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Wireless Mobile Communication Lab

Study of Research Paper:

Distributed Power Control Mechanisms for HSDPA Femtocells

Usman M. Nooruddin Roll Number: 07-0039 Section A

Department of Electrical Engineering National University of Computers & Emerging Sciences FAST Karachi Campus

Table of Contents:
1. 2. 3. 4. Introduction Background Description of technical words Summary Fixed Transmit Power for Femtocells Calibration Techniques Adaptive Transmit Power Control Conclusion List of References 3 3 4 4 5 5 5 6 6

5. 6.

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This research paper investigates power control algorithms for femtocells that can be performed locally with minimal network intervention. In the Calibration Techniques, the transmitted power in the femtocell is adjusted so they do not change their transmitting power frequently. In Adaptive Power Control Scheme, the transmitted power of the femtocells is adjusted as to achieve the minimal target data rates.

Operators, due to decreasing number of Average Revenue per User (ARPU), are now introducing more bundled home services such as voice, data and television as triple play and mobile access which adds another dimension to this scenario. But since the spectrum is scarce, the technologies of 3G and above have to operate at 2 GHz and higher, which causes spotty mobile coverage indoors because of the phenomenon of increased signal deterioration /degradation at higher frequencies. One of the solutions to this problem is using Femtocells. In combination with a macrocell network, femtocells can significantly reduce the network costs.

Figure 1: Femtocell Deployment

Femtocells are low-power wireless access points that operate in licensed spectrum to connect standard mobile devices to a mobile operators network using residential DSL or cable broadband connections. Femtocells deliver significantly improved coverage inside homes, small and large offices, and outdoor public spaces (metro hotspots and rural). This means a stronger signal and better voice quality, plus improved data download and upload speeds. Femtocells also facilitate a new breed of mobile service that exploits the technologys ability to detect presence, and connect and interact with home networks.

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Some applications of Femtocell communication include: Virtual home number, allowing families to keep a home number even if they cancel their fixed line. SMS alerts when kids arrive or depart the home, providing reassurance for working parents. Automatic Im at home profile / presence update on social networking websites. Automatic back-up of photos and videos from the phone to the web and / or the PC when one arrives at home.

Description of technical words:

Femtocells Femtocells are small, user-installed base stations that enhance coverage for inbuilding cellular services. Also known as 3G Microcell by some companies.

Macrocells A macrocell provides the largest area of coverage within a mobile network. The antennas for macrocells can be mounted on ground-based masts, rooftops or other existing structures. Macrocell base stations have a typical power output in tens of watts. 3G 3G is the third-generation of mobile phone technology standards. The typical services associated with 3G include wireless voice telephony and broadband wireless data, all in a mobile environment. HSDPA, short for High-Speed Downlink Packet Access, is a new protocol for mobile telephone data transmission. It is known as a 3.5G technology. 4G is the fourth generation of cellular wireless standards and a successor to 3G technology. A 4G system provides ultra-broadband Internet access, IP telephony, gaming services, and streamed multimedia. File Transfer Protocol (FTP) is a standard network protocol used to transfer files from one host to another host over a TCP-based network, such as the Internet. Stands for Common Pilot Indicator Channel in UMTS and some other CDMA communications.





Summary of the research paper:

The core of the research paper is divided into three sections: 1. Fixed Transmit Power for Femtocells a. Impact on Macrocell Capacity b. Impact on Macrocell Coverage 2. Calibration Techniques a. Femtocells with Varying Data/Control Power Ratios b. Geo-static Transmit Power 3. Adaptive Transmit Power Control

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Fixed Transmit Power for Femtocells: If the transmitted powers of femtocells are fixed, they would have catastrophic effects on the macrocells that are serving the users. Here a scenario is considered in which, a HSDPA system is considered which is deployed in a suburban environment. The macrocell users are all assumed to be outdoors while the femtocell users are located indoors. With regards to Impact on Macrocell Capacity, it is observed that the macrocell throughput suffers significantly for even moderate femtocells transmit powers. On the other hand, femtocell throughputs are reasonably large even when their transmit powers are low. With regards to Impact on Macrocell Coverage, the Common Pilot Indicator/Control Channel (CPICH) indicates the extent of a macrocells coverage. The macrocells coverage further deteriorates and is almost independent of the activity factor. The results show that the number of active femtocells and the control channel of femtocells have a strong negative impact on the macrocell performance. Calibration Techniques: In this section, the writers have proposed power control schemes that do not require the femtocells to change their transmit powers at a fast time scale. With regards to Femtocells with Varying Data/Control Power Ratios, instead of scaling down the control and data channel powers by the same factor, the control channel power is fixed and the power of the data channel is reduced. With regards to Geo-Static Transmit Power, the network can set the transmit power of the femtocells according to the location they lie in. Adaptive Transmit Power Control In this approach, the network provides each femtocell with a target bit-rate. The femtocells collect the SINR measurements from the MSs and schedule transmission opportunities. The femtocells can determine the appropriate data rates and regulate their transmit powers so that the data rates is just met.

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The above discussed techniques ensure optimum coverage for femto users and minimizes the effect on macro users. According to needs, the power control mechanism has to be chosen for the best application and best arrange-able cost Both the Calibration Techniques and the Adaptive Transmit Power Control have efficient tradeoffs between femtocell and macrocell performances. The only major difference between both power control techniques is the implementation intricacy which needs to be evaluated beforehand implementation.

List of References:
[1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] [8] [9] Naveen Arulselvan, Vinod Ramachandran, Suresh Kalyanasundaram, Distributed Power Control Mechanisms for HSDPA Femtocells, IEEE Transactions, 2009. NEC, Femtocell Whitepaper, 2009. Theodore S. Rappaport, Wireless Communications: Principles and Practice, January 10, 2002, ISBN: 0-130-42232-0. Bernard Sklar, Digital Communication: Fundamentals and Applications, January 2001, ISBN: 0-130-84788-7. Femto Forum <http://www.femtoforum.org> Alcatel-Lucent <http://www.alcatel-lucent.com/wireless/femto_small_cells.html> LTE World <http://lteworld.org/> Think Femtocell <http://www.thinkfemtocell.com/> IP Access <http://www.ipaccess.com/>

[10] Airvana Solutions <http://www.airvana.com/> [11] Wikipedia.org <http://www.wikipedia.org>

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