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Exercise 9.

5 Johnson* conducted a study to determine whether, in collegiate schools of nursing, relationships bertween certain variables could be identified. Two variables of interest for which indixes were constucted were extent of agreement (between the dean and the faculty) on the responsibilities for decision making and faculty satisfaction. The ranks on the two variables of the 12 institutions that participated in the study are shown in Table 9.11. The author computed a value of rs =-0.336 from the data, which she declared not significant. Compute from the data and test significance against the alternative that value?
*Johnson, Betty M.,Decision Making, Faculty Satisfaction, and The Place of the School of Nursing in the University, Nursing Res.,22(1973),100-107.

< 0. what is the p-

Table 9.11 School A B C D E F G H I J K L Rank on faculty satisfaction 1 7 6 2 8 4 10 12 11 5 9 3 Rank on decision-making agreement 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

Solution : 1) Hypothesis :

x 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12

y 12 9 1 7 3 10 11 8 2 6 4 5

(x,y) ranking (1,12) (2,9) (3,1) (4,7) (5,3) (6,10) (7,11) (8,8) (9,2) (10,6) (11,4) (12,5)

y pairs in natural order 0 2 9 3 6 1 0 0 3 0 1 0 P = 25

y pairs in reverse natural order 11 8 0 5 1 5 5 4 0 2 0 0 Q = 41

2) Test statistic :

3) Decision :

4) Conclusion :

Exercise 9.7 Pierce* points out that is most investigations of lightning discharges to earth, the estimated quantity of electricity passing from the cloud to the ground is around 20 to 30 coulombs. However, Pierce cites the data of Meese and Evans*, who reported much larger values. Their data as reported by Pierce are shown in table 9.13, along with the distance of the observing site of the discharge. Pierce computes a Pearson product-moment correlation coefficient of r=0.877 and a P value of 0.01. Compute and the corresponding P value for Hi : > 0.

*Pierce, E.T.,The Charge Transferred to Earth by a lightning Flash, J.Franklin Inst.,286 (1968), 353-354 *Meese,A.D., and W.H.Evans.Charge Transfer in the Lightning Stroke as Determined by the Magnetograph,J.Franklin Inst.,273(1963),375-382.

Table 9.13 Distance, kilometres 6 6 6 6 6 7 9 10 10 10 11 12 15 15 18 23 Charge, coulombs 23 46 46 47 94 80 133 81 114 274 260 378 197 234 1035 1065

Solution : 1) Hypothesis :

x 6 6 6 6 6 7 9 10 10 10 11 12 15 15 18 23

y 23 46 46 47 94 80 133 81 114 274 260 378 197 234 1035 1065

y pairs in natural order 11 11 11 11 9 10 7 6 6 3 3 2 2 2 1 0 P = 95

y pairs in reverse natural order 0 0 0 0 2 0 2 0 0 3 2 2 0 0 0 0 Q=11

2) Test statistic :

[ [ ]

3) Decision : Reject H0 4) Conclusion : There is enough evidence to support the claim that the distance of lighting flash & charged transferred to earth are directly related.

Exercise (large sample) Cravens and Woodruff * conducted a study to design and test a methodology for analytically determining standards of sales performance. They reported the data on benchmark achievement and management rating for 41 sales territories shown in the table 9.14. They computed benchmark achievement as being sales volume divided by benchmark sales, and based management ratings on salesperson motivation and effort. We wish to compute for these data to see whether there is sufficient evidence to conclude

that benchmark achievement and management rating are directly related. Although the data are reported as ranks, we follow the same procedure in computing were reported in absolute quantities.
*Cravens, David W., and Robert B. Woodruff, An Approach for Determining Criteria of Sales Perfomance,J. Appl. Psychol., 57 (1973), 242-247.

as we would if the data

Table 9.14 Territory Benchmark achievement (X) 2 9 7 23 5 17 16 25 4 10 20 15 8 11 1 21 14 3 13 18 22 Management rating (Y) 4 2 20 17 5 7 6 24 3 21 18 9 8 10 1 14 15 11 13 19 25 Territory Benchmark achievement (X) 19 24 6 12 28 30 26 29 27 33 35 31 34 32 39 37 36 41 38 40 Management rating (Y) 16 23 22 12 34 41 38 36 32 29 31 26 28 30 33 35 37 39 40 27

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21

22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41

Solution : 1) Hypotheses : Benchmark achievement and management rating are independent Benchmark achievement and management rating are directly related (claim)

(x,y) in ranking (1,1) (2,4) (3,11) (4,3) (5,5) (6,22) (7,20) (8,8) (9,2) (10,21) (11,10) (12,12) (13,13) (14,15) (15,9) (16,6) (17,7) (18,19) (19,16) (20,18) (21,14) (22,25) (23,17) (24,23) (25,24) (26,38) (27,32) (28,34) (29,36) (30,41) (31,26) (32,30) (33,29) (34,28) (35,31) (36,37)

y pairs in natural order 40 38 30 36 35 19 20 30 32 19 27 26 25 23 24 25 24 19 21 19 20 16 18 17 16 3 8 6 4 0 10 6 6 6 5 2

y pairs in reverse natural order 0 2 8 1 1 16 14 4 0 12 3 3 3 4 2 0 0 4 1 2 0 3 0 0 0 12 6 7 8 11 0 3 2 1 1 3

(37,35) (38,40) (39,33) (40,27) (41,39)

2 0 1 1 0 P = 679

2 0 1 0 0 Q = 140

2) Test statistic :

3) Decision : Do not reject H0 4)Conclusion : There is no enough evidence to support the claim that benchmark achievement and management rating are directly related.