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UTAHis well represented in minerals, although as " yet only a few have been largely developed. Yet mining iu, the surrounding territories had an early and marked influence upon her destiny, striking a blow at the seclusion of the community, while inciting to trade and intercourse. For California the Mormon settle- ments served as a half-way station, and divested the journey of many of its terrors, affording the traveller an opportunity for rest and recuperation. The church lost a few members, smitten by the gold fever, but gained many accessions from the overland current of immigration ; partly from tired wayfarers gladdened by the sight of peaceful farms and villages, doubly inviting after their toilsome march ; partly from a direct influx of Europeans, who, regarding Utah and Califordia as almost identical, hastened hither, and were persuaded to remain. Iron was found during the first years of occupation in different localities and in immense deposits. At Smithfield, in Cache county, were beds of hematite sixty feet in thickness. On the Provo river near Bamoe, on the Weber, near Ogden, on the Waaatch,




near Willard and Bountiful, at Tiic, at City Creek caiion in the Cottonwoods, in deserts and. mountains, ores were disclosed in almost every variety, except in the form of carbonates. The largest deposits were in Iron county, in what may be termed the southern pro- longation of the Wasatch range. The most remarkable

outcrops were in the neighborhood of Iron Sprinas, Iron City, and Oak City. In the Big Blowout, a sokd mass of magnetic ore near Iron Springs, with a length of 1,000 feet and half that width, it is esti-


that there are 3,000,000 tons near the surface.

Other deposits each exhibit 1,000,000 tons, and it is probable that the district contains 50,000,000 tons on or near the surface, while the ledges are practically inexhaustible and of excellent quality. Analyses give from 60 to 64 per cent of iron, 12 of phospho~us, 4.8 to 6 of silica, and of sulphur a trace. The draw- back to exploitation, so far undertaken chiefly by thep Great Western iron works of Iron City, and by the Ogden iron works, lies in the scarcity of coking-coal, which, however, promises to be overcome, and m the

limited market, more distant territories possessing cheaper sources of supply.


The scarcity of timber and the discoveries of iron induced the territorial legislature in 1854 to offer a premium for a profitable vein of coal within forty miles of Salt Lake City. This gave additional zest to exploration, and by 1880 more than 120,000 acres of coal lands had been surveyed in eleven different counties. Three years later the area zf such lands was estimated at 20,000 square miles. L The largest deposits are found on the eastern slope of the Wasatch, extending at intervals Gom the Uintah reservation through Sanpete, Pleasant, and Castle valleys, as far as Kanab, on the Colorado. Unfo.rtu- nately the beds are of recent and not what is termed the true coal formation, yielding little coke suitable for smelting. The veins are also, as a rule, too



broken or small to be remunerative. Yet on the Weber, for miles above Echo City, the coal is of fair , quality for household and steam-producing purposes, drawn partly from a depth of more than 1,000 feet. At Evanstown is a vein nineteen feet thick. Coal- ville has until recently'supplied most of the north- *tern towns. The deposits in Sanpete valley are val-

dable, altho h the seams range only from six inches

to six feet.

'Yn the mountains to the south and east

veins of from 10 to 12 feet are worked. Analyses from Sanpete give 50.7 per cent: of coke, 34.2 of bitumen,

13.3 of ash, and 1.8 of moisture ; from Castle valley


  • 48.2 of carbon, 1.9 of ash and 40.6 of volatile matter,

the coke showing 94 per cent of fixed carbon. These exceptional features helped to increap the yield from 4,500 tons in 1869 to 60,000 tons in 1878,

the latter amount covering half of the consumption, and the remainder being supplied by Wyoming. It

is anticipted that further developments

will be

made to meet the demand for iron works. Thus in Utah as in England, whence her population hs~been largely drawn, is demonstrated the supremacy of coal as a primary factor for fostering mining and manu- facturing. industries, with the attendant growth of settlements, with railways, trade, and other wealth-

creating adjuncts.

Copper is found in moat of the mining districts, usually in connection with other metals. It is most abundant in southern Utah, where rich ores occur in

the sandstone--; but the on1 mines developed in 1883

were in the northwest

angf e of the territory, where

veins averaging seven or eight feet in width, enclosed in micaceous shale and intermingled with porphyry, , yielded as much as fifty per cent of metal. The pro- duction between 1870 and 1883 was estimated at 1,000 tons, and sold in New York for about $300,000. Lead is found in abundance in connection with sil-

ver, and between 1870 and 1883 over 250,000 tons


263 .

were produced, worth on the Atlantic coast $23,000,-

  • 000. Tin has been reported near Ogden. Beds of

sulphur exist in the south and north, the largest, in Millard county, covering 300 acres to a depth of fully 20 feet. In Beaver county, south of Frisco, are deposits of singular purity among fissures of silicious flint, but of no commercial value. Near Brigham . City are sulphurets of antimony, averaging four feet v in thickness, and yielding some twenty-five per cent of pure metal. In Piute and Gdeld counties are purer and larger formations. um and mica abound especially in the south ; the GYP" atter also on the south- east bank of Great Salt lake.:. East of Nephi is a vein of gypsum 1,200 feet long and 100 feet wide. Cin- nabar, cobalt, and bismuth occur, the last in paying quantities in Beaver county and at Titic. Near the great lake is a solid mountain of rock salt, and west of it large quantities of saleratus. The carbonate of soda found in Emigration calion was used by the first settlers for baking. In the iron beds ochre is plenti- ful, and under the shale, which covers a surface of 1,000 square miles, occurs 'the so-called mineral wax, some of it rich in gases and paridbe. Alum is found in all parts, in combination with other minerals, and in Sanpete county and Promontory range are vast beds of alum shale. Building stone exists throughout the territory in great variety, notably anite at Little Cottonwood ; red sandstone at Red 8;uttes near Salt Lake City; white sandstone in Sanpete, and limestone, easily

quarried, at Logan. Marbles of all colors and capa- bl6 of the finest polish are found, especially along the 4: east slope of the upper lakes, those from Lovan being

host in demand. The green and

purple she from

Antelope island is preferred to the eastern product for

man purposes. Clays of various descriptions are avai%ble for brioky.rds, potteries, and porcelain fac- tories.



Pmqwcting for precioas metale wae long diicoun-

tenanced by the church, mainly with a view to re-

vent the influx of gentiles, and

@ly becauae of its

  • demo- tendencies. Gold placers were not dis-

covered to any considerable extent, but silver depos- its, with a considerable admixture of the yellow metal, lay scattered in all directions; and they would no doubt have long remained undisturbed under the ecclesiastical ban, had not the disclosures in Nevada caused gentiles to search for them. In 1863 paptain

& Heitz and his followers from the military camp

divered argentiferous galena and

copper in Brig-

ham &ion, on the east slope of the Oquirrh range.

In September of that year a

man named Ogdbie

located a mine, the beginning of the mining district of West mountain, which extends between Black Rock and the southern end of Great Salt lake, and contained in 1871 three dozen mines. The find created an excitement among both Mor- mons and gentiles, and prospecting and locating of

mines were actively prosecuted. In 1863 the Rush valley district was organized on the western slope of Oquirrh, a segregation of the preceding district. Within two years 400 claims had been taken .up, cen- tring round Stockton. The ores we& sulphuretsand carbonates of argentiferous lead, with an aveihge assay of $5'5 per tou. In the Ophii district, subse- quently formed at this point, assays of chloride ores

reached $5,000 per ton. In the

extreme southern

first mine, the% unbeam, was opened in 1869. Upon

end of thii ra e lay the Tintic

district, where the

its ledge there were in 1882 nine locations, selected ores from which caniedfrom 80 to 100 ounces of silver,

besides gold, copper, and lead. The Crismon may be taken as a representative mine, and yielded on an average about $35 per ton in gold and silver. The first diivery of silver-bearing rock in the Wasatch range was made by General Connor in per- son, at the head of Little Cottonwood caiion. The




fir& ore was galena, then 'carbonate of lead, both in chimneys. Shipments began in 1868, but the syste- matic opening of the mines was deferred for two years, until the dompletion of the Utah Central rail- way. They embraced the famous Emma, located in 1869, and yielding over $2,000,000 for the eighteen months ending in 1872. It was thereupon foisted by swindling operations upon English capitalists for $5,000,000. The adjacent Flagstaff produced by 1882 more than $3,000,000 worth of ore. Immediately to

the north la the Big Cottonwood district, wherein


o? claims were taken up. To the south

extended the American Fork district, now embracing also the Silver Lake district. TheMiier claim, belong- . in to this group, sold for $190,000, but in 1882 the ~iverBell was .the leadii mine. Eastward, in the Uintah and Blue Ledge districts, at Park City, the famous Ontario mine mas located in 1872. Eleven years later it had reached a depth of 800 feet in quartzite formation, averaging $106 per ton, and had yielded fully $17,000,000, over $6,000,000 being paid in dividends. Milling and other expenses were $33 per ton. In 1864 gold was discovered in Brigham

caiion, producing within eight years $1,000,000. By

1882 the

total yield reached $1,500,000 in gold,

$8,800,000 in silver, and $5,000,000 in led. The ore was partly galena, though largely silicious, and decom- posed near the surface. Following the Wwtch prolongation southward we

reach the profitable San Francisco district in Beaver count , 15 miles west of Miilford. The leading mine,

the dorn Silver, had by 1882 been opened to a


of 500 feet in decomposed galena, some 50 feet thick,

and produced about $6,000,000 in silver and lead, one- fourth being distributed in dividends. The ore of the adjacent Carbonate mine consisted chiefly of trachyte, requiring concentration; and the Cave mines, in a series of limestone caves? had limonite ore near the surface. In Washington county, in the basin of the





Colorado, lay the Harrisburg district, centrin 8 in

Silver Reef, a town incorporated in 1878, an so

named from a silver-bearing sandstone reef, 100 miles in length, yielding in many places $30 per ton. Leeds,

the pioneer location, produced $800,000, and three

other companies had by 1882 taken out


ised with consolidation to

Hundreds of claims, as yet untouched, pro

develop into dividend-pay-

$1,000,00 ,

. in

properties. % 1883 there were in

Utah perhaps 100 mining


districts in operation, with 17 smelting and reduction works, all of modern pattern, producing more than

2,000 tons of bullion per

month. .

There were


quartz-mills, with at least 350 stamps, the cost of a

. -chloridizing mill being $3,000 or $4,000 per stamp.

Among the largest refining establishments at this date were the Germania lead works and the Franck- lyn smelting works on the south Cottonwood, with a capacity of 40 and 55 tons daily respectively, the

should % be made of the sampling works of Scott & Anderson at Sandy, with a dapacity of 500 tona The average cost of mining and hauling, including dead work, was probably not less than $10 per ton, and of milling silver ore at least as much. At smelt. ing-works about $28 were charged for. smelting and

latter e

uivalent to 250 tons of crude ore. Mention

refining, and $25 for freight to New York. As the average yield of galena ores,,which form the bulk of the deposits, is less than $30, these rates were pro- . hibitory, leaving only a few mines to be classed as

profitable. For 1869 the product of all the Utah mines in gold, silver, and lead did not exceed $200,000. Two years

later ithad

riaen to $3,000,000, and in 1875 to $7,000,-

000, at "which figure it stood in 1883, the yield

remaining almost stationary for the two succeeding years. Between 1870 and 1883 the yield of gold exceeded $2,000,000, and of silver $45,800,000, the total output of all metals reaching $71,500,000, or an

average of $5,500,000 a year. Most of this came

from a few rich districts. Against it must be placed

the expenses, which in the aggregate may

be esti-

mated at $10,000,000 a year. The large deficit must, however, be mainly attributed to improvements and to excessive rates of wages, so that it is not altogether

a loss, even to ' foreign investors, who are paying assessments. For Utah the gain is decisive, in the . addition to capital and population, and in promoting settlement, with the attendant increa~in the values of property.

In the adjacent territory of Wyoming, the south- west corner of which waS formerly a portion of Utah, the California gold fever first called the attention of prospectors, and many an emigrant tried the "streams . en route, although in vain. Father De Smet, the famous Montana missionary, had spoken of gold indi-

the early forties,7 ut which his Je~uiticalcaution and

cations in this

r ion, observed during his tours in

hi -regard far the welfare of the natives prevented . him from disclosing. Nothing daunted, thirty men

separated from Douglas' California-bound

party in

1852, intent on searching for the metal. Eight over-

took the caravan later, and reported gold on two streams, presumably in the Black' hills, but not in s&cient quantity to induce the company to turn back. The other twenty-two remainea to search further, but were never heard of, and probably per- ished from the tomahawk or from hung~r. Fourteen years later the bones and crumbling implements of

diggers were found near several holes and shafts on Battle creek, Black hills, which some ascribe to the



adventurers ..

~s3oloradoand ~ontanadisplayed their tisurea, the belief was confirmed that the intervening terri- tory of Wyoming must also contain its share; but the growing hostility of the Indians, and. their .raids on passing emigrants deterred prospectors, , In 1857



% '









Lieutenant Warren .advanced from Laramie to the west slope of the Black hills, there to be driven back by the Sioux; get he found time to report upon its geology and to declare that gold existed there ji b'valuable quantities." In 1859 a government expe-

dition under Captain Reynolds, attended b a scien- ti& corps under Hayden, explored the BL~hills,


and the region beyond to Powder and Yellowstone rivers. A member of this party is said to have found gold in Bighorn mountains; but, afraid of losing their

men and the results of their labors, Reynolds and Hayden bound the discoverer to secrecy, and the



locality could not afterward be traced. Both leaders admitted in their reports that decided indications of gold existed in that range, as well as in *he Black hills, and that different persons had observed nuggets in' the possession of the- natives. So many confirmatory reports failed not in their effect, and in the beginning of the sixties several par- ties o anized in adjoining territories to verify them.

A sm%~

number. of French C-&ins proceeded in

1862 to Bighorn mountains, only to dimppear. In the following year another company on the way to Montana examined the Black Hills and took out $180 in three days; but the season was late and they htu-


ried onward.

In the same ear an expedition left

Montana to prospect the 3%llowstone region, and made its way to the South pass without finding any metal. Notwithstanding this failure other Montana prospectors continued the search, but none were able to hold out against the natives. The goverhment troops, moreover, assisted in keeping out intruders from a region conceded to the aborigines, and a party of over one hundred men from the south wae thus thwarted at the outset - Finally, in 1867, deposits were revealed on the sources of the Sweetwater, by H. Ridell and others, who discovered the Cariso lode, and made the firat locations at the South pass. The gold exietedlargely



in decomposed quartz, which wuld & readily



The Cariso yielded by means of hand mortara over $15,000 before the winter set in. The news spread uickly, and soon fully 700 men were at work on %illon creek, a northern branch of the Sweetwater, . the earliest arrivals being frqm Salt Lake City. It was necessary even here to keep close together, for those who ventured far beyond received a more or less severe. reminder in encounters with Amphoes and other marauders. Many promising locations were made, among them Atlantic ledge, six miles northeast of Cariso, and Miners' Delight two miles farther. Later in the autumn placers were also unfolded in gulches along Willow creek. Chief among . them was the Dakota gulch, to which a ditch five miles in length was constructed before the winter sea-

son set in. In October South Pass City was laid out, and a few miles beyond rose Atlantic City, which soon eclipsed the other, counting in 1868 oher 500 inhabit- ants. Around them were*ormed numerous mining districts, each containing a hundred or more occu- pants, and their importance was recognized by the formation early in 1868 of Carton county, subse- ,

%. Baldwin, one of the original discoverers of the

uently-renamed Sweetwater.

The Grst trader was

Cariso, who, after serving in the civil war, had come to Wind River valley and established a post for Ind- ian traffic. W. Noble joined in the competition for miners' custom and in'exploiting on his own account.

He also engaged large1 in stock-raisin , and rendered good service as a metder of the legisf ature. The Sweetwater districts did not prove so rich or permanent as had been expeted. In 1879 the prod- uct amounted to only $23,000, and three years later it had fallen to $5,000. Elsewhere developments have been even leas substantial, notwithstanding the incor-. poration of several companies. Carbon county is so

k the moet promisii, and claims several diicte


with placer and quartz as well as hydraulic mines; but the grade is low, the Seminole district free mill-

ing ore yielding, for instance, from $12 ton. Ore has been exhibited at Denver

to $30 per from other


sections, as Ferris mountains, Chmmins City, and Laramie range, but the exploitation is limited. The Black Hills mines pertain to the adjoining territory on the east; yet the traffic arising therefrom haa been la ely shared in by Wyoming.

%yoming is richer in other minerals, as coal; iron, copper, mica, soda, building-stone, and petroleum, all of which promise to be sources of profit, when improved means of conveyance and other adjuncts shall permit a wider unfolding. Plumbago exists in

phur in the Former and

Crook count graphite in Albany, asbestos and sul-

in the Yellowstone region, and

along the Sweetwater have been picked. up agates, amethysts, and other precious stones. Coal ranks as the principal deposit, and is found in

Albany, Crook, Johnson, Laramie, Sweetwater, and Carbon counties, the last owing its name to the abundance of the ~trata. The report of the Stans- bury expedition of 1849 also refers to croppings in Laramie range. In 1868 coal was found near Evans- ton, and niining began in the following. year, giving rise to the town of Almy. The field IS pmhcally unlimited, and yields a semi-bituminous brown coal of good quality. The Central Pacific Railrd com-


gained possession of a la e tract undek the

9ountain Coal and

kneh organization of Rocky

Iron company of 1870. Two of their own mines were worked by about 300 miners, producing in De- cember 1881 nearly 17,000 tons. Near by, the Union Pacific Railroad company employed nearly 300 men, who in the same month took out 7,700 tons. The latter owned mines also at Rock springs, Carbon, and

other points.

Trouble with

their white miners, chiefly English

and velsh, caused the Union Pacitic in 1885 to intro-



duce Chinese laborers. The month after their a~~ival ' the exasperated white miners at Rock Springs to the number of 200 attacked the 400 Asiatics with fire- arms and drove them to the bis, killing and wound- ing about 50, burning down their dwellings and -:


destroying their effects, many of the sick and wounded being cast into the flames. Twoscore houses belong- ing to the company were also 'consumed, Troops

were sent to aid

in suppressing the fiat,. but the mur-

derers could not be brought to justice, owing to the withholding of testimony by the inhabitants. f A few -

of the obnoxious miners were replaced by more sub- servient Mormons, not belonging to labor organiza- tions, and the Chi~esewere reinstated under watchful

guardianship, whiie at Evanston 8

still larger force

was employed. The government bas since taken- steps to indemnify the sufferers from these disgraceful outrages. Near Laramie are iron deposits, perhaps the rich- est in the United States, but difEcult to work. The Union PqSc company have established works at that ,point, where they manufactured rails early in the past decade. The iron mountain of Albany county yields 85 per cent of pure metal. Copper is so widely distributed as to hold out

bright promises for future exploitation,

it assays 40 per

cent, with an

At Rawlina

odnce of silver and


traces of gold. Laramie is especially rich herein, and several copper-mining districts bave been formed. The first smelting works were q;Z;Cted at Fairbanks. At Platte caiion, a few milea west st. of liramie, the Wyomin Copper company was organized in 1882 by A. J. ~a%bitt,a large stock-raiser. The investment amounted to $200,000, and the yield of the following year rose to 1,000,000 pounds of copper. A mica mine, 20 miles north of Laramie, was sold . in 1882 to a New York company. which soon after- . ward commenced operations. Coal-oil exista in five of the counties,lying near the surface, and resembling


the best Russian and Rangcon qualities

For l~bri-

dn it is unexcdled. Soda lakes were discoveql , in dkn county in 1869, by N. K. Boswe11, the

celebhtddetecti~e,and sold under pressure to the Union Pacific, which in 1853 erected. hea The deposit is a mlphate several feet in thickness, and covers 56 am. Near Independence rock are eeveral lakes of bicarbonate of soda, covering a am-

face of 500 acres, and suitable for glassmaking.