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Task / Description Slow Ave Fast Units

Thermalite Blockwork, under 100mm thick 1.8 2.5 3.2 m2/h
Thermalite Blockwork, under 100-150mm thick 1.4 1.9 2.5 m2/h
Thermalite Blockwork, over 150mm thick 1.2 1.6 2.1 m2/h
Lightweight Concrete Blockwork, under 100mm thick 1.5 2.2 2.9 m2/h
Lightweight Concrete Blockwork, under 100-150mm thick 1.4 1.9 2.1 m2/h
Lightweight Concrete Blockwork, over 150mm thick 1.2 1.6 2.0 m2/h
Heavyweight Concrete Blockwork, under 100mm thick 1.4 2.1 2.9 m2/h
Heavyweight Concrete Blockwork, under 100-150mm thick 1.2 1.6 2.1 m2/h
Heavyweight Concrete Blockwork, over 150mm thick 1.1 1.4 1.8 m2/h
Face Finish, Raked Out - 71.4 - m2/h
Face Finish, Bag Rubbed - 29.4 - m2/h
Face Finish, Flush Pointing - 17.6 - m2/h
Earned Value Management
Posted Wed, 2009-02-04 10:26 by Technical Develop...
Earned Value Management (EVM) is a project control process based on a structured approach
to planning, cost collection and perIormance measurement. It Iacilitates the integration oI project
scope, time and cost objectives and the establishment oI a baseline plan Ior perIormance
Earned Value Analysis (EVA) is a proactive way oI managing and controlling projects and is
used extensively in a range oI industries and is increasingly being used as a project management
tool in construction. In principle EVA compares the amount oI work planned and its budget
against the amount oI work actually carried out, its budget and its actual cost. The measurement
oI this can be used to show the current status oI a project in terms oI cost and time measured
against the baseline plan and also to Iorecast the outturn positions.
Preparation Ior using EVA should commence at the outset oI a project. Initially a Work
Breakdown Structure must be developed breaking down the work into appropriate elements
reIlecting the way the project is to be managed. Typically this will be in trade packages. The
work elements are then developed, quantiIied and priced and resources allocated to activities on
the programme schedule. This schedule Iorms the baseline Ior monitoring and control oI the
project using EVA.
During the implementation oI the project, progress percentages are assessed at regular intervals
Ior each activity along with resource utilisation taken Irom allocation sheets and cost data taken
Irom cost reports. Comparing the actual inIormation collected in this manner against the baseline
plan will allow the Iollowing indices to be calculated:
O Earned Value (EV) Complete x Budget Ior each activity
O $chedule Performance Index ($PI) Earned Value / Planned Value
O ost Performance Index (PI) Earned Value / Actual Cost
O $chedule Variance ($V) Earned Value Planned Value
O ost Variance (V) Earned Value Actual Cost
EVA highlights trends and allows outturns to be predicted and has been shown to be a very
accurate project management tool. Much oI the reason Ior this is that it imposes good project
management disciplines. In the development phase it requires detailed pre-planning and the
preparation oI a resourced programme linked to the price or budget Ior the project. Subsequently
during the implementation phase, it requires the collection oI as-built records and the analysis oI
actual perIormance against the plan.
Practical diIIiculties, such as a potential reluctance by trade contractors to provide required
inIormation, must be anticipated and pre-empted. Tender documentation should be draIted to
include a stipulation that detailed cost and resource inIormation must be provided and in this way
EVA can be used to manage trade packages as well as the project as a whole.
Below is an example that will elaborate a simplistic explanation of EVM principle and
application, it uses the PMBOK-4th edition acronyms.

Tricia is the Planner in charge oI 20 miles oI sidewalk project.
According to your plan, the cost oI construction will be $15, 000 per miles and will take 8 weeks
to complete.

2 weeks into the project, you have spent $55, 000 and completed 4 miles oI sidewalk, and you
want to report perIormance and determine how much time and cost remain.


BAC |How much we originally expected this project to cost|-BUDGET
|20 miles oI sidewalk| x |$15,000 per mile|
$300, 000.00

PV |How much work was planned Ior this point in time|
Planned complete x BAC
|2 weeks completed on an 8 weeks schedule| x BAC
2/8 x 300,000
$75, 000.00

EV |How much has been earned on the project|
Actual complete x BAC
|4 miles oI sidewalk has been completed as against 20 miles| x BAC
4/20 x 300, 000

AC |The amount oI cost you have incurred so Iar on the project|

fter establishing these parameters, you can now calculate the following;

1. CV EV AC (CV Cost Variance)
60,000 55, 000

2. SV EV PV (SV Schedule Variance)
60,000- 75,000

3. CPI EV/AC (CPI Cost PerIormance Index 1 ~ We are doing good on cost 1; we are

4. SPI EV/PV (SPI Schedule PerIormance Index; ~1; we are on schedule, 1; we are
behind schedule)

$275,229.36 ETC EAC AC
275,229.36 55, 000

275,229.36 55, 000

300000 275,229.36

8. This is the latest inclusion that has always been overlooked; TCPI To omplete
Performance Index; it means in order to stay within budget, what rate must we meet Ior the
remaining oI the work ("this project crystal ball")

300,000 - 60, 000 / 300,000 - 55, 000
240,000/245,000 0.98 ~98 (so we must be maintaining 98 oI the activity progression
with EV, AC and PV so to complete the project on time and within budget)

Apply it you will always see the beneIits, this a core Iundamental truth that everyone in the
Planning Iield should try to understand.

II you want to learn more, buy the PMI book on EV, it was written by the Primavera guys Mr
Quentin and Mr Koppell
Earned Value nalysis
Posted Tue, 2009-02-03 03:26 by Technical Develop...
A technique that compares the budgeted project costs, actual project costs and value oI the work
achieved to determine, inter alia, the status oI the project, the likely completion oI the project and
the out-turn cost oI the project.
OIten also reIered to as Earned Value Managment (EVM)
Planning Terms
Posted Thu, 2009-01-29 07:36 by Technical Develop...
Planning Terms
Activity Duration
Activity ID
Arrow Diagram Method
Bar Chart
Baseline Schedule
Cost Engineering
Critical Activity
Critical Path
Critical Path DRAG
Critical Path Method
Current Schedule
Cycle Time
Data Date
Earliest Finish Date
Earliest Start Date
Earned Value Analysis
Free Float
Gantt Chart
Integrated Master Schedule
Integrated Project Delivery (IPD)
Key PerIormance Indicator
Latest Finish Date
Latest Start Date
Linear Planning
Master Programme
Planning Planet
Precedence Diagram Method
Progress Override
Progress Report
Project Controls
Retained Logic
Road Map
Schedule PerIormance Index
Schedule Update
Schedule Variance
O Start-to-Finish
Time Impact Analysis
Time Now
Total Float
Turnaround Document
What-II Analysis
Windows Analysis
Work Breakdown Structure
Work Package

Posted Tue, 2009-02-03 02:21 by Technical Develop...
An activity is an element oI a programme, schedule or network that describes an element
oI scope.
The length oI time that the activity is expected to take is called Activity Duration. An
element oI scope in a project that consumes time and uses resources (eg. people,
materials and equipment).
An activity is the smallest unit oI work on a Programme, but depending upon the
hierarchy or level oI detail oI the programme, may be divisible into smaller or more
detailed activities.
Also reIerred to as Task. All activities are deIined by a unique Activity ID.

ctivity Duration
Posted Tue, 2009-02-03 03:22 by Technical Develop...
The time period calculated or estimated to carry out an activity.
Each activity is uniquely identiIied by an Activity ID

ctivity ID
Posted Thu, 2009-01-29 07:44 by Technical Develop...
A unique code, usually alpha-numeric, that identiIies each activity in a project
programme or schedule.

rrow Diagram Method
Posted Tue, 2009-02-03 04:00 by Technical Develop...
A network diagramming technique in which activities are represented by arrows.
The tail oI the arrow represents the start and the head represents the Iinish oI the activity (the
length oI the arrow does not represent the expected duration oI the activity).
Activities are connected at points called nodes (usually drawn as small circles) to illustrate the
sequence in which the activities are expected to be perIormed.
See also Precedence Diagram Method.

Posted Mon, 2010-01-11 22:15 by Adrian Groves
Budgeted ost of ork $cheduled (B$) is used in Earned Value nalysis
For a Iuller understanding, this Wiki entry should be read in conjunction
with P and BP.

BCWS is the cumulative budget cost oI doing work as deIined in the Base programme.
The total budget value oI the activities are added up Ior each period and plotted cumulatively to
give a proIile on a graph.
Posted Mon, 2010-01-11 22:19 by Adrian Groves
ctual ost of ork Performed (P) is used in Earned Value nalysis
For a Iuller understanding, this Wiki entry should be read in conjunction
with B$ and BP.

ACWP is the Actual cumulative cost oI doing work, and is usually compared to the cost planned
in the Base programme (BCWS).
The total value oI the activities are added up Ior each period and plotted cumulatively to give a
proIile on a graph.
Posted Mon, 2010-01-11 22:24 by Adrian Groves
Budgeted ost of ork Performed (BP) is used in Earned Value nalysis
For a Iuller understanding, this Wiki entry should be read in conjunction
with P and B$.

BCWP is the cumulative value oI the activities complete (or partially complete). It is not the
cost oI the work done, but the value oI the budget on the corresponding activies in the baseline.
The total value oI the activities are added up Ior each period and plotted cumulatively to give a
proIile on a graph.
Posted Tue, 2009-02-03 03:23 by Technical Develop...
A line on a bar chart that represents the timing and duration oI an activity.
Bar hart
Posted Tue, 2009-02-03 03:24 by Technical Develop...
A graphical chart on which activities are represented as bars drawn against a common time scale.
Typically a date scale is drawn across the top oI the page and a list oI activities down the leIt
hand side oI the page. Activity timing and durations are represented by horizontal bars.
Additional inIormation, such as resources, costs and dependencies are also oIten shown on this
Baseline $chedule
Posted Tue, 2009-02-10 13:31 by Technical Develop...
The client-approved schedule that reIlects the plan Ior implementing a project. This schedule
reIlects no status, and is sometimes reIerred to as the 'target schedule.
Posted Thu, 2009-02-05 13:38 by Technical Develop...
It can be deIined, generally, as a sum oI money that has been allocated Ior a particular prupose,
or event. A budget represents an approved estimate Ior either the entire project or Ior a particular
schedule activity or work structure breakdown component.
Budgets can be modiIied with proper approval at any point throughout the process.
Posted Tue, 2009-02-03 03:25 by Technical Develop...
A list oI the time intervals during which activities can be worked and / or resources used. Typical
data includes working days/non-working days, start and Iinish times Ior work-shiIts, weekends,
holiday periods and extra workdays. Each activity and/or resource will have a calendar attached
to it.
A project can contain many calendars, each with diIIerent working and non-working periods.
Where a resource may have more than one calendar ie Brickwork on the outside structure using
the wet weather calendar and inside using the dry work calendar then it may be possible to apply
the "use calendar as task" button in the resource modelling interIace.
Posted Thu, 2009-01-29 07:58 by Technical Develop...
Restrictions that aIIect the sequence or timing oI an activity. These include predecessor
dependencies but more oIten reIer to Imposed Dates.
An imposed date restriction on the start or Iinish oI an activity that overrides logic relationships.
Positioning an activity to start As Soon As Possible (ASAP) or As Late As Possible (ALAP) thus
overiding available Iloat.
ost Engineering
Posted Fri, 2011-03-18 15:40 by PP Admin
Cost Engineering is concerned with the application oI techniques encompassing cost estimating,
cost control, proIitability analysis, project management, relating to the planning and scheduling
oI projects. Cost Engineers are similar to those oI Quantity Surveyors.
ritical ctivity
Posted Tue, 2009-02-10 13:32 by Technical Develop...
Any activity on a critical path. A delay in a critical activity will delay the project.
ritical Path
Posted Tue, 2009-02-10 13:34 by Technical Develop...
The critical path is the sequence oI activities that determines the minimum possible duration oI
the project. When viewed in a network diagram, the critical path is the longest path to the end oI
the project.
II the network diagram contains only Finish to Start relationships, any delay to an activity on the
critical path will delay the completion date. II it contains other types oI relationships (SS, FF,
SF), this may not always be reIlected in project management soItware.
As an example, consider a network with 2 activities: activity A has a duration oI 10 days and is
predecessor with a Start to Start relationship to activity B, 20 days. Most PM soItware will
indicate that both activities are on the critical path, yet the soItware will allow A to be delayed up
to 10 days without delaying project completion.
In Iact, the above case is a misperception due to the soItware algorithm's shortcomings in
identiIying the critical path. Only the very start (or Iirst nanosecond) oI A is on the critical path,
as that is the only part oI A which is a predecessor oI B's start. The true situation is that A's start
is on the critical path -- iI the start oI A is delayed it will delay project completion. However, the
rest oI A, including its Iinish, is not on the critical path, and in Iact has ten days oI total Iloat -- it
may be delayed up to 10 days without prolonging the project.
However, almost all soItware algorithms are unable to make the distinction that an activity's start
and Iinish may have diIIerent amounts oI Iloat, and thereIore they show the entirety oI A as
being on the critical path.
ritical Path Rebuttal...
While the description oI the two activities show critical path in the soItware is technically true, it
is submitted that those activities are scheduled incorrectly in the Iirst place. That incorrect
scheduling is the true root cause oI the soItware "error".
The point oI the two activities showing a SS-0 relationship is because we are actually saying
those two activities can be worked in parallel. We could Iurther say that both oI them in parallel
would need to be done beIore a third activity.
To correct the schedule error, one would delete the SS-0 tie Irom the shorter, activity A, as a
predecessor to the longer activity B. You add a SS-0 tie Irom the activity B to the shorter
activity A. Then you make a FS-0 tie Irom each oI them to a new third activity C. When the
project is scheduled we now see those same two activities in parallel with the same dates as
beIore. However, the shorter activity A shows 10 days oI Total AND Free Float as what is
expected to be seen.
Just because a user CAN make the soItware show a scheduling error does not mean it is a valid
scheduling technique or methodology. The error is a scheduling error and it should be repaired
to show the proper relationship and Iloat values.
ritical Path DR
Posted Tue, 2010-06-15 02:34 by Stephen Devaux
Critical Path DRAG (Devaux's Removed Activity Gauge) is the amount oI time that an activity
on the critical path (i.e., the longest path through the project) is adding to the project`s duration
or, alternatively, the amount oI time by which the project completion would be pulled in by
reducing a critical path activity`s duration to zero.
Activities that are not on the critical path are said to have total Iloat or slack, i.e., the amount oI
time they can slip without making the project longer. Conversely, only critical path activities
and delays (such as lags or constraints have DRAG.
1. DRAG can be computed in the Iollowing manner:
2. II an activity has nothing in parallel, its DRAG is equal to its duration.
II an activity has other paths in parallel, its DRAG is whichever is less: its duration or the total
Iloat oI the parallel activity with the least total Iloat.
There are three commercially available soItware packages that compute DRAG:
O Spider Project.
O PlanontheNet.com
O Sumatra.com's Project Optimizer, which is an add-on to MicrosoIt Project.
DRAG has a corollary cost eIIect called DRAG Cost, which is the amount by which project
proIit is decreased due to an activity`s DRAG reducing the value oI the deliverable and/or
increasing project cost through indirect costs attached to level-oI-eIIort activities or overhead.