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Ion Implantation
Ion Implantation
Ion Implantation

ROCHESTER INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY MICROELECTRONIC ENGINEERING

INTRODUCTION TO ION IMPLANTATION

Dr. Lynn Fuller, Dr. Renan Turkman Dr Robert Pearson

Webpage: http://people.rit.edu/lffeee Rochester Institute of Technology 82 Lomb Memorial Drive Rochester, NY 14623-5604 Tel (585) 475-2035 Fax (585) 475-5041 Email: Lynn.Fuller@rit.edu

Department webpage: http://www.microe.rit.edu

Rochester Institute of Technology

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Institute of Technology Microelectronic Engineering © October 10, 2011 Dr. Lynn Fuller 10-12-11 implant.ppt

© October 10, 2011 Dr. Lynn Fuller

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Ion Implantation

VARIAN 400 & 120-10 ION IMPLANTERS

Ion Implantation VARIAN 400 & 120-10 ION IMPLANTERS Varian 400 Varian 120-10 Rochester Institute of Technology

Varian 400

Varian 120-10

400 & 120-10 ION IMPLANTERS Varian 400 Varian 120-10 Rochester Institute of Technology Microelectronic

Rochester Institute of Technology

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400 Varian 120-10 Rochester Institute of Technology Microelectronic Engineering © October 10, 2011 Dr. Lynn Fuller

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Ion Implantation
Ion Implantation
Ion Implantation

VARIAN 350 D ION IMPLANTER (4” AND 6” WAFERS)

VARIAN 350 D ION IMPLANTER (4” AND 6” WAFERS) Rochester Institute of Technology Microelectronic

Rochester Institute of Technology

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AND 6” WAFERS) Rochester Institute of Technology Microelectronic Engineering © October 10, 2011 Dr. Lynn Fuller

© October 10, 2011 Dr. Lynn Fuller

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Ion Implantation
Ion Implantation
Ion Implantation

OUTLINE

§ Principles of Ion Implantation

§ Generate a focused beam of ions to be implanted (B + , P + or As + )

§ Accelerate the ions

§ Scan the ion beam over the wafer

§ Implant dose

§ Ion Implantation Equipment

§ Plasma source and ion extraction

§ Ion selection

§ Accelerating column

§ End station

§ Low and high (beam) current implanters

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implanters Rochester Institute of Technology Microelectronic Engineering © October 10, 2011 Dr. Lynn Fuller Page 4

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Ion Implantation
Ion Implantation
Ion Implantation

OUTLINE

§ Implanted Dopant Profiles

§ Dopant ion-substrate interactions

§ Post implant anneal

§ Dopant concentration profiles Implanted Dopant Profiles (continued)

§ Channeling

§ Implanting through thin film layers (e.g. oxide)

§ Masking against ion implants

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ion implants Rochester Institute of Technology Microelectronic Engineering © October 10, 2011 Dr. Lynn Fuller Page

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Ion Implantation
Ion Implantation
Ion Implantation

INTRODUCTION

Ion implant is used to put specific amounts of n-type and p-type dopants (Dose) into a semiconductor. The dose is accurately measured during implantation giving outstanding control and repeatability.

Specific regions can be implanted using a variety of masking

materials includin

g p temperature process.

Ion implant can deliver lower doses than chemical doping (predeposit). Dose can be as low as 10 11 /cm 2

In today's advanced integrated circuits ion implantation is used for all doping applications. (with a few exceptions)

hotoresist

.

Ion im lantation is basicall

p

a low

y

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p a low y Rochester Institute of Technology Microelectronic Engineering © October 10, 2011 Dr. Lynn

© October 10, 2011 Dr. Lynn Fuller

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Ion Implantation
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Ion Implantation

BASICS

F = qE

+

q ( v x B )

Example 1:

+

Example 2:

vy

+

v

vx

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vx Rochester Institute of Technology Microelectronic Engineering © October 10, 2011 Dr. Lynn Fuller + Page

© October 10, 2011 Dr. Lynn Fuller

+

Page 7

v

B

w m

/

2

Ion Implantation
Ion Implantation
Ion Implantation

GENERATION OF A DOPANT GAS PLASMA

Source Gas Molecule + e

Dopant Ion + (Other Atoms, Molecules and/or Radicals) + e + e

Example : Boron Trifluoride as B source

BF 3 + e

B +

+

F 2 + F + e + e

Other dissociative ionizations result in the generation of B 10+ ,F + , BF 2 +

The dopant ion sources commonly used in silicon processing are boron trifluoride BF 3 , phosphine PH 3 , arsenic pentafluoride AsF 5 , arsine AsH 3 .

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AsH 3 . Rochester Institute of Technology Microelectronic Engineering © October 10, 2011 Dr. Lynn Fuller

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Ion Implantation
Ion Implantation
Ion Implantation PLASMA SOURCE AND ION EXTRACTION Solenoid BF3 Gas feed Plasma Chamber mT level pressure

PLASMA SOURCE AND ION EXTRACTION

Solenoid

BF3

Gas feed

Plasma Chamber mT level pressure

N BF3 e B+ e BF2+ Arc S Voltage
N
BF3
e
B+
e
BF2+
Arc
S
Voltage

To pump

M v 2 / 2 = q Vext

(positive) ions

S Voltage To pump M v 2 / 2 = q Vext (positive) ions V extraction

V extraction ( variable, typically ~30 KV )

2 qV

m

ν =

ext

v

=

Rochester Institute of Technology

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Institute of Technology Microelectronic Engineering ( 2 ) ( 1.6 10 x − 19 ) (

(

2

)(

1.6 10

x

19

)(

30,000

)

 

(

11

)(

1.67 10

x

27

)

© October 10, 2011 Dr. Lynn Fuller

Page 9

= 7.23 x 10

5 m

s

Ion Implantation
Ion Implantation
Ion Implantation

TYPICAL SOURCE SET UP

§ Pressure

30mT

§ Extraction Voltage

33 KV

§ Extraction Current

0.8 mA

§ Arc Voltage

2000 V

§ Arc Current

50 mA

§ Filament

Current

150 A

§ Filament Voltage

20 V

§ Solenoid Current

3.0 A

Source Cabinet for Varian 120-10

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Ion Implantation
Ion Implantation
Ion Implantation NIELSEN-TYPE GASEOUS SOURCE Solenoid Magnet (wraps around) Extraction e - neutrals + Outlet +

NIELSEN-TYPE GASEOUS SOURCE

Solenoid Magnet (wraps around) Extraction e - neutrals + Outlet + + + Velocity -
Solenoid Magnet (wraps around)
Extraction
e -
neutrals
+
Outlet
+
+
+
Velocity - v
Gas inlet
Filament
Anode
Electrons boil off the filament
and ionize the gas. Solenoid
make electrons follow a
spiral path increasing
ionization
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Ion Implantation

SELECTION OF THE IONS TO BE IMPLANTED

The ions are extracted from the source and analyzed in a magnetic field. The Lorentz force makes the ions take a curved path with a radius of curvature that depends on the mass of each ionic species. By adjusting the magnetic field strength, only the selected ions will enter the accelerating column.

Ions Extracted from Source

N

enter the accelerating column. Ions Extracted from Source N S Light Ions Heavy Ions Analyzing Magnet

S

Light

Ions

Heavy Ions

Analyzing

Magnet

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Selected Ions

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Ion Implantation

ION SELECTION - ANALYZING MAGNET

ION SELECTION - ANALYZING MAGNET

Lorentz = Centripetal

Force

force

q (νννν xB) = M νννν 2 / R R=M νννν / q B

νννν =

2 qV

ext

m

B

Magnetic

Field

v : ion velocity

R: radius of curvature

R

Resolving Aperture

Selected ions

Heavier ions

Mass to charge ratio, M / q of the selected ions:

M /q = R 2 B 2 / (2 Vext)

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R is fixed, B and Vext are variable

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MAGNETIC SCAN COIL IN VARIAN 120-10

Scan Magnet to give X-scan

SCAN COIL IN VARIAN 120-10 Scan Magnet to give X-scan Analyzing Magnet for mass spectrometer (Ion

Analyzing Magnet for mass spectrometer (Ion Selection)

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Ion Implantation

PH 3 GAS SPECTRUM

Phosphorus - 31 Hydrogen - 1
100

Beam

Current

(mA)

1 2 3 12
1 2 3
12

18

P 31+

31 Hydrogen - 1 100 Beam Current (mA) 1 2 3 12 18 P 31+ PH
31 Hydrogen - 1 100 Beam Current (mA) 1 2 3 12 18 P 31+ PH
31 Hydrogen - 1 100 Beam Current (mA) 1 2 3 12 18 P 31+ PH
31 Hydrogen - 1 100 Beam Current (mA) 1 2 3 12 18 P 31+ PH

PH + PH 2 + PH 3 +

31

1 2 3 12 18 P 31+ PH + PH 2 + PH 3 + 31
1 2 3 12 18 P 31+ PH + PH 2 + PH 3 + 31

62

Ion Atomic Mass Units (AMU)

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Ion Implantation

BF 3 GAS SPECTRUM

100

Beam

Current

(mA)

Boron - 11 Fluorine - 19

GAS SPECTRUM 100 Beam Current (mA) Boron - 11 Fluorine - 19 B F 2 +

BF 2 +

B 10 (F) 2 +

F + B 11+ BF B 10+ 10 11 19 30
F +
B
11+
BF
B 10+
10 11
19
30

+

48 49

Ion Atomic Mass Units (AMU)

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Ion Implantation

ACCELERATING COLUMN

Resolving

Aperture

µΤµΤµΤµΤ level pressure

EEEE fieldfieldfieldfield
EEEE fieldfieldfieldfield
EEEE fieldfieldfieldfield
EEEE fieldfieldfieldfield
EEEE fieldfieldfieldfield
EEEE fieldfieldfieldfield
EEEE fieldfieldfieldfield
EEEE fieldfieldfieldfield

EEEE fieldfieldfieldfield

EEEE fieldfieldfieldfield
EEEE fieldfieldfieldfield
EEEE fieldfieldfieldfield
EEEE fieldfieldfieldfield
EEEE fieldfieldfieldfield
EEEE fieldfieldfieldfield
EEEE fieldfieldfieldfield

Vacc

Column length =

3 ‘

Ground

Final Kinetic Energy of the Ion

Example: V ext = 30 KV

= q ( V ext + V acc )

V acc = 70 KV

Energy of the Ion= E= 100 KeV

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Ion Implantation

ACCELERATION OF THE IONS

An acceleration voltage is applied across the column giving

This voltage should be

the ions their final kinetic energy. adjustable.

should be the ions their final kinetic energy. adjustable. This shows 14 equal acceleration plates. If

This shows 14 equal acceleration plates. If the desired acceleration was 70KeV each section would contribute 5000 volts for example.

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Ion Implantation

VARIAN 400 ACCELERATION HARDWARE

Ion Implantation VARIAN 400 ACCELERATION HARDWARE Rochester Institute of Technology Microelectronic Engineering © October

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HARDWARE Rochester Institute of Technology Microelectronic Engineering © October 10, 2011 Dr. Lynn Fuller Page 19

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Ion Implantation
Ion Implantation

BF2 IMPLANTS

§ Boron mass = 11

§ Fluorine mass = 19

§ BF2 mass = 49

§ The energy divides by mass so 100 KeV BF2 is equivalent to 22.4 KeV B11 implant

§ BF2 peak is larger than B11 peak giving more current and shorter time for large dose implants

§ BF2 can give shallow implants

§ BF2 reduces channeling (explained in following pages)

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Ion Implantation

SCANNING THE BEAM

§ Scanning of the beam The focused ion beam is scanned over the wafer in a highly controlled manner in order to achieve uniform doping. Either the wafer or the beam could be stationary.

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Scan Patterns

Y

Page 21

X

Ion Implantation
Ion Implantation
Ion Implantation

ELECTROSTATIC BEAM SCANNING

I) Electrostatic scanning (low/medium beam current implanters. I < 1mA)

V y

Si

wafer

Vertical Scan

V x
V
x

Horizontal Scan

This type of implanter is suitable for low dose implants. The beam current is adjusted to result in t=10 sec./wafer. With scan frequencies in the 100 Hz range, good implant uniformity is achieved with reasonable throughput.

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Ion Implantation

MECHANICAL BEAM SCANNING

Mechanical Scanning (high beam current implanters. I > 1 mA )

Stationary Ion Beam

beam current implanters. I > 1 mA ) Stationary Ion Beam Beam Size = 20 cm

Beam Size = 20 cm 2

Si wafer
Si
wafer

§ Excellent wafer cooling needed.

§ Substantial load/unload time.

§ 15 - 25 wafers /disc.

§ Excellent throughput for high dose implants.

Rotating Disc ( 1200 rpm )

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Ion Implantation
Ion Implantation MECHANICAL SCAN END STATION Rochester Institute of Technology Microelectronic Engineering © October 10,
MECHANICAL SCAN END STATION

MECHANICAL SCAN END STATION

MECHANICAL SCAN END STATION
Ion Implantation MECHANICAL SCAN END STATION Rochester Institute of Technology Microelectronic Engineering © October 10,

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SCAN END STATION Rochester Institute of Technology Microelectronic Engineering © October 10, 2011 Dr. Lynn Fuller

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Ion Implantation
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Ion Implantation

IMPLANT DOSE

The implant dose φφφφ is the number of ions implanted per unit area (cm2) of the wafer.

If a beam current I is scanned for a time t , the total implanted charge Q = ( I x t ). For a dose φφφφ ,,,,the total number of implanted ions is (Scan area A s x φφφφ ). Since each ion is singly positively charged, this corresponds to a total charge of (q x A s x φφφφ ).

Q= It = q A s φφφφ =>=>=>=>

φφφφ = Dose =

I t / ( q A s ) ions/cm 2

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Ion Implantation
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Ion Implantation

ION IMPLANT BEAM CURRENT SET UP

XL

Scanning Ion Beam

ION IMPLANT BEAM CURRENT SET UP XL Scanning Ion Beam XR Faraday Cup Wafer Holder Rochester

XR

Faraday Cup

BEAM CURRENT SET UP XL Scanning Ion Beam XR Faraday Cup Wafer Holder Rochester Institute of
BEAM CURRENT SET UP XL Scanning Ion Beam XR Faraday Cup Wafer Holder Rochester Institute of
BEAM CURRENT SET UP XL Scanning Ion Beam XR Faraday Cup Wafer Holder Rochester Institute of
BEAM CURRENT SET UP XL Scanning Ion Beam XR Faraday Cup Wafer Holder Rochester Institute of
BEAM CURRENT SET UP XL Scanning Ion Beam XR Faraday Cup Wafer Holder Rochester Institute of
BEAM CURRENT SET UP XL Scanning Ion Beam XR Faraday Cup Wafer Holder Rochester Institute of
BEAM CURRENT SET UP XL Scanning Ion Beam XR Faraday Cup Wafer Holder Rochester Institute of
BEAM CURRENT SET UP XL Scanning Ion Beam XR Faraday Cup Wafer Holder Rochester Institute of
BEAM CURRENT SET UP XL Scanning Ion Beam XR Faraday Cup Wafer Holder Rochester Institute of
BEAM CURRENT SET UP XL Scanning Ion Beam XR Faraday Cup Wafer Holder Rochester Institute of
BEAM CURRENT SET UP XL Scanning Ion Beam XR Faraday Cup Wafer Holder Rochester Institute of
BEAM CURRENT SET UP XL Scanning Ion Beam XR Faraday Cup Wafer Holder Rochester Institute of
BEAM CURRENT SET UP XL Scanning Ion Beam XR Faraday Cup Wafer Holder Rochester Institute of
BEAM CURRENT SET UP XL Scanning Ion Beam XR Faraday Cup Wafer Holder Rochester Institute of
BEAM CURRENT SET UP XL Scanning Ion Beam XR Faraday Cup Wafer Holder Rochester Institute of
BEAM CURRENT SET UP XL Scanning Ion Beam XR Faraday Cup Wafer Holder Rochester Institute of
BEAM CURRENT SET UP XL Scanning Ion Beam XR Faraday Cup Wafer Holder Rochester Institute of
BEAM CURRENT SET UP XL Scanning Ion Beam XR Faraday Cup Wafer Holder Rochester Institute of
BEAM CURRENT SET UP XL Scanning Ion Beam XR Faraday Cup Wafer Holder Rochester Institute of
BEAM CURRENT SET UP XL Scanning Ion Beam XR Faraday Cup Wafer Holder Rochester Institute of
BEAM CURRENT SET UP XL Scanning Ion Beam XR Faraday Cup Wafer Holder Rochester Institute of

Wafer Holder

Rochester Institute of Technology

Specimen

Current

Detector

Microelectronic Engineering

Microelectronic Engineering

Specimen Current Detector Microelectronic Engineering Beam Current I in µA XL Scan Position XR I Current

Beam Current I in µA

Detector Microelectronic Engineering Beam Current I in µA XL Scan Position XR I Current Integrator -

XL Scan Position

XR

I

Current Integrator - + To Dose Counter and Comparator I
Current
Integrator
-
+
To Dose
Counter
and
Comparator
I

© October 10, 2011 Dr. Lynn Fuller

Page 26

Ion Implantation
Ion Implantation
Ion Implantation END STATION DOSE MEASUREMENT secondary electrons I dt = q =A q φ φ

END STATION DOSE MEASUREMENT

secondary electrons

Idt = q =A q φφφφ

s

DOSE MONITORING

electrons I dt = q =A q φ φ φ φ s DOSE MONITORING ion beam

ion beam

I dt = q =A q φ φ φ φ s DOSE MONITORING ion beam V

V

V

Faraday cup ( - 100 V ) I -
Faraday
cup
( - 100 V )
I
-

suppression

( - 500 V )

wafer

back plate

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+

Integrator

To Dose Counter And Comparator

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Ion Implantation
Ion Implantation
Ion Implantation

VARIAN 120-10 END STATION

Ion Implantation VARIAN 120-10 END STATION Rochester Institute of Technology Microelectronic Engineering © October 10,

Rochester Institute of Technology

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END STATION Rochester Institute of Technology Microelectronic Engineering © October 10, 2011 Dr. Lynn Fuller Page

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Ion Implantation
Ion Implantation COMPLETE SYSTEM Rochester Institute of Technology Microelectronic Engineering © October 10, 2011 Dr.

COMPLETE SYSTEM

Ion Implantation COMPLETE SYSTEM Rochester Institute of Technology Microelectronic Engineering © October 10, 2011 Dr.

Rochester Institute of Technology

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COMPLETE SYSTEM Rochester Institute of Technology Microelectronic Engineering © October 10, 2011 Dr. Lynn Fuller Page

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Ion Implantation
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Ion Implantation

DOPANT ION-SUBSTRATE INTERACTIONS

Upon entering the substrate, the ion slows down due to nuclear and electronic stopping.

Nuclear stopping :

Nuclear stopping is due to the energy transfer from the ion to

Si nuclei The interaction ma

be stron

enou h to dis lace

g

p

.

y

g

the Si atom from its site ( only 15 eV needed to displace one Si atom ). The displaced Si atom may even have enough kinetic energy to displace several other Si atoms. Arsenic and Phosphorous ions lose their energy mostly by nuclear

stopping. They cause substantial Si crystal damage when the implant dose exceeds 5E13/cm 2 .

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Ion Implantation
Ion Implantation
Ion Implantation DOPANT ION-SUBSTRATE INTERACTIONS Incident ion Silicon ( represents a Si atom ) Ion at

DOPANT ION-SUBSTRATE INTERACTIONS

Incident

ion

Silicon (

DOPANT ION-SUBSTRATE INTERACTIONS Incident ion Silicon ( represents a Si atom ) Ion at rest Projected

represents a Si atom )

INTERACTIONS Incident ion Silicon ( represents a Si atom ) Ion at rest Projected Range R

Ion at rest

Projected Range R p

Electronic stopping is due to the energy transfer from the ion to the electrons of the host Si crystal. Boron ions lose their energy mostly by electronic stopping. Electronic stopping does not cause crystal damage.

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Ion Implantation

POST IMPLANT ANNEAL

The damaged crystal needs to be restored. This is typically achieved by 900 C, 30 min. furnace anneals or 1150 C, 30 sec. rapid thermal anneals. The interstitial dopant ions become substitutional, thus donating carriers. The interstitial (displaced) silicon atoms become substitutional ,thus removing the defects that trap carriers and/or affect their mobility. During the post implant anneal, dopant ions diffuse deeper into silicon. This must be minimized to maintain shallow junctions.

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Ion Implantation

ISOCHRONAL ANNEALING OF BORON

P Hall P hall is the free hole content (holes/cm2) determined by Hall measurements Trend:
P Hall
P hall is the free hole content
(holes/cm2) determined by
Hall measurements
Trend: higher the dose, the
more disorder, thus the higher
the final temperature required
for full activation
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Ion Implantation
Ion Implantation
Ion Implantation ISOCHRONAL ANNEALING OF PHOSPHOROUS N Hall N Hall is the free electron content. Note

ISOCHRONAL ANNEALING OF PHOSPHOROUS

N Hall N Hall is the free electron content. Note that heavy dose Phosphorous implants
N Hall
N Hall is the free electron content.
Note that heavy dose
Phosphorous implants can be
annealed easier than the lesser
dose implants
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Ion Implantation
Ion Implantation
Ion Implantation ION IMPLANT EQUATIONS Gaussian Implant Profile N peak = N p after implant N’

ION IMPLANT EQUATIONS

Gaussian Implant Profile N peak = N p after implant N’ -(X-Rp) 2 N(x) =
Gaussian Implant Profile
N peak = N p
after implant
N’
-(X-Rp) 2
N(x) =
exp [
]
∆Rp
2∆Rp 2
after anneal at
950 C, 15 min
Rp = Range
∆Rp = Straggle
}
From Curves
Ni
I
N’ = Dose =
dt
mqA
Approximation
used in Vt
calculations
C
background
After Anneal
x
N’
-(X-Rp)
2
N(x) =
exp [
]
Rp
xi
∆Rp 2
+ 2Dt
2(∆Rp +Dt)
2
conce ntration cm -3

where D is diffusion constant at the anneal temperature t is time of anneal

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Approximation N’ = Ni xi

Ion Implantation
Ion Implantation
Ion Implantation

ION IMPLANT RANGE

1 As 10 -1 B P Sb 10 -2 10 100 Projected R ange, Rp
1
As
10
-1
B
P
Sb
10
-2
10
100
Projected R ange, Rp ,(um)

Implantation Energy (KeV)

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Ion Implantation
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Ion Implantation

ION IMPLANT STANDARD DEVIATION

0.1 B P 0.01 As Sb 0.001 10 100 1,000 Implantation Energy (KeV) Rochester Institute
0.1
B
P
0.01
As
Sb
0.001
10
100
1,000
Implantation Energy (KeV)
Rochester Institute of Technology
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Standard De
,(um)viation,
∆∆Rp
∆∆

© October 10, 2011 Dr. Lynn Fuller

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Ion Implantation
Ion Implantation
Ion Implantation CALCULATIONS Rochester Institute of Technology Microelectronic Engineering © October 10, 2011 Dr. Lynn

CALCULATIONS

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© October 10, 2011 Dr. Lynn Fuller

Using the equations on the previous pages:

Find:

Xj sheet Rho implant time surface conc. average doping

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Ion Implantation
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Ion Implantation

Impurity concentratio n in atoms/cm 3

ACTUAL PROFILES ARE NOT GAUSSIAN

Light ions such as boron, are more effectively scattered backwards

more ions to come to rest on the surface-side of Rp

Heavy Ions, such as Arsenic, scatter more in forward direction the amount of dopant on the deeper side will be higher.

Boron Implanted into Silicon

10

10

10

10

21

20

19

18

30keV

100keV

300keV

Simple Gaussian

800keV

17

Rochester 10 Institute 0 of 0.2 Technology

0.4

0.6

0.8

1.0

1.2

Microelectronic Engineering

Microelectronic Engineering

Technology 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 1.2 Microelectronic Engineering Depth in µ µ µ µ m ©

Depth in µµµµm

© October 10, 2011 Dr. Lynn Fuller

1.4

1.6

1.8

Page 39

2.0

Ion Implantation
Ion Implantation
Ion Implantation VT ADJUST IMPLANT Assume that the total implant is shallow (within W d m

VT ADJUST IMPLANT

Assume that the total implant is shallow (within W dmax ) +/- Vt = q Dose*/Cox’ where Dose* is the dose that is added to the Si Cox’ is gate oxide capacitance/cm 2

Boron gives + shift osp orous g ves - s

Ph

h

i

hift

Cox’ = εoεr / Xox

Example: To shift +1.0 volts implant Boron through 1000 Å kooi oxide at an energy to place the peak of the implant at the oxide/silicon interface. Let Xox= 200 Å. Dose = Vt Cox’/q =(1.0)(3.9)(8.85E-14)/(1.6E-19)(200E-8)=1.08E12 ions/cm 2 but multiply by 2 since ½ goes into silicon and ½ in Kooi oxide so dose setting on the implanter is 2.16E12 ions/cm 2

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Ion Implantation
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Ion Implantation

CHANNELING

§ Origin : the crystalline nature of the host substrate

§ Origin : the crystalline nature of the host substrate (110) (100) (111) Relative degree of

(110)

Origin : the crystalline nature of the host substrate (110) (100) (111) Relative degree of openness

(100)

: the crystalline nature of the host substrate (110) (100) (111) Relative degree of openness of

(111)

Relative degree of openness of the silicon crystal for ions moving in <111>, <100> and <110> directions

unchanneled ion: αααα > αααα cr

αααα : entrance angle
αααα : entrance angle

channeled ion: αααα < αααα c r αααα < αααα cr
channeled ion: αααα < αααα c r

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Channeling process

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Ion Implantation
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Ion Implantation

CHANNELING ION PROFILES

Without Channeling
Without Channeling
Without Channeling
Without Channeling
Without Channeling

Without Channeling

Without Channeling
Without Channeling
Without Channeling
Without Channeling

C(x) cm -3

With Channeling

C background

x

The implanted dose C(x) dx is about the same with or without channeling. But µµµµ along the channeled profile is smaller than µµµµ along the unchanneled profile. Since the sheet resistance R s is defined as:

R s = [

q µµµµ(x) C(x)dx ] -1 = [q µµµµ

C(x)dx] -1

(where µµµµ is the average effective mobility) R

s

is

smaller in regions where channeling occurs.

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Ion Implantation

CHANNELING IS NON UNIFORM ACROSS THE WAFER

CHANNELING IS NON UNIFORM ACROSS THE WAFER

Due to beam scan angle β s and/or the wafer flex angle β f , the entrance angle of ions varies across the wafer. The resulting channeling variations cause the sheet resistance to vary across the wafer. These R s variations can be as much as 25 % across a wafer. As the extent of local channeling is difficult to control, channeling must be prevented.

BEAM

ββββ s

to control, channeling must be prevented . BEAM ββββ s Wafer BEAM Rochester Institute of Technology
to control, channeling must be prevented . BEAM ββββ s Wafer BEAM Rochester Institute of Technology
to control, channeling must be prevented . BEAM ββββ s Wafer BEAM Rochester Institute of Technology

Wafer

BEAM

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Institute of Technology Microelectronic Engineering © October 10, 2011 Dr. Lynn Fuller ββββ f Page 43

© October 10, 2011 Dr. Lynn Fuller

Institute of Technology Microelectronic Engineering © October 10, 2011 Dr. Lynn Fuller ββββ f Page 43
Institute of Technology Microelectronic Engineering © October 10, 2011 Dr. Lynn Fuller ββββ f Page 43
Institute of Technology Microelectronic Engineering © October 10, 2011 Dr. Lynn Fuller ββββ f Page 43
Institute of Technology Microelectronic Engineering © October 10, 2011 Dr. Lynn Fuller ββββ f Page 43
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ββββ f

Page 43

Wafer

Ion Implantation
Ion Implantation
Ion Implantation PREVENTING CHANNELING Channeling does not occur if there is significant implant damage that turns

PREVENTING CHANNELING

Channeling does not occur if there is significant implant damage that turns the implanted layer into an amorphous one. Heavy ions like

P 31 and As

75

at large doses do not show channeling.

Light ions and/or low dose implants are prone to channeling. In such instances, channeling can be prevented by:

1) Implanting through a thin amorphous layer (e.g. oxide). 2) Tilting and twisting the wafer to close crystal openness as seen by the ion beam. 3) Implanting heavy, but electrically inactive species like Si or Ar prior to the actual dopant implant. The pre-implant implant turns the wafer surface into an amorphous layer.

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Ion Implantation
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Ion Implantation CHANNELING Implanting Through Thin Films In addition to channeling prevention, implanting through a thin

CHANNELING

Implanting Through Thin Films In addition to channeling prevention, implanting through a thin film layer (e.g. few 100 A of SiO 2 ) offers the following advantages:

1) It prevents photoresist residues/deposits from reaching the

silicon surface. The resist residues deposited on the thin film

can subsequently be etched away with that film (e g SiO dipped in B.O.E.)

.

.

2

resist
resist

resist deposit

film (e g SiO dipped in B.O.E.) . . 2 resist resist deposit resist oxide Silicon
film (e g SiO dipped in B.O.E.) . . 2 resist resist deposit resist oxide Silicon
resist
resist

oxide

Silicon Wafer
Silicon Wafer

2) It prevents excessive evaporation (out-gassing) of volatile species (e.g. As) during implant damage anneals.

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Ion Implantation
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Ion Implantation

MASKING AGAINST ION IMPLANTS

Various thin films can be used to mask against ion implants :

resist, oxide, nitride, polysilicon, etc. The most widely used combination is resist over the oxide. 1 to 1.5 µm thick resist blocks most of the ion implants encountered in silicon processing.Silicon dioxide slows down the ions at about the same rate as silicon does. Silicon nitride is a much stronger barrier to ions than silicon.

Implant

Doping

Dopant Density O X I Wafer Background D Doping E RESIST SILICON
Dopant Density
O
X
I
Wafer Background
D
Doping
E
RESIST
SILICON

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Ion Implantation
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Ion Implantation

MASKING WITH PHOTORESIST, POLY, AND OXIDE

B11, Dose = 2 E15, E = 50 KeV

PHOTORESIST, POLY, AND OXIDE B11, Dose = 2 E15, E = 50 KeV Fi 6000 Å

Fi

POLY, AND OXIDE B11, Dose = 2 E15, E = 50 KeV Fi 6000 Å ld

6000 Å

ld O

id

e x e
e x e
e x e

e

x

e

P-well

N-well

N-type Substrate 10 ohm-cm

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Ion Implantation
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Ion Implantation IMPLANT MASKING THICKNESS CALCULATOR Rochester Institute of Technology     Lance Barron

IMPLANT MASKING THICKNESS CALCULATOR

Rochester Institute of Technology

   

Lance Barron

 

Microelectronic Engineering

     

Dr. Lynn Fuller

 

11/20/04

             

IMPLANT MASK CALCULATOR

 

Enter 1 - Yes

0 - No in white boxes

DOPANT SPECIES

 

MASK TYPE

 

ENERGY

B11

1

 

Resist

0

 

40

KeV

BF2

0

Poly

1

 

P31

0

Oxide

0

 

Nitride

0

Thickness to Mask >1E15/cm3 Surface Concentration

 

2961.954

Angstroms

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Ion Implantation
Ion Implantation
Ion Implantation

RESIST DAMAGE AT HIGH IMPLANT CURRENTS

Ion Implantation RESIST DAMAGE AT HIGH IMPLANT CURRENTS BF2 Implant at 80 µA in Varian 400
Ion Implantation RESIST DAMAGE AT HIGH IMPLANT CURRENTS BF2 Implant at 80 µA in Varian 400

BF2 Implant at 80 µA in Varian 400 without a water cooled chuck

Note: Varian 350D can do implants up to 300 µA with no photoresist damage because of wafer cooling

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Ion Implantation
Ion Implantation
Ion Implantation ION IMPLANT VS. CHEMICAL SOURCE PREDEPOSIT Advantages of Ion Implant Low dose introduction of

ION IMPLANT VS. CHEMICAL SOURCE PREDEPOSIT

Advantages of Ion Implant

Low dose introduction of dopants is possible. In chemical source

predeposits dose values less than 5E13/cm

2

are not achievable.

Ion implant dose control is possible down to 1E11/cm 2 . High dose introduction is not limited to solid solubility limit values. Dose control is very precise at all levels. Excellent doping uniformity is achieved across the wafer and from wafer to wafer. Done in high vacuum, it is a very clean process step (except for out gassing resist particulates due to excessive local power input ).

Drawbacks of Ion Implant It requires very expensive equipment ( $1M or more). At high dose values, implant throughput is less than in the case of chemical source predep.

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Ion Implantation
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Ion Implantation

LECTURE REVIEW

§ Principles of Ion Implantation

§ The implant depth controlled by the energy E of the ions

§ Dopant density primarily controlled by the implant dose

§ Ion Implantation equipment

§ Low current implanters

§ High current implanters

§ Implanted Dopant Profiles

§ Nuclear stopping and implant damage

§ Post implant anneal

§ Gaussian doping profiles

§ Channeling and its prevention

§ Thin film coverage of the wafer surface

§ Advantages and Drawbacks of Ion Implantation

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Ion Implantation
Ion Implantation
Ion Implantation

REFERENCES

1.

Silicon Processing for the VLSI Era Volume I, S. Wolf and R.N.

Tauber, Lattic Press, Sunset Beach, CA, 1986.

2.

S.A. Campbell, Oxford University Press, New York, NY, 1996.

3.

Company, 1983.

The Science and Engineering of Microelectronic Fabrication,

VLSI Technology, Edited by S.M. Sze, McGraw-Hill Book

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Ion Implantation
Ion Implantation
Ion Implantation HOMEWORK – ION IMPLANT 1: The implant depth is controlled by the a) beam

HOMEWORK – ION IMPLANT

1: The implant depth is controlled by the

a) beam size b) acceleration voltage

2: The volume density of implanted dopants is controlled by the

a) plasma density

only d) beam current and implant time

3: In using low current implanters that process one wafer at a time, the optimal implant time per wafer (i.e. best uniformity / throughput

c) beam current d) implant time

b) beam size and implant time c) implant time

i

comprom se)

4: True or false? “Channeling is a serious problem when implanting

AS 75 ions at a dose Φ = 5x10 15 /cm 2 ”. 5: In CMOS processing, threshold adjust doping can be made by

a) chemical source predep only b) ion implant only c) either chemical

source predep or ion implant. 6: Calculate the implant dose and energy needed to make the pmos Vt of -1 volt for the following device parameters. N+ Poly gate, 250 Å

a) 1 s

b) 10 s c) 50 s d) 100 s

gate oxide, 2E16 cm-3 substrate doping, Nss=3.4E11.

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