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Contents

Chemistry Of, Page
Green Vitrol (FeSO
4
) S -4
Chloride (FeCl
3
) 5
White Vitrol (ZnSO
4
.7H
2
O) 6 -7
Calomel (Hg
2
Cl
2
) 8
Corrosive Sublimate (HgCl
2
) 9 -1u
Chemistry of Litharge (PbO) 11 - 12
Red Lead/Sindoor (Pb
3
O
4
) 13
Greetings 14

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Write chemistry of Green Vitrol (FeSO
4
).
Preparation:
It is prepared by the reaction of dil. H
2
SO
4
on Iron fillings.
Fc +Jil. E
2
S0
4
- FcS0
4
+E
2
0
The resulting solution is heated to crystallization point to obtain
crystal.
Properties:
a. It is light green coloured crystalline solid soluble in water.
b. Oxidation with air:
When it is oxidized with air it changes to brown coloured basic
ferric sulphate.
FeSO
4
+ H
2
O + O
2
-Fe(OH)SO
4


(Brown basic ferric sulphate)
c. On heating:
When it is heated it loses its water molecule.
FeSO
4
.7H
2
O- FeSO
4
+7H
2
O
FeSO
4
-Fe
2
O
3
+SO
2
+SO
4

d. With nitric oxide:
FeSO
4
+NO+5H
2
O-[Fe(H
2
O)
5
NO]SO
4


Brown complex




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e. Reducing:
It reduces acidified KMnO
4
and acidified K
2
Cr
2
O
7

KMnO
4
+H
2
SO
4
+FeSO
4
-K
2
SO
4
+MnSO
4
+Fe
2
(SO
4
)
3
+H
2
O
K
2
Cr
2
O
7
+H
2
SO
4
+FeSO
4
-K
2
SO
4
+Cr
2
(SO
4
)
3
+H
2
O+Fe(SO
4
)
3

Uses:
a. It is used as lab reagent.
b. It is used to prepare Mohrs salt solution.
c. It is also used as insecticide.


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Write Chemistry of Ferric Chloride (FeCl
3
)
Preparation:
It is prepared by heating iron with chlorine.
Fc +Cl
2
- FcCl
3

Properties:
a. Anhydrous FcCl
3
is black coloured but hydrated form is yellow
coloured.
b. It is very hygroscopic. (moisture absorbing)
c. Its aqueous solution is acidic.
FcCl
3
+E
2
0 - Fc(0E)
3
+ECl

Strong base

Strong acid
d. Reaction with ammonia solution:
It reacts with ammonia solution to give brown ppt.
FcCl
3
+NE
4
0E - Fc(0E)
3
+NE
4
Cl
Brown ppt.
e. Reaction with potassium Ferrocynide:
FcCl
3
+K
4
|Fc(CN)
6
] - Fc|Fc(CN)
6
]
3
+ KCI
Prussian blue ferric ferrocynide
Uses:
a. As a lab reagent.
b. As an antiseptic.






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Describe chemistry of White Vitrol (ZnSO
4
.7H
2
O)
Preparation:
a. It is prepared by the action of dil.H
2
SO
4
on Zinc, Zinc Carbonate or
ZnO.
Zn +E
2
S0
4
- ZnS0
4
+E
2
0
ZnC0
3
+E
2
S0
4
- ZnS0
4
+E
2
0 +C0
2

Zn0 +E
2
S0
4
- ZnS0
4
+ E
2

The resulting solution is heated to crystallization point to
obtain crystal.
b. It is also prepared by oxidation of Zinc sulphide.
ZnS+O
2
-ZnSO
4

Properties:
a. It is white crystalline solid soluble in water.
b. When it is heated, it lose its water molecule as:
ZnSO
4
.7H
2
O
100c

-6H
2
0
ZnSO
4
.H
2
O
300c

-H
2
O
ZnSO
4

800c

ZnO + SO
2
+O
2


c. Reaction with gives Barrium Sulphide Lithophone which is used
as white paint.
ZnSO
4
+ BaS - ZnS + BaSO
4

(Lithopene)
d. Reaction with alkali gives salt.
NaOH + ZnSO
4
- Zn(OH)
2
+ NaSO
4
Zn(OH)
2
+ NaOH - Na
2
ZnO
2
+ H
2
O
e. Equal concentration of Zinc Sulphate, Potassium Sulphate gives
double salt.
K
2
SO
4
+ZnSO
4
+H
2
O-K
2
SO
4
.ZnSO
4
.6H
2
O
(Double salt)

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Uses:
a. It is used as white paint.
b. It is also used as eye lotion.
c. It is also used as electrolyte during electroplating.
d. It is also used to make alloy.



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Write the chemistry of Calomel/Mercurous chloride (Hg
2
Cl
2
)
Preparation:
a. It is prepared by heating mercuric chloride with mercury.
HgCl
2
+Hg- Hg
2
Cl
2

b. It is also prepared by the reaction of mercuric chloride with
stannous chloride.
2HgCl
2
+SnCl
2
- Hg
2
Cl
2
+SnCl
4
Properties:
a. It is white powder insoluble in water but soluble in chlorine
water to give corrosive sublimate.
Hg
2
Cl
2
+Cl
2
-2HgCl
2
b. When it is heated strongly, it decomposes to give Hg and HgCl
2
.
Hg
2
Cl
2
-Hg+ HgCl
2
c. It reacts with Aquaregia to give mercuric chloride.
3HCl+HNO
3
+HgCl
2
-HgCl
2
+NoCl+H
2
O
d. It reacts with ammonia by changing it into black.
Uses:
a. It is used to make standard calomel electrode.
b. It is used as medicine.





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Write chemistry of Corrosive sublimate (HgCl
2
)
Preparation:
It is prepared by passing dry chlorine over heated mercury.
Hg+Cl
2
-HgCl
2

a. It is also prepared by heating calomel.
Hg
2
Cl
2
-HgCl
2
+Hg
b. It is also prepared by the reaction of mercuric sulphate with
NaCl in presence of MnO
2
as catalyst.
HgSO
4
+NaCl
Mn0
2

HgCl
2
+Na
2
SO
4


Properties:
a. It is white needle shape solid soluble in water.
b. It is extremely poisonous and may cause death.
c. It reacts with stannous chloride to give calomel and on further
reaction gives mercury.
2HgCl
2
+SnCl
2
-Hg
2
Cl
2
+SnCl
4

Hg
2
Cl
2
+SnCl
2
-Hg+SnCl
4

d. Reaction with KI:
It gives Nesslers reagent by reacting with KI.
HgCl
2
+2KI-HgI
2
+KCl
HgI
2
+2KI-K
2
HgI
4


Nesslers reagent

e. Reaction with NH
3

It reacts with ammonia to give white ppt.
HgCl
2
+2NH
3
-Hg(NH
2
)Cl+NH
4
Cl

White ppt.


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Uses:
a. Its very dilute solution is used as antiseptic and for sterilizing
surgical instruments.
b. It is also used to prepare Nesslers reagent.
c. It is used as fungicide.

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Chemistry of Litharge/Lead Oxide (PbO)
Preparation:
a. It is prepared by the reaction of Pb with O
2
. Initially yellow
powder is obtained which on strong heating gives reddish
yellow powder called litharge.
Pb+O
2
-PbO

Lithrage

b. It is also obtained by heating lead carbonate and lead nitrate.
PbCO
3
-PbO+CO
2

Pb(NO
3
) -PbO+NO
2
+O
2

Properties:
a. It is yellow powder and changes to red on heating.
b. It is amphoteric oxide.
PbO+HCl-PbCl
2
+H
2
O
PbO+NaOH-Na
2
PbO
2
+H
2
O

Sodium plumbite

c. It can be reduced by C, CO, H
2

PbO+C-Pb+CO
2

PbO+CO-Pb+CO
2
Pb+H
2
-Pb+H
2
O
d. It reacts with hot lead acetate solution to give basic lead
acetate.
PbO+(CH
3
CaO)
2
Pb+H
2
O-Pb(OH)
2
(CH
3
CaO)
2
Pb
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Uses:
a. It is used to make glass, metal, cement, lead salt etc.
b. It is also used to join broken pieces of glass.


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Write chemistry of Red lead/Sindoor (Pb
3
O
4
).
Preparation:
It is prepared by heating litharge with air.
6PbO + O
2

400

c
z
2Pb
3
O
4

Properties:
a. It is brilliant insoluble red powder.
b. When it is heated at about more thanSuu

c, litharge is
obtained.
Pb
3
O
4
500

c
z
PbO+O
2

c. When it is treated with acid, it is oxidized acid.
Pb
3
O
4
+HCl-PbCl
2
+H
2
O+Cl
2

Pb
3
O
4
+H
2
SO
4
-PbSO
4
+H
2
O+O
2

Uses:
a. It is used as Sindoor.
b. It is used as oxidizing agent.

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