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Herbarium of different shape and size of

Leaves are a plants food factories. Plants make their own food in a process called photosynthesis. Photosynthesis requires sunlight, air, and water. Leaves help plants collect light from the Sun. Energy from sunlight is used inside the leaves to create food for the plant. The job of collecting sunlight is done by a chemical in leaves called chlorophyll. Chlorophyll makes leaves look green. Many leaves turn yellow and red in the fall because they stop making chlorophyll. PARTS OF A LEAF A typical leaf has two basic parts: a blade and a petiole. The blade is the thin, flat surface of the leaf. Photosynthesis mostly takes place in the blade. The petiole is a stalk like structure that supports the leaf blade. It also serves as a passageway for water and nutrients to reach the leaf. Look at a leaf carefully and you will notice that the blade is patterned with veins. Many leaves have one large vein down the center with small veins branching off. These veins contain plant tissues called xylem and phloem. The xylem brings water from the plant to the leaf. The phloem carries the food made in the leaf to feed the rest of the plant. There are tiny openings called stomata all over the surface of leaves. These openings allow gases in the air to pass in and out of the plant during photosynthesis. Plants also lose water by evaporation through the stomata. This loss of water is called transpiration. It helps keep plants cool, just like perspiration (sweat) helps keep you cool. NOT ALL LEAVES ARE SIMPLE Leaves come in many shapes and sizes. The shape of a plants leaves can help you identify the plant. Plants such as oak or maple trees have a single blade. These are called simple leaves. Other plants, such as clover, have blades that are divided into separate leaflets attached to a central stalk. These are called compound leaves. A four-leaf clover, therefore, doesnt really have four leaves,it has one leaf with four leaflets. THE DETAILS OF LEAF The leaf is a green flattened structure, which develops from the node of stem or branch of a plant. It is regarded as the most important vegetative organ, since most of the vital activities of the plants are performed by it. The leaves are always developed in an acropetal succession.

A typical leaf mainly consists of 3 parts A) Leaf base B) Petiole C) Lamina A) The leaf base: The part of the leaf with which it is attached to the stem is called the leaf base. Usually, the leaf is slightly swollen, but when it is very distinctly swollen and gives the appearance of a land, it is said to be culvinos. In monocotyledonous plants the leaf base is expanded to a sheath, which completely or partially covers the stem. In musa paradisiacal (Banana), the so called stem consists of leaf sheath. In many dicotyledonous plants the leaf base give rise to lateral outgrowths known as stipule. Stipules Stipules are small outgrowths developed from the leaf base. They vary in shape, size and colour in different plant species. When the stipule fall off before unfolding of the lamina , it is called eaducous, but when it falls off soon after the unfolding of the leaf it is known as deciduous . IF the stipue persists as long as the lamina remains on the stem, it is known as cursistant. The small stipules present at the base of the leaflets of the compound leaf are called tiples e.g. Dolichos (bean or SIMBA) when the stipule is present the leaf is said to be stipulate but when it is absent the leaf is said to be exstipulate. On the basis of the shape ,size and their relative position , stipules are classified as : 1.0 Free lateral Stipules: When two stipules are developed laterally (i.e. from the sides) on the leaf base and they are not fused with each other, they are known as the lateral stipules. Usually they are small, narrow and green in color. For Ex : Gossypium(cotton), Akelmoschus (ladys finger), Hibiscus(china Rose) etc. 2.0 Andate stipules: When two lateral stipules are fused with the petiole up to certain length and then become free at their apex, they are known as andau stipules. They usually give a winged appearance to the petiole. e.g. Rose, Asachis etc. 3.0 Interrectiolar stipules: These are the two stipules atht occupy the position in between the petioles of the opposite leaves. Each stipule is a fused product of the stipules, one from each of the opposite leaves. Ie Ixora (Ragami), Anthaephaleus(Or kelikadamba), Coffea(Coffee) Gardania(Sugandhara) etc. 4.0 Intrapetiolar stipules: When the stpule lies towards inner side of the petiole and just face the stem, it is called intrapetiolar stipule. Such a stipue is formed due to fusion of the lateral stipules at the axilary region of the leaf. 5.0 Ocreare stipules: when the stipule fuse together and form the hollow tube covering the internode of the stem up to

certain length, they are known as Ocreare stipules. Eg Polygonum, Rumex etc. 6.0 The stipules are classified on the basis of modification: Sometimes the stipules are modified into different forms and serve some special functions. On the basis of this,they have been classified in to the following type: 6.1 Foliaceous Stipules: Sometimes the stipules are modified into different forms and serve special functions. On the basis of this thay have been classified When the stipules are comparatively large and flattened like a leaf, they as known as foliaceaus sipules Ex Pisam, Lathyrus 6.2 But scales or convulate stipules: These are comparatively large stipules, which enclose the bud and afford protection to it. When the leaves unfold , these stipules fall off eg: Fiaes, artocappes 6.3 Spinous stipules: The lateral stipules are sometimes modified into two hard pointed structures called spines . These spinous stipules protect plants from the attack of animals eg : Mimosa, Zizyphus etc 6.4 Tendriller stipules: The two lateral stipules may be modified to long, slender and coiled structure called the tendrils. The tendrille stipules help the plant to climb upon the support, as in smilax. In this case the tendrils are developed from two lateral scaly stipules, which are fused with the petiole. B) Petiole: The stalk of the leaf is called Petiole. In many cases the petiole of the leaf is not distinct and such a leaf is described as sessile. When the petiole is present, the plant is said to be petiolate or stalked. In some cases the petiole is modified. In case of Eichhomia (water hyacinth) the petiole is modified to a swollen and spongy structure called swollen petiole. The petiole citrus (lemon) forms wing like structure and is called winged petiole. In acasia moniliformis the petiole is modified to a flattened leaf like structure known as phyllode. The petiole may be elongated and function like Tendril, such a petiole is called tendrillar petiole C) Lamina or a leaf blade: The green and expended portion of leaf beyond the layer of petiole is called the lamina. The petiole extends into the median region of the lamina and functions as the strong main vein called mid rib. From the mid rib develop a number of lateral veins which ramify into lamina. The thinner branches of the lateral veins form the network in the lamina and give mechanical strength to it. A number of technical terms are used in FLORAS to describe the structure of the leaves. Some of terms given are: 1) Texture: the texture of the leaf is said to be :

1.1 HERBACIOUS: When it soft and thin e.g. Basillica 1.2 CORRIACEOUS: When it is strong and tough like leather:

e.g. FICUS 1.3 SUCCULENT: When it is fleshy. Eg BRYOPHYLLUM Surface of the leaf: The surface of the leaf is described as: 1.0 GLABROUS: When it is smooth. eg Polyathia 2.0 HAIRY OR PUBESCENT: When it is covered with hairs. eg Akelmoschus 3.0 ROUGH: When it is not polished or smooth. eg OSIZA 4.0 SPINY: When covered with spine. Eg ARGAMONS Shape of the leaves:The general outline or shape of the leaf may be of following types: 1.0 ACICULAR: Needle like long, narrow and cylindrical. Eg Pinus. 2.0 LINEAR: long narrow and flat with more or less parallel edges. Eg Cyprus. 3.0 LANCEOLATE: Like a lance, broad on the middle and tapering at both the ends. eg Banopusa polyathia. 4.0 OVAL or ELLIPTICAL: Have the shape of ellipse. Eg Vinca 5.0 OVATE: Egg shaped, broader at the base ie the apex. Eg Hibiscus 6.0 OBOVATE: Broad at the apex and narrow at the base universally. Eg shalped 7.0 OBLONG: Long and wide with parallel magine and round both at apex and base. 8.0 CORDATE: Heart shaped or the bases are broad and loked and gradually narrow towards the apex. Eg Piper 9.0 OBLORDATE; Inversaly heart shaped. Eg Bonchinia 10.0 OBLIQUE: i.e. halves of the lamina are unequal. Eg Azardiracta 11.0 SPATHULATE: Like spatula broad and rounded at the top and narrowed at the base. Eg Drosera 12.0 SAGITATE: Like an arrow head. eg Sagitharia 13.0 HASTATE: Like an arrow head but lower lobes directed outwards. Eg IPOMOEA REPTANS etc 14.0 CUNEATE: Wedge shaped or broad slightly notched at the top and narrower at the base. Eg Pistia 15.0 LYRATE: Like lyre , with a large terminal lobe and smaller lateral lobes . eg Raphanus 16.0 PEDATE: Divided in to lobes which spread like a claw of a bird. Eg Vitispedate 17.0 CYLINDRICAL : Like a cylinder ie allium 18.0 ORBICULAR or ROTUND: More or less circular. eg Nelembium 19.0 RENIFORM: ie kidney shaped. Eg Hydarocotyle MARGIN OF A LEAF The margin of the leaf of different species of plant Some of common types are (a) ENTIRE: - i.e. even and smooth eg. Thevita (nerium), Mangifera(mango), Ficus(BARA) (b) REPAND or SENATE: i.e. wavy eg. Polyalthia croton(or BAKSA GACHCHA)

(c) SERRATE: toothed like a saw and teeth directed towards upwards eg, Hibiscus (d)DENTATE: like serrate but teeth directed otwards at right angles to the lamina eg. Anannas (e) CRENATE: toothed with rounded teeth eg. Bryophyllum (f) SPINOUS: with spines eg. Argemone APEX OF THE LAMINA: the apex of the leaf may be of various types .A few important types are described below: (a) ACUTE: pointed apex forming an acute angle eg. Hibiscus (b)ACUMINATE or CAUDATE: apex is drawn out into a log and slender tail like structure eg. Peepal (c) OBTUSE: the apex is rounded or form an obtuse angle.eg ficus begalensis (d) CUSPIDATE: ending in sharp pint. eg rananus (e) RETUSE:rounded but slightly notched. eg. Clitoria ,pistia (f) EMARGINATE: deeply otched. Eg bahunia (g)MUCRONATE:when the rounded apex abruptly in a shot point.eg ixora (h)CIRRHOSE: when ends in a tendril .eg Glorisa ,musa


(a) AURICULATE: the leaf is without any petiole and the base of

the lamina forms two lobes covering the stems on either sides .e.g. Colatropis . (b) PERFOLIATE: the lobes of the base completely encircle the stem and get fused such that the stem appears to have pierced through the lamina .e.g. aloe (c) CONNATE: the bases of the two opposite leaves fuse and encircle the stem .e.g. swetia (d) DECURRENT: the base becomes feathery and covers the stem. e.g. Sparanthus VENATION OF THE LEAF The arrangement of the leaf in the lamina is called venation The continuation of the petiole into the median region of the lamina is known as midrib or mid vein. This gives rise to number of lateral veins and its branches or vienlets spreading in the lamina Depending on the arrangements of viens and vienlets venation may be of two main types 1.0 Reticulate venation 2.0 Parallel venation 1.0 RETICULATE VENATION: This type of venation is a characteristic feature of the leaves of dicotyledonous plants .A numbers of lateral veins are developed from the midrib and give rise to many veinlets. The lateral veins and vienlets form a network or reticulam in the lamina and for this reason such a venation is called reticulate venation. Reticulate venation are classified in two types

or PINNATE: When there is only one prominent mid rib developed from the lateral veins, then the venation is known as UNICOSTATE or PINNATE reticulate. E.g. Mangifera 1.2 MULTICOSTATE or PALMATE: When the number of permanent veins enter into the lamina form the Petiole and spread out like the fingers of the palm, the venation is known as multicostate reticulate or palmately reticulate venation . Palmate venation ia of two types. 1.2.1 Divergent : When the main vein arising at the base of the lamina diverge from one another towards the margin of the blade . It is known as divergent Eg Recinus, cucurbita 1.2.2 Convergent: When the main veins instead of diverging from one another, pass through the lamina in the curved manner towards the apex and finally meet there, the venation is called convergent. Eg : Cinnamon 2.0 Parallel venation: This type of venation is characteristic feature of the leaves of monocotyledonous plants. Here the veins do not branch or form a network bulb run parallel to one another. Parallel venation are of two types: 2.1 UNICOSTATE or PINNATE: In this type there is a single main vein, from which lateral veins are developed. The lateral veins run parallel to one another without branching or forming a network. Eg Lama, Zingibar 2.2 MULTICOSTATE or PALMATE: In this type several veins arise at the base of the lamina and parallel to one another without branching. Multicostate parallel venation may be of following two types: 2.2.1 Diverged: When the prominent veins diverge from one another from the base of the lamina and proceed towards the margin, being more or less parallel to one another > It is called multicostate parallel and divergent type of venation. E.g. Bariossus 2.2.2 Converged: In this type, the main veins after rising from the base of the lamina run parallel to one another, so they finally meet towards the apex of the leaf. E.g. : oryza Functions of veins: 1) The veins are the channels through which water and mineral nutrients are brought to the lamina and food substances are translocated to other organs 2) They provide medional strength of the lamina and save the lamina from tearing, when subjected to force of the wind. 3) They keep lamina flat so that it can receive uniform light. PHYLLOTAXY: The mode of arrangement of leaves on the stem or a branch is known as phyllotaxy (phyla- leaves; Taxis;


arrangement). By means of various types of arrangement, the leaves avid shading over one another and get themselves better exposed to sunlight, so that they can carry out the function of synthesis of food. Mainly there are two types of Phyllotaxy. They are spiral and cyclic 1.0 Spiral Phyllotaxy: When one leaf is developed at each node, having alternate arrangement, it is called spiral phyllotaxy as in case of cyndons . In such arrangement when a imaginary line is drawn passing through the base of successive leaves in order of this development, it forms a viral around the stem. This imaginary spiral line is known as genetic spiral. When the genetic spiral makes one complete turn it subtends an angle of 360 deg at the centre. The angle which is formed between two successive leaves is called the angle of divergence. The number of vertical rows of leaves is known as orthostichy (ortho: Straight, stichos:line). Spiral phyllotaxy may be of following types: 1.1 DISTICHOUS or PHYLLOTAXY: In this type of Phyllotaxy, the third leaf always remain over the first leaf as in Cyndon( or DUBA), Zingiber(Ginger or ADA) etc. If the Phyllotaxy in cynodon be examined selecting any leaf as the first leaf. It will be seen that the third leaf remains first above it. Similarly the fourth one remains above the second one. So the leaves remain in two vertical rows or in another words there are two ortho stichies. If an imaginary line is drawn it will reach the third leaf. For this reason the phyllotaxy is expressed as . The numerator indicating the number of complete turns and denominator indicating the number of orthostichies. The angular divergence of the leaves will be of 360 deg ie 180 deg. 1.2 TRISTICHOOUS or PHYLLOTAXY : In this case the fourth leaf remains vertically aboe the first leaf, so that the getic spiral makes one complete turn and the number of orthorichies is three. The angular divergence will be 360X1/2= 180. Tristichous phyllotaxy is seen in case of Cyperus. 1.3 PENTASTICHOUS: or PHYLLOTAXY : In this case the leaf remains vertically above the first one, so that the genetic spiral makes two complete turns between the first and the sixth leaf and the number of orthostchies is five. The angular divergence will be 360 x = 144 Deg. Petastichuous phyllotaxy is seen in case of Hibiscus, Ficus religiosa etc. 1.4 POLYSTICHOUS: When the number of orthostichies exceeds five, the phylloxotaxy is called polystichous. They may be like 3/8,5/13 etc. It may be interesting to note that the fraction may be obtained by adding the respective numerators and denominators of the two

proceeding ones.Example of 3/8 phyllotaxy in trvita and 5/13 in plumeria. 2.0 CYCLIC PHYLLOTAXY: When two or more leaves are borne on the same node, the arrangement is known as cyclic Phyllotaxy. The cyclic Phyllotaxy is of two types 1) opposite and 2) Whorled. 2.1 OPPOSITE PHYLLOTAXY: When two leaves are developed at the node, the leaves are said to be opposite. Each of the successive pairs of opposite leaves amy be arranged either vertically or at right angle to it preceding ones. If one pair of opposite leaves above the next pair of leaves, the arrangement is known as opposite superposed as in Quuesqualis Euginea etc. When one pair of leaves is developed at the right angle to the next pair of leaves, the arrangement is known as opposite decressate. In this acse the leaves are arranged in four vertical rows. Eg: Colotropos, Newtha. 2.2 WHORLED: When more than two leaves are developed at each node forming a circle of whorl, the arrangement is said to be whorled of verticallate phyllotaxy. Ex Nerium, Alstovia 3.0 LEAF MOSALE: In case of aclypha , the leaves are arranged in a special design known as leaf mosaic. In order to get proportionate amount of sunlight, the spirally some leaves adjust with each other with minimum amount of overlapping when viewed from the top they appear to be whorled. SIMPLE and COMPOUND LEAF: Leaves may be simple or compound. A simple leaf is ingle, entire or lobed lamina or blade. When the lamina becomes lobed due to incision the lobes remain attached to one another by the position of lamina. In case of compound leaf the lamina is divided into separate segment, each of which gives an appearance of a small leaf, called the leaflet. Incisions of the lamina: The typical simple leaf, the lamina is not lobed or incised. E.g. Mangefera, Ficus etc. When the margins of the simple leaf are cut into the number of connected lobes or segments, It is known as the incision of leaf. Incision of leaf is of two types. 1.0 PINNATE Incisions: When midrib leaf is incised, it is called pinnate incisin. They are of three types. 1.1 PINNATIFIED: When the incisions are less than halfway towards the midrib ,the leaf is said to be Pinnatified. 1.2 PINNATIPARITE: when the incisions are more than halfway towards the midrib, the leaf is said to be Pinntraparite as in Argemone 1.3 PINNATISECT: When the incisions almost reach the mid rib, but the segments still remain attached to

one another by a narrow strip of lamina, the leaf is said to be Pinnatissect as in togelis PINNATELY COMPOUND LEAF: When the incisions reach the midrib and the lamina is cut into a number of separate segments, the leaf becomes a pinnate compound leaf. Eg Rosa. 2.0 PALMATE INCISIONS: When a mestle costate in incised into number of lobes, It is known as Palmate incision. Palmate incisions are of three types. They are i) PALMATIFIED ii) PALMATIPARTITE iii) PALMATISECT. 2.1 PALMATIFIED: When the incisions pures less than half way towards the base of the lamina, It is said to be Palmatified as in Tatropha. 2.2 PALMATIPARTITE: When the incisions proceed more than half way towards the base of the lamina, the leaf is said to be Palmatipartite as in Ricinus. 2.3 PALMATISECT: When the incisions almost reach the base of the lamina, the leaf is said to be Palmatisect as in Momordica. PALMATELY COMPOUND LEAF: If the incisions reach the base of the lamina, completely separating the lobes, the leaf is said to be Palmately compound, as in BOMISAX Compound leaves: It is already noted that the compound leaves are of two types. 1.0 Pinnately compound 2.0 Palmately compound 1.1 PINNATELY COMPOUND LEAF: The petiole of compound leaf is described as RRACHIS. When the leaflets are borne on two sides of the rachis like the pinnae of a feather, the leaf is said to be Pinnately compound leaf. Mostly the leaflets are developed in pairs. Pinnately compound leaves are of the following types. 1.1.1 UNIPINNATE : When the leaflets are borne directly on the rachis , the compound leaf is called unipinnate compound leaf. In some case s the leaflets are of even numbers since all of them are developed in parts. Such a unipinnate compound leaf is called paripinnate as in tamrindus. In some other cases the leaflets are in odd numbers, since the lower leaflets are arranged in pairs but the terminal leaflet remains singly. Such a condition is described as imprtpinnate as in Azadirata ,Rola Etc 1.1.2 BIPINNATE: When the main rachis given rise to secondary axes and the leaflets are borne in them, the leaf becomes twice Pinnate and is described as bipinnate compound leaf.



In this case the main rachis branches twice to give rise to secondary and tertiary axes and the leaflets arekon teiry axes. Then in this case the leaf is Twice Pinnate. eg Moringa 1.1.4 DECOMPOUND LEAF: When the leaf is more than twice pinnate, it is called decompounds leaf. As in Coriadrum
1.2 PALMATELY COMPOUND LEAF: In a palmately compound

leaf the leaflets are developed from a common plant i.e. from the tip of rachis and are radiated in different direction like the fingers of the Palm. 1.2.1 UNIFOLIATE: When the single leaflet is articulated at the tip of the rachis, it is known as unifoliate palmate compound as in Citurs. 1.2.2 BIFOLIATE: When two leaflets are articulated at the point of Rachis, the leaf is said to be Bifoliate palmate compound as in Balaniles. 1.2.3 TRIFOLIATE:leafshape is characterized by a leaf divided into three leaflets. .

FOOD FOR ALL Leaves are an important and nutritious food for many animals. We use many different leaves in cooking and salads. Every time we eat leafy vegetables such as lettuce or spinach, we are taking in food the plant has made using the Suns energy. Plants need sunlight. Houseplants lean toward the Sun, and if they do not get enough light they wither and die. Plants use sunlight to make their food. This process is called photosynthesis. Photosynthesis is a scientific word made up from Greek words. These words mean putting things together using light. Inside plants leaves, light causes air and water to combine to make new chemicals. These chemicals are food for the plants. FOOD FACTORIES

In most plants, photosynthesis takes place mainly in the leaves. Like other living things, plants are made up of tiny cells. The cells in a plants leaves contain even smaller, disc-shaped parts called chloroplasts. Chloroplasts are the food factories where photosynthesis happens. A leaf the size of your little fingernail contains more than 10 million of them. Chloroplasts contain a chemical called chlorophyll, which is bright green. Chlorophyll gives plants their green color and makes photosynthesis work. THREE INGREDIENTS For photosynthesis to work, the chloroplasts need to collect three ingredients: sunlight, air, and water. Sunlight shines on the leaf, and the green chlorophyll inside the chloroplasts soaks it up. Air enters the leaf through tiny holes in the leafs surface, called stomata. Water is sucked from the ground by the plants roots. It travels through tubes in the stem or trunk to the leaves. When all three ingredients are present inside the chloroplasts, a chemical reaction takes place. The reaction takes place between a gas in air called carbon dioxide and hydrogen, a part of water. Sunlight causes these two to combine and make new chemicals called carbohydrates. Carbohydrates are plant food. Plants use these chemicals to live and grow. THE KEY TO LIFE Photosynthesis is not just important for plantsit is the key to life for all of us. Plants use photosynthesis to make food. We eat the leaves, roots, fruits, and seeds of plants. Spinach and lettuce are leaves. Potatoes and carrots are roots. Tomatoes and apples are fruits. Nuts are seeds. If you eat beef, lamb, or other meat, you still depend on plants. Meat comes from cows, sheep, and other animals that feed on plants. In this way, energy from the Sun is passed on through all the different living things on Earth. If it were not for photosynthesis, plants would not grow. There would be nothing for animals to eat, so they would not exist either. BREATHABLE AIR Photosynthesis also produces a gas, oxygen. Plants release oxygen into the air. Humans and other animals need oxygen to live. We breathe in the oxygen produced by plants during photosynthesis.



IS IT BETTER TO BE DIFFERENT? Most leaves have broad, flat blades so that they expose as much surface as possible to the Sun. But leaf shape and size can vary depending on the climate in which the plant grows. Different leaf shapes help the plant adapt to a particular environment. Pine trees, for example, have needle-like leaves. These narrow leaves expose only a small surface area to dry winds that blow in cold, northern areas where most pine trees grow. Pine trees lose little moisture as a result. It rarely rains in deserts. Many desert plants have thick, fleshy leaves that can store water. In tropical rain forests, however, there is no need to store water. The air is humid, and it rains almost every day. The leaves of rain forest plants often have pointed tips that let water easily slide off.