Você está na página 1de 46

[Typetext]

MASTER THESIS Spring 2010


Sustainable Water Management

Potable Water and Sustainable Water Infrastructures for Villages in Cameroon Case study: Kombone Mission

Writer

Tougwa Franklin Ngosong


Supervisor

Peter Dahlblom
Examiner

Peter berg

Hgskolan Kristianstad 291 88 Kristianstad Sverige

Kristianstad University SE-291 88 Kristianstad Sweden

Frfattare, program / Author, programme


TOUGWA Franklin NGOSONG,
Vterminen 2010, Magisterprogram i vattenvrd (60 hp) Spring 2010, Master in Sustainable Water Management (60 credits)

Handledare / Supervisor
Peter Dahlblom, PhD Engineering
Universitetslektor i vattenresurslra / Senior Lecturer in Water Resources Engineering Hgskolan Kristianstad / Kristianstad University

Examinator / Examiner
Peter berg, Civil Engineer
Universitetsadjunkt/ Lecturer Hgskolan Kristianstad / Kristianstad University

Titel / Title: Potable Water and Sustainable Water Infrastructures for Villages in Cameroon Case study: Kombone Mission
Sprk / Language Engelska / English Publikationsdatum / Date of Publication Februari 2011 / February 2011 Skord / Keywords Potable water, sustainable water infrastructures, villages, Kombone Mission, Cameroon. Approved by / Godknd av

______________________________ Examinator / Examiner

______________________ Date / Datum

Peter berg, Civil Engineer


Universitetsadjunkt / Lecturer Hgskolan Kristianstad / Kristianstad University

ABSTRACT
Most of the water crises in Cameroon are not only based on the unavailability of water but the inability to properly manage how the water is used. This is partly due to the fact that storm water commonly known as runoff is hardly seen as a resource but as a means to transport waste. The reuse of waste water can be part of an integrated water strategy. Water infrastructure in general and sanitation in particular are constantly faced with uncertain conditions. This is the case with most villages in Cameroon. The uncertain conditions have to be taken into consideration to determine a better sustainable future configuration for the water sector in Cameroon. There is thus the need for the establishment of more better planning and procedures to help identify and realize sustainable system concepts for our waters. Some villages are attempting to realize these concepts by the creation of their own village water projects commonly known as community water project. This thesis elaborates the water and water infrastructure problems faced in villages in Cameroon in general and Kombone Mission in particular. The thesis focuses on the Kombone Mission Water project that was established in 1992 by the villagers.

DEDICATION
This work is dedicated to the sons and daughters of Kombone Mission at home and abroad.

Water Scarcity: The Tragedy of the Commons


What is common to many is taken least care of, for all men have greater regard for What is their own than what they possess in common with others. Aristotle.

Problems cannot be solved at the same level of awareness that created them. (Albert Einstein)

ii

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
A job like this one can hardly be done without some support in one way or the other from others. I wish to extend my gratitude to my Supervisor, Peter Dahlblom (Water Resource Engineer and senior Lecturer) for the pains and patients he put in to guide me through the realization of the thesis. To Jean Lacoursiere (Associate professor in Sustainable Water Management) who has not only served as the programme director and a lecturer but also like a parent, I say thanks very much. My sincere gratitude goes to Dr. Alain Bernard Ndzougoue of the University of Douala-Cameroon whose constant advice has been so meaningful to me. My sincere gratitude to Mr.Awung Cornelius Nkwetta who provided me with the necessary pictures and some information from Cameroon. My thanks also go to Mr. Fobegoh Daniel and Mr. Nangeli John Sakwe, chairman and secretary general respectively of the Kombone Mission Water project committee who provided me with practical information on the water project. To all those who have assisted me in one way or the other throughout my studies in Kristianstad University whose names cannot be mention here, I say thank you.

iii

Contents
ABSTRACT..i DEDICATION.ii ACKNOWLEDGEMENT..iii 1. INTRODUCTION .............................................................................................................................. 1 1.1. Background .................................................................................................................................. 1 1.2. Objectives .................................................................................................................................... 3 2. KOMBONE MISSION WATER PROJECT ...................................................................................... 4 2.1. What is Potable Water.................................................................................................................. 4 2.2. Project presentation...................................................................................................................... 4 3. WHAT IS SUSTAINABLE WATER INFRASTRUCTURE ............................................................ 6 3.1. What is sustainable water infrastructure ...................................................................................... 6 3.2. Initiative and the four pillars of Sustainable Water Infrastructure............................................... 6 3.2.1. Best management practices................................................................................................... 7 3.2.2. Full cost pricing .................................................................................................................... 7 3.2.3. Efficient water use ................................................................................................................ 8 3.2.4. Watershed approaches........................................................................................................... 8 4. TECHNICAL PRACTICES AND INNOVATIONS ......................................................................... 9 4.1. Technical best practices ............................................................................................................... 9 4.2. Optimization. Helping the Kombone Mission water plants improve its product....................... 10 4.3 Dual systems to reduce water shortage in small communities.................................................... 11 4.4 Wastewater reuse ........................................................................................................................ 11 4.5 Advantages and disadvantages of wastewater reuse................................................................... 12 4.6. Water source protection ............................................................................................................. 13 5. SOME WATER INFRASTRUCTURES IN KOMBONE MISSION .............................................. 15 5.1 Infrastructure for drinking water supply and sanitation.............................................................. 16 5.2 Infrastructure for wastewater treatment ................................................................................ 17

5.3 Infrastructure for stormwater management................................................................................. 19 6. MANAGEMENT.............................................................................................................................. 21

6.1 Building a network to keep drinking water safe ......................................................................... 21 6.2 Retention of employees who keep water flowing ....................................................................... 22 6.3 Keeping informed during emergencies ....................................................................................... 23 6.4 Shortcomings of the Kombone Mission Water Project............................................................... 24 6.5 How to get the most out of a drinking water project................................................................. 25 7. REHABILITATION AND EXTENSION OF THE KOMBONE MISSION WATER PROJECT.. 27 7.1. Objectives .................................................................................................................................. 27 7.2. Roles and obligations of the beneficiary.................................................................................... 27 7.3. Personnel and duration of work ................................................................................................. 28 8. FINANCE ........................................................................................................................................ 29 8.1 Government action...................................................................................................................... 29 8.2 Municipalities and water authorities ........................................................................................... 29 8.3. Local capital market promotion ................................................................................................. 30 8.4 .Cost recovery for sustainability ................................................................................................. 30 8.5. Legal and regulatory environment ............................................................................................. 30 8.6. Increase in managerial capacity ................................................................................................. 30 8.7. Corruption and ethical practices ................................................................................................ 31 8.8. Private investment and operation............................................................................................... 31 8.9. Community initiatives and nongovernmental organization ....................................................... 31 9. CONLCUSION............................................................................................................................... 32 REFERENCES ..................................................................................................................................... 34 APPENDIX........................................................................................................................................... 36

1.INTRODUCTION
1.1.Background
Cameroon is facing many water resources challenges as there is an increasing need for investments into water supply, hydroelectricity, sanitation and irrigation. The water quality in most towns and villages in Cameroon is not the best and thus calls for environmental and social concern. Cameroon is enrich with water resources but these resources are not evenly distributed which thereby causes water scarcity in some parts of the country most especially during the dry season. Water resources shared among users in the country are under natural and man-made pressure. All these need a proper policy implementation for poverty alleviation, sustainable growth and for the acquisition of positive environmental benefits. There is no doubt that Cameroon has the task of tackling serious water legislation reform issues and strengthen institutional frameworks in order to meet up with goals one and seven of the United Nations Millennium development goals (MDGs) (United Nations ,2000), couple with the fact that water and energy are fundamental resources in human economy and natural ecosystems (Kirksey, 2009). Goal1. Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger. Proper management of Cameroons water resources will provide more food and jobs to Cameroonians. Goal7. Ensure Environmental Sustainability. With emphasis on target 7c, Reduce by half the proportion of people without sustainable access to safe drinking water and basic sanitation by 2015. However, it should be noted that, in an effort to meet up with the above mentioned MDGs, the needs of the broader water infrastructure sector, including irrigation, industrial and commercial water supply, flood control, hydropower and wastewater treatment should not be forgotten. It is commonly said Health is Wealth. Proper management of Cameroons water resources will provide the population safe drinking water and give them better sanitation thus making Cameroon a wealthy nation. Cameroon is blessed with a good number of natural water resources which if well managed, could really satisfy the populations water need.

Governments attention on the management of these water resources is focused mostly in the cities with lesser attention in the villages. These villagers will not fold their arms and die because they are waiting for the government to do something about the water resources which is right at their doorsteps. Some of the villages have taken upon themselves to create their own water project committee to manage their water resources. This is the case with Kombone Mission. In an effort to exploit the natural water resources (streams and springs) in Kombone Mission and better the living conditions of the people, the villagers initiated a project in 1992 baptized and called the Kombone Mission Water Project. This project aimed at supplying potable water to all parts of the village to satisfy their water needs. However, the population of this locality lacks the financial means, technical and managerial know-how to properly construct the required infrastructures and take care of these water resources to attain their objectives. Kombone Mission is located along the Kumba Mbonge highway, National road number 16 (RN16) according to the roads classification by the Ministry of Public Works in Cameroon. It is situated some 12km from Kumba, the meme divisional headquarters in the South west region of the Republic of Cameroon. Geographically, Kombone Mission is located at 4.606o north latitude and 9.3318o east longitude with an average elevation (or altitude) of 206m above sea level. (Falling Rain, 2010). According to the population head count census of November 2005 by the government of Cameroon, Kombone Mission has a population of 4121 inhabitants. With a population annual growth rate of about 2.6%, Kombone Mission is estimated to have a population of about 5.000 inhabitants as of today with women making up about 60% of the population. This population is made up of different tribes and nationals with a majority of the foreign nationals coming from neighboring Nigeria. The main activity of this population is farming. The men are mostly involved in cash crops farming like cocoa, coffee and palms while the women are mostly involve in food crops like cocoa yams, cassava, yams, plantains, bananas, just to mention a few to subsidize the nutritional need of their families. However, there are a good number of businessmen and businesswomen involved in different businesses. The village is economically active. It should be noted that Kombone Mission is among the highest villages producing cocoa in Meme Division. There are some social amenities like; a government nursery school, a government primary school, a catholic primary school and one lay private college. There is the construction of a health centre by the True church of God of prophecy which is expected to go operational soon. The construction of the 2

Information and Communication Technology center by the Ministry of Post and Telecommunications has gone to completion and now waiting for the installation of various machines and official inauguration to go functional. There are plans going on for the creation of a government technical college and a government health centre in the nearest future. Kombone Mission is headed by a traditional ruler, His Royal Highest Chief Modika Johannes who serves as an auxiliary to the administration. The affairs of the village is run by the traditional council headed by a chairman elected from among the members of the councilors which are representatives from all the different tribes and nationals present in the village.

1.2.Objectives
The objectives of this thesis can be outlined as follows; Elaborates on the drinking water and water infrastructure problems faced in Kombone Mission. Give quantitative and qualitative estimates for the rehabilitation and extension of the Kombone Mission Project. Give proposals on the social, technical, financial and managerial aspects which can be applied by the people of Kombone Mission, the government and donor agencies for the realization of a safe and sustainable drinking water and water infrastructure in Kombone Mission.

2.KOMBONEMISSIONWATERPROJECT
2.1.WhatisPotableWater
Potable water is water of sufficient high quality that can be used or consumed without the risk of causing any harm either immediately or after a long time. In simple terms, potable water is water that is safe to drink. It is free from impurities, pollution and harmful organisms. Some water may be naturally potable, e.g. pristine spring while some may be treated in order to be potable or safe.

2.2.Projectpresentation
The Kombone Mission Water Project was initiated and created in 1992 by the Kombone Mission village community. This project aimed at supplying potable water to the entire village which will help in the struggle of meeting up with the UN Millennium Development Goals of poverty alleviation and health improvement. The construction of two catchments, a reservoir of 3500 m3 and 30 stand taps was envisaged to serve the estimated 3000 inhabitants at that time (1992). This conclusion was arrived at after studies carried out by the Organization for Sustainable Rural Infrastructures (OSRI) in Kumba. Due to financial limitations, the catchments, the reservoir and just 13 out of the 30 stand taps envisaged were constructed. A total of about 1200m water distribution network of PVC pipes was put in place. This construction was done by the Community Development Department in Kumba under the supervision of OSRI. The excavation of the reservoir, trenches for piping system and other manual works was done by the villagers through community labor. The project was co-financed by Swiss Association for International Corporation (HELVETAS) and the inhabitants of Kombone Mission through their modest contributions. In an effort to see the smooth and successful realization of the project, the villagers elected group of some inhabitants in the village to pilot the affairs of the project. This group was known as the Kombone Mission Water Project Management Committee. This management committee is charged with the collection of funds from the villagers and proper management of these funds to enable this project see the light of day. It should be noted that apart of the 13 public stand taps (as in Figure 3b below) constructed out of the 30 envisaged, there exist some private taps in some homes. The 30 envisaged stand taps can be seen as indicated in the plan for piping network in Figure1 below. 4

FROM

KUMBA


New quarter up
Presbyterian Church

NEW RESERVOIR

Edugusresidence


CATCHMENT
1

CATCHMENT 2

Modern Comprehensive HighSchool C

WATER PUMP

Catholic Church EXISTING

Fortehs street
RESERVOIR

New quarter down


Catholic School

Anchas street


Government School ApostolicChurch

Informationand Communications TechnologyCentre

Nangelis street

FullGospel Church

Boa road

=PublicStandtap =Existingpipes =Newpipes


TO MBONGE

Fig1. PLAN FOR PIPING NETWORK IN KOMBONE MISSION BY TOUGWA Franklin NGOSONG NB: NOT TO SCALE

30 ENVISAGED STAND TAPS

3.WHATISSUSTAINABLEWATERINFRASTRUCTURE
3.1.Whatissustainablewaterinfrastructure
Sustainability in a wider sense can be seen as the proper management of resources to satisfy present needs without jeopardizing future needs. Sustainable water infrastructure can therefore be described as the management strategies put in place to properly construct and operate water systems in a more cost effective and efficient way to sustain the structure or services so that the structure can satisfy present needs and meet up with the needs of the future generation. It is important to preserve the existing infrastructure as according to Adhiambo and Akinyemi (2008), infrastructure preservation directly contributes to achievement of Target 10 of Millennium Development Goal (MDG) 7: halving by 2015, the proportion of people without sustainable access to safe drinking water and basic sanitation.

3.2.InitiativeandthefourpillarsofSustainableWaterInfrastructure
According to Valerie (2008) four main problems have to be solved in order for communities to obtain safe drinking water. 1. Most of the Cameroons wastewater and drinking water infrastructures are aging and thus call for rehabilitation and replacement, 2. The population of Kombone Mission in particular and Cameroon in general is increasing hence causing geographical shift, 3. There is lack of sufficient treatment and regulatory requirements to resolve emerging issues or problems, 4. Investment in research and development in the water sector in Cameroon is insufficient. Certain initiatives must be taken to enhance the proper functioning of municipal and community water, stormwater and wastewater systems in Cameroon. These initiatives will not only help to sustain services into the future by professionalizing the internal management, but will also help to raise some revenues. These initiatives can be taken through a four pillars approach; Best management practices,

full cost pricing, efficient water use, water shed approached.[ United States Environmental Protection Agency]

3.2.1.Bestmanagementpractices
A community demonstration project is a means to learn what practically works and what does not works. Since projects like this usually entails much finances which may certainly not be at the level of the village to handle, the community should seek for funding from the government, NGOs and other donor agencies. The community should show her commitment to the project by involving her own budget. In a project like this according to Valerie (2008) the following questions need to be answered; What technology in the water chain, in which combinations, and at what scale should be in the toolbox (performance, cost, benefits)? How should decisions be made (planning) that consider the broader water system and community needs, and that identify the best mix of decentralized and centralized technologies to utilize in a given community? What management, financing and regulatory structures need to develop locally to support this new infrastructure? How are community benefits achieve through stakeholders participation in revitalizing ecosystems and communities?

3.2.2.Fullcostpricing
Water is a free gift of nature. Because of this, some people believe that water is supposed to cost very little or nothing. Pricing to recover building, operating and maintaining costs of the system is essential to meet our essential structure needs and achieve sustainability. In order for the Kombone Mission Water Project to meet the essential structures and achieve sustainability, the committee should be able to price the inhabitants not to recover the building cost but just enough to allow the committee to provide services water treatment and delivery on a long-term. The committee should be able to ask for financial contribution from inhabitants to carry out maintenance work on the system whenever need arises.

3.2.3.Efficientwateruse
The use of less water means moving and treating less water. Proper use of water helps to reduce the demand of water supplies, drinking and wastewater infrastructures. Less water use will lead to reduction in energy as there will be less water treatment and delivery which are energy - intensive .(Valerie, 2008) Since firewood and/or butane gas is mostly used by the inhabitants of Kombone Mission, less water use will lead to more firewood and butane gas conservation since we use them to heat our water. Efficient water use can be promoted by encouraging water efficiency in our residences business places through WaterSense (Valerie, 2008). WaterSense is a new market enhancement program that labels water products and services that serve water without sacrificing performance. Companies, builders, manufacturers, distributors and everyone can become WaterSense partners to promote both water efficient product and the ethic of careful water use. This program should be expanded to include decentralized wastewater and stormwater reuse systems (Valerie, 2008).

3.2.4.Watershedapproaches
As defined in the Watershed Approach Framework (USEPA 1996a), The watershed approach is a coordinating framework for environmental management that focuses public and private sector efforts to address the highest priority problems within hydrological defined geographic areas, taking into consideration both ground water and surface water flow. This approach could be use to encourage adoption of watershed management principles and tools into utility planning and management practices, so that main decision makers can consider watershedbased, cost effective alternatives along with traditional technology investment choice. Some of the watershed management approaches are; source water protection, smart growth approaches to stormwater and wastewater management, centralized management of decentralized systems, water quality trading, sustainable watershed financing and watershed approaches to restoring impaired waters.

4.TECHNICALPRACTICESANDINNOVATIONS

The basic concept of todays infrastructure systems for water supply and wastewater treatment is to integrate technological, organizational, and institutional innovations into coherent alternative urban water systems with improved eco-efficiency (Heissl et al 2003). Since water infrastructure systems strongly affect the sustainability of water resources management, the possible situations are evaluated with respect to their sustainability. These systems has being extending continuously, mostly especially in urban areas to meet up with the need of the increasing population, public health and environmental concerns. These infrastructure systems are always design to have a long life-span, close the water and nutrients loop and meet the ecological aspect of sustainability at the lowest cost possible. All these need the application of high technological or engineering skills.

4.1.Technicalbestpractices
Several technical best practices and innovations have been developed to minimize water use. Technical best practices include leak detection and repair, water metering, pressure reduction, regulation through by-laws and the plumbing code, replacing old plumbing fixtures with new ones. Technical innovations are increasing water efficiency with efficient pipes and drains, low flow showerheads, low flush toilets, double piping systems for homes and office buildings, and process technologies that use less water and generate less waste in production. The reuse of grey water (wastewater that has not come into contact with human waste) to flush toilets and water lawn. This approach reduces both the demand for water and the amount of wastewater generated. Use of these technical best practices and innovations can greatly reduce the amount of water used, conserve water resources, and reduce the cost associated with the provision of water infrastructures. According to Trpanier et al (1998),Water recovery and wastewater reuse technologies, such as rain barrels and membrane technologies, are being improved, and there is ongoing research into the establishment of high-tech, automatic water meters. Leakage recovery is the best source of new water resources for systems facing water supply shortages. (Jakubowski, 2006)

4.2.Optimization.HelpingtheKomboneMissionwaterplantsimproveits product
Providing the best possible water quality to the community should be the goal of everyone who works with drinking water systems. They always have the financial constrain to meet up with this goal. Optimization is a process that identifies and addresses performance limitations at individual water treatment facilities in order to obtain improved performance (Barett, 2005). Using this methodology, many water treatment plants can meet regulations without spending more money. This is a valuable tool for small communities like Kombone Mission which has small, resource limited systems but still have the obligation to comply with normal regulations. This will help improve water quality and public health. One way to do this is by tracking cloudiness or turbidity (amount of particles in water) values in a systematic manner. This is important because excessive turbidity helps pathogens to hide and thus be resistant to disinfection. Turbidity is measured in Nephelometric Turbid Units (NTU) with a turbidimeter. Figure 2 shows a Nephelometric Turbid Units (NTU) with a turbidimeter.

The PONSEL turbidimeter allows you the possibility to measure the turbidity without a water sampler. You just have to put the sensor into the water to measure the turbidity. Range: 0 - 4000 NTU in 4 ranges
Meter/Datalogger: Field and laboratory instrument - IP67 watertight -100 000 data memory

Sensor: InfraRednephelometrictechnology(ISO7027compliance)

Figure 2.A portable turbidimeter. (Direct industry, 2010)

10

4.3Dualsystemstoreducewatershortageinsmallcommunities
A dual water system is two separate, underground, piped water systems that serve a parcel of land or lot (Satterfield, 2009). This system supply potable water through one distribution network and non-potable water through another. The two systems work independently of each other within the same service area. The potable water system conveys drinking water for domestic use while the non-potable system conveys water for landscape irrigation, toilet flushing, firefighting and other purposes.

The potable water system is often referred to as the primary system and operates like any other potable-water supply and distribution system. Water from this system is treated to acceptable standards.

The non-potable system is usually referred to as the secondary system. This system distributes water from non-potable sources like seawater or household grey water. The non-potable needs treatment, but not to potable water standards. The dual system is advantageous in that, it produce higher-quality water, shorten detention times, reduce trihalomethanes and haloacetic acids, reduce or eliminate odor problems, save energy, conserve potable water even during drought and save communities money since water can be used for more than one purpose thereby reducing potable water consumption.

Dual distribution systems can reclaim a communitys wastewater and reuse it for non-potable purposes. The community can also make money from the sales of reclaimed water (wastewater that has been treated to remove solids and certain impurities) to residential and agricultural users. Cross connections of the dual system may be a problem but installers can minimize the problem by applying proper installation procedures, such as color-coded pipe and point-of-connection identifiers or a lower supply pressure gradient for the untreated system.

It is important that issues like water quality, water rights issues, and state and local regulations should be addressed before considering dual system (Satterfield, 2009).

4.4Wastewaterreuse
Wastewater reuse is the using of wastewater or reclaimed water from one application or purpose for another application or purpose [(McKenzie, 2005) cited from the US Environmental Protection 11

Agency]. Thus wastewater should not be considered as a waste but should be considered as a resource. The intentional use of reclaimed water or wastewater must be in conformity with the applicable rules for a beneficial purpose (landscape irrigation, agricultural irrigation, aesthetic uses, ground water recharge, industrial uses and fire protection). Wastewater reuses program should be establish to identify new water sources for increased water demand and to find economical ways to meet increasingly more stringent discharge standards (McKenzie, 2005).

According to (McKenzie, 2005) wastewater reuse can be grouped into the following categories:

Urban reuse the irrigation of public parks, school yards, highway medians, and residential landscapes, as well as for fire protection and toilet flushing. Agricultural reuse - irrigation of nonfood crops, such as fodder and fiber, commercial nurseries, and pasture lands. High quality reclaimed water is used to irrigate food crops. Recreational impoundments - such as ponds and lakes. Environmental reuse creating artificial wetlands, enhancing natural wetlands and sustaining stream flows. Industrial reuse process or make up water and cooling water.

4.5Advantagesanddisadvantagesofwastewaterreuse
The reuse of wastewater though highly encouraged has some advantages and disadvantages as can be seen below (McKenzie, 2005).

Advantages

o o

The reuse of wastewater helps in the reduction of freshwater sources demand Reuse of large portion of wastewater stream reduces the need for large wastewater treatment plants

Wastewater reuse reduces wastewater discharge which is advantageous to the aquatic environment

o o o

It is cost effective Wastewater reuse plant is easy to operate and maintain The reuse of nutrient-rich wastewaters helps improve agricultural yield 12

o o

There is reduction in groundwater and rivers pollution Ease the irrigation of golf course and lawn maintenance

Disadvantages

Over reuse of wastewater reduces income for water supply and wastewater companies

o o

Wastewater reuse is seasonal, high in the dry season and low in the rainy season People having direct contact with reused wastewater have the risk of contracting skin irritation and water-borne diseases

The production of sulfuric acid gas during wastewater treatment can cause serious health hazard

The need for an additional distribution system at times makes the reuse of wastewater expensive in that case.

There is the risk of groundwater contamination if untreated wastewater is use for irrigation.

4.6.Watersourceprotection
Many streams, springs, lakes, rivers and aquifers in Cameroon are used as drinking water source. There is need to protect these water sources from contaminants in order to protect public health by ensuring a clean, safe drinking water supply. According to the United States Environmental Protection Agency (2002),this reduce the threat of waterborne illness and helps save money for health care expenses, lost wages, work absences, decreased job productivity, and additional treatment costs incurred to meet good drinking quality standards.

It is important for us to know pollution sources which can be grouped into two main groups; Point Source Pollution. This enters the water at a specific place from an identifiable source. This includes leaks from landfills sites, septic systems, underground oil or gas storage tanks and industrial discharge. Non-point Source Pollution. This occurs when water runs over land and picks up natural and human-made pollutants and deposits them directly into surface water or groundwater. This includes agricultural runoff, urban runoff, pesticides and road salts. It is all our responsibility to protect drinking water at the source. According to Nickel District Conservation Authority (2010), the following measures should be taken to protect our water from the source; 13

More native plants, flowers should be planted and vegetable garden grown. The use of harmful yard chemicals like pesticides, herbicides, rodent poison, weed killers, pool chemicals should be avoided. These chemicals seep into the soil and infiltrate groundwater sources and pose a serious risk to human health.

Spills and leaks should be prevented during vehicles repair Absorbent materials like kitty litter or saw dust should be used to clean up spills and disposed of into a container

Farm animals should be kept away from water sources as E. coli, nitrates and other pathogens present in their waste could leach into groundwater, especially in a Wellhead Protection Area.

Vehicles should be washed at commercial wash where their wash water is well handled or treated

Biodegradable or phosphate free soap should be used if we decide to wash cars at home Drinking water protection sign post should be placed in Drinking Water Protection Areas to allow the public to take care to prevent contaminants from entering our water sources. These areas are vulnerable to contaminants entering our drinking water sources.

When fuelling boats, proper care should be taken to avoid drops of gasoline as just a simple drop can contaminate large water bodies for a long period of time.

Regular maintenance of septic tank should be done to avoid leakage. The usage of shampoo and soap during swimming should be avoided as they contain nitrate and other contaminants which can affect drinking water source.

14

5.SOMEWATERINFRASTRUCTURESINKOMBONEMISSION

Water infrastructure is a stock of facilities and installations required for the development and management of water resources. This includes the delivery, treatment, supply and distribution of water to its users and the removal, collection, treatment and disposal of sewage and wastewater. The central role water has played and is still playing in human lives and its environment cannot be over emphasized. In an effort to sustain that role, water needs to be harnessed and managed to reduce its destructive risk and increase its productive impact with much care in the protection of the aquatic ecosystems which is important for the environment. This could be achieved by hydraulic infrastructures alongside with legal and institutional frameworks for a sustainable water management. In recognition of the emergency of addressing water issues, the General Assembly of the United Nations (UN), at its Sixty-fourth session proclaimed the period 2005-2015 the International Decade for Action, Water for Life. Emphasizing that water is critical for sustainable development, including environmental integrity and the eradication of poverty and hunger, and is indispensable for human health and well-being. (United Nations, 2003). The over exploitation and contamination of water resources in some parts of Cameroon by domestic discharges, agricultural discharges, municipal discharges and industrial waste without proper treatment is fast deteriorating the aquatic environment of these parts of Cameroon. These discharges usually exceed the carrying capacity of the water bodies. Consequently, these rivers and aquifers have lost their potential as sources of water of adequate quality for downstream uses. Water resources in some parts of Cameroon are threatened by loss and degradation of catchments, deforestation and large-scale reclamation of wetlands. Adequate water infrastructure is required to sustain water resources and resolve scarcity problems. Physical infrastructures are needed to provide primarily water supply and sanitation, for the population, agriculture, industry, treatment and disposal of wastewater. Hydraulic infrastructure is beneficial as it provide hydroelectric power and navigation. Water infrastructure is intended to supplement the natural ability of aquatic ecosystems to cope with drought and floods and to bear a certain pollution load. Water infrastructure is considered as a platform for economic growth. Thus it is very important for every community to develop its water infrastructures.

15

5.1Infrastructurefordrinkingwatersupplyandsanitation
A good clean water supply and adequate sanitation systems are considered to be the most important factors in ensuring good health in a community. Improved water supply and sanitation systems are major elements of public health measures that drastically reduce death rates and improve health levels in Cameroon. Though it is generally appreciated, these measures have been considerably more important than curative medicine in contributing to good health, long life expectancy and low infant mortality. Infant diarrhea, a big killer in Cameroon, is closely related to poor water quality. Due to the great potential benefits of the social and ecological effects of water systems and the nature of water supply, village water supply systems have been favorite development projects of the government and some international agencies for decades. A water supply or sanitation project in a community without community involvement in determining the need for and nature of the system, or without an effort to train some community members to do maintenance and repairs, is very likely to fail. Not all villages have been opportune to benefit from this development projects. The people of Kombone Mission took up on themselves to create and develop their infrastructure for water supply and sanitation as can be seen in Fig3a and Fig3b below.

Figure3a. Photo of Water reservoir in Kombone Mission


Courtesy: Awung Cornelius Nkwetta

16

Fig3b. Photo of a stand tap in Kombone Mission


Courtesy: Awung Cornelius Nkwetta

5.2

Infrastructureforwastewatertreatment

The infrastructures for sewerage and wastewater treatment in Cameroon are less developed than the infrastructures for water supply and sanitation. There exist some of these infrastructures in some areas, but most of the few ones in existence may not function properly due to lack of financial and technical know-how to properly manage them. Most of the sewage in most communities in Cameroon is disposed of in an unsanitary manner without proper treatment. These pollute the aquatic and marine environment and endanger public health. Well treated sewage is a valuable source for many applications. Sewage is reused mostly for agriculture and industrial applications; when properly treated, it could be brought up to acceptable drinking water standards (UNESCAP, 2006). However, some industries have invested big sums of money to create a comprehensive infrastructure that enables them to treat their sewage and thus reuse them. Most cities in Cameroon lack a central wastewater treatment system, especially a village community like Kombone Mission. Most of the homes in Kombone Mission use pit latrines. However, some homes have flushing toilets and thus treat their wastewater with the help of a septic system designed for that particular home.

17

A septic system is an on-site system designed to safely dispose of wastewater. Gravity pull down the wastewater from the house ( through pipes) into a concrete box (as can be seen in Figure 4a below) known as a septic tank buried in the ground, ( recommended to be a minimum of 7metres from the house ) where solids settle to the bottom. Helpful bacteria break down these solids waste into material referred to as sludge. Lighter solids such as hair and oils float to the top. Periodically both of these layers are removed by a septic truck. The liquid portion of the wastewater, called effluent flows out of the tank through a pipe that takes it to a soakaway which is used as alternative to a drain field (also known as a leach field). The soakaway is a pit usually lined with stones, bricks, or concrete blocks laid up dry with open joints backed up with at 2cm of gravel as can be seen in Figure 4b below. The bottom of the pit is filled with coarse gravel (pea rocks) to a depth of at least 1.3m. The cover is usually made of reinforced concrete. The effluent trickles out through the open joints and soaks into the soil. The solid acts as a natural filter, removing disease-causing bacteria, nitrates, and phosphates. The effluent provides moisture and nutrients, so grass and other vegetation tend to grow well around the soakaway. This is used by some homes in Kombone Mission.

Fig4a: Septic tank (Montanas Earth Science, 2010)

Fig4b: Plan for Septic tank and Soakaway.

Modern septic systems are effective in most situations with proper maintenance. The soakaway trench is kept at least 1.2 metres above the water table or bedrock to avoid groundwater contamination. Soakaways are kept 10 metres away from any water course or ditch to avoid the water contamination.

18

5.3Infrastructureforstormwatermanagement
Stormwater management is the mechanism for controlling stormwater runoff for the purposes of reducing downstream erosion, water quality degradation, and flooding and mitigating the adverse effects of changes in land use on the aquatic environment. Some facilities or structures are use to control the flow of stormwater. These facilities help to retain water for a period of time to control runoff and /or improve the quality. The water quality is improved by reducing the nutrients concentration, sediments, hazardous substances and other pollutants. Some examples of stormwater management facilities are stormwater retention and detention ponds and best management practices. In Kombone Mission, rain barrels are commonly used to manage stormwater since they are less expensive, easy to install and maintain. These barrels are locally made by the use of large containers in capturing roof runoff flowing out of a downspout. The roof runoff is usually collected and re-use for laundry, lawn watering, toilet flushing, dish washing etc. Some farmers collect runoff from their farms and mix with required amount of fungicides and /or pesticides to spray their cocoa and coffee for the prevention of black pot diseases and other agricultural products to prevent pests attacks. The overflow from the roof is usually channeled through a mini swale into a main ditch along the roadside or somewhere behind the house and emptied downstream. In a situation where the stormwater can only be emptied on the other side of the road, a culvert is placed underneath the road as can be seen in Fig.5 below to collect runoff from the ditch (es) and send where appropriate. Since Kombone Mission is along a major highway (National road No. 16), only the Ministry of Public Works has the right or can authorize someone or a company to place culverts on the road.

Fig5. Metallic ring culvert with concrete head

19

According to LIVE Green (2010), the use of containers (rain barrels) to collect roof runoff has some environmental impacts and benefits as follows; Conserve a vital natural resources, Control moisture levels around the foundation of homes, Direct overflow water to where it will have the most beneficial impact, Provide oxygenated, un-chlorinated water which is ideal for plants, Protect rivers and streams from runoff pollution.

20

6.MANAGEMENT
Accurate inventories and assessments of infrastructure are required for the government, water companies and community water project committees to implement asset management practices. According to the United States Federal Highway Administration (2003), asset management is the systematic maintenance, upgrading and operation of physical assets in a cost effective manner. It combines engineering principles with sound business practices and economic theory. It facilitates a more organized, logical approach to decision-making. It is often described as a lifecycle management method for infrastructure because it takes into consideration expenditures from construction through maintenance during the entire life of the asset. Data management is a major aspect to asset management planning and spans all dimensions of the process. As a need to properly manage the Kombone Water project, a management committee was put in place since the initiation of the project. There is the need for the infrastructure, and to assess the need for a new or upgraded water infrastructure. Without a systematic collection of data and monitoring, it is almost impossible to make an informed decision on whether to repair, expand or upgrade infrastructure( Infrastructure Canada ,2004).This aspect is often done in consultation with an expertise firm since the committee members lack the technical-know to do assessments of the infrastructures. The importance of asset management cannot be over emphasized as it focuses on how a system is performing overall, rather than specific indicators such as how much money has been spent and view the system as a whole (Geiger ,2003).

6.1Buildinganetworktokeepdrinkingwatersafe
It is estimated that, about 10% of the total global burden of disease could be prevented through achievable actions on water, sanitation and hygiene risk factors. Strengthening the capacity of key stakeholders, such as an institution responsible for the provision of drinking water, has been identified as a means to help meet these targets and achieve long-term sustainability in the sector. A number of international, regional and national organizations are supporting these efforts through the organization of capacity building activities and mechanisms (Strategic plan, 2008). There is need for the development of a Water Safety Plans (WSPs) in Cameroon and educate the members of community water projects in villages about it. The creation of a network to promote the implementation of WSPs as an effective means to manage risks associated with water supplies in the country is necessary. It is important to increase the number of capacity building initiatives and associated resources through a more concerted effort. Moreover, the establishment and ongoing 21

support of a regional network of WSP networks will support the long-term goal of improving drinking water safety. This network will help to connect regions to facilitate knowledge transfer and the sharing of experiences. The strategy to scaling up the application of WSP implementation is gradual and relies on building momentum through local, national, regional and global initiatives. Capacity building at a national level is the first step to creating a network of like-minded experts, specifically those at an operational level for water supplies and those affecting environmental and public policy. Effective scaling-up can be expedited through the establishment of mechanisms to facilitate knowledge exchange between experts and to signpost and disseminate best practices to a wider audience. The establishment of a network of professional can help to achieve this. The Water Safety Plan network should include water suppliers, environmental and health professionals, policy makers, academics, as well as community groups and industry representatives.

6.2Retentionofemployeeswhokeepwaterflowing
There is high rate of unemployment in Cameroon. Those who managed to get the job are seeking for better opportunities in different jobs with better working conditions. Water treatment workers or operators are not different. These guys need proper training to handle such jobs as they directly deal with human lives. A system operator is truly a trained professional with an enormous amount of responsibility who can probably be considered as the most important member of a companys staff. The operator is key to delivery safe water to the population. In many small systems, the operator is the one repairing leaks or running the system at all time. The operator or technician does the dirty work others will not want or like to do. Thus these operators need to be treated with due respect they deserve as highly skilled workers. Their opinion should be given consideration during decision making process. The companies should do everything in their capacity to retain these workers even if only better salary is the only way to keep the technicians as it would benefit the company to raise the pay scale to keep the qualified, trained people already on staff. Companies need to recognize the opportunity costs associated with not paying a competitive salary. Operators could help to enlighten water board members about their work by showing them just what is involved in doing the day-to-day work. This gives the operator the credibility that his job deserves higher pay and more respect. It is true that not everyone is motivated with high salary, while trying to provide competitive salaries; companies can also find other reasons or ways to encourage workers to stay. This can be done by asking the workers their likes and dislikes. The company can try to see if it is possible to meet up with the likes of the workers.

22

During the execution of the Kombone Mission Water Project in 1995, three guys were trained on how to treat the water mostly with chlorine, carry on minor repairs like leakages and connect water to private homes. These guys have being doing a job worth appreciation as it is voluntary since the village has not being paying them for the job. These guys need to be treated with respect. Training of more guys in the village will be of importance.

6.3Keepinginformedduringemergencies
An emergency is a serious situation that occurs unexpectedly and calls for immediate attention. There are certain events, either natural or man-made, that can create drinking water emergencies. For example, improper disposal of chemicals, animal and human wastes, wastes injected underground, and naturally occurring substances have the potential to contaminate our drinking water. Likewise, drinking water that is not properly treated or disinfected, or that travels through an improperly maintained distribution system, may also pose health risks. Greater vigilance by everyone can help to prevent such events. The water project committee should take actions to ensure the safety of drinking water supply and to respond effectively and timely in the event of an emergency. The water project committee should work in collaboration with the ministry of public health to; Produce forums and exercises designed to maintain an appropriate security awareness and to test response procedures Provide support for water systems in preparing risk and vulnerability assessments Provide assistance to water systems in preparing emergency plans, Provide technical assistance to public drinking water systems regarding emergency response issues Provide advice to the Ministry of Environment and Protection of Nature and to the General Delegation for National Security on matters relating to drinking water security. It is our responsibility to report suspicious activities in or around public drinking sources to local law enforcement authorities. According to John & James (2006), these suspicious activities may include but not limited to: People dumping or discharging materials into drinking water reservoir or supply People photographing, videotaping, or taking notes utility facilities, structures or equipment 23

The suspicious opening of, or tampering with, manhole covers, fire hydrant ( where available) buildings or equipments

Unidentified trucks or cars parked near a water source or water treatment facility

People climbing or cutting a fence around a water supply of facility People climbing on water reservoirs Strangers loitering around locked gates of water supply facilities or water source.

6.4ShortcomingsoftheKomboneMissionWaterProject
The expectations of the inhabitants of Kombone Mission have never been met since the partial realization of the water project in 1995. Out of the 13 public stands taps constructed, water flow from only 4 of these taps. Due to financial constraints the 30 public stand taps envisaged could not be realized. The villagers could not stop to wonder why water could not flow out from all the 13 stand taps they managed to construct. They quickly realized that this should be a technical problem which they themselves could not say exactly since they are not experts. In May 2005, the expertise of a consultancy firm known as ECTI was hired and studies were carried out. From the studies carried out by ECTI in 2005, they realized that many irregularities were made during preliminary studies and during the execution of the project. ECTI made the following observations; The topographic height of the catchments are too low with respect to the height of the stand taps, The flow rate estimated at 3 to 4 meters is insufficient to compensate for the lost in hydraulic flow rate in the pipes due to leakage, The reservoir as seen in Figure 3a above was empty, The reservoir was not constructed in an appropriate place to serve the entire village, The reservoir was constructed of hollow blocks of 15 cm, The reservoir now have fissures which help reduce pressure and discharge in the taps due to the very low altitude to supply water to the network by gravity.

24

6.5Howtogetthemostoutofadrinkingwaterproject
Once a decision has been taken about the system to be used in a water project, the next think that comes in mind is about selecting the most favorable materials and /or methods among a few alternatives. That is to determine the option among the few possibilities which may not necessarily be the optimal choice. Selecting the system is the most important decision to be made prior to any detail analysis. In most cases, this kind of decision is made at the top level of management in a consulting engineering firm or the project owner. It is very important to carefully select the initial viable alternatives before any rigorous life cycle cost analysis is made. The piping system must be strong enough to withstand induced stress, have relatively smooth walls, have a tight joining system to avoid leakage, and be chemically inert with respect to soil and water. The piping system must be design to perform for an extended period. The system should be design to have a life-span of at least 50 years (Gargari, 2006). Different types of pipes are used in water projects. Some of these pipes are; 1. Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) pipe, 2. Galvanized pipe, 3. Fiberglass pipe, 4. Steel pipe, spiral welded, 5. Ductile iron pipe, 6. Pre-stressed concrete pipe The PVC and galvanized pipes are used in the Kombone Mission Water Project as they are commonly found in the local markets in affordable prices. They are nontoxic, light weight, have smooth surfaces and resistant to corrosion. Getting the most out of a drinking water project does not only end at the level of conception and realization of the project. Another major aspect is to take measures to ensure that the water is in good sanitary condition. This can be done by the usage of disinfectants to destroy organisms like enteric bacteria, viruses and protozoan cyst which may be present in the reservoir.

25

Among the different disinfectants, chlorine is widely used because of its ability to destroy target organisms and oxidizes cellular material. Chlorine is found in different forms such as chlorine gas, hypochlorite solutions and other chlorine compounds in solid or liquid form. Ozonation and ultraviolet disinfection can be used as alternative disinfectants. According to USEPA (1999), the following criteria are used to choose a disinfectant for water treatment Ability for the disinfectant to penetrate and destroy infectious agents under normal conditions, Safe and easily handling, storage and shipping, Absence of toxic residuals mutagenic or carcinogenic compounds after disinfection, Affordable capital and operation and maintenance.

26

7.REHABILITATIONANDEXTENSIONOFTHEKOMBONEMISSION WATERPROJECT
7.1.Objectives
In order for the population of Kombone Mission to get sufficient and constant water flow, there is absolute need for the rehabilitation of the already existing structures and the extension of the network to other quarters or areas in the village lacking. To meet up with these objectives, the followings have to be done; There should be the rehabilitation of the catchments, The catchments should be protected from direct sunlight rays by planting of Indian bamboos and trees around the catchments, There should be the rehabilitation of the existing 13 public stand taps, There should be the construction of 17 public stand taps to other parts of the village, There should be the amelioration and extension of the piping network, There should be the rehabilitation of the already existing 3500 m3 reservoir seen in Fig.3a above, There should be the construction of a 5000 m3 reservoir just at the entrance of the village from Kumba, precisely around the Presbyterian Church, The reservoirs should be painted with white oil paint to avoid the reservoir from absorbing sunlight and making the water in the reservoirs warm. The provision of a water pump to supply water under pressure is also important. A calculation of the cost for the proposed work is presented as can be seen in the appendix in page 36.

7.2.Rolesandobligationsofthebeneficiary

The beneficiary being the inhabitants of Kombone Mission have taken up on themselves to massively contribute financially and materially to the realization of this project. The inhabitants will provide 27

local materials available. They will provide skilled and unskilled labor and other tasks within their reach.

7.3.Personnelanddurationofwork
The success of such a project depends greatly on the quality of workers or personnel involve in the project. The team will comprise of; One Finance and administrative staff Two Engineers Four Technicians One Mechanic One Electrician One driver Twenty permanent laborers

Once the financial, material and human resources are all put in place, the project will be expected to last for 2 months.

28

8.FINANCE
Financial means can never be left out when we talk about management and sustainability of water infrastructures. This is a very essential tool in any project. The dream of pure water for all is within our reach. Is true that Cameroon is a highly indebted poor country and financing village or community water projects to its fullest is not an easy task. This task needs to be tackled in a global level and can only be achieved if the communities with the support of the government, non-governmental organizations, civil society, companies, banks, multilateral organizations and others, redouble their efforts in getting funds to support the projects and the water sector as a whole. This can be considered as an indispensable investment as we badly need good health. Thus the issue of good governance, decentralization, responsibility, the participation of civil society, and transparency should be watch words in this sector.

8.1Governmentaction
The government should establish good national water plan and water policy with specific programs to the meet the Millennium Development Goals. The government should provide convenient public frameworks to water service provider. The government should include water in her national Poverty Reduction Strategy Papers and gives it higher priority in national budget to get capture debt relief from the water sector. As recommended by the UN Millennium-Project (2005), they should also provide a framework for strengthening governance, promoting human rights, engaging civil society, and promoting the private sector. The implementation of good water programs may attract some funds from donor agencies.

8.2Municipalitiesandwaterauthorities
The government should work in collaboration with the local councils and water companies to work out better financial relationships. The municipalities or local councils and water authorities should be free in the execution of their duties. Municipalities should look for appropriate means to raise funds. Contracts should be awarded to qualified contractors and establish good working conditions for them. Big financial institutions and donor agencies should assist the municipalities with aids and often soften the conditions to grant the loans for the realization of water projects.


29

8.3.Localcapitalmarketpromotion
The government and central banks should promote capital market growth to encourage and attract more local savings from mutual funds, pension funds and investors so that water companies could borrow their capital locally and avoid the risk of foreign exchange. Multilateral financial institutions should make greater use of guarantees and other instruments to encourage more long-term local lending and raise more resources in local currency markets.

8.4.Costrecoveryforsustainability
Water service providers and water project committees should develop cost recovery policies in longterm to enable them operate and finance the maintenance or renewal of the existing infrastructures. The user as a group should cover the revenues that arise from charges. Subsidies should be transparent, reviewed continuously to ensure they target the intended beneficiary.

8.5.Legalandregulatoryenvironment
Revolving funds like grants money should be created to finance preparation cost and structure complex projects. This fund could be use to prepare and structure project bids (including legal, financial and technical advisory costs) at both the tendering and negotiation phases and should be replenished by the authorities once bids are accepted. The private sector and other innovative structure should be involved. Study should be funded to prepare best practices and model clauses in the legal agreements of public- private partnership in the water sector.

8.6.Increaseinmanagerialcapacity
Donors should finance trust funds for using foreign specialists in the transfer of experiences, particularly at an operational level. As a means of strengthening core public capacities, donors should support cooperation between experienced and reputable partners, including those from the public sector. Official Development Assistance (ODA) technical cooperation should be used to improve onthe-job capacity building to strengthen the public sector and in the preparation and implementation of projects and programs, including those involving private participations. The concept of learning while-doing is a commendable one and donors should support action planning, in which planning and project preparations are wrapped in to aid projects.

30

8.7.Corruptionandethicalpractices
Corruption is an issue in both the public and private sector. High-calibre leadership is necessary for performance and delivery. Integrity standards should be worked out, agreed and implemented by all interested parties. This high political profile of water should be used to create more transparency for its operations. There should be cooperation between different stakeholders to develop strategies to promote ethical behavior in the management and execution of water projects. Public opinion, user associations and NGOs should be encouraged to monitor and publicize the activities of water organization and corrupt practices.

8.8.Privateinvestmentandoperation
According to Winpenny and Camdessus, 2003, Government and water authorities should encourage long-term investment from the private sector and should not forget to include small local operators in the national water supply strategies and service development plans as their participation in various forms can be a powerful drive to the reform of public water agencies. Private participation should be involved when deciding on grounds of efficiency and cost effectiveness in the reformation and drawing up of tenders. Contract and procurement decisions should, as a rule, be made through open and transparent competition, typically on the basis of bidding. Water projects can be financed by combining public funds with private financing in transparent and acceptable ways.

8.9.Communityinitiativesandnongovernmentalorganization
The participation of local communities and NGOs in the realization of water projects is vital as government is not finding it possible to finance all water projects in Cameroon. The people of Kombone Mission took the initiative but lack the resources necessary to enable them realize their project. Support from local and international NGOs, local commercial banks and micro-credit schemes can greatly help this community in financing their water project. International NGOs should seek for ways of raising more funds through the various kinds of solidarity mechanisms to support community water projects.


31

9.CONLCUSION
The success of the rehabilitation and extension of the Kombone Mission Water Project is a dream of the people of that locality. This success can be achieved through the collective efforts of the villagers and donor agencies. According to Jamie (2009), these efforts can be grouped into 3 mean headings as can be seen below;

Social Just one woman (Mme Anti Motuba) is present in the Kombone Mission Water Project Committee. More women should be elected into the committee and equal attention should be paid to their views just like those of men. Briefly, women should actively participate in decision making. The people should always be ready to pay the agreed amount decided by the committee. The sons and daughters of Kombone Mission in the Diasporas should participate massively financially in this project. The committee should be able to record income from any source correctly and ensure its proper use. As a community with different tribes and nationals with diverse ideas, conflicts always occur when discussing this project. The committee should always try in her almost best to resolve such conflicts. Accountability and transparency should be the wash words of the committee in the management of funds. The committee should always render accounts to the village in a clear manner.

Technical

There should be room for different contractors to apply for the contract and the best contractor should be selected for the contract on the basis of technical competence and experience.

The contractor should be ready to employ local labor, i.e. guys resident in the village and train them on how to carry on minor repairs and maintenance.

There should be a very competent and experience staff to control/supervise the job.

32

Repair and maintenance There should be regular repairs and maintenance on existing structures. The community should be schooled on the proper use of stand taps especially children who at times see it as fun playing with them. Revenues should be present to carry on recurrent repairs.

In a bit to meet the Millennium Development Goals on water supply and sanitation, it is important to build systems to keep the existing structures and build new ones. The proper management of water and water infrastructures demands the government support and donor agencies to ensure careful construction and maintenance and proper management of village funds.


33

REFERENCES
Adhiambo N, Akinyemi E (2008): Your Drinking Water MDG Working Paper toward Development of a Prototype Tool for Integrated IAM Activities.Published by WaterMill. Barrett J (2005): Optimization. Helping Small Water Plants Improve Their Products.Published by the National Environmental Services Centre, NESC. Direct Industry (2010),http://www.directindustry.com/prod/neotek-ponsel/portable-turbidity-meter 54155-385354.html [Access date: 21th May, 2010] Falling Rain (2010). http://www.fallingrain.com/world/CM/09/Kombone_Mission.html [Access date: 27th June, 2010] Gargari M (2006): Selection of Pipe for a Drinking Water Project Geiger (2003). "Asset Management: Resources for Maximizing Your Transportation Investment."APWA Reporter. Volume 70(7): 23. 2003 Hiessl H, Walz R, Toussaint D (2003).Design and Sustainability Assessment of Scenarios of Urban Water Infrastructure Systems, Published by Fraunhofer Institute Systems and Innovative Research (ISI). Infrastructure Canada (2004). Water Infrastructure: Research for Policy and Program Development Jakubowski T (2006): Best Management Practices Help Control Water Loss Jamie Skinner: (2009). Where every drop counts: Tackling rural Africas water crisis John & James (2006).2006 Water Quality Report .City of Lebanon Kirksey W (2009). Creating a Sustainable Water Infrastructure for the 21st Century LIVE Green (2010), Rain Barrels, http://livegreenlancaster.org/residential-projects/rain-barrels/ [Access date: 12th May 2010] McKenzie C (2005): Wastewater Reuse. Conserves Water and Protects Waterways. Published by the National Environmental Services Centre, NESC. Montanas Earth Science (2010). http://formontana.net/septic.html [Access date: 30th May, 2010]

Nickel District Conservation Authority (2010), Protecting drinking water at its Source Satterfield, P. E (2009). Dual Water Systems Vol.9.Issue 3. Strategic Plan (2008), Establishment of a Regional Water Safety Plan Network in the Latin America and Caribbean Region (LAC-WSP NETWORK)

34

Trpanier, M., Fougres, D., Gaudreau, M., Hamel, P.J., Poitras, C., Sncal, G., Vachon, N., and R. Veillette. (1998) Ltat des infrastructures deau du Qubec. Symposium sur la gestion de leau au Qubec. Villeneuve, J.-P., Rousseau, A. and S. Duchesne, Eds. Recueil de texts des confrenciers, INRS-Eau: 445-462 UN Millennium-Project (2005) Investing in Development: A Practical Plan to Achieve the Millennium Development Goals. Overview. United Nations Millennium Project. [Online] --http://www.unmillenniumproject.org/reports/index.htm [Access date: 17th May, 2010] United Nations (2000), United Nations Millennium Development Goals. United Nations (2003).United Nations General Assembly resolution 58/217 of 23 December 2003 United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (2006) http://www.unescap.org/pdd/publications/themestudy2006/12_ch6.pdf [Accessed date: 6th June 2010] United States Environmental Protection Agency (2002). Consider the Source: A Pocket Guide to Protecting Your Drinking Water #3. United States Environmental Protection Agency (2010), http://www.epa.gov/waterinfrastructure [Access date: 11th May, 2010] United States Federal Highway Administration (2003). Asset Management USEPA (1996a) .Watershed Approach Framework. USEPA (1999). Wastewater Technology Fact Sheet .Chlorine Disinfection Valerie I (2008). Sustainable Infrastructure Management WINPENNY J & CAMDESSUS J (2003). Report of the World Panel on Financing Water Infrastructure, Published by World Water Council.


35

APPENDIX.ESTIMATEFORTHEREHABILITATIONANDEXTENSIONWORKOF THEKOMBONEMISSIONWATERPROJECT.
No. Designation Unit Quantity Unit price (Franc CFA) 1 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 Catchments Indian Bamboo Tree planting Binding wire Reinforced concrete (400kg/m ,10) Subtotal 1 514.500
3

Total price (Franc CFA)

u u bundle m3

500 200 10 1.3

250 350 17.000 115.000

125.000 70.000 170.000 149.500

No

Designation

Unit

Quantity

Unit price (Franc CFA)

Total price (Franc CFA)

2 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4

Reservoir Site clearing Excavation Lean concrete(250kg/m3) Reinforced concrete(400kg/m3, 10, 8) m2 m3 m3 m3 500 15 0,05 4,70 30 2.200 80.000 115.000 15.000 33.000 4.000 540.500

2.5 2.6 2.7 2.8

Formwork: planks and scandles Formwork: plywood External plastering Internal plastering(water-proof)

u u m3 m3 36

22 21 0,50 1.3

2.500 5.500 65.000 125.000

55.000 115.500 32.500 162.500

2.9 2.10

Metallic ladder Reinforced concrete on existing reservoir(400kg/m , 10, 8)


3

m m3

10 2

5.300 115.000

53.000 230.000

2.11

Internal plastering on existing reservoir

m3

0,9

125.000

112.500

2.12

Plumbing fixtures

lump sum

60.000

2.13 2.14

White oil paint Painting brush Subtotal 2

kg u

50 10

3000 500

150.000 5.000 1.568.500

No.

Designation

Unit

Quantity

Unit price (Franc CFA)

Total price (Franc CFA)

3 3.1 3.1.1

Public stand taps Construction of 17 stand taps Reinforced concrete(300kg/m3, 10, 8) m3 10,9 96.500 1.051.850

3.1.2 3.1.3 3.2

Stones Plumbing fixtures Rehabilitation of 13 existing public stand taps

m3 u lump sum Subtotal 3

62 60 -

13.000 12.000 -

806.000 720.000 325.000

2.902.850

37

No.

Designation

Unit

Quantity

Unit price (Franc CFA)

Total price (Franc CFA)

4 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.5

Plumbing PVC pipe 3/4 PVC 63 PVC 100 Galvanized pipe m m m m 640 1500 30 70 310 2.950 3.950 1500 198.400 4.425.000 118.500 105.000

4.5 4.6 4.7

Excavation Sand 0/5 Plumbing fixtures

m3 l lump sum

350 45.000

1600 25

560.000 1.125.000 300.000

Subtotal 4

6.831.500

No.

Designation

Unit

Quantity

Unit price (Franc CFA)

Total price (Franc CFA)

Potable Water Pump

5.1

Water pump + Accessories

1.500.000

1.500.000

5.2

Electrical installations

lump sum

4.000.000

38

5.3

Shed and protector

lump sum

500.000

Subtotal 5

6.000.000

No

Designation

Unit

Quantity

Unit price (Franc CFA)

Total price (Franc CFA) 100.000 60.000 1.000.000

6 7 8

Tool box First Aid box Studies

lump sum lump sum lump sum

TOTAL: 1 + 2 + 3 + 4 + 5 + 6 + 7 + 8 = 18.977.350 F CFA No. Designation Unit Quantity Unit price (Franc CFA) 9 10 11 12 Transport Supervision Labor 01 Pick-up 4WD % % % months 05 10 20 02 500.000 Total price (Franc CFA) 948.870 1.897.735 3.795.470 1.000.000

GRAND TOTAL = 1 + 2 + 3 + 4 + 5 + 6 + 7 + 8 + 9 + 10 + 11 + 12 = 26.619.425 CFA BEAC Francs.

NB: 1Euro = 655 CFA BEAC Francs. 1USD = 500 CFA BEAC Francs.

39