontal and vertical curves where the visibility is greater than prohibitory criteria specied for no overtaking zones. They are broken lines with 6 m length and 3 m gap. A minimum of seven line segments should be provided. A typical example is shown in gure 18:9

18.3.5

Edge lines

Edge lines indicate edges of rural roads which have no kerbs to delineate the limits upto which the driver can safely venture. They should be at least 150 mm from the actual edge of the pavement. They are painted in yellow or white. All the lines should be preferably light reective, so that they will be visible during night also. Improved night visibility may also be obtained by the use of minute glass beads embedded in the pavement marking materials to produce a retroreective surface. Tom Mathew, IIT Bombay 137 August 24, 2011

Ba

rri

l er

in

3m 6m

138

150

18.4

Transverse markings

Transverse markings are marked across the direction of trac. They are marked at intersections etc. The site conditions play a very important role. The type of road marking for a particular intersection depends on several variables such as speed characteristics of trac, availability of space etc. Stop line markings, markings for pedestrian crossing, direction arrows, etc. are some of the markings on approaches to intersections.

18.4.1

Stop line

Stop line indicates the position beyond which the vehicles should not proceed when required to stop by control devices like signals or by trac police. They should be placed either parallel to the intersecting roadway or at right angles to the direction of approaching vehicles. An example for a stop line marking is shown in gure 18:10.

18.4.2

Pedestrian crossings

Pedestrian crossings are provided at places where the conict between vehicular and pedestrian trac is severe. The site should be selected that there is less inconvenience to the pedestrians and also the vehicles are not interrupted too much. At intersections, the pedestrian crossings should be preceded by a stop line at a distance of 2 to 3m for unsignalized intersections and at a distance of one metre for signalized intersections. Most commonly used pattern for pedestrian crossing is Zebra crossing consisting of equally spaced white strips of 500 mm wide. A typical example of an intersection illustrating pedestrian crossings is shown in gure 18:11.

18.4.3

Directional arrows

In addition to the warning lines on approaching lanes, directional arrows should be used to guide the drivers in advance over the correct lane to be taken while approaching busy intersections. Because of the low angle at which the markings are viewed by the drivers, the arrows should Tom Mathew, IIT Bombay 139 August 24, 2011

1.2 m 1.2 m

0.55 m

3.5m

0.5m 3.5m

1.25m

Figure 18:12: Directional arrow marking be elongated in the direction of trac for adequate visibility. The dimensions of these arrows are also very important. A typical example of a directional arrow is shown in gure 18:12.

18.5

Object marking

Physical obstructions in a carriageway like trac island or obstructions near carriageway like signal posts, pier etc. cause serious hazard to the ow of trac and should be adequately marked. They may be marked on the objects adjacent to the carriageway.

140

18.5.1

The obstructions within the carriageway such as trac islands, raised medians, etc. may be marked by not less than ve alternate black and yellow stripes. The stripes should slope forward at an angle of 45 with respect to the direction of trac. These stripes shall be uniform and should not be less than 100 m wide so as to provide sucient visibility.

18.5.2

Sometimes objects adjacent to the carriageway may pose some obstructions to the ow of trac. Objects such as subway piers and abutments, culvert head walls etc. are some examples for such obstructions. They should be marked with alternate black and white stripes at a forward angle of 45 with respect to the direction of trac. Poles close to the carriageway should be painted in alternate black and white up to a height of 1.25 m above the road level. Other objects such as guard stones, drums, guard rails etc. where chances of vehicles hitting them are only when vehicle runs o the carriageway should be painted in solid white. Kerbs of all islands located in the line of trac ow shall be painted with either alternating black and white stripes of 500 mm wide or chequered black and white stripes of same width. The object marking for central pier and side walls of an underpass is illustrated in gure 18:13.

18.6

Word messages

Information to guide, regulate, or warn the road user may also be conveyed by inscription of word message on road surface. Characters for word messages are usually capital letters. The legends should be as brief as possible and shall not consist of more than three words for Tom Mathew, IIT Bombay 141 August 24, 2011

313

260

78

Figure 18:14: Typical dimension of the character T used in road marking any message. Word messages require more and important time to read and comprehend than other road markings. Therefore, only few and important ones are usually adopted. Some of the examples of word messages are STOP, SLOW, SCHOOL, RIGHT TUN ONLY etc. The character of a road message is also elongated so that driver looking at the road surface at a low angle can also read them easily. The dimensioning of a typical alphabet is shown in gure 18:14.

18.7

Parking

The marking of the parking space limits on urban roads promotes more ecient use of the parking spaces and tends to prevent encroachment on places like bus stops, re hydrant zones etc. where parking is undesirable. Such parking space limitations should be indicated with markings that are solid white lines 100 mm wide. Words TAXI, CARS, SCOOTERS etc. may also be written if the parking area is specic for any particular type of vehicle. To indicate parking restriction, kerb or carriage way marking of continuous yellow line 100 mm wide covering the top of kerb or carriageway close to it may be used.

142

1250

18.8

Hazardous location

Wherever there is a change in the width of the road, or any hazardous location in the road, the driver should be warned about this situation with the help of suitable road markings. Road markings showing the width transition in the carriageway should be of 100 mm width. Converging lines shall be 150 mm wide and shall have a taper length of not less than twenty times the o-set distance. Typical carriageway markings showing transition from wider to narrower sections and vice-versa is shown in gure 18:15. In the gure, the driver is warned about the position of the pier through proper road markings.

18.9

Summary

Road markings are aids to control trac by exercising psychological control over the road users. They are made use of in delineating the carriage way as well as marking obstructions, to ensure safe driving. They also assist safe pedestrian crossing. Longitudinal markings which are provided along the length of the road and its various classications were discussed. Transverse markings are provided along the width of the road. Road markings also contain word messages, but since it is time consuming to understand compared to other markings there are only very few of them. Markings are also used to warn the driver about the hazardous locations ahead. Thus road markings ensure smooth ow of trac providing safety also to the road users. The following web link give further insight in to the road markings: mutcd.fhwa.dot.gov/pdfs/200311/pdfindex.htm.

18.10

Problems

1. Broken lines (a) allows crossing with discretion (b) does not allow crossing except for entry or exit from a side road (c) allows crossing only in case of extreme emergency (d) are not at all used as road markings.

143

CE415 Transportation Engineering II 2. Stop line comes under (a) Longitudinal markings (b) Object markings (c) Transverse markings (d) None of these

18.11

Solutions

1. Broken lines (a) allows crossing with discretion (b) does not allow crossing except for entry or exit from a side road (c) allows crossing only in case of extreme emergency (d) are not at all used as road markings. 2. Stop line comes under (a) Longitudinal markings (b) Object markings (d) None of these (c) Transverse markings

144

19.1 Overview

Rotary intersections or round abouts are special form of at-grade intersections laid out for the movement of trac in one direction around a central trac island. Essentially all the major conicts at an intersection namely the collision between through and right-turn movements are converted into milder conicts namely merging and diverging. The vehicles entering the rotary are gently forced to move in a clockwise direction in orderly fashion. They then weave out of the rotary to the desired direction. The benets, design principles, capacity of rotary etc. will be discussed in this chapter.

19.2

The key advantages of a rotary intersection are listed below: 1. Trac ow is regulated to only one direction of movement, thus eliminating severe conicts between crossing movements. 2. All the vehicles entering the rotary are gently forced to reduce the speed and continue to move at slower speed. Thus, none of the vehicles need to be stopped,unlike in a signalized intersection. 3. Because of lower speed of negotiation and elimination of severe conicts, accidents and their severity are much less in rotaries. 4. Rotaries are self governing and do not need practically any control by police or trac signals. 5. They are ideally suited for moderate trac, especially with irregular geometry, or intersections with more than three or four approaches. Although rotaries oer some distinct advantages, there are few specic limitations for rotaries which are listed below. 1. All the vehicles are forced to slow down and negotiate the intersection. Therefore, the cumulative delay will be much higher than channelized intersection. Tom Mathew, IIT Bombay 145 August 24, 2011

2. Even when there is relatively low trac, the vehicles are forced to reduce their speed. 3. Rotaries require large area of relatively at land making them costly at urban areas. 4. The vehicles do not usually stop at a rotary. They accelerate and exit the rotary at relatively high speed. Therefore, they are not suitable when there is high pedestrian movements.

19.3

Because of the above limitation, rotaries are not suitable for every location. There are few guidelines that help in deciding the suitability of a rotary. They are listed below. 1. Rotaries are suitable when the trac entering from all the four approaches are relatively equal. 2. A total volume of about 3000 vehicles per hour can be considered as the upper limiting case and a volume of 500 vehicles per hour is the lower limit. 3. A rotary is very benecial when the proportion of the right-turn trac is very high; typically if it is more than 30 percent. 4. Rotaries are suitable when there are more than four approaches or if there is no separate lanes available for right-turn trac. Rotaries are ideally suited if the intersection geometry is complex.

19.4

As noted earlier, the trac operations at a rotary are three; diverging, merging and weaving. All the other conicts are converted into these three less severe conicts. 1. Diverging: It is a trac operation when the vehicles moving in one direction is separated into dierent streams according to their destinations. 2. Merging: Merging is the opposite of diverging. Merging is referred to as the process of joining the trac coming from dierent approaches and going to a common destination into a single stream. 3. Weaving: Weaving is the combined movement of both merging and diverging movements in the same direction. These movements are shown in gure 19:1. It can be observed that movements from each direction split into three; left, straight, and right turn.

146

1111 0000 1111 0000 1111 0000 1111 0000 1111 0000 1111 0000 1111 0000 111111111111111 000000000000000 111111111111111 000000000000000 111111111111111 000000000000000 111111111111111 000000000000000 111111111111111 000000000000000 111111111111111 000000000000000 111111111111111 000000000000000 111111111111111 000000000000000 111111111111111 000000000000000 111111111111111 000000000000000 111111111111111 000000000000000 111111111111111 000000000000000 111111111111111 000000000000000 111111111111111 000000000000000 111111111111111 000000000000000 11111 00000 11111 00000 11111 00000 11111 00000 11111 00000 11111 00000 11111 00000 11111 00000

11111111 00000000 11111111 00000000 11111111 00000000 11111111 00000000 11111111 00000000

11111111 00000000 11111111 00000000 11111111 00000000 11111111 00000000 11111111 00000000

19.4.1

Design elements

The design elements include design speed, radius at entry, exit and the central island, weaving length and width, entry and exit widths. In addition the capacity of the rotary can also be determined by using some empirical formula. A typical rotary and the important design elements are shown in gure 19:2

19.4.2

Design speed

All the vehicles are required to reduce their speed at a rotary. Therefore, the design speed of a rotary will be much lower than the roads leading to it. Although it is possible to design roundabout without much speed reduction, the geometry may lead to very large size incurring huge cost of construction. The normal practice is to keep the design speed as 30 and 40 kmph for urban and rural areas respectively.

19.4.3

The radius at the entry depends on various factors like design speed, super-elevation, and coecient of friction. The entry to the rotary is not straight, but a small curvature is introduced. This will force the driver to reduce the speed. The entry radius of about 20 and 25 metres is ideal for an urban and rural design respectively. The exit radius should be higher than the entry radius and the radius of the rotary island so that the vehicles will discharge from the rotary at a higher rate. A general practice is to keep the exit radius as 1.5 to 2 times the entry radius. However, if pedestrian movement is higher at the exit approach, then the exit radius could be set as same as that of the entry radius. The radius of the central island is governed by the design speed, and the radius of the entry curve. The radius of the central island, in practice, is given a slightly higher radius so that the Tom Mathew, IIT Bombay 147 August 24, 2011

splitter island exit radius entry radius entry width radius of the central island weaving width circulation width

speed = 30

le

ng

th

Rentry = 20

ea

vi

ng

Rexit = Ren

RCentralIsla

148

movement of the trac already in the rotary will have priority. The radius of the central island which is about 1.3 times that of the entry curve is adequate for all practical purposes.

19.4.4

The entry width and exit width of the rotary is governed by the trac entering and leaving the intersection and the width of the approaching road. The width of the carriageway at entry and exit will be lower than the width of the carriageway at the approaches to enable reduction of speed. IRC suggests that a two lane road of 7 m width should be kept as 7 m for urban roads and 6.5 m for rural roads. Further, a three lane road of 10.5 m is to be reduced to 7 m and 7.5 m respectively for urban and rural roads. The width of the weaving section should be higher than the width at entry and exit. Normally this will be one lane more than the average entry and exit width. Thus weaving width is given as, e1 + e2 wweaving = + 3.5m (19.1) 2 where e1 is the width of the carriageway at the entry and e2 is the carriageway width at exit. Weaving length determines how smoothly the trac can merge and diverge. It is decided based on many factors such as weaving width, proportion of weaving trac to the non-weaving trac etc. This can be best achieved by making the ratio of weaving length to the weaving width very high. A ratio of 4 is the minimum value suggested by IRC. Very large weaving length is also dangerous, as it may encourage over-speeding.

19.5

Capacity

The capacity of rotary is determined by the capacity of each weaving section. Transportation road research lab (TRL) proposed the following empirical formula to nd the capacity of the weaving section. p e 280w[1 + w ][1 3 ] (19.2) Qw = 1+ w l where e is the average entry and exit width, i.e, (e1 +e2 ) , w is the weaving width, l is the length 2 of weaving, and p is the proportion of weaving trac to the non-weaving trac. Figure 19:3 shows four types of movements at a weaving section, a and d are the non-weaving trac and b and c are the weaving trac. Therefore, p= b+c a+b+c+d (19.3)

This capacity formula is valid only if the following conditions are satised. 1. Weaving width at the rotary is in between 6 and 18 metres. 2. The ratio of average width of the carriage way at entry and exit to the weaving width is in the range of 0.4 to 1. Tom Mathew, IIT Bombay 149 August 24, 2011

d d c

c a

N 1433 400 W 1405 505 510

375 650

420

370

1140 S

Figure 19:4: Trac approaching the rotary 3. The ratio of weaving width to weaving length of the roundabout is in between 0.12 and 0.4. 4. The proportion of weaving trac to non-weaving trac in the rotary is in the range of 0.4 and 1. 5. The weaving length available at the intersection is in between 18 and 90 m. Example The width of a carriage way approaching an intersection is given as 15 m. The entry and exit width at the rotary is 10 m. The trac approaching the intersection from the four sides is shown in the gure 19:4 below. Find the capacity of the rotary using the given data. Solution The trac from the four approaches negotiating through the roundabout is illustrated in gure 19:5. Tom Mathew, IIT Bombay 150 August 24, 2011

N 600 650 + + 408 400 350 375 505 505 + + 510 370 510 370 W 500+375 600 375 350 + 370 S

Figure 19:5: Trac negotiating a rotary Weaving width is calculated as, w = [ e1 +e2 ] + 3.5 = 13.5 m 2 Weaving length, l is calculated as = 4w = 54 m The proportion of weaving trac to the non-weaving trac in all the four approaches is found out rst. It is clear from equation,that the highest proportion of weaving trac to non-weaving trac will give the minimum capacity. Let the proportion of weaving trac to the nonweaving trac in West-North direction be denoted as pW N , in North-East direction as pN E , in the East-South direction as pES , and nally in the South-West direction as pSW . The weaving trac movements in the East-South direction is shown in gure 19:6. Then 510+650+500+600 using equation,pES = 510+650+500+600+250+375 = 2260 =0.783 2885 505+510+350+600 pW N = 505+510+350+600+400+370 = 1965 =0.718 2735 650+375+505+370 1900 pN E = 650+375+505+370+510+408 = 2818 =0.674 350+370+500+375 1595 pSW = 350+370+500+375+420+600 = 2615 =0.6099 Thus the proportion of weaving trac to non-weaving trac is highest in the East-South direction. Therefore, the capacity of the rotary will be capacity of this weaving section. From equation, 10 280 13.5[1 + 13.5 ][1 0.783 ] 3 QES = = 2161.164veh/hr. (19.4) 1 + 13.5 54

E 500+600 250

420

510 + 650

151

d 375 d 510+650 c

c a 250

b 500+600 a

19.6

Summary

Trac rotaries reduce the complexity of crossing trac by forcing them into weaving operations. The shape and size of the rotary are determined by the trac volume and share of turning movements. Capacity assessment of a rotary is done by analyzing the section having the greatest proportion of weaving trac. The analysis is done by using the formula given by TRL.

19.7

Problems

1. The width of approaches for a rotary intersection is 12 m. The entry and exit width at the rotary is 10 m. Table below gives the trac from the four approaches, traversing the intersection. Find the capacity of the rotary. Approach North South East West Solution The trac from the four approaches negotiating through the roundabout is illustrated in gure 19:7. Weaving width is calculated as, w = [ e1 +e2 ] + 3.5 = 13.5 m 2 Weaving length can be calculated as, l = 4w = 54 m The proportion of weaving trac to the non-weaving trac in all the four approaches is found out rst. It is clear from equation,that the highest proportion of weaving trac to non-weaving trac will give the minimum capacity. Let the proportion of weaving trac to the nonweaving trac in West-North direction be denoted as pW N , in North-East direction as Tom Mathew, IIT Bombay 152 August 24, 2011 Left turn 400 350 200 350 Straight 700 370 450 500 Right turn 300 420 550 520

N

350

400 420 500 + + 520 420 520 500 550 300 370 + 420 520 + 700 E 450 +550 200

Figure 19:7: Trac negotiating a rotary pN E , in the East-South direction as pES , and nally in the South-West direction as pSW . 450+550+700+520 Then using equation,pES = 200+450+550+700+520+300 = 2220 =0.816 2720 370+550+500+520 pW N = 350+370+550+500+520+420 = 1740 =0.69 2510 1920 420+500+700+300 pN E = 520+400+420+500+700+300 = 2840 =0.676 450+300+370+420 1540 pSW = 550+450+400+370+420+350 = 2540 =0.630 Thus the proportion of weaving trac to non-weaving trac is highest in the East-South direction. Therefore, the capacity of the rotary will be the capacity of this weaving section. From 10 28013.5[1+ 13.5 ][1 0.816 ] 3 = 380.56veh/hr. equation,QES = 13.5 1+

54

153

20.1 Overview

The conicts arising from movements of trac in dierent directions is solved by time sharing of the principle. The advantages of trac signal includes an orderly movement of trac, an increased capacity of the intersection and requires only simple geometric design. However the disadvantages of the signalized intersection are it aects larger stopped delays, and the design requires complex considerations. Although the overall delay may be lesser than a rotary for a high volume, a user is more concerned about the stopped delay.

20.2

A number of denitions and notations need to be understood in signal design. They are discussed below: Cycle: A signal cycle is one complete rotation through all of the indications provided. Cycle length: Cycle length is the time in seconds that it takes a signal to complete one full cycle of indications. It indicates the time interval between the starting of of green for one approach till the next time the green starts. It is denoted by C. Interval: Thus it indicates the change from one stage to another. There are two types of intervals - change interval and clearance interval. Change interval is also called the yellow time indicates the interval between the green and red signal indications for an approach. Clearance interval is also called all red is included after each yellow interval indicating a period during which all signal faces show red and is used for clearing o the vehicles in the intersection. Green interval: It is the green indication for a particular movement or set of movements and is denoted by Gi . This is the actual duration the green light of a trac signal is turned on. Red interval: It is the red indication for a particular movement or set of movements and is denoted by Ri . This is the actual duration the red light of a trac signal is turned on. Tom Mathew, IIT Bombay 154 August 24, 2011

Phase: A phase is the green interval plus the change and clearance intervals that follow it. Thus, during green interval, non conicting movements are assigned into each phase. It allows a set of movements to ow and safely halt the ow before the phase of another set of movements start. Lost time: It indicates the time during which the intersection is not eectively utilized for any movement. For example, when the signal for an approach turns from red to green, the driver of the vehicle which is in the front of the queue, will take some time to perceive the signal (usually called as reaction time) and some time will be lost here before he moves.

20.3

Phase design

The signal design procedure involves six major steps. They include the (1) phase design, (2) determination of amber time and clearance time, (3) determination of cycle length, (4)apportioning of green time, (5) pedestrian crossing requirements, and (6) the performance evaluation of the above design. The objective of phase design is to separate the conicting movements in an intersection into various phases, so that movements in a phase should have no conicts. If all the movements are to be separated with no conicts, then a large number of phases are required. In such a situation, the objective is to design phases with minimum conicts or with less severe conicts. There is no precise methodology for the design of phases. This is often guided by the geometry of the intersection, ow pattern especially the turning movements, the relative magnitudes of ow. Therefore, a trial and error procedure is often adopted. However, phase design is very important because it aects the further design steps. Further, it is easier to change the cycle time and green time when ow pattern changes, where as a drastic change in the ow pattern may cause considerable confusion to the drivers. To illustrate various phase plan options, consider a four legged intersection with through trac and right turns. Left turn is ignored. See gure 20:1. The rst issue is to decide how many phases are required. It is possible to have two, three, four or even more number of phases.

20.3.1

Two phase system is usually adopted if through trac is signicant compared to the turning movements. For example in gure 20:2, non-conicting through trac 3 and 4 are grouped in a single phase and non-conicting through trac 1 and 2 are grouped in the second phase. However, in the rst phase ow 7 and 8 oer some conicts and are called permitted right turns. Needless to say that such phasing is possible only if the turning movements are relatively low. On the other hand, if the turning movements are signicant ,then a four phase system is usually adopted.

155

5 3 7 6 8 4

2 6 5

3 4

7 Phase 1 ( P1)

1 Phase 1 ( P2)

156

8

3 P1 7

4

7

P2 2

5 P3 1 P4

20.3.2

There are at least three possible phasing options. For example, gure 20:3 shows the most simple and trivial phase plan. where, ow from each approach is put into a single phase avoiding all conicts. This type of phase plan is ideally suited in urban areas where the turning movements are comparable with through movements and when through trac and turning trac need to share same lane. This phase plan could be very inecient when turning movements are relatively low. Figure 20:4 shows a second possible phase plan option where opposing through trac are put into same phase. The non-conicting right turn ows 7 and 8 are grouped into a third phase. Similarly ows 5 and 6 are grouped into fourth phase. This type of phasing is very ecient when the intersection geometry permits to have at least one lane for each movement, and the through trac volume is signicantly high. Figure 20:5 shows yet another phase plan. However, this is rarely used in practice. There are ve phase signals, six phase signals etc. They are normally provided if the intersection control is adaptive, that is, the signal phases and timing adapt to the real time trac conditions.

20.4

Interval design

There are two intervals, namely the change interval and clearance interval, normally provided in a trac signal. The change interval or yellow time is provided after green time for movement. The purpose is to warn a driver approaching the intersection during the end of a green time about the coming of a red signal. They normally have a value of 3 to 6 seconds. The design consideration is that a driver approaching the intersection with design speed should be able to stop at the stop line of the intersection before the start of red time. Institute of transportation engineers (ITE) has recommended a methodology for computing the appropriate Tom Mathew, IIT Bombay 157 August 24, 2011

3 4 P1 8 P2 1

7

5 P3 7 P4

P1

4 P2

2 8

P3 7 1

P4

158

Figure 20:6: Group of vehicles at a signalized intersection waiting for green signal length of change interval which is as follows: y =t+ v85 2a + 19.6g (20.1)

where y is the length of yellow interval in seconds, t is the reaction time of the driver, v85 is the 85th percentile speed of approaching vehicles in m/s, a is the deceleration rate of vehicles in m/s2 , g is the grade of approach expressed as a decimal. Change interval can also be approximately computed as y = SSD , where SSD is the stopping sight distance and v is the v speed of the vehicle. The clearance interval is provided after yellow interval and as mentioned earlier, it is used to clear o the vehicles in the intersection. Clearance interval is optional in a signal design. It depends on the geometry of the intersection. If the intersection is small, then there is no need of clearance interval whereas for very large intersections, it may be provided.

20.5

Cycle time

Cycle time is the time taken by a signal to complete one full cycle of iterations. i.e. one complete rotation through all signal indications. It is denoted by C. The way in which the vehicles depart from an intersection when the green signal is initiated will be discussed now. Figure 20:6 illustrates a group of N vehicles at a signalized intersection, waiting for the green signal. As the signal is initiated, the time interval between two vehicles, referred as headway, crossing the curb line is noted. The rst headway is the time interval between the initiation of the green signal and the instant vehicle crossing the curb line. The second headway is the time interval between the rst and the second vehicle crossing the curb line. Successive headways are then plotted as in gure 20:7. The rst headway will be relatively longer since it includes the reaction time of the driver and the time necessary to accelerate. The second headway will be comparatively lower because the second driver can overlap his/her reaction time with that of the rst drivers. After few vehicles, the headway will become constant. This constant headway which characterizes all headways beginning with the fourth or fth vehicle, is dened as the saturation headway, and is denoted as h. This is the headway that can be achieved by a stable moving platoon of vehicles passing through a green indication. If every vehicles require h seconds of green time, and if the signal were always green, then s vehicles/per hour would

159

Headway

e1 h1 e2 e3

h Vehicles in queue

3600 (20.2) h where s is the saturation ow rate in vehicles per hour of green time per lane, h is the saturation headway in seconds. vehicles per hour of green time per lane. As noted earlier, the headway will be more than h particularly for the rst few vehicles. The dierence between the actual headway and h for the ith vehicle and is denoted as ei shown in gure 20:7. These dierences for the rst few vehicles can be added to get start up lost time, l1 which is given by, s=

n

l1 =

i=1

ei

(20.3)

The green time required to clear N vehicles can be found out as, T = l1 + h.N (20.4)

where T is the time required to clear N vehicles through signal, l1 is the start-up lost time, and h is the saturation headway in seconds.

20.5.1

Eective green time is the actual time available for the vehicles to cross the intersection. It is the sum of actual green time (Gi ) plus the yellow minus the applicable lost times. This lost time is the sum of start-up lost time (l1 ) and clearance lost time (l2 ) denoted as tL . Thus eective green time can be written as, gi = Gi + Yi tL (20.5)

160

20.5.2

Lane capacity

The ratio of eective green time to the cycle length ( gi )is dened as green ratio. We know C that saturation ow rate is the number of vehicles that can be moved in one lane in one hour assuming the signal to be green always. Then the capacity of a lane can be computed as, ci = si gi C (20.6)

where ci is the capacity of lane in vehicle per hour, si is the saturation ow rate in vehicle per hour per lane, C is the cycle time in seconds. Problem Let the cycle time of an intersection is 60 seconds, the green time for a phase is 27 seconds, and the corresponding yellow time is 4 seconds. If the saturation headway is 2.4 seconds/vehicle, the start-up lost time is 2 seconds/phase, and the clearance lost time is 1 second/phase, nd the capacity of the movement per lane? Solution Total lost time, tL = 2+1 = 3 seconds. From equation eective green time, gi = 27+4-3 = 28 seconds. From equationsaturation ow rate, si = 3600 = 3600 = 1500 veh/hr. h 2.4 Capacity of the given phase can be found out from equation,Ci = 1500 28 = 700 veh/hr/lane. 60

20.5.3

Critical lane

During any green signal phase, several lanes on one or more approaches are permitted to move. One of these will have the most intense trac. Thus it requires more time than any other lane moving at the same time. If sucient time is allocated for this lane, then all other lanes will also be well accommodated. There will be one and only one critical lane in each signal phase. The volume of this critical lane is called critical lane volume.

20.6

The cycle length or cycle time is the time taken for complete indication of signals in a cycle. Fixing the cycle length is one of the crucial steps involved in signal design. If tLi is the start-up lost time for a phase i, then the total start-up lost time per cycle, L = N tL , where N is the number of phases. If start-up lost time is same for all phases, then i=1 the total start-up lost time is L = NtL . If C is the cycle length in seconds, then the number of cycles per hour = 3600 The total lost time per hour is the number of cycles per hour times C the lost time per cycle and is = 3600 .L Substituting as L = NtL , total lost time per hour can C be written as = 3600.N.tl The total eective green time Tg available for the movement in a hour C will be one hour minus the total lost time in an hour. Therefore, Tg = 3600 Tom Mathew, IIT Bombay 161 3600.N.tL C (20.7) August 24, 2011

Let the total number of critical lane volume that can be accommodated per hour is given by Vc , then Vc = Tg Substituting for Tg , from equation 21.2 and si from the maximum sum of critical h lane volumes that can be accommodated within the hour is given by, Tg h 3600 N.tL Vc = 1 h C N.tL = si 1 C N.tL T heref ore C = 1 Vc s = (20.10) (20.11) (20.12) (20.13) (20.14)

The expression for C can be obtained by rewriting the above equation. The above equation is based on the assumption that there will be uniform ow of trac in an hour. To account for the variation of volume in an hour, a factor called peak hour factor, (PHF) which is the ratio of hourly volume to the maximum ow rate, is introduced. Another ratio called v/c ratio indicating the quality of service is also included in the equation. Incorporating these two factors in the equation for cycle length, the nal expression will be, C= N.tL 1

Vc si P HF v c

(20.15)

Highway capacity manual (HCM) has given an equation for determining the cycle length which is a slight modication of the above equation. Accordingly, cycle time C is given by, C= N.L.XC XC ( V )i s (20.16)

where N is the number of phases, L is the lost time per phase, ( V )i is the ratio of volume to s saturation ow for phase i, XC is the quality factor called critical V ratio where V is the volume C and C is the capacity. Problem The trac ow in an intersection is shown in the gure 20:8. Given start-up lost time is 3 seconds, saturation head way is 2.3 seconds, compute the cycle length for that intersection. Assume a two-phase signal.

162

1150

1300 1800

900

Figure 20:8: Trac ow in the intersection

Figure 20:9: One way of providing phases Solution If we assign two phases as shown below gure 20:9, then the critical volume for the rst phase which is the maximum of the ows in that phase = 1150 vph. Similarly critical volume for the second phase = 1800 vph. Therefore, total critical volume for the two signal phases = 1150+1800 = 2950 vph. Saturation ow rate for the intersection can be found out from the equation as si = 3600 2.3 = 1565.2 vph. This means, that the intersection can handle only 1565.2 vph. However, the critical volume is 2950 vph . Hence the critical lane volume should be reduced and one simple option is to split the major trac into two lanes. So the resulting phase plan is as shown in gure ( 20:10). Here we are dividing the lanes in East-West direction into two, the critical volume in the rst phase is 1150 vph and in the second phase it is 900 vph. The total critical volume for the signal phases is 2050 vph which is again greater than the saturation ow rate and hence we have to again reduce the critical lane volumes. Assigning three lanes in East-West direction, as shown in gure 20:11, the critical volume in the rst phase is 575 vph and that of the second phase is 600 vph, so that the total critical lane volume = 575+600 = 1175 vph which is lesser than 1565.2 vph. Tom Mathew, IIT Bombay 163 August 24, 2011

Figure 20:10: second way of providing phases

Figure 20:11: Third way of providing phases Now the cycle time for the signal phases can be computed from equation,C = 24 seconds.

23 1175 1 1565.2

20.7

Summary

Trac signal is an aid to control trac at intersections where other control measures fail. The signals operate by providing right of way to a certain set of movements in a cyclic order. Depending on the requirements they can be either xed or vehicle actuated and two or multivalued. The design procedure discussed in this chapter include interval design, determination of cycle time, and computation of saturation ow making use of HCM guidelines.

20.8

(a) (b)

Problems

3600 h h 3600

gi C

164

si C

20.9

Solutions

h 3600

si C gi C

165

21.1 Overview

In the previous chapter, a simple design of cycle time was discussed. Here we will discuss how the cycle time is divided in a phase. The performance evaluation of a signal is also discussed.

21.2

Green splitting

Green splitting or apportioning of green time is the proportioning of eective green time in each of the signal phase. The green splitting is given by, gi = Vc i n i=1 Vci tg (21.1)

where Vc i is the critical lane volume and tg is the total eective green time available in a cycle. This will be cycle time minus the total lost time for all the phases. Therefore, Tg = C n.tL (21.2)

where C is the cycle time in seconds, n is the number of phases, and tL is the lost time per phase. If lost time is dierent for dierent phases, then cycle time can be computed as follows.

n

Tg = C

tLi

i=1

(21.3)

where tLi is the lost time for phase i, n is the number of phases and C is the lost time in seconds. Actual greentime can be now found out as, Gi = gi yi + tLi (21.4)

where Gi is the actual green time, gi is the eective green time available, yi is the amber time, and Li is the lost time for phase i.

166

Figure 21:1: Phase diagram for an intersection Problem The phase diagram with ow values of an intersection with two phases is shown in gure 21:1. The lost time and yellow time for the rst phase is 2.5 and 3 seconds respectively. For the second phase the lost time and yellow time are 3.5 and 4 seconds respectively. If the cycle time is 120 seconds, nd the green time allocated for the two phases. Solution Critical lane volume for the rst phase, VC1 = 1000 vph. Critical lane volume for the second phase, VC2 = 600 vph. The sum of the critical lane volumes, VC = VC1 + VC2 = 1000+600 = 1600 vph. Eective green time can be found out from equationas Tg =120-(2.5-3.5)= 114 seconds. Green time for the rst phase, g1 can be found out from equationas g1 = 71.25 seconds.

1000 1600

114 = 114=

Green time for the second phase, g2 can be found out from equationas g2 = 42.75 seconds.

600 1600

Actual green time can be found out from equationThus actual green time for the rst phase, G1 = 71.25-3+2.5 = 70.75 seconds. Actual green time for the second phase, G2 = 42.75-3+2.5 = 42.25 seconds. The phase diagram is as shown in gure 21:2.

21.3

Pedestrian crossing requirements can be taken care by two ways; by suitable phase design or by providing an exclusive pedestrian phase. It is possible in some cases to allocate time for the pedestrians without providing an exclusive phase for them. For example, consider an intersection in which the trac moves from north to south and also from east to west. If we Tom Mathew, IIT Bombay 167 August 24, 2011

1111111111111111111111111111111111111 0000000000000000000000000000000000000 1111111111111111111111111111111111111 0000000000000000000000000000000000000 1111111111111111111111 0000000000000000000000 1111111111111111 0000000000000000 1111111111111111111111 0000000000000000000000 1111111111111111 0000000000000000 1111111111111111111111 0000000000000000000000 1111111111111111 0000000000000000 1111111111111111111111 0000000000000000000000 1111111111111111 0000000000000000 1111111111111111111111 0000000000000000000000 1111111111111111 0000000000000000 1111111111111111111111 0000000000000000000000 1111111111111111 0000000000000000 1111111111111111111111 0000000000000000000000 1111111111111111 0000000000000000

120

70.75

46.25

111111111111111111 000000000000000000 11111 00000 1111111111111111 0000000000000000 1111 0000 111111111111111111 000000000000000000 11111 00000 1111111111111111 0000000000000000 1111 0000 111111111111111111 000000000000000000 11111 00000 1111111111111111 0000000000000000 1111 0000 111111111111111111 000000000000000000 11111 00000 1111111111111111 0000000000000000 1111 0000 111111111111111111 000000000000000000 11111 00000 1111111111111111 0000000000000000 1111 0000 111111111111111111 000000000000000000 11111 00000 1111111111111111 0000000000000000 1111 0000 111111111111111111 000000000000000000 11111 00000 1111111111111111 0000000000000000 1111 0000

73.75

42.25

Figure 21:2: Timing diagram are providing a phase which allows the trac to ow only in north-south direction, then the pedestrians can cross in east-west direction and vice-versa. However in some cases, it may be necessary to provide an exclusive pedestrian phase. In such cases, the procedure involves computation of time duration of allocation of pedestrian phase. Green time for pedestrian crossing Gp can be found out by, dx (21.5) Gp = ts + uP where Gp is the minimum safe time required for the pedestrians to cross, often referred to as the pedestrian green time, ts is the start-up lost time, dx is the crossing distance in metres, and up is the walking speed of pedestrians which is about 15th percentile speed. The start-up lost time ts can be assumed as 4.7 seconds and the walking speed can be assumed to be 1.2 m/s.

21.4

Performance measures

Performance measures are parameters used to evaluate the eectiveness of the design. There are many parameters involved to evaluate the eectiveness of the design and most common of these include delay, queuing, and stops. Delay is a measure that most directly relates the drivers experience. It describes the amount of time that is consumed while traversing the intersection. The gure 21:3 shows a plot of distance versus time for the progress of one vehicle. The desired path of the vehicle as well as the actual progress of the vehicle is shown. There are three types of delay as shown in the gure. They are stopped delay, approach delay and control delay. Stopped time delay includes only the time at which the vehicle is actually stopped waiting at the red signal. It starts when the vehicle reaches a full stop, and ends when the vehicle begins to accelerate. Approach delay includes the stopped time as well as the time lost due to acceleration and deceleration. It is measured as the time dierential between the actual path of the vehicle, and path had there been green signal. Control delay is measured as the dierence between the time taken for crossing the intersection and time taken to traverse the same section, had been no intersection. For a signalized intersection, it is measured at the stop-line as the vehicle enters the intersection. Among various types of delays, stopped delay is easy to derive and often used as a performance indicator and will be discussed. Vehicles are not uniformly coming to an intersection. i.e., they are not approaching the Tom Mathew, IIT Bombay 168 August 24, 2011

D1 = Stopped time delay D2 = Approach delay D3 = Travel time delay

Desired path

D3

Actual path

Distance

D2

D1

Time

Figure 21:3: Illustration of delay measures intersection at constant time intervals. They come in a random manner. This makes the modeling of signalized intersection delay complex. Most simple of the delay models is Websters delay model. It assumes that the vehicles are arriving at a uniform rate. Plotting a graph with time along the x-axis and cumulative vehicles along the y-axis we get a graph as shown in gure 21:4. The delay per cycle is shown as the area of the hatched portion in the gure. Webster derived an expression for delay per cycle based on this, which is as follows. di =

C [1 2

gi ]2 C 1 Vi S

(21.6)

where gi is the eective green time, C is the cycle length, Vi is the critical ow for that phase, and S is the saturation ow. Delay is the most frequently used parameter of eectiveness for intersections. Other measures like length of queue at any given time (QT ) and number of stops are also useful. Length of queue is used to determine when a given intersection will impede the discharge from an adjacent upstream intersection. The number of stops made is an important input parameter in air quality models. Problem The trac ow for a four-legged intersection is as shown in gure 21:5. Given that the lost time per phase is 2.4 seconds, saturation headway is 2.2 seconds, amber time is 3 seconds per phase, nd the cycle length, green time and performance measure(delay per cycle). Assume critical v/c ratio as 0.9. Solution The phase plan is as shown in gure 21:6. Sum of critical lane volumes is the sum of maximum lane volumes in each phase, VCi = 433+417+233+215 = 1298 vph. Tom Mathew, IIT Bombay 169 August 24, 2011

111111111111 000000000000 111111111111 000000000000 111111111111 000000000000 111111111111 000000000000 111111111111 000000000000 111111111111 000000000000 111111111111 000000000000 111111111111 000000000000 111111111111 000000000000 111111111111 000000000000 111111111111 000000000000 Vi 000000000000 111111111111 S 111111111111 000000000000 111111111111 000000000000 111111111111 000000000000 111111111111 000000000000

R

gi

C time

Figure 21:4: Graph between time and cumulative number of vehicles at an intersection

196

1111 0000

367

P2 417 400 233 433 367 196 215 P4 187

P1

P3

Figure 21:6: Phase plan Tom Mathew, IIT Bombay 170 August 24, 2011

Phase 1 23 3 Phase 2 26 23 3 52.5 78.5

Figure 21:7: Timing diagram Saturation ow rate, Si from equation= 3600 = 1637 vph. 2.2 0.793.

Vc Si

433 1637

Cycle length can be found out from the equation as C= 42.40.9 = 80.68 seconds 80 0.9 1298 1637 seconds. The eective green time can be found out as Gi = VCi (C L) = 80-(42.4)= 70.4 VC seconds, where L is the lost time for that phase = 4 2.4.

483 Green splitting for the phase 1 can be found out as g1 = 70.4 [ 1298 ] = 22.88 seconds. 417 Similarly green splitting for the phase 2,g2 = 70.4 [ 1298 ] = 22.02 seconds. 233 Similarly green splitting for the phase 3,g3 = 70.4 [ 1298 ] = 12.04 seconds. 215 Similarly green splitting for the phase 4,g4 = 70.4 [ 1298 ] = 11.66 seconds.

The actual green time for phase 1 from equationas G1 = 22.88-3+2.4 23 seconds. Similarly actual green time for phase 2, G2 = 22.02-3+2.4 23 seconds. Similarly actual green time for phase 3, G3 = 12.04-3+2.4 13 seconds. Similarly actual green time for phase 4, G4 = 11.66-3+2.4 12 seconds. Pedestrian time can be found out from as Gp = 4 + 63.5 = 21.5 seconds. The phase 1.2 diagram is shown in gure 21:7. The actual cycle time will be the sum of actual green time plus amber time plus actual red time for any phase. Therefore, for phase 1, actual cycle time = 23+3+78.5 = 104.5 seconds.

171

Delay at the intersection in the east-west direction can be found out from equationas dEW =

104.5 [1 2

(21.7)

Delay at the intersection in the west-east direction can be found out from equation,as dW E =

104.5 [1 2

(21.8)

Delay at the intersection in the north-south direction can be found out from equation, dN S =

104.5 [1 2

(21.9)

Delay at the intersection in the south-north direction can be found out from equation, dSN =

104.5 [1 2

(21.10)

Delay at the intersection in the south-east direction can be found out from equation, dSE =

104.5 [1 2

(21.11)

Delay at the intersection in the north-west direction can be found out from equation, dN W =

104.5 [1 2

(21.12)

Delay at the intersection in the west-south direction can be found out from equation, dW S =

104.5 [1 2

(21.13)

Delay at the intersection in the east-north direction can be found out from equation, dEN =

104.5 [1 2

(21.14)

172

P1 450

P2

Figure 21:8: Phase diagram

21.5

Summary

Green splitting is done by proportioning the green time among various phases according to the critical volume of the phase. Pedestrian phases are provided by considering the walking speed and start-up lost time. Like other facilities, signals are also assessed for performance, delay being th e important parameter used.

21.6

Problems

1. Table shows the trac ow for a four-legged intersection. The lost time per phase is 2.4 seconds, saturation headway is 2.2 seconds, amber time is 3 seconds per phase. Find the cycle length, green time and performance measure. Assume critical volume to capacity ratio as 0.85. Draw the phasing and timing diagrams. From North East West Solution Given, saturation headway is 2.2 seconds, total lost time per phase (tL ) is 2.4 seconds, saturation ow = 3600 = 1636.36 veh/hr. Phasing diagram can be assumed as in gure 21:9. 2.2 Cycle time C can be found from equation=

22.40.85 0.85 750+650 1636.36

as negative.

Hence the trac owing from north to south can be allowed to ow into two lanes. Now cycle time can be nd out as

22.40.85 0.85 450+650 1636.36

= 22.95 or 23 seconds.

The eective green time , tg = C (N tL ) = 23 (2 2.4) = 18.2 seconds. Tom Mathew, IIT Bombay 173 August 24, 2011

P1 450 P2

1111111111111111111111111111111111111 0000000000000000000000000000000000000 1111111111111111111111111111111111111 0000000000000000000000000000000000000 1111111111111111111111 0000000000000000000000 1111111111111111 0000000000000000 1111111111111111111111 0000000000000000000000 1111111111111111 0000000000000000 1111111111111111111111 0000000000000000000000 1111111111111111 0000000000000000 1111111111111111111111 0000000000000000000000 1111111111111111 0000000000000000 1111111111111111111111 0000000000000000000000 1111111111111111 0000000000000000 1111111111111111111111 0000000000000000000000 1111111111111111 0000000000000000 1111111111111111111111 0000000000000000000000 1111111111111111 0000000000000000

23

6.85

13.15

Phase 1

111111111111111111 000000000000000000 11111 00000 1111111111111111 0000000000000000 1111 0000 111111111111111111 000000000000000000 11111 00000 1111111111111111 0000000000000000 1111 0000 111111111111111111 000000000000000000 11111 00000 1111111111111111 0000000000000000 1111 0000 111111111111111111 000000000000000000 11111 00000 1111111111111111 0000000000000000 1111 0000 111111111111111111 000000000000000000 11111 00000 1111111111111111 0000000000000000 1111 0000 111111111111111111 000000000000000000 11111 00000 1111111111111111 0000000000000000 1111 0000 111111111111111111 000000000000000000 11111 00000 1111111111111111 0000000000000000 1111 0000

9.85

10.15

Phase 2

Figure 21:10: Timing diagram This green time can be split into two phases as, For phase 1, g1 = 45018.2 = 7.45 seconds. 1100 For phase 2, g2 = 65018.2 = 10.75 seconds. Now actual green time ,G1 = g1 minus amber 1100 time plus lost time. Therefore, G1 = 7.45-3+2.4 = 6.85 seconds. G2 = 10.75-3+2.4 = 10.15 seconds. Timing diagram is as shown in gure 21:10 Delay at the intersection in the east-west direction can be found out from equationas dEW =

23 [1 2

(21.15)

Delay at the intersection in the west-east direction can be found out from equation,as dW E =

23 [1 2

(21.16)

Delay at the intersection in the north-south direction can be found out from equation, dN S = Tom Mathew, IIT Bombay

23 [1 2

Delay at the intersection in the south-north direction can be found out from equation, dSN =

23 [1 2

(21.18)

175

22.1 Overview

Topic that will be covered in this chapter are: 1. Eect of right turning vehicles 2. Adjustments on saturatin ow 3. Clearence and change interval 4. Various delay models at signalized intersection 5. HCM procedure on signalized intersection capacity and level of service analysis

22.2

1. A right-turnings vehicle will consume more eective green time traversing the intersection than a corresponding through vehicle. 2. Applicable especially at permitted right movements 3. right turn has great diculty in manneouring and nd a safe gap 4. right turn vehicle may block a through vehicle behind it 5. right turn vehciles may take 2, 4, or even 10 times the time to that of a through movement 6. The equivalency concept will answer how many through vehicles could pass the intersection during the time utilized by a through movement. 7. If 3 through and 2 right turn movement takes place at some time duration in a given lane. Assume at the same time duration in another identical lane if 9 through vehicles moved, then vehicles, then 93 = 3.0 (22.1) 9 = 3 + 2 eRT , eRT = 2 Therefore, the right-turn adjustment factor under the current prevailing condition is 3.0. Tom Mathew, IIT Bombay 176 August 24, 2011

8. This factor is normally applied in the saturation ow by adjusting its value. hadj = hideal sec (pRT eRT + (1 pRT ) 1) (22.2)

For example, if there is 15 percent right-turn movement, eRT is 3, and saturation headway is 2 sec, then the adjusted staturatin headway is computed as follows: hadj = 2 sec (0.15 3 + 0.85 1) = 2.6 sec/veh 9. The saturation head way is increased thereby reducing the saturatin ow sadj = 3600 = 1385 veh/hr. 2.6 10. The adjested saturation ow sadj can be written as sadj = sideal fRT 11. From the Equation 22.2 and 22.4, following relation can be easily derived: fRT = 1 1 + pRT (eRT 1) (22.5) (22.4) (22.3)

3600 hadj

where fRT is the multiplicative right turn adjustment factor to the ideal stauration ow. 12. In the above example, fRT = 1 = 0.77 = 1386veh/hr. 1 + 0.15 (3 1) (22.6)

22.3

Change interval

Change interval or yellow or amber time is given after GREEN and before RED which allows the vehicles within a stopping sight distance from the stop line to leagally cross the intersectin. The amber time Y is calculated as Y =t+ v 2(gn + a)) (22.7)

where t is the reaction time (about 1.0 sec), v is the velocity of the approaching vehicles, g is the acceleration due to gravity (9.8 m/sec2), n is the grade of the approach in decimels and a is the deceleration of the vehicle (around 3 m/sec2).

177

22.4

Clearence interval

The clearence interval or all-red will facilitate a vehicle just crossed the stop line at the turn of red to clear the intersection with out being collided by a vehicle from the next phase. ITE recomends the following policy for the design of all read time, given as

w+L v w+L P ,v v

RAR ==

max

P +L v

(22.8)

where w is the width of the intersection from stop line to the farthest conicting trac, L is the length of the vehicle (about 6 m), v is the speed of the vehicle, and P is the width of the intersection from STOP line to the farthest coniting pedestrain cross-walk.

178

23.1 The HCM model

The HCM model for signalized intersection analysis is relatively straightforward. The model becomes complex when opposing right turns are invloved. Input module: The input module is simply a set of conditions that must be specied for analysis to proceed. It is the parametric description of the variables to be analyzed. Some of the variables involved are discussed here. Area Type: The location of the intersection must be classied as being in the central business district (CBD) or not. The calibration study conducted for the 1985 HCM [10] indicated that intersections in CBDs have saturation ow rates approximately 10% lower than similar intersections in other areas. If drivers are used to driving in a big city CBD, all locations in satellite communities would be classied as other. In an isolated rural community, even a small business area would be classied as a CBD. The general theory is that the busier environment of the CBD causes drivers to be more cautious and less ecient than in other areas. Parking Conditions and Parking Activity: If a lane group has curb parking within 84m of the stop line, the existence of a parking lane is assumed. Any vehicle entering or leaving a curb parking space constitutes a movement. Where parking exists, the number of parking movements per hour occuring within 84m of the stop line is an important variable. Conicting Pedestrian Flow: Left-turning vehicles turn through the adjacent pedestrian crosswalk. The ow of pedestrians impedes left-turining vehicles and inuences the saturation ow rate for the lane group in question. Pedestrian ows between 1700 ped/hr and 2100 ped/hr in a cross-walk have been shown to fully block left-turners during the green phase. Local Bus Volume: In signalized intersection analysis, a local bus is one that stops to pick up and/or discharge passengers within the intersection at either a near or a far side bus Tom Mathew, IIT Bombay 179 August 24, 2011

stop. Stopped buses disrupt the ow of other vehicles and inuence the saturation ow rate of the aected lane group. A bus that passes through the intersection without stopping to pick up or discharge passengers is considered to be a heavy vehicle. Arrival type: The single most important factor inuencing delay predictions is the quality of progression. The 1994 HCM model uses six arrival types to account for this impact. Arrival Type 1: Dense platoon, containing over 80% of the lane group volume, arriving at the start of the red phase. Represents very poor progression quality. Arrival Type 2: Moderately dense platoon arriving in the middle of the red phase or dispersed platoon containing 40% to 80% of the lane group volume, arriving throughout the red phase. Represents unfavourable progression on two-way arterials. Arrival Type 3: Random arrivals in which the main platoon contains less than 40% of the lane group volume. Represents operations at isolated and non-interconnected signaliazed intersections characterized by highly dispersed platoons. Arrival Type 4: Moderately dense platoon arriving at the middle of the green phase or dispersed platoon, containing 40% to 80% of the lane group volume, arriving throughout the green phase and represents favourable progression quality on a two-way arterial. Arrival Type 5: Dense to moderately dense platoon, containing over 80% of the lane group volume, arriving at the start of the green phase. Represents higly favourable progression quality. Arrival Type 6: This arrival type is reserved for exceptional progression quality on routes with near-ideal progression characteristics.

Volume adjustment module: In the 1994 HCM module, all adjustments are applied to saturation ow rate, not to volumes. Several important determinations and calculations are done in this module. Conversion of hourly volumes to peak rates of ow: The 1994 HCM model focusses on operational analysis of the peak 15-minute period within the hour of interest. Since demand volumes are entered as full-hour volumes, each must be adjusted to reect the peak 15-minute interval using a peak hour factor. This assumes that all the movements of the intersection , peak during the same 15-minute period. Establish lane group for analysis: Any set of lanes across which drivers may optimize their operation through unimpeded lane selection will operate in equlibrium conditions determined by those drivers. Any such set of lanes is analyzed as a single cohesive lane group. An approach is considered to be a single lane group, except for the cases of exclusive left or right-turn lanes. Where an exclusive turning lane exists, it must be analyzed as a separate lane group for analysis. Lane utilization adjustments: The lane adjustment made to volume is for unequal lane use. Where lane groups have more than one lane, equilibrium may not imply equal use of lanes. The 1994 HCM allows for an optimal adjustment factor to account for this. The lane utilization Tom Mathew, IIT Bombay 180 August 24, 2011

factor adjusts the total lane group ow rate such that when divided by the number of lanes in the group, the result is the rate of ow expected is the most heavily-used lane. When a lane utilization adjustment is used, the resulting v/c ratios and delays reect conditons in the most heavily-used lane of the group. If the factor is not used, the resulting v/c ratios and delays reect average conditions over the lane group. Worksheet: A worksheet is prepared for tabulating intersection movements,peak hour factor,peak ow rates,lane groups for analysis,lane group ow rates, number of lanes,lane utilization factor and proportion of left- and right-turns in each lane. Saturation ow rate module: In this module, the prevailing total saturation ow rate for each lane group is estimated taking into account eight adjustment factors. The adjustment factors each adjust the saturation ow rate to account for one prevailing condition that may dier from the dened ideal conditions. Lane width adjustment factor: The ideal lane width is dened as 4m, and it is for this value that the ideal saturation ow rate is dened. When narrower lanes exist, the increased side-friction between adjacent vehicles causes drivers to be more cautious, and increases headways. If width is less than 4m, a negative adjustment occurs;if width is greater than 4m, a positive adjustment occurs and if the width is equal to 4m, the factor becomes 1.00. Grade adjustment factor: The procedure involved assumes that the eect of grades is on the operation of heavy vehicles only, and that it is the heavy vehicles that aect other vehicles in the trac stream. At signalized intersections, the grade adjustment deals with the impact of an approach grade on the saturation headway at which the vehicles cross the stop line. Parking adjustment factor: The parking adjustment factor accounts for two deleterious eects on ow in a lane group containing a curb parking lane within 84 m of the stop line: (a) The existence of the parking lane creates additional side friction for vehicles in the adjacent lane, thereby aecting the saturation ow rate, and (b) Vehicles entering or leaving curb parking spaces within 84m of the stop line will disrupt ow in the adjacent lane, which will further aect the saturation ow. It is generally assumed that the primary eect of a parking lane is on ow in the immediately adjacent lane. If the number of lanes in the lane group is more than one, it is assumed that the adjustment factor for other lanes is 1.00. Local bus blockage adjustment factor: A general adjustment factor is prescribed for the majority of ordinary bus stop situations. The model assumes that the only lane aected by local buses is the left most lane. For general cases, there is no dierentiation between buses stopping in a travel lane and buses pulling into and out of a stop not in a travel lane. It is assumed that there is no eect on other lanes,i.e. the factor for other lanes is 1.00.

181

Area type adjustment factor: Data collected for preparation of 1985 HCM suggest that saturation ow rates in CBDs tended to be 10% less than similar intersections in other parts of the urban and suburban area. The data were, however, not statistically conclusive and there is no algorithm for this adjustment as it depends only on the location of the signalized intersection. Left-turn adjustment factor: Left-turn vehicles, in general, conict with pedestrians using the adjacent crosswalk. Left-turns may be handled under seven dierent scenarios. 1. Exclusive LT lane with protected LT phase (no pedestrians) 2. Exclusive LT lane with permitted LT phase 3. Exclusive LT lane with protected + permitted LT phase 4. Shared LT lane with protected LT phase 5. Shared LT lane with permitted LT phase 6. Shared LT lane with protected +permitted LT phase 7. Single lane approach Right-turn adjustment factor: There are six ways in which right-turns may be handled at a signalized intersection: 1. Exclusive RT lane with protected RT phasing 2. Exclusive RT lane with permitted RT phasing 3. Exclusive RT lane with compound RT phasing 4. Shared RT lane with protected phasing 5. Shared RT lane with permitted phasing 6. Shared RT lane with compound phasing Modelling permitted right turns: In modelling the permitted right turns it is necessary to take into consideration,subdividing of the green phase,average time to arrival of rst right turning vehicle in subject lane group,denoted by gf ,the average time for opposing standing queue clear the intersection from a multi lane approach,denoted as gq , estimation of proportion of right turning vehicles in right lane, denoted by PL . These parameters are to be estimated for various combinations of multilane and single-lane subject and opposing approaches.

182

Modelling the right-turn adjustment factor for compound (protected/permitted) phasing: The most complicated right-turn case to be modelled is the combination of protected and permitted phasing. The factors that need to be considered are compound phasing in shared lane groups, compound phasing in exclusive right-turn lane groups, the right-turn adjustment factor for protected portion of compound right-turn phases,and the right-turn adjustment factor for the permitted portion of a compound right-turn phase. A variety of base cases can be referred to when dealing with the analysis of protected + permitted or permitted + protected signal phasing. In applying these procedures, manual computation becomes extremely dicult and the usage of software becomes the preferred way to implement these procedures. Capacity analysis module: Analysis of signalized intersection can be made through the capacity analysis module. Determining the v/s ratios, determining critical lane groups and the sum of critical lane v/s ratios, determining lane group capacities and v/c ratios, modidfying signal timing based on v/s ratios are outcomes of the procedure involved in the capacity analysis module. Level of service module: This involves the estimation of average individual stopped delays for each lane group. These values may be aggregated to nd weighted average delays for each approach, and nally for the intersection as a whole. Once delays are determined, a level of service to each lane group can be designated and the intersection as a whole. ?

183

24.1 Signal Coordination for Progressive and Congested Conditions

For signals that are closely spaced, it is necessary to coordinate the green time so that vehicles may move eciently through the set of signals. In some cases, two signals are so closely spaced that they should be considered to be one signal. In other cases, the signals are so far apart that they may be considered independently. Vehicles released from a signal often maintain their grouping for well over 335m.

24.1.1

There are four major areas of consideration for signal coordination: 1. Benets 2. Purpose of signal system 3. Factors lessening benets 4. Exceptions to the coordinated scheme The most complex signal plans require that all signals have the same cycle length. Fig. 24:1 illustrates path (trajectory) that a vehicle takes as time passes. At t = t1 , the rst signal turns

second signal t= $t_{2}$ Signal offset signal green yellow red First signal $t_{1}$ Time

Figure 24:1: Vehicle trajectory Tom Mathew, IIT Bombay 184 August 24, 2011

green. After some lag, the vehicle starts and moves down the street. It reaches the second signal at some time t = t2 . Depending on the indication of that signal, it either continues or stops. The dierence between the two green initiation times is referred to as the signal oset, or simply as the oset. In general, the oset is dened as the dierence between green initiation times, measured in terms of the downstream green initiation relative to the upstream green initiation. Benets It is common to consider the benet of a coordination plan in terms of a cost or penalty function; a weighted combination of stops and delay, and other terms as given here: cost = A (total stops) + B (total delay) + (other terms) (24.1)

The object is to make this disbenet as small as possible. The weights A and B are coecients to be specied by the engineer or analyst. The values of A and B may be selected so as to reect the estimated economic cost of each stop and delay. The amounts by which various timing plans reduce the cost, can then be used in a cost-benet analysis to evaluate alternative plans. The conservation of energy and the preservation of the environment have grown in importance over the years. Given that the vehicles must travel, fuel conservation and minimum air pollution are achieved by keeping vehicles moving as smoothly as possible at ecient speeds. This can be achieved by a good signal-coordination timing plan. Other benets of signal coordination include, maintenance of a preferred speed, possibility of sending vehicles through successive intersections in moving platoons and avoiding stoppage of large number of vehicles. Purpose of the signal system The physical layout of the street system and the major trac ows determine the purpose of the signal system. It is necessary to consider the type of system, whether one-way arterial, two-way arterial, one-way,two-way, or mixed network. the capacitites in both directions on some streets, the movements to be progressed, determination of preferential paths Factorslessening benets Among the factors limiting benets of signal coordination are the following: inadequate roadway capacity existence of substantial side frictions, including parking, loading, double parking, and multiple driveways wide variability in trac speeds very short signal spacing heavy turn volumes, either into or out of the street Tom Mathew, IIT Bombay 185 August 24, 2011

$N$ Distance (m)

Northbound vehicle

600

400

200

60

Time (sec)

120

Figure 24:2: Time space diagram Exceptions of the coordinated scheme All signals cannot be easily coordinated. When an intersection creating problems lies directly in the way of the plan that has to be designed for signal coordination, then two separate systems, one on each side of this troublesome intersection, can be considered. A critical intersection is one that cannot handle the volumes delivered to it at any cycle length.

24.1.2

The time-space diagram is simply the plot of signal indications as a function of time for two or more signals. The diagram is scaled with respect to distance, so that one may easily plot vehicel positions as a position of time. Fig. 24:2 is a time-space diagram for two intersections. The standard conventions are used in Fig. 24:2: a green signal indication is shown by a blank or thin line, amber by a shaded line and red by a solid line. For purpose of illustration of trajectory in the time space diagram for intersections, a northbound vehicle going at a constnat speed of 40fps is shown. The ideal oset is dened as the oset that will cause the specied objective to be best satised. For the objective of minimum delay, it is the oset that will cause minimum delay. In Fig. 24:2, the ideal oset is 25 sec for that case and that objective. If it is assumed that the platoon was moving as it went through the upstream intersection then the ideal oset is given by L t(ideal) = (24.2) S where: t(ideal) = ideal oset,sec, L = block length, m, S = vehicle speed, mps.

24.1.3

Determining ideal osets In Fig. 24:3 a one-way arterial is shown with the link lengths indicated. Assuming no vehicles are queued at the signals, the ideal osets can be determined if the platoon speed is known. For the purpose of illustration, a platoon speed of 60 fps is assumed. The osets are determined according to Eqn. 24.2. Next the time-space diagram is constructed according to the following rules: Tom Mathew, IIT Bombay 186 August 24, 2011

$N$ Distance (m)

Northbound vehicle

600

400

200

60

Time (sec)

120

Distance (m)

6 2000

5 1600 4 1200 point 3 3 800 Point 2 2 400 1 0 Point 1 60 120 180 Time (sec) 240

Figure 24:4: Time space diagram for case study 1. The vertical should be scaled so as to accomodate the dimensions of the arterial, and the horizontal so as to accomodate atleast three to four cycle lengths. 2. The beginning intersection should be scaled rst, usually with main street green initiation at t=0, followed by periods of green and red. 3. The main street green of the next downstream signal should be located next, relative to t=0 and at the proper distance fromt he rst intersection. With this point located, the periods of green, yellow and red for this signal are lled in. 4. This procedure is repeated for all other intersections working one at a time. Fig. 24:4 shows the time-space diagram for the illustration mentioned previously. Fig. 24:5 explores some features of the time-space diagram. Eect of vehicles queued at signals It sometimes happens that there are vehicles stored in block waiting for a green light. These may be stragglers from the last platoon, vehicles that turned into the block, or vehicles that came out of parking lots or spots. The ideal oset must be adjusted to allow for these vehicles, so as to avoid unnecessary stops. The ideal oset can then be given as: tideal = Tom Mathew, IIT Bombay L (Qh + Loss1 ) S 187 (24.3) August 24, 2011

Distance (m)

6 2000

5 1600 4 1200

800

Distance (m)

6 2000

5 1600 4 1200

800

Figure 24:6: Moving southbound where, Q = number of vehicles queued per lane, veh, h= discharge headway of queued vehicle, sec/veh, and Loss1 = loss time associated with vehicles starting from rest at the rst downstream signal. A note on queue estimation If it is known that there exists a queue and its size is known approximately, then the link oset can be set better than by pretending that no queue exists. There can be great cycle-to-cycle variation in the actual queue size, although its average size may be estimated. Even then, queue estimation is a dicult and expensive task and should be viewed with caution.

24.1.4

Consider that the arterial shown in Fig. 24:3 is not a one-way but rather a two-way street. Fig. 24:6 shows the trajectory of a southbound vehicle on this arterial. Oset determination on a two-way street If any oset were changed in Fig. 24:6 to accomodate the southbound vehicle(s), then the northbound vehicle or platoon would suer. The fact that osets are interrelated presents one of the most fundamental problems of signal optimization. The inspection of a typical cycle (as in Fig. 24:7) yields the conclusion that the osets in two directions add to one cycle length. Tom Mathew, IIT Bombay 188 August 24, 2011

$L$

$C$

$2C$

$t_{SB}$

Figure 24:7: Osets on 2 way arterials are not independent- One cycle length

Distance $2C$ $t_{NB}$

$L$

$t_{SB}$

$C$

$2C$

Figure 24:8: Osets on 2 way arterials are not independent- Two cycle length For longer lengths (as in Fig. 24:8) the osets might add to two cycle lengths. When queue clearances are taken into account, the osets might add to zero lengths. The general expression for the two osets in a link on a two-way street can be written as tNB,i + tSB,i = nC (24.4)

where the osets are actual osets, n is an integer and C is the cycle length. Any actual oset can be expressed as the desired ideal oset, plus an error or discrepancy term: tactual(j,i) = tideal(j,i) + e(j,i) where j represents the direction and i represents the link. Oset determination in a grid A one-way street system has a number of advantages, not the least of which is trac elimination of left turns against opposing trac. The total elimination of constraints imposed by the closure of loops within the network or grid is not possible. Fig. 24:9 highlights the fact that if the cycle length, splits, and three osets are specied, the oset in the fourth link is determined and cannot be independently specied. Fig. 24:9 extends this to a grid of one-way streets, in which all of the north-south streets are independently specied. The specication of one east-west street then locks in all other east-west osets. The key feature is that an open tree of one-way links can be completely independently set, and that it is the closing or closure of the open tree which presents constraints on some links. (24.5)

189

$N$ 3 $B$ 2

$C$

$A$

$D$

1 $N$

Distance (m) Northbound vehicle

600

400

200

24.1.5

The bandwidth concept is very popular in trac engineering practice, because 1. the windows of green (through which platoons of vehicles can move) are easy visual images for both working profeesionals and public presentations 2. good solutions can often be obtained manually, by trial and error. Bandwidth and eciency of a progression The eciency of a bandwidth (measured in seconds) is dened as the ratio of the bandwidth to the cycle length, expressed as a percentage: eciency = bandwidth 100% cycle length (24.6)

An eciency of 40% to 50% is considered good. The bandwidth is limited by the minimum green in the direction of interest. Fig. 24:10 illustrates the bandwidths for one signal-timing plan. The northbound eciency can be estimated as (17/60)100% = 28.4%. There is no bandwidth through the south-bound. The system is badly in need of retiming atleast on the basis of the bandwidth objective. In terms of vehicles that can be put through this system without stopping, note that the northbound bandwidth can carry 17/2.0 = 8.5 vehicles per lane per cycle in a nonstop path through the dened system. The northbound direction can

190

very eciently if they are organized into 8-vehicle platoons when they arrive at this system. If the per lane demand volume is less than 510vphpl and if the ows are so organized, the system will operate well in the northbound direction, even though better timing plans might be obtained. The computation can be formalized into an equation as follows: nonstop volume = 3600(BW )(L) vph (h)(C) (24.7)

where: BW = measured or computed bandwidth, sec, L= number of through lanes in indicated direction, h = headway in moving platoon, sec/veh,and C =cycle length. Finding bandwidths: A trial-and-error approach and a case study The engineer ususally wishes to design for maximum bandwidth in one direction, subject to some relation between the bandwidths in the two directions. There are both trial-and-error and somewhat elaborate manual techniques for establishing maximum bandwidths. Refer to Fig. 24:11, which shows four signals and decent progressions in both the directions. For purpose of illustration, assume it is given that a signal with 50:50 split may be located midway between Intersections 2 and 3. The possible eect as it appears in Fig. 24:12 is that there is no way to include this signal without destroying one or the other through band, or cutting both in half. The osets must be moved around until a more satisfactory timing plan develops. A change in cycle length may even be required. The changes in oset may be explored by: copying the time-space diagram of Fig. 24:12 cutting the copy horizontally into strips, one strip per intersection placing a guideline over the strips, so as to indicate the speed of the platoon(s) by the slope of the guideline sliding the strips relative to each other, until some improved oset pattern is identied

There is no need to produce new strips for each cycle length considered: all times can be made relative to an arbitrary cycle length C. The only change necessary is to change the slope(s) of the guidelines representing the vehicle speeds. The northbound vehicle takes 3600/60 = 60sec to travel from intersection 4 to intersection 2. If the cycle length C = 120sec, the vehicle would have arrived at intersection 2 at C/2, or one half of the cycle length. To obtain a good solution through trial-and-error attempt, the following should be kept in consideration: If the green initiation at Intersection 1 comes earlier, the southbound platoon is released sooner and gets stopped or disrupted at intersection 2. Likewise, intersection 2 cannot be northbound without harming the southbound. Nor can intersection 3 help the southbound without harming the northbound. Tom Mathew, IIT Bombay 191 August 24, 2011

Distance (m) 1 N 600m 2 lanes/directions

1500 vpl

600m

V = 20m/s

600m

4 1500 vph

60 Time (sec)

120

180

Distance (m) Intersection 1

New 3

Figure 24:12: Eect of inserting a new signal into system A historical perspective on the use of bandwidth An elegant mathematical formulation requiring two hours of computation on a supercomputer is some-what irrelevant in most engineering oces. The determination of good progressions on an arterial must be viewed in this context:only 25 years ago, hand held calculators did not exist; 20 years ago, calculators had only the most basic functions. 15 years ago, personal computers were at best a new concept. Previously, engineers used slide rules. Optimization of progressions could not depend on mathematical formulations simply because even one set of computations could take days witht he tools available. Accordingly,graphical methods were developed. The rst optimization programs that took queues and other detaisl into account began to appear, leading to later developments that produced the signal-optimization programs in common use in late 1980s. As computers became more accessible and less expensive, the move to computer solutions accelerated in the 1970s. New work on the maximum-bandwidth solution followed with greater computational power encouraging the new formulations.

24.1.6

Simple progression is the name given to the progression in which all the signals are set so that a vehicle released from the rst intersection will arrive at the downstream intersections just as the signals at those intersections initiate green. As the simple progression results in a green wave that advances with the vehicles, it is often called a forward progression. It may happen that the simple progression is revised two or more times in a day, so as to conform to the Tom Mathew, IIT Bombay 192 August 24, 2011

direction of the major ow, or to the ow level. In this case, the scheme may be referred to as a exible progression. Under certain circumstances, the internal queues are suciently large that the ideal oset is negative. The downstream signal must turn green before the upstream signal, to allow sucient time for the queue to start moving before the arrival of the platoon. The visual image of such a pattern is of the green marching upstream, toward the drivers in the platoon. This is referred to as reverse progression.

24.1.7

In certain geometries it is possible to obtain very eective progressions in both directions on two-way streets. The existence of these patterns presents the facts that: The system cycle length should be specied based primarily on the geometry and platoon speed whenever possible, to enhance progressions. The task of good progression in both directions becomes easy if an appropriate combination of cycle length, block length and platoon speed exist. Whenever possible the value of these appropriate combinations should be considered explicitly for they can greatly determine the qualityof ow for decades. In considering the installations of new signals on existing arterials, the same care should be taken to preserve the appropriate combinations and/or to introduce them.

24.1.8

The trac engineer may well be faced with a situation that looks intimidating, but for which the community seek to have smooth ow of trac along an arterial or in a system. The orderly approach begins with rst, appreciating the magnitude of the problem. The splits, osets, and cycle length might be totally out of date for the existing trac demand. Even if the plan is not out of date, the settings in the eld might be totally out of date, the settings in the eld might be totally dierent than those originally intended and/or set. Thus, a logical rst step is simply to ride the system and inspect it. Second, it would be very useful to sketch out how much of the system can be thought of as an open tree of one way links. A distinction should be made among streets that are one way streets that can be treated as one-way, due to the actual or desired ow patterns streets that must be treated as two-ways larger grids in which streets interact because they form unavoidable closed trees and are each important in that they cannot be ignored for the sake of establishing a master grid which is an open tree Tom Mathew, IIT Bombay 193 August 24, 2011

smaller grids in which the issue is not coordination but local land access and circulation Downtown grids might well fall into the last category, at least in some cases. Third, attention should focus on the combination of cycle length, block length and platoon speed and their interaction. Fourth, if the geometry is not suitable, one can adapt and x up the situation to a certain extent. Another issue to address, ofcourse, is whether the objective of progressed movement of trac should be maintained.

24.1.9

Oversaturated trac

The problem of oversaturation is not just one of degree but of kind - extreme congestion is marked by a new phenomenon: intersection blockage. The overall approach can be stated in a logical set of steps: Address the root causes of congestion Update the signalization, for poor signalization is frequently the cause of what looks like an incurable problem If the problem persists, use novel signalization to minimize the impact and spatial extent of the extreme congestion. Provide more space by use of turn bays and parking congestions. Develop site specic evaluations where there are conicting goals.

24.1.10

Signal remedies

Signalization can be improved through measures like, reasonably short cycle lengths, proper osets and proper splits. Sometimes when there is too much trac then options such as equity osets(to aid cross ows) and dierent splits may be called upon. A metering plan involving the three types - internal, external and release - may be applied. Internal metering refers to the use of control strategies within a congested network so as to inuence the distribution of vehicles arriving at or departing froma critical location. External metering refers to the control of the major access points to the dened system, so that inow rates into the system are limited if the system if the system is already too congested. Release metering refers to the cases in which vehicles are stored in such locations as parking garages and lots, from which their release can be in principle controlled.

194

25.0.1 Introduction

Digital computers are used to control trac signals along arterials and in networks in many cities throughout the world. Here the basic issues and concepts invovled in computer control of surface street trac are discussed. With the current emphasis on ITS, computer control of systems is now classied as Advanced Transportation Management Systems (ATMS) and the control centers themselves as Transportation Management Centers (TMCs). Basic principles and ow of information The basic system Originally, it was assumed that the power of the digital computer could be used to control many trac signals from one location, allowing the development of control plans. The basic concept can be summarized thus: the computer sends out signals along one or more arterials. There is no feedback of information from detectors in the eld, and the trac-signal plans are not responsive to actual trac conditions. Earlier,the plans for such a system are developed based on the engineers usage of data from eld studies to generate plans either by hand, or by computer,using packages available at the time. The computer solutions were then run on another machine, or in o hours on the control computer when it was not being used for control of the trac signals. Though this o-line system of control plans gives an image of a decient system, there are many advantages of this limited system. These include: 1. Ability to update signals from a Central Location: The ability to retime signals from a central location without having to send people along an entire arterial to retime the signals individually at each intersection saves lot of time. 2. Ability to have multiple plans and special plans: In many localities a three-dial controller is quite sucient: if trac is generally regular, three basic plans (A.M. peak, P.M. peak, o-peak) can meet the needs. The computer opens the possiblity to have an N-dial controller, with special plans stored for certain days. With appropriate plans stored for each such event, the plans can be called up by time of day, or by operator intervention. 3. Information on equipment failures: The early systems simply took control of electromechanical controllers, driving the cam-shaft from the central computer and receiving a Tom Mathew, IIT Bombay 195 August 24, 2011

2 Pattern Library of plans X1 X2 . . Xn 3 Plan Detector P1 P2 . . Pn Controller confirm signal

25. Parking

computer pattern y 4 1

Figure 25:1: Computer control system with detector information used conrmation signal. Failure to receive this signal meant trouble. The information provided by the control computer allowed such failures to be detected and repair crews dispatched. 4. Performance data on contractor or service personnel: With a failure detected and notication made, the system can log the arrival of the crew and/or the time at which the intersection is returned to active service. Collection of trac data The ability of a computer to receive great amount of data and process it is made use of by detectors in the eld for sending information back to the central location. If the information is not being used in an online setting and hence still does not inuence the current plan selection. Typically, the computer is being used as the tool for the collection of permanent or long-term count data. Trac data used for plan selection Fig. 25:1 shows a computer control system that actually uses the trac data to aid in plan selection. This can be done in one of three principal ways: 1. Use library - Monitor deviations from expected pattern: This concept uses a timeof-day approach, looking up in a library both the expected trac pattern and the preselected plan matched to the pattern. The actual trac pattern can be compared to the expected, and if a deviation occurs, the computer can then look through its library for a closer match and use the appropriate plan. 2. Use library - Match plan to pattern: This is a variation on the rst concept, with the observed pattern being matched to the most appropriate prestored pattern and the coresponding plan veing used. 3. Develop plan on-line: This concept depends on the ability to do the necessary computations within a deadline either as a background task or on a companion computer dedicated to such a computations. This approach presumes an advantage to tailoring the control plan to specic trac data. It is necessary to note that the time between plan updates is constrained by the speed with which the on-line plan computations can be done. The desire to have more frequent updates implicitly assumes that the real trac situation can be known precisely enough to dierentiate between consecutive update periods.

196

26. Parking

Chapter 26 Parking

26.1 Overview

Parking is one of the major problems that is created by the increasing road trac. It is an impact of transport development. The availability of less space in urban areas has increased the demand for parking space especially in areas like Central business district. This aects the mode choice also. This has a great economical impact.

26.2

Parking studies

Before taking any measures for the betterment of conditions, data regarding availability of parking space, extent of its usage and parking demand is essential. It is also required to estimate the parking fares also. Parking surveys are intended to provide all these information. Since the duration of parking varies with dierent vehicles, several statistics are used to access the parking need.

26.2.1

Parking statistics

Parking accumulation: It is dened as the number of vehicles parked at a given instant of time. Normally this is expressed by accumulation curve. Accumulation curve is the graph obtained by plotting the number of bays occupied with respect to time. Parking volume: Parking volume is the total number of vehicles parked at a given duration of time. This does not account for repetition of vehicles. The actual volume of vehicles entered in the area is recorded. Parking load : Parking load gives the area under the accumulation curve. It can also be obtained by simply multiplying the number of vehicles occupying the parking area at each time interval with the time interval. It is expressed as vehicle hours. Average parking duration: vehicles parked. parkingduration =

parkingload parkingvolume

197

26. Parking

Parking turnover: It is the ratio of number of vehicles parked in a duration to the number of parking bays available. parkingturnover =

parkingvolume N o.of baysavailable

This can be expressed as number of vehicles per bay per time duration. Parking index: Parking index is also called occupancy or eciency. It is dened as the ratio of number of bays occupied in a time duration to the total space available. It gives an aggregate measure of how eectively the parking space is utilized. Parking index can be found out as follows parking index = parking load 100 parking capacity (26.1)

To illustrate the various measures, consider a small example in gure 26:1, which shows the duration for which each of the bays are occupied(shaded portion). Now the accumulation graph can be plotted by simply noting the number of bays occupied at time interval of 15, 30, 45 etc. minutes ias shown in the gure.

1 2 3

11111 00000 11111 00000 11111 00000 11111 00000 11111111 00000000 11111 00000 11111 00000 11111111 00000000 11111 11111111 00000 00000000 11111 00000 11111 00000 11111 00000 11111 00000 11111 00000 and occupancy Bays

No. of vehicles

Figure 26:1: Parking bays and accumulation curve The various measures are calculated as shown below: Parking volume= 5 vehicles. Parking load = (1 + 2 + 1 + 0 + 1 + 2 + 3 + 1) 15 = 1115 = 2.75 veh hour. 60 60 Average parking duration = 2.75 veh hours = 33 minutes. 5veh Parking turnover = 5 veh/2 hours = 0.83 veh/hr/bay. 3bays 2.75 veh hour Parking index = 32 veh hours 100= 45.83%

26.3

Parking surveys

Parking surveys are conducted to collect the above said parking statistics. The most common parking surveys conducted are in-out survey, xed period sampling and license plate method of survey. Tom Mathew, IIT Bombay 198 August 24, 2011

26. Parking

1. In-out survey: In this survey, the occupancy count in the selected parking lot is taken at the beginning. Then the number of vehicles that enter the parking lot for a particular time interval is counted. The number of vehicles that leave the parking lot is also taken. The nal occupancy in the parking lot is also taken. Here the labor required is very less. Only one person may be enough. But we wont get any data regarding the time duration for which a particular vehicle used that parking lot. Parking duration and turn over is not obtained. Hence we cannot estimate the parking fare from this survey. 2. Fixed period sampling: This is almost similar to in-out survey. All vehicles are counted at the beginning of the survey. Then after a xed time interval that may vary between 15 minutes to i hour, the count is again taken. Here there are chances of missing the number of vehicles that were parked for a short duration. 3. License plate method of survey: This results in the most accurate and realistic data. In this case of survey, every parking stall is monitored at a continuous interval of 15 minutes or so and the license plate number is noted down. This will give the data regarding the duration for which a particular vehicle was using the parking bay. This will help in calculating the fare because fare is estimated based on the duration for which the vehicle was parked. If the time interval is shorter, then there are less chances of missing short-term parkers. But this method is very labor intensive.

26.4

Parking has some ill-eects like congestion, accidents, pollution, obstruction to re-ghting operations etc. Congestion: Parking takes considerable street space leading to the lowering of the road capacity. Hence, speed will be reduced, journey time and delay will also subsequently increase. The operational cost of the vehicle increases leading to great economical loss to the community. Accidents: Careless maneuvering of parking and unparking leads to accidents which are referred to as parking accidents. Common type of parking accidents occur while driving out a car from the parking area, careless opening of the doors of parked cars, and while bringing in the vehicle to the parking lot for parking. Environmental pollution: They also cause pollution to the environment because stopping and starting of vehicles while parking and unparking results in noise and fumes. They also aect the aesthetic beauty of the buildings because cars parked at every available space creates a feeling that building rises from a plinth of cars. Obstruction to re ghting operations: Parked vehicles may obstruct the movement of reghting vehicles. Sometimes they block access to hydrants and access to buildings.

199

L 5.9 2.5 5.0

26. Parking

26.5

Parking requirements

There are some minimum parking requirements for dierent types of building. For residential plot area less than 300 sq.m require only community parking space. For residential plot area from 500 to 1000 sq.m, minimum one-fourth of the open area should be reserved for parking. Oces may require atleast one space for every 70 sq.m as parking area. One parking space is enough for 10 seats in a restaurant where as theatres and cinema halls need to keep only 1 parking space for 20 seats. Thus, the parking requirements are dierent for dierent land use zones.

26.6

On street parking

On street parking means the vehicles are parked on the sides of the street itself. This will be usually controlled by government agencies itself. Common types of on-street parking are as listed below. This classication is based on the angle in which the vehicles are parked with respect to the road alignment. As per IRC the standard dimensions of a car is taken as 5 2.5 metres and that for a truck is 3.75 7.5 metres. Parallel parking: The vehicles are parked along the length of the road. Here there is no backward movement involved while parking or unparking the vehicle. Hence, it is the most safest parking from the accident perspective. However, it consumes the maximum curb length and therefore only a minimum number of vehicles can be parked for a given kerb length. This method of parking produces least obstruction to the on-going trac on the road since least road width is used. Parallel parking of cars is shown in gure 26:2. N The length available to park N number of vehicles, L = 5.9 30 parking: In thirty degree parking, the vehicles are parked at 30 with respect to the road alignment. In this case, more vehicles can be parked compared to parallel parking. Also there is better maneuverability. Delay caused to the trac is also minimum in this type of parking. An example is shown in gure 26:3. From the gure, AB = OBsin30 = BC = OP cos30 = BD = DQcos60 = CD = BD BC = 5 4.33 = Tom Mathew, IIT Bombay 200 1.25, 4.33, 5, 0.67, August 24, 2011

1.25 4.33 A B O

5m

26. Parking

L E ....

2. 5 m

1.25 m

CD 30 1Q 2 P

4.66 m

1.77 45 5.31 m

For N vehicles, L = AC + (N-1)CE =5.58+(N-1)5 =0.58+5N 45 parking: As the angle of parking increases, more number of vehicles can be parked. Hence compared to parallel parking and thirty degree parking, more number of vehicles can be accommodated in this type of parking. From gure 26:4, length of parking space available for parking N number of vehicles in a given kerb is L = 3.54 N+1.77 60 parking: The vehicles are parked at 60 to the direction of road. More number of vehicles can be accommodated in this parking type. From the gure 26:5, length available for parking N vehicles =2.89N+2.16. Right angle parking: In right angle parking or 90 parking, the vehicles are parked perpendicular to the direction of the road. Although it consumes maximum width kerb

L 60

2.

Figure 26:5: Illustration of 60 parking Tom Mathew, IIT Bombay 201 August 24, 2011

5. 0 m

2.5m

26. Parking

2.5

Figure 26:6: Illustration of 90 parking

111 000 111 000 111 000 111 000 111 000 111 000 111 000 111 11111 000 00000 111 000 111 11111 000 00000 111 000 111 11111 000 00000 111 000 111 11111 000 00000 111 000 111 11111 000 00000 1111111111111111111111111 0000000000000000000000000 1111111111111111111111111 0000000000000000000000000 1111111111111111111111111 0000000000000000000000000 1111111111111111111111111 0000000000000000000000000 1111111111111111111111111 0000000000000000000000000 1111111111111111111111111 0000000000000000000000000 1111111111111111111111111 0000000000000000000000000 1111111111111111111111111 0000000000000000000000000 1111111111111111111111111 0000000000000000000000000 1111111111111111111111111 0000000000000000000000000 1111 0000 1111 0000 1111 0000 1111 0000 1111 0000 1111 0000 111 000 111 000 111 000 111 000 111 000

ENTRY

EXIT

111 111 000 000 111 111 000 000 111 111 000 000 111 111 000 000 111 111 000 000

Figure 26:7: Illustration of o-street parking length required is very little. In this type of parking, the vehicles need complex maneuvering and this may cause severe accidents. This arrangement causes obstruction to the road trac particularly if the road width is less. However, it can accommodate maximum number of vehicles for a given kerb length. An example is shown in gure 26:6. Length available for parking N number of vehicles is L = 2.5N.

26.7

O street parking

In many urban centres, some areas are exclusively allotted for parking which will be at some distance away from the main stream of trac. Such a parking is referred to as o-street parking. They may be operated by either public agencies or private rms. A typical layout of an o-street parking is shown in gure 26:7. Example 1 From an in-out survey conducted for a parking area consisting of 40 bays, the initial count was found to be 25. Table gives the result of the survey. The number of vehicles coming in and out of the parking lot for a time interval of 5 minutes is as shown in the table 26:1. Find the accumulation, total parking load, average occupancy and eciency of the parking lot. Tom Mathew, IIT Bombay 202 August 24, 2011

CE415 Transportation Engineering II Table 26:1: In-out survey data Time In Out 5 3 2 10 2 4 15 4 2 20 5 4 25 7 3 30 8 2 35 2 7 40 4 2 45 6 4 50 4 1 55 3 3 60 2 5

26. Parking

Solution The solution is shown in table 26:2 Table 26:2: In-out parking survey solution In Out Accumulation Occupancy Parking load (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) 3 2 26 65 130 2 4 24 60 120 4 2 26 65 130 5 4 27 67.5 135 7 3 31 77.5 155 8 2 37 92.5 185 2 7 32 80 160 4 2 34 85 170 6 4 36 90 180 4 1 39 97.5 195 3 3 39 97.5 195 2 5 36 90 180 Total 1735

Time (1) 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60

Accumulation can be found out as initial count plus number of vehicles that entered the parking lot till that time minus the number of vehicles that just exited for that particular time interval. For the rst time interval of 5 minutes, accumulation can be found out as 25+3-2 = 26. It is being tabulated in column 4. Tom Mathew, IIT Bombay 203 August 24, 2011

26. Parking

Occupancy or parking index is given by equation For the rst time interval of ve minutes, P arking index = 26 100 = 65%. The occupancy for the remaining time slot is similarly 40 calculated and is tabulated in column 5. Average occupancy is the average of the occupancy values for each time interval. Thus it is the average of all values given in column 5 and the value is 80.63%. Parking load is tabulated in column 6. It is obtained by multiplying accumulation with the time interval. For the rst time interval, parking load = 26 5 = 130 vehicle minutes. Total parking load is the summation of all the values in column 5 which is equal to 1935 vehicle minutes or 32.25 vehicle hours Example 2 The parking survey data collected from a parking lot by license plate method is s shown in the table 26:3 below. Find the average occupancy, average turn over, parking load, parking capacity and eciency of the parking lot. Table 26:3: Licence plate parking Bay Time 0-15 15-30 30-45 1 1456 9813 2 1945 1945 1945 3 3473 5463 5463 4 3741 3741 9758 5 1884 1884 6 7357 7 4895 4895 8 8932 8932 8932 9 7653 7653 8998 10 7321 2789 11 1213 1213 3212 12 5678 6678 7778 survey data 45-60 5678 1945 5463 4825 7594 7893 4895 4821 2789 4778 8888

Solution See the following table for solution 26:4. Columns 1 to 5 is the input data. The parking status in every bay is coded rst. If a vehicle occupies that bay for that time interval, then it has a code 1. This is shown in columns 6, 7, 8 and 9 of the table corresponding to the time intervals 15, 30, 45 and 60 seconds. Turn over is computed as the number of vehicles present in that bay for that particular hour. For the rst bay, it is counted as 3. Similarly, for the second bay, one vehicle is Tom Mathew, IIT Bombay 204 August 24, 2011

CE415 Transportation Engineering II Table 26:4: Licence Bay Time (1) (2) (3) (4) 15 30 45 1 1456 9813 2 1945 1945 1945 3 3473 5463 5463 4 3741 3741 9758 5 1884 1884 6 7357 7 4895 4895 8 8932 8932 8932 9 7653 7653 8998 10 7321 2789 11 1213 1213 3212 12 5678 6678 7778 Accumulation Occupancy

26. Parking plate parking survey solution Time (5) (6) (7) (8) (9) (10) 60 15 30 45 60 Turn over 5678 1 1 0 1 3 1945 1 1 1 1 1 5463 1 1 1 1 2 4825 1 1 1 1 3 7594 1 1 0 1 2 7893 0 1 0 1 2 4895 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 1 4821 1 1 1 1 3 2789 1 0 1 1 2 4778 1 1 1 1 3 8888 1 1 1 1 4 10 11 9 11 0.83 0.92 0.75 0.92 2.25

present throughout that hour and hence turnout is 1 itself. This is being tabulated in Sum of turnover column 10 of the table. Average turn over = Total number of bays = 2.25

Accumulation for a time interval is the total of number of vehicles in the bays 1 to 12 for that time interval. Accumulation for rst time interval of 15 minutes = 1+1+1+1+1+0+0+1+1+1+1 = 10 Parking volume = Sum of the turn over in all the bays = 27 vehicles Average duration is the average time for which the parking lot was used by the vehicles. It can be calculated as sum of the accumulation for each time interval time interval divided by the parking volume = (10+11+9+11)15 = 22.78 minutes/vehicle. 27 Occupancy for that time interval is accumulation in that particular interval divided by total number of bays. For rst time interval of 15 minutes, occupancy = (10100)/12 = 83% Average occupancy is found out as the average of total number of vehicles occupying the bay for each time interval. It is expressed in percentage. Average occupancy = 0.83+0.92+0.75+0.92 100 = 85.42%. 4 Parking capacity = number of bays number of hours = 12 1 = 12 vehicle hours Parking load = total number of vehicles accumulated at the end of each time interval time = (10+11+9+11)15 = 10.25 vehicle hours 60 Tom Mathew, IIT Bombay 205 August 24, 2011

Parking load Total number of bays

26. Parking

10.25 12

= 85.42%.

26.8

Summary

Providing suitable parking spaces is a challenge for trac engineers and planners in the scenario of ever increasing vehicle population. It is essential to conduct trac surveys in order to design the facilities or plan the fares. Dierent types of parking layout, surveys and statistics were discussed in this chapter.

26.9

Problems

1. The parking survey data collected from a parking lot by license plate method is shown in table 26:5 below. Find the average occupancy, average turnover, parking load, parking capacity and eciency of parking lot.

Table 26:5: Licence plate: problem Bay Time 0-15 15-30 30-45 45-60 1 1501 1501 4021 2 1255 1255 1255 1255 3 3215 3215 3215 3215 4 3100 3100 5 1623 1623 1623 6 2204 2204 -

Solution Refer table 26:6. Column 1 to 5 is the input data. The parking status in every bay is coded rst. If a vehicle occupies that bay for that time interval, then it has a code 1. This is shown in columns 6, 7, 8 and 9 of the tables corresponding to the time intervals 15,30,45 and 60 seconds. Turn over is computed as the number of vehicles present in that bay for that particular hour. For the rst bay, it is counted as 2. Similarly, for the second bay, one vehicle is present throughout that hour and hence turnout is 1 itself This is being tabulated in column 10 of the table. Total turn over in all the bays or parking volume= 2+1+1+1+1+1 Sum of turnover 7 = 7 vehicles Average turn over = Total number of bays = 6 =1.17 Average duration is the average time for which the parking lot was used by the vehicles. It can be calculated as sum of the accumulation for each time interval time interval divided by the parking volume = (5+5+5+3)15 = 38.57 minutes/vehicle. 7 Tom Mathew, IIT Bombay 206 August 24, 2011

CE415 Transportation Engineering II Table 26:6: Time (2) (3) 15 30 1501 1501 1255 1255 3215 3215 1623 1623 2204 2204 Accumulation Occupancy

Bay (1) 1 2 3 4 5 6

License Plate Problem: Solution Time (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9) (10) 45 60 15 30 45 60 Turn over 4021 1 1 1 0 2 1255 1255 1 1 1 1 1 3215 3215 1 1 1 1 1 3100 3100 0 0 1 1 1 1623 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 0 0 1 5 5 5 3 0.83 0.83 0.83 0.5

Average occupancy is found out as the average of total number of vehicles occupying the bay for each time interval. It is expressed in percentage. Average occupancy = 0.83+0.83+0.83+0.5 100 = 75%. 4 Parking capacity = number of bays number of hours = 6 1 = 6 vehicle hours Parking load = total number of vehicles accumulated at the end of each time interval time = (5+5+5+3)15 = 4.5 vehicle hours 60 Eciency =

Parking load Total number of bays

4.5 6

= 75%.

207

27.1

27.1.1

Introduction

Challenges in transportation system

Transportation system consists of a group of activities as well as entities interacting with each other to achieve the goal of transporting people or goods from one place to another. Hence, the system has to meet the perceived social and economical needs of the users. As these needs change, the transportation system itself evolves and problems occur as it becomes inadequate to serve the public interest. One of the negative impacts of any transportation system is trac congestion. Trac congestion occurs wherever demand exceeds the capacity of the transportation system. This lecture gives an overview of how congestion is generated, how it can be measured or quantied, and also the various countermeasures to be taken in order to counteract congestion. Adequate performance measures are needed in order to quantify congestion in a transportation system. Quality of service measures indicates the degree of traveller satisfaction with system performance and this is covered under traveller perception. Several measures have been taken in order to counteract congestion. They are basically classied into supply and demand measures. An overview of all these aspects of congestion is dealt with in this lecture.

27.1.2

The ow chart in Fig. 27:1 shows how trac congestion is generated in a transportation system. With the evolution of society, economy and technology, the household characteristics as well as the transportation system gets aected. The change in transport system causes a change in transport behaviour and locational pattern of the system. The change in household characteristics, transport behaviour, locational pattern, and other growth eects result in the growth of trac. But the change or improvement in road capacity is only as the result of change in the transportation system and hence nally a situation arises where the trac demand is greater than the capacity of the roadway. This situation is called trac congestion.

27.1.3

Eects of congestion

Congestion has a large number of ill eects which include: Tom Mathew, IIT Bombay 208 August 24, 2011

Traffic Congestion

Traffic Growth

Roadway Capacity

Transport Behavior

Location Patterns

Figure 27:1: Generation of trac congestion 1. Loss of productive time, 2. Increase in the fuel consumption, 3. Increase in pollutants (because of both the additional fuel burned and more toxic gases produced while internal combustion engines are in idle or in stop-and-go trac), 4. Increase in wear and tear of automobile engines, 5. High potential for trac accidents, 6. Negative impact on peoples psychological state, which may aect productivity at work and personal relationships, and 7. Slow and inecient emergency response and delivery services. The summation of all these eects yields a considerable loss for the society and the economy of an urban area

27.1.4

Trac congestion

A system is said to be congested when the demand exceeds the capacity of the section. Trac congestion can be dened in the following two ways: 1. Congestion is the travel time or delay in excess of that normally incurred under light or free ow trac condition. 2. Unacceptable congestion is travel time or delay in excess of agreed norm which may vary by type of transport facility, travel mode, geographical location, and time of the day. Fig. 27:2 shows the denition of congestion. The solid line represents the travel speed under free-ow conditions and the dotted line represents the actual travel speed. During congestion, the vehicles will be travelling at a speed less than their free ow speed. The shaded area in between these two lines represents the amount of congestion. Trac congestion may be of two types: Tom Mathew, IIT Bombay 209 August 24, 2011

Actual Travel Speed Free flow Travel Speed

Speed

Amount of Congestion

Street 1

Street 2 Distance

Street 3

Street 4

Figure 27:2: Denition of congestion 1. Recurrent Congestion: Recurrent congestion generally occurs at the same place, at the same time every weekday or weekend day. 2. Non-Recurrent congestion: Non-Recurrent congestion results from incidents such as accidents or roadway maintenance.

27.2

Measurement of congestion

Congestion has to be measured or quantied in order to suggest suitable counter measures and their evaluation. Congestion information can be used in a variety of policy, planning and operational situations. It may be used by public agencies in assessing facility or system adequacy, identifying problems, calibrating models, developing and assessing improvements, formulating programs and policies and priorities. It may be used by private sector in making locational or investment decisions. It may be used by general public and media in assessing travellers satisfaction.

27.2.1

Performance measure of a congested roadway can be done using the following four components: 1. Duration, 2. Extent, 3. Intensity, and 4. Reliability.

210

27.2.2

Duration

Duration of congestion is the amount of time the congestion aects the travel system. The peak hour has now extended to peak period in many corridors. Measures that can quantify congestion include: Amount of time during the day that the travel rate indicates congested travel on a system element or entire system. Amount of time during the day that trac density measurement techniques (detectors, aerial surveillance, etc.) indicate congested travel. Duration of congestion is the sum of length of each analysis sub period for which the demand exceeds capacity. The maximum duration on any link indicates the amount of time before congestion is completely cleared from the corridor. Duration of congestion can be computed for a corridor using the following equation: H =N T (27.1)

where, H is the duration of congestion (hour), N is the number of analysis sub periods for which v/c > 1, and T is the duration of analysis sub-period (hour)The duration of congestion for an area is given by: i T vi (1 r) Hi = c (27.2) i 1 r( vi ) c where, Hi is the duration of congestion for link i (hour), T is the duration of analysis period (hour), r is the ratio of peak demand to peak demand rate, vi is the vehicle demand on link i (veh/hour), and ci is the capacity of link i (veh/hour).

27.2.3

Extent

Extent of congestion is described by estimating the number of people or vehicles aected by congestion and by the geographic distribution of congestion. These measures include: 1. Number or percentage of trips aected by congestion. 2. Number or percentage of person or vehicle meters aected by congestion. 3. Percentage of the system aected by congestion. Performance measures of extent of congestion can be computed from sum of length of queuing on each segment. Segments in which queue overows the capacity are also identied. To compute queue length, average density of vehicles in a queue need to be known. The default values suggested by HCM 2000 are given in Table 1.

211

CE415 Transportation Engineering II Table 27:1: Queue density default values Storage density(veh/km/lane) Spacing(m) 75 13.3 130 7.5 130 7.5

where; Qi is the queue length (meter), v is the segment demand (veh/hour), c is the segment capacity (veh/hour), N is the number of lanes, ds is the storage density (veh/meter/lane), and T is the duration of analysis period (hour). If v < c, Qi =0 The equation for queue length is similar for both corridor and area-wide analysis.

27.2.4

Intensity

Intensity of congestion marks the severity of congestion. It is used to dierentiate between levels of congestion on transport system and to dene total amount of congestion. It is measured in terms of: Delay in person hours or vehicle hours; Average speed of roadway, corridor, or network; Delay per capita or per vehicle travelling in the corridor, or per person or per vehicle aected by congestion; Relative delay rate (relative rate of time lost for vehicles); Intensity in terms of delay is given by,

0 DP H = TP H TP H

(27.4)

where, DP H is the person hours of delay, TP H is the person hours of travel under actual 0 conditions, and TP H is the person hours of travel under free ow conditions. The TP H is given by: OAV v l TP H = (27.5) S where, OAV is the average vehicle occupancy, v is the vehicle demand (veh), l is the length of link (km), and S is the mean speed of link (km/h). The TP H is given by:

0 TP H =

OAV v l S0 212

where, OAV is the average vehicle occupancy, v is the vehicle demand (veh), l is the length of link (km), and S0 is the free ow speed on the link

27.2.5

Numerical example

On a 2.8 km long link of road, it was found that the demand is 1000 Vehicles/hour mean speed of the link is 12 km/hr, and the free ow speed is 27 km/hr. Assuming that the average vehicle occupancy is 1.2 person/vehicle, calculate the congestion intensity in terms of total person hours of delay.

0 DP H = TP H TP H

Person hours of travel under actual conditions, TP H = OAV v l S 1.2 1000 2.8 = 12 = 280 person hours

0 TP H =

27.2.6

The relationship between duration,extent, and intensity of congestion can be show in a timedistance graph Fig. 27:3 The extent of congestion is seen on the x-axis, the duration on the y-axis. The intensity is shown in the shading. Based on the extent and duration the congestion can be classied into four types as shown in Fig.27:4 Tom Mathew, IIT Bombay 213 August 24, 2011

Duration

11111111111 00000000000 11111111111 00000000000 11111111111 00000000000 11111111111 00000000000 11111111111 00000000000 11111111111 00000000000 11111111111 00000000000

Extent

Time

Distance

Extent

Limited Problem

Duration

Figure 27:4: Intensity of congestion-Relation between extent and duration of delay The variation in extent and duration of congestion indicates dierent problems requiring different solutions. Small delay and extent indicates limited problem, small delay for large extent indicates general congestion, great delay for small extent indicates critical links and great delay for large extent indicates critical system-wide problem. The product of extent and duration indicates the intensity, or magnitude of the congestion problem.

27.3

Congestion countermeasures

Various measures to address congestion are discussed here. These include supply side, demand side, and pricing.

27.3.1

Supply measures:

Congestion countermeasures on the supply side add capacity to the system or make the system operate more eciently. They focus on the transportation system. Supply measures include Tom Mathew, IIT Bombay 214 August 24, 2011

1. Development of new or expanded infrastructure. This includes civil projects (new freeways, transit lines etc), road widening, bridge replacement, technology conversions(ITS),etc. 2. Small scale capacity and eciency improvement. This includes signal system upgrade and coordination, freeway ramp metering, re-location of bus stops etc.

27.3.2

Demand measures:

Demand measures focuses on motorists and travelers and attempt to modify their trip making behaviour. Demand measures include: 1. Parking pricing: It discourages the use of private vehicles to specic areas, thereby reducing the demand on the transportation system. 2. Restrictions on vehicle ownership and use: It includes heavy import duties, separate licensing requirement, heavy annual fees, expensive fuel prices, etc. to restrain private vehicle acquisition and use.

27.3.3

Congestion pricing

Congestion pricing is a method of road user taxation, charging the users of congested roads according to the time spent or distance travelled on them. The principle behind congestion pricing is that those who cause congestion or use road in congested period should be charged, thus giving the road user the choice to make a journey or not.

Economic principle behind congestion pricing Journey costs are made of private journey cost, congestion cost, environmental cost, and road maintenance cost. The benet a road user obtains from the journey is the price he prepared to pay in order to make the journey. As the price gradually increases, a point will be reached when the trip maker considers it not worth performing or worth performing by other means. This is known as the critical price. At a cost less than this critical price, he enjoys a net benet called as consumer surplus(es) and is given by: s =xy (27.7)

where, x is the amount the consumer is prepared to pay, and y is the amount he actually pays. The basics of congestion pricing involves demand function, private cost function as well as marginal cost function. These are explained below.

215

Cost of Trips

No. of trips

Figure 27:5: Demand Curve Demand Fig. 27:5 shows the general form of a demand curve. In the gure, area QOSP indicates the absolute utility to trip maker and the area SRP indicates the net benet.

Private cost Total private cost of a trip, is given by: c=a+ b v (27.8)

where, a is the component proportional to distance, b is the component proportional to speed, and v is the speed of the vehicle (km/h) which is given by: v = d eq where, q is the ow in veh/hour, d and e are constants. (27.9)

Marginal cost Marginal cost is the additional cost of adding one extra vehicle to the trac stream. It reduces speed and causes congestion and results in increase in cost of all journey. The total cost incurred by all vehicles in one hour(CT ) is given by: CT = cq (27.10)

216

Flow(q)

Figure 27:6: Private cost/ow and cost and marginal curve Marginal cost is obtained by dierentiating the total cost with respect to the ow(q) as shown in the following equations. d(cq) dc = c+q dq dq dc dv dc = dq dv dq = (b)/v 2 e = be/v 2 dc d(cq) = c+q dq dq b d v be 2 = a+ + v e v (27.11) (27.12) (27.13) (27.14) (27.15) (27.16)

Note that c and q in the above derivation is obtained from Equations 27.8 and 27.9 respectively. Therefore the marginal cost is given as: M =a+ b (d v)b + v v2 (27.17)

Fig. 27:6 shows the variation of marginal cost per ow as well as private cost per ow. It is seen that the marginal cost will always be greater than the private cost, the increase representing the congestion cost.

Equilibrium condition and Optimum condition Superimposing the demand curve on the private cost/ow and marginal cost/ow curves, the position as shown in Fig. 27:7 is obtained. The intersection of the demand curve and the private costs curve at point A represents the equilibrium condition, obtained when travel decisions are Tom Mathew, IIT Bombay 217 August 24, 2011

Optimum Condition

Cost / Benifit

B X Y A

Equilibrium Condition

Flow(q)

Figure 27:7: Relation between material cost, private cost and demand curves. based on private costs only. The intersection of the demand curve and the marginal costs curve at point B represents the optimum condition. The net benet under the two positions A and B are shown by the areas ACZ and BY CY Z respectively. If the conditions are shifted from point A to B, the net benet due to change will be given by area CCy Y X minus AXB. If the area CCy Y X is greater than arc AXB, the net benet will be positive. The shifting of conditions from point A to B can be brought about by imposing a road pricing charge BY. Under this scheme, the private vehicles continuing to use the roads will on an average be worse o in the rst place because BY will always exceed the individual increase in benets XY.

27.3.4

Numerical example

Vehicles are moving on a road at the rate of 500 vehicle/hour, at a velocity of 15 km/hr. Find the equation for marginal cost.

218

27.3.5

1. Diverts travelers to other modes 2. Causes cancellation of non essential trips during peak hours 3. Collects sucient fund for major upgrades of highways 4. Cross-subsidizes public transport modes

27.3.6

1. Charges should be closely related to the amount of use made of roads 2. Price should be variable at dierent times of day/week/year or for dierent classes of vehicles 3. It should be stable and ascertainable by road users before commencement of journey 4. Method should be simple for road users to understand and police to enforce 5. Should be accepted by public as fair to all 6. Payment in advance should be possible 7. Should be reliable 8. Should be free from fraud or evasion 9. Should be capable of being applied to the whole country

27.4

Conclusion

In this lecture, we have discussed about the causes and eects of congestion and how congestion can be dened. We also discussed how congestion can be quantied by various performance measures such as duration, extent and intensity. The measures to be taken in order to counteract congestion were also discussed. The principle and process of congestion pricing was also discussed.

219

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