Você está na página 1de 27

Promotion Management

MNM304-8

MARKET FACTORS AND PRODUCT FACTORS FOR DISTRIBUTION CHANNEL Tip : CUSTOMERS can MANUFACTURE PRODUCTS in the ENVIORNMENTAL area for EXISTING INTERMEDIARIES In your introduction you should give practical background information by briefly describing Tupperware as a company. Indicate in your introduction that you will be discussing the five factors that influence the choice of a distribution channel for Tupperware. Use these five factors as headings in the main body of your assignment.

Johnny Roux is the owner of a protea farm in the Cederberg area of South Africa. The proteas on the farm are harvested by a team of workers and carefully packed in cartons, each carrying a dozen proteas to the target markets in Amsterdam and New York. What kind of transport would you recommend to get the proteas to the target markets? What factors came to mind when deciding on the transport mode ? Cut flowers are a fragile and perishable product, and have a short life span. As the target markets are far away, a short and very quick mode of transport is required. The best mode would be air cargo from CapeTown international airport. No inventory will be kept, because of the perishability of the flowers, and no warehousing is needed, though care must be taken to control the humidity and temperature levels during the transportation process so as to ensure the flowers reach the target markets fresh. Discuss the market/customer factors and all the product factors which influence the choice of a distribution channel. Customer characteristics The choice of a distribution channel will depend on the needs and wants of the consumer. If the target market of the company is geographically widely dispersed, The Company will need help towards reaching it. If small quantities of the product are frequently bought by small retailing shops in the rural areas, then a longer distribution channel will be needed. Lets make some assumptions: if the target market of The Company indicated, through marketing research, that they would also like to buy their products in townships, then retailers in these areas should be evaluated as an alternative distribution channel for their products. Consumers are the people who buy a business's products and services. Identifying the target market for your product or service is, therefore, one of the most important activities undertaken by management. Marketing management has to analyse the consumer to reveal the composition of the market. Changes in the market composition or changes in consumer needs may create certain opportunities which, if used, can influence the business's long-term growth and survival. The enterprise can operate in the following five types of consumer markets which consist of final consumers or customers, namely Consumer markets industrial markets government markets resale markets international markets These variables will affect the business, which makes it imperative for management to react to opportunities and threats in the market environment. The choice of a distribution channel will depend on the needs and wants of the consumer. If the target market for a consumer product is geographically widely dispersed, the manufacturer will need help in reaching it. If small quantities of the product are frequently bought by small retailers in the rural areas in the Northern Province, for example, then a longer distribution channel will be needed. Lets

Promotion Management

MNM304-8

make some assumptions: if we assume that the target market of Tupperware has indicated, through marketing research, that they would prefer to buy Tupperware products from retailers such as Pick n Pay and Checkers, then retailers should be evaluated as an alternative distribution channel for Tupperware products. Product characteristics Five product characteristics will also influence the choice of distribution channel, namely the 1. Perishability life span 2. Bulkiness size, space 3. Complexity 4. Degree of standardisation what to keep 5. How fashionable the product is. change over time The more perishable the product is, the shorter the distribution channel will be. Standardised products, on the other hand, follow a longer distribution channel than customised products because they are sold to many retailers who then sell them to thousands of consumers. Owing to the fact that The Company sells perishable product, it would most likely use a shorter channel, but with more retailers. Five product characteristics will also influence the choice of distribution channel, namely the perishability, bulkiness, complexity and degree of standardisation of the product and how fashionable the product is. The more perishable, bulky and complex the product, the shorter the distribution channel will be. Standardised products, on the other hand, follow a longer distribution channel than customised products because they are sold to many retailers and wholesalers, who then sell them to thousands of consumers. Due to the fact that Tupperware sell standardised products that do not perish easily, it could probably use a longer channel with more intermediaries Manufacturer characteristics The larger the manufacturing enterprise the better the chance of selling directly to retailers such as cafs and spaza shops. A small manufacturing business does not have the resources to be able to dictate where and how its products must be sold. It is therefore evident (if we assume that The Company is a big organisation) that they could expand their distribution channels to include the small retailers in the townships. A business is dependent on suppliers. An example of a supplier is the supplier of capital to a business. Traditionally, the commercial banks are the suppliers of capital to small and medium-sized businesses. Listed companies such as Pick n Pay have an additional supply of capital provided by their shareholders. The market environment also contains opportunities that the organization may use to its own benefit, as well as threats that need to be countered. The larger the manufacturing enterprise, the better the chance will be of selling directly to a large retailer or to the final consumer. A small manufacturing business does not have the resources to be able to dictate where and how its products must be sold. It is therefore evident (if we assume that Tupperware is a big organisation) that Tupperware could expand their amount of distribution channels to include big retailers such as Pick n Pay. Existing intermediary characteristics The availability and quality of existing intermediaries are also determining factors in the selection process. Some retailers will not carry an unproven or new product, others do not want to carry stock at all. In some instances the poor quality of existing intermediaries or the unavailability of intermediaries makes it necessary for the manufacturer to establish its own channel to the target market. The Company is currently using direct selling. There are,

Promotion Management

MNM304-8

however, other existing intermediares available in the market. Mention the other intermediaries (Wholesalers, Retailers, merchants, brokers, manufacturers, service providers)that The Company will have to use and evaluate them in your recommendation of an alternative channel for the company. Intermediaries, such as wholesalers and retailers, evolved to bridge the gap between the manufacturer and the consumer. One such example is the development of convenience shops at filling stations and the resultant threats to the traditional convenience stores, such as cafe's. The availability and quality of existing intermediaries are also determining factors in the selection process. Some wholesalers or retailers will not carry an unproven or new product, while others do not want to carry stock at all. In some instances the poor quality of existing intermediaries or the unavailability of intermediaries makes it necessary for the manufacturer to establish its own channel of wholesalers and/or retailers. Tupperware is using direct selling. There are, however, other existing intermediares available in the market. Explain the other available intermediaries and evaluate them in your recommendation of an alternative channel for Tupperware. Environmental characteristics Here factors such as the disposable income of the consumer, the inflation rate, the competitive nature of the industry, urbanisation, technology, political and legal variables and socio-cultural changes exert an influence on the choice of a channel. You may, for example, elaborate on the increase in income of the previously disadvantaged communities and that they are now prepared to pay extra for a quality product.Competitors are a natural part of a capitalistic society. We are accustomed to the fact that various competitors compete for the consumer's money in the case of most products and services. Organisations face two basic types of competition, namely, intra-type competition and intertype competition. Intra-type competition refers to the competition between two or more marketers who use the same type of business format. Shoprite supermarkets, for example, compete with Pick n Pay supermarkets as they use the same type of store, layout and information system, and carry the same type of stock. Inter-type competition refers to the situation where two or more marketers compete with different retail formats. An example is the Edgars fashion retail group, which also competes with Pick n Pay hypermarkets in selling clothing to customers. The competition that occurs within an industry also has a significant impact on the competitiveness of the organisation and needs to be carefully analysed. Next we look at the intermediaries. Here factors such as the consumers disposable income, inflation rate, competitive nature of the industry, urbanisation, technology, political and legal variables and sociocultural changes exert an influence on the choice of channel. You can elaborate on the use of for example technology on the distribution of Tupperware products. Tupperware could, for example, consider selling directly on the Internet Conclusion Conclude your answer by summarising the most important aspects mentioned. You should indicate which alternative intemediaries Tupperware could consider, and suggest an alternative channel for the distribution of Tupperware products. For example, Tupperware could make use of more intermediaries, like wholesalers to retailers, in its distribution channel because its products are not perishable or very complex and the consumer wants to buy Tupperware at Checkers and Hyperama.

Promotion Management

MNM304-8

As a manager and owner of Eezee Enterprises a company which sells trendy, imported women's clothing Mr Samborawants you to explain to him how the variables in the macro-environment may influence his business. Draw up a list of all the macro-environmental variables that may influence his business. The macro-environment . technological . economic . social . physical . politico-government . international You should have identified six variables which may affect Eezee Enterprises in different ways. These variables are listed below: The technological environment. This environment is affected by innovation and change. New manufacturing processes and new technology may, for example, influence the type and quality of clothing being sold by Eezee Enterprises. One needs only to think of the new types of materials available, such as those which combine natural and synthetic fibres to create crease-resistant materials. The economic environment. This variable is well known to everyone. An increase in the inflation rate, changes in the exchange rate and a higher rate of personal tax are examples of how the economic environment may influence Eezee Enterprises' clothing andMr Sambora in his personal capacity. The social environment. Social changes are prevalent throughout the world and also in South Africa. A decline in the population growth rate may eventually have a negative impact on the sale of trendy imported clothing. The changing role of women in society (eg more women in fulltime positions) may be a positive variable in the case of Eezee Enterprises and may result in a higher turnover. The physical environment. This variable is of great concern to people all over the world. Scarce resources are utilized in the packaging of clothing and the wastage of packaging material must be of concern to Eezee Enterprises. The politico-governmental environment, also known as the institutional environment. This variable in the macro-environment would be of particular concern to Eezee Enterprises.One example of the effect of this variable would be the surcharges on imported clothing. This would have a direct influence on the selling price of the clothing sold by Eezee Enterprises in South Africa. The international environment. South Africa is part of the global village. As such, our economy and its businesses are directly influenced by the political troubles of the Middle Eastern countries, for example. Eezee Enterprises may benefit from a better exchange rate, which should enable Mr Sambora to import his clothing at a cheaper price.

Promotion Management

MNM304-8

CLASSIFICATION AND DESCRIPTION OF RETAILERS & AMT OF SERVICE THEY RENDER. PRODUCT LINES (ASSORTMENT) THEY KEEP Retailers Categories Merchant wholesalers Rack Jobber perform most distribution functions, provide and stocking racks in retailers eg pick n pay Cash & Carry Wholesalers carries limited selection of products, doesnt transport to end consumers eg. Metro Cash and Carry Drop Shipper takes title of the product but doesnt handle physical distribution Truck Jobber operates small warehouse , uses trucks to carry goods to retailers Manufacturers Wholesalers Producers product set up own distribution . May set up their own wholesaling operation eg sales/branch offices eg. Link, Family circle and Plus Pharmacies Brokers and Agents intermediaries that bring together producers and custom forms & sales arrangement eg. Selling agents, import-export agents & purchasing agents. Merchant Wholesalers Rackjobber = perform most functions Cash-&carry = limited quantity no transport Drop-shopper Truck jobber = wholesaler small quantities, truck carry G Manufacturer Wholesalers = Brokers / Agents = act on behalf of clients Services Performed by retailers Location = located near homes, convenience for P/S Variety = wide variety offered and forecast trends Re-assortment = buys bulk and breaks down Info = about goods Finance = credit and leasing Ordering = ordered on customers behalf Types of Retailers

Department Stores = Woolworths Specialty Stores = American Swiss Chain Stores = Game, Pick-n-Pay Super markets =Spar

Promotion Management

Discount stores = Dion Buying centers = Eastgate Franchise = Wimp, Steers, McDondalds

MNM304-8

QUESTION : NAME THE SALES PROMOTION METHODS AIMED AT A CONSUMER THAT A STORE COULD USE TO PERSUADE CUSTOMERS TO BUY THEIR PRODUCTS. Introduction In the introduction to your essay you should provide practical background to your business, for example, that NeatClean is the name of your business. You should also specify the target market, for example housewives, which you wanted to persuade to buy your products by using sales promotion techniques. Sales promotion techniques: A broad range of customer-oriented sales promotion techniques is used by marketing management in its battle for consumer loyalty. Neatclean could use the following sales promotion techniques: Sampling often included with an introductory discount offer & even an on pack premium. It can also be used in an attempt to revive a slumping product / as a serious entry barrier. Consumer deals are short-term promotions offering consumers a saving or a bonus on the purchase of a product. Examples of consumer deals include price-offs and bonus packs. Both these methods could be used by NeatClean. For example, NeatClean could offer 20% off on the regular price of their detergents. In this way consumers can be conviced of saving on price. By doing this NeatClean can reward regular brand users, induce consumers to purchase larger quantities of detergents that they normally would and establish a repeat purchase pattern after an initial trial purchase. Bonus packs could also be used by NeatClean. This can be done by offering two washing detergents for the price of one. They could also use a package which is larger than the standard one, stating that consumers get 50 ml free. Sampling places a free product in the hands of the consumer for trial, with the idea of letting the product sell itself and of encouraging consumers to purchase the product on a regular basis. NeatClean could make use of this method by placing samples of a new washing detergent in the form of small sachets stuck to a page in a womens magazine. costly used to launch new product with other methods of communication free sweets, free lipstick best for showing key attributes may rejuvenate slumping sales complex process outsourced to other companies Price Incentives are variations of short term price reductions, such as sales , intro offers and specials. Eg Edgars store sales where certain lines will be put on sale or a price discounted. S.T price reductions Low introductory offers Specials

Promotion Management

MNM304-8

Coupons Offers price deals . Redeemable at a retail store, used by retailers and wholesalers to gain reimbursements from the mnfrers.. Coupons are certificates distributed by manufacturers to consumers, redeemable at retail outlets, giving the consumer a specified price reduction on a particular product. The coupon usually contains information on the brand and package size, the value of the coupon and the expiry date. Neatclean could possibly issue coupons with specific price reductions on a specific washing detergent. Gained to use reimbursements Limited price reductions Have timeframes attached (eg: valid until 30 October) Used to develop selective demand May inserted in newspaper Premiums foods can offer on- or in-pack gifts eg Pokeman tazzos that become collectable items. It encourages repeat purchases, increased sales, brand switching & added brand value. A premium is the offer of an article of merchandise either free or at a reduced price to induce purchase of another product. Various types of premiums can be used, namely in, on and near pack premiums, free-in-the mail premiums and self-liquidating premiums. free gift / reward for purchase stimulate repeat purchasing increases amount purchased may switch brand added value time magazine : free watch pokemon cards Tie-in promotions 2 types inter and intra co. tie ins. Intra-company tie-ins is a sales promo involves 2 brands belonging to a single market eg. Toothbrush & Toothpaste should appeal in the same market) Inter-company tie-ins involve joint promos. 2 or more cos that are not in direct competition but whose products are complementary eg. Ster Kinekor win a trip to the Oscars with other prices involving BMW. promotion between 2 brands in a single competition Intra Company 2 brands from single company (tooth brush and paste) Inter Company Promo between 2/more brands from non-competing companies Trade shows Staff efficiency, positive relationship bet. Expenditure per attendee, specialist industry trade show are more effective than multi-industry shows Frequent shopper programs based on 2 principals all customers are not equal and behavior follows reward based on 2 principles customers are not all equal behavior follows rules PARETO PRINCIPLE = 20% customers = 80% sales Should motivate customers to develop loyalty

Promotion Management

MNM304-8

Competition / contest / sweepstakes allows mnfrers to collect demographic & even psychographic info from their target market via entry forms. Prizes can add value to brand by association. Can result in free publicity to the manufacturer. Sweepstakes eg Readers digest have lost popularity. Promotional activities that involve consumers in the advertising and merchandising activities of the manufacturer by gaining their participation in games of skill or chance are known respectively as "contests" and "sweepstakes". Neatclean could introduce a contest where entrants are required to say in less than 20 words why they like NeatCleans detergents. Proof of purchase of one of NeatCleans products would be required. offer probability of winning a reward help create / select name create awareness of a product increase sales

Bonus packs These offer more product either in a larger container or multiple units for the same or a reduced price, which amounts to a price-off per unit larger quantities multiple units of reduced price Warranties part of the product offering. Can serve as an incentive to buy and this can be deemed a consumer promotion. incentive to buy more used to provide compensation is product defective money back replacement free service free repairs Refunds and rebates A refund or rebate is a cash discount of reimburesement given by the marketer to the consumer on submission of proof of purchase. NeatClean could possibly give a refund of 20% on proof of purchase of a specific detergent. Point-of-purchase promotion Manufacturers make use of displays to attract the attention of consumers and to stimulate them to purchase the product. These displays encourage impulsive buying. A point-of-purchase display involves the use of display materials such as posters, banners, shelves, mobile displays, price cards and specially designed racks or window displays. NeatClean could make use of specially designed posters and banners which could be put up everywhere in stores to promote their detergents. A special rack with bright colours could also be designed for displaying the washing detergents. Gifts Gifts, also known as "specialities", are novelties on which the businesss name or the advertising slogan or logo appears. These articles are handed out free of charge to customers. NeatClean could hand out pens, t-shirts and pocket diaries on which the name NeatClean appears in order to gain goodwill and obtain exposure for their washing detergents. Conclusion

Promotion Management

MNM304-8

End your essay with a suitable conclusion. Emphasise, for example, that by making use of these sales promotion methods and the reward they offer, NeatClean could persuade many consumers to buy their washing detergents.

PHYSICAL DISTRIBUTION/LOGISTICS Briefly discuss the main activities of logistics that managers should perform. Identify two of these activities that are more relevant to SingNow than the others. For instance, order processing when street vendors indicate how many CDs they require. The transportation of the products is also important should they be delivered by the sales persons or should other personnel be used for it. Logistics activities have one overarching goal, namely, to develop and maintain the steady flow of products from the manufacturer to the final consumer. The four major categories of logistics activities include order warehousing, inventory management, processing and transportation. Let us briefly look at each. Warehousing This is where inventory is stored before it is sold. Warehousing performs a number of functions, such as receiving, sorting and storing the goods, and filling and dispatching the orders. Three decisions are important in terms of warehousing management. These are to decide how many warehouses are needed, where they should be located, and what type of warehouse to use (private or public warehouses, or distribution centres). Each type has its own characteristics and uses, and management needs to consider these carefully to choose the correct type for the organisation's logistical requirements. Functions: o Receiving o Sorting o Storage o Filling orders o Dispatching Decisions: o how many

Promotion Management
o o

MNM304-8

what types (public, private warehouses / distribution centres) where to put warehouses

Inventory management Traditionally done by the purchasing dept but is still part of the logistic function. This involves keeping an eye on the inventory levels, so that customer needs can be met and so that the minimum levels are maintained. Companies like to carry sufficient stock to fill all customer orders immediately. This is, however, not always cost effective. Inventory decision making involves knowing when to order and how much to order. There are two issues involved in doing this, namely, the reorder point and the economic order quantity.The reorder point occurs when inventory is at a certain level, a level which indicates the need to place another order.This is calculated by taking into account the order lead time, the usage rate and the safety stock level needed. The economic order quantity (EOQ) is the quantity to order so that the sum of the inventory carrying costs and the order processing costs are kept to a minimum. It is calculated using the following formula: EOQ = 2 D O IC where: D =annual demand in units O = costs of placing an order I = inventory carrying costs as a percentage of annual inventory investment C = cost of one unit of the product Aspects such as just-in-time management and ABC inventory analysis have also provided advantages to organisations in terms of managing their inventory levels. Objective-minimize inventory cost (when to order and how much to order) Factors to consider: o reorder point (when inventory reaches a certain level = place order) o usage rate (measured as usage per day sold/used up) o safety stock (does not run out of goods) o economic order quality (EOQ) o just-in- time (JIT) ( eliminates forms and unnecessary waste. Right products arrive at the right qty when it is required = achieved thro KANBAN) Order processing This begins when the order is placed and continues until the customer receives the product. This process may continue a little longer so that database marketing can take place. The three basic tasks involved in order processing are 1. order entry 2. order handling 3. order delivery Advances in electronic data interchange, where suppliers, manufacturers and distributors are connected via an electronic system , have provided many advantages to organisations, both among the members of the system and within the manufacturing organisation itself.Electronic Data Interchange (EDI) (e-mails, increased productivity due to faster response, improved channel relationships, increase market opportunities, increased accuracy, decreased costs and paperwork Transportation

Promotion Management

MNM304-8

This is what is used to move the products from the manufacturer through to the final consumer.There are five basic modes of transport, each with its own characteristics and uses. Modes: o Rail o Road o Air o Pipeline o Water o Inter-model (more than on type) Factors influencing selection: o Cost o Time o Accessibility o Capability o Frequency o reliability Materials handling Transfer of goods in and outside firm Objectives: lowest cost, maximum capacity utilisation, minimum handling, employee safety, service quality. Practical guidelines: Identify two of these activities that are more relevant to SingNow than the others. For instance, order processing when street vendors indicate how many CDs they require. The transportation of the products is also important should they be delivered by the sales persons or should other personnel be used for it. EXPLAIN THE PRIMARY VALUE CHAIN ACTIVITIES You should be able to explain the following primary value chain activities: Inbound logistics, that is, the receiving and warehousing of raw materials, and the distribution of these raw materials to manufacturing as they are required. Operations, that is, the process of transforming inputs into finished products and services. Outbound logistics, that is, the warehousing and distribution of finished goods. Marketing and sales, which includes the identification of customer needs and the generation of sales. Service,which includes the support of customers after the products and services are sold to them These primary activities are supported by . the infrastructure of the firm . the management of human resources . technological development . procurement THE DEFINITION OF ``DEMAND CHAIN'' AND THE DIFFERENCES BETWEEN THE SUPPLY CHAIN AND THE DEMAND CHAIN

Promotion Management

MNM304-8

The supply chain starts with the origins of the raw material used in the production of the product and ends once the product has been discarded or recycled. The demand chain refers to a need articulated by the consumer which is then met by a product supplied by the producer. DEFINE``CHANNEL MANAGEMENT'',``DISTRIBUTION CHANNEL'' AND `INTERMEDIARIES''. Channel management is the way in which a distribution channel is managed. A distribution channel is structured in such away that it links a group of organisations which make a product or service available to the consumer. BASIC CHANNEL FUNCTIONS Transactional functions. These involve contacting potential customers, promoting products and soliciting orders. Logistical functions. These involve transporting and sorting goods to overcome temporal and spatial discrepancies. Facilitating functions. These functions focus on gathering information about other channel members and consumers, and extending credit and other financial services to facilitate the flow of goods through the channel to the final consumer. MARKET COVERAGE DECISIONS Intensive coverage. This involves the placement of products in as many locations as possible by using the optimum number of intermediaries. Selective coverage. This involves the placement of products in a more limited number of locations. Exclusive coverage. This limits the availability of a product to a very small number of locations. THE TERM ``DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM'' refers to a complex system of agents, wholesalers and retailers through which manufacturers move products to their intended markets.

EXPLAIN ALL THE DIRECT MARKETING METHODS (MEDIA) AVAILABLE. Tip : DIRECT MAIL to TELEMARKETERS can get a DIRECT RESPONSE PRINT MEDIA & BROADCAST MEDIA to INTERACTIVE MEDIA

Promotion Management

MNM304-8

Direct marketing media is an interactive marketing system used by one or more media of advertising to gain a measurable response and/or transaction at any place. Introduction Remember that for each of the direct-marketing media that you propose THE COMPANY should use you must briefly discuss the objectives of the campaign. For instance a directmail campaign could be used to tell prospective customers about the wide range of products available, the different quality categories and the stockists (retailers) that keep the products of THE COMPANY. Direct-mail Direct-mail uses the postal system or private delivery organizations to get the product or message to the customer. THE COMPANY could use the following components of a directmail package: The mailing envelope could be used to arouse interest and thus cause the reader to open the envelope. The letter should be personalised and relate to the self interest of the reader. The pamphlet (circular) should give details about the products of THE COMPANY, namely the specifications, colours available, photographs, guarantees and endorsements. The response device is the order form, and THE COMPANY could include with it a tollfree phone number to render advice to potential customers. The return device is any mechanism that allows the customer to return the necessary information to THE COMPANY. It may be an information request form, an order form, or a payment. Telemarketing If you have a telephone, you probably do not have to be told about the rapid increase in the use of telemarketing, or sales by telephone. Telemarketing is a combination of telecommunication technology, and information systems. There are two types of telemarketing, namely inbound and outbound telemarketing. Inbound telemarketing is the type where the call originates from the customer, while outbound telemarketing originates from the marketer. Inbound calls are usually in response to a marketer's actions. THE COMPANY, for example, might use a direct-mail campaign inviting people to phone the company for advice, or for a special deal. Outbound telemarketing is used by marketers for activities such as opening accounts, qualifying potential clients, providing customer service and profiling customers. THE COMPANY could apply telemarketing by: taking orders and cross selling handling complaints informing customers about special deals providing sales support by scheduling sales visits and confirming appointments managing accounts by maintaining relationships between customers and telemarketers THE COMPANY could also use telemarketing to schedule demonstrations of new products to large prospective paint buyers. Direct-response media In the case of THE COMPANY an agreement will have to be reached with their stockists (retailers) regarding their attempt to sell to franchised retailers. However, directmarketing does not always

Promotion Management

MNM304-8

attempt to sell the firms products, but may merely aim to elicit reaction from prospective customers to get more information about the products, or to visit the stockists of the products. Direct-marketing through mass media such as Television Creativity and impact, coverage and cost effectiveness, captivity and attention, selectivity and flexibility, and demonstration of the product used) Radio Cost and efficiency, inexpensive to produce and radio time costs are low, potential for mental imagery, the ability to reach selected audiences Magazines and Audience selectivity, creative felxibilty, long life, prestige and consumer receptivity, services Newspapers Different types, daily/weekly/national, special audience/supplements TYPES Display adversting, Classified & Special ads and inserts Extensive penetration, flexibility, geographic selection, reader involvement and acceptance, service offered are used to stimulate a direct response from prospective customers, especially when tied to a coupon or a toll-free number. You must discuss these direct response media (printed material, radio and television) separately and propose to THE COMPANYs management which one(s) they should use. Remember to spell out what the objective(s) of the campaign is/are. A very important printed medium that THE COMPANY should use is a catalogue. For a catalogue to be successful, there are criteria that the company must meet. The consumer must think the products are special and only available through the catalogue. Consumers must also think that they are receiving a good deal, because if the product is available at the same price at the local dealer, a catalogue sale will be unlikely. Television is often well suited for demonstrating a direct marketer's product, and can be used to sell the product or service, generate leads, or to support direct-marketing efforts in other media. Interactive electronic media An electronic shopping medium links both the buyer and the company interactively. Thus, by using a keyboard, a consumer can request information about THE COMPANYs products which would then appear on the screen. The viewer can then respond with further questions or placing an order and paying for the product, if direct selling to customers is used. The Internet is a worldwide means of exchanging information and communication through a series of interconnected computers. THE COMPANY could use the World Wide Web as a communication tool by providing information about their company, their products and services, advice on product usage and where the products could be purchased.

COLLECT ANY THREE DIRECT MAIL PACKAGES THAT YOU (OR A FRIEND) HAVE RECEIVED OVER THE PAST MONTH. EXAMINE THE THREE PACKAGES AND SEE IF YOU CAN IDENTIFY ANY UNIQUE CHARACTERISTICS IN THE PACKAGES. When you answer a question such as this one, you should always include the theory and practical examples relevant to the question. Let us have a look at the characteristics that Roberts and Berger (1999:4^6) and Jones Direct marketing is targeted. By using either lists of selected names or the information in a customer database, direct marketers can aim their direct

Promotion Management

MNM304-8

communication at specific individuals identified as possible customers. This means that the marketing venture is focused on the person as an individual, which is not possible in general marketing. Precise targeting makes it possible to identify new market segments with profit potential. Direct marketing is personal. Modern printing technology and database applications make a broad range of personalisation techniques and one-on-one customised offers and messages possible. The information in the database can be used to build up an ongoing relationship with the customer/prospect, because the customer information enables the direct marketer to make appropriate and persuasive presentations and offers to the customer. Those customers, for example, who have already purchased products in the past, can be encouraged to buy other similar products. SA Eagle, for example, could send letters to their individual clients (Dear Gerda) stating that because they are the holder of a retirement annuity they qualify for a special premium on an education policy. The message is addressed specifically to individual policyholders. Direct marketing is immediate action. Direct marketing always makes an appeal for specific and immediate action, such as the purchase of a product or a request for more information. The sales pitch usually includes a deadline date or an early bird discount offer, for example:``Order now to receive 10% discount'' or ``call now to qualify for the special offer''. Direct marketing is measurable. Direct marketers are accountable for every rand they spend. Because each direct-marketing message asks for an action, the marketer is able to measure the effectiveness of mailings, calls and advertisements by tracking the sales, leads or other responses received. Direct marketing is testable. Direct marketers are accountable for every rand they spend. They can measure the effectiveness of mailings and calls, and track the sales of specific products. Since direct marketing is personalised, it is possible to identify those customers who have been invited to buy and those who reacted to the invitation to buy. Direct marketing is flexible. The marketer sets the mailing dates, so there are no publication deadlines or time frames set by a magazine or other publisher. The direct marketer has control over the size, colour and format of the mailing, as well as when the communications are released.

The characteristics of a good marketing objective are quantifiable are aimed at the target market have a time frame are realistic are attainable EXPLAIN THE 5 MAIN FUNCTIONS AND ACTIVITIES THAT ARE PERFORMED BY INTERMEDIARIES.

They resolve discrepancies ( geographics, qtys kept, perishable stock, qty and assortment of products, help in standardization, assembly of products i.e size, quality and weight) They close gaps and provide utility (form, time , place & possession bet mnfrer & consumer)

Promotion Management

MNM304-8

They perform distribution activities (TRANSACTION buying, selling & Risk taking : PHYSICAL warehousing, order processing, storing, sorting and transporting : FACILITATING financing, garding & Market research. They specialize in the distribution channel (perform all the above) Efficiency of exchange o Intensive = convenience products o Selective = shopping products o Exclusive distribution = the product is available to a very small no. of locations

Discuss the forms of publicity that a company should consider to promote their business and its products. Press releases Info distributed to the media for publication or broadcast. When a new product is developed, the benefits and characteristics can be emphasized to the community (eg the Company could release a notice to the press about how it intends to help out an orphanage or school with its product) Press conferences Called by orgs to announce an event, accomplishment or other happenings.(eg the Company could collect representatives from the press and address them about steps taken to reimburse the cause) Exclusives (exclusive rights to information) one media/medium eg SABC TV news is given exclusive rights to info to ensure possible coverage on a main television news bulletin or a co. can give their side of a story to YOU or HUISEGENOOT in an exclusive interview. Interviews with key employees Chat to the CEO who can give extensive coverage and visions. Provided that he/she is well trained. This can assist in getting rid of negative publicity. Community involvement Companies can show how they are actively involved in the community with eg Aids awareness and can offer their support to companies/orphanages in the form of donations or assistance. Leaked information Leak important info, so people find out things and talk about it for the companies benefit. Media launches of new products, etc Hold media launches. Eg A motor vehicle co. launches a new model of car at an upmarket region eg The Lost city or Mauritius and Motor journalist are invited to attend the launch and they are inclined to write good reviews on the vehicle. Practical guidelines: The Company could be advised that they should make use of two methods of publicity to communicate their new method of marketing to target segments, namely press releases and community involvement be sponsoring eg. a soccer tournament in Soweto To avoid draw backs or negative publicity, the org must practice crisis management, & must use sound marketing communication practices to ward off threats Refuse to comment, attempt to discredit the source or negative approaches such as hiding the truth is less likely to be successful

Promotion Management

MNM304-8

EXPLAIN THE CAUSES OF CONFLICT THAT A COMPANY MAY EXPERIENCE IN THEIR DISTRIBUTION CHANNEL AND HOW THE CONFLICT CAN BE SOLVED Channel Conflict a situation in which one member of a distribution channel perceives another member as a rival engaged in behavior designed to injure, thwart, or gain scarce resources at the expense of the original member. Some of themost common causes of conflict include the following (Kotler & Keller 2006:491): . Goal incompatibility. Individual channel members may have goals which conflict with the goals of other channel members. . Unclear roles and rights. Individual channel members may clash due to uncertainty surrounding their roles within the channel. This conflict can be avoided by clearly explaining the roles of and the relationships between each channelmemberwithin the channel.

Promotion Management

MNM304-8

. Differences in perception.Manufacturers may have a positive view of the channel prospects,whilst intermediariesmight hold a view that is not as positive. Open communication is essential to resolve this conflict. . Intermediaries'dependence on the manufacturer. In this situation, the manufacturer holds significant influence in the channel based on its product and other marketing decisions. This power presents a significant opportunity for conflict. In industries where the manufacturer does not hold this power, the chances of conflict are significantly reduced.

Oversaturation too many distributors (Common in the distribution channel & occurs when the mnfrer for eg. Allows too many distributors in a sales area) Conflict over stock levels (Holding stock keeps capital tied up which does not provide an immediate return on capital. Capital tied up in stock is borrowed = interest costs are involved) Direct versus indirect channels (Some mnfrers have their own sales force to call on certain customers, while certain distributors call on the same customers) National versus regional distributors (Similar to the above example) Large account coverage ( Sales quotas (Forcing intermediaries to adhere to sales quotas or setting quotas that are unattainable) Market life cycle channel transition (Markets change over time & follow a life cycle) New Market development (Mnfrers want to spread their wings and sell to new markets in which existing markets arent selling.) New Product launches (Some stores dont want to sell/ take a risk at selling new products) Channel tasks to be performed (Where mnfrers want/ need to send mail to customers on behalf of the mnfrer. If the distributor sees no benefit from this it would causes channel conflict) Technology required (Buying straight from the net may be tempting to the manufacturer) Training (Some intermediaries care less about training and performance of sales force) The Phantom channel (When unauthorised vendor gets hold of a product and sell it) Refusal to be locked into a singular supplier (when manufactures wants the intermediary to stock only his product) Over selling (When a product is launched and does well, the mnfrer cannot supply the demand for the product) Bureaucratic vs entrepreneurial philosophies (Management styles differ between the manufacture and the intermediaries) Pricing issues (Price/ competition has always been a problem) Profit margins and compensations (The value of the profit that the intermediaries receive is always a conflict if not handled properly.) Competition over resources (This occurs when 1 or more distributors compete for resources, eg new training programmes that increase dramatically) Train shipping (When a mnfr ships products out of its allocated area to sell the product to another distributor) Assigned markets (When new markets develop, mnfers dont invite existing distributors to have 1st refusal of the new market)

Promotion Management

MNM304-8

Conflict resolution in the distribution channel. (The use of power by channel members and attempts by channel members to gain more power) METHODS TO SOLVE CHANNEL CONFLICT (the conflicting members need to share mutual objectives and common goals need to be shared) 1. Persuasion (this implies that the objective by both parties differ but these parties are open to modify their objectives and attain the common objective) 2. Negotiations (Set aside their way of thinking and create a new agreement between channel members without referring to super-ordinate goals) 3. Politics (Using outside parties to resolve the conflict) Edgars is planning a summer sale for all their swimwear and beachwear. Would magazines be an appropriate medium to use to advertise the sale? What advertising media would you suggest they use to inform the consumers of the upcoming sale? Magazines are not generally appropriate for advertising a sale. Whilst magazines offer an ideal opportunity to use high-quality printing and colour to highlight the merchandise, the nature of a sale is short term and ``newsworthy'' and thus needs a more immediate and direct medium. Given a large company like Edgars and their access to a substantial advertising budget, the use of bursts on television would be more effective. Radio holds the same advantage. BothTVand radio can be aired at a time when the target audience is viewing or listening. Newspapers which are published on a daily basis can also be used to create short-term awareness. Outdoor advertising offers the opportunity for reminder advertising and are seen by many people on a daily basis (sometimes for a long time by those stuck in traffic). DISCUSS THE ADVANTAGES AND SHORTCOMINGS OF MAGAZINES AS ADVERTISING MEDIUM Strengths of Magazines Audience selectivity (Most selective of all media except for direct mail) Reproduction Quality (Printed on high quality paper stock & uses printing processes to provide excellent reproduction in black and white or in colour) Creative Flexibility (Offer a variety of special options that can enhance the creative appeal of an ad & increase attention & readership) Permanence (long life) (They can be kept for reference and can be read over several days) Prestige (Co.s buy space in prestigious publications for public image) Services (Some magz have merchandising staff that call on trade intermediaries, like retailers to let them know of a product being advertised) Consumer receptivity and involvement (magz are purchased cos info it contains interests the reader) Limitations/ Shortcomings Costs - (Some magazines can appear to be very expensive in absolute terms) Limited reach and frequency ( The %age of adult reading any mag tends to be much smaller, so magazines have a thin penetration in households)

Promotion Management

MNM304-8

Long lead time (Have 30 to 90 day lead time so ads need to be placed within this
time and needs to be prepared well in advance of the actual publication date) more pages of advertising it attracts, which leads to greater clutter)

Clutter and competition for readers attention (The more successful a mag is the

In the South African retailing environment, there are a number of large and small retailers. Each one has a different level of ``power'' within their marketing channel. In the case of the following products, identify where you think the channel powers lie. Give a brief motivation for your choice. Floormops sold in Pick n Pay In the case of floormops sold in Pick n Pay, the channel power lies with the retailer. Floor mops are an unbranded and simple product; the manufacturers rely on the retailer to stock and sell their products. Pick n Pay, due to its market position, can offer significant rewards in the form of increased sales to the manufacturer of the floor mops. The strong financial position of Pick n Pay, in contrast to the company manufacturing floormops, adds to thepower theyhavein the channel. Designer label dresses sold in an up-market boutique The demand for designer label dresses is in accordance with the designer's name. In this case, the manufacturer or designer will hold a considerable amount of power in the marketing channel. Referent power in this case is prominent. A new Mercedes Benz E-class In the case of a Mercedes Benz E-class, where the car is sold through a number of exclusive Mercedes Benz car dealerships, the dealerships adhere to the rules and guidelines set by Mercedes Benz tomarket and sell these cars. In this case, the manufacturer has legitimate power over the dealerships, aswell as referent power due to the image and status of the Mercedes brand name. MicrosoftWindowsVista Microsoft Windows enjoys an extremely strong position within the world market. It is to the benefit of any retailer that sells computer products to stock Microsoft Windows as one of its products. Microsoft, therefore, has significant channel power; in this case, it is based mainly on information power and referent power. Should they so wish, they could also exercise a significant amount of coercive serve and reward power based on their strong position in the market. YOU HAVE BEEN APPOINTED AS THE MARKETING COMMUNICATION MANAGER AT ADCHEK RESEARCH. THE EXECUTIVE MANAGER OF THE COMPANY HAS ASKED YOU TO WRITE A REPORT ON PROMOTING INTEGRATED MARKETING COMMUNICATION IN THE COMPANY. PROVIDE AN OUTLINE OF YOUR REPORT. The report will have the following outline: Introduction

Promotion Management

MNM304-8

Integrated marketing communication Definition ``a planning process designed to ensure that all brand contacts received by a customer or prospect for a product, service, or organization are relevant to that person and consistent over time''. Integrated marketing communication can be defined as a holistic approach to promote buying and selling in the digital economy. This concept includes many online and offline marketing channels. In South Africa, online marketing channels include e-marketing campaigns such as search engine optimisation (SEO), pay-per-click, affiliate, e-mail, banner and the latest web-related channels for webinar, blog, RSS, podcast and Internet TV.The retailer Pick n Pay, for example, has a website where the consumer can order groceries and arrange for them to be delivered. Offline marketing channels include traditional print (newspapers, magazines), mail order, public relations, billboards, radio and television. Pick n Pay also makes use of traditional media, such as newspapers and brochures, to advertise their products. Phases of the marketing communication planning process Importance of integrated marketing communication Conclusion

advertising strategy are the following: . Target market identification and positioning. Before advertising, the retailer should have a target market in mind.This will help the retailer to decide the medium (ormedia) to use, who to reach and, if necessary, how often to communicate. Analyse the market in which you intend to advertise i.e size of the market, whether its growing or not. Competitors need to be analysed to know their market share & how large their ad budgets are and how they reach their target markets. Orgs must also analyse its own products in context with the market being competed in. . Competitive situation. A retailer should use the different visual forms when advertising his or her products, so that the target market can see the benefits of owning the product. . Customer behaviour.The retailer should know his or her target market (who they are, where they stay, their usage behaviour, etc) so as to be able to influence them to buy the product. . Budgets.The adverts are paid for. The retailer should put money aside to pay the SABC (TVand radio), the magazine or newspaper or any media where the advert will be placed. . Execution. The message should be appealing to the target market. Retailers can make use of different media for this purpose. (See table 12.2 in the prescribed book.) Steps taken in developing an advertising strategy for their business. Analysing your existing situation Setting your advertising objectives These objectives should clarify the basic message to be delivered to the target market, to what audience it should be delivered and the specific criteria to be used by the org to measure the success of the advertising campaign. These normally include, intro of a new product to customers

Promotion Management

MNM304-8

initiate shopping stimulate the actual purchase of the product remind customers to buy encourage enquiries reinforce a favourable image create brand awareness rectify incorrect perceptions and To persuade uncertain customers to buy a particular product. Preparing an advertising budget This budget determines how much the org has to spend. Has 2 sides the source side (how much money will be required) & the application side (how the money will be spent). The company should accommodate for back-up funds which can be used under special circumstances such as the intro to the product or unexpected competition situations. Sending out a core advertising message Once the audience has been decided, and what the audience is looking for, the org needs to decide on what advertising message will be sent out. It must be clear, and convincing to its audience. Its not about the advertising message but about deciding on the core message that must be understood. Choose the right advertising medium The medium must be chosen before the ad is actually created because the copy and layout are directly affected by the medium selected. This is selected by the media plan, which is a blue print that maps out the best course of action to determine the ad time needed to reach its audience to achieve final ad objectives. Selecting the ad agency Due to this being a specialized area, orgs turn to agencies to help them develop their ad campaigns. The company gives them a brief of the idea and the ad company creates ideas and brings the whole add together (layout, visuals and copy)

Steps to apply Strategy execution Creating the advertising message, which includes the creative concept, writing the copy, adapting the concept where necessary and producing the ad Testing the message Launching (or running) the campaign Evaluating and adjusting the strategy Evaluating its effect Making necessary adjustments

THE ROLES AND FUNCTIONS OF SALESPEOPLE (Study page 459 in the prescribed book.) When studying this section, pay attention to the roles and functions of sales people. These roles and functions are listed below create new customers . sell more to present customers . build long-term relationships with customers

Promotion Management

. provide solutions to customers' problems . provide services to customers . help customers re-sell products to their customers

MNM304-8

ASSUME YOU ARE A SALESPERSON AT ABC COMPANY. YOU KNOW THAT MR PETERSON, WHO IS A BUYER FOR XYZ COMPANY, IS NOT PLEASED WITH THE CURRENT SUPPLIER AND YOU BELIEVE THAT YOUR PRODUCT COULD SAVE XYZ COMPANY THOUSANDS EACH YEAR. YOU SET UP AN APPOINTMENT WITH MR PETERSON, BUT ARE SURPRISED WHEN HE TERMINATES THE APPOINTMENT QUICKLY WITH NO SALE AND NO MENTION OF A FUTURE APPOINTMENT. YOU TELL YOUR SALES MANAGER ABOUT THE INTERVIEW.``MR PETERSON KEPT ASKING ME WHERE I WENT TO SCHOOL, WHETHER I WANTED COFFEE AND HOW I LIKED SELLING, WHILE I WAS TRYING TO EXPLAIN TO HIM THE FEATURES, ADVANTAGES AND BENEFITS OF OUR PRODUCT.'' IDENTIFY THE BARRIERS TO COMMUNICATION AND EXPLAIN HOW YOU WOULD OVERCOME THEM. Mr Peterson was sending you signals that he likes doing business with people he knows. He is a feeler and he does not want to get down to business immediately. He wanted to establish a relationship. There was never any true communication established between you and Mr Peterson, which caused you to misread the customer and handle the situation incorrectly.

Figure12.3 DIFFERENT STAGES IN THE SALES PROCESS. THey are as follows: Prospecting for customers In the sales process, the salesperson begins by prospecting for customers; in other words, the main purpose of a salesperson is not to make a sale, but rather to identify and/or source customers. Qualifying prospects One of the most important keys to success in personal selling is the ability to qualify prospects. Qualifying is the process of identifying prospects (customers) who should be contacted. Developing relationships It is important for salespeople to develop long-term relationships with their customers. A requirement for this is interpersonal skills. Presenting the sales message The presentation combines elements of the relationship, product and customer. Presentation is a well-conceived pla nwhich includes establishing objectives for the sales presentation developing the pre-sales presentation plan needed to meet the objectives renewing one's commitment to providing outstanding customer service Handing queries and complaints Most customers at some time in the sales relationship will have reason not to agree with a salesperson's proposal. Being able to respond effectively to a customer's queries and/or complaints is an essential sales skill. It requires knowledge, skill and a positive attitude of wanting to solve the customer's problem. Closing the sale

Promotion Management

MNM304-8

Closing the sale is the most important part of the sales process. In many selling situations, the sales person needs to obtain a commitment from the customer. Some closing methods can move customers from indecision to commitment. Providing service and support Customer service encompasses all the activities which enhance or facilitate the sale and the use of one's product or service. The skills required to bring about a sale are different from those required prior to the sale. A high-performance salesperson does not abdicate responsibility for delivery, installation, warranty interpretation or other customer service responsibilities. The salesperson continues to strengthen the partnership with suggestions, follow-through on promises and follow-up on activities. Maintaining trust and commitment When customers buy goods and services, they focus on the satisfaction they will gain after they make the purchase. In selling, showing a commitment to the customer must be seen as part of the process of satisfying the customer's needs, for example, making delivery on time, providing installation when necessary and training customers how to use the product. The salesperson must be honest and reliable when dealing with the customers. SALE PROMOTION TYPES OF PROMOTION ACTIVITIES WHICH CAN BE UNDERTAKEN BY MARKETERS IN DEVELOPING THEIR SALES PROMOTION STRATEGIES.

Consumer promotion can entail product-based incentives such as samples, free trials and tie-in promotions. Money-based promotions can include the use of coupons, price cuts and premiums. Prize-related promotions relate to a situation where a customer enters a competition and using text messaging, for example, sends the bar code of the product to the manufacturer. Trade promotions can include the use of buying allowances, buy-back offers, priceoff offers, display allowances and free goods. Business and sales force promotions may include trade shows and contests for salespeople. Incentive-type promotions are usually used to attract brand switchers, appeal to new customers, increase the usage of the product, reward loyal customers, increase store traffic and enlarge the order of occasional users.

YOU ARE THE MARKETING MANAGER OF A LEADING SOFT DRINK COMPANY CALLED COCA-COLA BEVERAGES. DISCUSS THE VARIOUS SALES PROMOTION TOOLS YOU WOULD CONSIDER USING TO TARGET INTERMEDIARIES. Trade promotions and allowances. This sales promotion tool will be used if the resellers of the Coca-Cola products are prepared to perform a number of important marketing activities in support of your brands. If, for example, a reseller provides you with a shop or shelf space to put up your point-of-purchase (POP) displays and materials, you could offer them free fridges to keep the soft drinks cold. If, for example, they buy large quantities of the Coca-Cola brand, you could offer them a price reduction or provide them with one free case of soft drinks for every fifteen bought at the regular price. Trade shows and exhibitions.

Promotion Management

MNM304-8

This sales promotion technique will be used to get your existing resellers to display your brands (Coca-Cola and related lines) in their stalls when they exhibit at various trade shows. In return, you could provide them with all the supporting material they want and even pay some of the exhibition cost they have incurred. You could also participate actively in the trade shows and exhibitions to help source new dealers and distributors. CONSIDER YOUR OWN EXPOSURE TO E-MAIL MARKETING AND ALSO TALK TO FRIENDS AND FAMILY MEMBERS ABOUT THEIR EXPERIENCES WITH E-MAIL MARKETING MESSAGES.WHAT DO YOU SEE AS THE FIVE MOST IMPORTANT ADVANTAGES OF E- MAIL MARKETING? Ease of use. Most users in business are already familiar with e-mail, which involves little more than typing a short message to someone and perhaps adding an attachment to the e-mail. Lowcost. E-mail is considered to be the cheapest form of communication available today. It can be sent overseas at local call rates, be sent after hours or sent in batch format. Permission marketing. This means getting the target recipient's permission before sending him or her an e-mail; such individuals then represent highly desirable prospects. E-mails generated on an event basis. This means that some event (eg an overdue account) triggers the sending of an e-mail. Large amounts of information may be sent as an attachment to the e-mail. Valuable information. E-mails can provide customers with information that has value for them, such as account statements or a newsletter. Auto responses to queries. Standardised information can be provided to customers by means of auto response, which will save the organization valuable time and money.

QUESTION : CYBER MARKETING AND ITS ADVANTAGES Internet World Wide Web Cyber-marketing Virtual environment Online

Promotion Management
Disintermediation and re-intermediation Permission marketing One-to-one marketing Mass customisation

MNM304-8

ADVANTAGES Target marketing - (targets very specific groups) Message tailoring - (a message is designed to appeal to the specific wants of the target audience) interactive capabilities - (increasing customer involvement) information access (an information source) sales potential (an increase in sales) creativity (creatively designed sites can enhance an organisation's image) exposure (an organisation can gain national and international exposure) speed (information on an organisation's products is obtained most quickly via the Internet) Disadvantages measurement problems - (unreliable research numbers) audience characteristics - (audience characteristics change quickly) websnarl - (downloading information from the Internet may take a long time) clutter - (a number of ads may irritate customers) potential for deception - (hackers and credit card theft) costs - (the costs of doing business on the Internet are increasing) poor reach - (the reach of the Internet is still far behind that of television)

THERE ARE FIVE DIFFERENT TYPES OF ONLINE USERS: Directed information seekers. They know exactly what they are looking for. Undirected information seekers. These buyers are just browsing through the site. Directed buyers.They knowexactly what to buy and what they want to pay for it. Bargain hunters.These are the users who are looking for a ``good deal''. Entertainment seekers.They want to enjoy their time online.

Promotion Management

MNM304-8

Another perspective focuses on the online consumer's psychographic make-up, which is also referred to as ``psycho-segmentation''. This perspective identifies a number of online users: Techno-lusters.These users focus on culture and technology. Academic buffs.These users originally formed the largest groups of users; they are now less significant users. Techno-boffins.This group is similar to the techno-lusters, but they make more direct use of the technology for business purposes. Get-aheads. They use the Internet as a lifestyle accessory, that is, they use e-mail and the Internet for product selection. Hobbyists. These are people with specialist interests, such as golfers, fishermen and car enthusiasts, who use the Internet for purchase selection. Knowledge traders. These are business-oriented users who use the Internet for news services and information on best business practice. Business bods.These users are general business users in management or procurement roles. Home users. These are generally members of families looking for education, entertainment or purchases. The online marketer must understand how the online customer differs from the traditional ``real-world'' customer and adapt the marketing mix accordingly.