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ABHISHEK JAIN 511035358 02882


International Business Management MB0053 Set 2 MBA 4th Sem Assignment

Master of Business Administration-MBA Semester 4 International Business Management Assignment Set - 2 MB0053
Q1 .What is WTO? Explain its objectives, functions and structure. Ans: World Trade Organization (WTO). WTO was established on 1st January 1995. In April 1994, the Final Act was signed at a meeting in Marrakesh, Morocco. The Marrakesh Declaration of 15th April 1994 was formed to strengthen the world economy that would lead to better investment, trade, income growth and employment throughout the world. The WTO is the successor to the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT). India is one of the founder members of WTO. WTO represents the latest attempts to create an organizational focal point for liberal trade management and to consolidate a global organizational structure to govern world affairs. WTO has attempted to create various organizational attentions for regulation of international trade. WTO created a qualitative change in international trade. It is the only international body that deals with the rules of trades between nations. The WTO agreements are a set of rules that are followed by the member governments while formulating policies and practices in the area of international trade. The agreements mainly cover goods, services and intellectual property. The agreements comprise the rights and obligations of the government that are enforceable in multilateral framework. The agreement supports individual FRXQWULHV FRPPLWPHQ agreements recommend governments to make their trade policies transparent. markets. The WV WR to the agreement, the government must notify the WTO about the measures adopted to According ORZHU make their trade policies transparent FXVWRPV and functions Objectives WDULIIVobjective of WTO is to promote and ensure international trade in developing countries. The The key DQG RWKHU other major functions include: WUDGH Helping trade flows by encouraging nations to adopt discriminatory trade policies. EDUULHUVI Promoting employment, expanding productions and trade and raising standard of living and DQG WR income and utilizing WKH ZRUOGV UHVRXUFHV. RSHQ Ensuring that developing countries secure a better share of growth in world trade. VHUYLFHV Providing forum for trade negotiations. Resolving trade disputes. The important functions of the WTO as stated in the WTO agreement are the following: Developing transitional economies Majority of the WTO members belong to developing countries. The developing countries such as India, China, Mexico, Brazil and others have an important role in the organization. The WTO helps in solving the problems of developing economies. The developing states are provided with trade and tariff data. This depends on the FRXQWU\V LQGLYLGXD from these services. benefit hugely Providing O H[SRUW help for export promotion The WTO provides specialized help for export promotion to LQWHUHVW The export promotion is done through the International Trade Center established by its members. DQG the GATT in 1964. It is operated by the WTO and the United Nations. The center accepts requests WKHLU from member countries, usually developing countries for support in formulating and SDUWLFLSD export promotion programmes. The center provides information on export market implementing WLRQ LQ : and marketing techniques. The center also provides assistance in establishing export promotion 72-bodies. and marketing services. Through this WTO proves its commitment in the upliftment of the world The new economy. members Cooperating in global economic policy-making The main function of the WTO is to cooperate in global economic policy-making. In the Marrakesh Ministerial Meeting in April 1994, a separate declaration was adopted to achieve this objective. The declaration specifies the responsibility of WTO as, to improve and maintain the cooperation with international organizations such as the World Bank, International Monetary Fund (IMF) that are involved in monetary and financial matters. WTO analyses the impact of liberalization on the growth and development of national economies which is the important factor in the success of the economy. Monitoring implementation of the agreement The WTO administers sixty different agreements that have the statue of international legal documents. The member-governments sign and confirm all WTO agreements on attainment. 2011 Page 2 of 15 Abhishek Jain - 511035358

International Business Management MB0053 Set 2 MBA 4th Sem Assignment Providing forum for negotiations The WTO provides a permanent forum for negotiations among members. The negotiations can be on matters already in the WTO agreements or matters not addressed in the WTO law. Administrating dispute settlement The important function of WTO is the administration of the WTO dispute settlement system. It helps in settling multilateral trading dispute. A dispute arises when a member country adopts a trade policy and other fellow members consider it as a violation of WTO agreements. The Dispute Settlement Body (DSB) is responsible for the settlement of disputes. The dispute settlement system is prohibited from adding or deleting the rights and obligations provided in the WTO agreements. The WTO dispute settlement system helps to: o Preserve the rights and responsibilities of the members. o Clarify the current provisions of the agreements. Structure The structure of the WTO consists of the Ministerial Conference, which is the highest authority. This body consists of the representatives from all WTO members. The WTO members meet in every two years and take decisions on all matters under the multilateral trade agreements. The daily activities of the WTO are conducted by subsidiary bodies and principally by the General Council which is composed of WTO members. The members report to the Ministerial Conference. The General Council on behalf of the Ministerial Conference administers as the Dispute Settlement Body to manage the dispute settlement procedures. It also acts as the Trade Policy Review Body that conducts regular reviews of the trade policies of the individual WTO members. The General Council delegates responsibility to other major bodies. They are: Council for Trade in Goods manages the implementation and functioning of all agreements covering trade in goods. Trade in Services and Trade of Intellectual Property Rights are the two councils that have responsibility for their respective WTO agreements and can establish their own subsidiary bodies if required. The Committee on Trade and Development manages issues relating to the developing countries. The Committee on Balance of Payments conducts consultations between WTO members and countries that take trade-restrictive measures to handle balance-of-payments difficulties. Committee on Budget and Administration manages issues relating to financing and budget of WTO. Q.2 Explain briefly the nature of e-business and the challenges involved. Answer: The e-business denotes a major trend in the management like any other trends such as the supply chain management, mail order service or the service economy. The e-business is done by many asynchronous experts across the globe. The suppliers, customers and also the competitors coordinate the e-business. Nature of E-Business E-business can be defined as "the use of networks and information technology in order to electronically design, market, buy, sell and deliver products and services worldwide". E-business, PHDQLQJ HOHFWURQLF-EXVLQHVVI ZLWK SSOLFDWLRQ LQIRUPDWLRn GHDOV D RI and communication technologies, in short an electronic medium in support of all the activities of business. The e-business mainly stands for the internet enabled business. There are four entities in the internet enabled business. These four entities are as shown in the figure 1.

The Challenges of E-Business In the previous section, we have studied about the e-business models. In this section let us learn about the challenges of e-business. As the e-business is growing, there are many technical and business trends that are associated with it. Some important trends in e-business are explained below. 2011 Page 3 of 15 Abhishek Jain - 511035358

International Business Management MB0053 Set 2 MBA 4th Sem Assignment E-business is crucial to business success. Many companies come out with changes that are necessary for e-business to become profitable. The process of e-business is long lasting than that of the re-engineering. There are some important trends in the e-business that are described as follows: Technology focus is on e-business The hardware, software, and network vendors, focus on providing the tools for e-business. The e-business is mainly the extension of the products and services. E-business produces cumulative effects E-business is long lasting. The relationship with customers, suppliers, and employees changes as we implement e-business. E-business implementation effects success and failure of a business There will be both the success and the failures that are associated with any kind of business. The failures become dramatic with e-business as it is more visible externally. There are some major success factors for e-business. These factors include the strategic factors, structural factors and the management oriented factors. These factors are explained as follows: Strategic factors. o The technologies related to the internet are used as a complement for the existing technologies. o The basis of competition that is not shifted from traditional competitive advantages such as cost, profit, quality, service and features. o The new competitors and market shares are tracked. o The web centric marketing strategy. o The strategic position of the company in the market has strengthened. o The frequent review of the distribution and supply chain model is done in order to maximize WKH FRPSDQ\V JDLQ. KH EX\HUV behavior and the customer personalization. o 7 o The first-mover advantage and quick time to start. o The e-business offered good products and services. o The innovation was allowed when risks are low. o The cuVWRPHUV DQG SDUWQHUV H[SHFWDWLRQV IURP WKH ZHOO PDQDJHG. Structural factors. o Correct digital infrastructure. o Good e-business education and training to employees, management and customers. o Current systems expanded to cover entire supply chain. o Good cost control. Management-oriented factors. o The organization wide commitment to e-business leadership. o The necessary support for e-business from the top management. o The awareness and understanding of capabilities of technology by executives. o The top management has to communicate about the value of e-business throughout the organization. The e-business is facing challenges mainly in the areas of technology, logistics, and legal issues. These areas are explained in the following sections. Technology The technology plays a major role in the concept of new economy. The technology has two dimensions; one is the shift from manufacturing to services and second is the shift from physical resources to the knowledge resources. There are so many mechanisms for technology innovation and diffusion, both within and outside the countries. Many of the organizations will include different technologies both for quantitative and qualitative terms. Small scale enterprises play a vital role in the implementation of new technologies. They have added more value in terms of population, employment, and services that they are offering. Internet also plays a vital role as it helps the small and medium enterprises in providing the cost effective possibilities to advertise their products. Internet also provides the contacts to buyers and suppliers on a global basis. E-business is helps the radical transformation in the way that the business is done. The introduction of technologies like the common database, electronic networks and value added services are helpful for speeding up the transactions and these are fundamental at the industrial level. The e-business has to undergo lot of challenges in implementing the technologies that are helpful for the organization since many of the people in the organization will not be interested to shift to the new technology and learn the new skills. Logistics 2011 Page 4 of 15 Abhishek Jain - 511035358

International Business Management MB0053 Set 2 MBA 4th Sem Assignment The logistics is defined as the planning framework for maintaining the material, information, and capital flow. The logistics includes the complex information, communication and control systems required in the business environment. The logistics presents e-business with challenges that exceeds the expectations of the customers with a reasonable cost. Nowa-day, attempt has been made to reduce the inventory costs. In order to meet the high expectations of the customers, an e-business needs the special infrastructure for tuning and managing the interactions. The interactions can be in between the shippers, logistic providers, shipping companies, and also the customers. Legal concerns As there is tremendous usage of internet, it is better to consider the legal concerns behind the internet. This is because whatever is printed on the net will be accessed by public throughout the world. We also have an option of going back and seeing the basics of that information. Now-a-day with the help of wireless phones, Personal Digital Assistants (PDAs), internet can be accessed from anywhere in the world. As a result the customers must be provided proper security and privacy to access internet. It becomes very difficult to trust the actual with the unethical, illegal, internet marketing and advertising frauds and e-business email scams and hence one must be careful while performing e-business. It is necessary to concern the privacy and legal matters while writing a copy and maintaining a FOLHQWV H-business. There are uncertainties in e-business when compared with direct business. The uncertainties are related to the security, privacy, credit and debit card handling. The security is the primary concern in e-business. The PCI Data Security standard (PCI DSS) needs to be followed by one who handles the credit card information. E-business is all about the trust between buyer and the seller so one must be careful while dealing with the transactions which involve the handling of credit and debit cards. There will also be copyright issues that is copying something from other sites and presenting the same content as their own. It is important to check for plagiarism when the company is publishing their own articles. When some concepts are copyright then it is necessary to credit the original authors. Disclaimer notice is required at the start of any business website. If the webmasters include some unethical information about the client then that can cause everlasting negative consequences for the client. The legal action is taken against the false advertisements also. The risks associated with conducting e-business over the internet are explained as follows: Jurisdiction Contracting over the cyberspace is a challenge for the website owners and the internet is the form of communication that rises above the spatial boundaries. There is a jurisdiction problem in the disputes between the buyer and seller regarding where the contract was formed and which state law applies for the contract. Contact validity The emerging issue is the legal validity of web wrap or click on contracts. This type of contract is mainly found on the web site that offers goods and services for the sale. This e-business creates the legal relationship between the seller and buyer. Contract information The advent of the e-business over the net is responsible for various legal issues regarding the formation of the electronic contracts. There is a need for matching both the e-customers and e-merchants with the legally responsible parties in the real world. There is a need for on cryptographic methods for reducing the risks associated with the identification and authentication. The cryptographic methods for eliminating the risks those are associated with the non repudiation and security. Q3. Mention the Factoring. relevance of credit: A standard, commercial letter of credit (LC) is a document issued mostly by a Ans: Letter of these terms financial institution, used primarily in trade finance, which usually provides an irrevocable payment in undertaking. International The letter of credit can also be source of payment for a transaction, meaning that redeeming the businesscredit will pay an exporter. Letters of credit are used primarily in international trade letter of Letter of transactions of significant value, for deals between a supplier in one country and a customer in credit, Billsuch cases the International Chamber of Commerce Uniform Customs and Practice for another. In of Lading and [2] Documentary Credits applies (UCP 600 being the latest version). They are also used in the land development process to ensure that approved public facilities (streets, sidewalks, storm water ponds, etc.) will be built. The parties to a letter of credit are usually a beneficiary who is to receive the money, the issuing bank of whom the applicant is a client, and the advising bank of whom the 2011 Page 5 of 15 Abhishek Jain - 511035358

International Business Management MB0053 Set 2 MBA 4th Sem Assignment beneficiary is a client. Almost all letters of credit are irrevocable, i.e., cannot be amended or canceled without prior agreement of the beneficiary, the issuing bank and the confirming bank, if any. In executing a transaction, letters of credit incorporate functions common to giros and Traveler's cheques. Typically, the documents a beneficiary has to present in order to receive payment include a commercial invoice, bill of lading, and documents proving the shipment was insured against loss or damage in transit. Letters of credit (LC) deal in documents, not goods. The LC could be irrevocable or revocable. An irrevocable LC cannot be changed unless both the buyer and seller agree. Whereas in a revocable LC changes to the LC can be made without the consent of the beneficiary. A sight LC means that payment is made immediately to the beneficiary/seller/exporter upon presentation of the correct documents in the required time frame. A time or date LC will specify when payment will be made at a future date and upon presentation of the required documents. Negotiation means the giving of value for draft(s) and/or document(s) by the bank authorized to negotiate, viz the nominated bank. Mere examination of the documents and forwarding the same to the letter of credit issuing bank for reimbursement, without giving of value / agreed to give, does not constitute a negotiation.

After a contract is concluded between buyer and seller, buyer's bank supplies a letter of credit to seller. All the charges for issuance of Letter of Credit, negotiation of documents, reimbursements and other charges like courier are to the account of applicant or as per the terms and conditions of the Letter of credit. If the letter of credit is silent on charges, then they are to the account of the Applicant. The description of charges and who would be bearing them would be indicated in the field 71B in the Letter of Credit. A bill of lading (BL - sometimes referred to as BOL or B/L) is a document issued by a carrier to a shipper, acknowledging that specified goods have been received on board as cargo for conveyance to a named place for delivery to the consignee who is usually identified. A through bill of lading involves the use of at least two different modes of transport from road, rail, air, and sea. The term derives from the verb "to lade" which means to load a cargo onto a ship or other form of transportation. A bill of lading can be used as a traded object. The standard short form bill of lading is evidence of the contract of carriage of goods and it serves a number of purposes: It is evidence that a valid contract of carriage, or a chartering contract, exists, and it may incorporate the full terms of the contract between the consignor and the carrier by reference (i.e. the short form simply refers to the main contract as an existing document, whereas the long form of a bill of lading (connaissement intgral) issued by the carrier sets out all the terms of the contract of carriage); It is a receipt signed by the carrier confirming whether goods matching the contract description have been received in good condition (a bill will be described as clean if the goods have been received on board in apparent good condition and stowed ready for transport); and It is also a document of transfer, being freely transferable but not a negotiable instrument in the legal sense, i.e. it governs all the legal aspects of physical carriage, and, like a cheque or other negotiable instrument, it may be endorsed affecting ownership of the goods actually being carried. This matches everyday experience in that the contract a person might make with a commercial carrier like FedEx for mostly airway parcels, is separate from any contract for the sale of the goods to be carried; however, it binds the carrier to its terms, irrespectively of who the actual holder of the B/L, and owner of the goods, may be at a specific moment. 2011 Page 6 of 15 Abhishek Jain - 511035358

International Business Management MB0053 Set 2 MBA 4th Sem Assignment The BL must contain the following information: Name of the shipping company; Flag of nationality; Shipper's name; Order and notify party; Description of goods; Gross/net/tare weight; and Freight rate/measurements and weighment of goods/total freight While an air waybill (AWB) must have the name and address of the consignee, a BL may be consigned to the order of the shipper. Where the word order appears in the consignee box, the shipper may endorse it in blank or to a named transferee. A BL endorsed in blank is transferable by delivery. Once the goods arrive at the destination they will be released to the bearer or the endorsee of the original bill of lading. The carrier's duty is to deliver goods to the first person who presents any one of the original BL. The carrier need not require all originals to be submitted before delivery. It is therefore essential that the exporter retains control over the full set of the originals until payment is effected or a bill of exchange is accepted or some other assurance for payment has been made to him. In general, the importer's name is not shown as consignee. The bill of lading has also provision for incorporating notify party. This is the person whom the shipping company will notify on arrival of the goods at destination. The BL also contains other details such as the name of the carrying vessel and its flag of nationality, the marks and numbers on the packages in which the goods are packed, a brief description of the goods, the number of packages, their weight and measurement, whether freight costs have been paid or whether payment of freight is due on arrival at the destination. The particulars of the container in which goods are stuffed are also mentioned in case of containerized cargo. The document is dated and signed by the carrier or its agent. The date of the BL is deemed to be the date of shipment. If the date on which the goods are loaded on board is different from the date of the bill of lading then the actual date of loading on board will be evidenced by a notation the BL. In certain cases a carrier may issue a separate on board certificate to the shipper. Main types of bill Straight bill of lading In this importer/consignee/agent is named in the bill of lading, it is called straight bill of lading. It is a document, in which a seller agrees to use a certain transportation to ship a good to a certain location, where the bill assigned to a certain party. It details to the quality and quantity of goods. Order bill of lading This bill uses express words to make the bill negotiable, e.g. it states that delivery is to be made to the further order of the consignee using words such as "delivery to A Ltd. or to order or assigns". Consequently, it can be indorsed (legal spelling of endorse, maintained in all statute, including Bills of Exchange Act 1909 (CTH)) by A Ltd. or the right to take delivery can be transferred by physical delivery of the bill accompanied by adequate evidence of A Ltd.'s intention to transfer. Bearer bill of lading This bill states that delivery shall be made to whosoever holds the bill. Such bill may be created explicitly or it is an order bill that fails to nominate the consignee whether in its original form or through an endorsement in blank. A bearer bill can be negotiated by physical delivery. Surrender bill of lading Under a term import documentary credit the bank releases the documents on receipt from the negotiating bank but the importer does not pay the bank until the maturity of the draft under the relative credit. This direct liability is called Surrender Bill of Lading (SBL), i.e. when we hand over the bill of lading we surrender title to the goods and our power of sale over the goods. A clean bill of lading states that the cargo has been loaded on board the ship in apparent good order and condition. Such a BL will not bear a clause or notation which expressively declares a defective condition of goods and/or the packaging. Thus, a BL that reflects the fact that the carrier received the goods in good condition. The opposite term is a soiled bill of lading, which reflects that the goods are received by the carrier in anything but good condition. Factoring is a financial transaction whereby a business job sells its accounts receivable (i.e., invoices) to a third party (called a factor) at a discount in exchange for immediate money with which to finance continued business. Factoring differs from a bank loan in three main ways. First, the emphasis is on the value of the receivables (essentially a financial asset), QRW WKH ILUPV credit worthiness. 2011 Page 7 of 15 Abhishek Jain - 511035358

International Business Management MB0053 Set 2 MBA 4th Sem Assignment Secondly, factoring is not a loan it is the purchase of a financial asset (the receivable). Finally, a bank loan involves two parties whereas factoring involves three. It is different from forfeiting only in the sense that forfeiting is a transaction-based operation involving exporters in which the firm sells one of its transactions, while factoring is a Financial Transaction that involves the Sale of any portion of the firm's Receivables. Factoring is a word often misused synonymously with invoice discounting - factoring is the sale of receivables, whereas invoice discounting is borrowing where the receivable is used as collateral. The three parties directly involved are: the one who sells the receivable, the debtor, and the factor. The receivable is essentially a financial asset associated with the debtor's liability to pay money owed to the seller (usually for work performed or goods sold). The seller then sells one or more of its invoices (the receivables) at a discount to the third party, the specialized financial organization (aka the factor), to obtain cash. The sale of the receivables essentially transfers ownership of the receivables to the factor, indicating the factor obtains all of the rights and risks associated with the receivables. Accordingly, the factor obtains the right to receive the payments made by the debtor for the invoice amount and must bear the loss if the debtor does not pay the invoice amount. Usually, the account debtor is notified of the sale of the receivable, and the factor bills the debtor and makes all collections. Critical to the factoring transaction, the seller should never collect the payments made by the account debtor, otherwise the seller could potentially risk further advances from the factor. There are three principal parts to the factoring transaction; a.) the advance, a percentage of the invoice face value that is paid to the seller upon submission, b.) the reserve, the remainder of the total invoice amount held until the payment by the account debtor is made and c.) the fee, the cost associated with the transaction which is deducted from the reserve prior to it being paid back the seller. Sometimes the factor charges the seller a service charge, as well as [5] interest based on how long the factor must wait to receive payments from the debtor. The factor also estimates the amount that may not be collected due to non-payment, and makes accommodation for this when determining the amount that will be given to the seller. The factor's overall profit is the difference between the price it paid for the invoice and the money received from the debtor, less the amount lost due to non-payment. In the United States, under the Generally Accepted Accounting Principles receivables are [6] considered sold when the buyer has "no recourse," or when the financial transaction is substantially a transfer of all of the rights associated with the receivables and the seller's monetary liability under any "recourse" provision is well established at the time of the sale. Otherwise, the financial transaction is treated as a loan, with the receivables used as collateral. Factoring is a method used by a firm to obtain cash when the available cash balance held by the firm is insufficient to meet current obligations and accommodate its other cash needs, such as new RUGHUV RU FRQWUDFWV. needs will allow the firm to maintain a smaller ongoing Cash Balance. By reducing immediate Cash 7KH XVH RI WKH VL]H IDFWRULQJ WR invoices at a discount to their face value when it calculates that it will be better off LWV FDVK company sells its REWDLQ WKH EDODQFHVI using the proceeds to bolster its own growth than it would be by effectively functioning as FDVK QHHGHG [8] Accordingly, Factoring occurs when the rate of return on the proceeds invested PRUH PRQH\bank." its "customer's WRPDGH LVproduction exceed the costs associated with Factoring the Receivables. Therefore, the tradeoff in DFFRPPRGDWH DYDLODEOH return the firm earns on investment in production and the cost of utilizing a Factor is between the WKH ILUPV IRU crucial in determining both the extent Factoring is used and the quantity of Cash the firm holds on LQYHVWPHQW hand. LQ WKH ILUPV have Cash Flow that varies. A business might have a relatively large Cash Flow in Many businesses JURZWK. A one period, and might have a relatively small Cash Flow in another period. Because of this, firms find it necessary to both maintain a Cash Balance on hand, and to use such methods as Factoring, in order to enable them to cover their Short Term cash needs in those periods in which these needs exceed the Cash Flow. Each business must then decide how much it wants to depend on Factoring to cover short falls in Cash, and how large a Cash Balance it wants to maintain in order to ensure it has enough Cash on hand during periods of low Cash Flow. Generally, the variability in the cash flow will determine the size of the Cash Balance a business will tend to hold as well as the extent it may have to depend on such financial mechanisms as Factoring. Cash flow variability is directly related to 2 factors: 1. The extent Cash Flow can change, 2. The length of time Cash Flow can remain at a below average level. If cash flow can decrease drastically, the business will find it needs large amounts of cash from either existing Cash Balances or from a Factor to cover its obligations during this period of time. Likewise, 2011 Page 8 of 15 Abhishek Jain - 511035358

International Business Management MB0053 Set 2 MBA 4th Sem Assignment the longer a relatively low cash flow can last, the more cash is needed from another source (Cash Balances or a Factor) to cover its obligations during this time. As indicated, the business must balance the opportunity cost of losing a return on the Cash that it could otherwise invest, against the costs associated with the use of Factoring. The Cash Balance a business holds is essentially a Demand for Transactions Money. As stated, the size of the Cash Balance the firm decides to hold is directly related to its unwillingness to pay the costs necessary to use a Factor to finance its short term cash needs. The problem faced by the business in deciding the size of the Cash Balance it wants to maintain on hand is similar to the decision it faces when it decides how much physical inventory it should maintain. In this situation, the business must balance the cost of obtaining cash proceeds from a Factor against the opportunity [9] cost of the losing the Rate of Return it earns on investment within its business.The solution to the problem is:


CB is the Cash Balance nCF is the average Negative Cash Flow in a given period i is the [Discount Rate] that cover the Factoring Costs r LV WKH UDWH RI UHWXUQ RQ WKH ILUPV DVVHWs

Q.4 a) Explain the role played by EXIM bank. Ans: Export-Import Bank of India is the premier export finance institution of the country, set up in 1982 under the Export-Import Bank of India Act 1981. Exim Bank is managed by a Board of Directors, which has representatives from the Government, Reserve Bank of India, Export Credit Guarantee Corporation of India, a financial institution, public sector banks, and the business community. The Bank's functions are segmented into several operating groups including: Corporate Banking Group which handles a variety of financing programmes for Export Oriented Units (EOUs), Importers, and overseas investment by Indian companies. Project Finance / Trade Finance Group handles the entire range of export credit services such as supplier's credit, pre-shipment Agri Business Group, to spearhead the initiative to promote and support Agri-exports. The Group handles projects and export transactions in the agricultural sector for financing. Small and Medium Enterprise: The group handles credit proposals from SMEs under various lending programmes of the Bank. Export Services Group offers variety of advisory and value-added information services aimed at investment promotion. Export Marketing Services Bank offers assistance to Indian companies, to enable them establish their products in overseas markets. Besides these, the Support Services groups, which include: Research & Planning, Corporate Finance, Loan Recovery, Internal Audit, Management Information Services, Information Technology, Legal, Human Resources Management and Corporate Affairs. b) What are B2B and C2B business models? Ans: Business-to-business (B2B) describes commerce transactions between businesses, such as between a manufacturer and a wholesaler, or between a wholesaler and a retailer. Contrasting terms are business-to-consumer (B2C) and business-to-government (B2G). The volume of B2B (Business-to-Business) transactions is much higher than the volume of B2C transactions. The primary reason for this is that in a typical supply chain there will be many B2B transactions involving sub components or raw materials, and only one B2C transaction, specifically sale of the finished product to the end customer. For example, an automobile manufacturer makes several B2B transactions such as buying tires, glass for windscreens, and rubber hoses for its vehicles. The final transaction, a finished vehicle sold to the consumer, is a single (B2C) transaction. B2B is also used in the context of communication and collaboration. Many businesses are now using social media to connect with their consumers (B2C); however, they are now using similar tools within the business so employees can connect with one another. When communication is taking place amongst employees, this can be referred to as "B2B" communication 2011 Page 9 of 15 Abhishek Jain - 511035358

International Business Management MB0053 Set 2 MBA 4th Sem Assignment The term "business-to-business" was originally coined to describe the electronic communications between businesses or enterprises in order to distinguish it from the communications between businesses and consumers (B2C). It eventually came to be used in marketing as well, initially describing only industrial or capital goods marketing. Today it is widely used to describe all products and services used by enterprises. Many professional institutions and the trade publications focus much more on B2C than B2B, although most sales and marketing personnel are in the B2B sector. Although the exploitation of Internet technologies at the business-to-business level is in its infancy, a number of models have begun to emerge that manage transactions between buyers and suppliers: Established Buyer-Supplier Relationship This is a pre-determined one-to-one relationship between a buyer and supplier that is supported by electronic commerce technologies. Due to the aforementioned limitations associated with EDI, companies have now turned their attention towards the Internet to support these types of buyersupplier relationships. Companies are now pursuing a more intensive and interactive relationship with their suppliers, impacting upon the buyer-supplier relationship in a number of areas, including the integration of manufacturing systems and supplier involvement in new product development. Exchanging information via extranets costs less and is more effective than through older traditional methods such as faxes and voicemail. For example, NEC has developed an advanced information system to carry out a large part of its procurement activities, ranging from procurement notices to settlement on the Internet. 3. Supplier-Oriented Marketplace In this model, both organizations and consumers use the supplier-provided marketplace. This is the most common type of B2B model. In this model, both business buyers and individual consumers use the same supplier-provided marketplace. An example of this model is RS Components (r swww . com). RS Components is a leading distributor of electronic, electrical, and mechanical components, instruments, and tools in Europe. The marketplace provides fast search and retrieval of 100,000 products, combined with personalized customer promotions based on the buying profiles of its major customers. A supplier-oriented marketplace may also provide an auctioning facility to offload surplus inventory or offer discounts to customers. 4. Buyer-Oriented Marketplace Under this model, a buyer opens an electronic market on its own server and invites potential suppliers to bid on the announced Requests for Quotation (RFQs). One company that has successfully exploited this model is GE Lighting. The purchasing department receives electronic requisitions from internal customers that are then sent to potential suppliers over the Internet. Within two hours of the purchasing department starting the process, suppliers are notified of incoming RFQs and are given seven days to prepare bids and send them back over the extranet to GE. With the transaction handled electronically, the procurement function has been able to concentrate on more strategic activities rather than clerical and administration tasks. 5. Business-to-Business Intermediary 7 KLV PRGHO LV intermediary that runs a marketplace where suppliers and buyers have a central point to come VRPHWLPHV together. These B2B hubs tend to focus mainly on non-core items that may range from stationery UHIHUUHG and computers to catering services and travel. There are two types of hubs: Vertical WR DV D - focus on an industry and provide content that is specific to the industryV YDOXH V\VWHP KXE RU and suppliers. Examples include e-Steel that acts as an intermediary between steelof buyers H[FKDQJH. customers, and VerticalNet that provides intermediaries for many industries including makers and IW electronics, process, telecommunications, and utilities. LV HVWDEOLVKH - provide the same function for a variety of industries. An example is iMark.com, which Horizontal G E\ DQ acts as an intermediary between buyers and suppliers of used capital equipment in different HOHFWURQLF industries. An intermediary may be closed - where members and trading partners are vetted for legal and financial probity - or open to all-comers, with the marketplace itself acting as a trusted intermediary. It is important to note that intermediaries may be biased towards either buyers or suppliers. Supplyside intermediaries may be run by consortia of manufacturers such as Chemdex that acts as an intermediary for suppliers to the life sciences industry. Similarly, buy-side intermediaries may be run by consortia of customers such as Covisint for car makers or by independent organizations such as Achilles for utilities. These intermediaries may attempt to aggregate demand for buyers in order to obtain reduced prices and more favorable terms from suppliers. In relation to payment, some intermediaries may charge a flat fee per transaction to both the buyer and suppliers. Alternatively, a percentage may be charged in the case of value-added services such as auctions. In the case of 2011 Page 10 of 15 Abhishek Jain - 511035358

International Business Management MB0053 Set 2 MBA 4th Sem Assignment large, repetitive transactions, to achieve maximum benefit the intermediary should be linked VHDPOHVVO\ WR WKH can be executed electronically. EX\HUV In the context of competitive advantage and the influence of the Internet, customer/supplier SXUFKDVLQJ OLIHF\FOH DQG WKH LV D of their customers, suppliers, and competitors. This framework provides a way of distinguishing those VXSSOLHUV XVHIXO buying and selling activities to better understand the interrelationships between customers between V\VWHPV VR IUDPHZRUN DQG VXSSOLHUV EXVLQHVV SURFHVVHVI DQG ZKDW WKH\ WHUP 7RXFK3RLQWV LQ WKH FRPSDQ\. WKDW WKH electronic business strategy will alter the nature of the product or service being offered, IRU A successful HQWLUHin the marketplace, or the buyer-supplier relationship. XQGHUVWD its value SXUFKDVLQJ QGLQJ DQ Consumer-to-business (C2B) is an electronic commerce business model in which consumers SURFHVV RUJDQL]DWLoffer products and services to companies and the companies pay them. This business (individuals) RQV is a complete reversal of traditional business model where companies offer goods and model EXVLQHVV services to consumers (business-to-consumer = B2C). We can see this example in blogs or internet SURFHVVHVI forums where the author offers a link back to an online business facilitating the purchase of some DV ZHOO product (like a book on Amazon.com), and the author might receive affiliate revenue from a DV successful sale. This kind of economic relationship is qualified as an inverted business type. The advent of the C2B scheme is due to major changes: Connecting a large group of people to a bidirectional network has made this sort of commercial relationship possible. The large traditional media outlets are one direction relationship whereas the internet is bidirectional one. Decreased cost of technology : Individuals now have access to technologies that were once only available to large companies ( digital printing and acquisition technology, high performance computer, powerful software) C2B business models like most of C2C models like EBay are based on 3 players: a consumer acting as seller, a business acting as buyer and an intermediary dealing with the connection between sellers and buyers. Consumer A consumer in the C2B business model can be any individual who has something to offer either a service or a good. The individual is paid for the work provided to the companies. Depending on the model, the "consumer" can be: A webmaster/ blogger offering advertising service (through Google Adsense program for example or amazon.com affiliation program) A photographer or a designer offering stock images to companies by selling his artwork through Fotolia or istockphoto for example Any individual answering a poll through a survey site Any individual with connections offering job hiring service by referring someone through referral hiring sites like jobster.com or h3.com Business Business in the C2B business model represents any companies buying goods or services to individual trough intermediaries. Here are some examples of potential companies which can be such clients: Any company which wants to fill a job (through referral hiring sites) Any company needing to advertise online (through Google Adwords program for example) Any advertising agency which needs to buy a stock photo (through microstock sites) Intermediary The Intermediary is the crucial element since it creates the connection between business which needs a service or a good and a mass of individuals. Intermediary is usually a portal both for buyers (businesses) and seller (individuals). The intermediary plays two roles: It promotes goods and services offered by individuals by proposing a distribution channel. It offers what individuals can't do themselves : large promotion, logistic and financial support, technical expertise It offers buyers a contact to a mass of individuals and takes care of money transactions and legal aspects We can notice that some intermediaries prefer creating two different accesses one for buyers and one for sellers (Google Adwords for advertiser - Google Adsense for web publisher) whereas other companies like Fotolia have only one access because buyers and sellers can be the same. We can differentiate two kinds of intermediaries: 2011 Page 11 of 15 Abhishek Jain - 511035358

International Business Management MB0053 Set 2 MBA 4th Sem Assignment Extern intermediary : they act as a extern agent within the relation between companies and individual (ex : referral hiring site) Intern intermediary: they play the role both of business and intermediary. For example, it is the case of amazon.com through its affiliation program. Amazon pays individual to promote its own products. Few types of intermediaries Intermediary Examples What do they sell? Advertising Site Google Adwords/Adsense Commission Junction Tradedoubler Advertising services through search engines and websites Stock Photos, animations Job Hiring Service Vectors, Flash

Microstock Site Fotolia Shutterstock Istockphoto Referral Hiring H3 Josbster Jobmeeters Site

September 24, 2005 in C2B Business Model | Permalink | Comments (2) | TrackBack (0) C2B vs. B2C : Graphical Representation

Q.5 What kind of impact will globalization and international business environment create on Indian businesses? [10 marks] Ans: Globalisation is the new buzzword that has come to dominate the world since the nineties of the last century with the end of the cold war and the break-up of the former Soviet Union and the global trend towards the rolling ball. The frontiers of the state with increased reliance on the market economy and renewed faith in the private capital and resources, a process of structural adjustment spurred by the studies and influences of the World Bank and other International organisations have started in many of the developing countries. Also Globalisation has brought in new opportunities to developing countries. Greater access to developed country markets and technology transfer hold out promise improved productivity and higher living standard. But globalisation has also thrown up new challenges like growing inequality across and within nations, volatility in financial market and environmental deteriorations. Another negative aspect of globalisation is that a great majority of developing countries remain removed from the process. Till the nineties the process of globalisation of the Indian economy was constrained by the barriers to trade and investment liberalisation of trade, investment and financial flows initiated in the nineties has progressively lowered the barriers to competition and hastened the pace of globalisation Though the precise definition of globalisation is still unavailable a few definitions worth viewing, Stephen Gill: defines globalisation as the reduction of transaction cost of transborder movements of capital and goods thus of factors of production and goods. Guy Brainbant: says that the process of globalisation not only includes opening up of world trade, development of advanced means of communication, internationalisation of financial markets, growing importance of MNC's, population migrations and more generally increased mobility of persons, goods, capital, data and ideas but also infections, diseases and pollution Impact on India: India opened up the economy in the early nineties following a major crisis that led by a foreign exchange crunch that dragged the economy close to defaulting on loans. The response was a slew of Domestic and external sector policy measures partly prompted by the immediate needs and


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International Business Management MB0053 Set 2 MBA 4th Sem Assignment partly by the demand of the multilateral organisations. The new policy regime radically pushed forward in favour of a more open and market oriented economy. Major measures initiated as a part of the liberalisation and globalisation strategy in the early nineties included scrapping of the industrial licensing regime, reduction in the number of areas reserved for the public sector, amendment of the monopolies and the restrictive trade practices act, start of the privatisation programme, reduction in tariff rates and change over to market determined exchange rates. Over the years there has been a steady liberalisation of the current account transactions, more and more sectors opened up for foreign direct investments and portfolio investments facilitating entry of foreign investors in telecom, roads, ports, airports, insurance and other major sectors. The Indian tariff rates reduced sharply over the decade from a weighted average of 72.5% in 199192 to 24.6 in 1996-97.Though tariff rates went up slowly in the late nineties it touched 35.1% in 2001-02. India is committed to reduced tariff rates. Peak tariff rates are to be reduced to be reduced to the minimum with a peak rate of 20%, in another 2 years most non-tariff barriers have been dismantled by March 2002, including almost all quantitative restrictions. India is Global: The liberalisation of the domestic economy and the increasing integration of India with the global economy have helped step up GDP growth rates, which picked up from 5.6% in 1990-91 to a peak level of 77.8% in 1996-97. Growth rates have slowed down since the country has still been able to achieve 5-6% growth rate in three of the last six years. Though growth rates has slumped to the lowest level 4.3% in 2002-03 mainly because of the worst droughts in two decades the growth rates are expected to go up close to 70% in 2003-04. A Global comparison shows that India is now the fastest growing just after China. This is major improvement given that India is growth rate in the 1970's was very low at 3% and GDP growth in countries like Brazil, Indonesia, Korea, and Mexico was more than twice that of India. Though India's average annual growth rate almost doubled in the eighties to 5.9% it was still lower than the growth rate in China, Korea and Indonesia. The pickup in GDP growth has helped improve India's global position. Consequently India's position in the global economy has improved from the 8th position in 1991 to th place in 2001. When GDP is calculated on a purchasing power parity basis. 4 Globalisation and Poverty: Globalisation in the form of increased integration though trade and investment is an important reason why much progress has been made in reducing poverty and global inequality over recent decades. But it is not the only reason for this often unrecognised progress, good national policies, sound institutions and domestic political stability also matter. Despite this progress, poverty remains one of the most serious international challenges we face up to 1.2 billion of the developing world 4.8 billion people still live in extreme poverty. But the proportion of the world population living in poverty has been steadily declining and since 1980 the absolute number of poor people has stopped rising and appears to have fallen in recent years despite strong population growth in poor countries. If the proportion living in poverty had not fallen since 1987 alone a further 215million people would be living in extreme poverty today. India has to concentrate on five important areas or things to follow to achieve this goal. The areas like technological entrepreneurship, new business openings for small and medium enterprises, importance of quality management, new prospects in rural areas and privatisation of financial institutions. The manufacturing of technology and management of technology are two different significant areas in the country. There will be new prospects in rural India. The growth of Indian economy very much depends upon rural participation in the global race. After implementing the new economic policy the role of villages got its own significance because of its unique outlook and branding methods. For example food processing and packaging are the one of the area where new entrepreneurs can enter into a big way. It may be organised in a collective way with the help of co-operatives to meet the global demand. 2011 Page 13 of 15 Abhishek Jain - 511035358

International Business Management MB0053 Set 2 MBA 4th Sem Assignment Understanding the current status of globalisation is necessary for setting course for future. For all nations to reap the full benefits of globalisation it is essential to create a level playing field. President Bush's recent proposal to eliminate all tariffs on all manufactured goods by 2015 will do it. In fact it may exacerbate the prevalent inequalities. According to this proposal, tariffs of 5% or less on all manufactured goods will be eliminated by 2005 and higher than 5% will be lowered to 8%. Starting 2010 the 8% tariffs will be lowered each year until they are eliminated by 2015. GDP Growth rate: The Indian economy is passing through a difficult phase caused by several unfavourable domestic and external developments; Domestic output and Demand conditions were adversely affected by poor performance in agriculture in the past two years. The global economy experienced an overall deceleration and recorded an output growth of 2.4% during the past year growth in real GDP in 2001 -02 was 5.4% as per the Economic Survey in 2000-01. The performance in the first quarter of the financial year is5.8% and second quarter is 6.1%. Export and Import: India's Export and Import in the year 2001-02 was to the extent of 32,572 and 38,362 million respectively. Many Indian companies have started becoming respectable players in the International scene. Agriculture exports account for about 13 to 18% of total annual of annual export of the country. In 2000-01 Agricultural products valued at more than US $ 6million were exported from the country 23% of which was contributed by the marine products alone. Marine products in recent years have emerged as the single largest contributor to the total agricultural export from the country accounting for over one fifth of the total agricultural exports. Cereals (mostly basmati rice and non-basmati rice), oil seeds, tea and coffee are the other prominent products each of which accounts for nearly 5 to 10% of the FRXQWU\V total agricultural exports. Where does Indian stand in terms of Global Integration? India clearly lags in globalisation. Number of countries has a clear lead among them China, large part of east and far east Asia and Eastern Europe. LHWV look at a few indicators how much we lag. Over the past decade FDI flows into India have averaged around 0.5% of GDP against 5% for China 5.5% for Brazil. Whereas FDI inflows into China now exceeds US $ 50 billion annually. It is only US $ 4billion in the case of India Consider global trade - India's share of world merchandise exports increased from .05% to .07% over the past 20 years. Over the same period China's share has tripled to almost 4%. India's share of global trade is similar to that of the Philippines and economy 6 times smaller according to IMF estimates. India under trades by 70-80% given its size, proximity to markets and labour cost advantages. It is interesting to note the remark made last year by Mr. Bimal Jalan, Governor of RBI. Despite all the talk, we are now where ever close being globalised in terms of any commonly used indicator of globalisation. In fact we are one of the least globalised among the major countries - however we look at it. As Amartya Sen and many other have pointed out that India, as a geographical, politicocultural entity has been interacting with the outside world throughout history and still continues to do so. It has to adapt, assimilate and contribute. This goes without saying even as we move into what is called a globalised world which is distinguished from previous eras from by faster travel and communication, greater trade linkages, denting of political and economic sovereignty and greater acceptance of democracy as a way of life. Consequences: The implications of globalisation for a national economy are many. Globalisation has intensified interdependence and competition between economies in the world market. This is reflected in Interdependence in regard to trading in goods and services and in movement of capital. As a result domestic economic developments are not determined entirely by domestic policies and market conditions. Rather, they are influenced by both domestic and international policies and economic conditions. It is thus clear that a globalising economy, while formulating and evaluating its domestic 2011 Page 14 of 15 Abhishek Jain - 511035358