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Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

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by Jenelle Pope An Engineering Project Submitted to the Graduate Faculty of Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the degree of MASTER OF ENGINEERING IN MECHANICAL ENGINEERING

Approved: _________________________________________ Ernesto Gutierrez, Project Adviser Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute Hartford, Connecticut December 18, 2009

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CONTENTS

LIST OF TABLES ............................................................................................................. v LIST OF FIGURES .......................................................................................................... vi LIST OF SYMBOLS ....................................................................................................... vii ACKNOWLEDGMENT ................................................................................................ viii ABSTRACT ..................................................................................................................... ix 1. Introduction.................................................................................................................. 1 1.1 1.2 1.3 Purpose ............................................................................................................... 1 Diesel Engine ..................................................................................................... 1 Turbocharger System in a Diesel Engine ........................................................... 2

2. Theory and Methodology ............................................................................................ 6 2.1 2.2 2.3 Compressor Flow Rate ....................................................................................... 6 Heat Exchanger Analysis ................................................................................... 7 Testing the System ............................................................................................. 9

3. Results and Discussion .............................................................................................. 11 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6 3.7 Fit Check and Installation of the Turbocharger ............................................... 11 Compressor Airflow ......................................................................................... 11 Radiator Initial Analysis .................................................................................. 14 Intercooler Analysis ......................................................................................... 17 Radiator Calculations Iteration 1 .................................................................. 20 System Installation and Instrumentation .......................................................... 21 Test Drive Results and Recalculations ............................................................. 25

4. Conclusions................................................................................................................ 31 5. References.................................................................................................................. 32 6. Appendix A: Theoretical Calculations ...................................................................... 33 7. Appendix B: Test Data .............................................................................................. 41 8. Appendix C: Test Data Calculations ......................................................................... 43

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LIST OF TABLES

Table 1: Holset HE351VE Turbocharger Specifications3 ................................................. 5 Table 2: Radiator Temperatures ...................................................................................... 14 Table 3: Radiator Water and Air properties .................................................................... 15 Table 4: Initial Radiator Calculations .............................................................................. 17 Table 5: Intercooler Temperatures................................................................................... 18 Table 6: Intercooler Water and Air properties ................................................................. 18 Table 7: Radiator Temperatures Iteration 1 .................................................................. 20 Table 8: Radiator Properties Iteration 1........................................................................ 20 Table 9: Iteration 1 Results .............................................................................................. 20 Table 10: Thermocouple Location and Mnemonic ......................................................... 26 Table 11: Highway Speed Theoretical Recalculations .................................................... 28 Table 12: Highway Speeds Test Data Calculations ......................................................... 28 Table 13 40 mph Theoretical Calculations ...................................................................... 29 Table 14: 40 mph Test Data Calculations........................................................................ 29

LIST OF FIGURES

Figure 1: Diesel Engine Four-Stroke Cycle....................................................................... 1 Figure 2: Turbocharger Cross-section ............................................................................... 2 Figure 3: Turbocharger System with Air-Water Intercooler System ................................ 3 Figure 4: Variable Geometry Turbine, small and large area3 ............................................ 5 Figure 5: Thermocouple Data Consoles .......................................................................... 10 Figure 6: Turbocharger Installed in Engine Bay Side and Front Views....................... 11 Figure 7: HE351VE Compressor Map CFM vs PR3 .................................................... 13 Figure 8: HE351VE Efficiency Curve3 ........................................................................... 13 Figure 9: Selected Radiator ............................................................................................. 17 Figure 10: Radiator - Underside ...................................................................................... 21 Figure 11: Radiator Front Bumper ............................................................................... 22 Figure 12: Pump Location ............................................................................................... 22 Figure 13: Turbocharger Cooling System Layout Top View ....................................... 23 Figure 14: Turbocharger Cooling System Layout Front View ..................................... 24 Figure 15: Thermocouple Locations ................................................................................ 25

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LIST OF SYMBOLS

A a C Cp F Cross-sectional area, m2 Subscript for air Capacitance, W/C Specific heat, J/kg*C effectiveness Correction Factor Mass flow rate, kg/s NTU Pb PR Q q R S T Tf t U V w 1 2 Number of Transfer Units Boost Pressure, psi Pressure Ratio Density, kg/m3 Volumetric flow rate, m3/s Heat transfer, W Capacitance ratio Temperature Factor Temperature of the warmer fluid, C Average fluid temperature, C

TLMTD Log Mean Temperature Difference, C Temperature of the cooler fluid, C Overall heat transfer coefficient, W/C Velocity, m/s Subscript for water Subscript for inlet properties Subscript for outlet properties

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ACKNOWLEDGMENT

To Don, for giving me the idea for the project and for the use of his car for the entirety of it. To Patrick and Ken, thank you for taking the time to proof read my paper, several times. To those whos help I enlisted for this project, thank you. I could not have done it without you.

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ABSTRACT

The purpose of this project is to analyze a turbocharger system in a diesel engine. The turbocharger is used to increase engine power. The Chevrolet Suburban diesel engine comes with a stock turbocharger. In order to obtain more power from the engine, a new and larger turbocharger is being used. The new turbocharger is coupled to an air-water intercooling system to decrease the inlet air temperatures. This project analyzed the intercooling system and tested the final design in the vehicle. The results show that the cooling system components purchased are adequate for this system. The ideal turbocharger design would be smaller than the system purchased. The results discuss the actual sized heat exchanger needed for the ideal system.

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1. Introduction

1.1 Purpose

The purpose of this project was to analyze a turbocharger system in a diesel engine. The turbocharger is used to increase engine power. A Chevrolet Suburban 6.5 liter diesel engine was chosen for this project and at the completion of the project the Suburban owner will have a complete turbocharged system. The project will also create spreadsheets for use in calculating the necessary parameters for another turbocharger system, or to modify the current system.

A diesel engine is an internal combustion engine. The cycle of the cylinders is the same in a diesel engine as it is in a gasoline engine, assuming it is a four-stroke engine (ref. Figure 1). Aside from the fuel type, the major difference between the two engines is the combustion itself. A gasoline engine uses a spark plug to initiate combustion. A diesel engine compresses the air then injects the fuel into the cylinder at the top of the stroke. The high temperature of the compressed air ignites the fuel. The hot gases expand, force the piston down, and create a torque on the crankshaft. The final stroke is the exhaust stroke, which releases the hot gases into the exhaust system.1

Figure 1: Diesel Engine Four-Stroke Cycle The torque created from the downward motion of the piston acting on the crankshaft is transmitted from the crankshaft to the flywheel and into the transmission. To increase power to the transmission, the power must be increased in the cylinder. There are several ways to increase

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the power of an engine. One of the more common ways of increasing engine power is to increase the airflow into the cylinder by increasing the density of the air entering the cylinder.1 A turbocharger uses waste energy from the exhaust system to compress air entering the cylinder, thus increasing engine power.2

The Chevrolet Suburban diesel engine comes with a stock turbocharger, the GM8. In order to obtain more power from the engine, a new and larger turbocharger is being used, the HE351VE (Holset). A turbocharger consists of a turbine and a compressor connected by a shaft. The turbine section is mounted to the exhaust line from the engine. The compressor is connected to the turbine by a shaft and its outlet is routed to the engine air intake. Exhaust gas from the engine enters the turbine and expands, performing work on the turbine. The turbine spins the shaft connected to the compressor. The compressor draws in ambient air and compresses it. Figure 2 is a cross-section of a turbocharger. Turbocharger systems are measured by the amount of pressure the compressor can output above ambient. This pressure is commonly called boost pressure or boost.2 The target boost pressure for the system analyzed in this project is 18 psi.

Compressing the air increases its temperature, which lowers the density of the charge air and creates a less efficient cycle and loss of power. The higher temperatures can also have detrimental effects on the materials and structure of the engine. To counteract this issue the compressed air needs to be cooled in order to achieve maximum power and maintain the structural integrity of the pistons. A heat exchanger, or intercooler, is installed between the compressor and engine inlet to cool the charge air.2 There are two different types of intercoolers, air-air and air-water. For this project, an air-water intercooler was chosen by the vehicle owner. In an air-water intercooler, air from the compressor is the external flow and the water is the internal cooling flow. The water cools the air exiting the compressor. A second cooling cycle is needed in the system to cool the water. The water is routed to a radiator, to be cooled by the moving air caused by the movement of the vehicle. The water flows through the radiator and into the water pump, which forces the water through the system. The pump adds a small amount of heat to the water, but not enough to affect the heat transfer in the intercooler. The turbocharger system described here is shown in Figure 3.

There are several limitations in designing a turbocharger system. Two of the most difficult to overcome are the space inside the engine bay and the cost of the components. Car manufacturers have designed engine compartments to hold as much as possible while being as small as possible to allow for more passenger and cargo room. The cramped space of an engine compartment limits the locations for the system components. There are, however, options for spreading out the system. In some aftermarket designs, the turbocharger system is routed underneath the body of the car. This system allows for more space, but increases pressure drop for routing back to the engine.2 This project works within the engine bay because there is room for all of the components within the engine bay. This is possible because the vehicle was turbocharged previously, although it was not intercooled. In the air-water system, a pump is needed to circulate the water. The pump must be located at the low point of the system in order to keep it from running dry. If a reservoir is needed, it should be placed in front of the pump, as the pump is designed specifically to push the water through the air-water intercooling system. The final locations of all components are presented in the results.

The turbocharger selected for this project is a Holset HE351VE, manufactured by Holset and found on 6.71 Cummins Diesel engines used in Dodge Ran trucks. The turbocharger is designed with a variable geometry turbine (VGT). The Holset VGT uses a turbine where the intake capacity is automatically varied while the engine is running. This allows turbine power to be set, providing sufficient energy to drive the compressor at the desired boost pressure regardless of engine operating conditions. The intake capacity is controlled by varying the intake nozzle area by means of a set of guide vanes that control the flow of exhaust gas to the turbine. This particular VGT uses axially sliding vanes, which is more durable and reliable design than pivoting vanes. Figure 4 shows a cross-section of the Holset HE300 series with the VGT.3 The left side shows the area contracted and the right side shows the open vanes. The VGT in this vehicle will be controlled by a mechanical pressure driven wastegate actuator from a 7.31 Ford Powerstroke Diesel engine. Table 1 gives the specifications for the HE300 series.3

Table 1: Holset HE351VE Turbocharger Specifications3 Holset HE300 Series Engine capacity (L) Output range (hp) Airflow (max) Length (mm) Width (mm) Height (mm) Mass (kg) Up to 7 100 to 310 0.46 kg/s 250 240 220 16 to 17

The theory and general methodology was developed based upon known temperatures, boost pressure, and driving conditions. Heat needs to be removed from the compressed air before it enters the engine. Heat needs to be removed from the water after it exits the intercooler. Basic heat exchanger analysis was used to analyze both the intercooler and radiator. The steps followed to complete the analysis are below 1) Analyze the compressor flow rate 2) Analyze the water-air radiator and analyze the intercooler 3) Test 4) Repeat analysis with test data

To determine the compressor flow rate there are several characteristics of the engine that must be known. The cubic inches of displacement (CID), revolutions per minute for turbocharging (RPM), and the engine volumetric efficiency (VE) must be known. CID and VE are engine specifications. RPM depends on the vehicle and the scenario in which turbocharging is being used. To calculate the airflow rate in cubic feet per minute (CFM), the following equation was used,

CID * RPM * VE 3456

Airflow

[1]

Where 3,456 is a conversion factor from cubic inches to cubic feet and includes a parameter needed for four-stroke engines which only exhaust every other revolution. This airflow rate is based upon atmospheric pressure; it does not consider the boost pressure. The goal is to increase boost pressure to 18psi, so the airflow rate is needed at 18psi. For this boost pressure, Pb, a pressure ratio (PR) is needed, [2] To calculate the new flow rate at the given boost pressure of 18psi the flow rate is calculated using the pressure ratio, [3]

The next step is to determine where on the compressor map the compressor is operating.4 The Holset HE351VE turbocharger compressor map was obtained directly from Holset.3 The pressure ratio and corrected airflow rate are used to determine if the compressor is operating in an efficient range. The compressor map will show if the compressor is within the surge and stall lines.

There were initial conditions and assumptions made in order to obtain a potential sizing of the heat exchanger. Heat exchanger calculations were used to determine the outlet temperature of the heat exchanger, heat transfer required, and to determine if the heat exchanger selected would be large enough to reject the heat. Temperatures from the vehicle owner and vehicle manufacturer were given in English units, these were converted to SI. From there, heat exchanger analysis was used to calculate the outlet air temperature and heat transfer required.

[4] [5]

It should be recalled that a subscript 1 denotes an inlet and a subscript 2 denotes an outlet. The mass flow rates were found from the volumetric flow rate (Q=VA), which is known for both air and water. The area was chosen as the frontal area for a radiator that was found online. This radiator was chosen by the vehicle owner as one that would fit in the space allowed and was within the given budget. Density is the remaining parameter that is needed. Density was found using the average of the inlet and outlet temperatures for both air and water5, [6] Density was then found using tables based on the temperature. Also, using the average film temperature, the specific heat Cp was found in the same data tables. The analysis is shown in Section 3. Once a value for either the water or air heat transfer is known, the other can be calculated using,5 [7]

Where the subscripts a and w denote values for air and water respectively. Unknown temperatures can be solved for using this relation. From here the Number of Transfer Units (NTU) method6 was used to determine the heat transfer area. First the effectiveness and capacitance of the heat exchanger were needed. The effectiveness, , is dependent on the minimum flow rate and specific heat product of the two fluids. This product of the mass flow rate and specific heat is the capacitance, c, of the fluid.6 An uppercase T denotes the temperature of the warmer fluid and a lowercase t denotes the temperature of the cooler fluid.

then then Where c denotes the colder liquid and h denotes the hotter liquid. The product

capacitance of the fluid. Notice that the effectiveness is dependent on three out of the four inlet/outlet temperatures. This allowed for the calculation of the fourth needed temperature. The effectivity was then used to calculate the heat transfer, q.7 [10] The heat transfer can be solved for without knowing a fourth temperature. This verifies the value determined from Equation [5] and was used to solve for the unknown temperature using the same equation. The NTU method uses effectiveness to calculate the number of transfer units7, [11] Where U is the overall heat transfer coefficient calculated from the heat transfer coefficients (h) of both fluids, tube diameter, and the thermal resistivity (k) of the pipe material. Using an offthe-shelf heat exchanger created difficulty in solving for U, since tube size and values for h are not known. A is the heat transfer area including fins. Again, A is not known unless the heat exchanger can be measured. In heat exchanger design, these parameters can be designed to optimize the heat transfer. In this project, off- the-shelf heat exchangers are being used, so these parameters are not known.

The Log Mean Temperature Difference is another method that was used to help solve for the value of UA. It is given that,7 [12] F is a correction factor that can be found graphically. The charts are published and are based on the equations for R (capacitance ratio) and S (temperature factor).8 [13] [14] F was then found using published charts in heat transfer and thermal fluid texts.6, 8 And, is, [15] Notice that all of the inlet and outlet temperatures are used for , thus any unknown

temperatures must have been solved for at this point. Rearranging the NTU equations, UA can be solve for, [16] U must be known in order to solve for A, which is needed in order to select an appropriate heat exchanger. This method holds for both the intercooler and the radiator. The temperatures and flow rates are different, but the process remains the same.

Once the system was installed into the engine bay, thermocouples were attached to inlet and outlet lines. The four thermocouples were attached to two data consoles to view the temperatures during test runs (ref. Figure 5). Because the temperatures could not be recorded on the consoles, the temperatures were written down. Test drives were made to determine actual temperatures of the system. These temperatures were put into the calculations to determine if the heat exchangers are of the proper size. In order to simplify the calculations, MS Excel was made to change the

temperatures and update all other values. Should the testing show that the heat exchangers are of the incorrect size, the ones purchased will have to be removed and returned for ones that are closer to the correct size.

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3.1 Fit Check and Installation of the Turbocharger

The turbocharger was installed with minimal modifications to the vehicle. The exhaust manifold was modified to bolt the turbocharger to the engine and a flange on the turbocharger was modified to allow proper orientation of the oil inlet/outlet and the air inlet/outlets. None of the modifications affected the function of the turbocharger. Figure 6 shows the turbocharger installed on the passenger side of the engine bay. The silver half of the turbocharger is the compressor and the rust colored portion is the turbine.

Figure 6: Turbocharger Installed in Engine Bay Side and Front Views Test drives with the turbocharger installed (and no intercooling system) showed reasonable boost pressures and engine inlet air temperatures exceeding 200F. This information was used to better focus the heat exchanger analysis to be described in the next section.

The airflow rate for the compressor (ref Figure 6) was calculated first to determine if the compressor is of suitable size for the system. The mass flow rate of the air was calculated from the compressor flow rate given in Equation [1], Equation [2], and Equation [3]. Equation [1] uses cubic inch displacement (CID), 395, revolutions per minute (RPM) at which turbocharging will occur, 2000, and the volumetric efficiency (VE), 80%. These values are part of the engine specifications. These values in Equation [1] give a volumetric flow rate of,

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This is the nominal airflow rate of the engine at atmospheric pressure. Airflow at the desired boost pressure of 18 psi was calculated. The pressure ratio of Equation [2] was calculated,

Given the new pressure ratio, a new airflow rate was calculated and from that the mass flow rate was calculated,

To determine if the compressor is of suitable size, the airflow and boost pressure was plotted on the compressor map. The compressor map was obtained from Holset, the turbocharger manufacturer. The red dot on the map is the operating condition of the compressor for the conditions of this project. The operating point falls between the surge and stall lines, indicating that the compressor is correctly sized for these conditions. The efficiency is estimated at 75% using the data curve in Figure 8. The orange line denotes the possible range of efficiencies that the given flow rate can produce. The data point falls closer to the second curve than the third on the compressor map and thus it falls in the same location on the efficiency map.

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Without known system operating temperatures it was difficult to determine the starting point for the heat transfer analysis. The vehicle owner suggested a radiator that fit his vehicle and budget and supplied temperature limits for his engine. The turbocharger would most likely be used while towing uphill in the summer. Given this operating environment an ambient air temperature of 90F was used. If the air temperature is 90F, then the water flowing through the radiator will not be exactly 90F, but 20 to 30 degrees above.9 Therefore a water outlet temperature of 120F was chosen as an initial point. As these choices indicate there are many assumptions being made about the turbocharger system and the fluids within it. Table 2 shows the radiator inlet and outlet temperatures in Celsius. The key assumptions are listed below. Assume: 90F (32.2C) ambient temperature Water outlet temperature, T2 is 30F above ambient Water inlet temperature is 110C Table 2: Radiator Temperatures Water (C) 110 48.89 Air (C) 32.22 unknown

Inlet Outlet

The first step was to find all of the properties for air and water. Since the temperature of water and air changes across the heat exchanger, the fluid properties were found at the average temperature for each of the fluids.

The subscript w in this and all subsequent calculations is water, a is air. Since an air outlet temperature t2 was not known, an assumption was made for 60C, since it is approximately twice the air inlet temperature. The properties for water and air were found at their average temperatures, using published tables and calculators (ref. Table 3).

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Table 3: Radiator Water and Air properties Density, Specific Heat, (kg/m3) Cp (J/kgK) 972 4.198*103 1.1 1.009*103

Water Air

The water flow rate was found by using the flow rate from a potential pump. The vehicle owner confirmed that the pump chosen was a realistic choice for the theoretical calculations. The Bosch Cobra Water Pump had a listed flow rate of 317 gallons/hour with an assumed 80% efficiency. A flow rate for the air over the radiator was needed. It was assumed that in a worst-case scenario the vehicle would be turbocharging at a speed of 40 mph. To convert speed to a mass flow rate, an area of flow was needed. The previously chosen radiator was used for this, which has listed dimensions for the heat exchanger area,

Then the mass flow rates were calculated based on the pump flow rate for water and the speed and frontal area for the air.

Knowing these values, Equation [5] was used to calculate the value for q.

Knowing that qa=qw, the equation for qa can be rearranged to solve for t2, the air outlet temperature, which was previously assumed to be 60C. Solving for t2

The NTU method was used to determine the value for UA, which is a good approximation to the size needed for the heat exchanger. This can also be used to solve for the area and heat transfer coefficient for the heat exchangers. The capacitances were calculated and effectivity was determined from the capacitances (ref Equation [8] and [9]).

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Since the cooler fluid (air) has a greater capacitance than the warmer fluid (water), the effectivity is,

Equation [10] can be used to verify the heat transfer calculated in a previous step.

This matches with the previous value found for q, which acted as a double check for the previous calculation. Equation [12], Equation [15], and Equation [16] were used to solve for UA.

The overall heat transfer area, A, was measured on the actual radiator being used. The area was determined to be 2.11 m2. From this the value of U, the overall heat transfer coefficient, was calculated to be 1162 W/m. This value is a high value of U (although it is possible to design a heat exchanger for this value). The optimal area cannot be calculated without knowing exact temperatures in the system. The temperatures will be obtained during system testing. The radiator chosen here (ref. Figure 9) presents a good option. The radiator is rated for a range of horsepower specifically for turbocharging a vehicle. The range given by the manufacturer includes the range for the Suburban (195 Hp). Table 4 summarizes the calculations presented in this section.

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Table 4: Initial Radiator Calculations Conditions speed: 40mph ambient: 90F (32C) Parameter mair mwater q NTU LMTD E UA

Intercooler analysis followed radiator analysis since a water inlet temperature was previously calculated. The same calculations used for the radiator were used for the intercooler.

Inlet and outlet temperatures for water (the cooler fluid) and air (the warmer fluid) are in Table 5. The outlet water temperature, also the inlet radiator temperature, is the unknown value. Initial runs with the turbocharger (no intercooler) showed inlet air temperatures in excess of 110C,

Radiator

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however the inlet air temperature (IAT) should not exceed 82C. The assumed temperatures are shown in Table 5. Table 5: Intercooler Temperatures Water (C) 48.89 unknown Air (C) 110 82.22

Inlet Outlet

The first step was to find all of the properties for air and water. For this the average temperature was taken for both water and air.

Since a water outlet temperature t2 is not known, iterations were made to calculate it based on q and then the assumed temperature was adjusted until there was convergence. A final assumption was made for 55C. The properties for water and air were found at these temperatures, using tables and calculators and shown in Table 6 below. Table 6: Intercooler Water and Air properties Density, (kg/m3) 987.28 0.95 Specific Heat, Cp (J/kgC) 4.18*103 1.01*103

Water Air

The mass flow rates were calculated next. The water flow rate, based on the pump flow rate, was the same as used for the radiator, 0.26 kg/s. The air flow rate is from the compressor calculations presented in section 3.2. Knowing these values, Equation [5] was used to calculate the value for q.

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The NTU method was used to determine area and heat transfer coefficient for the heat exchangers. The capacitances were calculated and effectivity was determined from the capacitances.

Since the cooler fluid (water) has a greater capacitance than the warmer fluid (air) in this case, the effectivity is,

Equation [10] was used to verify the heat transfer calculated in a previous step.

This verified the previous calculation for q. Equation [12], Equation [15], and Equation [16] were used to solve for UA.

The overall heat transfer area, A, was measured on the actual intercooler being used. The area was determined to be 1.58 m2. From this the value of U, the overall heat transfer coefficient, was calculated to be 76.12 W/m2C. Without knowing exact temperatures in the system the optimal area cannot be calculated. Exact temperatures were measured when the system was tested. The intercooler chosen here presents the best option for both cost and size.

However, upon examination of the intercooler water outlet temperature, it can be seen that it is not the same as the assumed value for the radiator water inlet temperature. From the system schematic (ref Figure 3) it is seen that the intercooler water outlet temperature is the same as the radiator water inlet temperature.

The value for T1 of the radiator analysis was assumed to be 110C. The temperature difference between the assumed value at the radiator inlet and the calculated value at the intercooler outlet is too large to ignore. The radiator calculations were repeated using this newly calculated value.

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The first set of calculations for the radiator analysis assumed values as discussed in section 3.2. However, a value for T1 was calculated from the intercooler analysis. This value, 53C, needed to be included in the analysis. The same steps were followed for the iteration as was for the original analysis. The known temperatures are: Table 7: Radiator Temperatures Iteration 1 Water (C) Air (C) Inlet 53.54 32.33 Outlet 48.89 unknown The average temperatures for water and air were calculated and their respective properties at these new temperatures are shown in Table 8. Table 8: Radiator Properties Iteration 1 Density, Specific Heat, (kg/m3) Cp (J/kgK) 987 4.182*103 1.1 1.009*103

Water Air

The temperatures for air remained the same, thus the properties were unchanged. The same equations were used for this iteration so here only the results are presented. The results for Iteration 1 are presented side by side with the original results to show the effect a change in temperature has on the analysis. Table 9: Iteration 1 Results Parameter Value Iteration 1 0.263 kg/s 2.13 kg/s qw t2 (air) 5.12kW 34.5C 1.10E3 2.22E3 0.22 Value Original 0.259 kg/s 2.13 kg/s 66.51 kW 63.25C 1.09E3 2.14E3 0.79

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Comparing the results it is shown that the heat transfer decreased when the temperature decreased, the air outlet temperature decreased, and the value for UA also decreased. The value for U is more realistic than the original value calculated. Both values are based on the same heat exchanger area. These values from Iteration 1 were used going forward.

The vehicle owner installed the components into the engine bay. The pictures below show the installation locations. The turbocharger had remained installed from the trial fit and is shown in Figure 6. The Intercooler was installed on the top right of the engine block. The air hoses were routed from the compressor on the top left side of the engine block to the intercooler on the top right (ref Figure 13). The radiator was mounted to the inside of the front bumper (ref Figure 10), where holes already existed for routing air. In the final calculations (including test data) the area of the holes were used as a frontal area as opposed to the full frontal area of the radiator. Figure 11 shows the holes in the front bumper. The water pump was mounted in the left front corner of the engine compartment, as shown in Figure 12 and Figure 13. The full system layout is shown in Figure 13 and Figure 14.

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Measured temperatures were needed to verify the operation and sizing of the system. Thermocouples and hand held data loggers were purchased. The thermocouples were installed into the system at the starred locations shown in Figure 15. In addition, the vehicle owner had a thermocouple measuring exhaust gas temperatures from the previous turbocharger. The four thermocouples giving the inlet and outlet temperatures needed for calculations were fully inserted into the water and air lines. On the air lines, the thermocouples were pushed in under joints and the joint sealed again. On the water lines, T-fittings were installed and the thermocouples inserted into the T-fitting. The T-fitting was then sealed with silicone to prevent water leakage. However, the cloth coating on the thermocouples absorbed the water and capillary action caused small leaks to occur.

T2

Th

Tc T1

With the system and thermocouples installed test drives began on December 1, 2009 and lasted for three days. Multiple runs were made to ensure that the data was repeatable and that the thermocouples were reliable. Test runs were made at both highway speed and at the original speed of 40 miles per hour. Vehicle speed and RPMs were collected by a laptop program Diagnose. Boost pressure was not connected to the data logging program, so the driver gave peak boost pressures during each run and these were included in the calculations. At the

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completion of testing, the data was analyzed and plotted using MS Excel to determine repeatability. There were slight variations in the data sets, so the outliers were removed from the test sets. Raw data files and excel charts are available in Appendix B. Table 10 shows the thermocouple location mnemonics used. For thermocouple locations reference Figure 15. Table 10: Thermocouple Location and Mnemonic Thermocouple Location Air, compressor outlet/intercooler inlet Air, intercooler outlet/engine inlet Water, radiator outlet/intercooler inlet Water, intercooler outlet/radiator inlet Mnemonic T1 T2 Tc Th

Initial calculations for the heat exchangers were performed at an ambient air temperature of 32.2C (90F). However, in order to provide a direct comparison of theoretical calculations to the test data, the calculations were repeated using an ambient temperature closer to that of the test runs, 10C. This allows for a direct comparison between the values for UA and thus the size needed for a heat exchanger.

The initial test data calculations showed a discrepancy in the data, which gave errors when calculating the log mean temperature difference. Upon further review it was determined that the water circulation system was a 50/50 mixture of water and antifreeze (primarily ethylene glycol). The density and specific heat for this mixture were determined using the average of the water and ethylene glycol values.11 Changing the water properties to the properties of the mixture allowed for the correct calculation of the log mean temperature difference.

Initial calculations of the radiator test data at highway speeds showed values for UA of almost 3000 W/C, this value is high for UA.7 Calculations for the intercooler revealed that the mass flow rate for the pump had been estimated high. The original value using 80% of the pump flow rate (ref. 3.3) was much higher than the calculated flow rate at the intercooler. At the intercooler all of the inlet and outlet temperatures are known from the data collection. Knowing the airflow

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rate (compressor flow rate) based on engine RPM (recorded), the heat transfer of the air side was calculated following the previously described procedure.

Since, qa=qw, the mass flow rate of water can be calculated using

Where Cpw, Th, and Tc are known values. The water mass flow rate was calculated to be 0.092 kg/s, much lower than the predicted 0.28 kg/s (ref. 3.3). The radiator calculations were repeated using the new value for mass flow rate of the water. The new calculations gave a value of 485.5 W/C for UA.

The final results of the calculations using test data compared to the theoretical data are shown in Table 11 through Table 14. The complete calculations are shown in Appendix C.

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Table 11: Highway Speed Theoretical Recalculations Conditions Theoretical Calcs speed: highway ambient: 50 F (10C) Parameter Value Comp. RPM CFM mair mwater q NTU LMTD E UA mair mwater q NTU LMTD E UA 3000 554.21 0.89 0.263 6.70 0.20 38.20 0.17 175.26 0.30 0.26 6.71 0.54 40.87 0.40 175.26

Table 12: Highway Speeds Test Data Calculations Conditions date: 12/2/2009 speed: highway ambient: 47 F (8.33 C) Parameter Value Comp. RPM CFM mair mwater q NTU LMTD E UA mair mwater q NTU LMTD E UA 2610 482.16 0.91 0.092 7.35 1.55 15.14 0.73 485.49 0.24 0.092 7.35 0.94 33.02 0.51 227.10

Radiator

Intercooler

28

Intercooler

Radiator

Table 13 40 mph Theoretical Calculations Conditions speed: ambient: Comp. Theoretical Calcs 40mph 50F (10C) Parameter Value RPM CFM Air flow Water flow q NTU LMTD E UA mair mwater q NTU LMTD E UA 2000 182.87 0.40 0.26 5.74 0.43 34.06 0.3276 171.89 0.204 0.26 5.72 0.6364 43.65 0.4545 171.89

Table 14: 40 mph Test Data Calculations Conditions date: 12/2/2009 speed: 40mph ambient: 47F (8.33C) Parameter Value Comp. RPM CFM Air flow Water flow q NTU LMTD E UA mair mwater q NTU LMTD E UA 1968 228.91 0.30 0.09 10.49 4.78 7.20 1.27 1456.64 0.13 0.09 1.91 4.78 15.97 0.5952 119.76

Radiator

Intercooler

29

Intercooler

Radiator

The theoretical calculations at both speeds are lower than the UA values for testing. The intercooler theoretical UA values (at both speeds) were approximately the same for the test data calculations. The radiator theoretical UA values were very different in the test data calculations. Had the heat exchanger selection been based solely on the UA value, the radiator would have been undersized. Since other factors were used to select the heat exchangers, manufacturer information, flow rate, and rated horsepower, the heat exchangers selected have proven to be of adequate size.

More test runs are needed at higher temperatures to create a fully analyzed system. These test runs will occur in the summer months and the calculations will be updated.

30

4. Conclusions

The objective of this project was to analyze and install a turbocharger system in a Suburban 6.5L diesel engine. The turbocharger was selected by the vehicle owner. The cooling system for the vehicle was selected based on theoretical heat transfer calculations, budget, and available engine bay space. The intercooler and radiator selected proved to be of proper size for the given conditions. MS Excel sheets were created for future use in analyzing turbocharger systems.

It is possible and practical to use heat transfer calculations when sizing a turbocharger cooling system. However, one must take into consideration the operational environment and flow characteristics of the system in order to make an informed decision on which system to install.

31

5. References

1. Moran, Michael, and Howard Shapiro. Fundamentals of Engineering Thermodynamics. 5th ed. John Wiley & Sons, 2004. 2. Bell, Corky. Maximum Boost. Cambridge, MA: Bentley Publishers, 1997 3. Cummins Turbo Technologies. Holset HE300. < http://www.holset.co.uk/mainsite/files/2_1_2_2-Holset%20HE300.php>. 5 Oct 2009. 4. Estill, John. Turbocharger Compressor Calculations. <http://www.gnttype.org/techarea/turbo/turboflow.html>. 5 Oct 2009. 5. Cengel, Yunus, and Robert Turner. Fundamentals of Thermal-Fluid Sciences. NY, NY: McGraw-Hill, 2005. 6. Donald Pitts, and Leighton Sissom. Schaum's Outline: Heat Transfer. 2nd ed. NY: McGrawHill, 1997. 7. Kraus, Allan, and Adrian Bejan. Heat Transfer Handbook. John Wiley & Sons, 2003.. 8. Janna, William. Design of Thermal Fluid Systems. 2nd ed. Boston, MA: PWS Publishing Company, 1998. 9. Spears, George. All About Intercooling. Spearco Racing Intercoolers. 10. Turbocharged diesel and spark ignition engines : (selected papers through 1981). Print. 11. Ethlyene Glycol Heat-Transfer Fluid. <http://www.engineeringtoolbox.com/ethyleneglycol-d_146.html>

32

Compressor air flow calculations CFM=VE*CID*RPM/3456 CID is cubic inches of engine displacement RPM is the engine speed 3456 is a conversion factor VE is the volumetric efficiency CID RPM VE CFM converting to lb/min lb/min

395 for a 6.5 liter turbo diesel 2000 0.8 182.8704 CID*RPM*VE/3456

12.61806

now, recalculate the flow based on the boost pressure influxing more air into the engine boost 18 psi PR=boost+atm/atm PR 2.22449 recalculate flow rate lb/min CFM

33

Radiator Calculations - Original Water T1 T2 C Air 110.00 t1 48.89 t2 C 32.22 (ambient) Heat Exchanger Frontal Area L H A A obtaining density assume air density tfa, film temperature air @ t1+t2/2 t2= 46.11 C 115 F air density air density 0.07 lb/ft^3 1.10 kg/m^3 Pump Flow rate Q Pump Eff. Q water density @ T1+T2/2 Tfw, film temperature w 79.44 C 175 F water density water density 972.1488 kg/m^3 mass flow rates Air mass flow rate = density*velocity*area air flow rate Heat Transfer, q q=mass flow rate*specific heat*delta T qa = qw qw 66505.15 W 66.51 kW knowing qw, use qa to get t2 qa = mass flow rate*specific heat*(t2-t1) = qw solving for t2 t2 63.25 C Specific Heats, Cp air @ tfa water @Tfw 1.01E+03 j/kgK 4.20E+03 j/kgK table table Water mass flow rate = Q*density water flow rate 0.26 kg/s 2.13 kg/s Q 317 GPH 80 % 253.6 GPH 0.00026666 m^3/s 60 V V 40 mph 17.88 meters/s Vehicle Speed 24 7 168 in^2 0.11 m^2

34

NTU METHOD Effectivity, Capacitance, C C=massflow * specific heat Ca, Cc Cw, Ch 2.14E+03 1.09E+03 capacitance 0.79 E, dependent on

out of Cw and Ca, which one is max and which one is min Cmax Cmin 2143.52 1088.27

here, air is the cool temperature, and h is the higher temperature heat transfer, q q=E*Cmin*(T1-t1) q 66505.15 W 66.51 kW same value for q, both methods agree log mean temperature different, Tlmtd Tlmtd= Correction Factor, F need R and S for graphs R S F 1.97E+00 1.969661 0.40 0.93 from available plots of R, S, an dF 29.17

35

NTU q=UAFTlmtd NTU=UA/Cmin NTU=q/FTlmtdCmin UA=NTU/Cmin NTU UA U= A= 2.25 2451.69 1161.94 2.11

36

Intercooler Calculations - Original Air T1 T2 F Water 110.00 t1 82.22 t2 F 48.89 Compressor Flow Q 406.7933 CFM Q 0.191985 m^3/s Pump Flow rate Q Pump Eff. @ t1+t2/2 assume t2 55.00 51.94 C Q Q

obtaining density water density tfw, film temp water water density water density

mass flow rates Air mass flow rate = density*Q air flow rate Water mass flow rate = Q*density water flow rate

0.18 kg/s

air density @ T1+T2/2 Tfa, film temp air air density air

0.26 kg/s

Heat Transfer, q q=mass flow rate*specific heat*delta T qa = qw qa 5119.92 W 5.12 kW knowing qw, use qa to get t2 qa = mass flow rate*specific heat*(t2-t1) = qw solving for t2 t2 53.54 C

Specific Heats, Cp air @ tfa 1.01E+03 j/kgK water @Tfw 4.18E+03 j/kgK

table table

NTU METHOD Capacitance, C Effectivity, E, dependent on capacitance C=massflow * specific heat 0.45 Ca, Ch 184.32 Cw, Cc 1101.51 out of Cw and Ca, which one is max and which one is min Cmax 1101.513 Cmin 184.317 here, air is the cool temperature, and h is the higher temperature

37

log mean temperature different, Tlmtd Tlmtd= 43.89 Correction Factor, F need R and S for graphs R S F NTU q=UAFTlmtd NTU=UA/Cmin NTU=q/FTlmtdCmin UA=NTU/Cmin NTU UA A= U=

38

obtaining density air density tfa, film temperature air air density air density @ t1+t2/2 assume t2= 37.77778 35.00 C 95 F

water density @ T1+T2/2 Tfw, film temperature w water density water density Heat Transfer, q q=mass flow rate*specific heat*delta T qa = qw qw 5118.57 W 5.12 kW knowing qw, use qa to get t2 qa = mass flow rate*specific heat*(t2-t1) = qw solving for t2 t2 NTU METHOD Capacitance, C C=massflow * specific heat Ca, Cc 2.22E+03 Cw, Ch 1.10E+03 out of Cw and Ca, which one is max and which one is min Cmax 2218.40 Cmin 1101.22

34.53 C

39

here, air is the cool temperature, and h is the higher temperature heat transfer, q q=E*Cmin*(T1-t1) q

5118.57 W 5.12 kW same value for q, both methods agree log mean temperature different, Tlmtd Tlmtd= 17.81 Correction Factor, F need R and S for graphs R 2.01E+00 S 0.11 F NTU q=UAFTlmtd NTU=UA/Cmin NTU=q/FTlmtdCmin UA=NTU/Cmin NTU UA U= A= from available plots of R, S, an 1 dF

40

Run # 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Th 82 89 98 97 96 94 106 101 108 98 97 92 Tc 67 59 63 65 65 51 58 56 74 33 38 32 T1 183 184 202 202 197 179 171 170 171 72 78 81 T2 120 104 117 119 119 108 118 111 120 47 53 55 RPM 3068 2602 2556 3350 3114 3103 2600 2631 2600 1961 1958 1986 Speed 79 88 86 86 80 81 89 89 89 39 39 40

Th 220 210 200 190 180 170 160 150 140 130 120 110 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 0 2 4 6 8 10 Run Number Tc T1 T2 Speed RPM 4000 3500

3000

Engine RPM 2500 2000 1500 1000 500 0

41

Th 120 Temperature (F), Speed, mph 100 80 60 40 20 0 9 10 11 Run Number 12 13 1000 500 0 Tc T1 T2 Speed RPM 2500 2000 1500 Engine RPM 3500

Th 200 175 Temperature (F) 150 125 100 75 50 25 0 1750 2000 2250 2500 2750 3000 3250 Engine RPM Tc T1 T2

42

The following calculations are the heat transfer calculations with the test data at highway speeds and at an ambient temperature of 47 deg Fahrenheit. Compressor Air Flow Calculations

CFM=VE*CID*RPM/3456 CID is cubic inches of engine displacement RPM is the engine speed 3456 is a conversion factor VE is the volumetric efficiency CID RPM VE CFM lb/min for a 6.5 liter turbo 395 diesel 2610 0.8 238.65 16.47

recalculate the flow based on the boost pressure influxing more air into the engine boost 15 psi PR=boost+atm/atm PR 2.02 recalculate flow rate lb/min CFM

43

Radiator Calculations - Original Water T1 T2 C Air 40.56 t1 17.04 t2 C Heat Exchanger Frontal Area 8.33 (ambient) L 6.5 H 4.38 A 28.44 in^2 A 0.0183 m^2 Vehicle Speed assume t2 = 140 22.16667 C 71.9 F 36 V V 90 mph 40.23 meters/s

obtaining density @ air density t1+t2/2 tfa, film temperature air density from online table air density

water density @ T1+T2/2 Tfw, film temperature w Density from online table water density

Pump Flow rate Q 317 GPH Pump Eff. 80 % Q 253.6 GPH Q 0.000267 m^3/s 28.80 C 83.83 F

1054.60 kg/m^3

Air mass flow rate = density*velocity*ar air flow rate 0.88 Water mass flow rate = Q*density water flow rate 0.28 Specific Heats, Cp air @ tfa 1.01E+03 j/kgK water @Tfw 3.41E+03 j/kgK

Heat Transfer, q q=mass flow rate*specific heat*delta T qa = qw qw 22568.29 W 22.57 kW knowing qw, use qa to get t2 qa = mass flow rate*specific heat*(t2-t1) = qw solving for t2 t2

33.93 C

NTU METHOD Capacitance, C Effectivity, E, dependent on capacitance C=massflow * specific heat 0.79 Ca, Cc 8.82E+02 Cw, Ch 9.60E+02 out of Cw and Ca, which one is max and which one is min Cmax 959.60 Cmin 881.74 here, air is the cool temperature, and h is the higher temperature

44

heat transfer, q q=E*Cmin*(T1-t1) 22568.29 W 22.57 kW same value for q, both methods agree q

log mean temperature different, Tlmtd Tlmtd= 7.62 Correction Factor, F need R and S for graphs R 9.19E-01 0.91886 S 0.79 F 1 from available plots of R, S, an dF NTU q=UAFTlmtd NTU=UA/Cmin NTU=q/FTlmtdCmin UA=NTU/Cmin NTU UA U= A=

45

Intercooler Calculations - Test Data Air T1 T2 C Water 77.22 t1 46.67 t2 C 17.04 40.56 Q Q Compressor Flow 482.16 CFM 0.23 m^3/s Pump Flow rate obtaining density water @ density t1+t2/2 tfw, film temp water Density from online table Water 996.01 1054.60 kg/m^3 air density @ T1+T2/2 Tfa, film temp air Q Pump Eff. Q Q 317 GPH 80 % 253.6 GPH 0.000267 m^3/s

28.80 C

mass flow rates Air mass flow rate = density*Q air flow rate Water mass flow rate = Q*density water flow rate Specific Heats, Cp air @ tfa water @Tfw

0.24 kg

61.94 C

143.50

Density from online table Air 0.07 lb/ft^3 1.05 kg/m^3 Heat Transfer, q q=mass flow rate*specific heat*delta T qa = qw qa 7349.646 W qw 7383.023 7.350 kW knowing qa, we use it to get water mdot qa = mass flow rate*specific heat*(t2-t1) = qw mdot 0.092 kg/s

ta Ta

NTU METHOD Capacitance, C Effectivity, E, dependent on capacitance C=massflow * specific heat 0.508 Ca, Ch 2.41E+02 Cw, Cc 3.14E+02 out of Cw and Ca, which one is max and which one is min Cmax 313.93 Cmin 240.53

46

here, air is the cool temperature, and h is the higher temperature heat transfer, q q=E*Cmin*(T1-t1) q 746.27 W 0.746 kW same value for q, both methods agree

log mean temperature different, Tlmtd Tlmtd= 33.02 Correction Factor, F need R and S for graphs R S F 1.31E+00 1.80315 0.39 0.98 from available plots of R, S, an dF

NTU q=UAFTlmtd NTU=UA/Cmin NTU=q/FTlmtdCmin UA=NTU/Cmin NTU 0.94 UA 227.10 good A= U= 1.58 m^2 143.74 realistic

47

Radiator Calculations - Test Calculations Iteration 1 Heat Exchanger Frontal Area (ambient) L H A A obtaining density @ air density t1+t2/2 tfa, film temperature air density from online table Air 0.0767 1.23 assume t2 = 140 12.67 54.8 6.5 4.375 28.437 5 0.018

Water T1 T2

C 40.56 17.04

Air t1 t2

C 8.3 3 ??

in^2 m^2

Vehicle Speed

17 C F

V V

90 40.23

mph meters /s

lb/ft^3 kg/m^3

water density @ T1+T2/2 Tfw, film temperatur ew 28.80 83.83 Density from online table 1054.6 Water 0 kg/m^3

Pump Flow rate Q 317 GPH Pum p Eff. 80 % Q 253.6 GPH 0.0002 Q 67 m^3/s

C F Air

mass flow rate = density*velocity*area air flow rate 0.91 Wate r mass flow rate = Q*density water flow rate 0.09

kg/s

kg/s

j/kgK j/kgK

tabl e Tabl e

48

@Tf w solving for t2 t2 16.40 NTU METHOD Effectivity, E, dependent on capacitance 0.729884 C

Capacitance, C C=massflow * specific heat 9.11E+ Ca, Cc 02 3.13E+ Cw, Ch 02 out of Cw and Ca, which one is max and which one is min Cmax 911.44 Cmin 312.51 here, air is the cool temperature, and h is the higher temperature heat transfer, q q=E*Cmin*(T1-t1) 7349.7 q 0 W 7.35 kW same value for q, both methods agree

log mean temperature different, Tlmtd Tlmtd= 15.14 Correction Factor, F need R and S for graphs R 2.92 S 0.25 F 1 NTU q=UAFTlmtd NTU=UA/Cmin NTU=q/FTlmtdCmin UA=NTU/Cmin NTU 1.55 UA 485.49

good

49

U= A=

230.09 2.11

realistic

The following calculations are for the test data collected at 40 miles per hour at an ambient condition of 47 degrees Fahrenheit..

50

Compressor air flow calculations CFM=VE*CID*RPM/3456 CID is cubic inches of engine displacement RPM is the engine speed 3456 is a conversion factor VE is the volumetric efficiency CID 395 for a 6.5 liter turbo diesel RPM 1968 VE 0.8 CFM 179.9444 converting to lb/min for compressor flow map lb/min 12.41617 now, we need to recalculate the flow based on the boost pressure influxing more air into the engine boost 4 psi PR=boost+atm/atm PR 1.272109 recalculate flow rate lb/min 15.79472 lb/min*PR CFM 228.9089

1728 3456

51

Water T1 T2

Radiator Calculations - 40mph Test Data Heat Exchanger Frontal Area C 8.33 (ambient) L 6.50 H 4.38 A 22.33 in^2 A 0.0144 m^2 Vehicle Speed

V V

Table for Density Air 0.0735 lb/ft^3 1.18 kg/m^3 H20 DENSITY Tfw, film temp water

18.33 C 65.00 F

mass flow rates Air mass flow rate = density*velocity*area air flow rate 0.30 kg/s

Heat Transfer, q Water q=mass flow rate*specific heat*delta T qa = qw mass flow rate = Q*density qw 32810.88 W water flow rate 0.28 kg/s 32.81 kW Specific Heats, Cp knowing qw, use qa to get t2 qa = mass flow rate*specific heat*(t2-t1) = qw air @ tfa 1.01E+03 J/kgC air table solving for water water t2 @Tfw 3.38E+03 J/kgC table t2 46.64 C 115.95 F NTU METHOD Capacitance, C Effectivity, E, dependent on capacitance C=massflow * specific heat 3.95 Ca, Cc 3.05E+02 Cw, Ch 9.53E+02 out of Cw and Ca, which one is max and which one is min Cmax 952.57 Cmin 304.88 here, air is the cool temperature, and h is the higher temperature heat transfer, q

52

Correction Factor, F need R and S for graphs R S F 3.20E-01 0.71 0.9 from available plots of R, S, an dF

NTU q=UAFTlmtd NTU=UA/Cmin NTU=q/FTlmtdCmin UA=NTU/Cmin NTU 3.94 UA 1200.60 ok U= A= 569.01 ok 2.11

53

Intercooler Calculations - Test Run 40mph - 12/2 Air T1 T2 C Water 25.00 t1 11.11 t2 C

1.67 35.56

Compressor Flow Q Q Pump Flow rate Q Pump Eff. Q Q mass flow rates Air mass flow rate = density*Q air flow rate Water mass flow rate = Q*density water flow rate Specific Heats, Cp air @ tfa

obtaining density water density @ t1+t2/2 tfw, film temperature water Table for Density water 998.5364159

18.61 C 65.5 F

0.13 kg

18.06 C

64.5

0.28 kg

Heat Transfer, q water @Tfw q=mass flow rate*specific heat*delta T qa = qw qa 1826.133 W 1.826 kW knowing qw, use qa to get mdot qa = mass flow rate*specific heat*(t2-t1) = qw mdot 0.016 kg/s SOLVE FOR Mdot to get pump flow rate

a wa ta

NTU METHOD Capacitance, C Effectivity, E, dependent on capacitance C=massflow * specific heat 0.595238 Ca, Ch 1.31E+02 Cw, Cc 9.53E+02 out of Cw and Ca, which one is max and which one is min Cmax 952.575 Cmin 131.482 here, air is the cool temperature, and h is the higher temperature

54

log mean temperature different, Tlmtd Tlmtd= 15.97392979 Correction Factor, F need R and S for graphs R 7.24E+00 S 1.452380952 F 1 from available plots of R, S, an dF NTU q=UAFTlmtd NTU=UA/Cmin NTU=q/FTlmtdCmin UA=NTU/Cmin NTU 0.910875704 UA 119.7633814 low A= U= 1.58 m^2 75.79960846 low

55

Water T1 T2 C Air 35.56 t1 1.11 t2 Heat Exchanger Frontal Area C 8.33 (ambient) L 6.50 H 4.38 A 22.33 in^2 A 0.0144 m^2 Vehicle Speed assume t2= 42.22 25.28 C 77.50 F V V 40 mph 17.88 meters/s

Table for Density Air 0.0735 lb/ft^3 1.18 kg/m^3 H20 DENSITY Tfw, film temp water

18.33 C 65.00 F

mass flow rates Air mass flow rate = density*velocity*area air flow rate 0.30 kg/s

Heat Transfer, q Water q=mass flow rate*specific heat*delta T qa = qw mass flow rate = Q*density qw 10487.95 W water flow rate 0.09 kg/s 10.49 kW Specific Heats, Cp knowing qw, use qa to get t2 qa = mass flow rate*specific heat*(t2-t1) = qw air @ tfa 1.01E+03 J/kgC air table solving for water water t2 @Tfw 3.38E+03 J/kgC table t2 5.96 C 42.73 F NTU METHOD Capacitance, C Effectivity, E, dependent on capacitance C=massflow * specific heat 1.27 Ca, Cc 3.05E+02 Cw, Ch 3.04E+02 out of Cw and Ca, which one is max and which one is min Cmax 304.88 Cmin 304.49 here, air is the cool temperature, and h is the higher temperature heat transfer, q

56

Correction Factor, F need R and S for graphs R S F 1.00E+00 -11.49 1 from available plots of R, S, an dF

NTU q=UAFTlmtd NTU=UA/Cmin NTU=q/FTlmtdCmin UA=NTU/Cmin NTU 4.78 UA 1456.64 ok U= A= 690.35 ok 2.11

57

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