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RATIO ANALYSIS AND COMPARATIVE BALANCE SHEET OF BHUSHAN STEEL

Submitted for the partial fulfillment of the requirement for the award Of Master in Business Administration

SUBMITTED BY

PREFACE

Theory of any subject is important but without its practical knowledge it becomes useless particularly for the management students. As students of the Busines Administration, I have studied many theories and concepts in the classroom, but only after taking up this project work I have experienced & understood these Management theories & practices in its fullest sense, which plays a very vital role in business field today. The knowledge of management is incomplete without knowing the practical application of the theories studied. This grand project provides golden opportunity for all students, especially when the management students do not have prefect understanding of the working of a unit.

I have undertaken project report at Bhushan Steel Ltd. which is BSE listed company and in the business of steel manufacturing. I have taken this project in finance department and tried to apply all the theoretical concept of ratio analysis in the company. I have given my best to complete this project.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

3 It is a matter of great satisfaction and pleasure to present this presentation on RATIO ANALYSIS AND COMPARATIVE BALANCE SHEET OF BHUSHAN STEEL ".

I am grateful to Mr. A. Paul (AGM Finance) of BHUSHAN STEEL Ltd. who spared his precious time in guiding me and for making valuable suggestions in compiling this project report. I acknowledge my gratitude and indebtness to my project guide

Mr._________________________ for his encouragement and able guidance at every stage of this report.

I express my gratitude towards all those people who have helped me directly or indirectly in completing this report.

TABLE OF CONTENT Chapter No. Content Page No.

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5 6 7

Executive Summary Company Profile Introduction Vision Products Objective and Research Methodology Theoretical framework of Ratio analysis Financial Ratio Analysis Meaning and Rationale Importance and Limitation of Ratio analysis Precautions for use of Ratio User of Financial Analysis Types of Ratios Data Analysis and Interpretation Liquidity Ratio Leverage Ratio Activity Ratio Profitability Ratio Findings Suggestion Bibliography

Executive Summary
Every countries economic condition depends upon the performance of its Industry. How the investors are interested in it as it will help in the increment in the flow of foreign exchange. A sound and well performing industry will always attract investors as it will give them a return in a less time period. But it is not easy for a layman to understand or to properly analyze the performance of the company. To understand the performance of any company we have to do financial statement analysis. Ratio analysis is a widely used tool of financial analysis. It is defined as the systematic use of ratio to interpret the financial statements so that the strength and weaknesses of a firm as well

5 as its historical performance and current financial condition can be determined. The term ratio refers to the numerical or quantitative relationship between two variables.

Ratio analysis helps in inter-firm comparison by providing necessary data. An interfirm comparison indicates relative position. It provides the relevant data for the comparison of the performance of different departments. If comparison shows a variance, the possible reasons of variations may be identified and if results are negative, the action may be initiated immediately to bring them in line.

In my study I have tried to make out a clear picture of Bhushan steel ltd. and its performance in the steel industry with the help of Ratio analysis and Comparative Balance sheet. While doing my interpretation through Ratio analysis I have focused on 5 main areas: 1. Liquidity 2. Investment/shareholder 3. Gearing 4. Profitability 5. Financial

First chapter contains information about the company and its product. Second chapter is about the research methodology. Third chapter has detailed study of theoretical concept of ratio analysis and last part is about the data analysis. I have taken 7 years data to have financial analysis. Suggestion is made on the basis of finding.

CHAPTER -1 COMPANY PROFILE

Introduction
Bhushan Steel Ltd formerly known as Bhushan Steel & Strips Ltd. is a globally renowned one of the leading prominent player in Steel Industry. Backed by more than two decades, of experience in Steel making, Bhushan Steel is now Indias 3rd largest Secondary Steel Producer company with an existing steel production capacity of 2 million tonnes per annum. It was the vision of the founder; Brij Bhushan Singal, that the first stake was driven into the soil of Sahibabad (Uttar Pradesh) in 1987. His vision helped BSL overcome several periods

7 of adversity and strive to improve against all odds. The company has three manufacturing units in the state of Uttar Pradesh (Sahibabad Unit), Maharashtra (Khopoli unit), and Orissa Plant (Meramandali unit) in India and sales network is across many countries. The company is a source for vivid variety of products such as Cold Rolled Closed Annealed, Galvanized Coil and Sheet, High Tensile Steel Strapping, Colour Coated Coils , Galume Sheets and Coils, Hardened & Tempered Steel Strips , Billets, Sponge Iron, Precision Tubes and Wire Rod. As one of the prime movers of the technological revolutions in Indian Cold Rolled Steel Industry, BSL has emerged as the countrys largest and the only Cold Rolled Steel Plant with an independent line for manufacturing Cold Rolled Coil and Sheet up to a width of 1700mm, as well as Galvanized Coil and Sheet up to a width of 1350 mm. In due course of time, BSL has grown incredibly its turnover and production capacity by successive expansions as well as improved realizations with these manufacturing units. Given a vibrant Steel industry dynamics in India, we are on a course to become a fully Integrated Steel & Power Company with market leading offerings in value added Steel in Automotive and White Good Segment with the quality been approved by ISO 9001:2008 & ISO 14001:2004.

Vision
The vision of evolving into a totally Integrated Steel Producer by committing to achieve the highest standards of Quality through Cutting-Edge Technology.

About Culture: -To make it a place where all the people can thrive living, learning and

working in a clean, safe and healthy environment.

About Values:-To corporate values as the rules or guidelines by which a corporation

8 exhorts its members to behave consistently with its order, security and growth.

About People: - See the good in people and try to develop those qualities i.e. preparation

and grooming of the next generation of the young thinkers.

About Customers: - Sell good merchandise at reasonable price; treat our customer like we

would treat our friends and the business will take care of itself. Bhushan Steels endeavor is to attain the highest level of Customer Satisfaction.

About Products: - We should always be the pioneers with our products out front leading

the market.

Products

COLD ROLLED STEEL COILS :

Parameters Thickness (mm) Width (mm) Coil Weight (MT) Surface Finish Grades

Technical Details/Specifications 0.10 to 4.00 10 to 1700 (Max) Up to 30 MT (7 to 18 kg/mm width) Super Bright, Bright, Dull & Matte. (RaValue with controlled Rmax on request). Specifications - As per JIS/BIS/ ASTM/EN Standards Low Carbon CRCA Grades Super EDD/DD/D (SPCX, SPCEN, SPCD, SPCC) nonaging, IF-High Strength steel(IF-HSS), High Strength Low Alloy Steel (HSLA), viz., ST -42, ST-45, ST-52, SAPH-400/41O, Steel for Porcelein Enammeling, Corrosion Resistant Steel, viz., Tin Mill Black Plate (TMBP) Medium & High Carbon CRCA Grades

9 C- 30, C-40,MC -ll,EN - 8, for spring steel application, C55,MC-12, EN- 9 C-62,C-60, C-80,HC-14,EN-42J ELECTRICAL Grades Elec -I, Elec-n, Elec-nI, SemiProcessed Elect. Steel OTHER CRCA Grades Case Hardening Steel- 15Cr3, SAE 1010, SAE 1012 Through Hardening Grades- SAE 1040, SAE 1045, 1055, 1065, 1080, 1541

H.R PICKLED/ SKIN PASSED & OILED Thickness Up to 3.00 mm 3.00 mm - 4.00 mm Above 4.00 mm 1500 mm 1250 mm 600 mm 50 mm - 1700 mm 50 mm - 1700 mm 50 mm - 1700 mm

Max. Width for Cut Size Width for Coil

COLD ROLLED STEEL SHEETS :

10 Parameters Technical Details/Specifications

Thickness (mm) Width (mm) Cut- to -Length (mm)

0.10 t0 4.00 10 to 1700 (Max) Up to 4500mm with tolerance of +2/-0 mm(Further close

tolerance on - request) Coil Weight (MT) Surface Finish Up to 30 MT (7 to 18 kg/mm width) Super Bright, Bright, Dull & Matte. (RaValuewith controlled Rmax on request). Grades Specifications - As per JIS/BIS/ ASTM/EN Standards Low Carbon CRCA Grades Super EDD/EDD/DD/D (SPCX, SPCEN, SPCD, SPCC) non-aging, IF-High Strength steel (IF-HSS), High Strength Low Alloy Steel (HSLA), viz., ST -42, ST-45, ST-52, SAPH-400/41O, Steel for Porcelein Enammeling, Corrosion Resistant Steel, viz., Tin Mill Black Plate (TMBP) Medium & High Carbon CRCA Grades C- 30, C-40,MC -ll, EN - 8, C-55, MC-12, EN- 9 C-62, C-60, C-80, HC-14, EN-42J ELECTRICAL Grades Elec -I, Elec-n, Elec-nI, SemiProcessed Elect. Steel OTHER CRCA Grades Case Hardening Steel- 15Cr3, SAE 1010, SAE 1012 Through Hardening Grades- SAE 1040, SAE 1045, 1055,

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RATIO ANALYSIS:
Ratio analysis is a widely used tool of financial analysis. The term ratio in it refers to the relationship expressed in mathematical terms between two individual figures or group of figures connected with each other in some logical manner and are selected from financial statements of the concern. The ratio analysis is based on the fact that a single accounting figure by it self may not communicate any meaningful information but when expressed as a relative to some other figure, it may definitely provide some significant information the relationship between two or more accounting figure/groups is called a financial ratio helps to express the relationship between two accounting figures in such a way that users can draw conclusions about the performance, strengths and weakness of a firm.

Classification of ratios:
A) Liquidity ratios B) Leverage ratios C) Activity ratios D) Profitability ratios

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A) Liquidity ratios:
These ratios portray the capacity of the business unit to meet its short term obligation from its short-term resources (e.g.) current ratio, quick ratio.
i) Current ratio:

Current ratio may be defined as the relationship between current assets and current liabilities it is the most common ratio for measuring liquidity. It is calculated by dividing current assets and current liabilities. Current assets are those, the amount of which can be realized with in a period of one year. Current liabilities are those amounts which are payable with in a period of one year.
Current assets Current assets = ------------------------Current liabilities

TABLE -1 CURRENT RATIO:


Year 2004-05 2005-06 2006-07 Current asset 1,069.44 1,201.92 1,762.75 Current liabilities 473.07 544.23 818.95

( In Crore)
Ratio 2.26 2.22 2.15

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2007-08 2008-09 2009-10 2010-11

2,418.38 2,749.78 3,770.21 5,017.69

1,263.63 1,796.84 1,603.58 2,067.58

1.91 1.53 2.35 2.42

CHART-1 CURRENT RATIO

I nterpretation and Analysis: The above table and diagram shows that the current ratio in the year 2010-11 was 2.42 which is the highest. In the year 2004-05, current ratio was 2.26 and thereafter up to 2008-09 it shows decreasing trend. But again it shows increasing trend for the year 2009-10, 2010-11. In all the year current ratio is above 2 :1 except year 2007-08 and 2008-09. This shows companys liquidity position is good except year 2007-08 and 2008-09. Company has enough

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current assets to meet its current liability. We can say there is the safety of funds of
short-term creditors.

ii) LIQUID RATIO:

The term liquidity refers to the ability of a firm to pay its short-term obligation as and when they become due. The term quick assets or liquid assets refers current assets which can be converted into cash immediately it comprises all current assets except stock and prepaid expenses it is determined by dividing quick assets by quick liabilities.

Liquid assets Liquid ratio = ------------------------Liquid liabilities

TABLE-2 LIQUID RATIO:


( Rs. In Crore) Year 2004-05 2005-06 2006-07 2007-08 Liquid Asset 487.77 727.14 1006.41 1288.75 Current Liabilities 473.07 544.23 818.95 1,263.63 Liquid Ratio 1.03 1.34 1.23 1.02

15 2008-09 2009-10 2010-2011 1519.42 1807.54 1849.28 1,796.84 1,603.58 2,067.58 0.85 1.13 0.89

CHART-2 LIQUID RATIO:

Interpretation and Analysis:

The above table and diagram shows the liquid ratio during the study period. In all the year except 2008-09 and 2010-11, it is more than 1:1 or equal to 1:1. We can say that company has enough quick asset to meet current liabilities. Hence the firm is controlling its stock position because there linear relationship between current ratio and liquid ratio.

16 ii) ABSOLUTE LIQUIDITY RATIO:

Absolute liquid assets include cash, bank, and marketable securities. This ratio Obtained by dividing cash and bank and marketable securities by current liabilities.

Cash + bank +marketable securities Absolute liquidity ratio = ---------------------------------------------Current liability

TABLE-3 ABSOLUTE LIQUID RATIO:


Year 2004-05 2005-06 2006-07 2007-08 2008-09 2009-10 2010-11 Cash and Securities 10.69 81.52 100.14 27.62 124.37 120.2 35.08 Current Liabilities 473.07 544.23 818.95 1,263.63 1,796.84 1,603.58 2,067.58 Absolute Liquid Ratio 0.023 0.150 0.122 0.022 0.069 0.075 0.017

CHART-3 ABSOLUTE LIQUID RATIO:

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Interpretation and Analysis:

The above table and diagram shows the absolute ratio for the study period 2010-11 absolute liquid ratio is 0.017 which is the lowest in all seven year. In the year 2004-05 ratio is 0.023 which increases up to 2006-07 and then came down to 0.022 in the year 2007-08. Again it increases up to 2009-10 and then went down to 0.017 in the year 2010-11.
This shows that company doesnt keep much in cash and bank balances.

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B) LEVERAGE RATIOS:

Many financial analyses are interested in the relative use of debt and equity in the firm. The term solvency refers to the ability of a concern to meet its long-term obligation. Accordingly, long-term solvency ratios indicate a firms ability to meet the fixed interest and costs and repayment schedules associated with its long-term borrowings. (E.g.) debt equity ratio, proprietary ratio, etc.
i) DEBT EQUITY RATIO:

It expresses the relationship between the external funds borrowed and internal equities or the relationship between borrowed funds and owners capital. It is a popular measure of the long-term financial solvency of a firm. This relationship is shown by the debt equity ratio. This ratio indicates the relative proportion of debt and equity in financing the assets of a firm. This ratio is computed by dividing the total debt of the firm by its equity (i.e.) net worth.
Outsiders funds Debt equity ratio = -----------------------------Proprietors funds

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TABLE-4 DEBT EQUITY RATIO:


Year 2004-05 2005-06 2006-07 2007-08 2008-09 2009-10 2010-11 Total Debt 1,317.47 2,036.18 3,241.98 5,718.14 8,066.25 11,404.11 16,592.63 Net Worth 730.59 889.67 1,214.50 1,625.32 2,034.20 3,991.67 5,896.41 Debt equity ratio 1.80 2.29 2.67 3.52 3.97 2.86 2.81

CHART-4 DEBT EQUITY RATIO:

Interpretation and Analysis:

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In the year 2004-05, debt equity ratio is 1.80 and thereafter up to year 2008-09 it shows increasing trend. This means that firm has higher debt compared to its equity. This is risky composition. But in the year 2009-10 and 2010-11, debt equity ratio shows decreasing trend. It is good sign for the firm as outsiders fund decreased compared to share capital.

ii) PROPRIETARY RATIO:

Proprietary ratio relates to the proprietors funds to total assets. It reveals the owners contribution to the total value of assets. This ratio shows the long-time solvency of the business it is calculated by dividing proprietors funds by the total tangible assets.

Proprietors funds Proprietary ratio = --------------------------Total tangible assets

TABLE-5 PROPRIETARY RATIO:


Year 2004-05 2005-06 2006-07 Net Worth 730.59 889.67 1,214.50 Total Assets 2,048.06 2,925.85 4,456.48 Proprietary ratio 0.36 0.30 0.27

21 2007-08 2008-09 2009-10 2010-11 1,625.32 2,034.20 3,991.67 5,896.41 7,343.46 10,100.45 15,395.78 22,489.04 0.22 0.20 0.26 0.26

CHART-5 PROPRIETARY RATIO:

Interpretation and Analysis:

The above table and diagram shows the proprietary ratio during the study period. In the year 2004-05 proprietary ratio is 0.36 and it shows down ward trend up to the year 2008-09. We can say that proprietors contribution to total asset is on an average between 20 to 30%.

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C) ACTIVITY RATIOS:

These ratios evaluate the use of the total resources of the business concern along with the use of the components of total assets. They are intended to measure the effectiveness of the assets management the efficiency with which the assts are used would be reflected in the speed and rapidity with which the assets are converted into sales. The greater the rate of turnover, the more efficient the management would be (E.g.) stock turnover ratio, fixed assets turnover ratios etc.
i) FIXED ASSETS TURNOVER RATIO:

The ratio indicates the extent to which the investments in fixed assets contribute towards sales. If compared with a previous year. It indicates whether the investment in fixed assets has been used effectively or not. The ratio is calculated as follows.

Net sales Fixed assets turnover ratio = ------------------Fixed assets

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TABLE-6 FIXED ASSET TURNOVER RATIO:


Year 2004-05 2005-06 2006-07 2007-08 2008-09 2009-10 2010-11 Net Sales 2,674.99 2,716.20 3,806.81 4,152.30 4,943.25 5,611.27 6,967.65 Fixed Asset 1432.7 2315.3 3615.57 6326.99 9286.1 13188.65 19959.51 Fixed asset turnover ratio 1.87 1.17 1.05 0.66 0.53 0.43 0.35

CHART-7 FIXED ASSET TURNOVER RATIO:

Interpretation and Analysis:

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In the year 2004-05, Fixed asset turnover was highest and it is 1.87.and it shows decreasing trend. It is 0.35 in the year 2010-11. With the passage of time, investment in assets has increased, in proportion to which sales has not increased. This means that company is not using fixed asset efficiently to generate sales.

ii) INVENTORY TURNOVER RATIO:

This ratio indicates how efficiently the firm is managing its inventory. This ratio roughly indicates how many times per year the inventory is replaced.

SALES INVENTORY TURNOVER RATIO = INVENTORIES

TABLE-7 INVENTORY TURNOVER RATIO


Year 2004-05 2005-06 2006-07 2007-08 2008-09 Net Sales 2,674.99 2,716.20 3,806.81 4,152.30 4,943.25 Inventory 581.67 474.78 756.34 1,129.63 1,230.36 Inventory Turnover Ratio 4.60 5.72 5.03 3.68 4.02

25 2009-10 2010-11 5,611.27 6,967.65 1,962.67 3,168.41 2.86 2.20

CHART -7 INVENTORY TURNOVER RATIO

Interpretation and Analysis: In the year 2004-05, inventory turnover ratio is 4.60 which shows increasing trend and rise up to 5.72 then went down to 5.03 in the year 2006-07 and 3.68 in the year 2007-08. After 2008-09, it shows down ward trend and came up to 2.20. As ratio went down it shows firm is not maintaining its inventory efficiently.

iii) DEBTORS TURNOVER RATIO:

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Debtors constitute an important constituent of current assets. Quality of debtors determines to a great extent a firms liquidity. Debtors turnover ratio is very important as it depicts the efficiency of the staff entrusted with the task of collection from debtors. SALES
DEBTORS TURNOVER RATIO = DEBTORS

TABLE 8 DEBTORS TURNOVER RATIO Year 2004-05 2005-06 2006-07 2007-08 2008-09 2009-10 2010-11 Net sales 2,674.99 2,716.20 3,806.81 4,152.30 4,943.25 5,611.27 6,967.65 Debtor 339.44 404.48 538.9 617.38 619.82 733.92 483.53 Debtor's turnover ratio 7.88 6.72 7.06 6.73 7.98 7.65 14.41

CHART 8 DEBTORS TURNOVER RATIO

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Interpretation and Analysis:


In the year, 2004-05, Debtors turnover ratio is 7.88 which decreased to 6.72 in 200506, again increased to 7.06 in 2006-07 and decreases to 6.73 in 2007-08. In the year 2010-11 it jumped to 14.41 which is highest in all the year. This shows that firm is able to collect debtor 14.41 times in a year. This shows that debtors are collected soon.

iv) WORKING CAPITAL TURNOVER RATIO:

Working capital turnover ratio indicates the velocity of the utilization of net working capital. This ratio indicates the number of times the working capital is turned over in the course of a year. It is a good measure over trading and under-trading.
Net sales Working capital turnover ratio = ---------------------------Net working capital

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TABLE-9 WORKING CAPITAL TURNOVER RATIO:


Year 2004-05 2005-06 2006-07 2007-08 2008-09 2009-10 2010-11 Net Sales 2,674.99 2,716.20 3,806.81 4,152.30 4,943.25 5,611.27 6,967.65 Net working capital 596.37 657.69 943.8 1154.75 952.94 2166.63 2950.11 Net working capital turnover ratio 4.49 4.13 4.03 3.60 5.19 2.59 2.36

CHART-9 WORKING CAPITAL TURNOVER RATIO:

Interpretation and Analysis:

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The above table and diagram shows the relationship between net working capital and net sales. In the year 2004-05, working capital turnover ratio is 4.49 which shows decreasing trend up to 2007-08. In the year 2008-09 it has jumped to 5.19 which shows firm has utilized it s working capital very efficiently to generate sales.

v) TOTAL ASSETS TURNOVER RATIO:

This ratio is an indicator of how the resources of the organization utilized for increasing the turnover. It shows the ratio between the total assets and the net sales of the company. From this ratio one can understand how the assets are performing and being utilized in achieving the objectives of the company.
Net Sales Total assets turnover ratio = ------------------Total assets

TABLE-10 TOTAL ASSETS TURNOVER RATIO:

30 Total asset turnover ratio 1.30 0.92 0.85 0.56 0.49 0.36 0.31

Year 2004-05 2005-06 2006-07 2007-08 2008-09 2009-10 2010-11

Total Assets 2,048.06 2,925.85 4,456.48 7,343.46 10,100.45 15,395.78 22,489.04

Net Sales 2,674.99 2,716.20 3,806.81 4,152.30 4,943.25 5,611.27 6,967.65

CHART-10 TOTAL ASSETS TURNOVER RATIO:

Interpretation and Analysis:

The above table and diagram shows the relationship between the total assets to net sales. Total asset turnover ratio show decreasing trend from the year 2004-05 to 2010-11. This shows Firms total asset is not utilized efficiently to generate sales.

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vi) CAPITAL TURNOVER RATIO:

This is a ratio which shows how much sales are entertained from the capital. It shows how the sales are attracted from the Proprietor's Fund.

Sales Capital turnover ratio = ----------------------Proprietors fund

TABLE-11 CAPITAL TURNOVER RATIO:


Year 2004-05 2005-06 2006-07 2007-08 2008-09 2009-10 2010-11 Net Sales 2,674.99 2,716.20 3,806.81 4,152.30 4,943.25 5,611.27 6,967.65 Net Worth 730.59 889.67 1,214.50 1,625.32 2,034.20 3,991.67 5,896.41 Capital Turnover Ratio 3.66 3.05 3.13 2.55 2.43 1.41 1.18

CHART-11 CAPITAL TURNOVER RATIO:

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Interpretation and Analysis:

The above table and diagram shows the relationship between the sales and proprietors funds. In the year 2004-05 capital turnover ratio is 3.66 and it shows decreasing trend up to the year 2010-11.

v) RETURN ON TOTAL ASSETS:

Profitability can be measured in terms of relationship between net profit and total assets. It measures the profitability of investment. The overall profitability can be known by applying this ratio.

Net profit Return on total assets = ----------------------------- x100 Total assets

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TABLE-12 RETURN ON TOTAL ASSETS RATIO:


Year 2004-05 2005-06 2006-07 2007-08 2008-09 2009-10 2010-11 Net Profit 153.35 154.23 312.28 422.39 420.62 844.8 1,003.43 Total Assets 2,048.06 2,925.85 4,456.48 7,343.46 10,100.45 15,395.78 22,489.04 Return on total assets 7.48 5.27 7.00 5.75 4.16 5.48 4.46

CHART-12 RETURN ON TOTAL ASSET

Interpretation and Analysis:

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The above table and diagram shows the relationship between net profit and total assets in percentage. Return on total asset ratio is 7.48 in the year200405. Again it decrease to 5.27 and then increases to7.00 We can say that profitability from total asset is quite low.

D) PROFITABILITY RATIOS:

The profitability ratios of a business concern can be measured by the profitability ratios. These ratios highlight the end result of business activities by which alone the overall efficiency of a business unit can be judged, (E.g.) gross ratios, Net profit ratio.

i) GROSS PROFIT RATIO:

This ratio expresses the relationship between Gross profit and sales. It indicated the efficiency of production or trading operation. A high gross profit ratio is a good management as it implies that cost of production is relatively low.

Gross profit Gross profit ratio = ----------------------------------- x 100 Net sales

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TABLE-13 GROSS PROFIT RATIO

Year 2004-05 2005-06 2006-07 2007-08 2008-09 2009-10 2010-11

Gross Profit 325.92 325.42 581.28 750.34 795.19 1,360.51 1,653.51

Net Sales 2,674.99 2,716.20 3,806.81 4,152.30 4,943.25 5,611.27 6,967.65

GP ratio 12.18 11.98 15.26 18.07 16.08 24.24 23.73

CHART-13 GROSS PROFIT RATIO:

Interpretation and Analysis:

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The above table and diagram shows the relationship between the gross profit and net sales in percentage. GP ratio is 12.18 for the year 2004-05 and shows increasing trend up to year 2010-11. As GP ratio increases it shows that firms cost of production is going down.

ii) NET PROFIT RATIO:

Net profit ratio establishes a relationship between net profit (after taxes) and sales. It is determined by dividing the net income after tax to the net sales for the period and measures the profit per rupee of sales.

Net profit Net profit sales = ----------------- x 100 Net sales

TABLE-14 NET PROFIT RATIO:


Year 2004-05 2005-06 2006-07 Net Profit 153.35 154.23 312.28 Net Sales 2,674.99 2,716.20 3,806.81 Net profit ratio 5.73 5.67 8.20

37 2007-08 2008-09 2009-10 2010-11 422.39 420.62 844.8 1,003.43 4,152.30 4,943.25 5,611.27 6,967.65 10.17 8.50 15.05 14.40

CHART-14 NET PROFIT RATIO:

Inference:

The above table and diagram shows the relation ship between net profit and net sales during 2005-06 it was 5.67% on sales and in 2006-07 it was 8.20, which increased to 10.17 in the year 2007-08. In the year 2010-11 the net profit margin was 14.40.

38 iii) EXPENSES RATIO:

This ratio establishes the relationship between various indirect expenses to net sales.

A)

ADMINISTRATIVE EXPENSES RATIO: Administrative expenses Administrative expenses ratio = ------------------------------- x 100 Sales

b) SELLING &DISTRIBUTION EXPENSES RATIO: Selling &distribution expenses Selling &distribution expenses ratio = ----------------------------------------- x 100 Sales

Administration expenses + selling expenses Expenses ratio = _______________________________________ x 100 Sales TABLE-15 EXPENSES RATIO:
Year 2004-05 Selling and administrative expense 53.11 Net Sales 2,674.99 Expense ratio 1.99

39 2005-06 2006-07 2007-08 2008-09 2009-10 2010-11 83.83 132.34 129.94 238.29 376.21 596.59 2,716.20 3,806.81 4,152.30 4,943.25 5,611.27 6,967.65 3.09 3.48 3.13 4.82 6.70 8.56

CHART-15 EXPENSES RATIO:

Interpretation and Analysis:

The above table and diagram shows the relation ship between the administration and selling expenses and sales. It can be observed that the expense increases year on year and in the year 2010-11 it has reached to 8.56

40 CHAPTER -5 FINDINGS 1) In all the year current ratio is above 2 :1. This shows companys

liquidity position is good and has enough current assets to meet its current liability. We can say there is the safety of funds of short-term
creditors. 2) The company liquidity position is more than 1:1 for the period under study.We

can say that company has enough quick asset to meet current liabilities.
3) In the year 2009-10 and 2010-11, debt equity ratio shows decreasing

trend. It is good sign for the firm as outsiders fund decreased compared to share capital.
4)

The shows down ward trend up to the year 2008-09. We can say that

proprietors contribution to total asset is on an average between 20 to 30%.


5)

The Fixed asset turnover shows decreasing trend. It is 0.35 in the year 2010-

11. With the passage of time, investment in assets has increased, in proportion to which sales has not increased. This means that company is not using fixed asset efficiently to generate sales. 6) Debtors turnover ratio is high in the year 2010-11 which shows firm is able

to collect debtor in short time.

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7)

The working capital turnover ratio is 4.49 which shows decreasing trend up

to 2007-08. In the year 2008-09 it has jumped to 5.19 which shows firm has utilized its working capital very efficiently to generate sales.
8)

The total asset turnover ratio show decreasing trend from the year 2004-05 to

2010-11. This shows Firms total asset is not utilized efficiently to generate sales. 9) Return on total asset ratio is 7.48 in the year2004-05. Again it decrease to

5.27 and then increases to7.00 We can say that profitability from total asset is quite low.
10)

The Gross Profit ratio is 12.18 for the year 2004-05 and shows increasing

trend up to year 2010-11. As Gross Profit ratio increases it shows that firms cost of production is going down.
11)

The relationship between the administration and selling expenses to sales is

observed that the expense increases year on year and in the year 2010-11 it has reached to 8.56

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CHAPTER -6 SUGGESTIONS Companys debt equity ratio was initially high and then shows decreasing

trend. We can suggest that company has to maintain debt equity ratio so that it should not have more burden of interest payment. And try to reduce it further.
Fixed asset of the company has increased and even though they are not

utilizing the enhanced technology to increase sales. So the management should take initiative steps for the proper utilization of the resources.

The liquidity position of the company is quite satisfactory. And this must be improved further for the purpose of proper utilization of the liquid assets of the company. The sales of the organization can be further increased by improving the quality through optimum utilization of company's resources (i.e. assets, raw materials, credit system, etc.) and that in turn will increase the overall profits of the organization.

43 The Management must find out the reasons for the not much increase in

sales and must take appropriate measures.

The Management must also study the market position and it also find the demand prevailing in the market for the products and thus this will guide them to enhance their sales volume.

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CHAPTER -7 BIBLIOGRAPHY

Annual Reports Of BHUSHAN STEEL LTD T.S Reddy and Y. Hariprasad Reddy, Financial management, New Delhi: Tata Mc Graw hill Publishing company Ltd.

M.A Sahaf Management and Accounting 4th Edition, Tata McGraw Hill Publishing Company Ltd.

IM .Pandey, Financial Management 8th Edition, Vikas Publishing house Pvt Ltd.

R.K. Sharma & S.K. Gupta, Financial Management R.P. Rustagi, Financial Management

Website: www.bhushan-group.org www.indianinfoline.com

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