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A hard disk drive (HDD; also hard drive or hard disk)

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is a non-volatile, random accessdigital magnetic data storage device.
It Ieatures rotating rigid platters on a motor-driven spindlewithin a protective enclosure. Data is magnetically read Irom and
written to the platter byread/write heads that Iloat on a Iilm oI air above the platters. Introduced by IBM in 1956, hard disk drives
have decreased in cost and physical size over the years while dramatically increasing in capacity.
Hard disk drives have been the dominant device Ior secondary storage oI data in general purpose computers since the early
1960s.
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They have maintained this position because advances in their recording density have kept pace with the requirements Ior
secondary storage.
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Today's HDDs operate on high-speed serial interIaces; i.e., serial ATA (SATA) or serial attached
SCSI(SAS).
Driven by areal density doubling every two to Iour years since their invention, HDDs have changed in many ways. A Iew
highlights include:
Capacity per HDD increasing Irom 3.75 megabytes to greater than 1 terabyte, a greater than 270-thousand-to-1
improvement.
Size oI HDD decreasing Irom 87.9 cubic Ieet (a double wide reIrigerator) to 0.002 cubic Ieet (2-inch Iorm Iactor, a pack oI
cards), a greater than 44-thousand-to-1 improvement.
!rice decreasing Irom about $15,000 per megabyte to less than $0.0001 per megabyte ($100/1 terabyte), a greater than 150-
million-to-1 improvement.
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Average access time decreasing Irom greater than 0.1 second to a Iew thousandths oI a second, a greater than 40-to-1
improvement.
Market application expanding Irom general purpose computers to most computing applications including consumer
applications.
A 1455 disk is a disk storage medium composed oI a disk oI thin and Ilexible magnetic storagemedium, sealed in a
rectangular plastic carrier lined with Iabric that removes dust particles. They are read and written by a 1455 disk
drive (FDD).
Floppy disks, initially as 8-inch (200 mm) media and later in 5.25-inch (133 mm) and 3.5-inch (89 mm) sizes, were a
ubiquitous Iorm oI data storage and exchange Irom the mid-1970s well into the Iirst decade oI the 21st century.
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By 2010, computer motherboards were rarely manuIactured with Iloppy drive support; 3
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2
" Iloppies could be used
with an external USB drive, but 5
1

4
", 8", and non-standard drives could only be handled by old equipment.
hile Iloppy disk drives still have some limited uses, especially with legacy industrial computer equipment, they have
been superseded by data storage methods with much greater capacity, such as USB Ilash drives, portable external hard
disk drives, optical discs, memory cards, andcomputer networks.

Internal parts oI a 3
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2
-inch Iloppy disk. 1) A hole that indicates a high-capacity disk. 2) The hub that engages with the
drive motor. 3) A shutter that protects the surIace when removed Irom the drive. 4) The plastic housing. 5) A polyester
sheet reducing Iriction against the disk media as it rotates within the housing. 6) The magnetic coated plastic disk. 7) A
schematic representation oI one sector oI data on the disk; the tracks and sectors are not visible on actual disks.



Hist4rica sequence 41 1455 disk 14rmats
Disk 14rmat
Year
intr4duced
F4rmatted St4rage ca5acit Marketed ca5acit
8-inch: IBM 23FD (read-only) 1971 79.7 kB
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?
8-inch: Memorex 650 1972 179 kB
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1.5 megabit
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|unIormatted|
8-inch: SSSD
IBM 33FD / Shugart 901
1973 237.25 kB
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3.1 Mbits unIormatted
8-inch: DSSD
IBM 43FD / Shugart 850
1976 500.5 kB
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6.2 Mbits unIormatted
5
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4
-inch (35 track) Shugart SA
400
1976
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87.5 kB
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110 kB
8-inch DSDD
IBM 53FD / Shugart 850
1977
980 kB (C!/M) - 1200 kB (MS-DOS
FAT)
1.2 MB
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4
-inch DD 1978 360 or 800 kB 360 kB
5
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4
-inch Apple Disk II (!re-
DOS 3.3)
1978
113.75 kB (256 byte sectors, 13
sectors/track, 35 tracks)
113 kB
5
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4
-inch Apple Disk II (DOS
3.3)
1980
140 kB (256 byte sectors, 16
sectors/track, 35 tracks)
140 kB
3
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2
-inch H! single sided 1982 2561670 280 kB 264 kB
3-inch 1982
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360 kB
|citation needed|

125 kB (SS/SD),
500 kB (DS/DD)
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3
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2
-inch (DD at release) 1983
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720 kB (400 SS, 800 DS on Macintosh,
880 DS on Amiga)
1 MB
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4
-inch QD

720 kB 720 kB
5
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4
-inch HD 1982
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1155 kB 1.2 MB
3-inch DD 1984
|citation needed|
720 kB
|citation needed|
?
3-inch Mitsumi Quick Disk 1985 128 to 256 kB ?
2-inch 1989 720 kB
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?
2
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2
-inch 1986
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? ?
5
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4
-inch !erpendicular 1986
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10 MB ?
3
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2
-inch HD 1987 1440 kB 1.44 MB (2.0 MB unIormatted)
3
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2
-inch ED 1987
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2880 kB 2.88 MB
3
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2
-inch Floptical (LS) 1991 21000 kB 21 MB
3
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2
-inch LS-120 1996 120.375 MB 120 MB
3
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2
-inch LS-240 1997 240.75 MB 240 MB
3
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2
-inch HiFD 1998/99 150/200 MB
|citation needed|
150/200 MB
Abbreviations: SD Single Density; DD Double Density; QD Quad Density; HD High Density; ED Extended
Density;LS Laser Servo; HiFD High capacity Floppy Disk; SS Single Sided; DS Double Sided
Formatted Storage Capacity is total size oI all sectors on the disk:
For 8-inch see Table oI 8-inch Iloppy Iormats IBM 8-inch Iormats. Spare, hidden and otherwise reserved sectors are
included in this number.
For 5
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4
- and 3
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2
-inch capacities quoted are Irom subsystem or system vendor statements.
Marketed Capacity is the capacity, typically unIormatted, by the original media OEM vendor or in the case oI IBM media, the
Iirst OEM thereaIter. Other Iormats may get more or less capacity Irom the same drives and disks.

4m5uter data st4rage, oIten called st4rage or mem4r, reIers to computer components andrecording media that retain
digital data. Data storage is one oI the core Iunctions and Iundamental components oI computers.
In contemporary usage, 2e2ory usually reIers to semiconductor storage random-access memory, typically DRAM (Dynamic-
RAM). Me2ory can reIer to other Iorms oI Iast but temporary storage. Storage reIers to storage devices and their media not
directly accessible by the C!U, (secondaryor tertiary storage) typically hard disk drives, optical disc drives, and other devices
slower than RAM but more permanent.
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Historically, 2e2ory has been called 2ain 2e2ory, real storage orinternal
2e2ory while storage devices have been reIerred to as secondary storage, external 2e2ory or auxiliary/peripheral storage.
Other storage devices include:
O DVD Drive - DVD stands Ior Digital Video Disk. Most DVD drives use the ATA!I interIace. They are available as
internal or external devices. They can operate at up to 16X speeds but 8X is more common. They are primarily used Ior
video storage but they can be used to hold audio and computer data. DVD is categorized into DVD-Video and DVD-
ROM devices. The DVD-ROM device is Ior computer data storage.
O ip drives - A removable cartridge storage device that may be used to store compressed data as a data back up method.
A zip drive has between a 100Mb to 2G storage capacity. Cost is usually between $45 and $350. Some zip drives can
also be used to read standard 3.5 inch Iloppy diskettes.
O Tape drive backup kits - Their capacity 3G to 40G. The cost range is Irom $200 to $1000.
There are Iive recordable versions oI DVD-ROM. They can all can read DVD-ROM and DVD-Video discs, but diIIerent type oI
disc is used by each one Ior recording.
1. DVD-R/authoring - Can record data once.
2. DVD-R/general, - Can record data once. The capacity is 3.95 Gb or 4.7 Gb.
3. DVD-RAM - It is not compatible with current drives. It has a storage capacity oI 2.58 Gb It can be rewritten about
100,000 times The discs are expected to hold data Ior 30 years or more.
4. DVD-R - The capacity is 4.7 Gb. It can be rewritten about 1,000 times.
5. DVDR - It will become available in early 2001.
The storage capacity oI most CD-ROMs is about 650Mb oI data. Originally CD-ROMS were read only devices, but now
read/write technology has been developed.
nter1ace
Many CD-ROMs are interIace to the computer using the ATA!I interIace. This is ATA !acket InterIace which is a IDE interIace.
This is designed Ior extra drives like CD-ROM's and tape drives that connect to an ATA connector. The ATA!I interIace is the
standard interIace Ior IDE controlled CD-ROMS. II your CD-ROM uses an a ATA!I interIace, it should be supported by all
available soItware. II you are using a SCSI controller, you should probably use a SCSI CD-ROM. There are two primary types oI
CD-ROMs today.
1. Read only
2. Read and rite CD-ROM
These are primarily available as an internally mounted drive, but can also be purchased as an external device. There are some
CD-ROM drives that interIace through the parallel printer port.

%5es 41 st4rage devices
F455 Drive - The smallest and most portable oI all the storage devices usually holds about 1.44 MB oI storage. Use a Iloppy
disk media.


Su5er Drive
The LS120 or SuperDisk is a drive which supports a special Iloppy diskette which can store up to 120MB 4r 240MB oI
inIormation as well as being backwards compatible and still supporting the standard Iloppy diskettes.

Zi5 Drive
New generation similar to the Iloppy disk drive created by Iomega The Iomega ip Drive was Iirst released 1994 and today is
becoming a popular solution Ior !C and Macintosh computers as a removable solution. ip Drives Disks come in100MB,
250MB and 750MB

D Burner An optical storage device that holds data anywhere Irom 650MB t4 700MB (74-80 minutes)
Dvd Burner - A newer optical storage device that holds data anywhere Irom4.70-17.08GB
DVD Capacity
DVD-5 4.7GB (2 h4urs)
DVD-9 8.54GB (4 h4urs)
DVD-10 9.4GB (4.5 h4urs)
DVD-18 17.08GB (8 h4urs)

Newest DVD Iormat
Bu-Ra DVD 25-50GB
HD-DVD 15-30GB
Hard Drive - A hard drive is usually built inside your computer and holds anywhere Irom 1GB t4 4%B oI capacity. There are
three types oI internal hard drives are !ATA, SATA and SCSI. External hard drives comes in USB, Firewire, SATA and SCSI.

Fash Drive - A compact and portable device use Ior storing data anywhere Irom 128MB up to 4GB.


%a5e Drives

Tape drives allow large companies as well as end users to backup large amounts oI data. Tape drives are capable oI backing up a
couple hundred megabytes to several gigabytes oI inIormation without having to spend large sums oI money on disks.

%a5e Drive Standards

8mm %a5e Drive - ManuIactured and available through Exabyte 8mm tapes are similar to what are used in camcorder. 8mm
tapes are a Iaster solution then the DAT and transIer up to 6M/Sec. hile the tapes are similar to camcorder tapes it is
recommended that to backup inIormation you use 8mm tapes designed Ior your drive.

DA% (Digita Audi4 %a5e) - Digital Audio Tape is primarily developed and marketed by Hewlett-!ackard. DAT drives use two
types oI data Iormats DDS (Digital Data Storage) and DataDAT. DDS Drives are available in three types DDS-1/2/3. (36-72GB)

DL% (Digita Linear %a5e) - DLT drives are a robust and durable medium. The DLT segments the tape into parallel horizontal
tracks and records data by streaming the tape across a single stationary head. Released in 1991 DLT drives are very reliable,
high-speed, and high-capacity making the DLT drives an excellent use Ior Network backups. (330-600GB)
A% - Advance nteigent %a5es (100-260GB)
%ravan- (8GB-20GB)
L%-Linear %a5e 5en (200-400GB)
Advance St4rage