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ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
LTD.AS  BOSTON CHICAGO SAN FRANCISCO MACMILLAN & CO. . LONDON LIMITKU HOMBAY CALCUTTA MELUCK'KNK THE MACMILLAN CO. OF TORONTO CANADA.THE MACM1LLAN COMPANY NKVV YORK PAII.
D. FORMERLY ASSISTANT PROFESSOR OF MATHEMATICS. NEW 1 ORK CUT THE MACMILLAN COMPANY 1917 All rights reserved .ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA BY ARTHUR SCJBULIi/TZE. HIH SCHOOL OF COMMERCE. NKW YORK ITNIVEKSITT HEAD OF THK MATHEMATICAL DKI'A KTM EN T. PH.
J. . August. . 1916. Cushlng Co. Published Set up and electrotyped. May. 1910. 1910.COPYRIGHT. 1915. IQJS January. 1911. 8. Norwood. September. 1910 .' February. Reprinted 1913. . July. May..S. Mass. 1917. Berwick & Smith Co.A. January. September. BY THE MACMILLAN COMPANY. U.
Typical in this respect is the treatment of factoring in many textbooks In this book all methods which are of and which are applied in advanced work are given.PREFACE IN this book the attempt while still is made to shorten the usual course in algebra. shortcuts that solve only examples real value. omissions serve not only practical but distinctly pedagogic " cases " ends. Such a large number of methods. however. etc. not only taxes a student's memory unduly but in variably leads to mechanical modes of study. All practical teachers know how few students understand and appreciate the more difficult parts of the theory. All unnecessary methods and "cases" are omitted. All parts of the theory whicJi are beyond the comprehension of the student or wliicli are logically unsound are omitted. The entire study of algebra becomes a mechanical application of memorized rules. " While in many respects similar to the author's to its peculiar aim." this book. specially 2. Elementary Algebra. in order to make every example a social case of a memorized method. are omitted. Until recently the tendency was to multiply as far as possible. giving to the student complete familiarity with all the essentials of the subject. and conse . manufactured for this purpose.. but "cases" that are taught only on account of tradition. chief : among These which are the following 1. owing has certain distinctive features. and ingenuity while the cultivation of the student's reasoning power is neglected.
The presenwill be found to be tation of problems as given in Chapter V quite a departure from the customary way of treating the subject. as quadratic equations and graphs. For the more ambitious student. e. The best way to introduce a beginner to a new topic is to offer Lim a large number of simple exercises.g. especially problems and factoring. are placed early in the course. etc. a great deal of the theory offered in the avertextbook is logically unsound . differ With very few from those exceptions all the exer cises in this book in the "Elementary Alge bra". " The book is designed to meet the requirements for admis sion to our best universities and colleges. In regard to some other features of the book. however. may be used to supplement the other. the following may be quoted from the author's "Elementary Algebra": which "Particular care has been bestowed upon those chapters in the customary courses offer the greatest difficulties to the beginner. Moreover. two negative numbers. Topics of practical importance. enable students who can devote only a minimum This arrangement will of time to algebra to study those subjects which are of such importance for further work. all proofs for the sign age of the product of of the binomial 3.vi PREFACE quently hardly ever emphasize the theoretical aspect of alge bra. TJie exercises are slightly simpler than in the larger look. hence either book 4. there has been placed at the end of the book a collection of exercises which contains an abundance of more difficult work. This made it necessary to introduce the theory of proportions . in particular the requirements of the College Entrance Examination Board. all elementary proofs theorem for fractional exponents. and it is hoped that this treatment will materially diminish the difficulty of this topic for young students.
of the Mississippi or the height of Mt. Moreover. such examples. and commercial are numerous. and they usually involve difficult numerical calculations. By studying proportions during the first year's work. in " geometry . The entire work in graphical methods has been so arranged that teachers who wish a shorter course may omit these chapters. are frequently arranged in sets that are algebraically uniform. " Graphical methods have not only a great practical value." Applications taken from geometry. is based principally upon the alge . viz. to solve a It is undoubtedly more interesting for a student problem that results in the height of Mt. McKinley than one that gives him the number of Henry's marbles. an innovation which seems to mark a distinct gain from the pedagogical point of view. while in the usual course proportions are studied a long time after their principal application. based upon statistical abstracts.PREFACE vii and graphical methods into the first year's work. But on the other hand very few of such applied examples are genuine applications of algebra. and of the hoped that some modes of representation given will be considered im provements upon the prevailing methods. nobody would find the length Etna by such a method. and hence the student is more easily led to do the work by rote than when the arrangement braic aspect of the problem. elementary way. the student will be able to utilize this knowledge where it is most needed.' This topic has been preit is sented in a simple. but they unquestionably furnish a very good antidote against 'the tendency of school algebra to degenerate into a mechanical application of memorized rules. physics. but the true study of algebra has not been sacrificed in order to make an impressive display of sham life applications.
however. William P. is such problems involves as a rule the teaching of physics by the teacher of algebra.viii PREFACE problems relating to physics often offer It is true that a field for genuine applications of algebra. 1910. . NEW YORK. ARTHUR SCHULTZE. genuine applications of elementary algebra work seems to have certain limi but within these limits the author has attempted to give as many The author for simple applied examples as possible. desires to acknowledge his indebtedness to Mr. pupil's knowlso small that an extensive use of The average Hence the field of suitable for secondary school tations. Manguse for the careful reading of the proofs and many valuable suggestions. April. edge of physics.
and Hoots Algebraic Expressions and Numerical Substitutions ........... 34 35 36 Multiplication of Polynomials Special Cases in Multiplication 39 CHAPTER IV DIVISION Division of Monomials 46 46 47 Division of a Polynomial by a Monomial Division of a Polynomial by a Polynomial Special Cases in Division ix 48 61 . AND PARENTHESES 15 15 10 ...... ..CONTENTS CHAPTER INTRODUCTION Algebraic Solution of Problems Negative Numbers I PAGB 1 1 3 Numbers represented by Letters Factors. ....... III 22 27 Signs of Aggregation Exercises in Algebraic Expression 29 CHAPTER MULTIPLICATION Multiplication of Algebraic Multiplication of . Numbers Monomial Monomials 31 31 Multiplication of a Polynomial by a . Powers. SUBTRACTION.. II 6 7 10 CHAPTER Addition of Monomials Addition of Polynomials Subtraction ADDITION.
. Type Polynomials.. The Square of a Binomial x 2 Ixy The Difference of Two Squares Grouping Terms of Factoring ....X CONTENTS CHAPTER V PAGE LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS Solution of Linear Equations Symbolical Expressions Problems leading . Form x'2 f px f q Form px 2 f qx + r f . All of whose Terms contain a mon Factor Com77 . .. Type V. 108 108 112 Problems leading to Fractional and Literal Equations . . Type VI. . Type II.. Quadratic Trinomials of the Quadratic Trinomials of the 78 . HIGHEST COMMON FACTOR AND LOWEST COMMON MULTIPLE 89 89 91 CHAPTER VIII 93 93 97 FRACTIONS Reduction of Fractions Addition and Subtraction of Fractions Multiplication of Fractions Division of Fractions 102 104 * . .. 80 83 84 86 87 Summary CHAPTER Common Factor Lowest Common Multiple Highest VII . * .114 .. Complex Fractions 105 CHAPTER IX FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS Fractional Equations Literal Equations ..63 55 67 to Simple Equations 63 CHAPTER VI FACTORING 76 I..... /^ . Type III. Type IV.
. CHAPTER XIV 169 . 1*78 178 181 189 191 Form 193 ......CONTENTS XI RATIO AND PROPORTION Ratio . Two Unknown 129 130 133 138 Quantities Problems leading to Simultaneous Equations . Evolution of Polynomials and Arithmetical Numbers ... CHAPTER XI CHAPTER X PAGE 120 120 121 Proportion SIMULTANEOUS EQUATIONS OF THE FIRST DEGREE Elimination by Addition or Subtraction Elimination by Substitution Literal Simultaneous Equations Simultaneous Equations involving More than . Evolution of Monomials 170 .. ...... 148 164 Graphic Solution of Equations involving One Unknown Quantity Graphic Solution of Equations involving Two Unknown Quantities 168 160 CHAPTER INVOLUTION Involution of Monomials XIII 165 165 166 Involution of Binomials EVOLUTION .. ..... 140 143 CHAPTER XII GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS AND EQUATIONS Representation of Functions of One Variable . 171 CHAPTER XV QUADRATIC EQUATIONS INVOLVING ONB UNKNOWN QUANTITY Pure Quadratic Equations Complete Quadratic Equations Problems involving Quadratics Equations in the Quadratic Character of the Roots .
xii
CONTENTS
CHAPTER XVI
PAGK 195
THE THEORT OP EXPONENTS
Fractional and Negative Exponents Use of Negative and Fractional Exponents
....
195
200
CHAPTER XVII
RADICALS
Transformation of Radicals Addition and Subtraction of Radicals
Multiplication of Radicals Division of Radicals
205
206 210
.212
Involution and Evolution of Radicals
.....
214
218
Square Roots of Quadratic Surds Radical Equations
219
221
CHAPTER
THE FACTOR THEOREM
XVIII
227
CHAPTER XIX
SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS
I.
......
.
.
.
.
232
232
II.
Equations solved by finding x +/ and x / One Equation Linear, the Other Quadratic
.
.
234
III.
Homogeneous Equations
Special Devices
236
237
IV.
Interpretation of Negative Results
and the Forms
i
,
.
.
241
Problems
243
CHAPTER XX
PROGRESSIONS
Arithmetic Progression Geometric Progression
Infinite
.
246
24(j
251
Geometric Progression
263
CHAPTER XXI
BINOMIAL THEOREM
.
.
.
.
.
.
..
.
.
255
BEVIEW EXERCISE
.
268
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
CHAPTER
I
INTRODUCTION
1.
Algebra
it
may
arithmetic,
treats of
be called an extension of arithmetic. Like numbers, but these numbers are freletters,
quently denoted by problem.
as illustrated in
the following
ALGEBRAIC SOLUTION OF PROBLEMS
2.
Problem.
'
The sum
x
is five
times the smaller.
Let
two numbers is 42, and the greater Find the numbers. the smaller number.
of
Then
and
Therefore,
5 x = the greater number, 6x the sum of the two numbers. 6x
= 42,
and
3.
x = 7, the smaller number, 5 x = 35, the greater number.
A problem
An
is
a question proposed for solution.
4.
equation is a statement expressing the equality of
two
quantities; as,
5.
6 a?
= 42.
In algebra, problems are frequently solved by denoting numbers by letters and by expressing the problem in the form of an equation.
6.
Unknown numbers
;
are usually represented
as, x, y,
z,
by the
last
letters of the alphabet
but sometimes other letters
are employed. B
1
2
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
EXERCISE
The sum
1
Solve algebraically the following problems
1.
:
of two
times the smaller.
2.
numbers is 40, and the greater Find the numbers.
is
four
twice as
and a carriage for $ 480, receiving for the horse as for the carriage. much did he receive for the carriage ?
sold a horse
A man
A
much
How
3.
and
B own
a house worth $ 14,100, and
capital as B.
A
has
in
vested twice as
invested ?
4.
much
How much
is
has each
The population
of
South America
9 times that of
Australia, and both continents together have 50,000,000 inFind the population of each. habitants.
and fall of the tides in Seattle is twice that in and their sum is 18 feet. Find the rise and fall Philadelphia,
5.
The
rise
of the tides in Philadelphia.
6.
6 times as
7.
Divide $ 240 among A, B, and C so that A may receive much as C. and B 8 times as much as C.
A pole 56 feet high was broken so that the part broken was 6 times the length of the part left standing. .Find the length of the two parts.
off
8.
The sum
If
two
of the sides of a triangle equals 40 inches. sides of the triangle are equal, and each is twice the A remaining side, how long is each side ?
A
9.
The sum
triangle is are equal,
of the three angles of any 180. If 2 angles of a triangle and the remaining angle is 4
times their sum,
there in each ?
how many
degrees are
is
G 10. The number of negroes in Africa 10 times the number of Indians in America, and the sum of both is 165,000,000. How many are there of each ?
B
INTRODUCTION
11.
3
twice as
12.
Divide $280 among A, B, and C, so that much as A, and C twice as much as B.
B may
receive
twice as
13.
Divide $90 among A, B, and C, so that B may receive much as A, and C as much as A and B together.
A
is
which
14.
line 20 inches long is divided into two parts, one of long are the parts ? equal to 5 times the other.
How
travels twice as fast as B, and the tances traveled by the two is 57 miles.
A
sum
of the dis
How many
miles did
each travel ?
15.
4
A, B, C, and
does
A
take, if
B
D buy $ 2100 worth of goods. How much buys twice as much as A, C three times as
much
much
as B,
and
D
six times as
NEGATIVE NUMBE
EXERCISE
1.
2
Subtract 9 from 16.
2.
3.
Can 9 be subtracted from 7 ?
In arithmetic
why
cannot 9 be subtracted from 7 ?
"*
\
4.
The temperature
is
What
5.
noon is 16 ami at 4 P.M. it is 9 the temperature at 4 P.M.? State this as an
at
at
of subtraction.
The temperature
4 P.M.
is
7, and
at 10 P.M.
it is
10
less.
6.
What is the temperature at 10 P.M. ? Do you know of any other way of
below zero) ? What then is 7 10?
(3
expressing the last
answer
7.
8.
Can you think
of
any other
practical examples
which
require the subtraction of a greater
number from a smaller
one?
7.
Many
greater
number from a smaller
practical examples require the subtraction of a one, and in order to express in
a convenient form the results of these, and similar examples,
4
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
it becomes necessary to enlarge our concept of number, so as to include numbers less than zero.
8. Negative numbers are numbers smaller than zero; they are denoted by a prefixed minus sign as 5 (read " minus 5 "). Numbers greater than zero, for the sake of distinction, are fre;
quently called positive numbers, and are written either with a prefixed plus sign, or without any prefixed sign as f 5 or 5.
;
The
fact that a
thermometer falling 10 from 7 indicates 3
be expressed 7 10
below zero
may now
= 3.
is
loss of $ 60,
Instead of saying a gain of $ 30, and a loss of $ 90 we may write
equal to a
$30
9.
$90 = $60.
number
is
The
absolute value of a
the number taken
without regard to its sign. 5 is The absolute value of
10.
6,
of f 3 is 3.
It is convenient for
many
discussions to represent the
positive
a line
numbers by a succession of equal distances laid off on from a point 0, and the negative numbers by a similar
series in the opposite direction.
,
I
I
lit
4
to
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
6
5
3
2
1
+\
4,
+2
+
3
+4
45
+6
y
Thus, in the annexed diagram, the line from
the line from
4 represents
etc.
to 4 6 represents 4 5,
resented by a motion of "three tion of 8 by a similar motion toward the
The addition of 3 is repspaces toward the right, and the subtracleft.
Thus, 5 added to
1
equals 4, 5 subtracted from
1 equals
6, etc.
EXERCISE
1.
3
If in financial transactions
we
indicate a man's income
by
a positive sign, what does a negative sign indicate ?
2. State in what manner the positive and negative signs may be used to indicate north and south latitude, east and west
longitude, motion upstream
and downstream.
INTRODUCTION
3.
5
If north latitude
is
indicated by a positive sign, by what
is
south latitude represented ?
4.
If south latitude
is
indicated by a positive sign, by what
?
is
north latitude represented
5.
the meaning of the year 6 yards per second ? erly motion of
is 6.
What
20 A.D. ?
Of an
east
A
his total gain or loss ?
7.
merchant gains $ 200, and loses $ 350.  350. (b) Find 200
(a)
What
is
higher, is 8
 +7? 8. A vessel
(6)
If the temperature at 4 A.M. is 8 and at 9 A.M. it is 7 what is the temperature at 9 A.M. ? What, therefore,
starts
sails
38 due south,
(a)
from a point in 25 north latitude, and Find the latitude at the end of the
journey.
9.
Find 25 38.
A
22
sails
vessel starts from a point in 15 south latitude, and due south, (a) Find the latitude at the end of the
(b)
journey,
10.
Subtract 22 from
15.
18.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
From 30 subtract 40. From 4 subtract 7. From 7 subtract 9. From 19 subtract 34. From subtract 14. From 12 subtract 20. 2 subtract 5. From 1 subtract 1. From
19. 20.
21.
22.
23.
24. 25.
To 6 2 To To 1 From 1 To  8 To 7 From
add add add
12.
1.
2.
subtract 2.
add add
9. 4.
1 subtract 2.
Add
1 and 2.
26.
the one of
Solve examples 1625 by using a diagram similar to 10, and considering additions and subtractions as
motions.
27.
(a) 28.
Which is the greater number lor 1? (b) 2 or 4?
:
By how much
is
7 greater than
12 ?
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
29.
Determine from the following table the range of tempera:
ture in each locality
NUMBERS REPRESENTED BY LETTERS
11. For many purposes of arithmetic it is advantageous to express numbers by letters. One advantage was shown in 2 others will appear in later chapters ( 30).
;
EXERCISE
1.
4
is
If the letter
t
means 1000, what
the value of
5t?
a=
2.
3.
What is the value of 3 6, if b = 3 ? if b = 4 ? What is the value of a + &, if a = 5, and 6 = 7?
if
6,
and
b
=
4?
is
4.
5.
What
If a
the value of 17
c,
if c
= 5?
ifc
= 2?
marbles,
many
6.
boy has 9c? marbles and wins 4c marbles has. he ?
Is the last
how
7.
How
8.
9.
merchant had 20 much has he left ?
A
answer correct for any value of d ? m dollars and lost 11 m
dollars.
What
is
the
sum
of 8 &
and G
b ?
Find the numerical value
If c represents a certain
of the last
answer
if b
= 15.
10.
number, what represents 9 times
that
number ?
INTRODUCTION
11.
1
From 26 w
subtract 19 m.
12.
if
What is the numerical
From 22m
if
value of the last answer
if
m = 2?
m = 2?
13.
subtract
1
25m, and
find the numerical value
of the answer
14.
m=
2.
Add
13 p, 3p, 6p, and subtract 24 p from the sum.
15.
16. 19.
From
10 q subtract 20
q.
17.
18.
Add lOgand +20 q. From 22# subtract 0.
7 a=
From subtract 26 Add  6 x and 8 x.
x.
20.
From
Wp subtract 10^).
is
What sign, therefore, 140. 21. If a = 20, then understood between 7 and a in the expression 7 a ?
FACTORS, POWERS, AND ROOTS
12.
The
and equality have the same meaning
in arithmetic.
13.
signs of addition, subtraction, multiplication, division, in algebra as they have
If there is no sign between
two
is
letters, or
a letter and a
number, a sign of multiplication
6
is
understood.
written win.
x a
is
generally written 6 a
;
m
x n
Between two
(either
figures,
x
or
)
however, a sign of multiplication has to be employed as, 4x7, or 4 7.
;
4x7 cannot be
14.
written 47, for 47
means 40
f 7.
A product is
=
the result obtained by multiplying together
two or more
Since 24
Similarly,
quantities, each of which is a factor of the product. 3 x 8, or 12 x 2, each of these numbers is a factor of 24.
7, a, 6,
and
c are factors of 7 abc.
15.
A
power
is
thus,
aaaaa
6 aaaaaa, or a ,
is the product of two or more equal factors called the " 5th power of a," and written a5 " the 6th is power of a," or a 6th.
;
;
The second power is also called the square, and the third 2 power the cube; thus, 12 (read "12 square") equals 144.
8
16.
ELEMENTS OF ALQEBEA
The
base of a
power
is
the
number which
is
repeated
as a factor.
The base
of a 3
is a.
17. An exponent is the number which indicates how many times a base is to be used as a factor. It is placed a little above and to the right of the base.
The exponent
of
m
6
is
6
;
n
is
the exponent of an
.
EXERCISE
1.
5
find the numerical value of the square of 7, the cube of 6, the fourth power of 3, and the fifth power of 2. Find the numerical values of the following powers :
2.
3.
Write and
72
.
6.
42
.
10.
11.
.
8
(i)
.
14.
15.
2
.
25 1
.
2*.
7.
8. 9.
2*.
O
9
.
.0001 2
.
4. 5.
52
83
.
10 6
I 30
.
12.
(4)
(1.5)
16.
.
l.l 1
.
.
13.
2
17.
22
+3
2
.
If
a=3, 6=2, c=l, and
18. 19.
3
ci
.
d=^
22.
a*.
find the numerical values of:
24.
2
.
20.
21.
c
10
.
3
(2 c)
ab.
.
26. 27.
2
at).
b2
.
d\
23.
(6cf)
25.
(4 bdf.
28.
If
29.
30.
= 8, what is the value of a? If m = what is the value of m ? = 64, what is the value of a ? If 4
a3
2
jJg,
In a product any factor product of the other factors.
18.
is
called the coefficient of the
In 12 win 8/), 12
19.
is
the coefficient of
is
mw 8p,
12
m is the coefficient of n*p.
A
17
numerical coefficient
a coefficient expressed entirely
in figures.
In
aryx,
17
is
the numerical coefficient.
is
When
stood ; thus a
a product contains no numerical coefficient, 1 1 a, a Bb 1 a*b.
under
=
=
INTRODUCTION
9
20. When several powers are multiplied, the beginner should remember that every exponent refers only to the number near which it is placed.
3 9
2
means 3
3
aa, while (3
2
)
=3ax
3 a.
= 9 abyyy. 2* xyW = 22.2.2. xyyyzz.
afty
1 abc*
7 abccc.
EXERCISES
If
a
= 4, b = 1, c = 2, and x = ^, find the
numerical values of
:
21. root is one of the equal factors of a power. According to the number of equal factors, it is called a square root, a cube root, a fourth root, etc.
3
is
A
6
is is
the square root of 9, for 32 = 9. the cube root of 125, for 6 8 = 125. the
fifth
a
root of a 5 the nth root of a".
,
The nth
Va,
is
fifth root of a,
indicated by the symbol >/""; thus Va is the is the cube root of 27, \/a, or more simply the square root of a.
root
is
A/27
Using
this
(Va)
22.
n
= a.
The
symbol we
may
is
express the definition of root by
the
index of a root
number which
indicates
what
root is to be taken.
sign. In v/a, 7
23.
It is written in the opening of the radical
is
the index of the root.
The
[ ]
;
signs of aggregation are
:
the parenthesis,
.
( )
;
the
bracket,
the brace,
j
j
;
and the vinculum,
10 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA They are used. 6. 14. find the numerical value of: Vff. is 28. V36". A trinomial a polynomial of three terms. c f d). ALGP:BRAIC EXPRESSIONS 24. \/c. 11. d 7. 10 x [4 by 4 + 1 or by 5. 5Vl6c. 17. x 9.g. 12. 0. to indicate that the expres* sions included are to be treated as a whole. Each 10 is of the forms 10 to be multiplied x (4 f 1)." EXERCISE If a 1. expression containing more than one and a 4 term. AND NUMERICAL sym SUBSTITUTIONS An algebraic expression is a collection of algebraic bols representing 25. some number is . since the parts are a . e. V2a. a2 + and   \/a are binomials. V3 . c = 1. + M f c 4 f d 4 are polynomials. [6c] 3 . Val \fi?. 7 = 2. as in arithmetic. !^f\/03 3 ft. 4V3~6c. 10 x 4"+T indicates that (a b) is sometimes read "quantity a b. 9. 26. 15. 16. 6 a26 7 Vac ~* 2 f 9. 27. a polynomial of two terms. V^a6. 13. 8. 10. 2. are trinomials. A binomial is 62 . aVc^. (cfd) 4. 6. or 9 Vx. A monomial or term f an expression whose parts are not as 3 cue2. 2 . 3. separated by a sign (6 + c + d} is o c ^and (6 + a monomial. b = 3. A polynomial is an y. + c). v'Ta. 4(a 6(6 + &). + 1].
5. 5=3. multiplication. find the numerical value of: 9. 8.19 a 6cd 3 2 3 find the numerical value 6 aft 2 . each term has to be computed before the different terms are added and subtracted. 2 ). d=Q. (a (a f b) 7.19 a 2 bcd = 6 5 32 . __ E. 5 means 3 4 20 or 23.810 + 150 = . . 6. 6. Ex. 16.19 = 6.9 5 32 2 + ^ 5 8 3 .9. * For additional examples see page 268. + 26+3 c.99. 11 if it In a polynomial each term is treated as were con tained in a parenthesis.4 6^9 ad. 5a2 2 a2 46cf2^^ + 3 a& +. x=^. 4 .. 3. 3 4 . 5c6 2 +6ac3 a 3 17c3 hl2o. l 13.g.INTRODUCTION 29. 1. and division are to be performed in the order in which they are written all from left to right.9 aWc + f a b . 2. Otherwise operations of addition. 3a + 56 a 2 . b = 3. a2 f + (a + 6)c 6+ a (2 2 c 2 . 4a6fVaV2^. 3 2 If 1.390.e.30 = 270 . Find the value of 4 28 +5 32  *^. . .5 ax 50 a6cd. . d = 0. EXERCISE 8*  . ' f & f c 3 8 d s . 10. 2 of 6 ab If a = 5. c = 2. 12. subtraction.9 a& 2 c + f a 6 . 5. 52 . a2 11. = 32 + 4527 = 50. i.2 + I126. a=4. 14. 2. Ex. a 2 6. 2 3a& 2 + 3a2 6a&c2 . 5c +d 2 . 4. 6a2 +4a62 ~6c' 27 c 3 +12a(i *15. c=l.
Six 2 . The quantity a 6 2 by the quantity a minus 36. 6 = 4. 28. 26. a =4. Six times a plus 4 times 32. 38. a = 4. a. 6 = 1. 6.6 . 6 = 5. physics. a =3. 6=2. a = 2. 6 = 5. : 6. 34. 1014 The representation of numbers by letters makes it posvery briefly and accurately some of the principles of arithmetic. Read the expressions of Exs. then 8 = \ V(a + 6 + c) (a 4. and other sciences. 23. .12 17 & * ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 18 ' 8 Find the numerical value of 8 a3 21. and If the three sides of a triangle contain respectively c feet (or other units of length). a a=3. 6 = 7. 22. 37. 24. = 3.c) (a . 29. 6 = 6. 6 = 2. a = 4. Express in algebraic symbols 31. 12 cr6 f 6 a6 2 6s. 26 of the exercise. 6 = 6. 6. 33. sible to state Ex. w cube plus three times the quantity a minus plus 6 multiplied 6. 25. Six times the square of a minus three times the cube of Eight x cube minus four x square plus y square. if : a = 2. Twice a3 diminished by 5 times the square root of the quantity a minus 6 square. and the area of the is triangle S square feet (or squares of other units selected). 30. of this exercise? What kind of expressions are Exs. a = 3. a = 3.6 f c) (6 a + c). geometry. 35. 27. 30. 6 = 3.
the three sides of a triangle are respectively 13. and 5 feet. if v = 50 meters per second 5000 feet per minute. 4. (b) 5. = (a) How far does a body fall from a state of rest in 2 seconds ? (b) * stone dropped from the top of a tree reached the ground in 2J. c.) Assuming g . and 13 inches. 14. How far does a body fall from a state of rest in T ^7 of a (c) A second ? 3. Find the height of the tree. 84 square EXERCISE 1. the area of the triangle equals feet. A carrier pigeon in 10 minutes. b. (c) 4.16 1 = 84.e.seconds.16 centimeters per second.g. if v . 9 distance s passed over by a body moving with the uniform velocity v in the time t is represented by the formula The Find the distance passed over by A snail in 100 seconds. S =  V(13hl4fl5)(13H1415)(T314i15)(1413f15) = V421214. count the resistance of the atmosphere. 15 therefore feet. A body falling from a state of rest passes in t seconds 2 over a space S (This formula does not take into ac^gt 32 feet. i. b 14. 13. if v = 30 miles per hour. and c 13 and 15 = = = . By using the formula find the area of a triangle whose sides are respectively (a) 3. then a 13. A train in 4 hours. d.INTRODUCTION E. . 12. 2. and 15 feet. if v : a. An electric car in 40 seconds.
meters. 2 inches. 6 Find the volume of a sphere whose diameter equals: (b) 3 feet. If the diameter of a sphere equals d units of length. on $ 500 for 2 years at 4 %. fo If i represents the simple interest of i p dollars at r in n years. (c) 8000 miles. and the value given above is only an surface $= 2 approximation.). of this formula : The The interest on interest $800 for 4 years at ty%. to Centigrade readings: (b) Change the following readings (a) 122 F. . denotes the number of degrees of temperature indi8. then =p n * r %> or Find by means (a) (b) 6. diameter of a sphere equals d feet. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA If the radius of a circle etc. the equivalent reading C on the Centigrade scale may be found by the formula F C y = f(F32).) Find the surface of a sphere whose diameter equals (a) 7.). (c) 5 F. $ = 3.14 4. If the (b) 1 inch. Find the area of a circle whose radius is It (b) (a) 10 meters. then the volume V= (a) 10 feet.14 is frequently denoted by the Greek letter TT. the 3. (c) 10 feet. (The number 3. ~ 7n cubic feet.14d (square units). is H 2 units of length (inches. (c) 5 miles. : 8000 miles. the area etc.14 square meters. 5. 32 F. square units (square inches. If cated on the Fahrenheit scale. This number cannot be expressed exactly.
but we cannot add a gain of $0 and a loss of $4. SUBTRACTION. AND PARENTHESES ADDITION OF MONOMIALS 31. or that and (+6) + (+4) = + 16 10. we call the aggregate value of a gain of 6 and a loss of 4 the sum of the two. Or in the symbols of algebra $4) = Similarly. or positive and negative numbers. however. In arithmetic we add a gain of $ 6 and a gain of $ 4. in algebra this word includes also the results obtained by adding negative. While in arithmetic the word sum refers only to the result obtained by adding positive numbers.CHAPTER II ADDITION. . the fact that a loss of loss of + $2. we define the sum of two numbers in such a way that these results become general. Thus a gain of $ 2 is considered the sum of a gain of $ 6 and a loss of $ 4. In algebra. of $6 and a gain $4 equals a $2 may be represented thus In a corresponding manner we have for a loss of $6 and a of loss $4 (.$6) + ( $4) = ( $10). Since similar operations with different units always produce analogous results.
= 5.16 32. 23. lf(2).  0. c = 4. d = 0. 5. + 12. Thus. 33. of 2. 21. of: 20. (17) 15 + (14). the one third their sum. 6 6 = 3. EXERCISE Find the sum of: 10 Find the values 17. + (9). 4. '. find the numerical values of a + b f cjc?. c = = 5. 10. The average of two numbers is average of three numbers average of n numbers is the is one half their sum. the average of 4 and 8 The average The average of 2. 24. add their absolute values if they have opposite signs. is 2. . 18. 4 is 3 J. subtract their absolute values and . if : a a = 2. 2326. 12.3. (_ In Exs. 19. 5. 22. d = 5. (always) prefix the sign of the greater. is 0. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA These considerations lead to the following principle : If two numbers have the same sign. and the sum of the numbers divided by n.
. 74. \\ Add 2 a. 7 yards. 41. Similar or like terms are terms which have the same literal factors. 5 a2 & 6 ax^y and 7 ax'2 y. 6. 2. 12. . Find the average temperature of New York by taking the average of the following monthly averages 30. and 4. 66. 42. 3 and 25. or 16 Va + b and 2Vo"+~&. 32. SUBTRACTION. 37. 3.. : 34. 10. . 11 (Centigrade). 55.3. = 23.. and $4500 gain. 34. ^ ' 37. $1000 loss. . $7000 gain. . 60. 38. c = 0. affected by the same exponents. 40. What number must be added to 9 to give 12? What number must be added to 12 to give 9 ? What number must be added to 3 to give 6 ? C* What number must be added to 3 to give 6? **j Add 2 yards. 13.4. $3000 gain. 30. = 13. 0.7. & = 15. sets of numbers: 13. 72. 36. 32. 1. 6. 27. 10. d= 3. 09. 5 and 12.5. 29. : 48. = 22. 43. c=14. 25. and 3 F.. Find the average of the following temperatures 27 F. 39. 7 a. & 28. . 10. and 3 a. and 3 a. if his yearly gain or loss during 6 years was $ 5000 gain. ' Find the average of the following 34. 31. . or and . 4. which are not similar. are similar terms.13.ADDITION.7. 4 F. : and 1.5. and 8 F. AND PARENTHESES d = l. 33. : Find the average temperature of Irkutsk by taking the average of the following monthly temperatures 12. and 3 yards. 7 a. . 6. 2. 35. Dissimilar or unlike terms are terms 4 a2 6c and o 4 a2 6c2 are dissimilar terms. }/ Add 2 a. Find the average gain per year of a merchant. ' 1? a 26. $500 loss.
1 \ f 7 a 2 frc Find the sum of 9. 11. in algebra it may be considered b. ab 7 c 2 dn 6. 12(af b) 12. f 4 a2. or a 6. 7 rap2. + 6 af . 12Vmfn. either the difference of a and b or the sum of a and The sum of a. EXERCISE Add: 1. The sum The sum of a of a Dissimilar terms cannot be united into a single term. . 5l 3(af6). 12 2 wp2 . 9(af6). 11 2 a +3a 4o 2.13 rap 25 rap 2. The indicated by connecting and a 2 and a is is f a2 . 10. 2 a&. 3a . 5 a2 .ii. 2(af &). In algebra the word sum is used in a 36.18 35. 2 . ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA The sum of 3 of two similar terms x2 is is another similar term. and 4 ac2 is a 2 a&  4 ac2. : 2 a2. sum of two such terms can only be them with the f. b wider sense than in arithmetic. 12 13 b sx xY xY 7 #y 7. The sum x 2 and f x2 . While in arithmetic a denotes a difference only. Algebraic sum. Vm f.sign. 13. 5Vm + w. b a f ( 6). 14 .
4x9' 10x38 ADDITION OF POLYNOMIALS Polynomials are added by uniting their like terms. m n ^ 2 Add: 18. 6 23. 37. without finding the value of each term 34. 1 27. 21. "Vx + y Vaj + y 2 2 Vi + + 2 Va. 2/ : Add. 3a76 + 5a + 2a3610a+116. Simplify : AND PARENTHESES 19 15. 17c + 15c8 + 18c + 22c3 +c3 3 3 . 17. 33. l^S 25. + y. 2 7 1 26. 36. 30. + / + 3 Va. ra 19. It convenient to arrange the expressions so that like terms may be in the same vertical column. and to add each column. i xyz co* mn mri Simplify the following by uniting like terms: 29. a a8 ZL **. 2a 4a4 + 6a 7a 9a2a + 8. 35. 32. 5x173 + 6x1733x1737x173. xyz + xyz 12 xyz + 13 xyz + 15 xyz. n x* 2 22. c 2 ^24. +m """ 20. SUBTRACTION. is .ADDITION. 2 2 2 31.
and 2 .12 a& 4. f 110WS: 26 aft. . 2z2 4?/ 2 f2z 2 5 3ar 22/2 4 4 3 /.15 6c.g.15 abc . 2 025.20 c 5 ab 4. 2 . of that letter.2 6 + 4 c = 1 +4 a. 5. 4 = 7. cording to descending powers of EXERCISE 12 Add 1. = . to add 26 ab .8 abc .4 6c + c 2 we proceed as . and J 2 s. the erroneous answer equal 7. While the check is almost certain an absolute test e. 3.3 + 8 + 5 = 1 0. f 5 c f But 7 = 10 . c = 1. the following polynomials : 2a 3646 t c. 2 Sum.o c and 4. 6 a7 4 5 x"2 + 7 x* 4 5 7a &+4a fi 5 4 is 6c 8 arranged according to ascending powers 4 7 a&<d? + 9 6 5 4 e 7 is arranged ac aW a. V3. e.c= 2. 7 4.g. Numerical substitution offers a convenient method for the addition of checking the sum of an addition.20 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA . 5 . 3a 2? . It is not also a406 4c would In various operations with polynomials containing terms with different powers of the same letter. a 4.2 a 26 To check c assign numerical values to then . it is convenient to arrange the terms according to ascending or descending powers 39. 2c. x of x. 2 Thus. s.3 a f 4 the sum a = 1.10 6c 6 c 2 and 7 a&c 4. . 4 2. 4a46 12 q 5 2 a. . 3 a f 4 1) 4. 9 q 4.3 s. ft any convenient and c. NOTE. to show any error. 6=2.6a& 7 6ca a5c + 4 be 6c 4 26 ca c' 9a& 38.7 2 . therefore the answer is correct.41 = 3. 46 4z 7 c.8 & c~15&c 12a&4l5a&c 20c2 flO&c .2z and 0^9 z * For additional examples see page 259.
2 2 and . . 2 2 . 2 3(c f a). 6 # 2 2 2 2 2 2 .3 ay 6 afy + 6 ay/ 4 10 and . 2 a.12. . d. 4 o^?/ 4 y\ and a.(b + c) 1. .6) + 14(a 4 6) 4 10. 56 w. 3 2 tf 2 l 2 ^_.1.a 4 a 4 1. . and 8 3 .Va 4 2 V& 4 6 Vc.5 cr& + 7 6 9. 11. 3 ?/ 3 ? 2 j and a 2 4.3 5 Va 2 2 3 3 2 .a.12(a 4.8 m 2m 12. 19. w* 4 3 m n 4 3 m?i 4 2w . 2xy + 4:XZ}5yz. a. a + 1> 8 2 2 . 16e + 17/90. a 4ar ! byb 8 c^c 8 . v/20. a4 6(a a a2 f a f 1. ?/ .7m . + a + 1. 7(a + 5) 4 2 and 6 4 a. 2 ?ft ?/z.a. a 4 a . 8 2 2 3 s 2 3 . d and / 3 ? 12.and 6. a) y ^/. . in 8 3 m n 4. 6a 5a &47a& 4& and 7. 7ar + 3B 5.9(a + &) . a2 a.15 5. 4 ajy 17. xy3xz + yz. and v 15.4 Va .10 Vc. a2 2 14. .5 c ll& 7c 6 4. 8. 18/+6y + d. and . 4 8 3 4 4 . and 5 Vb 18. e a4 /. 4 3 3 ^* f h <l.7^ 2iB 8 + 2y + 2 8 8 . a 4 a .7v/if. and 12a 4 15& 20c . . </ AND PARENTHESES 2i 14d15e + 2/. 7 4 5 x*y 2 y?y* 3 xf.12 6 ~5 a . 4 Vc. 2 ?/.a 3a 9 y\ 3 afy . and 1 4 a .5a^6 f 6) .Ga 43x45. 4.2n 2 2 3 rz .2 #?/ 4 5 a + 4 aft . 4 3 . + 50 + 62 . 4 + 6)  5 (a + 6) + 3. and and 13.4:xy xz 6yz. 6 # 4 5 z 4 2 7. 2(6 + c) + (c f a).VS 4 2 Vc.3 mn 2 2 n8 . ^2 1 e.ADDITION.1 a 4 1 0. . 2 and 9m 48m 4. SUBTRACTION.6. 4(a . . 10a +lOa 6ll& 10. m 4 6.a . . 16. 3 2 2 3 9 .
22 21. 5 } and 3 m 3 7 m.3^* 2n 2 . 8 f3f a n2<w +n . 4^ + 3t*n l2aj 2 a. 2fa 3 4 a +7a. many negative units re main ? from 2. 12 xyz. and 2 24. s .5< 3 2 s 4^4. What away is the value of the sum if two neg ative units are taken ? If three negative units are taken away 4. What other operations produce the subtraction of a negative number? same result as the 6. .m 4m ?/?/ d. If from the five negative units three negative units are taken. + n*. m 3 3 5y 3 8 . what to obtain the same result ? total of the units f 1. f number may be added 3.17 + 4 ?nfy . 45a6 2 . + 1. 13 1. 8 . 1. T8a. What is therefore the remainder when 3 is taken 5? Instead of subtracting in the preceding example. f 1. how 1. is 2. f 1. does he thereby become richer or poorer ? . 5 3 f 4 ?n 4 2m+2m e. The sum and ? 1.11 xy + 12. 1. +d a. 2 8 n + <w 2 . 6 f c 2 23. and e + 6y . If you diminish a person's debts. What is therefore the remainder is when 2 is taken from 2? When .. 16m 7/12my d+e a 6.3 taken from 2 ? 5. 1. a s f3o $ xy and 5+a\ ^ "27.4 2tn* Sic 2 . 1. 1.9aj 2. SM/Z + 2 a:?/ f x y bxyz~lx. and 3^2 SUBTRACTION EXERCISE 1.ra + m. . 1/ . c 3 3 3 2 3 . ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 4 w + 3 m + 2 m. and 6 + 9 x + 12 26. 22. . a 6 2 c. 2 a3 a 4 3 af^. and 25. 1.
Therefore any example in subtraction different . NOTE. State the other practical examples which show that the number is equal to the addition of a 40. AND PARENTHESES 23 subtraction of a negative positive number.3. In subtraction. The results of the preceding examples could be obtained by the following Principle. 1. In addition. two numbers are given. the other number is required. SUBTRACTION. Ex. This gives by the same method. and their algebraic sum is required. 3 gives 5 is evidently 8. 2. Subtraction is the inverse of addition. the algebraic sum and one of the two numbers is The algebraic sum is given. change the sign of the subtrahend and add. From 5 subtract to . may be stated in a : 5 take form e. 41. 3 gives 3) The number which added Hence. from What 3. may be stated number added to 3 will give 5? To subtract from a the number b means to find the number which added to b gives a.g.2. To subtract. The student should perform mentally the operation of chang8 2 6 from 6 a 2 fc. Ex. Or in symbols. a. 7. and the required number the difference. . the given number the subtrahend. From 5 subtract to The number which added Hence. 3. ing the sign of the subtrahend thus to subtract 6 a 2 6 and 8 a 2 6 and find the sum of change mentally the sign of . ab = x. +b 3. From 5 subtract + 3. ( 6) ( = . 5 is 2. 6 (3) = 8.ADDITION. if x Ex. called the minvend.
If x = l = 2 t . To subtract polynomials of the subtrahend and add.f 8 . Check. From _6ar3 3z + 7 2 6ar3 3o2 +7 2 or3 .3 x* . Ex.24 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA we change the subtract 2 x sign of each term 42.3 r*5o.5 x + 8.
+3x f & f 12 take 3 f ar f 4 x + 11. 56.7 a .ADDITION.4 a^ 4. From 16 + a3 subtract 8 2 a + a2 f a3 From a 4 . check the answer. and 3 7/ . 44. From 6(af. of x2 4x f 12 and 3 a2 3 # 3 sub From a3 + 2 a2 4 a subtract the sum of a 3 } a2 2a and a 2 + 4. 48. c f d.b h c and a & f c subtract a _ 6 _ 2 c. 49. 50. f 2 aa 7a 2 ?/ 2 subtract a3 take 11 a 2 :c + 2 a .5(6 + c) 4(c + a) subtract 7(af&) REVIEW EXERCISES 1. f 12 b f From 10 a 12 & f 6 subtract 5 c. 6 6 2 2 ?/ . 43.& 4 subtract a 2 2 4 +4 8 6 6 a& 59.5 #?/ 2 and check the answer. 57. 51. SUBTRACTION. From a3 subtract 2 a3 f. From a3 From 6a 1 subtract f a + b 3 1. 45. 96 subtract 10 b 2 From From 1 f & take 1 f b f & s . 42.2. take 2 8 o# + qt c mt subtract a2 f mn f wp f.6)f. From From x2 the sum sum 7. From From $ a 3 7 x 2 ?/ 5 a/ + ?/ subtract f ar f 7 a 2 ?/ .4 a*& + 6 a & . 58. 55. . 46.w>t. 2 + 4 a& 3 f 6 4 . From 5 a 2 2 ab ?/' subtract 2 a 2 + 2ab . 41. From 2 a take a & j. AND PARENTHESES from 14 a 25 Subtract the sum of 2 m and 7 m c 10m. 2.c. 4v From 6 subtract lt2af3& + 4<7. 54. 2y 2 . 52. tract 4 x 3.a 2 j. 53. of a 4.a From 3 or 2 a:// + 2 subtract 2 1. ?/ 3 #?/ 2 y2 . From 5a(>& + 7c From 2 x2 8 a?y + 2 From mn f ??/> 8d 11 cf 17 d. + a the 2 a. 6 4 a. 47.
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA From the difference between a? a? 3 j +5 a: 2 + 58+1 + cc and 4 a? 2 +4x 5. Subtract the difference of a and a Subtract the sum + f and + 6 + c from a + b + c a +2 y from 2 2 2 ar* 2 */ 10. 2 m 21. a 2y + z. 9. To the sum of 2a + 66 + 4c and a 2 c. a a + c. + 6 + c. 10 a + 5 b sum of9ci66 + c and 11. +a add the difference duce 13. What expression must 8a3 2a7? What What be added to 7 a 3 +4a 2 to pro expression must be added to 3a + 56 cto pro duce 14. of # 2 8. subtract # + 1. years ago ? How old was he a b years ago? .15. 20. 19. ~2a6 + 2c? expression must be subtracted from 2 a to produce a+6? v . A is n years old. 4 6 2 c add the To the 3 sum a3 4 a2 3 between 5 a 12. Subtract the sum s of 6 m +5 m +6m 8 4m* 5 m +4m 2 from 2 ra + 7 m. 16. + 2. +4 and 4 a +1 +a 2 and a2 a.26 4. a + 6. to produce find : 0? = x +g c =x 18. Subtract the sum of 5 a2 + 2 7 and 2a2 + 3a and from 2 a2 + 2 a 7. 6. n years hence ? A c How old will he be 10 years hence ? a +b is 2 a years old. 6 17. sum of Subtract the x2 + 2 and 6 a iE 3 2 from x3 + a^ 4 6. What must be added to b 4^ + 4^ + 2 z.
one occurring within the other. . (b c) a =a 6 4 c. I.ADDITION.b c = a a & f f.2 b . 6 o+( a + c) = a =a 6 c) ( 4. SUBTRACTION. Simplify 4 a f + 5&)[6& +(25.a^6)]  } . the sign is understood. 46. The beginner will find it most convenient at every step to remove only those parentheses which contain (7 a no others. may be written as follows: a f ( 4. we may begin either at the innermost or outermost. & f c. Ex. tractions By using the signs of aggregation. II. 4a{(7a + 6&)[6&f(2&.6 b f (.a~^~6)]} = 4 a {7 a 6 b [. If we wish to remove several signs of aggregation. Hence the it is sign may obvious that parentheses preceded by the f or be removed or inserted according to the fol: lowing principles 44.c. If there is no sign before the first term within a paren* f thesis.a f = 4a sss 7a 12 06 6.& c additions and sub + d) = a + b c + d. 66 2&a + 6 4a Answer. 45.g. changed. A moved w may be resign of aggregation preceded by the sign inserted provided the sign of evei'y term inclosed is E. AND PARENTHESES 27 SIGNS OF AGGREGATION 43.c. A sign of aggregation preceded by the sign f may be removed or inserted without changing the sign of any term. a+(bc) = a +b .
 ? 11. m+n + [# (6 (m (r + M> + w n p) ___ ( m~n\p.: Ex. Signs of aggregation 1. 13. 15. . (m a2 f. 8. + (2a 6 + c ).)]. the fourth and fifth terms respectively in parentheses.(a + 6). In the following expression inclose the second and third. By removing parentheses. 6) 2. a a c) + [3 a {3c (c 26 a)} 6a]. 17.1422) J ] . may be inserted according to 43. 2a (4a 26 +c ). a (a + 6). 2a 2 + 5a(7f 2a )f (55a). find the numerical value of { 1422 . last three Inclose in a parenthesis preceded by the sign terms of the See page 260. 2m 4af 2 2 2 10. 16.y (60.) 5 . : x + (2yz). 5.28 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 15* Simplify the following expressions 1. 3 3 f 7. 14.+ 6)f (a2 b). a(3b a3 3 2 2 2c). [36+ (a 2c]. 6. 2. m f ft) a.7i h jp) (m ?*. 9. 18. 3. 2 2 2 a(. 21. 19. a (a + 26 c ). a f (a a . 2 2a. Ex.[271 47. 4. 7 6)+ {a [a: 22. 271 + (814 .
5. In each of the following expressions inclose the last three in a parenthesis preceded by the minus sign : 27i2 3^ 2 + 4r/.2 tf . 3. 7. z + d. The difference of a and 6. terms 5. 8. ' NOTE. of the cubes of m and n. The sum of tKe squares of a and b. 13. . The product The product m and n. The sum^)f m and n. 5^2 _ r . 6. m x 2 4.1. Three times the product of the squares of The cube of the product of m and n. 9. 5 a2 2. Nine times the square of the sum of a and by the product of a and b. The square of the difference of a and b. The The difference of the cubes of m and n. difference of the cubes of n and m. EXERCISE AND PARENTHESES 16 29 In each of the following expressions inclose the last three terms in a parenthesis : 1.7fa. first. y f 8 . 4 xy 7 x* 49 x + 2.4 y* . 6 diminished . 7. The minuend is always the of the two numbers mentioned. SUBTRACTION. m and n. 2mn + 2q3t. The sum of the fourth powers of a of and 6. and the subtrahend the second. 4. 12. 2. 3. )X 6. II. The product of the sum and the difference of m and n. 10. a\l> > c + d. p + q + rs.ADDITION. EXERCISES IN" ALGEBRAIC EXPRESSION 17 : EXERCISE Write the following expressions I.
and c divided by the ference of a and Write algebraically the following statements: V 17. a plus the prod uct of a and s plus the square of 19. dif of the squares of a and b increased by the square root of 15. The sum The of a and b multiplied b is equal to the difference of by the difference of a and a 2 and b 2 . ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA The sum x. b. x cube minus quantity 2 x2 minus 6 x plus The sum of the cubes of a. 6.) . d. (Let a and b represent the numbers. difference of the cubes of a and b divided by the difference of a and 6. The difference of the squares of two numbers divided by the difference of the numbers is equal to the sum of the two numbers. 6 is equal to the square of b. 16.30 14. 18.
force is produced therefore. If the two loads balance. 2. what force is produced by the addition of 5 weights at B ? What. If the two loads what What. 4. what force is produced by the Ib. two loads balance. If the two loads balance. weights at A ? Express this as a multibalance. weight at A ? What is the sign of a 3 Ib. weights. weight at B ? If the addition of five 3 plication example. let us consider the and JB.CHAPTER III MULTIPLICATION MULTIPLICATION OF ALGEBRAIC NUMBERS EXERCISE 18 In the annexed diagram of a balance. applied at let us indicate a downward pull at by a positive sign. 3. By what sign is an upward pull at A represented ? What is the sign of a 3 Ib. is 5 x ( 3) ? 7. therefore. 5. and forces produced at by 3 Ib. A A A 1. what force 31 is produced by tak( ing away 5 weights from B ? What therefore is 5) x( 3) ? . is by taking away 5 weights from A? 5 X 3? 6.
examples were generally method of the preceding what would be the values of ( 5x4. (5)X4. To take a number 7 times.4)(4) = + 12. times is just as meaningless as to fire a gun tion 7 Consequently we have to define the meaning of a multiplicaif the multiplier is negative.4) x braic laws for negative ~ 3> = (. NOTE. 4x(3)=12. a result that would not be obtained by other assumptions. or 4x3 = = (_4) X The preceding 3=(4)+(4)+(4)=12. ( 9) x ( 11) ? State a rule by which the sign of the product of two fac tors can be obtained. or plied by 3. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA If the signs obtained by the true. 48. and we may choose any definition that does not lead to contradictions. . however. 5x(4). In multiplying integers we have therefore four cases trated illus by the following examples : 4x3 = 412. such as given in the preceding exercise. (.4)(. 4 multiplied by 3. 9 9. This definition has the additional advantage of leading to algenumbers which are identical with those for positive numbers. 9 x ( 11). becomes meaningless if definition. 4 x(8) = ~(4)(4)(4)=:12. Thus. Multiplication by a negative integer is a repeated sub traction. make venient to accept the following definition : con 49.32 8. thus. Practical examples^ it however. the multiplier is a negative number. ( (. Multiplication by a positive integer is a repeated addition.9) x 11. 4 multi44444 12. x 11.
NOTE. 4. x. 22. 2a 2 6c. 4 a2 . 24. (2) 8 (. 8 4 . 5. 1. _2^ 3. of Signs: TJie positive. 5x3. 12. 15.a)( =+ a&. .2 f+x 2 .3) (1) 7 2 .4. 3. 27. _3. _2. c = 25. 1. Formulate a law of signs for a product containing an even number of negative factors. 6.2. 8 31. 3. 7. Formulate a law of signs for a product containing an odd number of negative factors.(a&c) 2 2 . 17. X(5). (7) X (12). 6 2. 11. If a cal = 4a6c. . 16. and y = 4. (c#) .(4J). 3 aW. 23. 13. etc. 4a f26 2 2a + 3&2 6c* . 33 We shall and negative integers the assume that the law illustrated for positive is true for all numbers. 3 a2?/2 . about fac (2)X If 6. 14. 2. 20. 32. EXERCISE 19 : Find the values of the following products 1. 29.2f 18. 4 . Ua b 28. (2)x9. x= 0.MULTIPLICATION 50. 2a6 c . . 19. b = 3. 10. 6. . (4)X(15). +5. the product of two numbers with unlike &) (a)(+6) = a&. Law Thus. is 6x7. (.3. .7. tors is no misunderstanding possible. 9. the parenthesis frequently omitted. (4)'. 8. (10) 4 . find the numeri values of: 21. z s 11 aWcx. 30. and obtain thus product of two numbers with like signs in signs is negative. 26.
known as of Multiplication : The Exponent Law The exponent of is the product of several powers of the same base the exponents equal to the 8 (ft sum oj Ex. a = 2. By 3 definition. a 5 (a) (^ + 14 8 2/) (a? + 4 2/) (aj . 17.  and 2 25 8 . 50(112..e. 2 2 2 . 34. 200. a= 1. i. 100.7. 5 = 2. &*) c d*. 5 . . 3. 2.34 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA of 8 Find the numerical value 33.. IB. 14. 6 = . 13. 1. a 2 2 . In multiplying a product of several factors by a number.(7). B. (a6) (a5) 9. 4. m*. =2 a *. + 2/). 53. EXERCISE 20 : Express each of the following products as a power 1.12 Perform the operation indicated 12. .(12) . 127  127 9 7 .7 &*# =(6  7) (a 2 a8 ) . 3. Ex. 3 3 4 . 6 = 1. 11. & = 3. 6" 127 U . 4. 2(14. a 23 =2 Hence 2 x 2 general. = 2. 5.  2 2.503). a8 a=2. 2 x (2* 5 7 2 )= 26 5 7 2 . Ex. 3 2 . fl*" integers.3). 36. am Xa n = (a =aa is m (a a to n factors) (m X fl w = fl /w +w .6 if 35. 10. 6 aWc x . 4. 12 U U . 2 3 . . MULTIPLICATION OF MONOMIALS 51. 16. 4 x (2 25) =8 25. Or in m and n are two positive to factors) f n) factors. : 3a7abc. only one of the factors is multiplied by the number.m a 3  4 . 78 .2). a = 3. of the factors.35). . 9 . if =2 a a to  2 2 x2 2 2. or 2 .1 2 a 6 f 6 aW . 7.257).2 2 23 + 5 . 2 2 3 6 . This 52. 5(711. 2(7.<?. 2.(2. . 5 3 5 3 2 . 6.
MULTIPLICATION OF A POLYNOMIAL BY A MONOMIAL we had to multiply 2 yards and 3 inches by 3. 2. 5.6 a2 62c f 8 a2 6. (. .7 w'W (8 n^W). 6. 2(5fl5f25).A).M UL TIPLICA TION 18. 17(10041042). the would obviously be 6 yards and 9 inches. . and then adding : 1. 21. 3.6.3 a2 6(6 a*bc + 2 be  1) = 18 a 4 6 2 c . 26. 4. 6(10420430). 31. Thus we have in general a(b 56. 2 32.f 2). This principle. tet^m f c) = ab +ac.4a#. = (a + 26)+(a + 2 ft) f (a 4 2 ft) + (a + 2 ft) 55. 6 e/ a ( ( 2 a2 ) 3 . 5 2 aft (6 e 8 C a 2ftc). 3(124342). 11(3. 24. (. If results ft. by first multiplying. 25.5 xy 19 aW lla ( 3 3 tfy 2z*. Similarly the for quadruple of a 4 2 b would be 4 a f 8 54. ax /) 2 4 1 (. 2(645410).2 3 aft ). 27. 20. 35.7pqt. 7p*q r*. ) 2 33. _4aft. 35 4 7(6. 23(10004100420). . 2 19 ' mV 2 ft 5  2 ran4 30. is evidently correct for any positive integral multiplier. 4 9 afy 2 a3 ?/ ). 34. 7. /). 19. 29. To multiply a polynomial by a monomial. . 5 aft 3 ( ftc ( 2 2ac).3 win ) . . EXERCISE 21 Find the numerical values of the following expressions. called the distributive law. 4 aft 5 aft 2 . . multiply each by the monomial. but we shall assume it for any number. c(4a ftc ). 28. 22.4 (2 a 2 ft 3) 2 3 . 12( + 1 4 i). 23.
. 28. 20. MULTIPLICATION OF POLYNOMIALS 57.3 x2y 2 + 3 xy. 5 x\5 pqr + 5 pr 5 x2 . be multiplied to give 4o. 2 4 %Pq\ 14.5 x 7). By what 25. 22. Find the factors of 6 ary .we b) (x law. 19. 7 a 6 c(.6 a6). . 2 27. : expression must 24.6) (x f y z) = x(a = (ax b) + y(a b) z(a (az b) bx) f (ay by) bz) by az + bz. 23.36 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA : Express as a sum of several powers 8. 3 ). 29. 17. 9. Find the factors of 6 Find the factors of 2 or* f 3 x* f arty 3 a4 .2 mn(9 mV . Express 3a^ Find the factors of 3x + 3 y + 3z. 4 13 (4 9 4 5 4).asa product. 5 aW( 3 2 2 aW + 3 a 2 2 ?/ 6 c 2 .3 aftc). Find the factors of 5 a 6 . f7a. 2 m(mhn \p). . 5). 11.60 a& 10 aft. 2 2 16. Any it closing x +y (a polynomial may be written as a monomial by inb by within a parenthesis. 12. 26.5 w*V f 7 wn). 21. . Thus to multiply a write (a + y z) and apply the distributive z. Perform the multiplications indicated: 13. 6 (6 2 +6 +6 10. ~2mn(m +n p ). 30. 5(5 + 52 + 2 2 5 7 ).^ c + 2 . 7 3 (7 3 f7 +7 10 ). ofy 2 4 +8 2 4 a.
The most convenient way of adding the partial products is to place similar terms in columns.a . If Arranging according to ascending powers 2 a .a6 =2 by numerical Examples in multiplication can be checked substitution. . Since errors. Ex. Multiply 2 + a a.3 a 3 2 by 2 a : a2 + l.3 a 2 + a8 a a = = I 1 =2 f 2 a 4. Since all powers of 1 are 1. a2 + a8 + 3 . are far more likely to occur in the coefficients than anywhere else.1. 59.2 a2 6 a8 2 a* *  2" a2 7 60.M UL TIP LICA TION 37 58. 2. To multiply two polynomials. the work becomes simpler and more symmetrical by arranging these expressions according to either ascending or descending powers. however. Multiply 2 a .4.3 b by a 5 b. Check. 2a3b a66 2 a . this method tests only the values of the coefficients and not the values of the exponents.a6 4 a 8 + 5 a* . multiply each term of one by each term of the other and add the partial products thus formed. the student should apply this test to every example. 1 being the most convenient value to be substituted for all letters.3 a 2 + a8 . as illustrated in the following example : Ex. If the polynomials to be multiplied contain several powers of the same letter.3 ab 2 2 a2 10 ab  13 ab + 15 6 2 + 15 6 2 Product.
9. 16. 6. 3n)(7m f6<7)(5^) + 8n).38 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 22* Perform the following multiplications and check the results 1. 25. . 3. 2 (m?n?p (x (a //)4 lA/ //j. 15. QQ O7. l)(raf 2). ^ 2 . 32. 2) (3 A: 1). a 5c)(2a6c). 24. (6xy + 2z)(2xy 27. 6 2 (6a&c5) 3a6f2)(2a6~l). (a^26) . (a 2a + 2)(a3). 2 . . 13. (6i7n)(llJn). 17. 31. 29. 41. 36) I) 14. (llr + l)(12r (rcya (2m (a (4 a 2 .n)(m 8 n)(m n). 35. (a&c 2 + 7)(2a&c3). 20.2 ^/ ' 2 mnp f. 12)(a?^2l). 12.4) (mnp 4. 8. 2  37. + & + 1f a^faj 1). 7. 2. 3<7). 7y). OQ OO. 4 2). 36). 18.4) (x + 1). 4. (9m2n)(4m + 7tt). (13 A. (4a 2 33. I (mfn)(m4. (6p (2 f 21. (6a~7) 2 . (8r7*)(6r39. 10.2m)(l m). (2s 3y)(3a? + 2y).2). 2 (a al)(2a?fl).1 . 28. 2 . 1). (2w 19. 36. (ajf6y)(aj 23. 40. 26. 11. (4af 76)(2tt (4ra fra (5c2d)(2c3d). 30. * For additional examples see page 261. 22. 5. (2 x* x 2 .
+ 5) (1000 + 4). 24. + 60)(f2). 25. (!)(* 5). (a 102 x 103. 3 (a 7) 3 (a 8). 11. (a (a (a. 99 (a + 2 6) (a 6). (J 23. 1005x1004.e. (p12)(p + ll). (6 12) (6 f. (wi 2^*12)(ajy 6. (a3)(a + 2). . 27. + 9)(m+9). 20. 22. 1) (10 + 2). 17. 16 ft) (5 a) 75 ab. . 7. plus the sum of the two unequal terms multiplied by the common term. 2 a? 29. (10+ (1000 (2. (100 +2) (100 + 3). plus the product 62.MUL TIPLICA TION SPECIAL CASES IN MULTIPLICATION 61. 2) (1000 + 3). 6 ft) (5 a 9 ft) is equal to the square of the common term. (1001) (100 (1000 + 2). (a 9) (a + 9). 9. 21. 12. Find two binomials whose product equals 3x + 2. ( 2 Hence the product equals 25 a'2 54 ft 2 . 28. plus the product of the two unequal terms. 2 5 b z) (a2 f 4 (a 2 4. 8. X 102.25)(y+4). (ra. (5 a plus the sum of the unequal terms multiplied by the common terms. . + 2) (a f 3). 19. 39 The product of two binomials which have a common term.13). 13. (*. 10. + 3) (a 7). ft 16.!!)( (a + 21). 3. _3)(a _4). 15. (ofy* f 3) (tfy* (a5 2 ). i. in of the two unequal terms.2 6) (a f 6). The product of two binomials which have a common term equal to the square of the common term.e. i. : 23 2. = + EXERCISE Multiply by inspection 1. 25 a 2 . 14. 18. 75 ab f 54 ft .4).n)(wf w). 6. 2 6) (a 3 6). 26.
7 a + 10. (a26) 2 .e. Some special cases of the preceding type of examples : deserve special mention II. 7. minus twice the product of the first and the 71ie second. p 2 p. 4. .e. Ex. 37. 6. 8. + 3) 2 . + 6 a + 8. oft x 3 y'2 plus the square of the Hence the required square equals 16 xP f. n2 10ii+16. (II) is only a The student should note that the second type special case of the first (I). 32. (x+3i/) 2 . : ar'Sz + a 2 G. + 6) (a + 2) a) 2 . 35. i.15. is The product of the sum and to the difference the difference of two numbers equal of their squares. : 24 (a 2.66 s. 31. a2 2 w + 2 w . w 2 ro . (4 x3 + 7 2 i/ 2 is )' equal to the square of the first. plus twice the product of the first and the second. III. 3. second. <J>7) J . plus sum of two numbers the square II. . 77ie square of the of the first. EXERCISE Multiply by inspection 1. m2_ 3m _ 4 2 36. 2 (a (*5) 2 . (a2) (p a . 8j/ 2 + 49 y4 first . 34. (ain general language : Expressed is equal to tlie square I. i. square of the difference of two numbers is equal to the square of the Jirst. 63. of the following expres Find two binomial factors sions 30. 2 5. 9. III. 49 y*.40 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA of each. of the second. plus the square of the second.15. 16 y* t plus twice the product of the i.e. . and the second. 33.30.
40. : Extract the square roots of the following expressions 43. I) 2 . 45. m 2 16. 99x101. (100 + 2) (100 2). 2 2 5c ) 2 2 19. + 5)(5+a). + 5). By actual multiplication. . 2 9a 496 2 56. 2 + 11 2 (5 r 2 2 2/ ) 2  Z ) 2 2 (5 r f 2 2 . 25 a 9. 103 36. 28. (^. 32. The product of 57. 55. 24. 2 11 # ) 2 20. 41. (a 3) 2 2 2 . 47. . 11. 16aW25. 2 . we have 3x 5x + 2y 4y 2xySy* .ll^X^+lly (100 30. 35. 51. + 1) (100 + 2) 2 . 38. 44. 23. 2 2 (5 (a r*2t ) 2 5 (cd 5)(c d 2 . 17. a2 9. (3p 9) (6a 2 2 2 . 2 .30 ab + 25 6 64. 2 2 . 41 16. (2x3yy. n 2 f4n+4. 31.998 39. (m 27i )(m + 2n 2 5 ). 15. 7& ) 25. 21. 46. 42. . 2 (4a36) 2 13. a 2 + 10 ab f 25 b\ Pind two binomial sions 50. 29. G> +5g)*. two binomials whose corresponding terms are similar. 7)(a 2 2 f 7). 2 . 104 2 37. (20 f 1) . (m f 2 tt n)(ra w ) 26  (^ (2m + 3)(2m3). n*6n+9. + 3z) 2 2 . 22 2 . 2 J ). ( 27. : factors of each of the following expres y?f. 12. 9 a2 . 14. 22. . 48. x*+2xy+y\ a 2 2a6 + & 2 m 2 2mhl. (1000 2 . 49. (6afy 2 5) (a. 54. 4 53.MULTIPLICATION 10. 34. ). 998x1002. 52. 62 25n 2 . 2 (2a6c) (2a# (4 a 6 2 2 . 18. a 2 8a6+166 2 . 33. 991 2 2 .
(5a64)(5a&3). 5. 2 (2x y (6 2 2 + z )(ary + 2z ). 7%e square of a polynomial is equal to the sum of the squares of each term increased by twice the product of each term with each that follows it. ) (2 of a polynomial. The square 2 (a 4. 2 10. that the square of each term is while the product of the terms may have plus always positive. (5a4)(4al). 13. 65. 2 (2m3)(3m + 2). 11. 9. (100 + 3)(100 + 4). 8. (4s + y)(32y). sum of the cross products. 2 2 2 2 (2a 6 7)(a & + 5). The middle term or Wxy12xy Hence in general. (x i 5 2 ft x 2 3 6 s).f 2 a& f 2 ac + 2 &c.42 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA of the result is obtained product of 5 x follows: by adding the These products are frequently called the cross products. 14. or The student should note minus signs. plus the last terms. and are represented as 2 y and 4y 3 x. ((5a? (10 12. plus the product of the EXERCISE Multiply by inspection 1. 4. (3m + 2)(ml). (2a3)(a + 2).& + c) = a + tf + c . 7. . the product of two binomials whose corresponding terms are similar is equal to the product of the first two terms. 2 2 + 2) (10 43). 6. : 25 2. 3.
4.39. Check. Hence.r _ 2 . 3.(x . If x = 1.3)(z.24 . 5.(m 2 6. 4. 12. Ex. 4(* + 2)5(3). 9. 66.3) . (  2 4) =  20 a. + 65) .4) . 7. 4(aj2)h3(7). 8. s? + y + z + 2xy + 2yz + 2 xz. : 43 26 (mf n+p) 2 2 . Simplify (x + 6) (a . 13. (xy+z)*. (u4& + 3c'.5) = (7 . 2 m 2 + n2 2 "f jp f 2 mn 2 ?wp 2 np. EXERCISE 27 : Simplify the following expressions. = .X2 + 2 x . 4y sf n) 2 .8 x + 15] . (a2)(a3)~(al)(a4). and check the answers !.M UL TIPLICA TION EXERCISE Find by inspection 1.1 5 = 10 . 3. (a (.3) (x . = 10 x . + 6)( . 8. 6. 5. ber that a parenthesis is understood about each term.5). 6(a 2. a. the beginner should inclose the product in a parenthesis. (2a36 + 5c) (3 (. In simplifying a polynomial the student should remem.39. + 6 )2(6 + &)~(&4& ).[a? .y? + 8 .4) . after multiplying the factors of a term. of z : 10.(= [ Xa + 2 . 7. Find the square root 11.(>. . (mf n)(m+2)3m(n + m).29. n). 2 2.24] . 6~2(a + 7). 2)6. 8 2(m 3(6 3 n) 2 3(m + n)H.i2&c) 2 .
44
9.
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
10. 11. 12.
13.
4(m + 2)
(a?
+ 5(w
3)
5)(oj2)
(a;
(n f 5) (w
 2) + (n  7) (n + 4)  2 (n*  2)
14.
15.
6(p+2)7(p9)2(i> + l)(pl).
16.
17.
x 2 y)(3 x f 2 y)  (4  y) (a3 (a f 6)  4 (a + &) (a f 2 6) + (a (5
2
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
2
(a
faf
1)
(
a  1)
 (a + 1) (a  1).
8
CHAPTER
DIVISION
IV
is the process of finding one of two factors and the other factor are given. The dividend is the product of the two factors, the divisor the given factor, and the quotient is the required factor.
67.
Division
if
their product
is
Thus
by
f
to divide
12.
12
by
+
3,
we must find
is
the
;
number which
3 gives
But
this
number
4
hence
_
multiplied
12 r +3
=4.
68.
Since
f
a

f b
fa
_a
and
it
f
a
= f ab = ab b = ab b = ab,
b
f
follows that
4a
=+b
ab
a
ab
a
69.
Hence the law
:
of signs
is
the same in division as in
multiplication
70.
Like signs produce plus, unlike signs minus.
Law
of
,
a8 5 a5
=a
3
for a 3
It follows from the definition that Exponents. X a5 a8
=
.
Or
in general, if
greater than
m n, a
f
and n are positive integers, and m ~ n an = a m a" = a'"", for a
<
m
m
is
45
46
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
71. TJie exponent of a quotient of two powers with equal bases equals the exponent of the dividend diminished by the exponent
of the divisor.
DIVISION OF MONOMIALS
7 3 72. To divide 10x y z by number which multiplied by number is evidently
2x y
6
2
,
we have
z
to
find
the
2x*y
gives 10 x^ifz.
This
Therefore,
the quotient
*
,
=  5 a*yz.
is
Hence,
sign,
of two monomials of their
part
coefficients,
is the
a monomial whose
coefficient is the quotient
preceded by the proper
literal
and whose
literal
found
in accordance with the
quotient of their law of exponents.
parts
73. In dividing a product of several factors by a number, only one of these factors is divided by that number. Thus (8 12 20)?4 equals 2 12 20, or 8 3 20 or 8 12 5.


.

.

.
EXERCISE
Perform the divisions indicated
'
:
28
'
2
.
76H15.
39* 3.
2
15
3"
7
7'
3.
4*
'
4.
5.
j2
12
.
4
2
9
5 11
68
3 19 j3
5
10.
(3
38

2 4 )^(3 4 .2 2).
56
'
11.
3
(2
.3*.5 7 )f(
2
'
12
'
2V
14
36 a
'
13
''
yfflg
35
5.25
12 a
2abc
15
42^
'
56aW
'
UafiV
DIVISION
lg
47
^1^. 16 w
7
20>
7i
9
_Z^L4L.
22.
10 iy.
132 a V* 14 1
*
01
240m
120m
40
6c
fl
/5i.
3J)
c
23.
2 (15 25. a ) = 5.
25. 26.
(18
(
.
5
.
2a )f9a.
2
24.
(7 26 a
2
)
f
13.
DIVISION OF POLYNOMIALS BY MONOMIALS
To divide ax} fr.ef ex by x we must find an expression which multiplied by x gives the product ax + bx J ex.
74.
But
TT
x(a
aa?
Hence
+ b e) ax + bx + ex. + bx f ex = a 4 b +
\.
,
.
c.
a?
To divide a polynomial by a monomial, cfc'wde each term of the dividend by the monomial and add the partial quotients thus
formed.
3 xyz
EXERCISE
Perform the operations indicated
1.
:
29
2.
5.
fl
o.
(5*
_5* + 52)
5.
52
.
3.
97
.
(2
(G^G^G^iG
(11 2
4.
(8 3
+
11 3
+ 11
5)* 11.
18 aft 27 oc
Q y.
9a
4
25 2 )^2
<?
2
.
+8 5 + 8
7) *8.
5a5 +4as 2a
2
a
14gV+21gy
Itf
15 a*b

12
aW + 9 a
2
2
3a
48
,
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
22
4,
m n  33 m n
4
s
2
f
55
mV
 39 afyV + 26 arVz 3
 49 aW + 28 a W  14 g 6 c
4 4
15. 16.
2 (115 afy f 161 afy
 69
4
2
a;
4
?/
3
 23 ofy
3
4
)
5
23 x2y.
(52
afyV  39
4
?/
oryz
 65 zyz  26 tf#z)
5
13 xyz.
f
,
17.
(85 tf
 68 x + 51 afy  34 xy* f 1 7
a;/)
 17
as.
DIVISION OF A POLYNOMIAL BY A POLYNOMIAL
75.
Let
it
be required to divide 25 a
 12 f 6 a  20 a
3
2
by
2 a 2 f 3 a, divide
4
a, or, arranging according to
2
descending powers of
6a3 20a
f
25a12
2 by 2a 
The term containing the highest power of a in the dividend (i.e. a 8 ) is evidently the product of the terms containing respectively the highest power of a in the divisor and in the quotient.
Hence the term containing the highest power
of a in the quotient is
If
the product of 3 a and 2
2
4 a
+
3, i.e.
6 a3
12 a 2
f
9 a, be sub
8 a 2 f 16 a tracted from the dividend, the remainder is 12. This remainder obviously must be the product of the divisor and the rest of the quotient. To obtain the other terms of the quotient we have
therefore to divide the remainder,
8 a2
f
16 a
12,
2 by 2 a
4 a
+
3.
consequently repeat the process. By dividing the highest term in the new dividend 8 a 2 by the highest term in the divisor 2 a 2 we obtain
,
We
4,
the next highest term in the quotient. 4 by the divisor 2 a2 4 a Multiplying
I
+ 3, we
obtain the product
8 a2
16 a
12,
which subtracted from the preceding dividend leaves
the required quotient.
no remainder. Hence 3 a
4
is
DIVISION
The work
is
49
:
usually arranged as follows
 20 * 2 + 3 0a 12 a 2 +
a3
25 a
{)

12
I
2 a2 8 a

4 a 4
a
_
12
+3
I

8 a? 4 16
a
76. The method which was applied in the preceding example may be stated as follows 1. Arrange dividend and divisor according to ascending or
:
descending powers of a common letter. 2. Divide the first term of the dividend by the first term of the divisor, and write the result for the first term of the quotient.
3.
Multiply this term of the quotient by the whole divisor, and
subtract the result
4.
from
it
the dividend.
the same order as the given new dividend, and proceed as before.
Arrange
the
remainder in
as a
expression, consider
5.
until the highest poiver
Continue the process until a remainder zero is obtained, or of the letter according to which the dividend
is less
was arranged
the divisor.
than the highest poiver of the same
letter in
77.
Checks.
Numerical substitution constitutes a very con
venient, but not absolutely reliable check. An absolute check consists in multiplying quotient and divisor. The result must equal the dividend if the division
was
exact, or the dividend diminished by the remainder division was not exact.
if
the
Ex.
1.
Divide 8 a3
f
8 a
 4 + 6 a  11 a
4
2
by 3 a
,
 2.
^ _ _
,
Arranging according to descending powers,
6 a4 6 a4
,
,
+ 8 a8 4 a3
12 a 8
11
a2 a2
f
8a
4
I
3 a
2 a8
2
f
=
a _+ 2
.
7rl,
4 a2
=
7
+
11

3 a2
3
a'
2
+ +
8 a 2 a
4 + 6a  4
50
Ex.
2.
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
Divide a4
 46 6a6
4
3
f
9
2
6
2
2 l by 26 3a& + a
.
Arranging according to descending powers of
a,
we have
a<a4
6 a36
fr
f
f
9 a2 6 2
2 a2 6 2
2
2
46*
I
a2
a*

8 ab 3 ab
 3 a8


+ 2 6^  2 62
46*
 3 a^ + 9a 2 6  6 ab 8
+ 6 a& a  4 6 4  2 a^a + 6 aft  4
Check.
ft*
The numerical
it
substitution a
=
1,
&
=
1,
cannot be used in this
either to use
example since
larger
renders the divisor zero.
Hence we have
a
number
for a, or multiply.
2  8 ab + 2 & 2 ) ( a _ 3 ab  2 6 2 ) (a = [(a2  3 aft) + 2 62 ] [(a2  3 a&)  2 62 ] = (a 2 3 aft) 2 4 6* = a2  6 8 6 + 9 a2 6 2  4 5*.
EXERCISE
30 *
:
Perform the operations indicated and check the answers
2. 3.
(jf_2y15)i<y6).
2 (15 a
2
4.
5.
6.
 46 a# f 16 ) _ 26 mn 4 5 n ) (5 m
2
i/
5
(5
a5 w).
2
*
(m
7.
(6^53^ + 40)^(6^5).
(56
2 a; f
8.
19 x
15) (8
3).
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
2 (25 a
 36
2
ft
)
j
(5
a
f
6
6)
* See page 263.
the difference of the squares of two numbers is divisible of the two numbers. 20.18 m 2 ) f (1 G m f 9 m 2 ).DIVISION 14. 19. + 23a& + 20)*(2a& + 6). .11 a + 9 a . .2).l. v/17. (3 a 13 m + 47 m + 35 w (1 (5 m f (6a 2 & 2 2 2 3 2 f 2 3 f ) 5 1) . 16.2) (3 a . (81 m + 1 . (a f b) (a V) Since =a a 2 b 2 .e. Division of the difference of two squares. b f b by the difference or by the sum Ex. a I. 18. (aj 3aj2)^(oj2).81 c8 f ' ISVftQc 8 64 ' a2 166 2 ' a? 10 1 . SPECIAL CASES IN DIVISION 78. 51 15. EXERCISE Write by inspection the quotient 31 of : 2 x 1 c 2 6 ' 3 ^. . (a? s 8) 4 *( 2). c + 3* ' v7 169 a<6 2 ' . (8xy + lo22x' y)+(2x y3).
. 36 a4 ?/ 4 . 14. 4 b.49. f 13.000. 16. 10. r/ 1. 16 . aW 12 a. 1.52 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA of Find exact binomial divisors of each expressions 9. . 121a a 16 100 11.0001. 9& 2 . 12. 100ry. 15. : the following w a 4 !.
hence it is an equation of condition. An equation of condition is usually called an equation. . Thus. 83. x 20. is said to satisfy an equation. the 80. An equation of condition is an equation which is true only for certain values of the letters involved. . second member is x + 4 x 9. The sign of identity sometimes used is = thus we may write . . 82. (rt+6)(aft) = 2  b' 2 . A set of numbers which when substituted for the letters an equation produce equal values of the two members. =11. 81. y y or z) from its relation to 63 An known numbers. which is true for all values a2 6 2 no matter what values we assign to a Thus. An identity is an equation of the letters involved. in the equation 2 x 0. y = 7 satisfy the equation x y = 13. ber equation is employed to discover an unknown num(frequently denoted by x.r f9 = 20 is true only when a. (a + ft) (a b) and b. in Thus x 12 satisfies the equation x + 1 13. the first member is 2 x + 4.CHAPTER V LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS 79. ond member or right side is that part which follows the sign of equality. The first member or left side of an equation is that part The secof the equation which precedes the sign of equality.
A numerical equation is one in which all . . NOTE. expressed in arithmetical numbers literal is as (7 equation is one in which at least one of the known quantities as x f a letters 88. If equals be added to equals. A 2 a. The process of solving equations depends upon the : lowing principles. the known quan x) (x f 4) tities are = . one member to another by changing x + a=. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA If value of the an equation contains only one unknown quantity. A linear equation or which when reduced first to its simplest an equation of the first degree is one form contains only the as 9ie power of the unknown quantity. fol A linear equation is also called a simple equation. 89. A term may be transposed from its sign. 4. the sums are equal.g. To solve an equation to find its roots. a. 3. but 4 does not equal 5.2. Consider the equation b Subtracting a from both members. 87. 85. = bx expressed by a letter or a combination of c. x I. called axioms 1. Transposition of terms. If equals be subtracted from equals. the quotients are equal. If equals be divided by equals. the products are equal. 5. 9 is a root of the equation 2 y +2= is 20.54 84. Axiom 4 is not true if 0x4 = 0x5. . (Axiom 2) the term a has been transposed from the left to thQ right member by changing its sign. 2 = 6#f7. Like powers or like roots of equals are equal. the remainders are equal. the divisor equals zero. 2.e. an^ unknown quantity which satisfies the equation is a root of the equation.b. If equals be multiplied by equals. E. 90. 86.
and divide both members by the coefficient of the quantity.2 y= f . Hence the answer. x = 93. Subtracting 4 x from each term. The first member. Ex.6 y f y\ . f If y 20 .LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS Similarly. y) (5 y) unknown Ex. Qx 6# = 4x + l + 6. The sign of every term of an equation without destroying the equality. a= a 6fc. 2(11 . (4y)(6. 91. 4x 1 + 6. To solve a simple equation. Dividing by Check. Dividing both members by 2.8. Transposing. a? Adding 5 to each term.y) = C4 + })(5f The second member. if a x = b. b c. Solve the equation (4 Simplifying. and the known terms to the second.3 y) + y 2 = 2(11 + i)^ V= 2) 1 4 = 26 i +  = 26 f f = 26$ JI . Check. is correct. 6a5 = 185 = 13. The first member. b Adding a to both + a. SOLUTION OF LINEAR EQUATIONS 1. transpose the unknown terms to the first member. (Axiom 4) When x = 3. if 55 x members.9 y + 6 y = 20 f 22. 3 y . = 2 (11 3 y) + #*. may be changed Consider the equation Multiplying each member by x\1.2. 4fl = 12fl = 13 3. x = (Axiom 3) 92. x = 3. 2 x = 6.9 y + y2 = 22 . (Axiom 1) The result is first member to the same as the right we had transposed a from the member and changed its sign. The second member. Unite similar terms. Uniting. . Uniting similar terms. Solve the equation Qx 5 = 4 f 1.
17 7 a.7. 24. If x = 18. BXEECISB 32* Solve the following equations by using the axioms only 1. 13a? 3a?. aj * See page 264. =2 = 3. f Simplifying. a. {(x (x The The member right member left .4) = + 3) = \ x 14 x 21 = 7. = 60 7 = 16 + 5 : Xx 7 = 14. v23. . Instead of dividing by \ botli members of the equation \ x would be simpler to multiply both members by 0. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Solve the equation  (x 4) = \ (x + 3).56 Ex.69. Solve the following equations by transposing. it NOTE. + 24) = 6 (10 x + 13). 17 + 5a. x = 18. 8. 7. \x x 2^xfl. = 7. 13 y 99 = 7 y. 4a + 5 = 29. Dividing by Cfcecfc. a?. 7 (6 x 16). 6. etc. 3)= 9(3 7 a. 21. 11. 32 = 264. 15. 3. 16. 50. 14y = 59(24y + 21). a? a?.. 2. 247y = 68lly.17 + 4y = 36. 19. 14. = 5a?+18. 3. Uniting. 9 9a? = 7 13.. 7a? 5. 87 9(5 x 3) 6(3 a? = 63. Transposing. + 7(3 + 1) =63. a. 22. 20. 17 9 x + 41 = 12 8 17. 3 7 a. and check the answers 9. x x 1 . + 22.7a: = 394a. = 3. 3 = 17 3 a? a?. 12. = 2 ?/. 4. . + 16 = 16 + 17. 11 ?/ a? 18. 4y 10. J. : 5# = 15+2a.
(aj 37.g.5(2 u . and let it be required to If the student finds it difficult to answer find the other part. 25. .1 0) = 0.4) (x + I) + (x + 2) = (x 2(* + l) (2J3)( + 2) = 12. 57 734* = 13*~2(5*12). .32. + 4). a? 43. 31. : One part is of 70 is 25 . 39. 27.7.(2 + 6) (4 . . or 70 a?. 2 2 * Jaj.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS 25. he should first attack a similar problem stated in arithmetical numbers is only. 38.1) (u .5)5(7a>8)=4(123a5) + l. 36. 30. he should formulate a similar question stated in arithmetical numbers only. (6 u =5 44. 35. Suppose one part of 70 to be a?. 34. SYMBOLICAL EXPRESSIONS 94. . . (a.7) (7 x + 4) . 7(7 x y 26. 33.2) (M . Hence if one part the other part 70 x.4) + 4 w . 6(6a.1) (a (a? + 3) = . 7) (a. + 1) 8(75 a?) +24 = 12 (4 . . and apply the method thus found to the algebraic problem.  +6= aj (4 t t t 1 (5 x (a? 2 2 2 2 2 2 (a? . 40.(14 x + 1) + 7) = 285 + 21 a* (z + 2) (a5) :=2.3) + 14. find the other part. e. 42. a? 28. + 7) (. WJienever the student is unable to express a statement in algebraic symbols. 41. this question.5) = (a. 29.5) + 199. Evidently 45. .3) + . is the other part. .14 = 0. . 5) (as (a.3) .12) (2 + 5) .
1. Find the greater one. 13. By how much does a exceed 10 ? By how much does 9 exceed x ? What number exceeds a by 4 ? What number exceeds m by n ? What is the 5th part of n ? What is the nth part of x ? By how much does 10 exceed the third part of a? By how much does the fourth part of x exceed b ? By how much does the double of b exceed one half Two numbers differ by 7. so that one part The difference between is s. EXERCISE 1. two numbers and the and the 2 Find the greater one. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA What must be added to a to produce a sum b ? : Consider the arithmetical question duce the sum of 12 ? What must be added to 7 to pro The answer is 5. greater one is g.58 Ex. is b. 3. 14. one part equals is 10. or 12 7. 6. 11. x f y yards cost $ 100 . 5. Divide 100 into two 12. If 7 2. Hence 6 a must be added to a to give 5. 10. one yard will cost 100 dollars. The difference between two numbers Find the smaller one. 4. Ex. is a? 2 is c?. What number divided by 3 will give the quotient a? ? What is the dividend if the divisor is 7 and the quotient ? . one yard will cost  Hence if x f y yards cost $ 100. 7. smaller one 16. a. 9. Divide a into two parts. $> 100 yards cost one hundred dollars. so that one part Divide a into two parts. and the smaller one parts. so that of c ? is p. 6. 33 2. find the cost of one yard. 17. is d. 15.
28. rectangular field is x feet long and the length of a fence surrounding the field. How many cents has he ? 27. How many cents are in d dollars ? in x dimes ? A has a dollars. 22. A feet wide. 26. How many cents had he left ? 28. feet wider than the one mentioned in Ex. 24. How many years A older than is B? old. amount each will then have. find the of their ages 6 years hence. and B has n dollars. ?/ 31. Find the area of the Find the area of the feet floor of a room that is and 3 30. and spent 5 cents. Find 35. If B gave A 6 25. numbers is x. Find 21. A dollars. A man had a dollars. and c cents. square feet are there in the area of the floor ? How many 2 feet longer 29. is A A is # years old. What What What What is the cost of 10 apples at x cents each ? is is is x apples cost 20 cents ? the price of 12 apples if x apples cost 20 cents ? the price of 3 apples if x apples cost n cents ? the cost of 1 apple if .LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS 18. and 4 floor of a room that is 3 feet shorter wider than the one mentioned in Ex. y years How old was he 5 years ago ? How old will he be 10 years hence ? 23. sum If A's age is x years. The greatest of three consecutive the other two. 34. find the has ra dollars. 32. and B is y years old. 59 What must The be subtracted from 2 b to give a? is a. 20. A room is x feet long and y feet wide. b dimes. 33. smallest of three consecutive numbers Find the other two. 28. and B's age is y years. 19. Find the sum of their ages 5 years ago.
The first pipe x minutes. 49. . c a b =  9. find the fraction. A cistern is filled 43. and "by as much as" Hence we have means equals (=) 95.60 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA wil\ 36. What fraction of the cistern will be filled by one pipe in one minute ? 42. How many x years ago miles does a train move in t hours at the rate of x miles per hour ? 41. Find a. of 4. in how many hours he walk n miles ? 40. b To express in algebraic symbols the sentence: " a exceeds much as b exceeds 9. Find a 47." we have to consider that in this by statement "exceeds" means minus ( ). If a man walks 3 miles per hour. miles does will If a man walks r miles per hour. If a man walks n miles in 4 hours. per Find 5 Find 6 45. The numerator If of a fraction exceeds the denominator by 3. If a man walks ? r miles per hour. . A was 20 years old. Find the number. % % % of 100 of x. m is the denominator. 46. of m. a. 48. how many miles he walk in n hours ? 37. and the second pipe alone fills it in filled y minutes. how many how many miles will he walk in n hours 38.50. he walk each hour ? 39. as a exceeds b by as much as c exceeds 9. A cistern can be filled in alone fills it by two pipes. The two digits of a number are x and y. Find x % % of 1000. How old is he now ? by a pipe in x minutes. What fraction of the cistern will be second by the two pipes together ? 44.
a is greater than b by b is smaller than a by c. third of x equals difference of x The and y increased by 7 equals a. equal to the sum and the difference of a and b sum of the squares of a and gives the Twenty subtracted from 2 a a. 6. thus: a b = c may be expressed as follows difference between a : The and b is c. 80. The double as 7.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS Similarly. EXERCISE The The double The sum One 34 : Express the following sentences as equations 1. by one third of b equals 100. The product of the is diminished by 90 b divided by 7. 80. The excess of a over b is c. 8 b ) + 80 = a . 3. of a increased much 8. double of a is 10. of x increased by 10 equals x. c. 2. same result as 7 subtracted from . 4. 9. etc. = 2 2 a3 (a  80. In many word There are usually several different ways of expressing a symbolical statement in words. the difference of the squares of a 61 and b increased } a2 i<5  b' 2 ' by 80 equals the excess of a over 80 Or. of a and 10 equals 2 c. Four times the difference of a and b exceeds c by as d exceeds 9. cases it is possible to translate a sentence word by in algebraic symbols in other cases the sentence has to be changed to obtain the symbols. a exceeds b by c. c. 5.
amounts. (d) In 10 years A will be n years old. the first sum exceeds b % of the second sum by first (e) % of the first plus 5 % of the second plus 6 % of the third sum equals $8000. symbols B. x is 100 x% is of 700. B.*(/) (g) (Ji) Three years ago the sum of A's and B's ages was 50. of 30 dollars. 18. sum equals $20. In 10 years the sum of A's. 11. 16. (c) If each man gains $500. In 3 years A will be twice as old as B.000. a third sum of 2 x + 1 dollars. and C have respectively 2 a. #is5%of450. first 00 x % of the equals one tenth of the third sum. a second sum. they have equal of A's. B's age 20. (e) In 3 years A will be as old as B is now. the first sum equals 6 % of the third sura. express in algebraic symbols : 700. . as 17 is is above a. is If A's age is 2 x. the sum and C's money (d) (e) will be $ 12. B's. A If and B B together have $ 200 less than C. 3 1200 dollars. 12. 5x A sum of money consists of x dollars. x 4 If A. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Nine is as much below a 13. B's. A is 4 years older than Five years ago A was x years old. they have equal amounts. and C's age 4 a. and (a) (6) A If has $ 5 more than B. A gains $20 and B loses $40. 14. >. (a) (b) (c) A is twice as old as B. Express as : equations of the (a) 5 (b) (c) % a% of the second (d) x c of / a % of 4 sum equals $ 90. and C's ages will be 100. a..62 10. 50 is x % of 15. 6 % of m. 17. a. m is x % of n. express in algebraic 3x : 10. pays to C $100.
In 15 years A will be three times as old as he was 5 years ago. 1. = x x 3x 40 3x 40 Or.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS 63 PROBLEMS LEADING TO SIMPLE EQUATIONS The simplest kind of problems contain only one unknown number. . x= 15. x = 20. NOTE. by 20 40 exceeds 20 by 20. Write the sentence in algebraic symbols. 23 =30. The student should note that x stands for the number of and similarly in other examples for number of dollars. x + 15 = 3 x 3x 16 15. be 30 . The solution of the equation (jives the value of the unknown number. Ex. Let x The (2) = A's present age. denote the unknown 96. Simplifying. 4 x = 80. number by x (or another letter) and express the yiven sentence as an equation. Let x = the number. Uniting. Uniting. equation is the sentence written in alyebraic shorthand. the . In 15 years 10. A will Check. much as 40 exceeds the number. Check. the required . etc. number. number of yards. Three times a certain no. Transposing. x+16 = 3(35). 3z40:r:40z. Transposing. The equation can frequently be written by translating the sentence word by word into algebraic symbols in fact. In order to solve them. 3 x + 16 = x x (x  p) Or. verbal statement (1) (1) In 15 years A will may be expressed in symbols (2). 3 x or 60 exceeds 40 + x = 40 + 40. Find A's present age. Dividing. 2. Ex. 15. but 30 =3 x years. Three times a certain number exceeds 40 by as Find the number. 6 years ago he was 10 . be three times as old as he was 5 years ago. exceeds 40 by as much as 40 exceeds the no.
twice the number plus 7. Hence 40 = 46f. How many miles per hour does it run ? . by as much as 135 ft. Let x 3. 300 56. 5. EXERCISE 1. How long is the Suez Canal? 10. Find the number. exceeds the width of the bridge. 13. % of 120. Forty years hence his present age. How old is man will be he now ? twice as old as he was 9. 14 50 is is 4 what per cent of 500 ? % of what number? is 12. then the problem expressed in symbols W or. 120. Find the width of the Brooklyn Bridge.64 Ex. 47 diminished by three times a certain number equals 2. 11. Dividing. A will be three times as old as toda3r . Four times the length of the Suez Canal exceeds 180 miles by twice the length of the canal. A number added number. Six years hence a 12 years ago. Uldbe 66  x x 5(5 is = *. Find the number whose double exceeds 30 by as much as 24 exceeds the number. A train moving at uniform rate runs in 5 hours 90 miles more than in 2 hours. . 35 What number added to twice itself gives a sum of 39? 44. 3. to 42 gives a sum equal to 7 times the original 6. Find 8. Find the number. What number 7 % of 350? Ten times the width of the Brooklyn Bridge exceeds 800 ft. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 56 is what per cent of 120 ? = number of per cent. 4. Find the number whose double increased by 14 equals Find the number whose double exceeds 40 by 10. 14.2.
The sum of the two numbers is 14. The other verbal statement. Ill the simpler examples these two lems they are only implied. 1. and as 15. make A's money equal to 4 times B's money wishes to purchase a farm containing a certain He found one farm which contained 30 acres too many. statements are given directly. A and B have equal amounts of money. How many dollars must ? B give to 18. five If A gives B $200. The problem consists of two statements I. B How will loses $100. During the following 90 years. numbers (usually the smaller one) by and use one of the given verbal statements to express the other unknown number in terms of x. How many dol A has A to $40. One number exceeds another by : and their sum is Find the numbers. 65 A and B $200. then dollars has each ? many have equal amounts of money. x. how many acres did he wish to buy ? 19. Vermont's population increased by 180. Ex.000.000. times as much as A. One number exceeds the other one by II. 97. and another which lacked 25 acres of the required number. while in the more complex probWe denote one of the unknown x.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS 15. and Maine had then twice as many inhabitants as Vermont. In 1800 the population of Maine equaled that of Vermont. is the equation. which gives the value of 8. written in algebraic symbols. Find the population of Maine in 1800. B will have lars has A now? 17. the second one. If a problem contains two unknown quantities. F 8. 14. and B has $00. Maine's population increased by 510. If the first farm contained twice as many acres as A man number of acres. . If A gains A have three times as much 16. two verbal statements must be given.
although in general the simpler one should be selected. The two statements I. the sum of the two numbers is 14. 26 = A's number of marbles after the exchange. 2. unknown quantity in Then. the smaller number. terms of the other. + a f f 8 = 14. = B's number of marbles. the greater number. If A gives are : A If II. To express statement II in algebraic symbols. Uniting. = 14. Then. Let x 3x express one many as A.66 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Either statement may be used to express one unknown number in terms of the other. . consider that by the exchange Hence. 8 the greater number. x = 8. 2x a? x j = 6.= The second statement written the equation ^ smaller number. . x x =14 8. expressed symbols is (14 x) course to the same answer as the first method. I. Dividing. A gives B 25 marbles. B will have twice as viz. = A's number of marbles. x 3x 4 and B will gain. If we select the first one. has three times as many marbles as B. to Use the simpler statement. 26 = B's number of marbles after the exchange. in algebraic i symbols produces #4a. o\ (o?f 8) Simplifying. A will lose. Another method for solving this problem is to express one unknown quantity in terms of the other by means of statement II viz. 8 = 11. . and Let x = the Then x +. which leads ot Ex. = 3. 25 marbles to B. Statement x in = the larger number. Let x 14 I the smaller number. / . A has three times as many marbles as B. B will have twice as many as A. < Transposing.
B's number of marbles. the number of dimes.10. Simplifying. . 3 x = 45.75. of dollars to the number of cents. w'3. differ differ and the greater and their sum times Two numbers by 60.240. 6 times the smaller. we express the statement II in algebraic symbols. consisting of half dollars and dimes. 50(11 660 50 x )+ 10 x = 310. The numbers which appear in the equation should always be expressed in the same denomination. Let 11 = the number of dimes. x = the number of half dollars. x = 15.10. 6 dimes = 60 = 310. x x + = 2(3 x = 6x 25 25). 2. Eleven coins. but 40 = 2 x 20.$3.. (Statement II) Qx . then. and the Find the numbers..10. 67 x f 25 25 Transposing. by 44. Find the numbers. A's number of marbles. x from I. How many are there of each ? The two statements are I. 60. 15 + 25 = 40. Two numbers the smaller. the price. Simplifying. Uniting. is 70.25 = 20. 50. Uniting. The sum of two numbers is 42. Check. The value of the half : is 11.550 f 310. Never add the number number of yards to their Ex. Dividing. 11 x = 5. * ' . their sum + + 10 x 10 x is EXERCISE 36 is five v v. 45 . * 98.5 x . 40 x . . dollars and dimes is $3. 3.. have a value of $3. Check. The number of coins II. x = 6. 1. Find the numbers. the number of half dollars. cents. Dividing. 50 x Transposing.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS Therefore. 6 half dollars = 260 cents. etc. greater is . Selecting the cent as the denomination (in order to avoid fractions).
6. Two numbers The number differ by 39. it If the smaller one contained 11 pints more. How many volcanoes are in the 8. 11. Mount Everest is 9000 feet higher than Mt. the night in Copenhagen lasts 10 hours longer than the day. would contain three times as pints does each contain ? much 13. and twice the altitude of Mt.000 feet.. A's age is four times B's.68 4. McKinley. and twice the greater exceeds Find the numbers. Twice 14. Find Find two consecutive numbers whose sum equals 157. and four times the former equals five times the latter. as the larger one. ? Two vessels contain together 9 pints. and in 5 years A's age will be three times B's. How many hours does the day last ? . 9. the larger part exceeds five times the smaller part by 15 inches. How many inches are in each part ? 15. one of which increased by 9. Find their ages. On December 21. find the weight of a cubic Divide 20 into two parts. United States. and the greater increased by five times the smaller equals 22. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA One number is six times another number. 5. What are their ages ? is A A much line 60 inches long is divided into two parts. McKinley exceeds the altitude of Mt. How many 14 years older than B. 3 shall be equal to the other increased by 10. 2 cubic feet of iron weigh 1600 foot of each substance. Everest by 11. and B's age is as below 30 as A's age is above 40. What is the altitude of each mountain 12. cubic foot of iron weighs three times as much as a If 4 cubic feet of aluminum and Ibs. 7. and in Mexico ? A cubic foot of aluminum. tnree times the smaller by 65. of volcanoes in Mexico exceeds the number of volcanoes in the United States by 2. the number.
try to obtain it by a series of successive steps. If 4x = 24." To x 8x 90 = number of dollars A had after giving $5. . number of dollars of dollars B C had. B. original amount. are : C's The three statements A. x = 8. = number of dollars B had after giving $5. If A and B each gave $5 to C. then three times the money by I. number had. 1. has. Ex. bers is denoted by x. they would have 3. Let x II. II. or 66 exceeds 58 by 8. first According to 3 x number number and according to 80 4 x = the express statement III by algebraical symbols. and the other of x problem contains three unknown quantities. III. sum of A's and B's money would exceed much as A had originally. has. 69 If a verbal statements must be given. = 48. let us consider the words ** if A and B each gave $ 5 to C.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS 99. Tf it should be difficult to express the selected verbal state ment directly in algebraical symbols. number of dollars A had. I. three One of the unknown num two are expressed in terms by means of two of the verbal statements. the the number of dollars of dollars of dollars A B C has. A and B each gave $ 5 respectively. B has three times as much as A. The solution gives : 3x 80 Check. times as much as A. 19. 5 5 Expressing in symbols Three times the sum of A's and B's money exceeds C's money by A's 3 x ( x _5 + 3z5) (904z) = x. The third verbal statement produces the equation. and B has three as A. If A and B each gave $5 to C. B. then three times the sum of A's and B's money would exceed C's money by as much as A had originally. and C together have $80. and 68. 8(8 + 19) to C. 4 x = number of dollars C had after receiving $10. and C together have $80.
and the difference between the third and the second is 15 2. The number of cows exceeded the number of horses by 4. A and the number of sheep was twice as large as the number How many animals of each kind did he buy ? of horses and cows together. Find three numbers such that the second is twice the 2. + 35 (x +4) f 15(4zf 8) = 1185. 4 x f 8 = 28. three statements are : IT. each cow $ 35. 185 a = 925. 28 2 (9 5). The total cost equals $1185. x = 5. sheep. The number of cows exceeds the number of horses by 4. The I. Let then. 37 Find three numbers such that the second is twice the first. and Ex. 2 (2 x f 4) or 4 x Therefore. Dividing. and 28 sheep would cost 6 x 90 f 9 + 316 420 = 1185. according to III. 9 5 = 4 .140 + (50 x x 120 = 185. 2. number of cows. cows. = the number of dollars spent for cows. and each sheep $ 15. 85 (x 15 (4 x I + 4) + 8) = the number of sheep. each horse costing $ 90. the third five times the first. 1 1 Check. + 8 90 x and. = the number of dollars spent for horses.70 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA man spent $1185 in buying horses. number of cows. 90 x f 35 x + GO x = 140 20 + 1185. III. Uniting. 90 may be written. 28 x 15 or 450 5 horses. 9 cows. + 35 x 4. = the number of dollars spent for sheep Hence statement 90 x Simplifying. according to II. first the third exceeds the second by and third is 20. and. x Transposing. The number of sheep is equal to twice tho number of horses and x 4 the cows together. first. number of sheep. number of horses. x f 4 = 9. and the sum of the . x j = the number of horses. x 35 f + = + EXERCISE 1.
v  Divide 25 into three parts such that the second part first. the second one is one inch longer than the first.000 more than Philadelphia (Census 1905). 71 the Find three numbers such that the second is 4 less than the third is three times the second. "Find three is 4. twice as old as B. the copper. the third 2. New York delphia. increased by three times the second side.000 more inhabitants than Philaand Berlin has 1. and the sum of the first and third is 36. If the population of New York is twice that of Berlin. and the pig iron produced in one year (1906) in the United States represented together a value . and is 5 years younger than sum of B's and C's ages was 25 years. In a room there were three times as many children as If the number of women. and children together was 37. v . A 12. what are the three angles ? 10. and the third exceeds the is second by 5. and 2 more men than women. men.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS 3. the first Find three consecutive numbers such that the sum of and twice the last equals 22. what is the population of each city ? 8. Find three consecutive numbers whose sum equals 63. equals 49 inches.  4. is five numbers such that the sum of the first two times the first. 13. and the third part exceeds the second by 10. If the second angle of a triangle is 20 larger than the and the third is 20 more than the sum of the second and first. twice the 6. and of the three sides of a triangle is 28 inches. what is the length of each? has 3. 7. women. A is Five years ago the What are their ages ? C. The three angles of any triangle are together equal to 180. first. 9. If twice The sum the third side.000. The gold. first. how many children were present ? x 11.000.
and distance. . or time. of arid the value of the iron was $300.000. statement "A and B walk from two towns 27 miles apart until they meet " means the sum of the distances walked by A and B equals 27 miles. it is frequently advantageous to arrange the quantities in a systematic manner. how many 100. and quantities area.g. 14.e. B many miles does A walk ? Explanation.000. 3 and 4. and A walks at the rate of 3 miles per hour without stopping. Let x = number of hours A walks. Find the value of each. but stops 2 hours on the way.000 more than that the copper. start at the same hour from two towns 27 miles walks at the rate of 4 miles per hour. number of hours. 7 Uniting. we obtain 3 a. together. number of miles A x x walks. A and B apart. = 35. Since in uniform motion the distance is always the product of rate and time. i. Hence Simplifying. width. First fill in all the numbers given directly. speed. After how many hours will they meet and how E. has each state ? If the example contains Arrangement of Problems. and Massachusetts has one more than California and Colorado If the three states together have 31 electoral votes. and 4 (x But the 2) for the last column.72 of ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA $ 750. California has twice as many electoral votes as Colorado. Dividing. The copper had twice the value of the gold. such as length. then x 2 = number of hours B walks. of 3 or 4 different kinds. 3x + 4 (x 2) = 27. = 5. 8 x = 15. 3z + 4a:8 = 27.000.
Check. 10 x = 200.M(x . l. the area would be 100 square yards less. x . $ 800 = 800.053.06 = $ 40. and the width decreased by 10 yards. . original field has Check." gives (2. + 8. x + 200). Find the dimensions of the field.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS Ex.04 8. But 700 certain = 800 2. If the length The length " The area would be decreased by 100 square yards.04 = $ 40. $ 1000 x . 70x10 Ex. .x + 00) 2 x2 Simplify. 2   and transpose. The an area 40 x 20 =800. z = 20. 2 a = 40. A sum invested larger at at 5 % terest as a sum $200 4%. $ 800 = required sum. Transposing and uniting. were increased by 30 yards. fid 1 The field is 40 yards long and 20 yards wide. What brings the same is the capital? in Therefore Simplify. the second 100. + 10 x 300 = 2 z2 100. or 700. Cancel 2 # 2 (a 10) = 2s 100. x . 73 of a rectangular field is twiee its width.01 = = .05 x x . Multiplying.
A sets out later two hours B . and how far will each then have traveled ? 9. and a second sum. sum $ 50 larger invested at 4 brings the same interest Find the first sum. and the sum Find the length of their areas is equal to 390 square yards.74 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 38 rectangular field is 10 yards and another 12 yards wide. and in order to raise the required sum each of the remaining men had to pay one dollar more. A sum ? invested at 4 %. and follows on horseback traveling at the rate of 5 miles per hour. How much did each man subscribe ? sum walking at the rate of 3 miles per hour. 1. Six persons bought an automobile. A If its length rectangular field is 2 yards longer than it is wide. but as two of them were unable to pay their share. and its width decreased by 2 yards. together bring $ 78 interest. sions of the field. mobile. 3. Twenty men subscribed equal amounts of to raise a certain money. What are the two sums 5. of coffee for $ 1. Find the dimen A certain sum invested at 5 % %. and the cost of silk of the auto and 30 yards of cloth cost together much per yard as the cloth. paid 24 ^ per pound and for the rest he paid 35 ^ per pound. Find the share of each. After how many hours will B overtake A. 2. but four men failed to pay their shares. If the silk cost three times as For a part he 7. How many pounds of each kind did he buy ? 8. how much did each cost per yard ? 6. The second is 5 yards longer than the first. A of each. each of the others had to pay $ 100 more. twice as large. Ten yards $ 42.55. A man bought 6 Ibs. as a 4. were increased by 3 yards. invested at 5 %. the area would remain the same.
traveling by coach in the opposite direction at the rate of 6 miles per hour. A sets out two hours later B starts New York to Albany is 142 miles.will they be 36 miles apart ? 11. The distance from If a train starts at . and from the same point. Albany and travels toward New York at the rate of 30 miles per hour without stopping. A and B set out direction. After how many hours. and B at the rate of 3 miles per hour. but A has a start of 2 miles. how many miles from New York will they meet? X 12. and another train starts at the same time from New York traveling at the rate of 41 miles an hour.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS v 75 10. how must B walk before he overtakes A ? walking at the rate of 3 miles per hour. walking at the same time in the same If A walks at the rate of 2 far miles per hour.
a factor of a 2 A factor is said to be prime. 76 . if this letter does not occur in any denominator. An expression is integral and rational with respect and rational. \ V& is a rational with respect to and irrational with respect 102. f db 6 to b.CHAPTER VI FACTORING 101. stage of the work. expression is rational with respect to a letter. if it contains no other factors (except itself and unity) otherwise . The factors of an algebraic expression are the quantities will give the expression. a + 2 ab + 4 c2 . 104. J Although Va' In the present chapter only integral and rational expressions b~ X V <2 Ir a2 b' 2 2 ?> . a. The prime factors of 10 a*b are 2. 5. a. a2 to 6. at this 6 2 . An after simplifying. it contains no indicated root of this letter . if it does contain some indicated root of . if. 6. it is composite. + 62 is integral with respect to a. as. if it is integral to all letters contained in it. which multiplied together are considered factors. but fractional with respect 103. we shall not. vV . this letter. An expression is integral with respect to a letter. irrational. consider 105.
g. Hence 6 aty 2 = divisor x quotient. factors of 12 &V is are 3. it fol lows that every method of multiplication will produce a method of factoring. 8) (s1). in the form 4) +3. E.3 6a + 1). dividend is 2 x2 4 2 1/ . ?/. x. since (a + 6) (a 2 IP factored. 55.9 x if + 12 xy\ 2 The greatest factor common 2 to all terms flcy* is 8 2 xy' . 2.62 + &)(a 2 . for this result is a sum.9 x2^ + 12 sy* = 3 Z2/2 (2 #2 .9 x2 y 8 + 12 3 xy f by 3 xy\ and the quotient But. or Factoring examples may be checked by multiplication by numerical substitution. 107.FACTORING 106. Factor 14 a* W 21 a 2 6 4 c2 + 7 a2 6 2 c2 7 a2 6 2 c 2 (2 a 2 . It (a. 110. or that a = 6) (a = a . 2. 2 4 x + 3) is factored if written (x' would not be factored if written x(x and not a product. it follows that a 2 .) Ex. .3 sy + 4 y8). TYPE I. 109. x. 77 Factoring is into its factors. Ex. 1. The factors of a monomial can be obtained by inspection 2 The prime 108. An the process of separating an expression expression is factored if written in the form of a product. 2.62 can be &). POLYNOMIALS ALL OF WHOSE TERMS CONTAIN A COMMON FACTOR ( mx + my+ mz~m(x+y + z). Divide 6 a% . Factor G ofy 2 . . 01. y. Since factoring the inverse of multiplication.
2 6. 3 3 5 6.4.5 + 13 8. 2. 19. 3x*6x*. 3. . a(mf7i) + & ( m + 3 (a + 6) 3 /(a + 6). 7i 13. 12. in general. 11. 2 2 . (as 3) and (ccf5).6. 2 23. 4 tfy f. 32 a *?/ .3.45 afy . 8. 2 Or. : 6 abx . in factoring a trinomial of the form x f/>#f q. we had to add tain the coefficient of x. . 15.g. In multiplying two binomials containing a common 3 and 5 to obterm. 5f 2 .30 aty. 34 a^c 8 .5 + 2. 7a & 10.16 a'V f 48 ctfa^ 2 s 4 : + 34 X 8 a*b f 8 6V . 17.5 x*y 2 17 a? . 16. obviously. 15 2 7. Ilro8 9.3. x2 f2 x = 15 we have. + llm llm. 2 + q.51 aW + 68 21. e. TYPE IT. q*q*q 2 a.2. to find two numbers whose product is 15 and whose sum is f. ) 22  2. 14. the y factored expression is (x }m)(x + n). QUADRATIC TRINOMIALS OF THE FORM 111.78 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 39 Resolve into prime factors 1.8 c a 15 ofyV . 13.4.12 cdx. 4 8 .51 x4 2 6 xy s . 20. two numbers m and n whose sum is p and and if such numbers can be found. 14a 4 5. a6c. a a 'Ja . 3 2 . and to multiply 3 and 5 to obtain the term which does not contain x or (x 3)(x f 5) 15. &{20a 6 4 &3 2 . f In factoring x2 2x we have to find whose product is g. 4. 18.
and the greater one has the same sign Not every trinomial Ex. or 7 11. + 30 = 20. and (a . We may consider 1. or 77 l. 2 11 a?=(x + 11 a) (a. the two numbers have opposite signs. the two numbers have both the same sign as p. Ex.4 x . Since a number can be represented in an infinite number of ways as the sum of two numbers. a 2 . Therefore Check. If 30 and whose sum is 11 are 5 a2 11 a = 1. + 112. Factor x? . Ex..6 = 20. 2 6.5) (a 6). If q is negative. . . 11 a2 and whose sum The numbers whose product is and a. EXERCISE Besolve into prime factors : 40 4. the student should first all terms contain a common monomial factor.11 a 2 . but only in a limited number of ways as a product of two numbers. Factor + 10 ax .4 . is The two numbers whose product and 6.77 = (a.11.11 a + 30. If q is positive. however. tfa2  3. m 5m + 6. or 11 and 7 have a sum equal to 4. it is advisable to consider the factors of q first. can be factored. Hence z6 ? oty+12 if= (x 3 y)(x*4 y ).30 = (a . determine whether In solving any factoring example. Hence fc f 10 ax is 10 a are 11 a  12 /. 79 Factor a2 4 x . 11 7. as p. . 2.11) (a + 7). 3.FACTORING Ex.1 1 a tf a 4.5) (a . of this type. but of these only a: Hence 2 . 5. Factor a2 .a). 77 as the product of 1 77. 4.1 afy 8 The two numbers whose product is equal to 12 yp and whose sum equals 3 8 7 y are 4 y* and 3 y*.G) = .
17 + 30. 3?/4 + a' 2a&24& n + 60+177> a + 7 a 30. 17. 15. 31. and 5 x. 35. x*y ra 2 2 4xy 4 wia 2 2 21y. . 25. 13. . + 5<y 24. 2 . we have to find two bino mials whose corresponding terms are similar. 29. 36. 20. 18. + 44.6. 14. 17a& + 7(U 9a&226 + 8 a 20. 4 3 2 . 2 ?/ 28. x2 23. 21 a 2 2 . a 2 +11 a a? 16. a? + 5 + 6 a. and the sum of the cross products equals 13 x. 4 2 . 24. + 4?/21. such that The The first last two terms are factors of 6 x 2 two terms are factors of 5. + 30. 21. ITT. 32. 12. 100 xr . a 7 a 30. 6 8 8 4 2 a. 6 a 18 a + 12 a 2 2 ?/ . 2 . 27. +7 Hence a? is the sum of the 13 x cross products. TYPE 113. 9. or . 8.70 x y . + 400 x aft a4 4 a 2 . + 2xS. 26. 2 .180 a. . 10 x y 2 200 x2 . ay 11 ay +24. (4 x + 3) (5 x 20 x2 is the product of 4 a. 2 2 a' 34. a 2^ 2 a2 + 7ax 18. 2 ?/ 22. QUADRATIC TRINOMIALS OF THE FORM According to 66. a2 . 30. 2 2 . in factoring 6 x2 + 5. 16. 16. factors of 6 x 2 and 5 . By actual trial give the correct we find which of the sum of cross products. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBEA x*2x8. 19. 6 is the product of + 3 and 2. ^ </ 2 2 7p8. 11. 33.2) = 20 x2 + 7 x . 2 ?/ 5?/14. y_ 6y +6y 15?/ 2 ?/ 10.80 7.48 + + 446 200. ra + 25ra + 100.500 x + 600.
17 x 2o?l V A 5  13 a combination the correct one. If p is poxiliw. 11 x 2x. and that they must be negative. but the opposite sign. If the factors a combination should give a sum of cross products. the If p and r are positive. 2. the second terms of the factors have same sign as q. 2 x 27. and r is negative. the signs of the second terms are minus.1).FACTORING If 81 we consider that the factors of f 5 as must have is : like signs. all pos combinations are contained in the following 6xl x5 . sible 13 x negative. 54 x 1. 3. none of the binomial factors can contain a monomial factor. which has the same absolute value as the term qx. then the second terms of have opposite signs. we have to reject every combination of factors of 54 whose first factor contains a 3. If py? \qx\r does not contain any monomial factor. 6 x 9. The work may be shortened by the : follow ing considerations 1.5 . or G 114. exchange the signs of the second terms of the factors. viz. and after a little practice the student possible should be able to find the proper factors of simple trinomials In actual work at the first trial. Hence only 1 x 54 and 2 x 27 need be considered. 64 may be considered the : product of the following combinations of numbers 1 x 54.5) (2 x . 9 x 6. Factor 3 x 2 . 3 x and x.31 x Evidently the last 2 V A 6. . The and factors of the first term consist of one pair only.83 x f 54. Ex. . 27 x 2.13 x + 5 = (3 x . all it is not always necessary to write down combinations. X x 18. a.e5 V A x1 3xl \/ /\ is 3 a. 18 x 3. Since the first term of the first factor (3 x) contains a 3.
y + 172/9. 2. 8. 2 26. 4a2 9tt + 2.260 xy . . 2 fc . 16. and the monomial factors should be removed. 2 2 2 . arranged according to the ascending or the descending powers of some letter. Sar' + SaG. 13. f go. 12^17^16. + 4. 35. 3x*Sx + 4. 14. 10.2) (x . 30. 2 28. 2 31. EXERCISE Kesolve into prime factors 1. the expressions should be it. x54 a.30 y 6 4 . 6n 2 f 13w + 2. 12. 21. 2 . Therefore 3 z + 64 The type pa.27). : 41 2. 34. since all others (II. + 11 or 2 + 12 a.290 xy f 144 y* 4x 8 ofy + 3 y 2 2 4 2 4 f . 5 a6 2 2 9 a .179. 14 a fa 4. 10 a .300 ab 2 f4 250 . 100^200^ + 100^. 90 a 8 2 . 15. 2i/ * 2 2 x 27. 2 f3y 4y 40a 90aV + 20aV.10 4a? + 14oj + 12. SoJ + llay 15 aj* 40*. 2 2 2 23. 10a?2 2 33. 7. 2x* + 9x5. 20.7. 12y 2/6. 3a + 13a. 18. 9. + 2/3. 2 ar* 2 i/ . 4. 11.77 xy + 10 y 23afc + 126 . 5. 5m 26m f 5. 2m t7w + 3. . 144 x . 9 y + 32^16.13 xy + 6 y2 12 x 7 ay. 25. 9a. 19.83 x . 2 . 6n + 5?i4. h r is 2 the most important of the trinomial types.2 a 90 x*y . IV) are special cases of In all examples of this type. 3. 17. 22.82 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 3xl 3s2 x X 115. 32. 6.19 a f 6. X 27 .83 x = (3 .163 x 2 . 10a2 G a2 2 . 24. . 29.
Expressions of this to factor them according a2 to 65.FACTORING 83 TYPE IV.20 xy f 4 y\ . form are special cases of the preceding type. 2. A term when two is trinomial belongs to this type.e. of its terms are perfect squares. 9 +6a6 2 2 f a4 . it is a perfect square. 10. EXERCISE 42 per Determine whether or not the following expressions are feet squares. connect the re square roots of the terms which are squares by the sign of the indicate the square of the resulting binomial. 12. 2 9 10gf25. 5. for + 9 y2 = (4 x . 116.3 y) 2 is 2VWx 2 x V0y2" = 24 xy. it is more convenient for that type. m 14ww + 49n 2 16 a . To factor a trinomial which maining term. 3. and the remaining equal to twice the product of the square roots of these in order to be a perfect terms. however. 9 10a625. 24 xy + 9 y' 2 is Evidently 10 & 24 xy a perfect square. and may be factored according to the method used In most cases. 9. 16 y? The student should note that a term. 8. 4. 6. 25 7. a flOa&46 4 wi f 2 2/ 2 . 14. 2 2 . . square. x* . THE SQUARE OF A BINOMIAL 2 Jr 2 xy +/. 11. 4 6 m*ti f 9 n*. 2 . i.26 ab + 9 6 2 .  2 xy + if = (x 2 ?/) . must have a positive sign.10 x f 16. . x> 2 a 2_4 a & a 2 + 462. m + 2mn + n c 2cdd 2 2 . 13. and factor whenever possible : 1. and a perfect square.
84 15. ). TYPE 117. .6 m* + 9 m. a. THE DIFFERENCE OF TWO SQUARES JT 2 /. 6. 4a2 l.3 * ). ). EXERCISE Resolve into prime factors 1. + GO + 25. !Gar 9 ( )+25. prime. u2 6& + 2 ( ). 22. . 25. 26. a. ^//c to the Ex. 3 Make the following expressions perfect squares by supplying the missing terms : 21. 17. 6 2 . 149 a 81 8. 36 2 4. 2 . 225 ofy . 19. 48 a +( ). 9a2 . : 43 tfy\ a 9.4 6 = lG(tt +2Z> )(a 26 ). 16. 2 . 3. 2 20.  + 6a + ( 9a ( ) + 144 a 2 28. m 4a + 12a + ( 2 4m 2 20 f ( ). 1. 2 f b 2 2 2 ) (a NOTE. 2. 5.9& 2 3<> 4 2 . 4 2 23. * 2 . 4 3 4 ^ 3 8 10 8 10 ) 4 5 4 5 Ex. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 16a 2 24a&4. difference of the squares of two numbers is equal of the sum and the difference of the two numbers. product i. x*Sx + ( 64 a 4 100w +( )+49. 18. 29. 2 . According to 65. Ex. 3. V.2 ofy + ofy m . aV . a2 24. a4 a2 2 f 6 is . 9. +( )f816 30. 16&*.9 z* = (2 ary + 3 z ) (2 1G a .6 = (a 4 b) = (a* + b*)(a + b)(ab).64 6 = 16(a . 100a2 68 a2 & 2 121. 7. ).e.20 ab + 10 b a . 10 a 2 4 2 . . 27.60 a# + 4. 2.
11. (m f # 2 2 n) 42:) 10. (2a (2s + 5) (3a4) 2 2 . (x f 3 9 2/ 2 . (m7?) y.(I) . 16p 2 .c . T. Ex. (?/ 2 cc (x y)*. a:) 12. One or both terms are squares 1.d) 2 .FACTORING 85 118. 13. 2 . 2 . 9. Factor a 2 . a2 . 2. Ex. of polynomials. (a x? f 6) 6 2 . 6. 8. 2 2 : (mfn) _p 2 . 2. 36> . 4. (2a5&) (5c9ef) 2 3. 25a (&c) (mh2n) 2 2 . 14.(c 4. Resolve into prime factors and simplify EXERCISE 44 Resolve into prime factors 1. 5. (m 3n) 2 ( 2 2 .(c + d) 2 = (a + c + cZ) (a . 2 ?/) 16 2 (y f 2 .
1.7 c + 2c . Ex. + x + 2x + 2. Factor or 5 5 x2 x x f 5.and trinomials. ma ?*a + m& nb. GROUPING TERMS By the introduction of parentheses. 4 B. a3 c 3 10ax5ay6bx + 3by. 7. 4:cx . 9.ab + bx. which may be factored according to types I. 1. + 4cy5dx 2 5dy. polynomials can frequently be transformed into bi. A. ive find that the new terms con common factor. 119. 10. raV + nV 3 a 2ic 2 m ?/ 2 n 2an3&n + 2ag3&?. + bx + ay + by = x(a + &) + y(a + 6) Ex. a 26 2 2 3 .6z2 + 5 = z2 (.y + 2 2). . : 45 ax + bx + ay+by.(x  5) EXERCISE Resolve into prime factors 1. Factor ax ax f bx f ay f by. 2. 2. 3. . 5. = (3 x + y .VI. a? 11. a5 + ab 6 . x8 .r. Ex. By grouping. After grouping tain a the terms. 6.86 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA TYPE VI.2 ) (3 x .14. 12. the expression becomes the difference of two squares. Factor 9 x*y*4:Z 2 f 4 yz.a a . 5) .4 6 x f 3 a y 2 4. 8.
6. 4 a2 . 4.12 aaj 4 6y.9 a2 4 v* 2 . EXERCISE 47 MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES* Resolve into prime factors !. 87 f Factor 4 a2  6 2 + 9 tf .* */2 ft EXERCISE Kesolve into prime factors 1.10 xy + 4 y\ 2 .12 ax + 9 a2 + 4 &t/ 4 y2 = (4 a 2 . a 2 10a6 4 2 + 256 2 x ar 2a. 3. First find monomial factors common to all terms. 4. 2. 5. 2 7. although frequently the particular cases II and IV are more convenient. IV. + 2xy + y*q*. 8ra 2 + 16.62 + 9 _ 4 _ 12 ax + 4 6y 2 = 4 a 2 . $ a8 . Trinomials are factored by the method of cross products. SUMMARY OF FACTORING I. 6a4 + 37a2 + 6. +c+ 2 2 2/ .12 z + 9 x2)_ (&2 _ 4 ty + 4 ^2) a. 6a4 12a2 + 6. 2.l.4 f . m Gw + 9n * See page 266. II. 8. = (a + 6)(a6). 3. 6 6. Arranging the terms.6 ww + n 2 2 < a 2 4a6 + 46 25. 8. Binomials are factored by means of the formula a 2 6 2 III. l~a 2a56 2 2 . 36 9 m . . : 46 x* 2. w m 2. .FACTORING Ex. Polynomials are reduced to the preceding cases by grouping terms. : m 2 2 16. 2a3/ 7.
25 a + 25 aft . 48. 35.310 x . 3 2 . ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA x*xif. 49 a 4 4 42 a + 9 a 20a 90a 50. a6 36. 28. any V 2 ( 51 xyz + 50. 1 ?v _w 8 2 33. 29.24. 4 a. + 14.156. 12.88 10. 2 3#4 3a2 36. 50^ + 45. 40. 13 c . 256 4 2 2 ?/) . or 3 7#2 . 24.85 xy + 42 y 10 w 43 w 9. a3 156. 6 :J 2 2 ft 2 16. 2 ft . . 19. 5a' 20. (^ 34. 18. __ ft)2 n Qy 2 . 14. 22. 3 a2 23. 32. a + a + a + l. 2 17. a. 42 x . 2 a 128. 32 aft + 6 4ft 4 . 3 41. + 6 aft + 3 . a5 a 1 4 2 39. 10 a 2 4a 4 26. (a. 13. 42 s 2 . 27. 4 8 tt 2 z . 30. 80 a 2 ft 38. 4 2 2 ft ft 2a + a*l.40. 3 25. 20 >r + 2 ?<s __ G4. 11. 5 a.13 c .
C. C. 54  32 . 8 . of a 4 and a 2 b is a2 The H. of the algebraic expressions. 5 s 7 2 5. 5 2 3 . F. F. 3. of two or more monomials whose factors . of 6 sfyz. II 2 . 24 s . is the lowest that the power of each factor in the power in which that factor occurs in any of the given expressions. 89 . 12 tfifz. C. The highest is common factor (IT. C. of a 7 and a e b 7 . 121. Two common factor except unity The H. aW.CHAPTER VII HIGHEST COMMON FACTOR AND LOWEST COMMON MULTIPLE HIGHEST COMMON FACTOR 120. EXERCISE Find the H. C. 33 2 7 3 22 3 2 . 25 W. The H. are prime can be found by inspection. of : 48 4. F. . C. of (a and (a + fc) (a 4 is (a + 6) 2 . Thus the H. The student should note H. 13 aty 39 afyV.  23 3 . and prefix it as a coefficient to H. The H. 5 7 34 2s . If the expressions have numerical coefficients. F. 3 . + 8 ft) and cfiW is 2 a 2 /) 2 ft) . F. 15 aW. of aW. the algebraic factor of highest degree common expressions to these expressions thus a 6 is the II.) of two or more . F. C. F. find by arithmetic the greatest common factor of the coefficients. C. 5. F. 2 2 . C. C. 122. 2. 6. expressions which have no are prime to one another. and GO aty 8 is 6 aty. F. F.
12. 1.6 a&. a2 + 2a3. . Ex. 6 3 a. 5 a6 5^ 2 a. C. 4(m+l) 3 . 15 3ao. (a7 ?/) . x2 ^4^ and tf 7 xy + 10 f.5 x3?/ 2 6. 6 mx . ^2 2 . 10.y) . 4 7/i 3 n2 10 4 mV. 15 xy^ 2 10 arV . 75 a&X 15 bed 11 . 4 a3 6 4 8 a663 . ELEMENTS OF ALGEBEA 6 rarcV. 24 a 2 . . C. 16.90 7. x* x2 Hence the H. 4(m f ?i) 3 3 5(w + w) 5 7(m + n}\m 2 ri). 1. 0^80:416. of: . y + 3y64. 16 a . . a3 16 a. . To find the H. . 15. 8(?/ifl) 14. 2a f5af 2. a 3a4. of + 4 if.y)\ O+ 0^(0. ^707 + 12. F. 8. 6(m+l) (m+2). 7. a2 + 7af!2.6 . F. F. 25 m27i. 11. 95 2/V.2 ?/) (x . 11.6. 8. 9.^9.y) 123. 13. 3 . 2 .12 as 66 . 5. a2 . 30 mu\ 39 afyV. 2 . 9. 10. a3 9a. 6 a2 y? . ^a + 5^ + 6. 12 w*nw 8. 49 C. 4a f 4a2 2 2 a 2  .?/ . C. 2 . Find the H.5 + 6. 7/ EXERCISE Find theH. 12 . 12. . ^f a.# 4 afy f 4 . 57 a>V. and apply the method of the preceding article.7 xy + 10 2 = (x . 38 #y. F.y + y42.6 a' + 2 a& + 6 . 3. 2. 52 oryz4. 3). 225 4a 9 . 8 a 10 . 3^ 2 4 . 2 .5 y). 8 6. 13. of polynomials. a2 ar* 4. aWd.3 xy + 2 y* = (x . resolve each polynomial into prime factors.8 a + 16. a. 14. 65 zfyV. 4 ?io. 9 aj*(a? . = x 2 y.2 y) (a.
M. thus. C.C. The L. of several expressions which are not completely factored. C. Find the L. C. . M. C. The lowest common multiple (L. Ex.) of two or more expressions is the common multiple of lowest degree.(a + &) 2 (a have the same absolute value. two lowest common multiples. Ex. of 12(a + ft) and (a + &)*(  is 12(a + &)( . 126. of 4 a 2 6 2 and 4 a 4 4 a 68 2 .LOWEST COMMON MULTIPLE 91 LOWEST COMMON MULTIPLE multiple of two or more expressions is an which can be divided by each of them without a expression 124. 128. C. 2. C. =4 a2 62 (a2 . L. 300 z 2 y. ory is the L. of 3 aW. M. 2 The The L. 6 c6 is C a*b*c*.M. each set of expressions has In example ft). M. Obviously the power of each factor in the L. etc. = (a f last 2 &)' is (a  6) . C. C. Hence the L. Common 125. of as &2 a2 + 2a&f b\ and 6a. M. &) 2 M. of the general. . Find the L. find by arithmetic their least common multiple and prefix it as a coefficient to the L. 1. 4 a 2 &2 _ Hence.C. is equal to the highest power in which it occurs in any of the given expressions. resolve each expression into prime factors and apply the method for monomials. 127. C. A common remainder. but opposite . M.6)2. 2 multiples of 3 x and 6 y are 30 xz y. of tfy and xy*. 60 x^y' 2 . To find the L. M. which also signs.6 3 ). M. C. a^c8 3 . M of the algebraic expressions. If the expressions have a numerical coefficient. M. L. NOTE.
2 ic 3 4a 8 a. a f 3. G a. 2. xy\ . 7. 11. + 2. x 2 5 a. 17. 8. afy. a2 4. a 2 a3 . a^1. Find the L. 2 a . afc'cd 2 . . + 2 7i) . bx a? 8 2 lOajflfi.1. M.92 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 50 C. 2 a . 6b 2 . x2 + 4 a f 4. a f 2 19. 8 d 5 . a. a 2 f 4 a +4. 3 6 xif. 16. a 2 fa6. ic 23. 18. or f 3 a 15 #. f b. 5 a 2 ^ 2 15 .1. a. a& 4 +& 2 . 40 abJ. 3 Z> . x2 2 + 5 a + 6. 15. 3 ab. . 4 a 5 6cd. 3 f2. a { a~b. 2 10. 14. 2(m 2 . 3. 3(a + b). x* ~5a. 5 a? 5 a? y. x2 5 f 2 3# 5 + 2. b 2 . a. a2 ~ab 1. 2 . 1. ax {ay ~ 3 a 3 b. 4 a f 2. 9. 22. 2 x \2 y. 30 a. 13. by. a !. #. 2 . 2 7ic+10. 3 (a2)(a3) ( a 3)(a4) 2 2a?b'2ab 2 a. (a 4)(a2) 12. 8 afy. T a 3 a 2 . 24 x. 4 a . + 6. 21. (For additional examples see page 268. a 1. y*. 6 y. 3(m + n) 4 m 2 . 3. ic 2 ?/.f 6. of: 4. 6. 20. a?b. 20 9 a. 3 . 5. 2 a?b\ a + 2ab + b' 2a2b. 2 a. 24. 6 a. ) . 2 .
a?. All operations with fractions in algebra are identical with the corresponding operations in arithmetic. a b = ma mb . etc. 131. successively all 2 j/' . F. C. If both terms of a fraction are multiplied or divided by the same number) the value of the fraction is not altered. common 6 2 divisors of numerator and denomina and z 8 (or divide the terms . TT Hence 24 2 z =  3x . A f fraction is b. the value of a fraction is not altered by multiplying or dividing both its numerator and its denominator by the same number. and i x mx = my y terms A 1. an indicated quotient. 130. Reduce ~ to its lowest terms. Remove tor. Ex. and denominators are considered. fraction is in its lowest when its numerator and its denominator have no common factors. Thus. The dividend a is called the numerator and the The numerator and the denominator are the terms of the fraction.ry ^ by their H. thus  is identical with a divisor b the denominator.CHAPTER VIII FRACTIONS REDUCTION OF FRACTIONS 129. however. the product of two fractions is the product of their numerators divided by the product of their denominators. as 8. rni Thus 132. but we In arithmetic. only positive integral numerators shall assume that the all arithmetic principles are generally true for algebraic numbers.
94 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 133.33 7 a 36 arV 18 x2^' 39 a2 6 8c4 * See page 268. tf a*  n2 + 8 a 24 a* _ ap 2 . 2. cancel factors only. Ex.6 a + 8) 6 d\a* .4) Ex. 3. resolve numerator and denominator into their factors. Never cancel terms of the numerator or the denominator. Keduce 62 ~ 2 62 a2 to its lowest terms. . Keduce a* ~ 6 a' 4 *8a 6a qs _. To reduce a fraction to its lowest terms. 6 24 a2 to its lowest terms. _Q 2 6 EXERCISE 51* Reduce i to lowest terms 3 : 95 2 *' o 3 * 3T5"** T^ 12a4 " 3 K 6 ' 32 78 ' ' 2. and cancel all factors that are common to both.
19. ' ^ . . 9x + "a" 10. 04 !l 9 or 2 6 it*?/ +y 2 12. 'M 3 ??i 2fi 25. """. 23.FRACTIONS 7 95 22 a 2 bc 1 4 ^. _ 3 7i rt< 26.*.10 a + 3 2 14. 29. g J 21. n h ' m11 2 m 3 8. x1 15 ' ft< 4 xy //(/ _. * OQ 3 a3 _6a a/i 2 2 5 ?tt +6 ^. LJZJ^JL.. 16.n 8 + T> ? wn + n 2 ?i 2 m " *7 . . ^' rt ^  31. 12 15 m m 2 2 7 w. .' 32. nx 17. ny 4 18. 5^10 y 30. 11 ^ Mtr f . ^" a. ^+3*. 3a ^ ^ "^ 2 9 . + ' 4 2 ?/ 27. ~__ 9n _ 22 9.7 .
mon T denominator. .~16 (a + 3) (x. and (a 8). Multiplying these quotients by the corresponding numerators and writing the results over the common denominator. and the terms of ***. Divide the L. and 135. of the denominators for the common denominator. we may use the same process as in arithmetic for reducing fractions to the lowest common denominator.1^22 ' . To reduce to a fraction with the denominator 12 a3 6 2 x2 numerator ^lA^L O r 2 a 3 ' and denominator must be multiplied by Similarly. we have M^. .M. 1).r 2 2 .  by 4 6' . 1. .M.3) (!)' = . we have (a + 3) (a 8) (!)' NOTE. Ex. 3 a\ and 4 aW is 12 afo 2 x2 . and Tb reduce fractions to their lowest common denominator. multiplying the terms of 22 . we may extend this method to integral expressions. Since a (z 6 + 3)(s3)Ol)' 6a. take the L. 2> . Ex  Reduce to their lowest common denominator.C. Reduce ^.by 3 ^ A 2 ' . ELEMENTS OF 'ALGEBRA Reduction of fractions to equal fractions of lowest common Since the terms of a fraction may be multiplied denominator. C. M.3)O  Dividing this by each denominator. we have the quotients (x 1). TheL.  of //* 2 . C.C.D. by the denominator of each fraction.96 134. and 6rar 3 a? kalr . =(z (x + 3)(z. + 3). multiply each quotient by the corresponding numerator. ^ to their lowest com The L. by any quantity without altering the value of the fraction.
5a 3 zl ' _ 2al n. a? 1 5 > ^* . If the given fractions have different denominators. 2 ay IB. .. JL. i. 7i 2 ab* ". .. 2aj ~ . they must be reduced to equal fractions which have the lowest common denominator before they can be added (01 subtracted). . Since {c c = 5L^ c (Art. 2 3 9a ~l' 3al 6 8 a ' 2 a8 * 5 4a 8' ' a jj + 6 a 9 ^ . j y 3. ?y2" m^ S? m 2 7^ m S* **. 5?. 137.FRACTIONS EXERCISE 52 97 . . o o a. 3. 2.oj o* or / . 18.T n"> ^' 5c 3 26 o atf o> 5 77" ' .a+2 ' a 2 3af 2 ADDITION AND SUBTRACTION OF FRACTIONS 136. 22 a2 5a * .^1.T 3y Ga1 ax 9 ' 2a . . common denominator 6. bxby g ! a 5 ' a f5 a2 25 ?. fractions having a common denominator are added or subtracted by dividing the sum or the difference of the numerators by the common denominator. 8 i i. 74).Reduce the following to their lowest 1.
2 ^. ^ _ ^ a3b ft). e. T? Ex. (a ft).aft) Ca2 . L. cr \t Simplify _T__ r* + .(a 2 6).ft)(a . (2 ~ a ft) a(a  + 7 ft)fa ft)(a 2 ft)  ft) a(a 2 ft) NOTE.2 ' 2 _. write 2 the product in a parenthesis. D.98 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA  Ex ' Sim C.g.3 ft). the student should remember that parentheses are . a 3 2a + "~ a2 ft). 4(2 a 3 ft). a2 ab ft2 Hence the a a2 f 2 6 a2 . understood about terms ( 66) hence he should. (a .3 ft 2). ft).3 ft)(2 a f + : Ga6 + 3 ft).7 .20 aft 3ft) f 3 ft 2 4(2a3ft)(2af 4 aft f 21 2 138. and adding.4 aft + ft ft ) a(a  ft)(a 2ft) 2 =a . 2. The L..ft) (a ft ft)~. in the beginning. ft) ft ft a(a ~ 3 aft + 2 ft2 a2  2 aft _(a + 2ft)(a2ft) +a (2q + a(a .3 . we obtain 2 a the terms of 2(2 a +3 3 ft 6 a f ft _ 2(2 a + ft) 3 ft) (2 a ft) 4(2 a 3 4(2 a ~~ + 3 ft) f (2 a .aft  _ 3 ab + 2 = ( a _ ft)( _ 2 a 2 2 aft :=(.3 ft)(2 a + 3 ft) ft ft) (6 a ft) _ 8 a 2 f 24 aft 20 a 2 f f 18 2 + ft 12 a 2 .2 = a(a . (a 3 ft) In simplifying a term preceded by the minus sign. 4 6 + 2qg+6~agf4a&8 a(aft)(a 2ft) ft 2 a2 a(a + 5 aft . ^ is 2^JT) . The results of addition and subtraction should be re duced to their lowest terms.. (a8ft)(a~ft) 8 2 2ft) 2 =a 4 2 + 2 (2 a 4. C. Multiplying the terms of the first fraction by 2(2 a the second by (2 a . as 4 aft f. D.
t3 m2* a _2 6 a 4. 1* 1 + mf 3 1 M. 1 f q * 1 m m . 24. 18 v 19. 6 c 3a 7. 2. a2 a + 3* 2 a 7 af1 ' 2) * See page 270. 23. 15. a 36 ++. A+2_3. 30 u +? + i _H_ + _*_. a+6 a 6 2 14. 6a116 13 a 15a26 116 e ' 6 2 10. 2L + 2a 1 17. 5a76 4a 106 9. 1 1 f w 16. 9m + 7n 3 6m 5n 2x + 3y 3x 15 y x + 2y 45 8. + . 36 3u 2v v 5 wv 8v 12 uv 13. 46 2a 4a 12. j>0 i> 21.5 18 ^4f25. 20. + a "" 2 6 ' .FRACTIONS EXERCISE 53* Simplify : 99 2a4 5 3.
2 af1 32. a ?^ 40. 43.9 79 6 2 i. 3a 9 +. 42. 1 34. a 4 31. x2 Q 3 /Yl Qfi ou L "I "I \_ L I * 7 ITi ~T~ 7 TTo O :_ ' i 37 _ 9 <1  1 i 1 '> a2 . ^2^+6m 3 45 ' 44. x + 3y x3y Gx x2 2x . / IIlNT: Let a 1  39.LOO ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 26  x*3x + 2 x2 5x 27 ' ~. af 1f /j. a 30. ! n. _m & 2 i +m 6 i _w 36 a2+ a ^_2&2 35. a. a 2 ^> 2 x2 7x+12~x l7x + 4:~ ' } . _ ' a +b +a= ( 38. _ + a? ?/ + y. 41.9. ic 1 + 1.
6 + 4x 4 x2 .6 x + 10x4 x2 17 Therefore x y 3g . 2x 4 x3 to a mixed expression. Reduce . 2 + 4tf 3 17 . . T. .7 5a v Ex. 2 x2 + 2 g 4.17 (2^ + 2x f 53 (2x. 1. To reduce a fraction to an integral or = + ceo 2 * * (S74) v ' Hence 5a2 15a7 = 5 a2 oa 5a 15a oa 7 5a =a 3 .'3) 2 EXERCISE expression 54 to a Keduce each of the following fractions : mixed or integral a a +1 9a2 6a + 2 3a m 2 * 5 m f 6 4 m 7 n 2 + 7n + 14 fi . .  4 or 3 2a. 101 mixed expression.  .FRACTIONS 139.
integer. each numerator and denomi nator has to be factored. Fractions are multiplied by taking the product of tht numerators for the numerator. x b c = numerator by To multiply a fraction by an that integer. fractions to integral numbers.) Ex.g. Simplify 1 J The expreeaion =8 6 . F J Simplify . we may extend any e. or.102 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA MULTIPLICATION OF FRACTIONS 140. 2 a Ex. Since  = a. expressed in symbols: c a _ac b'd~bd' principle proved for b 141. 2. Common factors in the numerators and the denominators should be canceled before performing the multiplication. !. multiply the 142. and the product of the denominators for the denominator. (In order to cancel common factors.
50 . . 14. 5n a2 43a4 a2 3 a 4 a 2 5ah4 <  x2 + x (x 2 I) 17.FRACTIONS EXERCISE Find the following products ' 103 55 : 2!v! 2 4 5 8 a2 " ' ^ ' 36^ 21m* ' 17 ab ' ' 2 48 as b*' 34 ab 2 14m4 . 53 *38 " ' 4 ' 14 b* ' 10 a 8 ' " 4af86 76 5c 36C2 10 (a 7a216 a2 2 q~. aj 5 1 a? 18. 5# 56 / c& 4. _G x 7 a2 5a6 a. 2 f 5 a.20 3a 2 6 ' GoA ai> 56 2c " ar " ' 4 ac2 V V 3m " " +1 " " o?f 2 ~ ' _ 9m JO. 2 25n 2 1 3m +&n 15.6 12 d6 4.. 6) 12 ot 2 ab + 2 fc a b* o. 4 8..
x a + b obtained by inverting reciprocal of a fraction is the fraction. To divide an expression by a fraction. expression by the reciprocal of the fraction.104 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA DIVISION OF FRACTIONS 143. : a 41 ab * See page 272. 144. and the principle of division follows may be expressed as 145. The reciprocal of ? Hence the : +* x is 1 + + * = _*_. . The The reciprocal of a is a 1 f reciprocal of J is  . The reciprocal of a number is the quotient obtained by dividing 1 by that number. Integral or mixed divisors should be expressed in fractional form before dividing. invert the divisor and multiply it by the dividend. To divide an expression by a fraction.y3 + xy* x*y~ f y 8 y f 3 2/ x3 EXERCISE 56* Simplify the following expressions 2 x* '""*'*' : om 2 a2 6 2 r  3 i_L#_i17 ar J 13 a& 2 5 ft2 ' u2 +a . * x* f xy 2 by x*y +y x' 2 3 s^jf\ = x' 2 x* . Divide Xn?/ . 8 multiply the Ex. 1.
FRACTIONS 105 ._ # ~ y ' 45 14 in^o 2 ?/ ^y "xy 15 a2 + (Jf fr a b .1 5 w + 56 a 2 w a2 2 4. c ab 2 4 &c* & a .5 ??i 80 50 . A complex fraction is a fraction whose numerator or denominator.afr 4. a a2 4. or both.6 COMPLEX FRACTIONS 146. t ' a^3^4 ? 4* ' a?~ab > a 2 a 4a 4 4 a: +3 m 12 2 f. Ex.^c 2 2 . a 6 _6 c c ac a6 2 4.6 s + 064.&c 2 ~ a 4 a2c 4. mm 5 a a2 6 2 4g2 2a 2 4g20 25 .10 ?/ _.' ' * ' ^5^+4 . l. Simplify <! c a a2 c 4 L 4. ga2 4 8 5 a . are fractional.T ?/ 4 2 a*?/ 15 #4.
many examples the easiest mode of simplification ia multiply both the numerator and the denominator of the mplex fraction by the L.?/ x y _x^_l X ~V x+y . 10. c +6. Ex. x* 4. of their denominators. the expression becomes (x EXERCISE Simplify : 57 x 2. 6. a m "" . 7i+~ 7. i. the answer is directly obtained. & .16 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA In 147. Simplify x }. . 9. JL. C. . . M. 2. .y 32 . n a 8. B If the numerator and denominator of the preceding examples multiplied by a&c. xy x +y Multiplying the terms of the complex fraction by (x y).a ^c c _^ a . y X 4* 2 y 3.
1 +2 1 i " f " ( a + 1 /*_i_i 4 14. i ~T" * ~ 1 y 19 4 ' !^5n a "~ 12. 2 & a 20  a46 13. : . 1 i 1 2 5 .) . sy 18. 1 + 1+ 1 ti flgfl a?l ic+1 a.~l (For additional examples see page 273. o 15. m^n* n L a 17.FRACTIONS 107 1 i m 11.
8 x = .l)(z + 3) = . a. 148.  2(x 2 + 3) Removing parentheses. x = 6. 5(3 85 Check. = 6.42 + 9. tions. Solve ^2^ = 63 2 x 12 * + **. 2 3. 9x x Check. Transposing. = 6. Solve 5 I 14 x +1 x +3 I). Uniting. 6 = = 72 72 3 (a. these Ex. If x 6. M.14 (a.9 x2 + 9.f3# + C:E=6f7212. Multiplying by (x Simplifying. 4 4)  x.CHAPTER IX FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS FRACTIONAL EQUATIONS If an equation contains fracbe removed by multiplying each term by the may L. 2z2a. Bx 12 Qx. + 1) (a + 3) . . 14 z 2 + z 2 + 20 x . C. 2. 108 .28 a = 5 x2 . each member is reduced to Ex.48. 5 x2 + 20 x + 15 15 . !)(&+ 1) (x + 3). each member is reduced to 1. 2x Transposing. 1.28 x + 42 = .9(se + !)( 14 x 2 . If = 64. of the denominator. Clearing of fractions. Uniting.1. Multiplying each term by 6 (Axiom 89).
. 1+5 & ^0 ^ a? = 19 1 11. 16. 4 y 2 ^ 16 20 +2 334 y2 y3 == on . +4 14. 3 a? '2 4 "  2 a? "T"" 4 4.1 _77 a. a/  5 a/ = 12. = xx a? a? hi x +^ + 3 = 11. 1 *> = 2. .FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS EXERCISE Solve the following equations : 109 58 ^ 4 3 _ +7 a? 32 3 10.= 2. a: 7 a. ^' 2. +1 = 5. '  4 13. ^1 = 9. a. 18. o ""~TiT" ' 3 12. 15.
31 31. J_. 27 ._ _ . ^^ ' 39 7 ' x. . 2^12 = 2 = 34.  38 = 40. y+3~2 29. it is advisable first to remove the monomial denominators only. 3x 35. . 3 3x2 51 3x*2x 23 x 3x2 22 36. 26 26. 32 6 . 2 20 x+3 x3 3 o^ 28 .110 ELEMENTS Of ALGEBRA 24. .  2  13 _J_ = _J3 . and" the remaining one a polynomial. ?_=_. . If two or more denominators are monomials. and after simplifying the resulting equation to clear of all denominators. 25. + 26 2^43 1 4^9 1 2a?3 A* 37. 4a4l4* + l~.11_4 x 149. 33.
1. If a. Solve 111 10 Multiplying each term by tors. the 1 5 L. C. 10 x f 6 __ 4a. Dividing. 5x x : = 9. Solve the following equations 41 : 5a.2 42 9 43.  5 = 20 x 45.r7 5 +l 6afll~~ 3 6xflO ' 5 2a?~25 15 17a?~9 14 28 6414 . each member is reduced to ^. 60. 5 = 20 g 5 a: ~ Jff 1 .FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS Ex. Transposing and uniting. . a. Transposing and Multiply ing by 6 uniting. of the monomial denomina~ &Q =: n 16 x 2( +3~ x 16 x  2.29 50712' 9 18 .2 3 ~  == 7a. = 9. 24 a. 26 a. 5# 10. f 13 8#f 2__ 2x 5 7 15 ~~716* 6a? 44. M. Check.. 1.
. 3(ac) c) Multiplying by 3 (a . 2. l to = !=?_=^6? a f 6. they are united by factoring.m 2* = (a f 6) mnx = (1 4. Uniting. It frequently occurs that the x. =a 2 151. to Transposing all terms containing a 6 ab 6 ac one member. unknown letter is not expressed by or z. Dividing.3 6 2 = a' . ax + bx ax (a f IP Transposing. f ~ 5c.1. If 3ac L= = a ? . fr Reducing lowest terms.2 ac + 3 aft . a. Literal equations ( 88) are solved by the same method as numerical equations.m bx 2 mn) x.c) (3 a ac 6(rtfc)(ac) 6 a2 6 a& +6 6c = (2a + &)(3ac). Ex.2 62 2 ab. and multiplying by a(9 b 4 c 4 c) = 7 &c. bx f 6)z = 3 & 2 ab. Thus. Ex.112 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA LITERAL EQUATIONS 150.& . 4 ac 1. 5> a. = 2 f b 2 . y.be. jr. + 2 ac 9 a& 3 ab Simplifying. ax f x f. = l^ 9 b 4 . find a in terms of b and c. b a a a z Clearing of fractions. When the terms containing the unknown quantity cannot be actually added. Uniting the Dividing. = 6 a2 . = = 6 6c 7 6c.
Ex. q solve for/. c.i l . solve for a. 2 solve for y a. c 18. = 5. 17. 6. + 3a. 4. 34. 3(2a + aj) 25 ?+l '~~ a/ 1 = 2L . 15. IIL n b + &o. . a.= n. r the number of $>. ^ ax a^ 26. t. co?. = vt. and n the number of years. If s (wi n) x =px + q. _ 2. = 6 (m f n) = 2 a + (m?i)a?.= c a Z> . solve for . 31. 10. 29. 3(* 8. If ^^ = a 1 32. in terms of other quantities. = rt. i The formula for simple interest ( 30.FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS EXERCISE Solve the following equations : 113 59 *. If s If 16. iw 21. 3. 13. . 1 f. . a? x!7  a ITo x T _ ~ 2 8. a + 26+3aj=2o + 6 + 2a?. 12. 11. . Find the formula for: () The (6) (c) principal. s = Vt solve for v. 14. f P =+!.a. denoting the interest. = 2(3a = aajffta? + 7^ = 0*+^ 4 (a x) 1 a).= H. If * 33. * Solve the same equation for^). m a? x . = 3 (6 a). 9. rate. f ^o. mx = n. 30. = 8 4 #. The The i time. 4. 5) is t =^. + xx = 1. p the principal.
hence the question would be formulated After how many minutes has the minute hand moved 15 spaces more than the hour hand ? Let then x x = the required number of minutes after 3 o'clock. A would do each day ^ and B j. 12. 2 3 . days by x and the piece of work while in x days they would do respectively ff ~ and and hence the sentence written in algebraic symbols ^. Multiplying by Dividing. and 12 = the number over. x Or Uniting.. . When between 3 and 4 o'clock are the hands of a clock together ? is At 3 o'clock the hour hand 15 minute spaces ahead of the minute : hand. = 16^. ~^ = 15 11 x ' !i^=15. 2. 100 C. then = 2 TT#..114 35. . PROBLEMS LEADING TO FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS 152. Ex.180. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA (a) Find a formula expressing degrees of Fahrenheit terms of degrees of centigrade (<7) by solving the equation (F) in (ft) Express in degrees Fahrenheit 40 If C. 1. C is the circumference of a circle whose radius R. A can do a piece of work in 3 days and B in 2 days. In how many days can both do it working together ? If we denote then / the required number by 1. is 36.20 C. = the number of minute spaces the minute hand moves over.minutes after x= ^ of 3 o'clock. Find R in terms of C and TT. of minute spaces the hour hand moves Therefore x ~ = the number of minute spaces the minute hand moves more than the hour hand. Ex.
hours more than the express train to travel 180 miles. the required number of days. then Ox j 5 a Rate Hence the rates can be expressed. the rate of the express train. 180 Transposing. 32 x = . But in uniform motion Time = Distance . Ex. Explanation : If x is the rate of the accommodation train. 4x = 80. in Then Therefore. what is the rate of the express train ? 180 Therefore. The speed of an express train is $ of the speed of an If the accommodation train needs 4 accommodation train. fx xx* = 152 +4 (1) Hence = 36 = rate of express train. or 1J. u The accommodation train needs 4 hours more than the express train. 3. = the x part of the work both do one day. and the statement. = 100 + 4 x." : Let x  = the required number of days. Clearing.FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS A in symbols the following sentence 115 more symmetrical but very similar equation is obtained by writing ** The work done by A in one day plus the work done by B in one day equals the work done by both in one day." gives the equation /I). Solving.
money and $10. to his son. Twenty years ago A's age was  age. by 6. are the The sum of two numbers numbers ? and one is ^ of the other. and one half the greater Find the numbers. 9 its A post is a fifth of its length in water. Find A's 8. and of the father's age. a man had How much money had he at first? . A man lost f of his fortune and $500. is equal 7. The sum 10 years hence the son's age will be of the ages of a father and his son is 50. A man left ^ of his property to his wife. J of the greater increased by ^ of the smaller equals 6. ceeds the smaller by 4.  Find their present ages. by 3. length in the ground. which was $4000. fifth Two numbers differ 2. to his daughand the remainder. Find a number whose third and fourth parts added together 2. ex What 5. and found that he had \ of his original fortune left. make 21.116 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 60 1. 3. Find two consecutive numbers such that 9. its Find the number whose fourth part exceeds part by 3. and J of the greater Find the numbers. and 9 feet above water. How did the much money man leave ? 11. How much money had he at first? 12 left After spending ^ of his ^ of his money and $15. one half of What is the length of the post ? 10 ter. Two numbers differ l to s of the smaller. is oO. of his present age.
and B in 4 days. at 4J % and P> has invested $ 5000 They both derive the same income from their How much money has each invested ? 20.) 22. 1. what is the rate of the express train? 152. Ex. and losing 1* ounces when weighed in water? do a piece of work in 3 days. . At what time between 7 and 8 o'clock are the hands of ? a clock in a straight line and opposite 18. air. 152. ounces of gold and silver are there in a mixed mass weighing 20 ounces in 21.FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS 13. A can A can do a piece of work in 2 days. after rate of the latter ? 15. and after traveling 150 miles overtakes the accommodation train. A man has invested J of his money at the remainder at 6%. An ounce of gold when weighed in water loses fa of an How many ounce. How much money $500? 4%.) At what time between 7 and 8 o'clock are the hands of a clock together ? 17. In how many days can both do it working together ? ( 152. investments. Ex. 2. If the accommodation train needs 1 hour more than the express train to travel 120 miles. and it B in 6 days. and has he invested if his animal interest therefrom is 19.) ( An express train starts from a certain station two hours an accommodation train. If the rate of the express train is f of the rate of the accommodation train. Ex. 3. A can do a piece of work in 4 clays. ? In how many days can both do working together 23. and an ounce of silver fa of an ounce. ^ at 5%. 117 The speed of an accommodation train is f of the speed of an express train. what is the 14. and B In how many days can both do it working together in ? 12 days. A has invested capital at more 4%. At what time between 4 and ( 5 o'clock are the hands of a clock together? 16.
. 25.g. The problem to be solved. and apply the method of 170. and n = 3. we obtain the equation m m . they can both do in 2 days. m and n. A in 6. A in 6. therefore. Find three consecutive numbers whose sum Find three consecutive numbers whose sum last : The two examples are special cases of the following problem 27. B in 16. is 57. Find the numbers if m = 24 30. : In how many days if can A and it B working together do a piece of work each alone can do (a) (6) (c) in the following number ofdavs: (d) A in 5. make it m 6 A can do this work in 6 days Q = 2. by taking for these numerical values two general algebraic numbers.= . A in 4. 6 I 3 Solve the following problems 24. To and find the numerical answer. is A can do a piece of work in m days and B in n days. 26. Ex. Hence.e. n x Solving. e. if B in 3 days. B in 12. Find three consecutive numbers whose sum equals m. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA The last three questions and their solutions differ only two given numbers. 3. . Answers to numerical questions of this kind may then be found by numerical substitution. it is possible to solve all examples of this type by one example. In how in the numerical values of the : many days If can both do we let x = the it working together ? required number of days.009 918.118 153. B in 5. Then ft i. is 42. 2. .= m f n it Therefore both working together can do in mn f n days. B in 30.414.
is (a) 51. by two pipes in m and n minutes In how many minutes can it be filled by the respectively. solve the following ones Find two consecutive numbers the difference of whose squares : find the smaller number. the area would be increased by 19 square feet. and how many miles does each travel ? Solve the problem if the distance. A cistern can be filled (c) 6 and 3 hours. (d) 1. if m and n are. : (c) 64 miles. two pipes together ? Find the numerical answer. squares 29.721. squares 30. Two men start at the first miles apart. and the rate of the second are. is ?n .FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS 28. and the second 5 miles per hour. 88 one traveling 3 miles per hour. 119 Find two consecutive numbers the difference of whose is 11. (c) 16. 2 miles per hour. 33. (b) 8 and 56 minutes.000. (b) 149. 5 miles per hour. After how many hours do they rate of n miles per hour. the Two men start at the same time from two towns. (a) 20 and 5 minutes. After how many hours do they meet. respectively. 3J miles per hour. the second at the apart.001. and how many miles does each travel ? 32. 34. If each side of a square were increased by 1 foot. d miles the first traveling at the rate of m. Find two consecutive numbers the difference of whose is 21. 3 miles per hour. The one: 31. 2 miles per hour. meet. same hour from two towns. last three examples are special cases of the following The difference of the squares of two consecutive numbers By using the result of this problem. the rate of the first. Find the side of the square. respectively (a) 60 miles. . (b) 35 miles. 4J miles per hour.
. instead of writing 6 times as large as ?>. b is a Since a ratio a fraction. is numerator of any fraction consequent. all principles relating to fractions if its may be af)plied to ratios. Thus the written a : ratio of a b is . The first 156. b.5." we may write a : b = 6. the symbol being a sign of division. the second term the consequent. the denominator The the 157. b is the consequent. the antecedent. : A somewhat shorter way would be to multiply each term by 120 6. 6 12 = . The ratio of first dividing the two numbers number by the and : is the quotient obtained by second. : : 155. 158. E. " a Thus. Simplify the ratio 21 3. The ratio  is the inverse of the ratio .g. In the ratio a : ft. etc. 1. b. A ratio is used to compare the magnitude of two is numbers.CHAPTER X RATIO AND PROPORTION 11ATTO 154.or a * b The ratio is also frequently (In most European countries this symbol is employed as the usual sign of division. a ratio is not changed etc. Ex. term of a ratio a the is is the antecedent.) The ratio of 12 3 equals 4. antecedent. terms are multiplied or divided by the same number.
27 06: 18 a6. The last term d is the fourth proportional to a. 18.RATIO Ex. $24: $8. 1. b and c the means. : ay . : is If the means of a proportion are equal. : 1. 17. extremes. 3:4. AND PROPORTION ratio 5 5 : 121 first Transform the 3J so that the term will 33 : *~5 ~ 3 '4* 5 EXERCISE Find the value of the following 1. proportional between a and c. b. and the last term the third proportional to the first and second 161. 16 x*y 64 x*y : 24 48 xif. : ratios so that the antecedents equal 16:64. 4. 6. term is the fourth proportional to the : In the proportion a b = c c?. 16. 8^ hours. 7:4 T T 4 . 10. 12. a and d are the extremes. 3 8. 5 f hours : 2. A proportion is a statement expressing the equality of proportions. 16a2 :24a&. two  ratios. = or:6=c:(Z are The first 160. 7f:6J. J:l. Simplify the following ratios 7. Transform the following unity 15. 9. the second and fourth terms of a proportion are the and third terms are the means. and c. 4:5f : 5. The last first three. terms. 3:1}. b is the mean b. equal 2. either mean the mean proportional between the first and the last terms. 3. 61 : ratios 72:18. In the proportion a b : = b : c. 62:16. and c is the third proportional to a and . 11. 159.
e. : : directly proportional may say. briefly. Hence the number of men required to do some work.) b = Vac. 163. and the time necessary to do it. if the ratio of any two of the first kind is equal \o the inverse ratio of the corresponding two of the other kind. or 8 equals the inverse ratio of 4 3.122 162. and we divide both members by we have ?^~ E. If 6 men can do a piece of work in 4 days. Clearing of fractions. 3 4. pro portional. In any proportion product of the extremes. = 30 grams 45 grams. of a proportion. 2 165. " we " NOTE. of iron weigh 45 grams. i. of iron weigh . ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Quantities of one kind are said to be directly proper tional to quantities of another kind. ad = be. if the ratio of any two of the first kind.30 grams. are : : : inversely proportional. 6 ccm. The mean proportional of their product. t/ie product of the means b is equal to the Let a : =c : d.) mn = pq. If the product of two numbers is equal to the product of two other numbers^ either pair may be made the means.'* Quantities of one kind are said to be inversely proportional to quantities of another kind. : c. q~~ n . is equal to the ratio of the corresponding two of the other kind. ccm. !.__(163. Hence the weight of a mass of iron is proportional to its volume. 164. then 8 men can do it in 3 days. and the other pair the extremes. then G ccm. 163. If (Converse of nq. a b : bettveen two numbers is equal to the square root Let the proportion be Then Hence 6 =b = ac. Instead of u If 4 or 4 ccm.
hence the proportion true. a+b a (Composition and : : : Division. AND PROPORTION x = 12 : 123 Find x. By inversion 5 : 4 =6 : x. is 4$ = 35. Change the proportion 4 5 = x 6 so that x becomes the : : last term. + b:b = c + d:d. These transformations are used to simplify proportions. 2. = 35 . a III. ad ( 163. 1. then =d c. (Frequently called Inversion. if 6 : 7. (163. (Division. I.) a b b=c b = c)d:c d. If 6 : a a : 6 =c : : d. 166.) (Called Alternation. d d. bd bd.) d 167. I. (Composition. V. .) Any is of these propositions may be proved by example : a method which illustrated by the following To prove This is b if d true ad  Or if But Hence ^ =^' o = be = be. Or IV.) a + b:a = c + d:c.PATIO Ex. Determine whether the following proportion 8:6 = and 5 x 7 7 : true rn 8 x t: 4.) II. a:c=b:d. is Ex.) = f f = 3 J. ad = be. 12x Hence a? = 42.
= 7:2f 3J. the consequents by 7. = 20:7. = 2:x. Simplify the following proportions. 72:50 m n (m n) = (m + rif m 2 : 18:19 6 2 : = 24:25. i. Or III.g. E. to simplify 48:21=32:7x. IV.e. 9. To simplify the proportion 11 : 5:6 =4 x : x. x = 2. = ^2x x Or Dividing the antecedents by m. its ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Alternation shows that a proportion is not altered when its consequents are multiplied or divided by antecedents or the same number. 4. 120:42 2 2 7. Apply composition. A parenthesis is understood about each term of a proportion. : x. 11 : 5 : 15:22=101:15. = 2:3. 8. 2. 10. EXERCISE 5^:8 = 2:3. 6 =4 : x. and determine whether they are true or not : 6. mx tin Apply composition and division. 3.124 IT. : 3 = 5 f x : x. V. 5. 13 = 5f llf : : n 2.:J 62 : Determine whether the following proportions are true 1. .!=!*. To simplify the proportion 8 Apply division. To simplify m 3n ? = + *. 8ajy:17 = i^:l^. = 180:125. 5 5. . 1 : 3 3 Divide the antecedents by : = = 5 1 : jr. 3n JJ =n x NOTE. = 12 5ft. 3:3 1:1 divide the antecedents by 16.
: 125 40:28 = 15:0. if : 40. 6x = 7y. 2 3 = y #. 6. 2. 18. x:5 = y:2. y : b y : =x 1 =x : a. f. 1 and a. 22: 3 19 2 : : 49. 5. 21 : 4z = 72 : 96. 4 and 16. 4. 5= 18 a? : a?.:ff. 51. 21. a. 35. 2= 5 x x. 6 x = y.. + fyx = cy. terra 2:3 = 4. = 5 x 12. 3. x m = y n. : : Transform the following proportions so that only one contains x: 48. 25. = 15o. w. 28. 20. to : a and 1. 33. to: = 35:*. = 2 + x: x. ra 2 . 4 a*:15ab = 2a:x. 112:42 = 10:a. 1. 50. mx = ny. and 2/. 29. 44. : . 9 x = 2 y. 03:a?=135:20.RATIO AND PROPORTION Determine the value of x 11.  32. 3. 17. b. = 3 43 + x. 22. Find the mean proportional 30. 16 n* x = 28 w 70 ra. 3t. 23. 16 and 28. 47. to : 9 and 12. 38.6 : : Find the fourth proportional 19. 41. ra + landra 1. a 2 and ab. 52. 8 a 2 and 2 b 2 Form two x 10 If ab proportions commencing with 5 from the equation 6 36. . Find the third proportional 24. 43. 26. form two proportions commencing with x : = xy. 27. : 53. 39. 12. 42. = l^:18. a?:15 15. (a : : 45. ra. 34.x: 6:5 a : x. rag. 7iy = 2:x. ratio of y. 2 a and 18 a. 16. 31. 2. 46.j>. 14. 13. 14 and 21. : a2 . Find the 37.8:1. rap.
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBEA State the following propositions as proportions : T (7 and T) of equal altitudes are to each. and the area of the smaller is 8 square inches. the squares of their radii (e) 55. 56. othei (a) Triangles as their basis (b and b'). (e) The distance traveled by a train moving at a uniform rate. (b) The time a The length train needs to travel 10 miles. and the time necessary for it. The number of men (m) is inversely proportional to the number of days (d) required to do a certain piece of work. and the : total cost. (c) of a rectangle of constant width. (d) The areas (A and A') of two circles are to each other as (R and R'). (d) The sum of money producing $60 interest at 5%. and the time.126 54. A line 11 inches long on a certain 22 miles. 57. the volume of a The temperature remaining body of gas inversely proportional to the pressure. and the speed of the train. 1 (6) The circumferences (C and C ) of two other as their radii (R and A"). the area of the larger? the same. State whether the quantities mentioned below are directly or inversely proportional (a) The number of yards of a certain kind of silk. areas of circles are proportional to the squares of If the radii of two circles are to each other as circle is 4 : 7. and the area of the rectangle. under a pressure of 15 pounds per square inch has a volume of gas is A 16 cubic feet. What will be the volume if the pressure is 12 pounds per square inch ? . what 58.inches long represents map corresponds to how many miles ? The their radii. A line 7^. (c) The volume of a body of gas (V) is circles are to each inversely propor tional to the pressure (P).
Divide 108 into two parts which are to each other 7. What is the greatest distance a person can see from an elevation of 5 miles ? From h miles the Metropolitan Tower (700 feet high) ? feet high) ? From Mount McKinley (20. = the second number. 7 x = 42 is the second number. as 11 Let then : 1.RATIO AND PROPORTION 69. 4 inches long. Therefore 7 = 14 = AC. : Ex. 11 x = 66 is the first number. it is advisable to represent these unknown numbers by mx and nx. 127 The number is of miles one can see from an elevation of very nearly the mean proportional between h and the diameter of the earth (8000 miles). 4 ' r i 1 (AC): (BO) =7: 5. Then Hence BG = 5 x. x=2. 2. is A line AB. 2 x Or = 4. Let A B AC=1x. Hence or Therefore Hence and = the first number.000 168. 11 x f 7 x = 108. 11 x x 7 Ex. so that Find^K7and BO. When a problem requires the finding of two numbers which are to each other as m n. AB = 2 x. x = 6. produced to a point C. . 18 x = 108.
: 197.000 square miles. and c inches. Water consists of one part of hydrogen and 8 parts of If the total surface of the earth oxygen. How The long are the parts ? 15. Divide 44 in the ratio 2 Divide 45 in the ratio 3 : 9.128 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 63 1. 7. 14. The three sides of a triangle are respectively a. 12. The total area of land is to the total area of is water as 7 18. If c is divided in the ratio of the other two. How many 7. What are the parts ? 5. How many grams of hydrogen are contained in 100 : grams 10. and the longest is divided in the ratio of the other two. and 15 inches. 2. : Divide 39 in the ratio 1 : 5. 12.) .000. How many ounces of copper and zinc are in 10 ounces of brass ? 6. 3. Gunmetal tin. consists of 9 parts of copper and one part of ounces of each are there in 22 ounces of gun metal ? Air is a mixture composed mainly of oxygen and nitrowhose volumes are to each other as 21 79. find the number of square miles of land and of water. cubic feet of oxygen are there in a room whose volume is 4500 : cubic feet? 8. what are its parts ? (For additional examples see page 279. How many gen. of water? Divide 10 in the ratio a b. Divide 20 in the ratio 1 m. 11. m in the ratio x: y % three sides of a triangle are 11. : 4. 9. 13. 6. Brass is an alloy consisting of two parts of copper and one part of zinc. : Divide a in the ratio 3 Divide : 7. A line 24 inches long is divided in the ratio 3 5.
L x If If = 0. if there is different relation between x and * given another equation. x = 1. expressing a y. if . which substituted in (2) gives y both equations are to be satisfied by the same Therefore. the equations have the two values of y must be equal. values of x and y. If satisfied degree containing two or more by any number of values of 2oj3y = 6. =. The root of (4) if K 129 .. Hence. a? (1) then I. there is only one solution.y=. y (3) these unknown numbers can be found. is x = 7. From (3) it follows y 10 x and since by the same values of x and to be satisfied y. An equation of the first unknown numbers can be the unknown quantities.e. Hence 2s 5 o = 10 _ ^ (4) = 3. 2 y = . the equation is satisfied by an infinite number of sets Such an equation is called indeterminate. However. y = 1. y = 5 /0 \ (2) of values. such as + = 10.CHAPTER XI SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS 169. etc.
Independent equations are equations representing different relations between the unknown quantities such equations . 174.X. ~ 50. ELIMINATION BY ADDITION OR SUBTRACTION 175.3 y = 80. 30 can be reduced to the same form f 5 y Hence they are not independent. A system of two simultaneous equations containing two quantities is solved by combining them so as to obtain unknown one equation containing only one 173. 172. unknown quantity. to The two methods I. The first set of equations is also called consistent. cannot be reduced to the same form. 6 and 4 x y not simultaneous. for they cannot be satisfied by any value of x and y. The process of combining several equations so as make one unknown quantity disappear is called elimination. 4y . = . for they express the x f y 10. y I 171. (3) (4) Multiply (2) by  Subtract (4) from (3).130 170. By By Addition or Subtraction. Therefore. are simultaneous equations. x H 2y satisfied 6 and 7 x 3y = by the values x = I. 26 y = 60. y = 2. Solve y=6x 6x f Multiply (1) by 2.24. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA A system of simultaneous equations is tions that can be satisfied a group of equa by the same values of the unknown numbers. E. Any set of values satisfying 5 x + 6 y = 60 will also satisfy the equation 3 x f. 3. 21 y . and 3 x + 3 y =. same relation. of elimination most frequently used II. the last set inconsistent. 6x . Substitution.26. viz. for they are 2 y = 6 are But 2 x 2.
whose coefficients In general.15 y 39 x + 15 y Add (3) and (4). eliminate the letter have the lowest common multiple. Therefore Substitute (6) in (1). subtract the equations. 60 . 5 13 . x = 10. 10 + 5 1 = 135. 3y = 3. EXERCISE answers: 64 Solve the following systems of equations and check the ' .14 =8. Hence to eliminate Multiplyy if necessaryy the equations by such will make the coefficients of one unknown quantity equal.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS the simpler one (1). 131 Substitute this value of y in either of the given equations. add the equations. x = 10. preferably 3x Therefore + 4 = 13 x = 3. 8 2.3 1 = 47. by addition or subtraction : numbers as (3) (4) (6) 176. 3. + 2. 64 x = 040. 37.2 = 6. Multiply (1) by Multiply (2) by 5. 10 . are like. y = 2. = 406. 25 x . y = 1. Transposing. 3.2 = 9 + 4 = 13. Therefore Check.3 y = 47. = 235. Check. coefficients If the signs of these if unlike.
f 3# ?/ = 0. ] ^ . 9 1 r 20. x 11. * + 3 y = 50. _. = 6. i 3. [2o. I . I ~ y~~> 22.v 23. ' 94 ^4 ' 15 ' ^  25 * 60. f 3X 7x 14. .3. I i 3 a. = 24.4.3.9 *. J I y = 1U. I oj 5y = 17.1ft is 1 fl<>* r A + 22/ = 40. ' 12. 13 61 l7a. = 41. 13.f2/ ' = 50. O t K 8. + 3?/ { 3 x f 2 y = 39.ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 5. 19< I a. 7 ' 1fi fl .5 y = 2. + 2/ 17. v ^ = ll.
EXERCISE Solve by substitution : 65 f5aj l3a. Hence to eliminate by substitution : Find in one equation the value of an unknown quantity in terms of the other. 21 y 24 Therefore y = 26. = 4#8. (1) (2) Transposing 2. tity in the Substitute this value for one unknown quan other equation. and solve the resulting equation. = 2. = 13. This value substituted in either (1) or (2) gives x 178. I3ar + 2y and dividing by . = 60. x ) ^"" 13. 8. = 2y + 10. 3. . 133 Solve 7 y in (1) (27. Substituting this value in (2) 3 7 ( ?/ t " 8 +2y= + 4 y 25 y Clearing of fractions.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS ELIMINATION BY SUBSTITUTION 177.
Substituting in (6) . the equation must be cleared of fractions and . f8(z8)9(y9) = 26. \ \6(a. .134 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 179. x = l. 21z6y=9. Solve 2 7 (2) Multiplying (1) by 12 and (2) by 14. 2 y = . and check the answers: + 5(y + 5) = 64. From 9 = 36. (4t(x\) ' ""^IT 3. (4). simplified before elimination is possible. 3 (1) Ex. it is advantageous to do so in most cases.3. 29 x = 29. 7x_2y=3. 7 y = 6. 3. (7) (7) (8) . + 212y4 = 14. (3) (4) (6) (6) Multiplying (6) by 2 and (6) by Sx + 6y = Adding and 3S. however. (8) 1 +8 2 _ 7 EXERCISE 66 Solve by any method. Whenever one unknown quantity can be removed without clearing of fractions. 43 + 8f3y + 7z From (3). 4* + 3y = 19.6)7(y7)==18.
ff "*" _13 ~ 4 2' 15. .1) = 121. 4 11. +y 2 . 10. J 9. .f2 2. yM a. 14. 2 4^ ~ 3 = 13. . a.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS 3x 4. 12. 16. 135 "25 ' 6 ' tsjj ' r4(5. a.1) + 5(6 y . = 3. 4(5 x l2(315 8 8. 4~2v 3a?2^4 3 1 18. 10 2a?5 17.
l_3 4' 2/41 2 a. 180. and y. but some expressions involving x.136 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 4_1 2' 19. * ((* (( .and x y . In many equations it is advantageous at first not to consider x and y as unknown quantities. {.Q ^ 4 21. 22. ?~y . 3x\" 1 23 24. . f y . e.#. <X + 20.
(2) (3) a. .SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS x Ex. 137 Solve y y (1) . 15 y + 8 x . . however.4 x = 4 xy. can also be solved Examples method. (4) + (G). 2* * x 2. of this type. Dividing by 11 3 = #. (4) (6) (6) (7) 2x(5). 1. EXERCISE Solve : 67 2' 1. Substituting x = 3 in (1).3 xy. Clearing of fractions. y. x 3. 33 = 11 x. y 4. y 1. Therefore y=4. etc. x 2x(2). by the regular Clearing (1) and (2) of fractions.
x y 331 9.138 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 4 6 K . . x 8. bmx = en anx anx + bny (3) (4) ftp. 4 13. y MOi y a. 6w3 + bny = 6p. 10 " 12 25 U y 6.= o 6.= 5. Solve (1) (2) (1) (2) (8) x x (4). LITERAL SIMULTANEOUS EQUATIONS 181. n. 253 7. 6. 1. x y 5. 21 9 . Ex. = en.
14.W. Uniting. From and L the same simultaneous equations find d in terms of a. 139 (an bm)x = en bp. d. Dividing. bmy bm}y ap cm. apan cm. ny = fy/ I sc 1. and I if 13. x a. . ap. w.y = = 9a + 46. (1) (2) (7) an bm (6) (7) x w. . f 6^ [ nx f my == m. ax + by = 2 a&. From the same equations find s in terms of a. . 6. s in 11.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS Uniting. fax f = l.cm y= EXERCISE 68 bm f 6y = c. d. amx + bmy amx f any = any (an cm. f 5. x f my = 1. and I. a Find a and terms of n. W . x 12. .
8 x .lf> z . 6. 17 x 100 z Therefore Substitute this value in (4).1+4. = 30. . 3. (1) (2) (3) Eliminate y. y =* 2. f 3y 12 =s 8. (8) 2.16. 1.9z =11 x (6) Eliminating x from (4) and (5). Multiplying (2) + = 20 12 2 10 (4) Multiplying (3) Adding. Solve the following system of equations: = 8.by 2.13. Multiplying (1) by Multiplying (2) by 4. x + 12 y . ties are Similarly. 20.3 = 8.12 y + 6 z = . (6) + 3 Therefore Substituting the values of x and z 2 x = (7) in (1). 8B12y + 17 x 16z z = 32 Oa + 12?/. (4) (5). = 3. 4. 182.15z=12 Adding.3=4. 4. etc. eliminating one and is the unknown quant iff/ from any pair of equasame unknown quantity froni another pair. 3y = Hence Check.140 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA SIMULTANEOUS EQUATIONS INVOLVING MORE THAS TWO UNKNOWN QUANTITIES three unknown quantities three simultaneous independent equations must be given.8 = 1. l.2 + 3. 1.25. Ex. To solve equations containing By tions. the to the solution problem reduced of two simultaneous equations containing two unknown quantities. by 3. 3. four equations containing four unknown quantireduced to three equations containing three unknown quantities.2 + 4.
49. x 13. 7. a? + 709 = 26. == 6. 2 . 2z = 40. k 2/ f 2 x a. 8. 4 = 42. y f ?/ M 2? = 4. 14.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS EXERCISE 10 x 69 141 1. 10. 12. + y f z = 15. 2 4. 15 2 = 45. + 2 y f 2 = 35. f 2 i/ f z = 14. a? 11. ~6?/ 5.
3 y + . x _2 3 ' 0742! J 18.2 a.142 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 15. (3 _.42 = 2. . ? = llz. 84 21. . 27. 16. .6 2. ?/ 3x = 0. = 8*. 22. 19. ^ = 2. 1510 4 17. 23. = 5. 32. =s 20. 60. 4..
) it is advisable to represent a different letter. however. and to express In complex examples. + 396 = 521. The digit in the tens' place is  of the sum of the other two digits. Check. Let x y z = the the digit in the hundreds' place. to express it is difficult two of the required digits in terms hence we employ 3 letters for the three unknown quantities. M=i. and Then 100 + 10 y +z the digit in the units' place. Find the number. the number. y 31. Simple examples of this kind can usually be solved by equations involving only one unknown every quantity. as many verbal statements as there are unknown quantities. . y * z 30. z + x = 2 n. = l. = 2 m. 2 = 1(1+6). 2 = 6. # 4. x : z =1 : 2. Ex. +2+ 6 = 8. 1 digit in the tens place. the first and the last digits will be interchanged. and if 396 be added to the number. 1. + z = 2p.2/ 2/ PROBLEMS LEADING TO SIMULTANEOUS EQUATIONS 183. (1) 100s + lOy + z + 396 = 100* + 10y + x. 1 = 2. symbols: x + y +z 8.y 125 (3) The solution of these equations gives x Hence the required number is 125. The three statements of the problem can now be readily expressed in . Obviously of the other . Problems involving several unknown quantities must contain.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS 143 x 29. either directly or implied. . unknown quantity by every verbal statement as an equation. The sum of three digits of a number is 8. ( 99.
+ I 2 (1) and These equations give x Check. 3 xand y I 1 (2) 5. = Hence the fraction is f. 8 = xy + x xy = xy f 3 x 2 y = 2. the distance traveled by A. y = 3. 4 x = 24.144 Ex. From (3) Hence xy Check. and C travel from the same place in the same B starts 2 hours after A and travels one mile per hour faster than A. ELEMENTS OF ALGE13KA If both numerator and denominator of a fraction be . 2. B. 3. the fraction Let and then y is reduced to nurn orator. C. x y = the = the x denominator . direction. xy a: 2y 4y 2. 6 x 4 = 24. = 8. increased by one. Find the fraction. we obtain. who travels 2 miles an hour faster than B. x 3x4y = 12. the fraction is reduced to  and if both numerator and denominator of the reciprocal of the fraction be dimin ished by one. Since the three men traveled the same distance. (1) (2) 12. 3+1 5+1 4_2. . 5_ _4_ A. Or (4)2x(3). starts 2 hours after B and overtakes A at the same How many miles has A then traveled? instant as B. Ex. = the fraction. x 3 = 24. (3) C4) = 24 miles. 2. By expressing the two statements in symbols.
and the second increased by 2 equals three times the first. 7. 183. to the number the digits will be interchanged. the last two digits are interchanged. and the second one increased by 5 equals twice number. and its denomi nator diminished by one. If 4 be Tf 3 be is J. to L <> Find the If the numerator and the denominator of a fraction be If 1 be subtracted from increased by 3. number by the first 3. Find the numbers. Find the numbers. ? What 9. the Find the fraction. The sum 18 is is and if added of the digits of a number of two figures is 6. and the numerator increased by 4. If the numerator of a fraction be trebled. Half the sum of two numbers equals 4. 5. and the fourth 3. If 9 be added to the number. Five times a certain number exceeds three times another 11. and twice the numerator What is the fracincreased by the denominator equals 15. the value of the fraction is fa. Find the number.}. the digits will be interchanged. If 27 is 10. Find the numbers. part of their difference equals 4. its value added to the denominator. and the two digits exceeds the third digit by 3. both terms. if its numerator and its denominator are increased by 1. The sum of the first sum of the three digits of a number is 9. If the denominator be doubled. it is reduced to J. . Find the fraction. Four times a certain number increased by three times another number equals 33.) added to a number of two digits.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS EXERCISE 70 145 1. 2. the number (See Ex. Find the number. and four times the first digit exceeds the second digit by 3. A fraction is reduced to J. 1. fraction is reduced to \. added to the numerator of a fraction. the fraction equals . 6. tion ? 8. the fraction is reduced fraction.
now.000 is partly invested at 6%. respectively ? 16.146 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 11. the rate of interest ? What was the sum of A sum of money at simple interest amounted in 2 years to $090. Ten years ago A was B was as as old as B is old as will be 5 years hence . 19. the rate of interest? 18. and partly at 4 %. If the sum of how old is each now ? at invested $ 5000. and 4 %. and 5 years ago their ages is 55. What was the sum and rates est The sums of $1500 and $2000 are invested at different and their annual interest is $ 190. . and B's age is \ the sum of A's and C's ages. Find their present ages. the annual interest would be $ 195.grams. If the rates of interwere exchanged. A man invested $750. partly at 5 %. and money and 17. bringing a total yearly interest of $530. and the 5% investment brings $15 more interest than the 4 % investment. Two cubic centimeters of gold and three cubic centimeters of silver weigh together 69 J. in 8 years to $8500. a part at 6 and the remainder bringing a total yearly interest of $260. Find the rates of interest. partly at 5% and partly at 4%. 14. 12. A sum of $10. Ten years ago the sum of their ages was 90. 5 %. Three cubic centimeters of gold and two cubic centimeters of silver weigh together 78 grains. and The 6 investment brings $ 70 more interest than the 5 % % 4% investments together. What was the amount of each investment ? 15. 13. much money is invested at A sum of money at simple interest amounted in 6 years to $8000. Twice A's age exceeds the sum of B's and C's ages by 30. Find the weight of one cubic centimeter of gold and one cubic centimeter of silver. How 6 %. and in 5 years to $1125. What was the amount of each investment ? A man % 5%.
points. and F '(see diagram). In the annexed diagram angle a = angle b. How many did he sell of each if the total number of animals was 24? 21. three AD = AF. If one angle exceeds the sum of the other two by 20. angle c = angle d. and CE If AB = G inches. receiving $ 100 for each horse. triangle Tf AD. andCL4 = 8. but if A would double his pace. BD = HE. Find the parts of the ABC touching the three sides if AB = 9. and sheep. ED = BE. for $ 740. BC=7. cows. and $15 for each sheep. what is that = OF. On /). BE. $ 50 for each cow. 25. BC = 7 inches. and AC = 5 inches. . the length of NOTE. the three sides of a triangle E. 24. and angle BCA = 70. E. and F. The sum of the 3 angles of a triangle is 180. An C touch ing the sides in D. and GE = CF. and e. and CF? is a circle inscribed in the 7<7. If angle ABC = GO angle BAG = 50. 1 NOTE. then AD = AF. The number of sheep was twice the number of horses and cows together. A r ^ A circle is inscribed in triangle sides in D. It takes A two hours longer 24 miles. and F. is the center of the circum scribed circle. are taken so ABC. and their difference by GO . respectively. . 23. Find their rates of walking. A farmer sold a number of horses. c.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS 147 20. B find angles a. and angle e angle/. what are the angles of the triangle ? 22. he would walk it in two hours less than than to travel B B.
the ordinate of point P. ?/. PN. and r or its equal OA is . PM. (2. and whose ordinate is usually denoted by (X ?/). jr. (3. It' Location of a point. PN are given. The of Coordinates. B. 2). and PN _L YY'. and point the origin. 186. hence The coordinates lying in opposite directions are negative. . Thus the points A. (2. YY' theyaxis.CHAPTER XII* GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS AND EQUATIONS 184. two fixed straight lines XX' and YY' meet in at right angles. first 3). or its equal OM. and PJ/_L XX'. (7. The abscissa is usually denoted by line XX' is called the jraxis. and respectively represented Dare and by (3 7 4). the ordinate by ?/. and ordinates abore the xaxis are considered positive .. lines PM the and P^V are coordinates called point P. is the abscissa. Abscissas measured to the riyht of the origin. then the position of point is determined if the lengths of P P3f and 185. 3). * This chapter may be omitted on a 148 reading. is The point whose abscissa is a.
8. Plot the points : (0. . 1). 2J). 3). which of its coordinates known ? 13.(!. 6. (See diagram on page 151. 4. 0). (3.1). 4) from the origin ? 7. all all points points lie lie whose abscissas equal zero ? whose ordinates equal zero? y) if y 10. (4. (4. two variable quantities are so related that changes of the one bring about definite changes of the other. (0.and(l. 2). 11. 4). 2). (1. 6. (4. Graphic constructions are greatly facilitated by the use of crosssection paper. Where do Where do Where do all points lie whose ordinates tfqual 4? 9. 4).) EXERCISE 1. i.GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS The is 149 process of locating a point called plotting the point.e. (5. Plot the points: (4. 2. (4. 3).3). the mutual dependence of the two quantities may be represented either by a table or by a diagram. 12. What is the locus of (a?. 3). 0). 71 2). Plot the points: (4. What Draw is the distance of the point (3. 1).4). 3. 4) and (4. Draw the triangle whose vertices are respectively (l. the quadrilateral whose vertices are respectively (4. Plot the points (6. . =3? is If a point lies in the avaxis. paper ruled with two sets of equidistant and parallel linos intersecting at right angles. Graphs. and measure their distance. whose coordinates are given NOTE. (2. (4.2). (0. !). What are the coordinates of the origin ? If 187. 0). 0). (4.
Thus the average temperature on May on April 20. may be found on Jan. we meas1 . 188. and the corresponding number in the adjacent column the ordinate of a point. in like manner the average temperatures for every value of the time. C. .150 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA tables represent the average temperature Thus the following of New volumes 1 Y'ork City of a certain to 8 pounds. 1. representation does not allow the same accuracy of results as a numerical table. but it indicates in a given space a great many more facts than a table. B. 10 . and the amount of gas subjected to pressures from pound The same data. A graphic and it impresses upon the eye all the peculiarities of the changes better and quicker than any numerical compilations. 15. A. however. Thus the first table produces 12 points. D. we obtain an uninterrupted sequence etc. By representing of points. from January 1 to December 1. may be represented graphby making each number in one column the abscissa. ure the ordinate of F. ically each representing a temperature at a certain date.. ABCN y the socalled graph of To 15 find from the diagram the temperature on June to be 15 . or the curved line the temperature.
: 72 find approximate answers to the following Determine the average temperature of New York City on (a) May 1. the matics. Daily papers represent ecpnoniical facts graphically. physician. the graph is applied. the rise and fall of wages. EXERCISE From the diagram questions 1. concise representation of a number of numerical data is required. the merchant. etc. (b) July 15. Whenever a clear. (d) November 20. and to deduce general laws therefrom. uses them. .GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS 151 i55$5St5SS 3{utts33<0za3 Graphs are possibly the most widely used devices of applied matheThe scientist uses them to compile the data found from experiments. The engineer. (c) January 15. as the prices and production of commodities.
is 10.. During what month does the temperature decrease most rapidly ? 13. ? 9. is ture we would denote the time during which the temperaabove the yearly average of 11 as the warm season. on 1 to the average.. ELEMENTS OF ALGEKRA At what date (a) G or dates is New York is C. At what date is the average temperature lowest? the lowest average temperature ? 5. At what date is the average temperature highest the highest average temperature? ? What What is 4. How much. 1 to Oct. from what date to what date would it extend ? If .. How much warmer 1 ? on the average is it on July 1 than on May 17. When the average temperature below C. From what date to what date does the temperature increase (on the average)? 8.? is is the average temperature of New York 6. (freezing point) ? 7. (d) 9 0. 1? 11 0. June July During what month does the temperature increase most ? rapidly 12. ?  3. Which month is is the coldest of the year? Which month the hottest of the year? 16. 15. When What is the temperature equal to the yearly average of the average temperature from Sept.152 2. 1 ? does the temperature increase from 11. (c) the average temperature oi 1 C. During what months above 18 C. (1) 10 C. During what month does the temperature change least? 14.
Draw a graph for the 23. NOTE. One meter equals 1. Draw . 19. transformation of meters into yards. 153 1? When is the average temperature the same as on April Use the graphs of the following examples for the solution of concrete numerical examples. Construct a diagram containing the graphs of the mean temperatures of the following three cities (in degrees Fahren heit) : 21. 20. a temperature chart of a patient. in a similar manner as the temperature graph was applied in examples 118.GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS 18. Hour Temperature . Represent graphically the populations : (in hundred thou sands) of the following states 22.09 yards. From the table on page 150 draw a graph representing the volumes of a certain body of gas under varying pressures.
26. the value of a of this quantity will change..50 per copy (Let 100 copies = about \. 2 is called x 2 xy + 7 is a function of x. 2. . if x assumes successively the tively values 1. 2 . 3. The initial cost of cost of manufacturing a certain book consists of the $800 for making the plates. books from for printing. 2 x f 7 gradually from 1 to 2. 29. Represent graphically the distances traveled by a train in 3 hours at a rate of 20 miles per hour. 190. An expression involving one or several letters a function of these letters.g. then C irJl. the daily average expenses for rent. function If the value of a quantity changes. and $. 1 to 1200 copies. 28. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA If C 2 is the circumference of a circle whose radius is J2. etc. binding. A 10 wheels a day.5 grams. from R Represent graphically the = to R = 8 inches.) T circumferences of 25. x increases will change gradually from 13. Represent graphically the cost of butter from 5 pounds if 1 pound cost $. represent his daily gain (or loss).154 24. if 1 cubic centimeter of iron weighs 7. to 27. 9. amount to $8.inch..50. etc. If dealer in bicycles gains $2 on every wheel he sells. +7 If will respec assume the values 7. gas. x 7 to 9. if he sells 0. 3. (Assume ir~ all circles >2 2 .50.) On the same diagram represent the selling price of the books. e. x* x 19. if each copy sells for $1. Show graphically the cost of the REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS OF ONE VARIABLE 189. 2 8 y' + 3 y is a function of x and y.. 4. to 20 Represent graphically the weight of iron from cubic centimeters.
to x = 4. a*.0). is supposed to change. it is In the example of the preceding article. Draw the graph of x2 f. E. to con struct the graph x of x 2 construct a series of 3 points whose abscissas rep2 resent X) and whose ordi1 tions . 2). x a variable. 2. hence various values of x The values of a function for the be given in the form of a numerical table. (2. 3 50. is A constant a quantity whose value does not change in the same discussion. 155 A variable is a quantity whose value changes in the same discussion. ( 2. and join the points in order. and (3. for x=l. as 1. however. plot points which lie between those constructed above. be also represented by a graph. 4). 9).e. (1. Ex. may. etc. (1^. while 7 is a constant. Q.GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS 191. 3 (0. 2 (1. 9).1). values of x2 nates are the corresponding i. . Thus the table on page 1G4 gives the values of the functions x 2 x3 and Vsr. may . To obtain the values of the functions for the various values of the following arrangement be found convenient : . construct '. The values of func192.g. Graph of a function. If a more exact diagram is required. 4).1). 1 the points (3.2 x may 4 from x = 4. J).
(3. or ax + b f c are funclirst tions of the first degree.. A Y' function of the first degree is an integral rational function involving only the power of the variable.156 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Locating the points( 4. the scale unit of the ordinatcs is taken smaller than that of the x. Ex. ..4). (4. 4). r */ +* 01 . Draw y z x the graph of = 2x3. 4J. = 4. 2. Thus in the above example. j/=3. 1). 5). y = 6.. 194..20). = 0. the function is frequently represented by a single letter. (2. (To avoid very large ordinatcs. straight line produces the required graph. and joining in order produces the graph ABC. etc. if /* 4 > 1i > > ?/ = 193. 7 . rf 71 . 2 4 and if y = x f. If If Locating ing by a 3) and (4.. as y.2 x . and join(0. It can be proved that the graph is a straight of a function of the first degree line.) For brevity. hence two points are sufficient for the construction of these graphs. Thus 4x + 7.
18. fa 17. if the function equals zero. a ar. The values of a*. the diagram find (a) (e) (3. 14. 2J. (d) (^) 1 to and from 2 . a? 1. .5)2. 2J. 2 2 a. The values of a?. 3. 1 8 10. a. (ft) (_ 1. 3 a 8. 8. (a) (6) (c) (d) (e) The values of y. 16. a? 2 4. 3. 2. 2 a. Jar . l. xl. (</) The roots of the equation x2 4 x f 2 = 2. 1J. 2. J.2 4 # + 2 equals 2. ?/ a.e. 4a? I. a? the graphs of the following functions: + 2. the function. if"a. . 5. 6 fa. 2x + 3x a?. y = 2x = 4. 1J. Draw the graph of : from #= 4 to 05 = 4. (7i) (c) 23.GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS EXERCISE 73 157 Draw 1. = The values of a*. (If) Va25. The value of x that produces the smallest value it* of the function.8)'. 7. 15. 12. i. a* 13. x+1. The smallest value of the function. 1J.5)2. + 4. 9. a?. The roots of the equation 2 f 2 a a*2 = 0. 21. 2 a. (/) The roots of the equation x The roots of the equation a2 4 x f 2 = 1. if a. and (a) (6) (c) (d) The values of the function if x = \. (/) Vl2^ (0) V5. Draw the graph of or from the diagram determine: 4 a? +2 a. (C ) (2. if y = 2. 4 a.or. 2 2. 11. 22. 2 or 2 20. 23x. 2 4 x f 2 = 0. = 4. The roots of the equation 2 {2x a*2 = l. The values of x that make 2 4 a? + 2 = 0. 1. from x VlO'S". Draw the graph ofy=2j2# and from the diagram determine : #2 from # = 2 to a?=4. 6. 19. xz + x.
If two variables x and y are directly proportional.158 24. what values of x make the function x2 + 2x 4 = (see 192).. . 25. to Fahrenheit readings : Change 10 C. Therefore x = 1.) scale by the formula (a) Draw the graph of C = f (F32) from to (b) 4 F F=l. 9 F. we have to measure the abscissas of the intersection of the 195. If two variables x and y are inversely proportional. From grade equal to (c) the diagram find the number of degrees of centi1 F. i. if c Draw the locus of this equation = 12. it is evidently possible Thus to find to find graphically the real roots of an equation. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Degrees of the Fahrenheit (F.. GRAPHIC SOLUTION OF EQUATIONS INVOLVING ONE UNKNOWN QUANTITY Since we can graphically determine the values of x make a function of x equal to zero. 32 F..24 or x = P and Q. 1 C. the abscissas of 3. Represent 26. then y = .) scale are expressed in degrees of the Centigrade (C. y= formula graphically. then cXj where c is a constant. that graph with the o>axis.. Show any convenient number). that the graph of two variables that are directly proportional is a straight line passing through the origin (assume for c 27. C.. A body moving with a uniform t velocity of 3 yards per second moves in this seconds a distance d =3 1.24. 14 F.e.where x c is a constant.
(a) x2 = 0. and determine the abscis 1 sas of the points of intersection with the graph. + + = where a.GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS 196. and c represent \3 2 1 1/2 known quantities. 6. de = termine the points where If the function is 1. 6. 4. 10. viz. 0. (0. is called a quadratic equation. (a) (6) 9. draw through 1) a line parallel to the #axis. a2 2a. 12. a: (a) (6) (c) 6a. 11. 3. An equation of the the form ax2 bx c 0. . Such equations in general have two roots. 14.7 2 a 5 = 0.f 9 = 0. Y' EXERCISE 4x_ 7 74 : Solve graphically the following equations 1. z 2 4x 6 a2 6. = 0. 197. tion x 2 159 To +2x solve the equa4 1. crosssection paper is used. 7. the points may be found otherwise by inspection. 8. 2 and 1. or 5 2. 13.
Hence.e.2. == 2. Hence we may join (0. unknown quantities.160 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA GRAPHIC SOLUTION OF EQUATIONS INVOLVING TWO UNKNOWN QUANTITIES 198. Graph of equations involving two unknown quantities. 0). Ex. . = 0. X'2 Locating the points (2. Hence if if x x  2.2 y ~ 2. If the given equation is of the we can usually locate two y. 3x _ 4 . fc = 3. that can be reduced Thus to represent x   L^ \ x =2  graphically. Represent graphically Solving for y ='"JJ y. 2). y= A and construct x (  graphically. (f . If x = 0. produces the 7* required locus. y = l. solve for ?/. Equations of the first degree are called linear equations. and join the required graph. ?/.1. y y 2. 1) and 0). 199. ?/ =4 AB. Thus If in points without solving the equation for the preceding example: 3x s . we can construct the graph or locus of any Since we can = equation involving two to the above form. represent graphically equations of the form y function of x ( 1D2). Ex. 4) and them by straight line AB (3. because their graphs are straight lines. 4) and (2. i. and joining by a straight line. NOTE. T . if y = is 0. first degree. locate points (0. Draw the locus of 4 x + 3 y = 12.
The coordinates of every point of the graph satisfy the given equation. (2) . 201. Graphical solution of a linear system. we obtain the roots.1=0. To find the roots of the system. 203. 3. The every coordinates of point in satisfy the equation (1). the point of intersection of the coordinate of P.57. Since two straight lines which are not coincident nor simultaneous Ex. AB y = . parallel have only one point of intersection. The roots of two simultaneous equations are represented by the coordinates of the point (or points) at which their graphs intersect. 202. AB but only one point in AB also satisfies (2). and CD. and every set of real values of x and y satisfying the given equation is represented by a point in the locus. P. equation x= By measuring 3.15.GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS 161 200. viz. linear equations have only one pair of roots. Solve graphically the equations : (1) \xy\. By the method of the preceding article construct the graphs AB and and CD of (1) (2) respectively.
and + 3). 4. Locating the points (5. Solving (1) for y. 4. AB the locus of (1). 1.g. Solve graphically the : fol lowing system = = 25. 4. Using the method of the preceding para. intersection. There can be no point of and hence no roots.162 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA graph. 2. obtain the graph (a circle) AB C joining. they are inconsistent. 5. P graphs meet in two and $. The equations 2 4 = 0. V25 5. (1) (2) C. (4. Locating two points of equation (2). e. if x equals respectively 0. 5. 0.y~ Therefore. 4. 0) and (0. (1) (2) cannot be satisfied by the same values of x and y. x2 . 1.9. 4. 3. 4.  4. 3. which consist of a pair of parallel lines. = 0. 4. there are two pairs of By measuring the coordinates of : P and Q we find 204.0. This is clearly shown by the graphs of (1) arid (2). 2. 3x 2 y = 6. Measuring the coordinates of P.5. 4. i. the graph of points roots.0).5. parallel graphs indicate inconsistent equations. and . the point we obtain Ex. . 3). (2. 3. 2 equation x 3). Inconsistent equations. construct CD the locus of (2) of intersection. y equals 3. we of the + y* = 25. etc. In general.e. Since the two  we obtain DE. (4.. and joining by a straight line. 0.
Draw system. idengraphs indicate dependent equations.. 8. 6. the graphs of the following systems. EXERCISE 75 Construct the loci of the following equations: 1. 16 23. 2x 3?/=6. 17. vice versa. state reasons. 20. x~y=0. 4. 3. 7. 2. a. \ 2x + 3^ . y = 4. y=x + 5. '163 Dependent equations. and solve each If there are no solutions. 5. y 2 4. if possible. 1 6* + 7 y = 3. 19.GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS 205. and. 9. a+r/=6. y= a2 2x y6. . as 2^3 and 3x f ==l 2y =6 tical have identical graphs. 10. 16 22.
TABLE OF SQUARES. AND SQUARE HOOTS . Show that the same values of x and y cannot satisfy the : three equations x f 5y = 5. 28.164 24. 30. 25. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA "~ U # . 29 . CUBES. 4 a = 3(6 . 26.8.y). 3 31.14 y = .
. INVOLUTION OF MONOMIALS 208. 3 f a = f a = +.faa a a a Obviously 1. is may be by 207. ( 2 aft ) 9 is negative. ( a) is positive. involution repeated multiplication. 8. a2 6 6 = ?> 2+2 5 5 + 2 = a. ( 3 2 6 3 )* = ( 3 a2 6 8 ) . on to in factors 4. Involution is the operation of raising a quantity to a Since a power effected positive integral power. = 6+ 5 + +fi = fi 62. ( 3 a268 ) ( a 8 = _ (2m ) (8 ____ 16 *)"" 27 n 165 . etc. a special kind of product. 2. follows that 3. All even powers of a negative quantity arc positive. To find (#(**&)" is a problem of involution. ^4/? it According to 50. 2. powers of a positive quantity are positive. All odd powers of a negative quantity are negative. a = a3 .CHAPTER XIII INVOLUTION 206. fa. 52. According to 1.a2 . Law of Signs. = a2 5 =6 (5 )* n m n (a ) = a (a 2 3 ) a2 b5 .
The square of a binomial was discussed in 63. 210. 4. 6.6) = a . ' 27 ' / _4_ _4_V ' 11. 76 : (>y. the required power. V V/ 13. (a ) 2 5 . a product to a given power. (277171 )*. (a ) 2 4  3. amVy) 3 . multiply tht raise each of its factors to given exponents. 24. 15.6 (a 8 8 . 5. raise ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA the exponent of the power of a power. .3 a 6 f 3 a6 . 2. raise its terms to the required EXERCISE Perform the operations indicated 1. 4 /2mV. ^/2?n?A 4 ' 30. 2 11 (afc ) . raise a fraction to a power. (^^) 2 . The & cube of a binomial (a 3 3 _j_ we obtain by multiplying (a 2 2 + 6) 1 by + and = a + 3a 6 + 3a6 + * 6) . 16. 3 2 2 8 . \ 3 J '  MW 10. (2ar). V 3xy )' INVOLUTION OF BINOMIALS 209.166 To find To To power.
+ a 2 a. 167 Find the cube of 2 x f. 86 3 w + 3 w + ra8 126 + G6l.  lx  (7 a (1 I) 3 17. + 3a 6 + 3a& f& ^Sx^ + S^ ^ 3 2 2 3 . 8. (m2) 8 (w+w) 3 8 10.3(3 a*)a(y = 27 a . (3af26) 8 . 1. Find the cube 2 6 n of 3 x* . 5 5 4 2 2 3 s .) 14. + 4aj) 3 . .y . 2. (a + &)8 . 8 (a??/) 3 . TJie exponent of a in the first term is the same as the expo2. 18. 4. 211. 2 . a. 3 . are obtained by multiplication. The higher powers of binomials. and decreases in each succeeding term by L . (5 (1 a) 3 . 2. 3 3 + 3(2aO*(Sy) + 3(2aj)(3y)> + 36 z2y + 54 xy* + 27 y3 . (6m+2w) (3 8 . nent of the binomial. 12. 23. 4 4 2 2 3 4 . Ex. 2 a8 3a2 + 3al.3 y.6 2 8 ft) . 9. 21. 16. 15. (3 (l I) 2 8 . . : a 20. 13. (afl) . An 1. +5a) 22.INVOLUTION Ex. (aj7) . examination of these results shows that : The number of terms is 1 greater than the exponent of the binomial. or*  Find the cube root of 19. = s= (2s) 8 a. frequently called ex. 1 f 3 2 3 . 5. (3a (a (4 62 l) 3 . as follows : + 6) = o + 3 d'b + 3 a6 + + 6) = a + 4 a?b + 6 a & + 4 a6 + b (a = a + 5 a 6 + 10 a*b + 10 a 6 f 5 aM + 6 (a + 6) 8 8 2 (a b*. (3 x . 3 8 . 3. 7. etc. 6.y) = (3 y?y .27 ay + 9 x y2n 2 EXERCISE 77 Perform the operations indicated: 1. pansions.
a) 3 19. (p + q) 4 * 7. (2 4. 9. (2a5c) (1 f 2 4 a:) 4 . 1. . 5. 24. The The coefficient coefficient of the first term is 1. 4 . . 14. Expand (x = ic 5 f 5 x*y + 10 ^V + 5 . 10. 3. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA T7ie exponent ofb is 1 in the second term of the result. (m fl) 2 20. Ex. and increases by 1 in each succeeding term. (w 4 ?i) 4 . (?>i?i f c)*. (l 8 . Ex.4(2 * )'(3 *f) f 6(2 ^) (3 y ) 8 . (1 + 4 ?/) . 3. . 78 s . Expand (a??/) x5 5 x4 y + 10 x'2 (and odd + 212. 13. (af 5) . Expand <? 2 (2 #  3 y3 ) 4 2 . 15. 4.216 a^ 4. . is the coefficient of the next term. ( &) 5 . (3a f5) 5) 4. (2w 2 2 fl) 4 . (m 5 I) 2 22. 2. * 2 4 ) 16 ic 8 . 17.168 3. The minus.81 y 2 8 9 8 4 ) . . 21. and the result divided by 1 plus the exponent of b. (la&) 4 12. (m 2 + n) 8 . Ex.2. 12 EXERCISE Expand: 1. 6. 25. TJie coefficient of any term of the power multiplied by the exponent of a. 4 (1for) 5 .4(2^(3 ^'+(3 y . (lfa 6 2 ) 5. 18. (a~^) 5 . (mnp 5 I) 5 . (2 a 4 .96 ^y f 216 o?y . of the second term equals the exponent of the binomial 6. (?/i~w) : 16. and the powers negative. (tff1) (cfd) . 5. . (mJ) 4 11. . mn 5 2 5 ) . 10 x*y* + 2 5 xy* + y5 . 23. 8. since the even powers of signs of the last answer arc alternately plus y are positive.
4 4 .CHAPTER XIV EVOLUTION 213. it is evidently impossible to express an even root of a negative quantity by Such roots are called imaginary the usual system of numbers. Evolution it is is the operation of finding a root of a quan the inverse of involution. 1. Every odd root of a quantity has same sign as and 2 the quantity. and ( v/o* = a. = x means = 6. a) 4 = a4 . V9 = + 3. \/"^27=3. for (+ a) = a \/32 = 2. It follows from the law of signs in evolution that : Any even root of a positive. 27 =y means r' = 27. \/a = x means x n = y ?> a. (_3) = 27. V \/P 214. Thus V^I is an imaginary number. and all other numbers are. Since even powers can never be negative. which can be simplified no further. 109 . 215. for distinction. or y ~ 3. for (f 3) 2 ( 3) equal 0. tity . or 3 for (usually written 3) . called real numbers. etc. 2. quantity may the be either 2wsitive or negative. numbers. or x &4 .
V25 9 16. 2 . 5. 7.9 = 136.64 5 4 . VT8226 = V25 2 729 . To extract a root of a fraction. fy 5 3 . Ex. . 7 .for(*Siy = 3 3 6 c* \ c*J 2 2 b' ?*243 ft^c20 216. for (a 3 )* = a 12 . Ex. 8. Ex.200 . 9. 7 . 3i . v/^i2 = a*. 8. index.201) = 2. \/2 4 9 . To extract the root of a power. extract the and denominator. 9. 2.  100 a 2 . EXERCISE 1. 6 7 = 030. 2. V?.1. 62 = V2* . . = 19472. V36 9 4. 82 . divide the exponent by the A root of a product equals the product of the roots of the factors. roots of the numerator \/18 . Ex. for (2 a 2 6c4 ) 8 = Ex.4. Find (x/19472) Since by definition ( v^)" = a. 6. 3/0** = am . Ex 5 a" . 6.170 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EVOLUTION OF MONOMIALS The following examples root : are solved by the definition of a . 10. we have (Vl472) 2 Ex. = V26TIT81 = 53. for (a")" a = a mn 3. Ex. v/2^. 4 v. Ex.125. 3 33 53 . 14 63 25 = V2 3* = 2 32 6 . = 199 + (_ 198) . . 79 2 v/2 5 . V5 v/2 7 2. 3.lL. 7. v^SjW 3 = 2 a ^/gL^g = * c* A 82 &c*.(.
V9216. 31. 2. 116.) 4 3 EXERCISE 80 : Extract the square roots of the following expressions 1. ^40^4. 34.3. (V2441) ~(V2401) 36. 2 f ( V240) 3 . V8.6 tfif + 9 y = O . 6. In such a case the square root can be found ( 116. 33. \/d \Vab r + b\ 9. 1. 3.98.EVOLUTION 171 28. 2 . ( VI5) x ( VT7) 2 2 2 2 x ( V3) 35. a f2 l 2 + l. 2yh2/ 4  9^ + 60^ + 2 2/ . 2 . Find the square root of a2 . 29.) by inspection. 45 V5184. Ex.3 .6 ofy 2 f 9 y4 . Hence _ 6 ary f 9 y = (s . A trinomial is a perfect square if one of its terms is equal to twice the product of the square roots of the other terms.75. 5.4/. 32. ( VH) + (Vl9) 2 2 . (Vl24) { 2 EVOLUTION OF POLYNOMIALS AND ARITHMETICAL NUMBERS 217. a* 4 8 2 .3 y2) ( vV ./).(V200) f ( VI5) 2 . 30. . V20 .
it is not known whether the given expression is a perfect square. a\b is the root if In most cases. mV14m??2)f 49. a f. let us consider the relation of a f.> 13. 8 . 12. The term a' first 2 . + 6 + 4a&. 15. #2 a2  16. multiplied by b must give the last two terms of the as follows square. 10. i.b 2 2 to its square. . second term 2ab by the double of by dividing the the socalled trial divisor. the that 2 ab f b 2 = we have then to consider sum of trial divisor 2 a. 2 .e. 2ab . 2 2 218. In order to find a general method for extracting the square root of a polynomial. term a of the root is the square root of the first The second term of the root can be obtained a.72 aW + 81 & 4 . and b (2 a f b).2 &c. the given expression is a perfect square. 14. The work may be arranged 2 : a 2 + 2 ab + W \a + b . however. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBEA 4a2 44a?> + 121V2 4a s . a2 + & + c + 2 a& .172 7.2 ab + b . 11. and b.2 ac . 2 49a 8 16 a 4 9.
Explanation. the first term of the answer. . 2 Subtracting the square of 4x' from the trinomial gives the remainder '24 x'2 + y. Extract the square root of 16 a 4 . 6 a.24 afy* f 9 tf. 8 /. . The square . The process of the preceding article can be extended to polynomials of more than three terms. 4 x2 3 ?/ 8 is the required square foot. of x. 1. 10 a 4 8 a. .EVOLUTION Ex. Ex. 1. 173 x* Extract the square root of 1G 16x4 10 x* __ .  24 a 3 + 25 a 2  12 a +4 Square of 4 a First remainder. double of this term find the next is the new trial divisor. we obtain the next term of the root 3 y 3 which has to be added to 2 the trial divisor. 219. . Multiply the complete divisor Sx' 3y 3 by Sy 8 and subtract the product from the remainder. 2. By doubling 4x'2 we obtain 8x2 the trial divisor. 8 a 2 Second complete divisor. and consider Hence the their sum one term. and so forth. First trial divisor. \ 24 a 3 4f a2 10 a 2 Second remainder. We find the first two terms of the root by the method used in Ex. 8 a 2  12 a +4 a f 2. First complete divisor. Arrange the expression according to descending powers root of 10 x 4 is 4 # 2 the lirst term of the root. 8 a 2 . is As there is no remainder. */'' . by division we term of the root. Arranging according to descending powers of 10 a 4 a. the required root (4 a'2 8a + 2}. As there is no remainder. 24# 2 y 3 by the trial divisor Dividing the first term of the remainder. . Second trial divisor.24 a + 4 12 a + 25 a8 s . 8 a 2 2.
l 4. 2 4. 16x6 4. 15. 8.V430^425^ 4m 4.73a4 440^436^460^. 12.2^43^42^ 46 5 4 a. 13#4 413ar 44a. 412 a& f 37 a' 6 . 436^?/469a.42 a*& 4. + 81 a 454 a + 81.12 a6 2 2 3 4 4 64 .12m 5 4.12 m 4. 14. 20.16. 1 4. 17. a? 2 .25 x 4 4. x 6 4 4 0^4. 10. 6. 6 11.174 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 81 : Extract the square roots of the following expressions 2. 4 4?/ 42x 4 3 j/ 2xif 6 a5 4. 5.6 . 4 .4 x 4.24 or . 3. 24. 3 a2 a4 4 2a + a4 2 or 41 3 2 a3 + 1. 25 x 4 f 40 afy 446 x 2 if 4 24 a^ 8 4 9 4 i/ . 729 4. 18.25. 19.9.14^44 ic 4^ 3 12^.42 a f 49 a 6 16 a4  24 a3 4 J 2 3 3 4 4 . 36a 460a 473a 440a 416a 3 2 13. 16. 36it. . 5 4 16 4 iK .20 J or 2 16 x 4. 9. 2 x2 3 2x. > 7.40 a 22 .9m 4 20m3 30m 4.54 a 40 a 6 4 9 a4 . 25 m 20 w + 34 m .162 a2 60 a10 4.10 x2 4.a 6 x*y 2 .20 o 4.73 a8 . 4 36 a 2 12 4 4 16 a4 4 46 a 4 4 44 a 8 f 25 a h 12 a 4 4 25 a6 4.37 a ^ . 6 6 2 49 a 4 . 16 _^ + 2 JX XT 4a.
etc. 7744 80 6400 1 +8 160 + 8 = 168 1344 1344 Since a 2 a Explanation.000. and the first remainder is. Find the square root of 524. square root of arithmetical numbers can be found to the one used for algebraic Since the square root of 100 is 10. Find the square root of 7744. beginning at the and each group contains two digits (except the last. then the number of groups is equal to the number of digits in the square root.176. the preceding explanation it follows that the root has two digits. 1.. Hence the root is 80 plus an unknown number. of 1. As 8 x 168 = 1344. two figures. the first of which is 4. etc. a 2 = 6400. 175 The by a method very similar expressions. Ex.000 is 1000. From A will show the comparison of the algebraical and arithmetical method given below identity of the methods.000 is 100. = 80. first . 2.1344. of 10. of a number between 100 and 10. and the square root of the greatest square in units.000.EVOLUTION 220. the consists of group is the first digit in the root. the square root of 7744 equals 88. and the complete divisor 168. Therefore 6 = 8. the first of which is 8. which may contain one or two). Hence if we divide the digits of the number into groups. and we may apply the method used in algebraic process. Ex. the integral part of the square root of a number less than 100 has one figure. a f>2'41 '70 6 c [700 + 20 + 4 = 724 2 a a2 = +6= 41) 00 00 1400 + 20 = 1420 4 341 76 28400 = 1444 57 76 6776 . Thus the square root of 96'04' two digits. The is trial divisor = 160. the first of which is 9 the square root of 21'06'81 has three digits.
places. and if the righthand group contains only one digit. ELEMENTS OF ALGEKRA In marking off groups in a number which has decimal begin at the decimal point.7 to three decimal places. EXERCISE Extract the square roots of : 82 . annex a cipher.10.1 are Ex.0961 are '. we must Thus the groups 1'67'24. 12.688 4 45 2 70 2 25 508 4064 6168 41)600 41344 2256 222.1T6 221. Find the square root of 6/. or by transforming the common fraction into a decimal. 3. in .GO'61. The groups of 16724. Roots of common fractions are extracted either by divid ing the root of the numerator by the root of the denominator.70 6.
34.22.53. 33. 36. T\. 1. 31.01. 35. Find the side of a square whose area equals 96 square yards.58 square 38.EVOLUTION Find 177 to three decimal places the square roots of the follow ing numbers: 29. J. feet. 32. TT Find the radius of a (Area of a circle circle 1 equals irR . 13. Find the side of a square whose area equals 50. . JT . 37.4 square when R = radius and 11. Find the mean proportional between 2 and . 39. = 3. 1. feet. 30.) 40. 5. whose area equals 48.1410.
Dividing. Transposing. quadratic equation is one which contains both the square and the first power of the unknown A quantity. ax 2 + bx + c = Q. is A quadratic equation. or affected. 1. x f 12 = the absolute term PUKE QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 227. x = + 2 or x =2. is 12. 2 ic = a.. Extracting the square root of each member. Ex. is frequently written x 13( 2)2 = 7(  19 = 33 . an integral rational equation that contains the square of 4x the unknown number. but no higher power e. quadratic equation contains only the square of the axt unknown quantity. 2. 6 y2 = 17. x 2 7. or incomplete. A pure. 178 . Solve 13 x2 19 etc. The 7 equation. This answer Check. = 4. . = 7^ + 5.g.CHAPTER XV QUADRATIC EQUATIONS INVOLVING ONE UNKNOWN QUANTITY 223. 224. + bx f c r= is a complete quadratic ax 2 = m is a pure quadratic equation. 2)* + 5 = 33. 6#2 = x* 24. absolute term of an equation is the terra which / does not contain any In 4 x 2 unknown quantities. 226. A pure quadratic is solved by reducing it to the form and extracting the square root of both members. or equation of the second degree. 225. complete.
+ 4 ax = ax + 4 a 2 + x2 f 2 x2 = 8 a 2 4 a2 x2 = x = V 4 a2 x= x = . (a? 9.QUADRATIC EQUATIONS Ex. Dividing by Extracting the square root. 16^393 = 7. 4. 10. : 83 2. s3 ? + oj x +3 = 4. EXERCISE Solve the following equations 1. 6(2)=10(ajl). 19 + 9 = 5500. 4 ax. 7.25. Solve 179 . o. 0^ + 1 = 1. ax Transposing and combining. 3. 8. 7 = 162. 2 2 a. ' =: y? b* b . . 2 4fc 5' 18. 2.2.=g x2 4 a2 Clearing of fractions. . 15^5 = 6. 5. or Therefore.
228. and the sum The sides of two square fields are as 3 : 5. If s = 4 Trr ' 2 . The sides of two square fields are as 7 2.180 on __!_:L ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA a. 26. opposite the right angle is called the hypotenuse (c in the diagram). is 5(5. Find the side of each field.) of their squares 5. 27. Find is the number. 4. Three numbers are to each other as 1 Find the numbers. EXERCISE 1. A right triangle is a triangle.b 2 If s If =c . solve for r. If 2 f 2 b* = 4w 2 f c sol ve for m. its area contains =a 2 f b2 . solve for v. ' 4. 25. If the hypotenuse whose angles a units of length. and the two other sides respectively c 2 contains c a and b units. 22 a. 2. then Since such a triangle tangle. 2 . 3. 24. find a in terms of 6 . and they con tain together 30G square feet. is one of _____ b The side right angle. . and their product : 150. solve for d. If a 2 4. If 22 = ~^. 2a f 1 23. If G=m m g . 108. 9 & { c# a x +a and c. Find the numbers. 2 : 3. = a 2 2 (' 2 solve for solve for = Trr . 28. . r. : 6. may be considered one half of a rec square units. 2 . Find the side of each field. 84 is Find a positive number which equal to its reciprocal ( 144). The two numbers (See is 2 : 3. 29. and the first exceeds the second by 405 square yards. A number multiplied by ratio of its fifth part equals 45.
The following ex ample illustrates the method or of solving a complete quadratic equation by completing the square. Find the unknown sides and the area. Two circles together contain : 3850 square feet. its surface (Assume ir = 2 . and the third side is 15 inches. . passes in t seconds 2 over a space s yt Assuming g 32 feet.) COMPLETE QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 229.QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 7. Solve Transposing. The hypotenuse of a right triangle is 2. the formula = Trr whose radius equals r is found by Find the radius of circle whose area S equals (a) 154 square inches. of a right triangle Find these sides. is and the other two sides are equal. Find the sides. Find these 10. Find the radii. radii are as 3 14. The area : sides are as 3 4. Method of completing the square. A body falling from a state of rest. and the two smaller 11. J = 12.7 x f 10 = 0. 7r (Assume and their = 2 7 2 . add () Hence 2 .) 13. To find this term. The area $ /S of a circle 2 . . 9. in how many seconds will a body fall (a) G4 feet. we have of or m = . 181 The hypotenuse of a right triangle : is 35 inches. and the other two sides are as 3 4.2 7 . 8. x* 7 x= 10. 24. 2m. the radius of a sphere whose surface equals If the radius of a sphere is r. make x2 Evidently 7 takes the place 7x a complete square to to which corresponds m 2 . member can be made a complete square by adding 7 x with another term. 8 = 4 wr2 Find 440 square yards. 4. sides. . (b) 100 feet? = . (b) 44 square feet. The hypotenuse of a right triangle is to one side as 13:12. let us compare x 2 The left the perfect square x2 2 mx f m to 2 .
Simplifying. 230. = x\ = 2. 2 ax f 2 o) s a . 2 a* a. a.  x Q) 2 to each Completing the square (i. Ex. 7 5 + 10 = 0. Transposing. Hence to solve a complete quadratic : Reduce the equation to the form x*\px==q. Complete the square by adding the square of one half the coefficient of x.e.. . or J. J.a. Extracting square roots. = . a Clearing of fractions. 80^69^2 = 9 x2 sc Transposing. 2  . 22 7 2 + 10 =0. Extract the square root and solve the equation of the first degree thus formed.2. = \ # = ff.  \. Transposing. Therefore. or x = 2. Hence Therefore Check. (*~8) a = at . Or (*i) x Extracting square roots. adding member). 62 x 5 = f.2 a2 . Uniting.1. Ex. 15 x 2 Dividing by 9.x(l = .182 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 2 Adding ( J) to each member. = 6. x x2 x x2 + 2 a2 x f a = 2 ax.
QUADRATIC EQUATIONS Completing the square. 183 Simplifying.4 ~ a2 Transposing. x = l+ * a = 1 +2 <* V IT * Therefore * Vl < EXERCISE 85 . Extracting square root. x .1+2?= "*"   Vl .
=0. any quadratic equation may be obtained by 6. 2x 3 4. x la 48. = 12. Solving this equation we obtain by the method of the preceding 2a The roots of substituting the values of a. ao.c = 0. o^ or } 3 ax == 4 a9 7 wr . 231. .184 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 45 46. 49. Solution by formula. \bx\. =8 r/io?. 2 Every quadratic equation can be reduced to the general form. article. and c in the general answer.
7^ + 9 x 90.  P + VQ^+T? ^4^ EXERCISE Solve by the above formula 1. 10. c p. Solve 2 j>o? p*x x px* a 2 p. ?i 2 . 20. 2or } 5o. 6^+5^ 56. 9. 6. 3 x 11 + 10 = 0. 7. 5 x2 Transposing. 1. 15. 185 Solve 5 x2 = 26 x5. 13. Hence Therefore =p 1 t b = (p 2 + 1). 2 a? = 44 x . = 64120?. = 12 .4 4 5 .. 4. 6 Ex. 17. 16. 26. 12. 21. 3. b =  + 20 == = 0.25 x. 2 . 2 o. 8. 19. 14. a. 2# 11 + 15 = 0. c = 5. 20 x Hence Therefore a = 5. 18. 6. TIO.15 x9 25x* = 21 . Reducing to general form. 6m = 7 m + 12 = 64 7 x2 2 2 a.  . 6 . 6 10 2024 =6or 10 l. : 86 + 2 = 0.QUADRATIC EQUATIONS Ex. 2 a. 11. V^tT)* . 2. 2.
a? 28  7al=7s be required to solve the 232. 26. Transposing. Bx 1 1. Clearing for fractions. 233. orz roots. =7 x se 2 2 + 16 x. 24. all or. = 14. Therefore the equation will be satisfied 5x _. x2 = 1 . 23. transposing terms to one member. we x obtain the roots =^ or x = 5. Solution by factoring. Solve a*= 7a? + 15x 2 2* . x(x <2 . 5) = 0. or # 5 is zero. member can be Ex. = 0. Let it e(l uation: 5^ + 5=26*. 0. any degree. 25. factors Now. = 0. 5 = 0. and 6. = 0.x. 1.2. 2S3x 1 2 . (5 a? !)(.5) =0.4) = . if either of the uct is zero. .186 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA to Find the roots of the following equations places : two decimal 22. 3x?+x = 7.5 Solving (1) and (2). Eesolving into factors. Hence the equation has three + 3) (x 2xf3=0. Evidently this method can be applied to equations of if one member of the equation is zero and the other factored. }. the prodif x has (1) (2) such a value that either or a?. Factoring. a=:i^^. ar>8o. 27 x== 42a. 2a^7x sc(2 16rc Therefore a = 0.
+ 100. 5. 187 Solve x? 3x x*(x 2 4x + 12 = 0. O roots are 2. 3# y 5 = 0.3)(x + 3 3. : 87 = 0.3 =5 or = 2 3 obtained from the 5 (x or x equation x (x = is also a root.  3) 2 4 (x = 0. + 8=s: 7. + 10 a = 24. 4or + 18a f 8a. 2.g. is 5) = 0. 6.(. x2 f 2 x . 3. let it be required to solve If or x we divide both = 2. a* 10a=24. 2o3 f9a. 3^ 25^ + 28 = 0. 4. a?10a=:24. In order If both to obtain all roots of the original equation. 3 or 2 a. Or Hence the 234. a?. 2. we 9 obtain x 4. for a: . members of an equation are divided by an involving the unknown quantity. such a common divisor must be made equal to zero. + 9 f 20 x = 0. 3^ = 0(1106). Ex. aj( 15.e. (aj4)(a. E. members by x But evidently the value x 3 3. ar'Sa^ 12. + 6)=0. 3) = 0. 4)(z3) = 0. 3) Factoring. 7. } 2 2 (5 . the resulting expression equation contains fewer roots than the original one.:=0.6)) = 0. 16. 0^ + 21 = 10 10. 8. 5 = 0. 0(02) = 7(02). 14. (*2)(x + 2)(a3)=0. 3. 12. Form an equation whose roots are 4 and 6. 13. evidently (x Or 4)(x .24 = 0.QUADRATIC EQUATIONS Ex. Therefore x =3 = 2. 0^ ar> 11. EXERCISE Solve by factoring 6 2.= 24. The equation I. 9. and the equation thus formed be solved.
188 17. 23. w(w x2 2 w)=6tt. uz + u 21. 50. (2a? 3) (a 24. a 2 =(x a)b. 19. + 2)= (y( j_ ? (+ 3)(a?+2). '3a!J  . 25. 27. 18. 2. 22. f ELEMENTS OF ALGEKRA tt(3tt + 7tt)=6tt. 20. ara + ft + c*. (a + 1) (a.3) = (s + l) (3 a). or 3 a 2 2 a? 26.
: 3. Find the number. 2. The 11. 58. 52. EXERCISE 1.2. 0.3. 5. 1. PROBLEMS INVOLVING QUADRATICS in general two answers. 4. number by 10. Find two numbers whose difference is 40. 3. of their reciprocals is 4.QUADRATIC EQUATIONS Form 51. 6. 7. 54. 88 its reciprocal A number increased by three times equals 6J. Find a number which exceeds its square by is . is Find two numbers whose product 288. and the difference Find the numbers. 55. and equals 190 square inches. 189 the equations whose roots are 53. and consequently many prob 235. Find the sides. 5. 57. 2. The sum of the squares of two consecutive numbers 85. Problems involving quadratics have lems of this type have only one solution. What are the numbers of ? is The product two consecutive numbers 210.9. The difference of . Find the number.3. but frequently the conditions of the problem exclude negative or fractional answers. area A a perimeter of 380 rectangular field has an area of 8400 square feet and Find the dimensions of the field. 8. 2. Find the numbers. and whose product 9. Twentynine times a number exceeds the square of the 190. G. Divide CO into two parts whose product is 875.0. 56. 2. 3. two numbers is 4. its sides of a rectangle differ by 9 inches.3. feet. . 1. 2. and whose sum is is 36.1.0. 2.
19. ABCD. A man bought a certain number of apples for $ 2. he had paid 2 ^ more for each apple. of a rectangle is to the length of the recthe area of the figure is 96 square inches.10. and the line BD joining two opposite vertices (called "diagonal") feet. and the slower reaches its destination one day before the other. At what rates do the steamers travel ? 18. c equals 221 Find AB and AD. and Find the sides of the rectangle. What did he pay for each apple ? A man bought a certain number of horses for $1200. If he each horse ? . Find the rate of the train.190 12. as the 16. The diagonal : tangle as 5 4. a distance One steamer travels half a mile faster than the two hours less on the journey. Two vessels. watch for $ 24. Two steamers and is of 420 miles. If a train had traveled 10 miles an hour faster. 14. watch cost sold a watch for $ 21. and gained as many per Find the cost of the horse. he would have received 12 apples less for the same money. one of which sails two miles per hour faster than the other. sold a horse for $144. What did he pay for 21. A man A man sold a as the watch cost dollars. and lost as many per cent Find the cost of the watch. vessel sail ? How many miles per hour did the faster If 20. ply between the same two ports. had paid $ 20 less for each horse. 13. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA The length 1 B AB of a rectangle. and lost as many per cent Find the cost of the watch. 15. other. exceeds its widtK AD by 119 feet. start together on voyages of 1152 and 720 miles respectively. he would have received two horses more for the same money. 17. A man cent as the horse cost dollars. dollars. . it would have needed two hours less to travel 120 miles.
of the area of the basin.I) 4(aj*l) 2 = 9. ^3^ = 7. the two men can do it in 3 days. Ex. Find TT r (Area of a circle . or x = \/l = 1. 27. and the area of the path the radius of the basin. and working together. is surrounded by a walk of uniform width. Equations in the quadratic form can be solved by the methods used for quadratics. By formula. (tf. A rectangular A circular basin is surrounded is  by a path 5 feet wide. =9 Therefore x = \/8 = 2. The number of eggs which can be bought for $ 1 is equal to the number of cents which 4 eggs cost. and the unknown factor of one of these terms is the square of the unknown factor of the other. . EQUATIONS IN THE QUADRATIC FORM An equation is said to be in the quadratic form if it contains only two unknown terms. 23 inches long. contains B 78 square inches. Find and CB. How many eggs can be bought for $ 1 ? 236. how wide is the walk ? 23. a point taken.QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 22. In how many days can B do the work ? = 26. 24. as 0. constructed with and CB as sides. 1. A needs 8 days more than B to do a certain piece of work. Solve ^9^ + 8 = ** 0. so that the rectangle. B AB AB 2 191 grass plot. is On the prolongation of a line AC.) 25. 237. 30 feet long and 20 feet wide. If the area of the walk is equal to the area of the plot. Find the side of an equilateral triangle whose altitude equals 3 inches.
aV+9o 4 =0. 2 (^Z)  "3 14. 16. 7. = 1. (a: +aj) 18(x2 +a. 19. Ex. >. 4. 10. a 21or=100. 2 h9:=0. a4 5o. 4 8 = 2 a* 2.)+72=0. 4 6. a? 15 1=2*. 12. ^^ ~ 28 (a? ^ 2:=Q> . T 17. = 13. a.2 =4. 3 a4 44s + 121=0. 436 3. Solving. 4 : 89 10a. 4 2 4 37aj 2 = 9. or y = 8. 2 16 a^40 11. stitute ELEMENTS OF ALGEBEA In more complex examples it is advantageous to sub a letter for an expression involving a?.T 2 2 .192 238. Hence Le. EXERCISE Solve the following equations 1. 6. y8)=0. Let x + 15 = J < Then or or rf 15 = 0. 9. 8. 2. 18. 4 a.
the roots are equal. the roots are imaginary. are denoted __ Tl If the roots of the equation ax2 4. the roots are real. Ifb 2 Jfb 2 is zero. negative. Relations between roots and coefficients. If b Ifb* 2 If b Iflr 4 ac is is is 4c 4 ac a positive or equal to zero. and unequal. Determine the character of the roots of the equation 4 x2 .QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 193 CHARACTER OF THE ROOTS 239. c the roots are real.2) 2 4 3 (. a perfect square. 3. 1.Vfr 2 4 ac T* b Vi . it 2a follows 2 : 2. The quadratic equation oa/* 2 f bx f c = has two roots. and equal.bx 4. the roots are rational.12 x + 9 = 0. Ex. kac 4 ac is 'not a perfect square. b 4. Hence the roots are real. The expression b 2 the equation ay? 4.f> = 0. rational. 241. 2 4 ac 2a Hence / 1 4r2 = a Or . Determine the character of the roots of the equation 3 a 2 .2 z .c 4 ac is called the discriminant of = 0. 2. ( 2a Hence 1. Since ( 12) 2 4 4 9 = 0. rational. . is 4ac not zero. the roots are irrational.bx 4 by ' i\ and r2 then . the roots are unequal. The discriminant =(. 240.5) = 04. Ex.
4. 2x* + 6x + 3 = 0. 5a 26a? + 5 = 0. x2 !i>x + 2 z2 2 16. o.19 # 20. If the (a) coefficient ofx 2 in a quadratic equation is is unity. + 2a15 = 0. 10 x = 25 x + 1. + 18 2 8. 12. 9a3 = 0. or + 10 + 4520 = 0. 2 : 3. = 0. = 5x. + 2a. = 0. 14. 3a.2 + 4a: + 240 = 0. 5aj 9. 2. 23. : a 2 . f 2 E. 15. 60 2 = 0. 12~x = x 2 . 6. 2a 4z5 = 0. 2 a. EXERCISE 89 a Determine without solution the character of the roots of the following equations 1. their product isf. ^12. + 12 2  .g.194 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 2 a? these results If the given equation is written in the form may be expressed as follows : x +a += a 0. ar + ^ + 2^2 = 0. The sum of the roots equal is to the coefficient of x with the sign changed.. 24. 9x2 ~ the In each of the following equations determine by inspection sum and the product of the roots: 13. 5oj aj + l = 0. lla. Sa^ + 2 Ooj 2 Solve the following equations and check the answers by forming the sum and the product of the roots 19. x2 7 10. 17. = 0. x2 4 x 0^ or j + 205 = 0. the sain of the roots of 4 x 5 x 3 =: is j. 22. tfmx+p^Q. 18. n a?3 ' ~ == l 5. = Q. (b) The product of the roots equal to theubsolute term. 21. 2 7.
provided w > n. while the second of the first. very important that all exponents should be governed by the same laws. however. such as 2*. II. that a an = a m+n . = a"" < . the direct consequence of the defiand third are consequences FRACTIONAL AND NEGATIVE EXPONENTS 243. > m therefore. The following four fundamental laws for positive integral exponents have been developed in preceding chapters : I. The first of these laws is nition of power.CHAPTER XVI THE THEORY OF EXPONENTS 242." means "is greater than" 195 similarly means "is . a m a" = a m+t1 . we may choose for such symbols any definition that is con venient for other work. ~ a m f. We assume. hence. 244. It is. for all values 1 of m and n.a" = a m n mn . Then the law of involution. (ab) . (a m ) w . must be *The symbol smaller than. instead of giving a formal definition of fractional and negative exponents. no Fractional and negative exponents. and . we let these quantities be what they must be if the exponent law of multiplication is generally true.* III. 4~ 3 have meaning according to the original definition of power. m IV. (a ) s=a m = aw bm a .
a . n 2 a. Assuming these two 8*. To find the meaning of a fractional exponent. 23. we try to discover the let the meaning of In every case we unknown quantity and apply to both members of the equation that operation which makes the negative. or zero exponent equal x. 28. 24. Hence Or Therefore Similarly. (xy$. a?*. since the raising to a positive integral power is only a repeated multiplication. disappear.  we find a? Hence we define a* to be the qth root of of.196 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA true for positive integral values of n. a\ 26. etc. as. m$. 245. fractional. Let x is The operation which makes the fractional exponent disappear evidently the raising of both members to the third power. e.g. laws. at. . 31. '&M A 27. 25. 29. 0?=^. ml. a*. (bed)*. 30. = a. Write the following expressions as radicals : 22. 4~ . ^=(a^) 3* 3 . 3*.
the base is zero. 42. e. 40. Let a = a. 5L is indeterminate Indeterminate. 49. = 2. 44. Solve the following equations 39.THE THEORY OF EXPONENTS Express with fractional exponents 32. : 197 33. a . : 4* + 9* + 16* + 25* + 36*. To find the meaning of zero exponent. a* * = 3.g. 46. is The operation which makes the zero exponent disappear 2 evidently a multiplication by any power of a. 38. 3* = 27. \fi?. 27* = 3. is Therefore the zero power of any number NOTE. ty?. 64* + 9* + 16* + (32)*. 246. 5 a* = 10. 37. If.g. 45. a * a2 Or a=l. 48. 35. e. Vo5 .\/n. = 49. \/xy \/m. 7z* Find the values of 47. hence is . : 2' 4* = 4. 43. = 2. equal to unity. a. however. v'mT 36. v/o&cT 34. 50. 41.
g. cr n. each is The fact that a if = we It loses its singularity 1 sometimes appears peculiar to beginners. or the exponent. consider the following equations. by changing the sign of NOTE. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA To find the meaning of a negative exponent. Or a"# = l. Factors may be transferred from the numerator to the denominator of a fraction. an x = a. .198 247. Let x= or". Multiplying both members by a". a8 a 2 = 1 1 . a a a = = a a a a1 1 a. 248.2 = a2 . vice versa. e. etc. in which obtained from the preceding one by dividing both members by a.
. : mi m~^. Write with radical signs and positive exponents 35. 22. ^?2 y' 34. 2 . 7~ l a 2b 2 . 1 L ?>i""i 3 cci . . 6 or 2 ^^ ^. 3 a? * 42. a. 25. ^L. a^ 41. m . rfS. f (2w)~i 1 . ""^T"*' Write without denominators 29. 44. 36. 40. 3 a."* 38. * 24. 37. : * 31 l> ' <W* arV 8 30. 39. c 32. 2 .THE THEORY OF EXPONENTS EXERCISE Find the values of: 91 199 Express with positive exponents 21. 66 45. : or 5 . 2m~i 43. 27.
= . z 5or*=10. = l. 250.9*. 48.008)* + A. 17' 2 51.26)* 1 (I) 2 . 59.6). It can be demonstrated that the last three laws for any exponents are consequences of the first law. 10* Find the values 56. 57. ar = i. = 5. 55. 54. . 1. 49. 52. of: 3ll4~* 60. Examples relating to roots can be reduced to examples con taining fractional exponents. z* = 1.1.001. It then follows that: Fractional and negative exponents may be treated by the same methods as positive integral exponents. 58. 2 =f 3* = f x~ l 50.343)* + (. = ^. (a*&~*)* + (aVM = a*&~* + V ' = '*&* Ex 2 . and we shall hence assume that all four laws are generally true. 10* 5* = . + 1~* f 21 . 47.(. 61.200 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA : Solve the equations 46. Ex. (81)* + (3f)*(5 TV)*3249 + 16 * .81 f (a . 53. + A_. (. 5  75 USE OF NEGATIVE AND FRACTIONAL EXPONENTS 249.
. 27  28. / 7fv 7. 16. NOTE. .$*. 14. 17.7i. 3 a.5. (d) If required. __ 29 /m '=V a9 ia. 4 x^. 3sVS. Negative exponents should not be removed until all operations of multiplication^ division. are performed. a.$". &.. V5. 10.4 . 72 .&. 7~ 5 27  .THE THEORY OF EXPONENTS 251. 7. 6a. 7*.7W. EXERCISE Simplify : 92 2. ' 11. 6. 4 5. 13. S'sS8. Remove the negative exponents. 23. 7~ 6 .^/5^5. 26.4 a8 .&. 16.3 aj" a. 18. 201 Expressions containing radicals should be simplified as : follows (a) (6) (c) Write all radical signs as fractional exponents. 8 ' 9. 3. etc. 25 26  2~ 8 2~ 9 22.5a. remove the fractional exponents. 79 . Perform the operation indicated.4 2 a? 2 ar 1 .6 *' 6 *25. .7*. 95 ^9i 5**. #* a. 14an (4**(Va) 4 . OA 20. 12. 6 *.
6 35. 1. The 252. Arrange in descending powers of Check. If powers of a?. we wish to arrange terms according to descending we have to remember that. the term which does not contain x may be considered as a term containing #.202 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 32. 34. V ra 4/ 3 \/m 33. 40. lix = 2xl =+1 Ex.2 d . Divide by ^ 2a 3 qfo 4. powers of x arranged are : Ex. 1 Multiply 3 or +x 5 by 2 x x. 1. 2.
THE THEORY OF EXPONENTS
EXERCISE
93
203
Perform the operations indicated:
2.
3.
4. 5. 6.
(7r8Vr + r>)(9 Vr7). 2  1 ). (a + a f 1) (a~ + a
2 2 2
7.
8. 9.
10.
11.
(4
a 3
 24 a  9  3 a~ )
1
2
r
1
(a"
 3).
12.
13.
14.
+ + 47i) + 35V5?)*(5Vp + l). VS" ^ ( Vo Vft) H (a~ f 7 a ^a~ + 1C a*b~  33 a 6~ + 14 a(3 a _&)*. (^? + ^/^ + */fr^ 15. 16. (a6 + 2V6c c)^(Va+V6 Vc). 17. y^TTOa; f 13  12 * + 4 aF*.
(13Vp
5
l
(Va^f aV^&Va
l
3
)
3
2
2
^>~
3
2
1
1
)
(
1
18. 19.
Vor
2
2 x h or
2
2 or
1
f
3.
V25 #
 2()"ar r+ 34  12 x f 9 x*.
20.
^^
l
21. 22.
23. 24.
25.
+2
a?
8
(l+4^flO^ + 20oTf 25^T f24\/i?f 16
(1+V2)V2. (2+V2)(V22). (5+V3)(52V3).
26. 27.
)*.
(13VS)(2 + V5).
(VU  V2)(Vn~3V2)
204
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
:
Find by inspection
28.
29.
(x*
+ 3)(tf*f 2).
35.
36.
8 (a;*
yi)
.
a*
+ 3l5.
V2
(5*2*
2
.
30.
31.
32.
38. 39.
(3^
(#* ^
(fl
2*)
f
.
33. 34.
5) (x*
5).
40.
(m
n)
f
(m*
11
f
n 5 ).
CHAPTER XVII
RADICALS
253.
A
radical is the root of
a quantity, indicated by a
radical sign.
254.
The
radical is rational, if the root can be extracted
exactly; irrational, if the root cannot be exactly obtained. Irrational quantities are frequently called surds.
^9
4^
\/2,
(*
+ V) *
are radicals.
= 2, V(a + 6) 2 are rational.
V4af
b are irrational.
255.
root.
The
order of a surd
is
indicated by the index of the
va
\/2
/
.
is
is is
of the second order, or quadratic. of the third order, or cubic. of the fourth order, or biquadratic.
Vc
256. A mixed surd is the product of a rational factor and a surd factor; as 3Va, a;V3. The rational factor of a mixed surd is called the coefficient of the surd.
An
257.
factor.
entire surd is
one whose coefficient
is
unity; as
Va,
Similar surds are surds
3v/2 and 6
which contain the same irrational
are similar.
av^
3V2 and
3 V8 are dissimilar.
206
206
258.
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
Conventional restriction of the signs of roots.
All even roots
e.g.
may
be positive or negative,
VI = + 2
or
2.
Hence
6. which results in four values, viz. 14, 6, To avoid 14, or this ambiguity, it is customary in elementary algebra to restrict
the sign of a root to the prefixed sign.
Thus
5 V4 4 2 V4
= 7 VI = 14.
If the object of an example, however, is merely an evolution, the complete answer is usually given thus
;
=
(oj 2).
259.
Since radicals can be written as powers with fractional
exponents, all examines relating to radicals
may
be solved by the
methods employed for fractional exponents.
Thus, to find the nth root of a product ab we have
T
1
1
(a6)"==a"6"
I.e.
(242).
to extract the root of a product, multiply the roots of the
factors.
TRANSFORMATION OF RADICALS
260.
Simplification of surds.
A radical is simplified when the
expression under the radical sign is integral, and contains no factor whose power is equal to the index.
Ex.
1.
Simplify
= \/25~a~ Vb = 6 a*VS.
4
Ex.
2.
Simplify
v/16.
J/lB^^.
4/2
= 2^.
RADICALS
.
207
261 When the quantity under the radical sign is a fraction, we multiply both numerator and denominator by such a quantity as will make the denominator a perfect power of the same
degree as the surd.
Ex.
3.
Simplify V.
Ex.
4.
Simplify
EXERCISE
94
208
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
/s
37.
39.
j
*x+y
38.
n
\ 2m
262.
An
same manner
imaginary surd can be simplified in precisely the as a real surd thus,
;
42.
V16a
:
,
2
.
44.
2\
Simplify and find to three decimal places the numerical
values of
47.
48.
VJ.*
49.
50.
Vf.
VJ.
VA
263.
Reduction of a surd to an entire surd.
Ex.
Express 4 a V& as an entire surd.
EXERCISE
Express as entire surds
1.
:
95
4V5.
3.
2\/lL
5.
6.
7.
2.
3V7.
4.
3^5.
a VS.
8.
* See table of square roots on page 164.
RADICALS
264. Transformation of surds to surds of different order.
209
Ex.
1.
Transform \/uW into a surd of the 20th order.
Ex.
2.
Transform
\/2,
V3, and
\/5 into surds of the
same
lowest order.
V2 = 2* = a* = '#64. ^ = 8* = 3A= ^gi. ^5 = 6* = 6* =^125.
1
Ex.
3.
Reduce the order of the surd tyaP.
Exponent and index bear the same relation as numerator and denominator of a fraction ; and hence both may be multiplied by
same number, or both divided by the same number, without changing the value of the radical.
the
EXERCISE
Reduce
1.
96
:
to surds of the 6th order
2.
Va?.
fymn.
3.
\/ v
4.
v'c?.
5.
\
z
\
^3
6.
mn.
Reduce
7.
8.
to surds of the 12th order
9.
:
V2~a.
\/a4 6 2c.
\/3ax.
11.
12.
\/oP6.
13.
14.
a.
^v/mV
10.
\/5a5V.
Express as surds of lowest order with integral exponents and indices
:
15.
v/o
5
.
16.
\/oW.
17.
v/IaT .
2
18.
\/
20.
A/^
22.
VSlmV.
24.
^2. ^2. 38. 3  s/ / 3ft 2  3 ^y Ex. 5V2. (i.2 V50. </2. ^3. 31. v/4. V2.e. ^6.210 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA : Express as surds of the same lowest order 25. 3. 2\ 3*. Ex. </3. ADDITION AND SUBTRACTION OF RADICALS 265.2. 27. ^2. Simplify V~ . + . if dissimilar. Simplify V + 3 VlS. v/3. VS. V3. 34. A/3. Ex. 30. reduce them to their simplest add them like similar add their coefficients) . ^30. s!/3. terms their If the resulting surds are similar. ^126. signs. \/7. 36. V2. v/3. I VJ + 3VT8 . 32. ^5. ^4. A/2. V3.10 V2 =  V2. 33. in order of magnitude : \/7. 29. connect them by proper 1. 37. \/5. subtract surds. 3: \/=^8 v~ 8ft 2 s/a. ^/IT. To add or form. Arrange 35. v^S.3\ . 39. V2. ^7. Simplify/a35 ~ o . ^4. V5. 40. </20.2 V50 = V2 + 9 V2 . 28. 4^/4. 26.
V175V28+V634V7.J a6 V4 aft. 6. 10.3V20 + 6V5. 13. VT2 + 2V27 + 3V759V48. 8VT8J2V32 7. 4V805V45. 12. 8. VJ+V8V1 + V50. 11. V45c3 3 abv'ab V80~c~3 f V5a c + c 2 + 3 aVo^ 3 Va^ . 9. 2V87Vl8f5V72V50. 6. . 14.RADICALS EXERCISE 97 : 211 Simplify the following expressions 2. 4. + 3V835V2. V18+V32VT28+V2. 3.
98 ab ^" fab 1 " . . Multiply 3\/25^ by 5\/50Y 3v / 2 . the Surds of the same order are multiplied by multiplying product of the coefficients by the product of the irrational factors.2v/6 + IPV6 105. 5 4/6072 = 16^6272. and then multiplied.100 = f 44 VS6 6 + 44\/36. 1. 26^ . for a~\/x b~\/y ab^/xy.6V35 106 460V35100 . Dissimilar surds are reduced to surds of the same order.fab V \~\ jab FW MULTIPLICATION QEJRABIQALS 266. . Ex. 3. 2.212 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA .2 VS by 3 Vf + 10 VB. 6*. 23. Multiply 5 V7 8\/7 6\/7. Multiply V2 by 3\/l. y* = Ex. Ex.
. V2 V50. 10. (3 20. (2V3) 8 . 14. aVa. V2aV8^. 9. (V2+V3+V4)V3.RADICALS EXERCISE 1. 4. 39. 40. 3.^/2. (VmVn)(Vm+Vn> 33. V5 Va VaV?/ V Vr 16.VSS. 25. 21. \/3 \^). + VB)(2V5). 27. 6. Vll. V20 V30. 213 98 11. 15. fWa 17. (VmVn) (V3V2) 8 . 34. 13. 2. 8. v/4. 41. 37. 7. ( Vm \ 1 Vm) (Vmf 1 6(Vaf Va { Vm). 18. (5V58V2)(5V5 + 8V2). 40 10 30. 12. (Va Va 36. v/18 v"3. 2 . V42. (6V23V3)(6V23V3). 38. (V6 + 1) 1 . 19. V3 Vl2. a?. V3 V6. VlO V15. VTO. (5V22V3CVS)V3. 6 V4 5. 6. 28 .
E. 51. 44. 53.214 42. 49. is 1 2. a fraction. 268. 46. Va v/a. v/a  DIVISION OF RADICALS 267.V5) ( V3 + 2 VS). 47. all monomial surds may be divided by method. ELEMENTS OF ALGEHRA (3V55V3) S . Monomial surdn of the same order may be divided by multiplying the quotient of the coefficients by the quotient of the surd factors.y. it more convenient to multiply dividend and divisor by a factor which makes the divisor rational. . (5V2+V10)(2V51). the quotient of the surds is If. 43. Ex. 48. (3V52V3)(2V3V3). a VS f a?Vy = \/  x*y this Since surds of different orders can be reduced to surds of the same order. (5V72V2)(2VT7V2). V3 . 60. (3V32Vo)(2V3+V5). Ex. (2 45. (V50f 3Vl2)4V2== however. 52.
Evidently. e.g. Divide 4 v^a by is rationalizing factor evidently \/Tb hence. . Hence in arithmetical work it is always best to rationalize the denominators before dividing. Divide VII by v7.RADICALS This method. arithTo find. by V7.57735.73205 we simplify JLV^l V3 *> ^> division Either quotient equals . VTL_Vll ' ~~" \/7_V77 . + 4\/5 _ 12v 3 + 4\/5 V8 V8 V2 V2 269..73205. Divide 12 V5 + 4V5 by V. the by 3 is much easier to perform than the division by 1. To show that expressions with rational denominators are simpler than those with irrational denominators. . 3. is illustrated by Ex. we have to multiply In order to make the divisor (V?) rational. however. /~ } Ex. the rationalizing factor x ' g \/2. . 4\/3~a' 36 Ex. is Since \/8 12 Vil = 2 V*2. we have V3 But if 1.by the usual arithmetical method. called rationalizing the the following examples : 215 divisor. 1. metical problems afford the best illustrations. The 2.
216 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 99 Simplify : 1. multiply numerator and denominator by the conjugate surd of the denominator. i. find to four decimal places the numerical values of: 19. To rationalize the denominator of a fraction whose denom inator is a binomial quadratic surd.4142. 271. Va + Vb and Va Vb are conjugate surds. 272. The product of two conjugate binomial surds is rational . V8 12. A. . 14. 2V5 ' 2 V3 o vfi* ' ^ Va 12.2361. V3 = 1. and Given V2 = 1. 7. V5 = 2. A. 23 . if 4=V50 Two binomial quadratic surds are said to be conjugate. .7320. Vll 212*. V2 22 . 21. V8 JL. V8?^ V7 xy T 13 11 n V7 ~ VH 5 2.. V3 24 . 20. V5 270. ^/H . V48 25. they differ only in the sign which connects their terms. VffV?. Vn V7 ' * 8.
.2. V82 2V3 1fVS . Ex. 3.= 18. Ex. 1. s Simplify a.1 xVtf a.07105 = 7 7 2V21 2V21 2V2 + 1 EXERCISE Eationalize the denominators of : 100 . . Find the numerical value of : V2 + 2 2V21 e . 217 Simplify 2V3V2 ' V3V2 ~ = 4 + V5.Vs2 .RADICALS Ex. V2+2 _ V2+2 2\/2+l_6 + 6\/2.vffi^T _ .
it can easily be shown that VcT = ( V) w Hence 3 V25~ = ( V25) 3 . ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 13 ~3 V51 14 A 16. 6V7. . v 2V3 28. find to _!_. V52 17 1Va? Vg+v/2 5V77V5 ' V3V2 15. By the use of fractional exponents . V21 = 25 . 19. : and V5 = 2. V3 + 1 1+V5 _ 3V5 ' V5+2 31. J?_. 2V5V18 mVm Va 22.W3. Given V2 1. INVOLUTION AND EVOLUTION OF RADICALS 273.4142. Vo1 26. four places of decimals 23 .7320. 27.2361. V32* to 1 Find the third proportional + V2 and 3 f 2V2.218 6 .5 3 = 125. V5V7 18> ^SVg. = V3 = 1. 24.
v8f 2\/15. viz. : 101 (3Vmw) 2 . 8. V643 . V255 . 5.RADICALS 219 274. it to this form. In other examples of involution and evolution. ( V5 + V3) = 5 + 2 V5~^3 + 3 2 = 8 + 2 VIS. the If. Simplify Ex. 1. According to G3. Find the square of EXERCISE Simplify 1. 3. \/l6*. 3 (V2~u)  7. we had to find problem would be quite simple if presented in the form v52V3 5 + 3. To find the square root of a binomial square by inspection. on the other hand. . 9. 2. SQUARE ROOTS OF QUADRATIC SURDS 275. introduce fractional exponents : Ex. 11. we must find 8 and whose product is 15. To reduce is two numbers whose sum 5 and 3. 2. 4. \/125" . 2 12.
Find V4 + VJ8. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA l.6 A/2 = Vll Find two numbers whose sum numbers are 9 and 2. 2. is Find two numbers whose sum numbers are 10 and 2. ^TT.A/2.2 A/2 = V9A/2 = 3 .6\/2 = ^9 . 2 \/18.220 Ex. and whose product is 18. is 11.6 V2. 12 and whose product is 20. coefficient of the Irrational Write the binomial so that the term is 2. These Ex.2 \/20. Find Vl2 4. +2 Ex. The Hence ^11 . EXERCISE 102 : Extract the square roots of the following binomials . 3. Find Vll .
5. Dividing by Check. are radical equations.RADICALS Simplify the following expressions 18.. i. = xa + 4 x f 4. . much and to transpose the terms so that one radical stands alone in one member. Solve vVf!2a = 2. The value x =2 reduces each . member to 2.V48 4 20. by raising both members equal powers.e. Transposing Vsc2 + f 12 12 Squaring both members. If all radicals do not disappear through the the process must be repeated. 4x x = 2. : 221 Vl32V22. 4. Transposing and uniting. a. VT . * 4 * 2 V6 VT 4. A radical equation is an equation involving an irrational root of an unknown number. they are transto formed into rational equations. r 22. 277. x2 = x f 2. \/x Vx = + 3 = 7. V48 23.1. Before performing the involution. V4 + V12 RADICAL EQUATIONS 276. Ex. 19. 8. Radical equations are rationalized. (2x xrf 1. examples to simplify the equation as it is necessary in most as possible. +=. first involution.
4#f 4 = 9. The results of the solution of radical equations must be substituted in the (jlren equation to determine ivhether the roots are true roots or extraneous roots. Squaring both members. Therefore Check. Dividing by 24. tion usually introduces a new Squaring both members of an equaThus x 2 = 3 has only root. a. member =\/2 + jV2=v^. . 3. = 9 x2 18 x + 8x 2 25xf3 = 0. the first member = V2. tion which has two roots. (x 3) (8 x x = 3. f V/2TT25 = 5 + x 7 = 12. V4afT~l. or = VzMx2 7 x f f 7 x + 9. viz. one root. radical equations require for their solution the squaring of both members.1) = 0. x = J. 24 \/4 # Transpose V4 x Squaring both members. at . . an equaSquaring both members we obtain or 1. 278. It = 3 x . ELEMENTS OF ALGEBltA Solve V4 x + 1 f V4 f 1 . Squaring both members. Therefore CftecAr. f 25 = 12. the roots found are not necessarily roots of the given equation 279. Factoring.3. 5 and The squaring of both members of the given equation introSince duced the new root 1. a socalled extraneous root. they may be extraneous roots. \/4 jc~+~l = 5. Extraneous roots. 2 Vx^ Dividing by 2. Ex. 5. Transposing and uniting. Solve Vx f Squaring both members.222 Ex. Transposing. Vitf 4x f 25 f 25 4x f 1 25. Transposing and uniting. = 12 = 144 24\/4# + 1 = 120. viz. V24~+~l = 0. x + 1 + 2 Vx'2 + 1 x + (. 2. .
. NOTE. Therefore. + 6~ieT~3 . If If x 3 = 3. Hence x = the only root. tlie Jeft both members reduce member = 12T V2. 2 Clearing of fractions. = 3. Transposing.RADICALS Hence x If a. ViTie 4 z2 . equation it is an extraneous root. 2 z 2 4 6 x 4 3 = 144 . for it satisfies the equation .48 x + 2 x2 53 f 141 = 0. and to 5. Solve Vz+T + V2aT+3 = + "b"x f A5_ 15. * Exclude all solutions which do not satisfy the equation or which make the given radicals imaginary. . both members reduce to 5. x root of the preceding equation. Check. is x V. V2x' 8 42x43 Transposing. Factoring. the right member = V2. (x x = 3. viz. = } would be a VaT+T Ex. \ does not satisfy the given.47) = 0. 223 x = 3. 4 VxT~0 = \/8 x f 1. or x *j. Hence there is only one root. If the signs of the roots were not restricted. Squaring.12 .2 r.3) (2 x . Solve the following equations : = G. 4. .
Factoring. Ex. radical equations may be solved by the method of 238. Solve af*. Many 1.224 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 280.33 af* + 32=0. Therefore .
2. 45 14VJB = .f40= 5. 4. . y then x2 . EXERCISE 104* its Solve the following equations: 1. Q . Substituting.35 = 0.i~24 = 0. _ 2 y . = 0. for 6 and 3 are the roots of the may 2 equation Vx' 8x it positive values. some of the roots be extraneous. 3 6. x + Vx a? = 6. Vi 2 8a. 2_8z 440 = 49. members of the equation were squared. while 6 and 3 are extraneous roots. o. 412a* = 16. 5. or y or Therefore 2 y = 5.RADICALS Raising both members to the  power.*2a. But as the square root is restricted to cannot be equal to a negative quantity. = 7. x Since both =9 or 1.8 x + 40 = 36. Ex. + 40 = 6. make the given radicals * Exclude extraneous roots and roots which imaginaries. it will be found that 9 and 1 satisfy the equation. 2. 2Va.8 z40 = 7. x =6 or 3. Let 8 x f 40 .8 x 2 Hence y' 2y = 35. 225 x = 32~* or 1"* = ^ or 1. = 26. 3. This can be seen without substituting. Solve x* 8x x* Adding 40 to both members. + 40 = Vz2 $x + 40 = y.
or 2 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 8a f 40 2 V* 2 8. 17. a.226 11. a^x2 5 2 13. 4 V SB* 4 a.a 440 = 35.f 18 = 24. 20. +3= 6. 6 Va?~3o~ = y? 3 x f . 2. +x . 12. 18. 15. 2 7a?HV^ 3 7a. 14. 16. 19. ar fll x 3x 12 V5l? +1 1^7^30 = 1 ^ + G V2^"^I + 2 = 4.
1.360 = 244." transposing.bx? + ex2 4. R = am* + 6m3 + cm2 + tZw + e. however. could. Ex. assign any value whatsoever and would always obtain the same answer for R. 227 . Hence. Let then find the remainder obtained z = 3. 2. a? R = x* .<fo f e is divided by x Let then 2 4 8 ca: f (to + e (x = w. E = ax + &z + m) Q. to x we # = 2 3. if Q was known.2 + 4.2 + 80 = 12. find the remainder when m.CHAPTER XVIII THE FACTOR THEOREM 281.2) Q .3 x~ + 4 x + 8 is divided by x remainder (which does not contain a?). then or* 2 and there is a 3 x2 f. does not contain a?. substituting Q " and ani^ ^ 2 respectively for Quotient " and Remainder. ax4 4. = 2.2 x 5 by x 3. we can find the value of R by making x = 2. 3 2 Ex. by dividing 3 x* f. Without actual division. " Or. even if Q is unknown. then (x 2)Q 0.4 a. no matter If. f 8 = (a? 2) x Quotient f Remainder. If x* . ^ = 381+2. we make a? what the value of Q. Without actual division.3 x + 4 + 8 As 72 (a? .
If the remainder is zero. the remainder equals 8 2 x . + 3x3 2x* 32x12 by a?3. 5 (4x . 43 3 E. the remainder is obtained by substituting in the given expression E. of the division 3) is m in place of x. Only factors of the absolute term need be substituted .8'= 0. if 8 42  . + 7 = 632.g. the divisor is a factor of the dividend. ing x becomes zero x8 3 x2 2 4 when 2 x If a rational integral expression involvm is a is written in place of x. fora?. x* s 2 4. EXERCISE Without actual division dividing : 105 find the remainder obtained by 2. 8.g.949.228 282. 3. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA The Remainder Theorem. x is divided by x The remainder 6 sion involving If an integral rational expresm. x*x + 4x Tx + 2\)y x + 2. 3 x2 4) is a factor of x    00 *. hence (x divided by x 4.8. x5 a^ 7 b 5 by x 6. The Factor Theorem. 2 j 7. 5. a100 50 a47 4 48 a2 b. + 6. a f b 7 by a ^14y ~132/  283. + ^by x + b. The remainder obtained by dividing (x + 4)4 _ (3 + 2) ( X  1) +7 by x  1 is 6* 3 .3)f 11 =.4(. } 2 by a1.4x411)^0 + 4 ( 3) . x m is factor of the expression.
f 16) EXERCISE Without actual 1. 3.1.12 = 0. Let x = 1 then 7 x + 7 a. x* 34 ar 5 225 is divisible by x 5. x8 By dividing by x a?8 f 1. Let x = . i. or x 4. 6. 1. a? 19. ^10^429^20=0.e.12. a 8a f 19 a 12. ^ + 7y + 2y40 = 0. 17. f 5. m 4 n4 25 mV + 19 ran 13. f 3. a^8^ + 19a. 8. a 2a + 4. 21. show that divisible 4x 2 j +3x 2 a? 2 2 as 5 is or 2 by is a.9^ + 23^15. 5. 2m 5m . a 5x 6.7 f 5a 18 divisible by x 2. or 5 4 + 3^ . The 5. 25. a + 32.1. . 2o? m 6ra fllm 6. 3 2 : 7. & p*. 8 }3 3 2 3 s 2 3 4 8 2 2 4 s 3 t . f 15 does not vanish.r6 = 0. we obtain 7  7 x2 + x + 16 = (x + l)(x 2  8 a. 20. 2. 1ft : ar*f 6aj 2 o?5ar 3 l + lla. x 4o8 + 2a^ + 4a?~3 =0 4^ or* f 9 or* 2 a? aj? a? a? 2 4 3 . Therefore x ( 1). Factor a? 15. are f 1. 5 Solve the following equations by factoring 15. p 5^ + 8p 4. 7 2 a? 2 f 7a?f 15.7 x + 15 = 0. 1. + 15. 15. 4m p~m p + 16m^ 12. m f m n 14. oj 5x2 f3a. is a factor. + 27 + 27. _ . 106 division. a. 18. 23. 24. 11.7 + 16 . then x8 7 x'2 4. + ttt15 = 0. 7 46 = 0.49 = 0.TEE FACTOR THEOREM Ex.13m + 30 10. 229 1. 9. Resolve into factors 4. factors of the absolute term. 8. 2 2.
2 Ex.xy +/). x* f/ = (x +/)O .  y 5 = (x  can readily be seen that #n f either x + y or x y. actual division n. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA positive integer.g. 1. We may 6 n 6 either a difference of two squares or a dif * The symbol means " and so forth to. if n is even. ar +p= z6 e.y n is divisible by x f ?/. 286. xn f. if n For ( y) n f y n = 0. The difference of two even powers should always be considered as a difference of two squares. 2. For substituting y for x. and have for any positive integral value of If n is odd." . Two special cases of the preceding propositions are of viz. if w is odd. it follows from the Factoi xn y n is always divisible by x y. By we obtain the other factors. Factor 27 a* f 27 a 6 8. 2 8 (3 a ) +8= + 288.230 285. : importance. It y is not divisible by 287. Factor consider m m 6 n9 . If n is a Theorem that 1. Ex. 2. xn y n y n y n = 0. is odd.
x3 8=0.i mn f w 2). 27. leads 231 is The first method. preferable.= . 3. a. Hence = (m Ex. 28. f n)(m 2 mn f w 2 )(wi . Factor a 12 EXERCISE Resolve into prime factors : 107 Solve the following equations: 25. y 3 +8=0. 26. since it more directly to the prime factors.THE FACTOR THEOREM ference of two cubes. however. as 27=0.
+ 6 a?V . *The graphic solution of simultaneous quadratic equations has been treated in Chapter XII. & + 2 xy + = 25. EQUATIONS SOLVED BY FINDING x +y AND xy 291. If two of the quantities x f y. xy are given. Squaring Solve (1).y4 is of the fifth degree. xy x*y f y = 4 is of the second degree. Hence " /  X y = =} 4. the third one can be found by means of the relation (ojjy) 2 4 xy Ex. 290. (4) Hence. The degree of an equation involving several unknown quantities is equal to the greatest sum of the exponents of the unknown quantities contained in any term. however. x y. xywe have 3. ==5 > 1^ = 4. * A I. 4 xy = 16. in general.CHAPTER XIX SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 289. to equations of the fourth few cases. 232 .1. = 6. can be solved by the methods degree. of quadratics. Simultaneous quadratic equations involving two un known quantities lead. (5) Combining (5) with (1). 2 2/ (1) (2) (3) (2) x 4.
x and xy are not given. but can be found. " "' "' { r 8. 3. 1. b=3. ' 10.g. = . The arranged in pairs. I I x + y=7. roots of simultaneous quadratic equations must be e. 108 2. EXERCISE Solve: 1. In many cases two of the quantities x f y.SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 292. ^. r (" 1 = 876. 12. 233 y. the answers of the last example are : r*=2. F* Lx ' 2 (1) ' (2) (3) (4) 2 + 3 = 293.
 f J. 5. EXERCISE Solve : 109 47/ = 0. aj = 2. I* Jj ^ [. 9 y2 17 y 2 + ) 8 (y  40 y (17 y 1 Hence Substituting in (3). =^ 18* ONE EQUATION LINEAR. 6 "I 14.4 [ ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA x 4.20) = 0. 3. r^ 2 as ] f.  42 y + Transposing. la.~ y = 5. ' ' . or JJ.i/ = r 13. + 29 = 0. ^ f or* f 4 xy = 28.o 18. or y = 1 . can be solved by eliminating one of the unknown uantities by means of substitution..  . Substituting in (2) Simplifying.?/ i = 6. . A system of simultaneous equations. ( \ ~^V\ + 2 / 2y 2 ?/' . I x+y = a.a. 7 . 19. 2 (1) From (1) we have. THE OTHER QUADRATIC 294. Factoring. . Solve 2 x + 3y = 7. 4 y = 20. Ex. one linear and ne quadratic. x " (3) 49 etc.
3y) : Factor (2). 9. 3 y2 Substituting in (1). 10. y* + 2y = 3. one equation of two simultaneous quadratics is homogeneous.SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS y 7. = 1 3 3. (x to solve the 2t/)(2 x = ( Hence we have two systems (3) (1) From (3). x2y. 4^ 3 x 2 y 3 y3 A and # 2 2 xy 5 y2 are homogeneous equations. III. (1) (2) 7 xy + G if = 0. HOMOGENEOUS EQUATIONS homogeneous equation is an equation all of whose terms are of the same degree with respect to the unknown 295. 8 V~80 Hence y =1 y . 1. 235  > ' 1 lla 8 12~ 10 13. ' x*. 4 f + 2 y = 3. Solve . quantities.3 2x 2 Ex. If of the preceding type. the example can always be reduced to an example 296. ':il e :) .
(rc2/)(llx5y) 16 xy f 5 y 2 (3) Hence solve : (2) From (3). } VI09. = 0.2 ^ EXERCISE Solve: 6ar 7aK/427/2 ==0.236 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 297. = Ex. 15 x2 . 2. j Substituting y in (2). y = 110 f 10^370^ + 7^ = 16^7^ . 2 . the problem can be reduced to the preceding case by eliminating the absolute term. (1) Eliminate 2 and 6 by subtraction. (3) (4) Subtracting.20 xy + 15 y 2 = 2 x 5. = 0. If both equations are homogeneous with exception oi the absolute terra. 11 a2 Factoring. Solve 2. (1) (2) x x 5. 109 a.
!. 150 */2 . ' <"" =m _ 14 ' &. (4) (3). . which in most cases must be left to the ingenuity of the student. and others not belonging to them. 2 xy + y2 = 10. A. Division of one equation by the other. f 1 150 a?.6. E. SPECIAL DEVICES Many examples belonging to the preceding types. Solve * + '* { Dividing (1) by (2).3^42^=43. ' ^ 15. 2 (3) (4) Squaring (2). Equations of higher degree can sometimes be reduced to equations of the second degree by dividing member by member. can be solved by special devices. " IV. Some of the more frequently used devices are the following: 299. Bxy9.y = 7. y? a? f . 298.SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 237 m U.xy 4.125 ay = .175 ay = 12.
Solve Ex. we obtain by squaring. B. Therefore x = 16. at first it is unknown quantities. Considering V# + y and y as quantities and solving. Vx y 4 or V^^y = 3 x 4 or But the negative roots being extraneous.. y = 3. In more complex examples letter for advisable to substitute another such expressions. from (2). considering not x or but expressions involving x and as the as x . 2. i ^ *>. * ' 300. we have from (1). x +y y etc.238 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 111 Solve * : fajy=152. Some simultaneous ?/. f^ + 3 7/ = 133. i" <Vx f ' unknown 6. quadratics can be solved by ?/. y . (1 > (2) 1. xy. = 189. = 12 J. x 2 . jc~ y = 9.
Hence we have 7 x 4 to solve the two systems U) : x ! + */ = 17. 36* 2. M6. . F+y+ . [2x + : y= 17. 2. 7. Solve (1) (2) Let Then r __ 17^ + 40. 6.SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS . 4. 239 Ex. I e. The solution produces the roots EXERCISE Solve : 112 5. Hence = V or = 4.
x 1 20' = 41 400' =34. 2 or 5 CCT/ + 3 f + 3 . ' x2 1 6 xy = 15. . + o5)(6hy) = 80.240 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Solve by any method : far' 9 + a^lSG. 19 ' 26. ' ** 5x+ 7y = 13 ' ' 1 f. = 198. ( xy (7 m 2 n*. . f 18. 25.21 ^ = 15. 27. = y 1 y* . 16. * .4 y = 47 a.
25 34. or ~ indeterminate. . Interpretation . . as a . oo 301.SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS i 241 y . 32. 30. 3 a2 38. 33. 7' j/ 39. The results of problems and other examples appear sometimes in forms which require a special interpretation. 31. 203): ix y Solve graphically (see 40. etc. . ~\ OK OO. Q 7. = 48201.  But this equation is satisfied by any is value of a?. ^ oo . INTERPRETATION OF NEGATIVE RESULTS AND THE FORMS OF 5 .of  According to the definition of division. etc 302. . finite  =x y if = x. y % 9 f*K 36. hence may be any finite number.
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Interpretation of ? e. Hence any number will satisfy equation the given problem is indeterminate. . the If in an equation terms containing unknown quantity cancel.decreases X if called infinity. The ~~f fraction . (a: Then Simplifying. cancel. i. (1). Interpretation of QO The fraction if x x inis infinitely large. 306.242 303. Let 2. . + I) 2 x2 ' f 2x + 1 x(x + 2)= . and becomes infinitely small. creases. or that x may equal any finite number. (1) = 0. and . = 10. great. Hence such an equation identity.000 a. ToU" ^100 a.e. oo is = QQ.x'2 2 x = 1. By making x any * assigned zero.g. 1. as + l. equation. of the second exceeds the product of the first Find three consecutive numbers such that the square and third by 1. however x approaches the value be comes infinitely large. or infinitesimal) This result is usually written : 305. x f 2.e. i. I. be the numbers. without exception. it is an Ex. Or. (1) is an identity. customary to represent this result by the equation ~ The symbol 304. while the remaining terms do not cancelj the root is infinity. is satisfied by any number. The solution x = indicates that the problem is indeter If all terms of an minate. 1. the answer is indeterminate. TO^UU" sufficiently small.increases if x de x creases.i solving a problem the result or oo indicates that the all problem has no solution.can be If It is made larger than number.
3. third and sixth parts. * 6. 42 and' their product is 377. Solve ~o 3 x v ~K 6 x r x 6 4. 113 is One half of a certain number equal to the sum of its Find the number. Hence /. The sum is of squares 2890. is their 2.e. Solve (aj + 1) : (x + 2) = ( + 3) 114 : (a? + 4). EXERCISE PROBLEMS 1. Solve  9 7. Solve x a. two numbers is 76. Solve . 2.2 y = 4.8 x + 15 6. Find three consecutive numbers such that the square of 2. (2). the second exceeds the product of the first and third by 2. and the sum of Find the numbers. EXERCISE 1. . y finite QO. z = 1 Substituting. 243 Solve the system : (1) (2) From Or. 4 3 x x5 a2 . and a.SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS Ex. The sum of two numbers Find the numbers. = oo. no numbers can satisfy the given system. 1=0.
103. 14. is the breadth diminished by 20 inches. equals 4 inches. 10. and its The diagonal is is perimeter 11. The sum of the areas of two squares is 208 square feet. 13. Find two numbers whose product whose squares is 514. and the diago(Ex. 146 yards. and the sum of ( 228. 12. To inclose a rectangular field 1225 square feet in area. increased by the edge of the other.quals 20 feet. The area of a nal 41 feet. But if the length is increased by 10 inches and 12. p. 6. and the side of one increased by the side of the other e. Two cubes together contain 30 cubic inches. Find these sides. 9. rectangle is 360 square Find the lengths of the sides. Find the dimensions of the field. Find the other two sides. The volumes of two cubes differ by 98 cubic centimeters. and is The area of a rectangle remains unaltered if its length increased by 20 inches while its breadth is diminished by 10 inches. of a rectangular field feet. the area becomes f% of the original area. two numbers Find the numbers. is is 17 and the sum 4. is 6. Find the sides. and the hypotenuse is 37. 255 and the sum of 5. Find the sides of the rectangle. The hypotenuse is the other two sides 7. Find the edge of each cube. Find the numbers. 190. the The mean proportional between two numbers sum of their squares is 328. and the edge of one exceeds the edge of the other by 2 centimeters. 148 feet of fence are required.) 53 yards.244 3. of a right triangle is 73. Find the edges. Find the side of each square. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA The difference between is of their squares 325. 8. .) The area of a right triangle is 210 square feet. and the edge of one.
245 The sum of the radii of two circles is equal to 47 inches. their areas are together equal to the area of a circle whose radius is 37 inches. (Surface of sphere If a number of two digits be divided its digits. irR *. by the product of 27 be added to the number. Find the radii. and if the digits will be interchanged. The radii of two spheres is difference of their surfaces whose radius = 47T#2.) (Area of circle and = 1 16.SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 15. .) 17. the quotient is 2. differ by 8 inches. and the equal to the surface of a sphere Find the radii. Find the number. is 20 inches.
P.) is a series. . The terms ARITHMETIC PROGRESSION 308. . Hence / = a + (n .. 17. . except the first.7. 15 is 9 f. a. The common differences are respectively 4.. the second a descending. 19. of the following series is 3..CHAPTER XX PROGRESSIONS 307. The progression is a.. to each term produces the next term. 16.1) d. of a series are its successive numbers. the first term a and the common difference d being given.11 246 (I) Thus the 12th term of the 3 or 42. to A series is a succession of numbers formed according some fixed law. : 7. added to each term to obtain the next one. + 2 d. 11. f .. to produce the 3d term. 4. P. To find the nth term / of an A. (n 1) d must be added to a. each term of which. a 3d. and d. to produce the nth term... progression. 10. 12. The common Thus each difference is the number which added an A. 2 d must be added to a. a 11. 3 d must be added to a. Since d is a f 3 d. 309. a f d. to produce the 4th term. a + 2 d. An arithmetic progression (A. . The first is an ascending. 3. is derived from the preceding by the addition of a constant number. series 9. a + d. P....
. 6. if a = 5. 247 first To find the sum s 19 of the first n terms of an A. 2 EXERCISE 1. 7. 3.3 a = l. the term a. 9... 8. = a + (a Reversing the order.. .. 7. 5.. 4^. Find the 12th term of the 4... 3. P. 8. series . 4. 2.PROGRESSIONS 310.16. 1.. d . P. 2*=(a + Z) + (a + l) + (a + l) 2s = n * . 5.. 7. 3. .. Which (6) (c) of the following series are in A. 1J. = 99. 6 we have Hence . 2J.4.. Find the 10th term of the series 17. 8. series 2. (a + + (a + l) l). 21. . = 2. 6.. (d) 1J. 5. .. 3. 5. Or Hence Thus from (I) = (+/). P.8. 10. Find the 5th term of the 4. 115. 9. .. of the series 10. 1. 99) = 2600. 6. .. 2 sum of the first 60 I (II) to find the ' ' odd numbers. a = 2. d = 3.. 5. Find the nth term of the series 2. = I + 49 = *({ + . Find the 101th term of the series 1.' cZ == .. 2.. ? (a) 1. Adding.. the last term and the common difference d being given. 24. 19. 3. Find the 7th term of the Find the 21st term series . first 2 Write down the (a) (6) (c) 6 terms of an A.
1+2+3+4H Find the sum of the first n odd numbers. 23. Sum the following series 14. 17. 7. the other two may be found by the solution of the simultaneous equations . 31. and for each than for the preceding one. 11. to 20 terms. 18. to 16 terms. Q^) How many times in 12 hours ? (&fi) does a clock. 1. 7. In most problems relating to A. to 8 terms. . . P. 22.7 f to 12 terms. 20. 16. 11. . . 6. to 20 terms. 12. > 2f 2. 1. 29. Jive quantities are involved. and a yearly increase of $ 120. (x +"l) 4. 1. 8. How much does he receive (a) in the 21st year (6) during the first 21 years ? j 311. 12..5 H + if f to 10 terms. . . $1 For boring a well 60 yards deep a contractor receives yard thereafter 10^ more How much does he receive all together ? ^S5 A bookkeeper accepts a position at a yearly salary of $ 1000. (i) (ii) .248 Find the 10. 11. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA last term and the sum of the following series : .(# 1 2) f (x f 3) H to a terms. : 3.1 f 3. 4. to 7 terms. + 3. hence if any three of them are given. 19. 7. to 20 terms. + 2f3 + 4 H hlOO. to 15 terms. '. 15. 13. 3. rf. to 10 terms. 11. 15. 15. \n. striking hours only. 1J. 2J. strike for the first yard. 33. 16. . 21. 2. .
(1) 1014 = ^(12 + 144). the and the sum of all terms 1014. Find the series. P. 144. 67. Substituting in (2). From (1). Ex. . 78. The first term of an A.6 n). I. 89. 1. 34.6. = 144.~n~\ 408 6). the second one mean between the other two. or 11 J. J = 49. The series is. n d. 312. 204 = ^ (a + 49). 49 (1) (2) Substituting. 204 = ^ (98 . But evidently n cannot be fractional. 45. When is called the arithmetic three numbers are in A. d = 6. P. x=  4 the arithmetical mean between two numbers is equal to half their sum. 6. 122. 12. 2. or if x Solving. is Thus x the arithmetic mean between a and a=b x. I Substituting in (I) and (II).. = 1014. 2 (2) From Hence (2).PROGRESSIONS Ex.1).104 w + 408 = 0. 78 n Substituting in (1). = 13. 56. = n(104 . a = 49 6(71 . . P. 111. n = 6. if s = 204. 23. a = 12.. 6 n2 . #. s 24ft last term 144. and b form an A. 100. Solving. l)e?. or 144 = 12 + 12 d=ll. is 12. 3 n2 52 n + 204 = 0. Findn. hence n = 6. = a + (w. 133.e.1) . = 1014. if a.
= 1870. = 17.250 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 116 : Find the arithmetic means between 1. 17. and s. 15. 74. y and #f5y. n = 17. 14. d = 5. man saved each month $2 more than in the pre 18. I. 13. 10. 8. = ^ 3 = 1. Find a Given a = 7. = 45. s = 70. Find w. and all his savings in 5 years amounted to $ 6540. m and n 2. Find a and Given s = 44. 11. How many terms How many terms Given d = 3. Between 10 and 6 insert 7 arithmetic means . Find n. = 83. 12. 6? 9. n = 4. 78. 3. Between 4 and 8 insert 3 terms (arithmetic is means) so that an A. Find d and Given a = 1700. = 52. T? ^. 16. A $300 is divided among 6 persons in such a way that each person receives $ 10 did each receive ? more than the preceding one.3. Find?. n. Find d. Given a = . Given a = . I Find I in terms of a. ceding one. has the series 82. n = 13. f J 1 1 / . Find d. 4. s == 440. How much did he save the first month? 19. n = 16. Given a = 1. . a+ and b a b 5. How much . f? . P. 7. produced. a x f b and a b. n = 20. = 16. Given a = 4. n has the series ^ j . of 5 terms 6.
<zr .PROGRESSIONS 251 GEOMETRIC PROGRESSION 313. called the ratio. rs = s 2 . 2 a. P. 4 (1) . 36. +1.. and To find the nth term / of a G.arn ~ l . is it (G. s(r 1) 8 = ar" 7* JL a. 108. Therefore Thus the sum = ^ZlD. a?*2 To obtain the nth term a must evidently be multiplied by . 2. the first = a + ar for ar f ar Multiplying by r.. ar8 r. 24. 4. To find the sum s of the first n terms term a and the ratio r being given. . the first term a and the ratios r being given... . I. r n~ l . Hence Thus the 6th term l = ar n~l . or 81 315. E. 36.... P. 24. of a G. (I) of the series 16. the following form 8 nf + q(lr") 1 r . 12. . P. g== it is convenient to write formula' (II) in *. NOTE. except the multiplying derived from the preceding one by by a constant number. fl lg[(i) l] == 32(W  1) = 332 J. 36. is 16(f) 4 .. .. . . The 314. 2 arn (2) Subtracting (1) from (2). or. If n is less : than unity.g.) is a series each term of which. (II) of the 8 =s first 6 terms of the series 16. ratios are respectively 3. 4.. The progression is a. A geometric progression first. ar.
Write down the first 6 terms of a G.. 676 t Substituting in = r6 = 64. P. . 117 Which (a) of the following series are in G. 676. . 9. And the required means are 18. series 6. Find the 5th term of a G.. P.. P. 144. 4. fa. Hence n = 7. . . . 72. 144. i 288. 18.l..72. 288. . 4. 36. first term is 125 and whose common .54. (it. (d) 5. Hence the or series is 0. In most problems relating to G. hence. + 5. 10. 576. if any three of them are given. 1. 9. the other two be found by the solution of the simultaneous equations : may (I) /=<!/'. f. Write down the first 5 terms of a G. 3.18. 7._!=!>. .. series Find the llth term of the Find the 7th term of the ratio is ^. \ t series . or 7. fa.252 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 316.. . Ex. 6.*. l. first 5. 2 term 3. I = 670.18. .288. first term 4. whose and whose second term is 8. whose . Find the 7th term of the Find the 6th term of the Find the 9th term of the ^. Jive quantities are in. a = I. P. +f%9 % . series . f...4. . series 5. 72.5. 0.. whose and whose common ratio is 4. Evidently the total number of terms is 5 + 2. r^2.. .6.5. volved . ? (c) 2. . 80. 36.. 144. 8. P. (b) 1. Find the 6th term of the series J. . 9. 25.. . 20.. is 3. To insert 5 geometric means between 9 and 576. 36.. is 16. EXERCISE 1.
be written If the value of r of a G. 15.. r . 21. n = 5. 14. 24. Z s. may be than any assignable number. . 19.J and 270.. a. 25S series : 32. to 7 terms... 2. Therefore 8^ = 1 i =1 1 '. of r n decreases. s = 310.nV> i*> !718. Find a and Given r = 3. to 6 terms. 23. to 5 terms. 12. 14. . INFINITE GP:OMETRIC PROGRESSION 317. to 7 . 42. and hence ~ r . M. 13. . . 36. 4. . the value The formula for the sum may if n increases* = _ fl flf made taking n sufficiently large. Consequently the sum of an infinite decreasing series is By n less r^Ex. 243. J. = 3. J. to G terms. s = 605.. 54. is less than unity. 72.. 12 terms. 1. 1. Find a and n = 4. 81. P. to 8 terms.. 126. = 3.PROGRESSIONS Find the sum of the following 11. Find the geometric mean between 7. + 4 . I. J.i a9 . 48. Find a and Given r = Given r = 2. >"> . == 160. Prove that the geometric mean between a and b equals Vo6. . to 6 terms. 16 . 81. 27. Given r = n Z 5. Find a and 4. 20. n = 5. a^. 22. to 6 terms. J. Find the sum to infinity of the series 1.
. = . 4...27777 . of: 11. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Find the value of . Find the sum to infinity. . =A+ 10 i.. The terms afteAhe first form an infinite G. P. is 9.. 6. 7. 14. 100. P. .3 + . 9. 16. 4. If a = 40.99 .254 Ex.. is 16... 66 Therefore .... .. the diagonal of each equal to the side of the preceding one. i.37272 . 3.3121212.. .72.Ql. 16. . and the first term is Find 17... = a ... 118 : infinity of the following series 3. 250. 2. (6) the sum of the perimeters. 13. what is (a) the sum of the areas.191919. The sum r. i i J.555. 9.1.. 10. .. 1.072. of all squares ? . . .01 ^ . 40.= . . . 1.717171.. 12. 1.. 65 = 1L 110 EXERCISE Find the sum to 1.272727.. Hence . = 990 . Given an infinite series of squares. = .3727272 . If the side of the first square is 2 inches. 2. 12. . .)7?7272 ..00072 f ... first and the common term. . of an infinite G. P. .. 1 r = . r = j.. 5.. 5. Find the value 9. ..= _4Z* . ratio 15.. 8. I. . 6. The sum Find the of an infinite G.072 + .. 1.. . 8.. is J.
Find the middle term of f f x }\8 : ) 27. 10. /2a+Y\ 8. 26. 4. 12. 29. (xy) : 6 . 16. 28. 7 . Find the middle term of (x + y) 4 Find the middle term of (a b)\ . 4 (1+V#) + (1 Va) 4 . Find the middle term of (m ri) 16 Find the 99th term of (a + b) m im Find the 1000th term of . . . coefficient of . : (1 + xy. 11. 25. 13. 21.b) w (a (a f (1 . . 14. Find the coefficient of a?V" in (a Find the coefficient of 23. (a 100 . Find the 3d term of fa f V ^Y Va/  19.6) 20 . 17. (z2 ^ Simplify 9. . + a) Find the 4th term of 7 (a f 2 b) . 4 7. (\ 9 . Find the 6th term of (x . Find the 4th term of (w Find the 5th term of 12 ri) 11 . (a + b) . (s + i). 15.b ). Find the 5th term of Find the 3d term of + b) .6) . l 2. 22. a6 8 16 in . (a2) 6. 20.BINOMIAL THEOREM EXERCISE 119 257 Expand the following 3. a4 b 12 in (a f 6)16 Find the coefficient of a5 b 15 in (a .a2) 25 Find the 5th term of f Vx + ^r 18. 2 2 24. 5. Find the Find the u 13 coefficient of a?b in (a f 5) .
+ c(a  c). 2. 3. 3. 2. 3. 4 ft  c) 2. . 2. 1. 2. if a ft c = = = 4. i (aft)(ac) a 6 (ft. 2. a ft c = = 2. if x^l.] a 2^ aft + r 3 a l} 2 be 4. aft 3 + 4. 4. 1. 4 *2  4 xy  4 ^+ a: ?/ 2 ?/ + 2 3. 2. 3. 6. 1. 2. 1. if = = 2. 1. *=M  M 3J f 2 2 ] 2 ] 2 1 3 1 3 1 M. 3. 1. l. 6. 4. 2. 4. 4. 5. 3. 5. 2. 6.  a)(a 1. 2. 2. 5. 5. 2. 3. of : 27 x* ~ 27 xy or f 9 xy~ 1 # 8 . a8 + ~T 3 2 ft' a2 + + 3T r C + + c2 + 2 . 4. 1. 5. 4. 5. 2 .258 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA REVIEW EXERCISE Find the numerical values 1. 2 (2 a  3 aft f 4 2 ft ). 3. 5J lj 2j 3} 8 4j y 8 . = 2.a(a 4. 2. 3. + 2. if = = = 2. + 2. if y=2j 2. 6. (c 3. 2. 1. 3. ft) . 3. 5. 3. 2. 4. 3. 4. 4.f ac 1. 3. 2. 4 (2 a  13 a a b + a ft 31 a 2 ft 2  38 3. 2. 5. 5. c if 7 . + 1. 4. 1. 2J 4J 16 x* 32 afy 24 afya 1. 3. 3. (ft c)(c 4 ) 3. y 3. 1. c = = = 2. 2. 3. 1. 2.  8 ^ 2. 7. 4. 2. 1. 1. 1. 1. 2.  2. 2. 3. 5. 3. 2. 1. 2. 3. (ca)(cft)' 4. 2.c )(fta) 1. . 1. ^+^ 3. 24 4.  2. 3. 4 2. 6. 2. 2. 3. 2. 1. ft 4 ) 5. 1. 3. 4. 3.
4a + 9 a2  3 a5 . 8. 4 y 13. 3. 2. 20.8 y y 5 4 * 8y. 26. + 8 x4 *y . x C 4 4x y + . x 2 +  2 ax* f a zx + 2 ?/ a8 . x3 f 3 ax'2 . and 3 y 8 f 12 z 8 . c(x (c g)(x 6) = 1.2. 2 2 x2 + and 9 2:2 y' xy. if a 6 = = c = 3. c)(x a} . 7y 4 .r 6 x  4 xy .10. 2. 5. 40.8 + 2 // . 24. 11 z 4 x4 12 17.5.\ yz + xz. 4 a 5 9 4 2 */. a 4 + 11 a .  2 x 2// + 3 2 x?/  7 y3 .2 z8 4 x. or .a 4 . (5. 1 + 3 x + 2 x 8 .7 y 2* 4. 9.4 x'2 f 12 x and 5 2 + 7 x8 . 7 xy 3 . xy 2 12 xy* + G y4 4 xy*  zy + 12 xy*  4 y4 . 4. 12. 6 a4 4 a8 . 1. a: . r> . 11 x 8 + 14 x^ij . x 3 x' 14. 7. ~c)(b. + 4 ?y . + x/y 2 + + y'2z + 2 3 x 10 y'2 + 5 z2 .a) . x 3 11.4 yz\ 7xy* + z 3.x 5 4 . a.2. by The and c is represented radius r of a circle inscribed in a triangle whose sides are by the formula Find r.x 2 + 4 2 ~ 10 z 2 + z 2 + 11 yz + 8 2:2 .  a) (c 2. 6. 10 z 8 12  6 2 8.1. b(x (b 1. 18. x = 4.4 xyz + 4 xy'2 . c = 3. .11 z 3 4 4 ?p 2 . 5.a 5 a . 10. + 2. 15.3 xyz. . 2  + 12 a 8 . f 8. .c' 2 4 / .5 xy 3 + + 4 . 9. 2 a3 7 y4 3 // f ax'2 . a. 2 . . 5. 2. 8 .2 x?/.2 x2 . x3 2 a2 . 15.8 3 + 7 x4 . + 3 y 2* . 25. 3.3 a?y . 2.11 x 5 12 z 7/ 3 ary. 5. 2 x 8.a8 . 41.2 a?y + 3 aty . 29.259 x c) .7 ys. a /> 3. + 4. 1. 17. 6 y4 y 4 + 3 z8 . 21. 4. = 2. Add the following expressions and check the answers : 10. ' b) + 3. + 1. 21.4. 4 z . 4 x 4 . 4.7 + . 16.' 4 x2 2  5 z3 8 .
a ft. 542 x 2 and ..[3 if  (3 _^ ft 6 ft f c)}] a: . c 4ft. and a 2 ft 4 ft 3 c take sum  2 c 4 2 a and 2 a 5 x c.2 _[5ft{^ 2 8 4 x* .c.1)}] . 2 xy 4 the ^V 4 G x5 From take 4 sum sum 2 c of . 34. 2 c  2 a  and 2 a 3 x2 28. .1).{2 x 2 . 4 3 From 44 the 3 // and G x 4y 2 x2 2 . [4 I 2a47c(7ft44c)[6a3ft4 2~c44c{2a(ft2T2)}]. and 4 4 2 xs 4 and 5 x 3 y 5 .c.5 .(5 y . 7 x x the ft 4 x2 11 x. .3 x .3 . 3 x2 133ft[l7a5ft^[7fl3ft{4fl~4ft(2a3ft)}]]. 5 4 7 12 . ft. From of 2 the 4. 4 .7.2 a . and d= c c 4 x4#4z </. 33. Take the sum of G a8 4 4 4 a 2x 4 . and a ft 4 ft 3 c take  6 a. sum of .4 x 8 from ax 2 4 6 x8 4 21. a  ft + c. 2 x2 + 2 y5 24.(a .3. 0" 30.#48.4\/i + x 3Vl 4. 36. take the sum of G x 5 . .[4 x 4. 4 4 4.] 26. 29. 2 x 32.x .8 3 4. 4 2 x2 23.[4 z 8 . = x y ft z. c =x y }~ z. . 4vTT~y 3. 3 ft. . and 7 x a 2x 2 ax'2 4.2 3 ax 2 . Take the sum of 3 x 4.x . Find what expression added the ft to 3 x 2 2 x 4 3 will give 27.4.4 Vl 4.(7 x 4. find (a) a (ft) (c) a 4(</) 4. of 2 x 8 4 4 x2 4 9 and 4 x .(4 * .3 x 3 from G a 8 2 a 2x  4 x8 22. 5 10 4 G 11 4.(x* .5. x8 x2 2 a'2x.{G * 2 .(x 4.2 .2 x 8y2 44 .4 ft) 4. 3 4 5 10 2  7 12 .x 4.(4 x 2 . 4 3 5 y/ . 5 10 + 7 . (/) a +  ft 4 6 +  rf. f ft.5 10 b 3 \ G 11 = ft x4y42. and 2 Vl 4*/ 2VT+7 . x'2 .260 19.2 . c 4.(5 c . Simplify 31. Take the sum 4x 4.x 2 4.6T .c 3 a.27~~7)}]. of a. 3 x Subtract the difference of x 8 4 . .6 x ] .4 x from the sum of 9 x 2. the From sum of 2 1 sum 2 c of ft 4.2) . and .?> x 4 20. Add 9 Ifcc 2 7 12 .n/ 4 4 12 x 5 4 4 x?y 4 2 x6 f 4 x 4 ?/ x// 5 ?/ . ft 25. 6 VI ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 4X5V14. 7 12 .c 4 3 a. (*) a  c. / x5 2x 4 # 3 y5 G x a 4 3 5 x*. 35.x2 . 4 2 x8 x 4 4.1 and x 8 G 11 4 3 x2 +  from G x2 4 x.3 . : a x .4) .
(7 a.(5 y . (a 2 + 2 + c 2 + aft + ac . 54.4 a 2 + a 4 ). (x 2 + 4 y 2 + 3 z 2 ) (. .5 )}] + {4 c .JT^T+1)} + (2 .Z . 56. .12).[3 y [2 ft 2 z + {4 (3 a ar 40.3 a + 3 + aft)(a + 3).6c) (a + f c).& + {.1).56.(7 i + 4 r:) .[4 x  5 . (1 55. 67. 3 x 42.0)} .3 yz)(2 a (* 2 ft ft ft ft ft ft ?/ ft ft ft ?/ a: 61.3). (2 x 2 3 ar+ 1)(3 z 2 x+ 1). 2 f [3 c 7 a .96 [17 a.3T~2~s)} + 5 2].6 x + 5 x'2) (2 .(4 d . (1 ar+a.2 2 .ac . 46. . (4 z 2 + 9 2 + ^ 2 .r 2:c+ l)(ar.(2 a + 5 a .2 2 + 1)(7. 68.c). (a:2)(r4)(a:9). 2 52.{2 a . 2 a) (2: + 7/ a)(x 2 2 66. 'J 44.3 c)]. (ar + 7)(ar + 5)(a: + 3).7).(2 a 2 . (5 a 39.6)}].{3 c . 4 + 2 2 + 1).* 2 + (x + x + l)(a: (z 1). 64.(2 . +  ^+ y)(x 2 ) (x + a 2 )(a: 4 + a 4 ). 2 : 7e)a}].[0 a 5a + 2 c + 4 c . (x. 45. (/> 4 .ab .{2 a (ft . (a 2 + 2 + 9 . 2 ft 41.3)(*5)(* 7). + 2)  (4 x 2  2 x 7)}].5)} + (3 a 2 . a {.r 2 + !>ar + 3)(^ 2 .e '/)}] (2a + 2b . (.2)(1 .REVIEW EXERCISE 37. + *+!){> + 2). 57. (. 5a(7ft+4c) + [6 a. 2 53.ary + 2) (^ 4 ?/ *V + *)(! + ar)(l + ^ 2 )(1 + **).6 xy . 51. (a 2 + 2 + c 2 .(6 . 48.2a . 62. 65.b (c . 50.3 z 2 ).be) (a 58. .[7 a 36 {4 a 46 (2 a 3 ft)}]].4 a . . 63. 60.2x + 3).  2 a  {3 2x a .3c). 2 2 x + !)(* .2c(V/ . . (r (1 (a.a~^~c)K]. (4 + 3a 2 . . . 59. (x .(2 x2 .3~ft f 2 c + 4 ^ .c 2 .rf)} + a [. 43.[2 . 13 a .2 <?)} 13 ft ft _[&{2c(3d + Perform the operations indicated 47. a . . 7 a 2 261 {5 2 a2 2 a + (2 a 2 i j 38.2 zz . + 4x + 5)(j. )(lz a ). 49.3 *).
2 (x 2 .ac b + n~ + /? 2c n ft n an b c)(a"* ?n + + c). O (x (a 2 + 4 y y) 2 a J 4 . 90. 4 (a + ft)(a 2 81.3 a . 92. ft 78. a (a 2 2a + + " 4 l)(u 2a n f (:r a. .y + z)(x + y .ft) + 4(2 . ft ft ft a}. a(2 + 4 3ft) 2 (2a 4 4 8 ^) . 8 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA (a 2  z 3) (a 8 2 a + z 3 )(a 6 2 + a: 6 ) (a 12 a (a  + l)(a 2 f 2a + l)(a + + ( a: 12 ). 89.(4 . 74.c) .z)(x y + z)(. Prove the following 8 4. .c .2ft) 8 ( + 2 ft).n pc). 88. 76.3 (ft . 75.(ft 4.262 69. 70. ft" l Simplify 80.a) 2 . _ ft) (a: + a)(x + b) + (bc)(x + ft) (a: 4.b 4.5 .v) 4.(c 4.(a 48 8 8 4.2 ft}) f (3 a .<f(p .am&t 4 A 2 *). 73. 1).c c 2 4 2 am 20 (??2 + : n 6 f p ) (w . 83.m np c .2y)(. + (rtP+i 4 2 6)(a^+ . f 72. 79.a) (a? 4(c 4 y) (y c)(ar 2 ft + 8 a). 85.(^ 4 y 2 )  4 ^/(.c)]. ft 95.c) j. ar . 86.r3y)4l)y( a :y)^2y)418 // (2ry)46 8 // .{3 a .a) (2 + 7(7> ~ 'y) 2 4.y)\x y). (x (x ( + *) . (a 2 ft 2n 4. 3[a{2 a (a 4ft 4 2 2 ^>) c) 44 a2 a8 4 2 4. (p 2 .y).q).(x 42 y) O 2 4 y) (^ 44 y ).6*y .z\x 4.2 (y 4.r 2 . (. (a (2 b)*(a 4.O (a 4(a 4. b 4.9y2).c)} . (x 4 2 y) (2 ^ 3 y)2(/ y) (^ 3 V)  .c) 4) (ft 4.x + y + z). ft 8 ft) 4 ft 8 4. 84. xy y 2 ). p(p + ?) + 4 A) (a . 93. . 4.c) 2 .c) .(/>  3 v)^(. 2 + a 2 ).c .y'*4y 2m )OK y I)(a m ).> 2 2 + 2 3 9). (a) (a (ft) a8 4 ft 8 4. 91. ft /. 82. 87.c) rr identities. 94.:y)( a.c 8 4 3(6 c)(c 4 a)(n + 2 ft).z) .2 (a . 71.(a 2) (s 4 ft.3y) a (* 2 4.(a? 4 y)*(x  y).ft) 4 . 77. by multiplying out each 4 side of the equality. 4 4 . 1).
) . 106.3 a"+ 4.1). . 1). 4 (a 8 44 16 a 2 4 4 256) s ~4 2 (a 4 4a ^ 4 16).35 x 2 2 ) . 102. (20 x*  4 72 x 2  35 4. (2< 107.2 y 2 ) 3 xy (25 . .2 2% 4.5 a 21 (10 a 4 5 a*) Qafl^ = 5 a*.&) 8  5(a n 4 2 6) ] 5(a 4 &) 6 (a 4.21 x*if) (4 ^ 2 . (a 8  8 68 8 4. (2 y 44 2 y 2 4 02 y 23 a 4 3 16 y a 50 4 48) 2 111. 1O4. ( y 8_o7)^^2 + 3 y + 0).5 xy). 110. (80 a 112.27 x* . [10( 4.*) (x 8 .xy 4. 122. 10). 103.'30) ~ (4 ^  5 x 4 10).r 4 4.(x 2 . 20) * (3 a* 4 4 a? + 5). 120. (8 x* 115.a".16 a 6 4. 109.(a 1 2 8 . 105. 124. 99 100. 4 (6 x 4 23 x s 33 z 43 42 a. 113. (.y 4 . 117.6 y 4 4. 108. (4 4 3 a  4  5 a 3 . r .b) 98. a*.(7 xi/ . O3a n O2a 4~ i O4a 2a T (3' 3m n ~*~ 3 3n 3") 3". 3*.(y 2 ~ (a 2 ) 5 y 6 a  12). 116. 118. 114.y 2 ) 4 a 2// 2 /> 8 a. 26 (a 4 c). 2 (a+ . (x* 4 9 ax 8 44 12 . Cr (z 27y l9a:y) (a:3yy 6 ) r 2 (a: 4 xy 4 y 2 ).(2 a 2 .2y 2 4. 2 4 41 x 4a.40 />) .y 2 4.2 xy 8 .6 ) (a** (a (x 10 3 J 1 a  1). 25 4 .REVIEW EXERCISE Simplify : 263 96.4 aft .&).9 x 2 .5 b*).y 4 ) . 123. 121. (a 8 ^4 + 8 & 8) (  2 2 119.v/ ~ // = a: .c 4 6 afo) f + ^ 4 ).
(x f 9). 128. What is the 2 by a*ab + 26 ? 130.5) = 12(4 x .4(0 x . 42(3ar 145. 2 4(ar .1) . .(9 x + 10) (a:  3) .12 M 132.9) 4.G) . By what expression must 3 a 2 ab + & 2 ? be divided to give the quotient 3 a 2  2 6 2  8 ttfc 8 + 2187? .3(2 z .5).n . 10(2 x 141. 1) .2(4 .(x .3 a (1 + * l l 1 3 f 2 &).2(j: .19) + 5 = 4 .3(* + 4) + 9} .1) (a? .8 6 .3 x). . 148. 3) a: a: a: +?+4= o 13. with 8 as remainder? Solve the following equations and check the answers: 133. .r + 7[or .7) = (7 x  1 1) (3 x .27 a 3" .3 a:). 143. remainder when a 4 3 a b B + 12 a 2 6'2  b* is divided By what expression must a: f 3 be multiplied to give 4 x*7 8 a*b + 4 a 131. 127. (*+ + .  9)  7(0 x a?  32) + 5 = 4x  3(2 j  3).x+ + x a ) ~ (x a + + x).3). . (1 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA + a8 3  G ax z8  8 z 8) 5 (1  a  2 x). 2(3 x + 4) 8 [2 (a: . 10(2 x 5 x + 3(7 x . 3) = x\x . 149.(3 a? 2 [2 x + (x 4.3 a#z) (ar + y + s).2) (a: + 3). 137.3). 136.2(5 . 129.a:)]}.(j a? 144.264 125.4) . 3(2 x 134. 138.2) + 2(ar + 4). 5 146.3) = 12 .l)(ar + 2) (a: (ar (2ar 2 4} = 2(3 x .3) (3 x 4. (4 x . y (* l x. By what expression must x* + G x2  4 a: 1 be divided to give x2 + 5 # 9 as quotient.2 {3 8)} ^ 5(13 4(j = 5{2 x .2 7^~5] + 1).r>) . 1) = 2(* . 135. o o 140. 142. 139. 7(2 x .22. 126. .7) = 4 .9) + 3. (5a: 150.(x + 3) ] . 1 o + 5 + 1=15.(1 .5{. . x 147. 5(2 x .4) .2) = 3 . .18 *&) (1 .2(10 x .7(4 * .
3) (3 . (x (x a. = 15. these two angles would be equal.17) 2 + (4 x . transformed into F. a: ar a. There are 63 sheep in three flocks. The second contains 3 first.5 x) = 45 x .3) (a: . how wide is the picture ? surrounded 108 square is 172. 265 152. (2 . The formula which transforms Fahrenheit (F. . .9) + (a.j Write down four consecutive numbers of which y is the greatest. 160. How many 170. and the third twice as many as the first. ^ + ?=13 + 2o 10 o .2(x ~ 1) + 12 = 0.r + 3) . sheep more than the 169.5) = (3 . + 5) 2 (4a:) 2 =r21a:. .2) (j? + 1) + (x . f^ + ^sO.(5 x .2) (7 *) + (*.(* + 2)(7 z + 1) = (* . (a .5)(.2) a + 7(x . 5(ar x .8) = (2 x 4. =  (F 32). Find five consecutive numbers whose sum equals 100.19) + 42.3) (j.29) 2 = 1. will produce F. (3 O + .3)(* (ar 2 7)  113.z) (4 .2). sheep are there in eacli flock Y The second of the three angles of a triangle is 180. 165.1) O + 4) = (2 * .4) (a .5*) + 47.2 x) = (1 . .14) (a: + 3). + 10) (ar . + 2) + (5 . + 5) = (9 .76.T)O . = 2 C.REVIEW EXERCISE 151. 157. 161.25) 2 . find the value of F.l)(z .7) (a.a:) + 229. and if 15 were taken from the third and added to the first. 155. angle of a triangle is twice as large as the first.5(x .24. (7 14 .2 x) (4 .3) = (3 x . + 4) (2 x + 5).3) (3 . If the area of the frame inches. 166. 153. (a.? . 159. The sum What 171. . A man is 30 years old how old will he be in x years? 168. 164. 163. 154.1) (s + 3). 162. 158. 156.) readings of a thermometer into Centigrade readings is C. 2 4 . By how much does 15 exceed a ? How much must be added to k to make 23? 167. (a) If C.. (b) At what temperature do the Centigrade scale and the Fahrenheit scale indicate equal numbers? (c) How many degrees C. are the three angles? is A picture which is 3 inches longer than wide by a frame 2 inches wide.7) (1 x .6 x) (3 .
190. +x 2. 189. is What are their ages ? Two engines are together more than the of 80 horse 16 horse power other. What is the distance? if square grass plot would contain 73 square feet more Find the side of the plot. 181. 3 gives the 174. side were one foot longer. 4 a 2 yy 42. respectively. Find the age 5 years older than his sister 183. The age of the elder of it three years ago of each. z 2 + x . was three times that of the younger. number divided by 3. power one of the two Find the power of each. father. sister .56. aW + llab2&.36. and the middle row has 4 panes in each window more than the upper row there are in all 168 panes of glass. 15 m. and  as old as his Find the age of the Resolve into prime factors : 184. two boys is twice that of the younger. 176. the ana of the floor will be increased 48 square feet. 12 m. 187. 186. same result as the number diminished by 175. The length is of a floor exceeds its width by 2 feet. 180. and 5 h. x* 185. . 3 gives the same result as the numbet multiplied by Find the number. z 2 92. 188. An The two express train runs 7 miles an hour faster than an ordinary trains run a certain distance in 4 h. How many are there in each window ? . the sum of the ages of all three is 51. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA A A number increased by 3. A house has 3 rows of windows. A the boy is as old as his father and 3 years sum of the ages of the three is 57 years. 10x 2 192. ll?/102. A each 177. 2 2 + a _ no. dimension 182. A boy is father. Four years ago a father was three times as old as his son is now. 6 in each row the lowest row has 2 panes of glass in each window more than the middle row. + a. 13 a + 3. 178. younger than his Find the age of the father. + 11 ~ 6. Find the number. 7/ 191.266 173. train. and the father's present age is twice what the son will be 8 years hence. 179. . if each increased 2 feet. Find the dimensions of the floor. .
216.r?/f y 2 9. 14x 2 25ary + Gy 2 3 x* x 2 . a. 244. 2 a 2 . 217. 212.3 xy. . 2 200. a: 236.22 z + 48.6.20 z 8 a: 220. z 2 2. 218. (a + . 224. + G *2#2 + 9 x*y\ 6 x* + 5 a:y . *2 234. 7a 228. 267 199.c) 2  (a .xm y + xym  + (a c)  (c rf) 242. 8 a: ar. 239. xm+l 243. 15 x 2 + 26 x a . 2 a: 2 + 4y2) 2 + 240. 201.77 y + 150. 2 .y) y) 6 a 2 + 5 a .28.10 y a x* . . 207. 3 x V . . . x 5 . y 2 194.c) 2 .6 2 ?/ .64. 4 f yx* + z*x + z*y.1. 211. 2 afy 13 28 a: ary + 66 y. 215.x + 1. 2 a 8 . 4 m +^.REVIEW EXERCISE 193. + 8. 16x 4 81. 202. 2 + x 2 ) 2 .a 2/A 214 12 x*y .10. 221.6s. # 2  29 y + 120.6 y2 + 4. 232. a a: a: 237. a^a 226. . 2  5 xy 13 y a. 235. 203.14 2 . 11 2 + 10 20 x 4 . 213. 209. . 2 x 2 . 24 2 + 2 . a. 229. 3 ap 2 . a: 4  a: 2 a: V 2 .19 z 4 204. 233.21 a:  54. 60 a 2  a: // 205. 227. 7x 2 225. 5 x 2.12 * . 246. + 2 . + 3a 196. a 2 . 3y 2 + ary .3 c/> + 6 cq. a. 5 ?/ + 1 1 a*b . 2a te 3% ly 247. wiy + la mx + aw. x*y 223.10 xy. + 198. x 219. 4a 2& 2 241. 9a4a6 (a 2 + b . 222. z + 5x 2 . 3y 248.(a + z2 ) 2 (a 2 3 (x (r + y + a. a: . 23 12. 195.(b + rf) 2 . ifWy+b. 238. a: 231. 210. . 2 2 y f 1.8 6 2.19 a .3 xf + 3 * 2y . 206. a+a* + o a +l. 230. 12 x +4. 3 x 2 . 8 a.6 aq . x* + 8 2 + 15. 6 197. a. 208. 245. (13z 2 5# 2) 2 2 2 (a 6 (12 c 2 ) 2. + 30 x.
23 x f 20. 8 xf < 3 xy + a. 3 ay 4. ft a.18 ry + 32 y 2 2 .r . F.9 x + 14. 2 8 . x 2 263. C. x 2 4. x* . 1 x ar Find the L. * 2 .4.C. 22x2 a. a.3. x 2 .8.(55.120. 7 12 2 2 . : x2 4 a: ~ + a.a 2 />c 2 f 3. 3 a% 2 .3 x . Reduce to lowest terms 271.77 + 77 ' 2?5 5 ' 2 5 a: 2 7 .16 x .48 afy 2 . 18 x 2 .a + 2 4. 10 x 2 .12.ry 21. * a . 252. 2 x2 . x* .6 by.2 ax 2 + 2 for 2 .17 x + 6 * 14 273 P a 5y>+4.4 ab + 1.5 ab f 2. . + 8.9 xy + 14 y 2 ar ar a: .268 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 249. * 2 . + 23 x f 20.1 9 . 261.7 f 5.2/ 2 .10.91. G(x+  l)'\ 9(x 2  1).80. _ 40 y 2 272 f f 2 !8a: . + 20 x 4. 260. + 8 x + 5.10 a 4. 257. x 2 + 4 + 3. a 4. x 2 + 2 x . 7 ax 250.11 a 2 .9 x . of: 266. z 2 267. x*y* 4. a? a: a: // 262.14 bx a%% 8 . z 2 268. 2 2 + 39 xy 4.2 aft*. 30 ^ . 3 #2 255. I Find the II. 264.11 x f 28. 6. 2 z 2 f 13 x + 1 5.15. 15 # 2 z/ /. + 3 x + 2.15 + 30. a: .23 + 12. 2 a.r + a# + az f 2 6z fry 4.9. 2 . 10 a.x . 265. ^27/7 + 12 2?6 28 x 2 12 Jr 2__7^/_ J/ 2 + 3 .36.G7 x f 33.2 z .ry . x 2 + 5 f .3 abc . of: 253.73 xy . 8 2 + 10 x . 5 x 2 256. x 2 f 9j: + 20. 28 2 f 71 x . 2 + 7 r f 2. a 3 a 2 2 .M. 251.13. 254. 270.18 xy + 5. * 2 . 269.&z. 258. 259.
n 2 )P * 287 " 281 2 q^( 2  a: 2 ) m 288 ' . + ac .!/. *2 " 2 + Oge..rL. z2 (a 2 + c)a. 9 286 1 1 + 2* 3 x f *2 ar + a .J' 4 2 2 w mp . 8 .(y 2 z) * t (j.  9 ' 2Q4 4 *2 ' 8x+8 ' 278. 285 z4 n* + a.2 22 + 2 2 yz 4 2 zx 2 + ary _ _ 22 _ 292 ^  ?/.REVIEW EXERCISE 277 8 agg 269  6 a. y)' z2 283 t 290 ' x'2 2 y* + z2 + 2 0:2 291 *2 + y 2 + 0.2* + 3 x* 280.. a. m 4. _ "* m ~n w 4 + 2 7w% 2 f sa .2c a: 282.ar 1 279. 289 ' . fr 293 ' y <? 294 2 2 2 + 2 cV + 2 a 2^ 2  4  ft* ~ c4 295 296 ' 297 ' .
6) _ ~ i 305. X2 (ca)(ai) 1 x2 4 (a +9 i_ 20 a . O(ca) 306. a? __ + *_ + + la?la? * a l 303. x x ~~ +^ i ^ ~ ''^ . x + 3 ^ "" 310 x a: 2 a: 2 2 a:  17 a:2 ar3 x 2 5a:i6" . x 7. + 19) 2Lz + 3 x " 2 99 ' i x +4 *3 a +7 300. ^. ^_2*(m 308. Lnl + ar 2 a.270 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA : Find the value of 298 23. (a 1 1 + a b c) (a + ^ ct) (a + a c)(a f e) 304. 2 + 7 _ 44 3. * 19 23 19(23 23. 4 3 301. a (: a) (x 2. _L + 12 x 1 + 35 1 307. ^n m+n "*" + n) 2 g 309. (a: 1 + l)(ar + 2) (x + l)(ar + 2)(* + 3) 302.
_ '(a6)*(a:r)a 323. nl g(jL+ 2 ) ^^^_ 318.BE VIEW EXERCISE 311. 1 _.(a . ( ftc g~ft ( 6_ c) 2_ (a. Dx x(l *) * 8(1*) 4(1 +*) 2 8(1 + 4(1 .. } . . i 271 + b a2 + ft 2 312. 2ft 2 a8 3 314. a: 1 313. 2 + y 2 319. (a? 4 2) 317. _ x8 . 1a: + y a. .ft) 2 322. (1 .+ a 10 z 2 2 *2 9*+ 20 *2  8* + 15 315.*) + * 2) 321  c) 2 .2 1 f 1 + : *2 1  2 x' 316. 1 x2 + + a.
. ' a: 2 2 5 sy a: f zy + 4 y* . 2 a2  2 a  ' 03 i^+^T 42 ^2 _ l5rt~+~54* 327 8 ' ^ .6* t 328. 2 ?/ 4g~0yg 10 o# 2 ~ x 6 a* x' 2 24 y 2 1 . z2  4 x  ^ "" 12 *. 4 y2 2 5 x8 2 z6 3 y 10 a: 2 + 8 2 ./  3 y  6 ( 331 g gy ' f a 3y ~ 6 q  9 G 2 y/ + 5 ?/ 6 G fl y~4y+ 15 ^e  10 6y 332 3 a: +lly10 4 xy 8 2  a. 20 44 333. .5 a ..7 acy + 12 y2 + 5 a:y + y 2 .y20  2y + 4 2 . a: 2 x* .15 33 .V  + y  x 3y a .4 x?/ 2 ^_ G x 2 + 13 gy_+ .. 250 5 10 2 325.y 2 x (a?4y) 3(2 x  ' _ ^/ 3 y) 2 8 330 .272 Simplify: ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA ~ 324.ll. 2 x* 8 x2 4 r8 i + 2 a.a: ' 2 + 0^ + ^2^7 a.9 *// + 27 .28 8 2  11 2 + J?_ x fl^^ffjje _ 2 12 a 4 a + a  4 6~7** 27^12^7 .7 xy + 12 x .B ~ 1037  329 4 a.2 +lOar 2 a. * 3a.19 xy + 6 y 2 8 x* a: ?/ ' ~" 6 y 333.2 y2 ' 334 *2 ' + 2 y 8 a. 2 lOx 5x. 2 ^ "" 1B x + 40 y *2 + 5 x  3.
(ar \ 346. \5yl 341. Simplify : 353 ^3 * 2 L pE+1 a /2x~l V 5a:~2 10 4 354. 344.13 13 s 11 Find the numerical values of 351.r 5 2 . ' 2 "l 5 .) 2 . 338. \x yj 340. 5 343.REVIEW EXERCISE 336. a: 349 _ o. (af2/. if a = 3. w \. +^ a: y x . 278 C  ~ a c* \ c* ~ b a2 q2 h c 5 5 ~ a c b q  q c 6 * \ : f 1 \  { 337. fl. ?_2 ^ . ( 342. + ni + . (aWi + iJ. xi 347.1V. a>74 .+ r ..y. (a \ + lV. ' ~ ~ x2 + 8 + 76 2" 350. aj 339. + l + IV. : 1+ i. 7 ( ?f!?. 1 345. ** i. 348. 352. f V.
(~ 364.274 355 f 5 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA U<>3) 356 fl V ___ _/ 2(*l)J + ya xl x 1* YTx 2 110*W*1 1** JUal + xy 357. a2 4 . (a a b yx c yabc 361. + x x a . I  I f 366. y360. i+5 1+1 9 x2 f 363. W?* (* + 1 + 2x) \3a _ 1 + 2x \3a 1 365. ar xy + yl x* 358. 1+2 362. _ + l a 359.
2  m 373 "1*7 374. a + . (1 +ab)(l+bc) 369.REVIEW EXERCISE 2 275 f 367. 6 a c b a b b 1 ' ~ _^ . 370 ' 1 (/')(&o) 1 a 372. . \b* + c* b + b b*c*)^ c ^\ b (b* f c*) } c 4 c a b . b c 368.
4(* . 3 Solve the equations : or a: 2 (a. r 1  3(* + 1)} ! ' . a: r ~ 2 + 5"^  10 xf x  382. + 1) 45 O 377. 5*8. 20 iLf5 + !*=! = 2 J. ^ . <3 378. """ 2J 7 ' + 2 28 ear7 + i3JTo^ . 5 {2 x 381. J !__7.276 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 375. . 1 + 16ar_63 24 g 2T~~~ia 7 12f a 8 a' 389 5  14(arl) 18 105 390.^^ + x f o 51) +2J = 0. __4 2x 3_ = !. 5 3 vC 7 a: 385 10 17 387 * L*J> _ 14 1 7ar = (5 ar 10ar + 15 .*2 = 15. 379. 8  376. # k 1 _j j a: 2 a: 3 383. + 6)+  (* + J = _j_ j(* v/ O + 5)10 ^\:) / 380. 2(3 x (x + 4) + 10) + 1 (x + 7) = 0. .
40.8 = .5 x =r f . (8 x  3) (x 2  1) = (4 x a: 1) (4 x  5).75 x f . (x ~ a)(x f 6) f c = ^ (z a: + 2 a)(a: a: 5 i). 400. a. 277 x 4 _x 5 _ _ a: ar. JLg:== 7wa: c c } q.REVIEW EXERCISE 391.6~a: 7 _ x 8~a. . _____ . a: a)(a:  &)(>: + 2a +2&) = (a: + 2 a) 408. m x 398.. 396. u '2 a.147. .* 2 + *2 " 2 ~ ^ H. ^ (a .5 ^ ~ a: a. 399. 3* 177. c . b 404..  J). 6 7 7 ^ 2 1(5 a. "i 2 37370 ^ x i x x + 1 a?  R  7 ~r * 1 a.5 1 f 1 x  2 = x .25 x + .  ft) = 2(ar  ) (a. 397.2 a:  1. 401. + 4 a. l)(x  a) (a:  3) 42 3(4 *  2)(ar + 1). n a 4O5 b b x f (a:  a) + a(a.  8 9* x ~r.25.6  . f 1 1 + a 403. y ~ rt ^= & ~ 402.1 .
2 a x c x 6 f c a + a + a + 6 f walks 2 miles more than B walks in 7 hours more than A walks in 5 hours. x 1 a x x1 ab 1 1 a x a c + b c x a b b ~ c x b 416 417. A man drives to a certain place at the rate of 8 miles an Returning by a road 3 miles longer at the rate of 9 miles an hour. a x a x b b x c b _a b f x 414. 18 be subtracted from the number. mx ~ nx (a ~ mx nx c d d c)(:r lfi:r a b)(x . Find the number of miles an hour that A and B each walk. Find the number.a)(x b b) (x b ~ ) 412. hour.  a) 2 6 2a. Tn 6 hours . he takes 7 minutes longer than in going. In a if and 422. a x ) ~ a 2 b 2 ar a IJ a.c) . and at the rate of 3^ miles an hour. f a x f x f c 1 1 ab b x 415.278 410. A in 9 hours B walks 11 miles number of two digits the first digit is twice the second. 418 ~jo. How long is each road ? 423.(c rt a)(x  b) = 0. 411. the order of the digits will be inverted. 4x a a 2 c 6 Qx 3 x c 419. 420. down again How person walks up a hill at the rate of 2 miles an hour. (x . 421. far did he walk all together ? A .(5 I2x ~r l a) . and was out 5 hours. (x f ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA a)(z  b) = a 2 alb = a (x f b)(x 2 .
2 (a + &*) (a h & ) = (a ) (a 6). . angle of a triangle is to another as 4 5 and the third angle to the sum of the first two.iand 22 22 I a . Which ratio is greater. The sum of the three angles of any triangle is 180. if . (a + 6 ) (a + ft) = (a (3a 2 2 : : fc : : : . 432.a 2^ 8 + aft* . Which of the following proportions are true? (9 c. y. If a b : =5 n : 7. wi* + y= ny. and : b : c = 14 : 15. Find the length of the parts. 435. 2 2 8 2 . d. a8 f 2 ab f 6 2.& 5 ) (a 8 . : i. 279 A in 2 lowed steamer which goes at the rate of 264 miles a day is foldays by another which goes 286 miles a day. 430. 433. 431. find : a : c. Find two consecutive numbers such that the sum of the fifth and eleventh parts of the greater may exceed by 1 the sum.31 afc + UV ) = (15 a 2 + 31 ab + H 6) (25 a2 . a.49 63). Solve 436.46 2): (15a 2 . Prove that the number of miles one can see from an elevation of h feet is very nearly equal to ^  miles. 428. z 2 y. b. x 427. Find the ratio x 5x : = 7y . a + 5. of the sixth and ninth parts of the less. 3 and 1J. 438. 5 7 or 151 208? 437.6 8 ). Find the mean proportional to 429. : m n(n x) =p : m n(p : x). When will the second steamer overtake the first? 425. 8 8 5 ~ a*b + a*b* . + 4ft):(Oo + 86)= (a26):(3o46). : If is one equal 434. A line 10 inches long divided in the ratio m:n. . z2  y\ x* xy + y*. ax is \ by  ex + dy. . find the angles of the triangle. Find the fourth proportional 426. a  t>.REVIEW EXERCISE 424.
35. 2 (3 a + 2 ab  8 ft) : 2 (5 a f 4 ai  12 ft 2 ) = a? : (5 a  6 ft). 451. 21 7 = 27 + Op. 455. ?/ 447. of two spheres are to each other as the cubos of a sphere 2 inches in diameter weighs 1:2 ounces. 56 + 10y = 7a. 5 2 = 7 . 446. />(. .rf2# = l. what is the weight of a sphere of the same material having a diameter of 3 inches ? 440. 458. + 5y = 59. . 4 = 5 y + 29. x + 17 # 53. 448. Find the value of a.7 y = 25. 1(3  a. a: a: + 5y).89 = q. 28 = 5 a . . 5#+ 10 = 27 a.*. 5z4:# = 3. = 25.11 7. 459.4 12 . 3 a. 7jr9y = 17. 15ar = 20 + 8y. /) ar a.. a: 2y= = 1 . ft.3 y = 3 5 f 7 . 443. 7 442. 20y + 21 18a = 50 + 25y. 444. 7 a: . 449. 42 = 15y + 137. 16. Solve the following systems: 441. . c. x + 5 y = 49 3 x . 9ar7# = 71. ax + ly = 2 a*x + & 2# = a + b. 8 x + y = 19. ft. 445. 7a?y = 3. The volumes If their diameters. 8 . 9/> = 2 . 29(a + &) : x = 551 (a 3  ) 19(a  &). 454. 450. if 2 ft : 439. 5j + 7 7 = = 2.(or l(*2y)=0.280 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA x.11 y = 95. 452. 5x+4y=lQ. 457. ox f &// = 2 + y) = a + 8a + 21+3ft = 0. 456. a.55 y = . 33 x + 35 y = 4 55 * . . 3 . 453.59 = 3 z.
4 g ~ 2 7g + 3 .REVIEW EXERCISE 460.?/ + 1 . + eyn. car = 4 rf cte  ey =/. 3 a? _ y 7 a? 3 y _ 1 12 15 ~~10 4 __ 10 "10 463. ax cx by = m.+ =2.2y) (2 = 2J. _ 469. ax by = c \ 472. x y 474. ' a: + 2 g + 3 y _ 467.  = 2. (or .c=563y. i 47O _ 3~12 } 4* 471. _ & +y 3 dx+frj c\ . 3 x 28i + 7 ~~~^ = 5. 473.7.. 475. 8 461. 465. 468. i = 5. ^ + i^ = 7.
Find the principal and the rate of interest. A number consists of two digits 4. half the The greatest exceeds the sum of the greatest and 480. If 31 years were added to the age of a father it would be also if one year were taken from the son's age . A sum of money at simple interest amounted in 10 months to $2100. and in 20 months to $275. and the other number least. What is that fraction which becomes f when its numerator is doubled and its denominator is increased by 1. Find the fraction. fraction becomes equal to . age. least The sum of three numbers is is 21. 486. 487. There are two numbers the half of the greater of which exceeds the less by 2. Of the ages of two brothers one exceeds half the other by 4 is equal to an eighth of 482. 483. A sum of money at simple interest amounts in 8 months to $260. 485. Find the numbers. Find two numbers such that twice the greater exceeds the by 30. and in 18 months to $2180. if the sum of the digits be multiplied by the digits will be inverted. by 4. 477. and becomes when its denominator is doubled and its numerator increased by 4 ? j 478. . years. A spends \ of his. Find their ages. 481. to . whose difference is 4. and if each be increased by 5 the Find the fraction. How much money less 484. and a fifth part of one brother's age that of the other. and 5 times the less exceeds the greater by 3. latter would then be twice the son's A and B together have $6000. Find the numbers. thrice that of his son and added to the father's. If 1 be added to the numerator of a fraction it if 1 be added to the denominator it becomes equal becomes equal to ^. the Find their ages. also a third of the greater exceeds half the less by 2. In a certain proper fraction the difference between the nu merator and the denominator is 12. Find the number. Find the sum and the rate of interest. 479.282 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 476. had each at first? B B then has J as much spends } of his money and as A.
REVIEW EXERCISE 488. 5 + a. 492.z = 20. . 2 2 = 41. 8. of two the sum of the digits also if number. The sum of two numbers squares is b. 5^ 9z = 10.5#+2z = $x a: G. + y 5 y = 101 . : Solve the following systems 491. 2 a. . ifi = x a. *i. 498. x s + y z = 18J . 4 497. 3ar 503. * + 425  = . 1. . a number .z = 12. a: + ?/ 2z = 15. 2 ar + 3 y 2 z = 8 . ~ 507. 2/>3r = 4. 490. z y ifi = z x 502. a: + // = 11. + # +z= 35. 2y + 2z = a: 2. = 15. 2 e. 493. There is 283 digits which is equal to seven times the digits be transposed the new number Find the will exceed 10 times the difference of the digits by 6. 30 2^ 3^ = ' ' 4r=9. a: f z = 79. f + 3 y 62 4 y 4a. z y x 25 . = 209. . 3 a: + 5=84. 7. 496. . 2y + 3a = ll.? + 2y = 8. a: 499. = 20. 1+1 = 6. 2a:f 7. a. 3 x 500. and the difference of their Find the numbers. 4z+3z = 20. 494. 7 + 2 z . \ . 4 506. y Solve : x +z= 5. 495./ 504. a. x y f z = 13./ f z =a. x f y f z 29 . Find two numbers whose sum equals is s and whose difference equals d. 7 4#+ 3z = 35. 489.
36 + c. + + 3579 2+?.284 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 516. !f == 2800. z z =3a&c. + : = 1472. i=a + 6 c. 523. 517. ll" . ra? + y 2 + 524 x \ +y + = + t jx [y + 9 = 3af& + r.
if L and Af in 20 minutes. 527. In how many days can each alone do the same work? 526. 37 pounds of tin lose 5 pounds. Find the present ages of his father and mother. AC in /). E 533. A can do a piece of work in 12 days B and C together can do the same piece of work in 4 days A and C can do it in half the time in which B alone can do it. A number of three digits whose first and last digits are the same has 7 for the sum of its digits. CD. and third equals \\ the sum third equals \. and 23 pounds of lead lose 2 pounds. If they had walked toward each other. N. A vessel can be filled by three pipes. in 28 minutes. (a) How many pounds of tin and lead are in a mixture weighing 120 pounds in air. B and C and C and A in 4 days. M. if the number be increased by Find the number. Tu what time will it be filled if all run M N N t together? 529. the first and second digits will change places. In circle A ABC. When weighed in water. AB=6. it is filled in 35 minutes. 530. and B together can do a piece of work in 2 days. L. . Tf and run together. and CA=7. BC = 5. An (escribed) and the prolongations of BA and BC in Find AD. A boy is a years old his mother was I years old when he was born. and BE. What are their rates of travel? . they would have met in 2 hours. touches and F respectively. if and L. and one overtakes the other in 6 hours. 532. his father is half as old again as his mother was c years ago. Throe numbers are such that the A the first and second equals . Find the numbers. sum of the reciprocals of of the reciprocals of the first of the reciprocals of the second and the sum 528. 90. and losing 14 pounds when weighed in water? (b) How many pounds of tin and lead are in an alloy weighing 220 pounds in air and 201 pounds in water ? in 3 days. it separately ? 531. How long will B and C take to do . .REVIEW EXERCISE 285 525. Two persons start to travel from two stations 24 miles apart.
536. GERMANY. Draw the graphs of the following functions : 538. formation of dollars into marks. x 2 544. 2. if x = f 1. 543. How is t / long will I take 11 men 2 t' . x 2 + x.3 Draw down the time of swing for a pendulum of length 8 feet. 547. One dollar equals 4. i. Draw the graph of y 2 and from the diagram determine : + 2 x x*. a. AND BRITISH ISLES 535. . of Draw a graph for the trans The number in of workmen Draw required to finish a certain piece the graph work D days it is from D 1 to D= 12. 2. . b. 546. the time of whose swing a graph for the formula from / =0 537. + 3.  3 x. The values of y. 548. the function. x 8 549. The value of x that produces the greatest value of y. 545. FRANCE. c. 550. The greatest value of the function.  7. 2  x  x2 . x*. from x = 2 to x = 4.10 marks. x*  2 x. 2 x + 5.  3 x.286 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA : 534. If to feet is the length of a seconds.e. z 2  x x  5. to do the work? pendulum. e. The values of x if y = 2. x *x + x + 1. d. 3 x 539. Represent the following table graphically TABLE OF POPULATION (IN MILLIONS) OF UNITED STATES. The roots of the equation 2 + 2 x x z = 1. 540. 542. 2 541. then / = 3 and write = 3.
j. Find the value of m that will make two roots equal if y = m.3 . // Solve y Solve y = 5. 2 8 . a? 4 x .5 x . 3 x* . 2 x 2 560. x 4 . f. 2. If y +5 10. 563. + 5 . Find the greatest value which ?/ may assume for a negative x. 564.1 = 0.4 x 2 + 4 . 18 x  4 = 0.17 = 0. ' = 8. z 4 .= 0. 3 x . 566. 556.3 x . a.9 = 0. a. x* .3 x . 565.15 = 0. x 5 . e. .0.6 + 3 . 15. \ to t = 5. 572. 562. 287 by a falling body is The formula 2 ] f/f for the distance traveled a. a: 559. Determine the number of real roots of the equation y Determine the limits between which m must lie.13 = 0. r?.10 x 2 + 8 = 0. 555. z 2 .11 = 0. 568. h.3 = 0. 2 ~0a: + 9 = 0. + 10 x . 557. 2 a.11 x* + + 2 8 569. J.r . 2 567.REVIEW EXERCISE 551. and make the unit of the b. c.4 . 2 554. Represent meters. 3 . 553. Solve// = 0.7 = . graphically from t = (Assume g = 10 scale unit of the t equal to 10 times the scale ^ 2 .r 1 561. . 3 + 3 z . x 2 ~ 2 .4 = 0. 558.  2 1 a: a. a.G .' 2* + Z  4 = 0.= 0. if y =m has three real roots. . c. Which negative value of x produces the greatest value of y ? : Solve graphically 570 ' 571. = 5.r a: a: x a. g.) How In far does a how many body fall in 2^ seconds? seconds does a body fall 25 meters? Solve graphically the following equations : x*"2x7 = Q. Solve 552. i.
a 612. x [ ?/ 577. = 2 \*> + a: [ ^ = 4' = 581. : y* or 25. .4 x*y* + 3 4 6 . + + 4 x) (l 2 ^) . x + z2) 8 . f ?>) 3 591. a 8 606. (# 2) . 588. . (1 (1 (1 . (a. 2 2 a:' ) + x' )'2 . 2 + f 9 6 + 25 c 2 10 ac  a6.2 2 + y.x + 2 )'2 601. <r)3  2 3 a:) . 593.4 + 4 a 8^6 + 9 a a^e _ 6 aW + 8 9(5 a: 7 // fe .  128 a 10 6 30 3 a: + 2 ?/ ' 100 a 8 /. 1 . j^f = 3. + + 4 . 4 .288 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 4.4. a 2a. 597. 585 594. + jf:ji f590> (2 (3 (1 Perform the operations indicated 584. + . 5 a*. a: f ~+ x [ 10 ^i  1 V 6x + 4 + 610. 579. a:.2 & 2 ) (4 a: ?/ 14 a: 1 2 2 ?y 4 a: 10 2 + x^f .48 a*h + 6 a: ?/ 10 6. (aiy. a. 4 a. (a  8 ft) . Extract the square roots of the following expressions: 602. 48 xf + a: 4  04 aty 6 a: // 16 2 605. [ y =10. 9  4 fSb 607. 592. 608. f ^s_ 14 a 4/. {f_7l j? 2* + ''. + ^) + (air%)8. 589.(1 . 64 a 12 603. 2 611. 599. (1 + x a.frf : 583.128 a*^ + 04 aty 10 3 5 zy .4 8 f 4 4 + i 2 ) 2 f (a 1 . 2 943 ++ ~bx. 596. 609. 2  100 aW + 100 aW.a:) 6 (1 2 2 (2 + 3 x + 4 ) f (2 3 x + f. 595.5 xy = 0. 3 . fMV  586 ' ^ (a + 6)T ' 587. 598. 6 + 1) . 2  2 aa: 2 . + %) (a* + *) 5 .o 2 [ ?/ > 3'  578. a: f 2 2 aAa: + 2 ?/ . 4 (1a:) 3. xY.%) 4 (aa. a: .2 6a: + 30 &c a. 604. 600. 582. 2 (2 a ft 6 + + 4 a 6& 2 + x f 13 2 . jj+. 3 (f.
634. 630. 636. 942841. a 642. 628. 8*' + 24* = 32.2. 620. 2 + 21Ga. 9a.12 a?y + y*. 210.871844. 624. 371240. 639. 632. 615. 035. ft . 638. 2 + 189 z = 900. 4370404. 21. find Jupiter's period.2410.V250 . 0090. 9g. (x 9 x 646. 643. 2. 10 a 4 32 fe 2 + 81. According to Kepler's law. VOIOOD + V582T09. + 2 21 x = 100. 49. = 87. 40. 49042009.53 x ~ .\/4090. + 24 a 2 4 .448 z + 1120 a: 4  1792 x* + 1792 2 .15174441. 644. 494210400001. *+* = 156. 651. 647t x 2 648 649. and the Earth's period equals 3G5J Solve the following equations : 640.1024 x + a: 256. + 54 'x*y* . x 2 f x ~  16 = 0. 629. 645. 25023844.*. the cubes of the distances of the planets from the sun have the same ratio as the squares of their periods of revolution about the sun. + 112 a 8 . a 8 10 a* 8 aft 7 + ft 8 . Find the square root of 619. If the distances of Earth and Jupiter from the sun are at 1 days. 44352.49. /. Find to three decimal places the square numbers : roots of the following 627. 633. 2 2) 2 +x = 14. 10:r 4 + 9G* 3 + HI x s  108 afy 616. a 8 of:  8 tvb + 28 a 6 //2  50 a c ft 8 + 70 a 4 ft 4  50 a 8 ft 6 + 28 a 2ft 618. f 4 aft 8 + 4 ft . 7) 2. GGff. V 635.REVIEW EXERCISE Find the fourth root 613. = 70. f (x + 5) 2 = (x + .191209. x 2 . V950484 . 625 : 621.8 aft 6 + 8 21G. : 5. 4 289 of : 4 4 a*b + a2 2 /. Find the eighth root 617. 637. 650. 622. x 2 641. = . 32 631.150. 4J. x2 + 9x _ 5x _ 22 66 ? * + 9 . 614. 626.30. 3a. = 0. 623.
290 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA """ ar a x b ab .
695. 1 __ : )'*' _i. + ~T~ * a + b x = rj* 2 4(5 4 x + + Ox + 4 691. 2 ' 3 2 a:)  28 + 21 + 5 '^ = 0. 706. 2(4 :r 7r\O /'r'S = a: 0. .c = 0. 7^^ ^3" ^^ ^T 704.ax . 693. 696. 2 (:r + :r)O 2 + :cf 1) = 42. ax 2 698. 694. 1 + V* 2bx + a 2 + 2 ax . = 0. ex abc= fx 0. (x 2 +3a:) 2 2a.2 a(l + & )z fa 2 (1 ax + to f ru: 2 .a a )jr . 4 a: + 4 ^^ 6a:x2 8 701. 692. 708.REVIEW EXERCISE ~ 291 X+ x 1> a +c ~ a i~ i c ~ b  ~ " x 690. . 2 702. 699. a.bx . 2 2 . 707. 2 ft 2 2 fi 2 = 0. 2 2 697.2V3:r 2 V5 a: f + fa + 1 = 0.
what is the price of the coffee per pound ? : Find the numerical value of 728. Find the altitude of an equilateral triangle whose side equals a. 714 2 *2 ' + 25 4 16  25 a2 711. 12 4*+  8. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA +36 = 0. In how many days can A build the wall? 718. 721. 16 x* . paying $ 12 for the tea and $9 for the coffee. and working together they can build it in 18 days. A man bought a certain number of shares in a company for $375.44#2 + 121 = 0. 723. 725. ___ _ 2* 5 3*27 715. How shares did he buy ? if 726. 722. in value. a: 713. 2n n 2 2 f2aar + a 5 = 0. 729. 724. Find four consecutive integers whose product is 7920. 3or i 16 . The difference of the cubes of two consecutive numbers is find them.292 709.l + 8 8 + ft)' (J)* (3)* + (a + 64 + i. Find two consecutive numbers whose product equals 600. sum is a and whose product equals J. If a pound of tea cost 30 J* more than a pound of coffee.25 might have bought five more for the same money. 717. Find the price of an apple. What two numbers are those whose sum is 47 and product A man bought a certain number of pounds of tea and 10 pounds more of coffee. . of a rectangle is 221 square feet and its perimeter Find the dimensions of the rectangle. A equals CO feet. needs 15 days longer to build a wall than B. What number exceeds its reciprocal by {$.40 a 2* 2 + 9 a 4 = 0. he many 312? he had waited a few days until each share had fallen $6. if 1 more for 30/ would diminish 720. 217 . 727. 716. The area the price of 100 apples by $1. **13a: 2 710. Find two numbers whose 719.
(4 x~* + l 3 ar 2 + 2 2 ) a.aft* 1 + a 2*. + a^ 1 + a 26" 2 )(l . 36.1 + c.X . (64 x~ + 27 y r (4 x~^ + 3 y"*). 37.2? 50. 293 (y* (a* + f y* + y*+l)(y*.2 ).1 + x. + &2)( a 2_ 1 j2). . 39. 42.1 f c" ). (4 a: 2  12 x* 28 x + 9 x*  42 x* + 49)*. 33. (v/x). (x* 2 a M+ f a8) (x*  2 aM" a).)(ai + &. 32. 34. 41. 38. 48 ^i? x T ^ ^2? x sT~ x .REVIEW EXERCISE implify : 30. 1 + l)(>r 2  i + 1). 35. 46.l). f + M 6* f 6) (a* U*") 4 a*6^ (<i* &*). 43.2 d*m* + 4 d)(w* + 2 rfM + .1 f ^ 2). + a*x* x*)(a* /^ (a* (rrr + c^ s M ' + x*). 52. 40. +   c* + 2 + ^ + cbf 44. 31. (x* (i* (a2 (a(1 1 4 d*). +w 5 n* +w n 3 + n )(m* 3 n^). n. 1 6. (^ (a* (a^ ary* + x^y f y*) * + * (x*  y*).aM ?n^n^ f ft*c*)(a* + 6* + c*). .2)(x2 4.
768. ~ r* x . 759. 757._ 1 4j "r O/lf * ^ ^ II r* 4"*" 1 A "1 1. 2V2 2V3 . 758. vff + V^~ 4^ 2^/2 776.. \/G86 v/lGv/128. [1r^ T 1 i . ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 755. 754. 4\/50 4 SVlOOO. 761.294 753.1+J 756. + V22 + + 12 V2b8  760. JU. 2^3(^2^21 + 4^3^:0.
. 789. . 14 791. f x Va z Va f x + Va a. 790. 87 ac + 6t  12 ^ + 2 Vab Simplify 801.IIEVIEW EXERCISE y/a 295 f 780.VlO. + 2V21.2V3* ^ 807. x 782. 16 + 2V55. 10 785. 3812VIO. y/a + Va Va x x + x 781. 793. 806. a 9442V5. 7 + 3 V5 ( 7 7  3 V'5 ( 2 4 73V5 + 3V5 + V3 + V3 4  5 . 786. Find the square roots of the following binomial surds: 784. . 787. 3J . Va 809.2 V30.12VIT.4 V(j. 103 788. c 792. 13 799. 7512V21. . 92VI5. 794. 783.
13 = 0.Vc^lJ . 831. f 2 VaT+1 1 a: 832. 829.296 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA . 9 7 3 + V3a:+ = 0. 815. + ViTli + V7 . 816. V3 f 1 V4a. x/aT+l . 814.\/2y  810. 811.4 = 0. Va: + 28 f + V9 x .g. VaT+lJ f ^l .V2 ar 10. Find the sum and difference of (ar + V2yx 2)* and 1.f 5 = V5x + 4. V2a: Va: + 3 + ar 2 Vx f 1 834. (x a: 2 ) 4 . Va: . \/12 a.  5 + V3 f 12 817. 812. 836.28 = 4 V2 ar 14. \/2(r+ /3 a: 1) + v/2 x + a: 15 = 13. = 1. + 103Var. 3 x + 2 . V14 a. /9ar a: = 17. 2\/^"+~5 + 3Vor7 = V25 . 820. 830.V? = 813. 819. 833.1 V* + 60 = 2 Vx~K5 + V5. 818. + Vx .79.
64. a. 64 a 866.12\/(ar44)(5z~ = 36. 8a: 2 4 f 8 a: + 2 19a. 8 . 876. a* * 1 + a8 8 a. 6 2 f 3 6 s. 846. 8 a. a.ab9 ft*. +3 4 +  4. 6. a. 864. 8 860.1000 6. 861.28 a 4 xy 8 80. a 8 869. x 11 a^ J 13 854. a: : Resolve into prime factors 843. a. x* 8 ^ 8 2 a#* a. x 8 2 857. 871.KEVIEW EXERCISE 838. x 4 + f 2 a. 8 + 4 4 ar 2 2 a.3 . y 4. 8 4a: 8 a. 4 x* 847. 2 f 2 18a: f + 16. + 512 y8 874. a: 849. 875. 19 x 14. x 6 x4 f + + a: x f 1. 863. 4o. 5 a 4 7 a8 . a. 275 8 l.3 Va: 2 . . a 8 850. a 8 873. . 40 x 2 7 f 49. 8 8  13 a. 27 y 8. 4 x 8 858. a. f b**. 2 a: 64 y*.3 a:.1)+ + Vo: 2 + 3 x f 5 = 7 .7x + 3 = 3ar(a. + 216 rt aty a 10 . 9. V4 x 2 . 4 a: 2 842. 8 8 848.10 = 118. 855. 845. 839. 851.a. 5 x* f 297 9) 11 x . 8 2a. . 8^27^. 844. . 852. 856.10 x f 1 = 10 x + L * 2 . f 12. 27 862. 853. a 18 4. a*" & 6n . z*y 8 l64a. a: 2 + 4\/3^~. a l0m .12. a 872. 865. 8 + a: 5 8 a. + . 2 f" + a/ 15. 2 x 3. 868. 840. 4 a. . + 1.  3x a. a: . 870. 16 859.x*y + 3x f 2.1. f 841. 729 867.3 x .
xy 2 a: a: ?/ a. a: + y 2 = 34. 1 x 893. 878. ar(ar + y ) 2 2 2 2 xy .35. a: a. 883. M1 891 1 . 2 3 2 z3 xy + y = 7.xy + y 2 = 19. 894.15. 2 + ary = 8 y + 6. 896. y(a:2 + y 2 ) = 25 x. 900. y 2 2 8f. 5x 3 exactly divisible 879. . 2 + 3 y 2 = 43. . 890. x 8 3 = 13:3. a: 888. 886.sy = 198. 2 . y*+ xy . z 2 898.5 xy + 4 f = 13. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Show Show 3 ? that 99 + 1 is divisible by 100. . 2 + xy = 28. a. x*xy. a. What must be the value of m and n to make 8 + mx 2 + nx f 42 exactly divisible by 2 2 and by a. f a: a: 4 ?y = 481. +y f y = 7.Vi' + 1 1_3. . a: 1 1 _ 5 892. 8 8 + y y 9 9 a: = = 37 a: 152. 2 2 = 16 y. : x 3? Solve the following systems 881. 2 = 2 + 5.y = 2 ay + a a# = 2 aa: + 6 a. that 1001 79 of 1 is divisible by 1000. 3 x 2 .y 2) = 20. f ?/ a: a: . xy(a:y + 1) = 6.y 2 = 2 y + 2. 4 2 2 + afy 2 + f ary + y = 37.y 2 + V(j. 887. y y 2 y 2 1121. 889. x a: lI = xz .298 877. a# f + xy = 126. 901. y = 28. a. 899. = ? + p"iaL+L=13. xy + y = 32. a:y . a: 2 897. x 882. For what value m is 2 #3 mx* by x  880. . + 2y=\2. 885. 2 + xy = 10. 5. 2 + y 2 . 895. . a: 884. + ary + 2 = 37.18. 2 . y 2 4.1 = 2 a#. 2 + 2 f = 17. 2 f ary = 8 + 3.
or or a? a: a: .y)^ 03 926 12 +y +y 927. 905. x + y}(x + y) = 273.y) = 33. y 2 + 3 ary = 2. x + y 2 = aar. 2 y 2 f ay/ = 16. 2 + y = 2 a 4. + 2 ary = 39. (a. 912. y 49(x 2 2 = 6 2 (x 2 + y 2). 923. 7 + 4 y f 6 ary = 0. (* 918. a. 2 2 2 916. yz = 24. y 2 + xy = b 2 925. (o. . a: * a: a: ar 928. a: y zx 12. 907. x 4 299 xy z 904. = 8. .16 y 3 8 = . 4 (a. + y = 9. 2 2 f 4 a: ar// or f a. + y 8 = 189. f y 2 x 2 y = 1. a o o 2 j + a:y = 2. .y = a(ar + y). x 2 ry + y = 3. 7 y . 911.3(* + y) = 6.3) 2 f (y . xa 903. ?/ ^: ^f!i^2. ary y = 8. xy + 2 y 2 = 65. 906. + ary = a*. 3 :r(3 .#y + 2 = 27.23 = 200. + a. a:y xy 929. *y . # + xy + y = 7. y . ny ft ma: = * a 2 m*.x) = 21. 2 913. ^ 2 .y) (3 y . (0 Vx f 10 f v^+T4 = 12. a: a. (!) * . x* + ary f y 2 = 9.y) (a? . * + y = 444. 2 * 2 ~ g. L/ay = a: + 5? + g = ^ + g. xy + x= 15. 3 y 8 ) =1216. + ?/) . y + a:y = 180. Vary + y = 6. 921. + 2 y) (2 + ?/) = 20. x f 2 a:y = 32.3)2 = 34. 9 f 8 y f 7 ay/ = 0. ^ 2 + 2 a:y = a a 2 3 a: a: a. 914. 23 x 2 . (3 x . 909. 3 y 2 + xy = 1.6. 910. 2 5 xy = 11. y x 2 = by.r a. xy 2 2 x 2y 2 = 0.y). 2 915.REVIEW EXERCISE 902. 917.y2 = 22. + y)(a. + 2 a:y + = 243. y # 2 2 f f y = 84.2 y) = 49 2 919. 908. 920. y 3 2 2 922. 2 924.V + y 2 = + xy + y a = (a? .
Find the sides of the rectangle. The diagonal of a rectangle equals 17 feet. 937. the The sum of the perimeters of sum of their areas equals 617 square feet. is 3. much and A then Find at what increases his speed 2 miles per hour. Find the side of each two circles is IT square. and also contains 300 square feet. (y + *) = . 944. find the radii of the two circles. The sum of the perimeters of sum of the areas of the squares is 16^f feet. The sum of the circumferences of 44 inches. + z)=18. a second rec8 feet shorter. and B diminishes his as arrives at the winning post 2 minutes before B. y(x + y + 2) = 133. The difference of two numbers cubes is 513. z(* + y + 2) = 76. and the sum of their areas 78$. = ar(a? f y + 2) + a)(* + y 933. the difference of their The is difference of their cubes 270. and the sum of their cubes is tangle certain rectangle contains 300 square feet. 34 939. two squares is 23 feet.102. In the first heat B reaches the winning post 2 minutes before A. A and B run a race round a twomile course. Tf there had been 20 less rows. s(y 932. the area of the new rectangle would equal 170 square feet. two squares equals 140 feet. *(* + #) =24.000 trees. The sum of two numbers Find the numbers. 942. and the difference of 936. A plantation in rows consists of 10. two numbers Find the numbers. Find the numbers. The perimeter of a rectangle is 92 Find the area of the rectangle. Find the length and breadth of the first rectangle. (3 + *)(ar + y + z) = 96. In the second heat A .300 930. Assuming = y. rate each man ran in the first heat. 931. there would have been 25 more trees in a row. y( 934. and 10 feet broader. 943. (y (* + y)(y +*)= 50. 935. + z) =108. 152. If each side was increased by 2 feet. diagonal 940. . feet. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA (*+s)(* + y)=10. and the Find the sides of the and its is squares. feet. is 20.square inches. A is 938. How many rows are there? 941. is 3 . 2240.
The diagonal of a rectangular is 476 yards. What is its area? field is 182 yards. The area of a certain rectangle is 2400 square feet. The area of a certain rectangle is equal to the area of a square side is 3 inches longer than one of the sides of the rectangle. The sum of the contents of two cubic blocks the of the heights of the blocks is 11 feet. its area will be increased 100 square feet. 950. 952. A certain number exceeds the product of its two digits by 52 and exceeds twice the sum of its digits by 53. and travels in the same direction as A. Find its length and breadth. 949. the area lengths of the sides of the rectangle. that B A 955.REVIEW EXERCISE 301 945. sum Find an edge of 954. The square described on the hypotenuse of a right triangle is 180 square inches. if its length is decreased 10 feet and its breadth increased 10 feet. Two men can perform a piece of work in a certain time one takes 4 days longer. the difference in the lengths of the legs of the Find the legs of the triangle. . was 9 hours' journey distant from P. unaltered. set out from two places. Find two numbers each of which is the square of the other. Two starts travelers. triangle is 6. the digits are reversed. When from P A was found that they had together traveled 80 had passed through Q 4 hours before. If the breadth of the rectangle be decreased by 1 inch and its is length increased by 2 inches. Find the number. whose 946. is 407 cubic feet. and the other 9 days longer to perform the work than if both worked together. Find the number. A number consists of three digits whose sum is 14. and if 594 be added to the number. at Find the his rate of traveling. each block. Find the width of the path if its area is 216 square yards. the square of the middle digit is equal to the product of the extreme digits. overtook miles. . Find in what time both will do it. at the same time A it starts and B from Q with the design to pass through Q. A and B. 953. A rectangular lawn whose length is 30 yards and breadth 20 yards is surrounded by a path of uniform width. distance between P and Q. Find the eter 947. P and Q. 951. . and its perim 948. and that B.
Find an A. f + 1 .to infinity.  2. 5. (to 2 n terms). Find n. difference.. P. Find the sum of 4. . 958. 3 + 5 7 + . 971. 966. 1 to n terms. Evaluate (a) . 3 . the terms being in A.x*(x 3 f 8) + y) + (2x + f) + (3 x + y 8 ) 4. 1G series ..141414.. 975. 4 4 to 7 terms . Sum Sum to infinity. .. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Sum to 32 terras.... *" 968. Sura to 24 terms.. fourth of the unity.. P. ^ Vfirst five 959..>/) to infinity. Find the Find the common 977..321? 965.454. '. 5. and 976. 974. to infinity..V2 . x(x to 8 terms. Sum to 20 terms. 969..3151515. !Ll^ + n .. 16 962..1 4 f j$V . 957. 964. P. 4. : + f 24 21 24 4f 32 36 1G 10. ^ 1 .. Find the difference between the sums of the series 5 n + !Lni n " 4 4. J. Sum Sum Sum to 10 terms. are 1 and sum of 20 terms. n to n terms. . 970. ^1 + Vj 1 2  . 36 963.4142 . are 29 and 53. \ ..302 956. such that the sum of the 1 terms is one sum of the following five terms. = 4. to n terms. Find n f (ft) . first ? n+l(n + l) The 10th and The term and the T + ( + +!) V (to J' infinity). 961. P. . 12434+ j I 967. 972. (x 4 to n terms.. the first term being Find the sums of the 960. to 7 terms. How many Sum Sum terms of the series 1 + 3 + 5 + amount to 123. 9th and llth terms of an A. (x + O 2 4 y 2 ) + O 8 + y*) + y) + x(x 2 4 y 2} 4. s  88.v 973. + (iiven a +  4 d . 18th terms of an A.
all A perfect number is a number which equals the sum divisible. 985.01 3.. such that the product of the and fourth may be 55. P. 987. .. Insert 22 arithmetic means between 8 and 54.. 989. 4 grains on the 3d. and the sum of the first nine terms is equal to the square of the sum of the first two. 986. : + 9   V2 + . Find the first term.04 + . to oo. 5 11. of n terms of 7 + 9 + 11+ is is 40.2 . 303 979. to n terms. P. 2 grains on the 2d.001 4. How many sum terms of 18 + 17 + 10 + amount . and of the second and third 03. Insert 8 arithmetic means between 1 and . Find four perfect numbers. 992.+ lY L V. Find four numbers in A.1 + 2. named Sheran. then this sum multiplied by (Euclid. 0.. who rewarded the inventor by promising to place 1 grain of wheat on Sessa for the the 1st square of a chessboard.001 + . Find the number of grains which Sessa should have received. first 984. If of 2 of integers + 2 1 + 2'2 by which is it is the sum of the series 2 n is prime. to infinity may be 8? . and so on. "(. The 21st term of an A. P. to 105? 981.. doubling the number for each successive square on the board.3 ' Find the 8th 983.. v/2 1 + + + 1 4 + + 3>/2 to oo + + . Find n. 990. Find the value of the infinite product 4 v'i v7! v^5 . The sum 982. Find the sum of the series 988.) the last term the series a perfect number. and the common difference. The term. is 225.. 980.. What 2 a value must a have so that the sum of + av/2 + a + V2 + . of n terms of an A. 1. The Arabian Araphad reports that chess was invented by amusement of an Indian rajah.REVIEW EXERCISE 978.
are unequal. (I) the sum of the perimeters of all squares. after how strokes would the density of the air be xJn ^ ^ ne original density ? a circle is inscribed. If a. 1003. 997. Two travelers start on the same road. (a) after 5 strokes. . Under the conditions of the preceding example. at the same time. Each stroke of the piston of an air air contained in the receiver. P. and G. The sides of a second equilateral triangle equal the altitudes of the first. One of them travels uniformly 10 miles a day. are 28 and find the numbers.304 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 993. c. of squares of four numbers in G. The sum and product of three numbers in G. 1000. Insert 4 geometric means between 243 and 32. and if so forth What is the sum of the areas of all circles. 512 996. and the fifth term is 8 times the second . the sides of a third triangle equal the altitudes of the second. are 45 and 765 find the numbers. The sum and sum . 998. Insert 3 geometric means between 2 and 162. (6) after n What strokes? many 1002. (6) the sum of the infinity. P. and so forth to Find (a) the sum of all perimeters. in this square a circle. In an equilateral triangle second circle touches the first circle and the sides AB and AC. 994. The fifth term of a G. AB = 1004. 995. P. The side of an equilateral triangle equals 2. ABC A A n same sides. pump removes J of the of air is fractions of the original amount contained in the receiver. is 4. In a circle whose radius is 1 a square is inscribed. inches. 999. in this circle a square. areas of all triangles. prove that they cannot be in A. ft. and so forth to infinity. Find (a) the sum of all circumferences. third circle touches the second circle and the to infinity. 1001. P. P. The other travels 8 miles the first day and After how increases this pace by \ mile a day each succeeding day. many days will the latter overtake the former? . find the series.
Find the middle term of ( . 1008. Find the middle term of 1020.l) w f . 2 ) 5. Write down the expansion of (3 1007. Find the coefficient a: X  \88 1 in 1019. Find the two middle terms of (a *2 x) 9 . 1012. Find the two middle terms of ( ( 9 . Write down (x the first four terms in the expansion of + 2 #). 1009.REVIEW EXEHCISE 1005. ) 1021. (12 #) 7 . Find the eleventh term of /4 x >> .iV 2i/ 5 . a: 8 7. Find the middle term of (a$ bfy. Find the two middle terms of 1013. (1 1018. Write down the 1 5a  6 V . Find the 9th term of (2 al 1010. 1014. Find the middle term of (a + b) 1016.ft) 19 . . Find the fifth term of (1  a:) 1015. Write down the (a first 305 three and the last three terms of  *)". . Expand  2 a. x) 18 .o/) 14 . 1006. + lQ . coefficient of x 9 in (5 a 8 7 . 1011.
.
.181 105 " Complex fraction " Evolution Composition . signs of Algebraic expression . . 246 91 " multiple. 97. . . Aggregation. 8 .. .. .241 45 45 Dividend Division Divisor Axiom . sum Consequent Consistent equations 210 27 10 18 ... .INDEX [NUMBERS REFER TO PAGES. graphic tion of representa .. . . ... lowest ratio " '* . Discriminant Discussion of problems Arrangement of expressions Average .. .. Constant Coordinates Cross product 155 148 41 " Alternation 123 Antecedent Arithmetic *' 120 Degree of an equation Difference . 129. . . Brace Bracket Character of roots .193 11 .. . linear literal Common ** * difference .. 249 246 20 10 23 193 .. 160 in quadratic form 191 .. Checks Coefficient 20. . 232 169 807 .. . 54.130 . 129 54.Base of a power Binomial " theorem 54 8 45 130 10 255 9 Elimination Equations ' 63 consistent fractional . ...... . quadratic .. .108 160 " . . . 158.. . 49 Clearing equations of fractions 108 8 ' graphic solution... 37.. ..... numerical ... 9.] Abscissa Absolute term . . . 112 54 54 251 .. . ... 148 178 Conditional equations Conjugate surds .. . 9 ** ... 123 . .178 Completing the square ...210 130 " Addition value 4 15. 232 mean progression . simple simultaneous . t 53 120 . . 19.
212 . 227 .251 Graphic solution of simultane. .31. . 253 28 70 1. . exponent . 189. . 227 geometric . 195 Extreme Factor " theorem " II... 205 148 148 27 86 Ordinate Origin . 9. 83 10 19 Polynomial Polynomials. inversely 122 numbers . 109 102 ..154 Order of operations " of surds . 178 45 221 205 Law of exponents . directly. Geometric progression . 243 7 . 205 . numbers . 112 . . common factor Homogeneous equations Identities . Imaginary numbers . Graphic solution of simple equations Graph of a function Grouping terms Highest . . . Known numbers . 17 65. 184 54. 120 Member. Mean " 81) proportional Mean. addition of " square of . . law of Extraneous roots . 84. 34.. 91 . Inconsistent equations . .105 Monomials 03 Multiple. Insertion of parentheses . G... .. 45.. 195 4 13 ous equations 100 158 .108 Minuend . L. .. 45. 195 33.. . . C Factoring 222 Literal equations . 63. 45 Laws of signs ... arithmetic 346 120 338 341 53 70. . 143.. . . Negative exponents 11 . . 42 7 Independent equations Index . . .808 Exponent Exponents. 241 123 geometric . 180.. Like terms Linear equation .. . 130 9 Power Prime factors Problem. 89 235 Parenthesis Perfect square 53 . . 1 Quadratic equations Quotient Radical equations Radicals . . 23 10 91 102. . Mathematical induction . . P . first and second . 120 Lowest common multiple 70 . Fourth proportional Fractional equations u Fractions. 114.C Multiplication . . . . arithmetic . 246 251 121 Inversion Involution Irrational Proportion 105 Proportional. . Product '* 76 Infinite.. INDEX 8 . Integral expression Interpretation of solutions Progressions. .
Sum.. 4 155 9 " of .. 45 Trinomial 240 . . . 9.... .. . . 129. polynomial . 255 120 54 10 sum and product of ...... .... .INDEX Ratio national Rationalizing denominators 76. 232 Vinculum Zero exponent 40 42 197 Printed in the United States of America.. absolute 54 Variable .... binomial Third proportional Transposition .. algebraic Surds .. 27 17 Unknown numbers . 193 Rule of signs Series Signs of aggregation Similar and dissimilar terms Similar surds 33.. . 23 18 228 27 9 205 10 Term " absolute 54 193 178 Theorem... 309 171 133 120 Square root Substitution 205 Real numbers Reciprocal 215 Subtraction 169 Subtrahend 104 22 Remainder theorem Removal of parenthesis Root Roots of an equation " character of " .. 1 Simple equations Simultaneous equations Square of binomial 205 Value.
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ANSWERS TO SCHULTZE'S ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA COMPILED BY THE AUTHOR WITH THE ASSISTANCK OP WILLIAM P. MANGUSE STrtn gork THE MACMILLAN COMPANY 1918 All rights reserved .
Gushing Co. Mass. 8. BY THE MACMILLAN COMPANY. Published September. Reprinted April.. 1910. Berwick <fe Smith Co.COPYRIGHT. August. 1910. 1913. 1917. Norwood. 1916.A. NorfoooS J. Set up and electrotypcd. December. . U.S.
126. 2. 16.000. 1. 3.. + 1. = 5 81. 16 in.000 negroes. 6. B 10 mi. Seattle 12 Philadel 9. 2. 15. 1. 6. westerly motion. 2. 9. 1. 24. 7. Page Page Ilis expenditures. 9. 1. 12. 210. ^.1. 8. 25. 3. T . 26z.000. 3. 48 ft. 1. 16. 512. Page 1. 13 S. 106.. Page?. 150. 2. 8. 144. 21. 9 16  larger than 7. $100. 10. $40. 0. 27. 16. 8. 8. 16f 2. 2. 36. C $ 16. 14. 6. arithmetic. 12. 9.. 16 in. B $80. 1 16. 12. 16. 7. 2 ~ 15. 32.. 6. 2. 7. 12. 22. 16. 6. 16. 28.000. b. 2. 4. 1.  2 p. 32. 7. in 12. 4. 29. 2. 2. 8 ft. Australia ft. 12. c. 3. Not 5. 1. 3. 5. 23. 1. 7. 26.$9400. 12. x. 20. 30. 73. in. 0. 18. Page 8.  22 20. 9 = 4. 3. A 38 mi. 3. 1. 3. 89. }. 11. 15. 49. 1. B $20. 4. 14. 5000. 19. 6* 16. 13 V. 24. 18. C $1(50.000 Indians..150. 2.000.000. Page 4. 2. A Bl 7. Yes. 20 \. 15. 30?. 28. 1. (a) (/>) 1. 13. 32. 3. 10. 5.. 6 yd. ft. 4. . 3. 11. 3. B $ 128. 18. 1. $ 1 50 10. 14. 1. 3. 4. 37 S. 32.8. A 15. _ 32. . 25. B $4700. 49. sign. 59.000. 7. 16. 18.3. 8. 85.  1. 17. 3 below 0. 20 B. 5.  13. .ANSWERS Page phia 8 in. . 3 m. 21. 10. 6. 5. 9. 5. 12.. 8. x. 5. 24. 7. 10g. 18. 7m. 6.2. 72 = = 216. 2. 14. in.. 14. 3* 7. 64. 2 5. 12. 25. A $90. 3. 17. 192. 17. 19. South America 46. 14. 15. 27.21 24. 2  Page 8. 16. 10. 20 jo. 3. 4. 14 11. 21. 10. V 23. 25. 4. 13. 20. $160. Ot 15. 13.  1. 3. 2. 6. 20. 256. 9. 22. 19 4. 11. 15. i . 27.. 576. 9. 115. 9 14. 9. 5. 16. 17. 19. 37. 13.000. 8 13. 5. 1. 18. 3. 3. A . 10. 6. 20. 2. 6. 9. sign. 8. is $10.12. 11. Page 13. . 12.00000001. 7. 128. 1. 17. 7. 10. 13. C $60. per sec. 6. 11. 6. 14. 29. loss. 14.000. 12. 9 m.C. 10. 13 d. 9. Multiplication.
vi 14. 15. 4 y/ . t. 1.  40. ft n. 92. 314 sq. . 4. 16. 23.a . 30. jrif 4 9. Page 23. 30.900. 17. 37. 173. 13. 5x+3. Page 7. .q 4. ft)  3 /A  8x :i (/* 4 ft)(X 36 2 "'* ~ 5V (a ft). + ft). 0. 13.  3. 14. 18. 11. Trino inial..<>Gq. 3. 0. 31. 3.ab. 27.. 1. Polynomial.. 28. 1. 0. = 81. It. 237. 1. 4. 28. 3 . 30. (r) 78. yyz+xyz*.  12. 29.6) 38. 58. 27. 31. 7. 21. ..94(>.4 ft. 15. 4<> 2 ?t Vc. v'ft a4 4 a a 41. ft. 22. 14:). 22( 19. 21^.. 31. 19. 1. 21.. 2. (b) 135 mi. 14. 0. 9. 43w//2 17. . (ft) $40. 17. ft. 0.9?/2 8.4  2ft 2 33. arty 1 20. 7. Va'+Y2 8^2 . 9. 4. 04. 17. ^). 5. 41.5f> sq. <i~ 26. a ft c. f  5e 35. a2 4 15^44. 25.. $3000 Page 6. 8. 42. :J!>r'. 20. 57. m + 3(a. 35.r 2 . 13. 32 2 ftc.14 sq. 20(. 1. 19. 8. y. ??i??. 27. 11. mi. (r) 2G7. 5. ft. 0. 3.000 sq. 25. 15. 4. _ 4 . 9. 104. ^. r+l. 12. 4 9/^/rl 2. 16. WIN + wiw. 16. in. 11. in. = ()501. 20. 1. 17. 21 a 3 4 10. 51 f. 26. 27.r f 15. 4. 34.rty8. 27. 50..'J. 7 7. 13. 3(c4a). w. 12 a. 15. i:5. 2. 3. 24. 10. 2x' 2 5 . 13. 7. 6. 23. 8. 22. 25. Page 18. 9. 34. 33. 5. 12. (r) 2. r:A 29. 0. 5. 26. 0. 35.. +/2(/. 3 y v> <Mft 3* 2. 16.1.  2 4 13 ft 2 . 15a. 18. a3 a2 4 a 4 1. a 32. . 38 ab. (a) 50. 5.3 * 10 r5 <3 . r/ \(\xyz. 27. 2oVmf?i. 14. 00 24 04 ft. \'\ 4. 29. 8. (c) S(i. Monomial.  11. Binomial. (ft) mi. 3. rt.ii ANSWERS Page 11.. 33.r~ f 34. 3. 49. (c) 8. 13 cu. in. (ft) 12. 14.ft) 4. (a 4 4. 13.'JO ft. 18. 32. 14. 5. c. (<7) (a) 314 sq.  1. 18. 15. 6. //'. ]*.ft. 2. (ft) 7. 9. (V) (rf) (ft) 50. (59. I. m 24. 10.. ft' 3 . 2ftx. 24. 18.000 . 8. x^ 20. (a) 200. . 3. 17. o^ft. 38. 36. 7. (a) <> sq. Page 21. 8. 12. 10. 14. 12. 1. 12. 39. 28.32 c2 > ft 3 . Polynomial. 3a. 32. . :. 8.  xV 3 y. 22. 3. 0. + 5. ft.GOG. 14. ft. (ft) Page 2. 3.. ft f 19. #1111. 35.5 (ft) sq. 12yd. 8.x. 1. 36. (a} 100 1(5 cm. (r) 2000 m. 3rf 27. 6. in. sq. (a) r>23ifcu.  0. 11. 2V^4^/ 8 x* 6. + v> 2 . 12. 2. 16. .. 20. $80. II.~4. 7. 0* Page 3 w" 0. $r*y 4 3x?/ 4 m* run  . 19. 3 a* + 2 at*. Page 31. 21. Pagel4r. 4. . 2. 240. 15. 5. 22. 2. 6<t. 5.
2 a2 2m 2 4. ?/. 8 . 1 + 45. 11. 2 6. 38. 24. + 4 m4 4 8 7?i 8  G m. 3 a3 & 41.  b. a + a. j)(g1. . 37. r. 31. 2. 10. w* ( . a 3& . 34. a. 8a*b8<tb'\ a + /> fc + 4 r. 14. /> Zmn + qt G/ 4 .  14 afy . 2m + 2w. + 6. _5a<>&43c. a2 9. 8. 8. 20. 9. 12. w 17.4 d. 5. . a 3a 4 2 &. ft Exercise 17.2 ft 2 r2 10. f ft 9. 5 2 Page 29. 50.x f 1 2 . 26. n*. a2 4 2 ft 4 Ve. 7.8(c + a). 24. 15. a 6 2 . x a8 1.7. 2 2 2 6. 1. . ^ <. 7. 56. 26. (2n' 43p 47 ).Oa: + 10. 2 4. . 10 x. 2a: 2 4x. a a. 2 a f 6 414.2 a.6 x + 0) 16. 10. 2. c. 20.4c 3 8 8 J.4x. 2.l.abc. lOrt 15w4. 25. 5. (yz~d}. ..(a f 6) + 4(1 + c) . 12. 2. 2m(4? 2 4ir#(2. + a 2 f 2 a 4. 2 2. 4. a + (ftc4df). 55. 32 w 2 w. !  </ . 25. 364c.h. + c 4 d x + 6 e. ?>4tl 53. 6. (mn} 11. 1. 58. .ws 2 ft) . G. 29. 2. \ :{ 2 a 48. a). + 2y.5 4 2 3 ?/ .  b* 4 r 1 . . c2 . 10 m. 7  a + 2 + c. 25 47. (w4w)(ww). 4r 2 . 40. 42. 5. 19.a . 1. M + 10. Page 28. a 10w.  4 b 17 y*. 16. 1. ?/i 13. 3.2. 18. ti. 3 Ji 8 . 19. . 2a. 1 4. 2m. Page 7. a 4 + ft.11.a'2 . 31.  G J8 r  4 a <?. t). 35. 25. 7. 13. Exercise 16.2 . x  + 3z. 17. 3 a . ?> 22. 2. 0. m*  n*. 2 3. 26. 8 8 . _2?> 2 + 3 x 9.  12. f 2 ?/  2. 2 . 3 nv> w 3 a 24 npy . 5x 2 rt ft. 18. 2 3x f z.  17. 814. 13. 3 m. a2 24.r 2 + 4?/ 4l). 30.5 z?/ + 3 y . 8 b. 0. 36. 2 + a4l). 4.1. 43.a f 54. &. (5x47 3. 2. x3 . 6. 19.a~.(7x2 Ox2). s_r>a5.aft. '  . 15. a4 4 4. a  ISjfat.  1. Page 8. . 2. a' 4ab + ?/. 2x 4 a 13. 33. 51. 24 b 46. 8 + 2 a . 11. ' 12 m?/'2 27. . 2 . mn..2 57. c. . + 8. 22.c. 21.  23. a 52. 8. 17. 28. ( 7.4. 14. 4ft ~. 7 a5 1 . 3. a f 2 f 2 9. G a bd. 0. 12. 6.a*. + 4 c. 3.3x 2 2 tf. _ Page 30. 1. 2 17. 2// 16. 10. :5 41. 6.  a: 2. 21. 18.AXSH'EJtS Page 23. 7. 24. a 3 . ar. 1.5. 14. 21. 2. 59.r. 12. 14. . Page 44. 4 21. 20. ab a. 32. . a  49. 36. 4wipg>' 27. 22. 11. . 4.r 2. 4. ri\ 18.r' 2 z2 2 4 a 1. 4. 16. 5. 15.'U4j>. 34 39. 2. 3m2 n 9 (a + $) 2 . ii\ 22. 2 y' 4 .1 . 2 4 5 2 a3 1. . 4.(2 x2 . 7  # + 12.3 6. . 2 a 37.
44 aWc 16 abxy. 4. Page 7. 11. 29. 33. 34.11 xyz . a: . . 60. 1. 10. 5. 2 w +2 2 . 19. 15. 12 ^.22 ac + 30 c2 + 43 2 2 8. 1. 20. 2 + aft 4 ft 2. 0.14 w 2 2 . Page 3. (+3)x6=+16. 2 wiw 8 + 2 wiwp 2 2 x*y* 15. 20 aW.>(/ r . 35.35 a*b*c8 f 14 a?/e . 8. iSx8 . 108. 161b. . 2 2 +2621ft 2 . . ft 17. . etc. 30. .r + 7 1S + 2 mp. 12. 4. 6". 66 39 k* . 4aWy. 1400. //. 30. 4. 120. 343. 22. 15. +.1. 4 a8 . 21 a'&c. 25.16 a 2 + 32 a . 8. 28. . 360. a. 14. 60. 33. 3 a 2 46. 2. a: 3a: 2 (2a:f iHa. 17. 19. 25 4 4. 84. 28. 20.16 x2/ 5 4. 12. 37. 18.21. 1. 5. 3(*+0 + 2). 4 m3 + 9m2 + m.14 . 210. r' 2 a: j/ (? ft . 20. a 8 . ?> 4 . 10c 2 19rd+0c? a I' .25 + 14. 23. 4. 30. . 17. 11.6 2 . Page 36.14 xyz + 14 a:y0. 9. Page 5.69 rt + 21 132 + r . 13. 10. 21. 13. 7 + r/m 4^4^414. Page 38.8 4a12 a2 ftf 5aft2 f 6 6. a*b*c.12. 6. a + ft. 7.. 23. 6. 7G . 8. 64. 34. 24. 29.14 a 2 _6g8 + 9 2_i2g + 8. 20. 102.6 wiw 24 n 2 36 + 65 ww . + O4 66 . 18> ^* = a .57 p6 3 2 4 25. 2. 2 ). +15. 1.. 42. 2 2 2 . 1.28 p'^/.3 a 2 6 + 3 aft 2 .(3x2_4^+7). 4. 11. 6. 15. 2 a2 (y 2 . 15 lb. 4 jcy*z*>.21 a 3 c2 21. 14f 5. 21. 13. 4 7> 4 :j !} . 3. . 6. a. 2*8f x2 6x4. 28. 30 n?b*c*. 22. 14. a. 7. 3 ?i w 1(5 pag'V 2 W 2 . . Page 35. 5aft(a 126 2).10 3 30 a a 4 c f 15 aWc . 108. 17. 16.. 3. 16. 26. 23. x2 xy42^. 25. 30. 16. 22. 3300. 2 . 9 w 2 + 13 n . 2z 8 s 2 3zl. 2 * 80 . 90. 18. 2. 16. 2 8 xy f 4 a. + 58 . 7. 10. ll 2 i.15. ISartyW e*f*tj. 2. 76 8 a' 1 . s 9 ww. 27.r% 2 2 ry.8 12. 8.20 xyz . 38wiw. 161b. 4. 83 In + 1 n*.25 x* + 25 x + 20 .19p" + 19^ 10 . 9. 14. 20. 10.64 190 p6. . 2 ll9HH 2) + . 9z 8 16z2 9z + 10. 6 .:>/ .26. ! 2. 9 13. 13. 32. 21. 2 a*62 c2 + 11 a&c . 30. 770. 2''. 4200. Ox a 5 .32 y s s G . 3. .18 w w + 10 WI M . 18. 8 . 1. 1904. f 26. 16 51. 15. 14. 24. 216.iv ANSWERS + &)(. 127"'. 28. 27. 15. 24. 9. 18. 7. 30 ? 49 p*qh*t. 29. 27. 12. 15 q\ 6. 19. ?/ . m. 25. 34. ^^ = 20. 22. 14 m 2 . 33. 23.. 1. 4 fc. 0. 4 a2 . 18a% y. 18. 25. 04. 40 r 2 . 20. . + 7. 3 a 3 . 31.2. n (a6) 125.7(50. 2 7t A. 27. 27.000. 24. 18. 16.12. 36. 42.14 ?/i r?/6j/ 5. 31. 66 8W 34.6) =a2 31. 19. 11. . 16 lb. 12 x2 2 . 216. 8. (x f ?/)  a 12 10. 38 a*b 6 : 24. 17.19 + 2. 3. 2 ). 52 + 6s 12. 2 n8 29 a + 30.32. 24. 32. ci 5 . . 30. 26. fa 2.36 35. 30 j9 jt?g j . 29. 13.
4 .009. +4 34. n2 a4 6. 999. 1. 1). 2 a4 6 4 +8 a2 6 2 2x4 +7x 2 6 2 15 6 4 36.x2 + 6 x2y 2 . .ANSWERS 28. 10 a' 2 . 2 (6 a + 3) (3a66)(3a6&). . 36 a 4 . 29.020.5 ~ 81. (w+4)(m4). 3. 2xV+6x2y2^2 +22.r . r. 2 12. 4. 2 a' y' . 10 a 4 ?.3.2 y*. 11.10 x + 25. 2 4 a + 4. 17. 33.+ l5J x// + 9 2 2 4 ^ 4 ()Or 2 20. 23. x4 28. 56. (x  2) (x Page (rt2). 24 ab + 9 & 2 . . 2 j3 Z .996. m'2 +18?rt 2 ' + 81. s rc 47.2 6 + 13.15. a + 25. 36. . 39. ~ 6 20 .009. 27.2. 15. 2 62 V2 132. p4 + . 20a 2 21a + 4. 2 0)(p + 5). + a2 12 ab 2 8 0. 11. + <z 22 2 4 20 rt2 32. 15. 21 2 . ab. ^/> 8 4 .712. a + 25. (r ?/) (x 6 (b + 5 ?i)(& 50. 8)(?i (x2)(x3). 2). (n 2 5. 9801. 2. 25 a 2 6 2 . 2 . + 7 6)(3a~76>. 7> .4 12. 37. a2 ' + 48Z100. . 9990. x 4 ?/4 + ab . 33. 1. 41.84 a' 9. 41. x*2^f I. 40. 10. 6 2 + 6lf>0.ab .4 a&+ 4 &*. V + o ft .^. . 8.008. . 166. 10. 4 21. 8 38. 4 2 //.994. 10.^V"' . . 2 +10s281. (p 2. + 3)(3).500.6 y4 10. 1. 40.404. 7. 7 . 33. w'n 2 //^ + 25. 990. G a6 2. . 2 m3 + 4m2 . 37. 9. 32. 34.5 ?i m #2 4 ?7i%'2 4 .16 a3 f 50. 10. 10. +   5).020.1.00 + 37. + 4 t*. 8 a W . 40. p 2 . 36. 30 /><. 1. 9999. ) 4' 6/ 49. ^V^4 . 44. Page 12. a' . 4 x2 13. 484. 25. + 2 9. + 12. lflrt 2 8 + l.<* &2 + 106 + tt + . 12 x2 .004. fo*. 3. 2 . ' 46. + 10 + 121 y*. 35. 2 6' . 35.6.r* 2 30. 14. 4 . 25 r 4 ?/i 30.606. 7. 2 4 2 2 64 . ft' 11. 31. 4 + 25 q*. m 2 . 1. 27.x2y22.^ + a? + 1. x2 GiC+5. 2 1: 21. 4 a&c + c2 30 x 4 ?/ 23. 10.  12 xy +9 2 >2 ?/ 2. 39. . 24.000. 2 fr . 1. 8. . n + 2.6 xy .2 x + 2 x. 26. ^' J  7 f 12. 57. 30 x + 19 x3 . 6. 2 a' + 2 ?/ 5 + a 3.20. 52. 18. 5. ab . 4 m'2 40 (i V2 c 2 + 25 r 4 22. a2 >2 2 2  84 a a + 49.35 ab 9. Page 39.000. 10 p 2 g ?> 2 ?/ + 49 & 4 2 16. 998. x* . a4 4 ?/ . 2 (5 a 3). 10. 34. 28. 8.098. 53. 24.ri 17. a 2 . x 48.25. x4 4 121 4 ?/ . (46c + 5) (4 abc 43. 19.8.. 3wi2 m Page 42. ?/H)0. 5. 31. 26..54 p 2 + 81.201.001./ . 441. . 32. 19. 7. (w4)(w + l). 36. 10.6 x2 13.10 35. 14. x 2 f xy + 9 41. 31. 4. (a + 4) (a + 2). 2 a 2 + a . 9 4 /> . I/). 55. a + 56. + 4 a +4. m 3 j) 3 . (m + 6)(m3). 42. 6. 2. 38. r*d< x/2 ?/'2 18. ( 5) O5)(w + 3).14 jp + 49. 4x21. . a3 0. 25 25. 4.r . 6 x6 + 13 x3 .4 n. . 30. 10. 16. 29.810. 9.p132. 14.m 30 6 4 1. 45. . y.49. 10. (a (3 54. . . 51. +  m' 1. 10. Om2 4 6m 6. 22 x 2 ?/ 2 y + 121 x4 29. + 2 fz& + 2 i> + p + 9.
a 8 4. 4 a 2 4. Page 48. 14. 2 ?/ ft Page 2. r 7. .21 2 2 f + .r' ~ 16.lit x + 4.rw.2 1 //. 4. m'2 3. 7a3ft. . 3*y2 w + 1. 17. a r'43 ll'a^S 15. 5. 16.34. 6 <z 2 4 ft 3 . + 4. 3. 24. 8 x5 ? + 4 1. 50. 4.3^V.2 wZ 4. 4.5 a .  3 c. ?/2. 14. 4 x y 2 7 x + 5. ft. 47.c ft*/ 1  ft' ?/ . 9w 2 + 0m+ 1. 14. . ti'jry1 7.1. 22. 2 m2 4 2 w2 7. 4 d 2 4. r/2 4. 13. 6. ft 17. 1.25 c . aftc 52.8. . 16.11 _ 5x _ _ o 18. 26. . . 3. 8. + 16 r 4 + 12 a'2 //2 . . 19. 6.8 <r 2 2 ?/' .3 a 41. r ft. 17. 12. 15. 15.7 arty 4 4 x 2 //V2  3 Z2 3 1. 2 4 2 x 4. 2.3 ry. 75 a 2 29.8. 6.> 10. 5. 46.2. 7 r . 2 . m L 4. 2 ? 14 . 2 1. 21. a. 9. 2 ft 2 ?nc w . 5 4 a Oft. 3. '. 18. 5 aft 4 ft 2 4 8. a 10. 44. 2 4 3 9. . 5^418(7.rw f 8 . a 2 44 a2 ft' 4 ft 2 2 4. 1/*. 5. 49. 1. aft 4 tt ac 2 ftc. // 19. j) . 10. 2.3 5. 7. x4. 2. 13. w . 4 x. 4ft. 5. 4.9 d. 1000 1000 . .8 yn .1. a 2 . 2. .y3. 6x 3.r?/ j/.1. 9. x 4. Page 7. 8 r<ft 4 2 . abc 7. 1.+ 77 15. 13. 5.w. 13. a2 x 8 4 ft 8 . _ 2 a . 4./ 4. r//. 3 a.8 y. 4x43?/. . 11 4. 16.15.10 2 + z 2 410. 2 .23. Page 22. 3. aft 12. 4. as _ 10 16. 5. ft* ft / . i 2 tji. . 18. 2 a 3 ft. 12. 12. a 2 ft 4 9 c3 . z. 1.6 :rs 4.5 mp. 14.yar 4 */ ?/ Page 50.2 .2 ac . +w .n. 8. aft. 2. 13.2 2 . 6. 5 a  (5 ft. 8.2 ar. 3. 2.3 3.1. 17.29. 10. 135. 4.24 . 4 ac. 20 15.27 x 2 4. 11.1. 2 2 + 2 a. 12.2 .7. 3 5 a4  4 a2 4. 14.2 ftc .r" 20 S? . 6. a 4 4 ft. + 3. l 4 . Page 51. . 1.4. 13. :r !>.000.  10.9 4. *3 y 4 . c3. 8 x . 21. Osy. 3 aft 20. i 9. 4 n2 4 +p ft 2 42 2 aft 2 mn + 2 mp 4 10 a ft \ x* 4 4 2 z2 + 2 jrz a2 2 2 f 25  2 np. w 2 .2 2 2 8 . 10 ft. + c 2 4 aft2 ac + 4 ftc. c 12. x' u' 2 2 z~ 4. 01. 8. 5. 2 ?/' . 1. 8 ?/ . 9. 4 pq. 3 l48m47?n 2 20.10 xy*. yfl. y 7. 2 4. 5.2 aft 4.  11. 8.1. 9 5 4a' 2 ft 6. Page 11.r ?/ ??i ?). 125.VI ANSWERS 43.30 ftc. . Page 13.3 x 2 2 4. f>r* 4. 9.x^.25. 4 c m .r . /r . 2 ?/ 4. 7a 2 ftc 4 4c42a. 8. Exercise 2 a:// 26. 2 ^r ???' 2 .r?/. 8 ?/ . 19. sr 11.  5 z* . 6 x 2 t/ 2 4 . Exercise 27.1*5 2 r 2 . 4.1. G. 4xy + 13 <) . 9. 10. + x?/ 2 1. . 2 12.15 21.  .2 .12 aft 4 20 ac . 1. 3. 23. .r'^ 15. 11.5 n*.2 <</. 5. ??. 4 a* 4 9 11. 12.  12 y 25. 14 r 2 . x 2 + 2r f J. a 2 410 + 9 r 8 + w2l ftc.3 w 4*7 m 2 3 mn . 20. ft ? ft' ft ft.
ct. + 10 b + c ct. 11. 10. 32. y yr.. 24. d. 1. 10. ft. 100 d ct. ] 2 ri 42. Page 31. 2.100. 3. m=  100 2x=2(3x~10). ct. }f. x 48.r1. . 17. (a) ' 12. 4. 5. 4. 20. 13. 58. 2x + 35. 11. (</) 2a. % 4. 9. 59. 3x  1700) = 12.  />) a = all. 9.6 = *. 7. 3. 13. 4.  2\. vil 56.200) f(^ + (e) 200.. 43. ) 2^ x 20 =a 7.. 2=10. 45. f (I. m+ 11. + (d) 2 x + (3 sc 700) = (x f 1200)  x. n M. 4 f 39. 2. !). 29. y ?>i x + 26. x + 1=a. <>. lO. 2 ct. 3 9. 6. 38. sq. 57. f 6)(o 62. + f + b 2. 33. 5. x. 21 2. b. 44. 2. 42. 44.  6 10. ? 43. 1. 7. 7. fix. 34. s. 4^ = 100. . " lir. . 39. 26. 1. 30. Jj12.000. 0. 800 = x + 1300. 90 7 2 + 10 = c. / + y + a// 12 yr. 17. l. lOx 10 + w. 17. 18. 29. X 60. 100= ^. 0. a 8. (>. I. 19. 35. 15. (2 a. x 2y 10 act. 8. 3x2. + 3 = 2(3* . 2. ^ 12 sq.(3x  700) = 5. 41. 2b. y 50. 10) (6) 2 zf 20 3^740. 23. "mi.rr2. ct. </ 20. 16.p+7. 10 yr. 31. 19. 60 25 1. 20. 7. Page 13. 7. 16. (> 27. 10. 5. 36. 2. d + !. 18. Page 40. 5. ft. 4. 5.10) 100. 50= L 100 15. 28. (c) 2a? + 3 (/) (2fl58)h(8aria)=60. 5. r>?imi. 3. 36.. 23. 2.x700. 11. iL*. 7. 14. 27. 30. 8. ( a f 4.ab a. 8 n  10 yr. 12. (c) (2zf 600) (3 =4. 25. .  9 = 17 a. f = eZ 2 x. rn mi. 22. v (6) 2x. 6. 1. 00.7). I. 6. 41. xy ft. x 49. x = m. y 2z p= 3 (a c. 16. 14. ft. b. 47. 10. 100 14. Page 61. 10) + = (a) 2 x . . 7x 2 Page 21. x y $ 6 yr. (A) 3 x f (4 x . r tx mi. 1&. 4(a ft) c = 8. 10 a. 37. (d) 2a + 10 = n. (c) 2x. 13. 100 2. 2b 22. 6. 7. '^ .  1$. + 4x 3y 34. 10 x sq. 46. 10 >_&. 25. a 10. 'nj 100 a 28. 4. 33. 12. + 3x + 2y + 32. 1. 37.(3x+ = rraxlO. m +~m 3. # + 20yr. 40. Page 6. 38. y 100 a 24.r ct. 22.ANSWERS Page 9. 6. . = 5 ?i x 460. . 15. 20.
(*4)( + 11. 14. 2 2 ?/ 21. 30. 12. 14. 9. 20 yr. 14.411. 18. 10 yr. 6.0. 1. '2 > 10aVy(2a 2 ay43y 2 ). Page Page 4. 9.5.8. 16.000. Page Page 4. 100 1. 13 a 8 4 * 5 (53 xyz + x y'W). $40. 82 mi.000. 17.5p + 7 g ). 8. (z5)(z2). 15 in. 74. 20. 7. 8.000 Phil.. 2. 12 mi. 100. 1. 2. 24J. 6. (a + 6) (a + 3). 4pt. 10. 4. 480. ^ . 5. 21. 5$ hr. 10. Page 79. 10.000. 9. 12. 10 Mass. 23. 3. 5 Col.2).24. 5pt. 8 2 19. 6. 25 yr. (a + 4)(a + 8). 10 yd.000 ft. a a (a 8 a+l). 6. 40 yr. 15 mi. Page 7. 3 (a +&)(*. 8. 12. 14.79.  PageSO. 3. 11 pV (2 p8 ..210^. 200. 30 mi. 250. 15.000 ft.3. Y. 9. 14.000 copper.000. 15 yd. 1200. 5 lb. 9. 3. 90. 8. 6.0. z?/(4^ + 5xy . 1250. 13. 13. 13. 1 lb. 19. 600. 8(a6 2 +6c2 c2 a2 ). 7. 7 hr. 2. 5. 8 in. 78. 2 3 6 7.. 90 mi.. 10. 85 ft. 180. Page 7.3. 28yr. 71. 8. 13. 10 Cal. 10. ( + 4)(*2). 7. a 12. 20 yr.000. 18. 12.. 11 in. Page Page 480 12. 72. 6 aty (3 + 4 6) 2. .3). 22. 68. . 3. 11. = _?_(2ar + 1). (e) i* + A. 5. 2). + 7)(y3). (a 4) (a. 78. 70..6). 1. 20 yd. 15. 7a*fe(2a & l).1).000. 75.. Ib.. 8. (c) ^ v ' . 29. 150. 10. 6.vili ANSWERS (a) V J^. ? 2  = SJL+J10 13.. 1. Page 5.y"). 6. 13. 6rt 2 11.. Oaj(o62cd). (y + 8)(y2).3aftc + 4). 2. 4. k ' _ ft v J (d) 100 100 ' V ' ' 100 100 100 =^8000. 6. (y 13. 1200. 55. 3x (3r. 300. 1. (a5)(a4). 4. 9. 11. 67.. 70^. 2. 3 hr. (2a63?2_4 a /^) 16.16. 7. (y7)(y + 2). by 12 yd. 12. 18. 7. (yll)(y4). 10. (ro3)(w2).000 pig iron. 9 in.7.. (y8)(y + 2).000 Berlin. 25. 17. 17z8 (l3z + 2x'). .22.30) + (2s + 1) v v ' ' 5 18. 11. 42yr. 2. 4. MOO HXT 100 100 ^~ (5z30) =900. (m + n)(a + 6). 3. 10 yr. 4. 52. 8 12. 2 2 2 5. 3. 5. 14. 4. 50.10. 12.. 1. 5. 20. (6) (6 a 30) =20. 15. . 2$. 2. 200. (p + 7)(3a5&). ?(g ? g+ 1).000 N. 1. 17 7>c(2 a'^c2 .000. 8.(5z .2. 11.. 30. (a + 5)(a + 6).000 gold. 9. 1313. 80 A.21. 3. 15. 7. 30 yr. 15. 11 w(w' + wi ... 05. 8.13.11. Pace 65. 25.5. ~=90. w (/) 64. 45 in. 160 lb. 20.
(x + y4 )(x . 22. (4 13. 2 3 by2 Yes. 10. 10. (n2 + 12)(n 2 + 5). 8.3)(z2). 10. . Page 82. 1. 9. 9.8). . x (z + 2)(x + 3). (a2 + 10) (a2 2). 3)(3a. a*(5a f l)(flr . (m + n +p)(m + wp). 20. 24. + 9^)(oxy . (15a + 46*)(16a46). . 27. 14.11 6) (a 4. + 8)(g3). 10(3 5 6) 2 . Yes. 15. 19. 2 17. (w* (3a26). 7. (a 4 10) (a 4 + 3). + 3?i) 2 (5x2y) 2 . (y8) 2 2 . (m + n + 4p)(w + . 20. (13a +10)(13a 10).4p). Yes. Yes. 13. ix 18. (y + 4)(yl). Yes. 40 x. 10x2 (y9)(y + 2). 26.7)(2z f 1). (2 *+!)(* 9). (5a +l)(5a l). 4 (a . 21.2). 35. .  x (5 a. 1. 10(a . 20. (0 (l+7a)(l7a).1).1). (7 a + 4) (2 a . + y + . 23. 2 y' (2y3)(2yl). 28. + 4) (a. 10(2 30. a . 31. 12. 27. Yes. (15z2y)(x5y). ( 2 4 19. No. 7 6) (a 10 6). (a + 8)(a3). 30.* (2 y + 3)(y.7) (a.6) 2 2 . (2w+l)(ro + 3). 28.y4 ). + 5) a. 8) (a.1).y) 2 aft. 17.3). 9ft w(?3) 140 w 2 27.1). 216 aft. 30. 26. 18. 24 9. y) (a. (a a: 19. No. (m + w) 2 5. Yes. (2o + l)(2l).2 y). Yes.w*)(l 2 n 2 ). x\x 24. a 2 (w7)(w + 3). 3. 3. 2(9a:8y)(8a:0y). (:52y)(2a!3y). 8. (6 a. 32. (3#y)(+4y). Oa 2 (a2)(al). 2 2 15. (3 n + 4) (2 (3x+l)(x + 4). (w + 20)(w + 5). 22.c 2 ). (10 aft + c 2 (10 aft . 2. Yes.ANSWERS 16. 28. (5xy ) 3 ft 8 B 2 (12+ y 2 )(12y 2 ). 25.2 ft). 2 No 4. 13x(a + ft)(aft). 34. (4a. (5x . (5 a 2) (2 a 3).2 by2 6. 9. 10 a 2 (4 . 16. .r2). 10(a + ft)(aft). 22. .4 6). 9. 2 y(ll x 2 + 1)(11 x2 . 21. 24. Yes. 4. 17. 36. 26. 16. 7. 33. 10 y2 (\) x + l)(x~ 3).   . (4 18. No. 9. 27. . 16. . x(x +y)(x y). 31. . 11. 100(x. 26. (a 3 + 10)(a. (10a + ft)(10aft).6) 2 1. (3a. 7. (5a4ft)(2 a~3 ft). 17. 2. 18. (a*& + 9) (aft + 3) (aft 3). + 3)(c44). 13x7. (ay8)(ay3). . 21. . Yes. 6.+4 y)(3x4 y). (6n + l)(+2).2).. Yes. . 24. f 2). a(2u. 12. 14. (az + 9)(ox2). 29. 21. 5. (3*2)(. (2xl)(x + f>). + 2 )(a + ft)(aft).9*). 3a. (5wl)(m5). 1. + 2y). (l + x )(l + x )(l + x)(lx).3 y 2 )(2 a: 2 f y'2 )2 3 Yes. 19. 32. . 34. a. 11. y(x. 12. (9y4)(y + 4). (a. (a (p8)0> + l). 2). 2(2s + 3)(a: + 2). (4y3)(3y + 2). (w ~ n (x . (* + y)(zy). 11. 22. (<7 20. 25. Page 84.y (6x + 4)(5x4). (2yl)(y + 9). 3. Yes. (ft + ll)(aftll). (4al)(a2). 15.4. Page 83. 8. 200 (x + l)(x + 1). 25. 33. 14. 23. 23. 5. No. 23. (a 6 6) (a 4. 25. (7 ay + 8) (7 ay 2 2 13. 25. No.11 ft)(a6). 10. 29. 100 (a. (m7n) (a. y) 2 29. 103x97.5y)(3a. (0 + 6)(66). + 3). 35. 3(x + 2)(zl). (2 a? 4. 6. + 0(90 Page 85. (g . 4. (15ay2) 2 . 2.
(5^4. ( 4 1 ) (2 m . ( y).?>) H. 6. x  1). + 2 //). 19 13> (7rt3)(7a~3).&). (a + (2a3fc)0*+ tf)Or 41) (^42). 13. 7.2)(x 1. 2 2 3 . O + ?/4<?)O ?> 4 q). (a 4. ^ . 8x.a + (< (3 7>)(3  a l fo). 8 4 15 ?>)(a 34. 30. 11. Page 92. a 4. 1(V/ 88.y). 2.b. 14. 80a6 4 40 aV>*>c >d\ !)&(<* 4. 4& 2 )(tt4/>)('e 62 2 2 4l)(a' & &) 5). .5 m2 x2.9). (!__/>). 15. 16. y(2x?/).>*)(:> 4 lj 4. 2 . Page 86. 7. 2 21. ANSWERS r)(4x (4x 4. b) (r 4. 8. 8). 4). 14. 5. 6. 2. 11. 4 6. y).  (m3n + a + b)(m 3nab).5 <:  9 </) (2 a 12. Gp).r(3x' 2 4 (14.i4l)(x4l)(x~l).3. 13. 2.& (a 5 & 4#  2 y) (a 1. 2 k (wi 4. 35. 7. 2 2 (3a 4// )(x4>/). (Ox  7 ?/)(7 x4 y/).'/)('< 4.X 5. 2 + .7)(^ {I 12. x 4. K + l) a (a 5 />z 9. .4)(?  5 (6a 4l)(a +)2( 2x2/)(x2?/). 2 5 a 2 6c 2 3. (5 al) 3) (f> a/> 15 ?>).) j). 4. . (x//.4. (. 37. (16 4  2(5 n . ?>). (c.l)( a 25. (7/1 2) (m 41).^ c)((> 4 3 (3 w 2 w 4 m  ). 27.3. (2 a ~ f> b 4. 1. (a &4. 39. 4.3)(x 4. 8. 2 8(w . 36. ?i(w 4y) . 17. (5 26. 40. l. a 2_rt4l)(a rt 1).8) n 43*). 2(5 a  ft) (a 3 ?>). a(a 2 + !)(+ !)( . a 41. 42). (xf!/)' 3 4 w)(m. a 2 (a9). 9. 17(x43//)(x2y). 19. . 8. (a 9.e 4.8). ( rt 23. ( { &). 24x sy s 9. ah}. 2. 4. 450. (> 1.4). 38. 4 a s &8 . 4.y.8) ( (16. 4. 3p (^9)(j) 4). ofc)( fid). 6. (5 31. 8. 2(m4l)' . ( (<> r4y3 . 10.2). a8 .2). 6. 8. 2 1. 4 a8 . 8. 12. 8. x . 3(47>44)(^4'> 22/)((3x). 7.^46) a?/ 2 /> + o) (ff n 2 T>). (m  I)' 6. 9. 28. n  r)(5a 10. 7. 42a 3 x.?/). 13 x 8 2 .1). . 2 2 10. (^ 7. fi(c426). (r420(4 10.y (m + 2 u + (\p)(m + \ . 2 (a 4. r x 2 */3 . x43. 6.7s) (2 a. Page 12.^ 48.36).  (w' 4. 5. 11.//)(5y x(x4ti<0. (w * . . 15 M. 5. Page 87. y )(.4. 10(8x' 4l) 4. 13( 33. a 4.?50)(xt/z. y6. 18. x(x f y)(jr . 16. (14.&). + 3.'})(c .n). (^ + ?>_8). ( a ^)(^3. a x 3 10. 12. 4.42 x 4. Page 89. 12 m 2 (m n) 2 . 5.  29. 12.y)(fi a . 3(. (* _ 2 )(a 4.y '2 2). 11. 4.1) 3. 7.4). c 5 b 5 + 9 iZ) . 10(2 (3 4. 6. Page 90. 13. a (a + 2 6). (f> + fo 7. (2x7)(x 2 2). 3. a + a b. 41. 2 y) ^ .1).!) (x42)(x2). 5  (2 2 . (5a+l)(9a). 3x(x?/) 4. (w4w) 2 1.w )(l 4 w 2 )(l 3 + ( y) r)(x ( .2 y). 5 x8 3.'J)(' . 6 f c). 2.  WIM. 24. 4  9. 20. 32.0+ 12). 2 a 2 13x 3 y. 3 x4 . 14.))(x  ^OC 1 1). 15. Exercise 46. 4 3. 14. (x. 22. Exercise 47.. 4. (a />.
+ &)(&) ( . 30(3 2 (a 15. 18. x 24. x 12. 13.6). w 2 ^ (!L 5 +2 3 i + 63 3^1 rr Pace 991 20 . +8b a 4 3 / ^. (a2)(a + 2)2. 2(2al) + l). 1). + &) 2 ( . b ! 21.ANSWERS 10. // m+1 !+*?. + y) (a: y). ?_!&. x 22. +5 1. a 23. 6a2&(rt6). a 10 25. 11. (a2y2 (a3) 2 (a4) 2 14.  1).
11. + 2H 1 ^. . 30. ^i 2n a 22 9x * T 94 4<i ^ 33 9 ^ 37 (a 2 b)' (a + ft) a 42.50 ~ 1/2 .Xll ANSWERS 21 2 . i^. ^~ 29. 6. rt 3a2 + ~3a a 3. w1 + ac w 4 7. a 2 ft 2 + 21 ft' 1 4m m2 26 9 fi 7 .y~ z ' ] 5 x2 y + :j y. c 8. ^iie^+JoJ^^ilOa bc 9 11 92 aft  1>*  10 12 + qc + ab ' 238 . 6a5f^. + ^8 1 a 2 1 ~ 41.2g ftc 46 ?t ~ 30 y . + lH + . 4. 4 L 8 2 . xy 43. 28. ' 2 7. A^. i. 7. 0.. 4c 10. 2 a.  **/* + 84 _. 2x1 + 5x 12 + ^. 26. 6. 1. ab121 12 ft 2 8 a 2 196 a2 8. w + _ i + _J? a w+4+ ? 3 8. r > 'a2 f an f ft' ' 2(czft) (x 2.80 MP 2 30 ?/ r + t S ^ 2ft "' 180 wv 15. 3a 2 2) ' i (x ' t+3) 5x (wi8)(w go a 3ffl + 13 + *2)(x + 3)' 19 ' rtv+Ji:'. Page 101. Page 100. a 5. 6. _*^p5_^^_.
3. 11. 31. ' 6. 14. 1. . 19. 4. ! 4 20. 46. 16. 16. x 05m ' 5. 5. 5 6 Q 5 a 12. 21. pf n 6 1. 6 . b a f +c 14. f Page 107. 12 28. 43. 1. Page 106. 3 7 i o. 1. 4. 15. 6. 0. 1.y 7. 11. 15. 40. 29. 9. 10. an 18. (a + y) 2 Page 104. 3. +3 ( + 15.^_. 6. ft. 38. 11. 4. 26. n 16. . 5. 3. 14. a. 5. 4. x\. 2ft a i m x. 7. 44. 15. 6. 8. 3. 7. 4. 10. 5 be _J_. f 7. Of. 18. (y + (z 12. a 17. 8. Page 113. 13. (>. 11. + f. 8j_m 7 3. 1. 6. flf. 2 re +3y mn 10 lo. 2) 19. ?+_!?>. J. 1. 33. xiii in <l ~ 2b 18.ft .^U\WF### X<6. 12. 11. ac mp lf> n 12. . A. 39. 12. 7.  10 X + u. n m a + 13. 45. Page 111. 25. 5. I) 2 3z 1. 34. 21. J. 41. 27. ^i 11. 17. 3. 14. 30. 1^)2 ' 2 1) 2 13. n . y(x + x ?/). . j L . 20. 2 47. Page 110. c 8. 9. 32. m 9.  V o 4. 7. 23. ft 2 f 1 + a + 1 Page 109. 3. x 1. 37. J. b 2. 1. 4a3ft. 4. 35. w^x 2 b Page 105. 17. a2 2. 21. ^_. 36. 1. 6. 1.L+ft. 42. ?. 24. 0. 4. 1. 9.
. ./hr. 3.2. 74.003. 19.  29. 8. Yes. 4x'2 :3?/ 2 1 ..137. [>> ^ a .000.000. 1. 13.2. 9. #V ~~ 34. (ft) 104.004.. 5ft 30mi. 3:2. 17. 17. 18. 16.0. 24. nm. No. 15.0 & . 32. 212./hr. 34. Page 118.138. ~m . 31. 20. 20.000 1 = 23. 7. 15. 33.139. . 4~r~ n . f. 10 yrs. (a) 30. . 4. 75 . 6. min. 1:1 = 1:1. 7. 1. 5. 3. 21. gold. 11 hrs. 3. n 32. min. 15. 300. 4. 19. a 4 ft. 30. (c) 8300.000 If da. 19. ^m .. 8. 13.. 10. 5. 40 mi. 1:1=1:1.  + . 2 20. = A's. '"I 22. 26. 7. (ft) 5 hr. 9. 3 : 19 = 4 : 25. 11..15. (r) 3^ da. 14. 7} 18. w 44. 2:1. 2. 15. 40 yrs. w 18. 4. 28.000. 10. (c) 2 hr.. 22. 8. 5. Page 124. (ft) 5 da. ANSWERS 16. 9. 36. 3.11. :2. 3 da. 8. 11. $0. 1 : 12. silver. 33. b 25 ' mft 26 ' w 27 ^ ' ~i~ ^ . xy. 17. 16. 7T 2 Page 116. P+ ^ 33. after 18. $40.. 15. 6. 1 da. 7. 30ft. 23< &n b ' . 14. 14. 7 . 2x:3y. * 7:9. after 20. 3. () 2. 10. 14. 19. 20. 15. 300. $45. 21. IV s. 30 mi.XIV '/ . 8. Page 121. 12. 24. Page 119. jj. 15. .. 10. 10.000. r/ i  PM xx HXH />/ Page 114. 2. 8301 hr. Yes. 1: ~. ^?i min. 4.x + y. 55 mi. 27. J. . 40wn. 4. $30. a 4 ft 3 T 29 30 ' 5T (a) ^ 10 (ft) 31.} da. Yes. 30 yrs. " 0. 9ft. 11. No. 9J oz. 1:4. 12. 10. ^p^ r ~ 7. 12. 3. Yes. 10^ oz. 10. 5. f . J ^'. 35. 17. 10. Yes. 1^'. 26 mi. $00. ft. 13. 18. 9. 18. 10. 24 mi. 38ft min. (a) 4 min. 6. 13. (ft) (r) 8 hr. 7. . Page 117. 1:1 = 1:1. 1. 26 30. 00.  C . Page 125. (d) 4 da.002. 1. (a) 25. 0. _JL. 81.. 21ft min. (ft) 28. 275:108.001. Yes. Yes.. after $12. (d) 500. 300. 4fl M_. 16. 1:3. 9$. (a) 12 hr. 5 2. 7. 500. 1:1 = 1:1. 5 25. Yes. dn ~ mi.9.10. w 21.
. 23. 9.1. . 3.4. : . 945 11 10 . (</) ft. 53. 12. 35. 11. x +y x + 74 7 \. 2. *. y a y = 7 0. 12. 174+ Page 128. . tin. : />.  28. 5. 2 n .3..7.3. 127. 21. 2.15. 4. a 3. mi. 56.12. 21. .  ?. 6. 1. 55. 4. 1. Page 135. 17. 58. 14. s<i. 30. 2. 20. (a) Directly. ' 55. 8.]. t 5. land. I.8 oz. ft. 7.12.22. 11. 24.46. in. : XV 27. 9. 50.2.36. 41. 1 1 : : : : : : (I. = R~ R>'\ V V = P> P. in n. 7.ANSWERS 22. Of. 4. 9  15. 4. 2. (I. 15> 9. 14. 10. . 11. 8. 8. 141. 2. 200 mi. 17.6. 13. 26. 1 rt * vm^1.1. + b 7 . 24 1 (e) Directly. 22. 2.r. 3. 32j. 5. jc:y = n:m.57. Page 133. 9. 57.li.3. 11 w a 13.2.000 sq. 2. 46. ~ 1. 28. : : T 1' : /> : . 40.4. 5 2. Page 9. 23. 5. 20. 4. 52. OJ.*. 49. 5. 7. 30. 5. 16. 2. 7.5.2. J.15 x. 10.3. x y y . 1. 4. 2. 45. 3. x:y a: b. 3. 5. 7. 1 18 = 3 51. y 1. 8. 6. 1. 36. 1. 47. 5. 3. 2. 19.' : : : : <>. J.5. 43. 4.J. 9.3. 9. . i. 36. 4. . +m ' 12 3_a ' 7^ 10 ' 1 . y :y =. 19. 40.5.3. /. 32  <>' 33  4 <^: 34 : : . 7. .a. 4. w. 6 10 = 12. 1. 3}. 3. a~. 2. 2. 7. + W. 41. l. cu. Page 137.20. 7.3. 5. 3. 44. 10. 25. Inversely. x 42. 3 2=3 x.1.2 x.) 31.5. 4. 1. 3. 3. (<l) A A (e) m m = d> (. 2.000 sq. 6. 2. 6. 3./':</ c a f :y=2:9. 11 5 . "lO. 15. water. = 7 b'. 7. 138. 29. J pq. 4. 8. 27. $. () Directly. 5:3 = 4: x. 15. w 8. 7. 11. 6. OJ. 32+ mi. 26. Page 132. 5.x a. 14. 9.2. 7.  19. \. 19 OJ.160. 9.3. 17.9. 31J. \\. 2.840.4. 1. 5:0 = 10:12. 2."2:1. 3. 7^. ig 6. 13. (b) C C' = fi JR'. 8. . 7. 7. 19 3 .1. 3. Page 131. 31. 3. 2. . b x 37. 1.3. : : : ?/ : tf : ?/ : : : : : : : : : sr. copper. 2. 54. Page 134.1. 3. () 7 Page 126. 4. . a f 2 2 = 5 x. 20 20 J ^. 10. 14. 7. a +b 1.C ?/ a . + m* <7^' 10 7)C 14..5. 7. : : . . 2. Page 5. 1(5.5.4. 24. x y = 1 = 3 2. 25. 5.4. mi. 39.5. 12.3. 2. 2. 2. 4. 19. 38. 13J. 6*.3.5. 48. : 23. 3  24. 16. 1. + 7>i//  ft 1 . (b) Inversely." ^ 2. 4.7.^ 0?j ' gms. 12.17. 13. 13. . 8. 59. . 4. 20 cu. 18.5. lo mi. 16. . y . 9. 2. 25. 11. 2. 2. 7. 5. Page 136. 2. J.2 oz.J 3. ini. 22.
14. 20.. 19 gms.4. 11. 11. 2. SL=J o ft r^2. 27. Page 143. 31. 3. J. On 11. & part of Feb. 4. C's 30 yrs. 3. Jan. 4 ' q. ad _(?jrJL. 20. 9. 4. 20.l. Page 142. 40. July. yrs. 10. 8. B's 15 yrs.4./hr. $ 1000. 7. 12.XVI Fagel39. 10 sheep. 3. 16. Nov. 4. 9. 1. 1. 22. 12. yrs. 4 mi. 16. 13.& w_ i ae 22 5 L=.n + p. 40. 3. 2. . 8. 5. Jan. (c) . 17. 25. 3. . 4. 20. parallel to the x axis 0. Aug. 147. 18.8. 3. 3. 5. 10. Apr. 20. 12. & May. 6. 3. Page 145. 5.33.3. 1. Page 153.7. 2. 28. 10^ gms. 7. . 11. 30. 2 a. 13. May 5. 7. 23. 5. . 100. 20 & Oct. 11. 25. A a parallel to the x axis. 5. Jan. 16.  11. 4. 4. 6. 3). 24. 4. 1. Page 22. (<f) 13. 4. 1 (d) Apr. $4000. 3. 10. 18. 17.3. 3. 1 (c) Jan. Page 152. 4. 0. 16. 7. About 12f. Page 149. July.  17. 8. 10. A's 30 18. 5. (a) Apr. C's 10 yrs. A's 50 13. 2. = ^ a Page 141. $500. 6. $3000.0. 9. 32. 1.2. 9. afcd ae ftd 8 ft. a =J (n  1) rf. 2.$5000. 23f . Jan. Page 151. . 5.. 2 horses. (ft) 20. a.1. ft 3. . 423. $250. 12. 7. . 4.. 2t2. &.$2000. 2. 6. On the y axis. 4. June.. u 2ft. 11. 29. at 15. 25. 9. 2. 5%. m + n p. 3. 7. $900 5%.0. . Apr. 15. 2. Nov. 6%. 8. 4. (5. . 30. 1. 0. m f 8.. 15. 2. The ordinate. 16. 14. 19. 24. 2. 2. 2. 5. 1. Nov. 7. 16.^. Apr. 10. 12. . 6. 26. $6500at3Ji%. 3. 1. 25. 1. 3. M 2. (ft) 23 J.  Zn  "(^ll 14. 3. 16 to July 20. m . Nov. 2. through point (0.10. 7. ^. be 7.4. 5. 2. 24. 15. 9. B's 40 yrs. 14. 72. 3. 7. be 10. ' . 17. 3.9. 6. 6. & part of Sept. 4. 3. 3. 26. 6. July 20. 2. 4. Oct. . ad AzA. 1. . On the x axis. 90. <*ft/ bd 1.3. 0. 21. 30. m f 9. 2. 21. 7.2. 5. Feb. 1.65. ' 6 3 a.1. 18. . 23. 00. 18.. 4. 2. 2.1J. 19. Page 146. 13. (a) 12. Jan. 1. 20 to Oct. 11. ' w_i 7 fr^ m w ' 2 m+w . 24. 3. 3. 6 cows.
. ft . 2. 3. 2. 1 23. 9. . jgiooyiio 17.4 aft h a 2 ft 2 . 8. 3. . H. 20.75. . Page 164. (c) 14 F.24. 28. _ 9 x ^27 1 . 13.41 and . 2. Page 158. 8 1 f f g*. H. Indeterminate. 3. f12 wi 9. a 29. m + 8 m% f 60 win2 4. . . 1. 1. 9 and Page 166. . . 4. 3.75. . 125 a 8 12.3. . x*f 4x 8 + 6x2 f4 xf 1. . 4." 23. 14. 14. 1.  1. 04 x 12 */ 1 '^ 1 2 t  9 11. . 83. 2.17 (ft) (c) 2. 13. 2.75 (ci) 3^. 11. 8 a1. 12.73. + a 4 ft* . 15. 30. 2. 2. 17. Inconsistent. ft 2 4.8 n 27 a 4 ft 4 f 8. 4. (ft) 2. 3. 2. 2. 5.2 (ft)  1. 1. .AN WE US 'S xvii Page 157. (a) 2.3 aft 2 + 8 ft . 1. 2. 81 ". 64_ a 12 ft 27 ' a 121 81 a 4) ft 44 a 4TO a3 l. 1.87 (0) 3 (c) and and 1 2. * 16. 3 .27.5.24. (a) 12. 3. 13 . Indeterminate. 19. 147 a 4 ft 21 a 2 12. a 6o&i85 c i5o . 0C. (ft) (d) 2.. m4 1/ m%+6 w2 n f 2. (a) 4.64.64. 15 . 3. () (rt) 3. 1. 7. 3.. 11. xW. 6. 1^. 16. 8mW. 1.25. (e) 3. 3. Page 159. 4. 1. (ft) (ft) 2. 27. 1 + I5a 3 + 75a6 + 150 126a 9 ft . 13. (/) 3. 26. 4. 5. 25. m. 8. 27a 3 27 343 a 6 27 2 +9al. a + ft. f4p 7+6p g f4pg 6. 44 + 6t/2 m4 4m8 H6m2 4m4l. \ft) 5. 2. +3 4. (e) 2. . 2. Page 163. 9. x3 3x2y + 3x?/2 2 a 3 +3a 2 +3a + m8 6w _ i. 22. 125a 28. 3. 4. . 4wn8 + n4 5. 27 19. 2 l.3. 2. . 1. ImW. xy.5. 3.25.5 (ft) 3.73. 10.59 . 30. 1.73 ami . 5. . 10. (gr) 21. 13C. 5 and 2.79. 2 2 22. f 10. 6. 2. 32F. .4 a^ft 4*/ 3 + t/*. 2. 27 27 81. . 1. 14. f. 3..13. f. 1. 3. 1. 10 C. (c) 7. 3. 2ft4 Page 168. 1. 1. 4}. I21a 4 ftc 2 18. (<?) 2.  12 ft xW  26 31.. .24 . aH64 a2 + 36 aft 2 +8 8 27a135a2 ft4225aft2 125ft8 . 1. 24.25.41 and 23. . 15. 5. 21.1. 3. 24. 5. 3.  . 1. . 15.75. 5. Inconsistent. . ' :=_!. 4 ) 21. 10. 1. 2. 8.67.73. 27 a6 ft  9a 2 1. 14. 2. 3. 3. 4.25. a 10 ' a ll V&.83.34F. 0.1.  1. 19. 12. 2 a&m Page 167. (a) 5. 1 4. 20. G. 18. xg .7.6. 2. 11.59. . 2. 3. (/) 3. (ft) and (d) 2. i/* 25 a8 343x30 ' 1 125 29. 18C. . 125 16. SlstyW 7. .83.79.25.4. (c) 2.84. 5. 22.
j/^/t^/' wi n 4 p*+ 10 w 8 w y 10 wi 2 w 27> 2 +6 w/ip. + + ?V 22. a: l .7 /)). (27 + 3 a xy 8 21. 32 r^ 10 + 80 w 8 + 80 wt c + 40 m 4 + 10 m'2 + 21. ?7i 1 1 3 1. 1. 3. 18. 4. a.r 2 + 6jt). 8. m* m*>n + 16 w 4 2 +5 c*d+ 10 c 3 tf2 + 10 c 2 d+6 c<74 + d5 20 in s + 15 w 2 w 4 G mw 6 + w 6 11. (3a. 101. + l). 71. 8. 70. 00. 2 2 7. (:' + (2a3a: 2 + a. 9. a. 22.5. 2 ?>i?< >2 10. (a 2. (48 + 6. 81 + 540 + 1360 a 4 + 1500 a 2 + 025. 5. 40. 10 x G a 4 .x ).GO a c + 23.  +X '. 420. . 20. 5. 2(> + ( 2 7>). (ab + c). 16. 3M. 3. 2038. 2. 978. +35. 1. 30. 15. fr ft i/ /> ^  23 . (7 (2 2 3 2 16. 1 w + 5 m' G 7 w. 2 12. 2. 25. 21. 9. w 8 + 8 in n + 28 5 5 4 4 3 8 2 w c + 10 w 2 2 c 3 + 5 mwc 4 + r5 18. 2 4 8 2 . 10. 6. (x + y\ 90. 6. 20. 5. 763. 15. (2 a + ft). 11. 26. 17. 237. 10. . 1247.2). . Page 172. 180 . 3.^). 4. + 4 x2 + Ox4 +4^ + x8 10. 14. 9. 119. 18. + i)). 8 4 se 1 1 :J . Page 170.f 1 m 9 16. 5 5 8. 64. /> 4 ). wi 8 + 3m 2 . 9.3 ab + 2 2 ). GOO 2 c 2 . 30. 1. 9.+3^ + 4.10 a~ + 5 a . 13. 3 w 2 H2 + 3 4 n 4 . 3 6 23. . Page 176. ). 10. 32. (l + x + . 17. 2 49 .5 a 4 + 10 a9 . 1 + 8 z + 24 2 + 32 r + 10 x 4 25. (6 a + 5 a + 4 a ). 11. 15. 12. 12.94. 76. +(^ 2 3^ + 2). 300. ??i ?i . w w + 5 W w c + 10 19. 36. 4.r 2 + S:r2/2 ). 25 19. . + 29. 6. . 6.1. (a + y+l). l lV (l+? + & + x J x V s 24. + y). (x' l). . 8 /. 72. 19. 8. (23 alt + 7 (4rt +3 (5m 2 Cm + 3). 2. 1 1 ?>). f 21 rt'6 + 7 f 6 13.+ 50 m*w* + 70 w 4 4 + f>6 ?n *w 6 +28 >/* + 8 mn + w 8 17. 90. 17. 2.1000 ac 3 + (J25 c 4 24. 309. 84. I 8x2). . 5. 27. ? : 1 . 7. m 13. 7.XV111 7. 7. 10*. ^i. 2. 6. ( Page 174. 1. 57. + Z). 2 2 4. 99. + (win . 21. 14. (a + 2 +l). (5^ + 4x?/ + 3?/ ). 3 2 8 3 12.1. 28. 5. 35. 9. c 10 6 :l 20. 14. r> 4 : 1 . . 20. 15. 34. 14. 32+ 80 a +80 a* +40 a 3 + 10 a 4 fa 5 14. 33. ( x + 2 x 2z + 4). 100 *6 + GOO x 1000 2 + G25. (ly). . ? . 4. 13. 24. 11. (Gx + (i + 2a. 3.5). 16 6 w . (1 (x2y).i c 6 15. ro 12 + 4 m+ w + 4 w + l. Page 171. 98. (Gn + 5 a + 4 a). (6a + 4a + 3a + 2).y2 ).6. 90. Zll. 0. 18. rt . 23. 1 + 5 a?b* + 10 a 4 b* + 10 a& + 5 a/> + a 10 10 i c5 . 8. 6 (\x 3. a 7 + 7 b + 21 + 36 4 & 8 + 35a 3 & 4 6 6 7 . fe *?>' ?> fi . a 2 . +3 + 5 4. 247. 11. 19. AN S WE no . 16. 20. 12. (rt' (2 a (7 4 10.a b 22. a ). 3 2 ^. 8.  x. (4a2 9& 2 13. 16.83. 31.037.
3. V35 1. 16. 4. . 16. 7. 9. 10. 35. 6V21. 34. 11. 24. 20. 27. 6. 48. i ^. 5f. Af^. 19. . 36. V17. 31. 30. 14. xix 26. 2. 270 sq. 9. . 29. 15. 1 7. or 3. 6yds. 25 J. 12.i. 11.  14. 40. 6. l~8. 15 1 10. 10. . 21.Sn. vYb. 36 in. . 13. V. 8. 9 15 ft. 11. 5. 5. 11. 11. > w ft.4. 6. 13. V2. 8.  5. ^.522 38. 2. 5. 44. f ^ is. 39 in. 14. 1.  43. . a. 21 in. . 7 45. 20. .?. ft. ii :J _7. 13. 29. 5. 3. 26. 24. 5.5. 23. 22.1. 21.5. 4. V J l. f f V. 27. 7.  2. Page 183. 6. 17.  1. \/3. 3. {. ft. 3J.V 8j. 34. * 1. 4. }. 37... 3. 1. 6J. 3.13.  f. 1. 5. 29. 4.367. 7 in.. 3. V2. 10. Page 179. 21. ^^7m. 49. 8. 7563. 10.1.60. JJI. 12. (6) Vl4 3. 4. 3. 35. 9. *. /. 4.243. 3... 41. m. 6. 13. 7. f. 1 f Vl3. 25. 5. 4. ZLlAiK 19. () 2. . 2.237. 46. 5. 3. 2. 12.742 in.6. 1 38. 9. 2. w.  3. 4 n..4. 10.469. 1. 2.  f.. 30. ~ V^3.w 18. 28. 16. 2. 10. 7. 9. 5. 2. >TT 26.ANS WERS 22. 10. 47.*. 36. 32. 23. 4 W**. 12. 4. 40.798 yds. >i 27. 12. 32. (< + ?>). 3. 17. 10. 28 in. 12. 12.690. 14. 3. 12. f 3. 3. 2 sec. 1. . 9. 6. f . 4 a. 18. 7. 50.}. 7. 2. f. 5. 1. 42. 15. 18. 15. 16. Page 177. 3.. 25.916 yds.005.. 4. 6561. 4J. 6V'2J.925 ft. Page 180. 1. 31. 2. 19. 21yds. 5. 7}. . 7. 37.6. 14. 13. 8. a + 61.6.6. 39. 39. 2] see. 28. J. 4. 7. m. 33.935. 4. ft. 7. 4. 8.a. 15. 1.645. i. 1. If ^. 7. Page 181. 20. vV'TA 24. 1. Page 184. 6. 2.. 23. v 17.18. 17. 5.4. 6 f !. 9. 3. or 5. Page 185. _ iVaft. (afl). ^. 2. / 11. 8. 14.6. 1&. 7. 1. 10. 4 TT M 28. 21 28 ft. 5. 33. 15. . 16n. 5. 9. 6. 2. 4. 5083.236. " ^_ 22.
27. 20 nii. 34. Page 188.2. unequal. 24. 2.. . 10. 39. Page 191. 12. 2.Oa. f. V^l. 36. 6.]. 2.a.2. 15. irrational. .l.4. 46. f. 3. '  f 5. equal. 2 4jr + x2 8 3 = 0. 4. 5. _ 19. 2. 3. 5. 5. 1. 7. Real. rational. 13. Real. 8 or 12 mi. 0. 1. t is. . 33. 16. 1. 6.7. 1. Page 190. equal. 120 ft. 4. ^l/>> = 85 ft. 24. = 0.. 2. unequal.4. 10 mi. If. 2. 1. ft.2 x2 . 1_^L ft 14. 27. 7. 12. 2. 32. 8\/2 17.2. in. 1. 8. 7. 27. 13.. 2. 1). 1.02. V7. 1. 1.4. 3. rational. r* i. U. 6^2 in. 10 in. 0. 6. 15.$40 or $60. 25.6.  Page 194. 20. + 7 x + 10 = x*x 2 6x = or .* 2. x 14. 15. 9.a 3 a. x* 51. 0. 26. 42. 1. 7. 6. 52. unequal. 11. VV11.4. 7. 3. 26. . 3. a + 6. 6. 3. 2 ft.48 3. 10.70.5. 5. Real. 25.  1. 64. 12. 20. 28.12. 3. 4. 10.  5.2. 1.  i. Real. 24. 28. unequal. . 0.  13.2. .23.a. 47. 29. 58. 16. . 3. . 6. s 11. orf. 2. 35. x*4x=0. 1 . . rational. 17. a.23. 53. 12. 64c.0*8.1.10. 6. 2. $80.. 3.  1.  9x <).  1.4.59. 2.2. 8. 19. 0. 2. 48. 3.7. 1. 22. 2. 4. unequal. Page 189. 43. . 0. 2. 3.3. 50. .. 6V64. 2. 6. 41. rational.  2. 1. $ 120. 1. 56./hr. f 6 52 a. 0. equal. 22.. 18. 3. 2. 25. a + 1. 1. . . 11. a. unequal. 8. 0. 0. 1 3. 21.1. unequal. 2 . 7. . 57.  24. 0. x2 + B .74. 9. 3. 5. . 4. 3.2. ' 1. i . 30.48. 38. 55. 4.41.2. 4 da.2. 2.5 x + 6 = 0.  6. 37. AB = 3. . 14. Imaginary. 18. 5 ft. AB = 204 ft. 3. 31. 3. ANSWERS 22.5^. 1.6 = 0. *'' 12. 21. 3. %. 0.2. Page 187. 19 in. Real. 15 ft. 14. 2. 0. 6.'. 26. V^~2. Real. 6. 1. $30 or $70. 49. V2. 20 eggs.37. 4. 44.  1.1. V^l./hr. 3. V2. 2. 0. V ~ 16 4 2. 9. . 2. 40. 23. + 11 x. 10 mi. 2. 12.XX Page 186. Imaginary.7. 45.  2. rational. i. 0. 7. 3.62. Imaginary. 35.  1. 3if.3. 4. 18. 28. . 2. 2. v^^fcT"^. 3. 1. 9. 1. unequal. . H./hr. 4. . 21. 3. 2 V3 in. 20. 10 or 19. 0. Real. 3.3.  5. 16.17. 23. jr ./hr. (5 10. 25. 23. 7. unequal. 70 ft. #<7=3. 3. 4. 8. 19. Page 192. Real. 0.12 = 0. . . irrational. Imaginary. 1. 26. a8 .
31. 43. 2. 1. 13. 3. 9. 2V a. 22. p. 24. 8. xxi 15. . 1V1. 9. 47. 3. 13. 10. 20. 30 a. \ . 7. 1. 29. ) 2 >J i 10. 1. m. 9. y . 10. 54. 46. . 3. 2. J. . 17. 6  AAf. 4. 17. 1. ).6. 22. 55. 2. 29.  5. v/3. 2. 2. 39. 10. 5. \. 52. 10. 21. 44. 4. _! V3.^7. ^49. 5. 3. 1. 243. 18. 7. 18. fx'^z'l 23. *V. 49. 13. ar 1 . (m 26. 40. 3. 0. 4. ^Sf 3 38. a. 1. 1. 60. 3 4 11. 6. 11. 15. JV37. 4. .  f . 8. 14. 8. 2.. 9. Jb \. 3. 16. x$. 4. 1. 27. 16. 15. l  5 12. 51. 49. 0. r. 3. 4. 2. 11. \/3. v. 16. 42. 28.  J j. 25. 2. 5. 5. \. 19. 50. 1. 5. 58. 56. 0. vm. 8.//^.  f. 21. J. 19. 5. 8. ifa. 49. 32. 14. 24. 30. 35. J. a 18 . \/r\ 11. : . 33. wA 46. 1. Page 200. 13. 4.  a'2 . 7V7. \a\ \/^. 37. x. m'. 41. z + 22. I. 21.17. 28. . 3. 19. 20. 12. Page 197. vV. 50. v^T4 m. 125. 23. 9. 31. 33. . aW\ 40. 3. 15. 'J. V^ 34. 32. 4. 12*2 61. 17. $7. x/25. \/. 1 39. n\/* Page202. 14.  48. 2 L ( V. . 8. 30. 25. 84. y. 49. 1. 45. v'frW. 29. 7 ." 17. Page 196. 2.1 5 15. 12. 16. 9. . 59.32. Vr. 2. J. 18. 19.2. 57. 5\/5. 14. r*. 47. 7. 3. 23. 20. 8. 26. Page 199. . 24. 3. 3. 6. &. Page 201. i. 48. 38. v'frc 18. 2. 27. 25. . 20. J 3.ANtiWEUS rational. 8. 1. 36. ? . 33. 53. jV 10.
Page 208. 29.3 + 40 3 . 13. Page 203. y. 30. 11V3. 20. 195V3. 24. 21. 23. ^7 \AOx. 2. 37. 16. . v^. 17. 9. . 3 a~ 3 (x (. 3 4\/2. 8. x%  3 ^+ 1. 19. 11. x 25.  a Vft 2 121 b. 40. 28. r c . 22. ^: V2c. 1+2 v/i + 3\/!^ + 4 x. 2. 24. 3^2. x y. 50. x + 5 x3 + 0.'\ 14. 10. 135V6. 5. a 4 +* + !. 6. + 2 ar 1 ). 19. 10. Va 2 "ft. 5 22. 11. m* n*. 5 ( . 36. 2\/7. . 8a6V5. 3 42. l 5. 13 a. 2. 2 4 z2 l 3. 9 . V80. 2 '"V5. 18. 2. + + ft. + Vic + 25. + . 8. 30. 2 x* 15. ^88". V. 40. 9. Page 207. . Vr 8. 38. x. 13. Va a + 2 a^b* 14. x^ . 21.. V2 + 4 V22. . 3.632. 39. 25. 13 35. V63. . 7. 34.). 41. 5. 4aV^J 16. 20&V6. 1.rV:r. 3V^T. x 7  34. 4. 101 1. 3. 6. 45.  2 3:r. 2. 43. . v/^r 5  A/^~. (o* 2. (a 27. 33. V. 29. ftV 46. Vz2 ?/ 2 44. abVab.707. 4 or + 3 9 <r + 12.648. 12. (x' (l 1+x). ?tV?w. 31. a2 4.692.2 18. y (a + ft) V2. + 2 V22. JIV6. 2>X2.r^ 5 a~ 2 ft~ 1 + Vft. yV35. 8V/) 15. 48.r.f. / V3. 27. ). k/2. 20. 51. 26. 3^ + 2).577. 03r* 7. 28. 9.12 *^ + x 7/> x  a** + or " 2 + 1. 10. 1) 3V3. 3V5. v'TM. 2 a?>V2 a.2 VlO. 37. a 3. 62V(J. V 5 47. 31. + 1. + 2 Vzy + y 1. 3 x^y 33.Vxy 35. 49. 7. (Va (5xJ Vft+Vc). 16. r 17  Page 204. 32. 2.yl : . T. 3.XXii ANSWERS 1. 17. 4. a^ + 2^+1. 3 \ 39. + 2). 32. 2v (T 2aVf.x^y* + y%. 34 r 6. 15. . 26. 1 2 or 1 ?.
24. v 25^4714 V2"a. 74\/Jl 120 46. 7. 0. 38. W). 14c 4 V5. 36. Vn. Page 210. \^r^bVabc. x/27. 31. 6. 38. w?i. 41. 2 V'3. a\/5c. + VlO  v y (5. 8V2. 30 Vl4. v^f. 40. 2 ate. 11. 3 V15  47. \^6. 8v2T 12. 6V2.  3. 11. Page 216. ^v 7 15. 32. x/125. 13\/3. 6. 6+2V5. ab 4. V3"m. 8V73\/IO. V5. \XOfl6Vi5. 9. x/8L v/27. 25. 36. 16. 10. 8. 30. V8. . \/128. \^6. x/4. 12. 6 2\/0. 13. 25. 7. 14.T*. v^a. 5 \/2. 3. v/i). 3 Vl5 30. V3. 9. 1V5. / \/w/t 4 13. v^O. 4 >/3. 6aV2\^.30 2. a^\/a7>. \/2. v^30. 16. 5. 3\/wi. V2. v/lO. ^9. 39. 2 \/2. 1. 9 VlO + 4. 3 V2. 20. 6. Vtf +3+ 33. 13. 31. 3. Page 211. 7. + 20. 40. Page 213. 44. 22. . 21. 37. 3v^2. \/a6c. 42.J Page 212. v"3. 26. 19.. 3\/2. 2 28. 6x2?/. 3. 5. m ?i2Vm/t. aVa. V2. 35. v/9. 14.r v/^ v^fr*. 5V2. 23. 15. . v"5. __ rw 3 \~s~' ] * . 8  \/15. x/8. VJla. . 22. Vdbc. \/8. 2yV2?/. 21. ^\/3. 1. V3. 4VO. xx 1. "v/wi ??. V/. \/04a. VLV/ ^i?i= a: . r)\/(l Vrtr. 35. 7\/(l 7VTO. v7^. rtv/5. 17. 11. . 34.ANSWERS _ Page 209. vT). 5v/2. v^lf. 37. 32m27n. ^27. fl^Vac. \V3. 10V(). ^ 3 b 5 24. x/w^ 8. 33. 46. 50. 18. 17. 26. Vat. 34. 4 a*. 14. 16. x/8l. v^4. 3\/15  6. v/l2. 4\/5. 15. . V5. b. 18. 6. 48. 5. 2 1. 2. 52. 10. a2  b. 8. 28. 27. "^8000. 29. 4. : ^32. 43. 24. 3. 2. 51. 32. 5V2. % 29. 9. 53. 2\/7. 2. 17. 2. 6. x/3. '. 4. \/abc*. 39. 49. Page 214. 0. 1. 3. 21 23. 19. 23. v/8. 2. . VT5. D 45. 18. 10. 27. 12.
4. 11. 5. 19.6.732. 16. 16.601.4722. (V6 + 2V2). 5. 23.  . 16. 11. 8. (V8 + V2. 2. 7. 4.\/TO). 15 f 3 V2L 4. V. 4.3535. 7. 2V2.6 V3. 4. 9.w 6. 29. 9. 8. 16. 19. \. 10. !^ 6 4. 5. 13. 2!5_. (VllV2). 12. _^JflJ?. p 6 13. i^ ~ 1 v ^. 3.1547. 1.389. 17. 8. i^Lzi. K>/0 + \/2). 2. 0. 25. ~ Vac _c 0. 14. 3V23. 31. 3. 7. 100. (2f V"5). . 20. . V2. Page 223. 22. 6. 25. J. 0. 37. . 5 V65. {.  2. 34. (V5f 5. . ^(VlO\/2). 1. (V51). 1.7071. 8.0606. nVTl.W + 12 v/7  3 \/15 .2. 14. 20. 24.9. 8. 10. 4. 4. 30.1805. 24. 2ajV2*. 2V3. Page 225.625 10. 4. 24. 4. . 6. 27. 1. 6. 4. 18. 1. 64. (3+ v/2).732. j. 21. (2Vll). 3. j 15. 21 ' Vob 26. 18. 9 mn. 5. 7. 7 f 5 4. 10.  13.4142.464. 23. 11. 16.5. 1. 10. 20. 10. 12. 33. * 3. ^. + 5V2. n*. V6c. 4. + 6) 2 . 12. V5. +3 V2). 15. ^r. 1.81. 7. 2x^2^. 5. 15. 23. Page217. f.2828.5530. 18. 27. 5. 8. 2. (a 1. 17. ANSWERS 8. 5 + 2 vU 17. (\/5V2). 9. 14. 11. (V21). 12. 7 Page221. 23. 23.2. 6. ' 22 i . V^TTfc. 4.1. 4. 24. 3. 9. V3 . 17. 216. 15.3. . m f. 25. 35. 2. 15. i(Vf Vft). 26. Vf6fVtf. 4. 3. 16. 2. xy 2. 6. 6 V. . 14.13. \/3). 18. 4V3 + 6.64. 5.XXIV 7. 5 f. 9. \/57t. 4 14. 1. Va. ^\/2. 25. 4. 11. 22. 9. 29. 21. 7. J. 27. 5. Page 28. (\/3f 1). 25. (2.^ (\/22 4. 32. 18. 2V3.. 1. 9. 3. 224. 13. x 20. 2 . 10.3. Page 219. 8 V3V2. 19. ^. 30. 19. 81. Page 218. 1. 28. 2. 1. . Page 226. 7. (2V2). Va. 81. 16. 2. V3. 11. 512. 36. 3. A . . 25. 3(7+3V5). . 16. fV2. 13. 21. 125. 5. 15. 4. Page220. 17. 9. 20. 22. 7. 25. (VaT^v a). 26. 9. 19. V3. (Vf + (4 V2). V35. 12.V3). . 6 (V2 + 1).  f.7083. V3. 10. 8. 12. 8.
Page 234. 5. 30 30. 3. 8. 12. J. 2. 25. . 11. 14.2. 2. 6. 4. . 5. (a.  16). 2. 1. 17. 21. (a. 2. ( 16. 2. 13. 0. (s + l)(x2 :r + 1). 2. 2. & + 6 2 ).nl^EI. . 4 1. (2 a.  f . 6.l)(a 4 + a + a 2 f a f 1). 1.Y. a . 2.1. f . 4. 2. . 1.4.1)(4 a + 2 a + 1). 3. 25. 3. . 56l).  1. (a + l)(a*a 8 + aa + l). 1. 0. 3. 1. 4. //.3). 1. 18.  2. 10. 15. 5. 2.l)(a3)(a . 1 .2)(m.3. . 3. 4 20. 1. ~ f7.l)(a 2 + a f 1). 20. 73. + 6 4 )(a*a' 6 + a 2 6 2 a& 8 H6*).l)(m . 20. 6 2 2a + 2). 16. 6. 2. 3. 11. 1. 11. (2a + l)(4a*2a + l). (a . 3. 7.w 4 + 1). 3. 2. 0. 3 . . 3. 24.3. 2 . . 1 .12. 22. 10. 2 .r . 14.2)(* . 9. 2. 3. (B43). 4. 6. a  . 1 . 30. (la&)(l46 + 2 & 2 ). 25. 4. 4. l. 4. 27(2 a 4fc)( 4 2 2 (a 4 &)(* + 4 & + !&*). 87 . 4. 2. 2 V^ . . 1. 13. 4 .7. (rt. 7. qpl. 3 5. 1. 1. 30. 73. (1 +a 2 6 2 )(l a 2 6 2 +a 4 6 4 ). ' J. 5. 19. . J 24.  5. 0.22.3. (w2)(m3)(2m + 5).4. 5. 1. 19. 1 (?> x/^3. 2. 2 6. 5. 19. 4. 3. 12.8a 18. 2. 9. 2. 13. 6. 12. XXV 4. (pl)(p2)(p2). 3.  1. 2 > 1. 7. 1 6. 5. 100. a: :} . \/0. (pl)(p3)(p6). 13. a(l+a)(l_afa 2 ). 4. (63)(6' t 18. 2 . 7. 1.3 2. 3 9. 2 &. b . 50. 1. (a2)(:iB2 f 2a44). 2. 1 3. 3. 4. 2.ANSWERS Page 228. 1. 3 .  . 12. 23. (r. 2. 2 6. a(.2. 10. 15. 4 . 4. 11. 0. 2. 8.0. .10. 2 <? 4a2 .5 xy + 25) 22.  3. 9. 22. 4. . .f 2)(sc 2 2 r + 4). 2. 3. 3. 7. 3. 4.2. Page 233. 15. 0. 2. 10. 17. (+!)( 2) 10. 2 . (4 mn . (a 4. . 18. 1.3. 0. . 3. 12.  3. 1. 7. (8. (wp)(w2p)(wi3p)(w*42p). . t/ 23. 25. V3. 2.^a.3. 1 . (a+&)( 2 14. J Page 235. (w . 3 . 5.3. 16. o. 1.  4. . 4. 7.+ ^)( 4 a 2 6 2 h6 4 ). 5. 10.. . 3. 8. 3. 24.  3. 2. =A^Z3. 11.2 + (row)(w4w)(w a + 6mw f w 2 ). 5. 4. 3. 5. 5.  J. (a + 2) (a Page 229. 7. 21. . 5.a) (04 + 8 a + a 2 ). (&y2a#H4). J. 8. y. 5. 4 4.5. 3. 11. 10. 1. 2. 20. P. . 28. 1.2 ) ( 10 w 2 n 2 f 4 winy 2 Page 231. 30 . f>. 4. 4. 3. 26. 6. 8 6 & 0. 3. (10 #0(100 + 10^ + 4 ). . 2.4.l)(z 2 + z + 1). 0. Page 236. 14. 8. (xy + 5) (x*y* . 13. 1 . . 17. 3. 6. o& (3m 3 7)(9w 6 +21m*+49). (m 4 + l)(ro.4). . 2. 4.1. 8. 3. 12 24 y .
13. 5. 8ft..5. tn 2. 3 4. i'ljVU.1. (a) 5. 14. . _ 10. 31. 22. 1. 15. 400. oo . 37. 11. 21. . (&) 2. 15. 17. 1. 18.5. 5. 12. 10. 36. 35. . 4. 35 a. 5. ( 3. 3V5. 8. 3. in. 11. 78. 1. 16. 40 in. 12. 3. 3. . GO . 21 30.4. 1. . 4. 6. . 40. 1. 2. 3. 288. 4. 3. $46. 1.3. 14. $. 12. 4. 4. . 4. . ' j. 5.6. }. $VO. 17. 33. 2. J. . 8. 5 cm.1. 125 125. 4. 15. 19. 14. ft. Exercise 114. V3~. f*. 1. 41. 15.3. 17. 4 . 1 . 1. 5. 2. 5. . 7. ft. 2. 4. 1. . 1J. 12. 11. 4. 1. 22. 11. 4. 8.200. 9. . m27. 5.0. m + n. . 512. 1. 9. 4. 8 .136. 10. 6. and _ 4. 12 ft. 1. 4.30. \/6. 1. 19. 1.y. . . .6. 1. . 12. f>. 13. 3. 5. 4. 14. 50. 4. in. '>.3. 3. 1. 7. 5. 12 1. 3. 30. 1. 5. 2 Y> V . 2. 3. 7 3. 9. 11. 37.1. ANSWERS 2. 2. 3 . } . 5. . 24. 18. in. 3.4. 20. 6. 0. ft. 5. no co . 39.4. \. Page 245. 1. 3 2. 38. 17. 8. _ 13 (0 6. 32. in. 2. 9. 5. 8 3. 40 25 in. 3. 5050. 0. 3. 12. 2 26. 8. 40 1} 9 3 ft.2. 3. . 2. 2. . 3. jj. 50. 35^ 5. 6. 1 . j. 1.. J. 9. 30. 1 .. 2 ft. 7. 14. 5 4. . (/>) "_. 2.3. 1. Page 244.xxvi Page 237.4. 8.  2 .13. 1 2. 4. 2>/3.18. n. J. 13. J.. 3. 2 10. 6. 2 . 3. 3 .. .  1. 3 cm. 20 in. 900. 4. 5. 2. 12ft.. 45yd. c. 24. 16. 31. 15. 10. x 4. +  n. 2 2. 17. = QO 6. . in. ^ }. 5. 2. i i i .020. 4 6. 15. 3. 1. . 14. 7. 3. V7. 2. 2. oo. . n . . 4 34. 2V7. . 14. 3 3. . 28yd. Page 239. . 25. 4. 2. Page 243. 69.  . 23. 1 . 3. 2. 4. 3. 23. 20 7. 10. Page 240. (>. 16. 7f solution. . 84. 11. 3. . 1. 1. 1. 4. 7. 3. . ^~2. 4.3 . 8. 2 16. 5. 1. 3 ..3.  11. 0.3. Page 248. (a) $3400. 2. Exercise 113. 201. 3. 29. 8. 512.. . 15. 2 .. oo . 1. _ 7. 12 d. ri*. 2 1. 5. 17. 20. Indeterminate. Page 238.. 26.0. 2 . 37. 2. 3. 48.e. 55. $. 1. . 1 . m28. 4. 1. _ 5. 3. co . 2. 1. 4 8. . 7. 4. 2n. 1. . 2.3. Indeterminate. 2. 2. 5 . 30 13. 35 ft. Page 241. 1. i j. i. 3. Page 247. 7. 18. f. 2. 5. 21. 1. 9.
10. 18. 8. 27. . 35. d. 29.^ 448 x a' 3 /') . A. 9.419. 2. 128. f y 8 + z* . 4. 8. 70. 405. 6.K 4 4 50 x 5 4 28 x 4 4 ^8 1 g ! . 1 7 4. 5. . xxvii 1.2 9. <. 3. 5.130 x30 189 a 4 24. Page 259. 4 0. 7 x4 17.15 x 4 //'?/ a5 4 J 5 4 Z> 4.6 . Page 258.504. 0.^ x2 ^x w ^2 ? . 2. B . 11.x^ 4 x8 15 x 4. x4 . 8.r 4. 16.6.<2 4. x + Vy.53. G. sq. ' 1. 05. 7. 16. 3. 105. REVIEW EXERCISE . r 5 4. 7 2 x 4 x8 . 3. 28. and 1.384. 10. 1. 10. 4. 4. in. 3. 2. 1. 12. 45 Page 257. 0. Jj? 45. 45. 6. \ w 4 . 2. 500 x3 10 4 4 072 a? 3 . 4. 5 13. 9. I. 35. 6. 5. ^a 8. />*. 8. 4. 1. 2. 4. 125. 100. 1. 4. 4. 0. 5. Y11. :r 4 4 8 x 28 x~ 60 . 20. } $ 50. 16 11. vy. % 4 20 ab* 42 330 x 4 15. w9  8. 3. 15. 17.ANSWERS Page 250.870 m*n*. 4. 22. 70. 25. 12. 15. 16. . 12.x' 10 . 7.5 x. '23. 343. 10 14. 1. 16.170. 0.5. . 3 4 15 a 8 11 4 14 a  1  2 y* . 1820.4. 19. 2. 18. 11. 3. J 2 //2 25. r r j. 9. 13.r* 4 70 . **+. 2.5. 120 aW. 5. 5. 27. 19. 81.  20 flW. &' 14. JSg. 75. 55. 15.5y 4 . 708. 7. 44. 17. 4. a.7 10. 5.5 M ' 41 fc 5 . 6i. 8. 3. 16.^ ?>i 2412x4. 2. 8. ~ an . 16. 19. 15. 22. 12. 7.r x>/ 7 3. . 17. 26. 1 14.  101. 495. 4. 12.5*7 + ^4 1 12 w 4 10 x' 2 //^.1. y ^ 5  ^\ ).4 &z x>&. Page 254. 8 1. 2. 1. 6. 4. 304. 327. 2.0. 12. 6. 3.v Page 253. (?>) 4 8(2 V2).r^  280 x 4 4i^S + 6. 125. 192. 50. 1JH. 3. 0. . 2 1 x 4 6x'2 12. 5. 10. 2i* 7f. 4. (). f r6 4  20 rV 42 15 xV 8 .680. 5. 410. 14. 7. 20. x r 4. 1. 2.13. 3. 18. 45. 343. . 3. 10. 11. 1.  17.5 J4 10 47 d*b 6 4 4. 10. 43. 5. 18. 4. 1. 16.8. . 23.470. 15. 220 . 910. 8J. 9.920. 1000 aW. 12. a4 4 14.3 ays. 21. .192. 70. 27. 3. 6. . 0. 20.2 45 a 8 /). 7. 005. 13. 32. 48. 5. 21. 0. . 04. 9. 4. 6. 4. 9. ?/i 6 x llj .120. 8. 8. 7. 6. c.12 x*y 16. 13. Page 252. .210. . 4. ~v 9. 8 4x' 2 . 3. f 7 ^ 14 x 84 4 . 8 . 280 53. . 1. 1.700. 27. 0. 2. 8. i 10. Ja. 2. 4950 M 2 b y *. 6. 7. .10 a 3 ?/2 10 4<J aW 4. 8. 04. . 0. 53. 12.
4 65. 1 a"* 4 an . . . 118.2 x 4. x2 5r*x ft 5 . . a* a 8 a aftc. x } 4. 2 x2 108. a' 111. .{ 54.5 3n 4. . .+ 4 2 ft) (a 4. !! 71. x2 + 4 x7 9 y2 x4 4 4. 91. 72. 63.c 3 4. * 60. 2 x'V2 90.3 y. () 2 x 33. 3 a 5 a 5. x 4. 61. + 28 x2 13x 3 56. 2 q.1. ?> . ^ .a 2 x 2a . 3 c . 3 36 b c . df.2 c . + a 4. 66. x4 3 4 2 x 2 4 0. 28. 109. x2 2 . 93. _55_7c 48. 25. 9 2w 128. .rty x2 4 123.  + 3 x2 .4.c. x?/ 2 2/V2 4 2 x2z2 4 92. I 57. 2 x2 4.41. 3 a .4 ac. 104. f5+7. 8 . 6 a2 97.  4 a3 85. 64. 130. . 38. 1 x 45.9 b. 32.  . 94. 100. fc' 6 p'2 q  54 ? 3 . y 4 z* 0. . x2 a2 1 . 3~ n 4. . 36 + 9c9 a x3 4 + 8. 31.3 x?/ 2 1/ 4a 3 a o_a 4 a2 +l. 6 8 j27 40 ab. 2 2a 2 2 2(a.4. 2 aft 3 4 3 ft 4 .x 2 4. x .xxviii ANSWERS 19. x3  15 x 2 48 ?/ . x 8  a8 .36 xfy 2 a 8 ?* 3 4. 9x. 22.4. 0. 2 2 9 ^4 2 59. x 8 + x 4 68. 2 . 10 a 12 b.fee 2 4.3 x 2 + 3 x . 80. 125. . 2 . r 5 VFTx + vTfy + 1. 6a6c. 76. . 2 30 . 6y 2 a2 _52 45 = 73(). 52. 46. 4 . x3  15 x 2 71 x  105. 16t/. . .a'2 c. . 3a~2c. x 8 + x 4 y* 67. x8 x2 55.1 4 jry 4 x . 2 a.15 x 6 x4 ?/ Ilx 2 ft a8 4 8 y4 .y*. x 3 41. x 3 4.3 b . 243x4729.  12 a. 2 113. 6 c 47.4 x?/2 3 4. fi :ry 42 4  a 2 4 a 2 ft 2 3 119. a 4 . 3 y2 2z2 ~3xy?/. 30. 120. 62.6 am b\ 129. 105. 2 2 *  3 2n 101. 2 a2 4 aft 5 116. 15 ab 4 Oac 4 6 be. 2 2 x2 ?/ 2 4 63 4 ?/ . 124. 7 + 3 xf 2.1w 77.6 b. 21.2 x^. 4 69. 2 2/' . xyxzyz. c3 4 58. 4 ! . a2 2 aft 2 2.5. 43. &p 84. ft x6  3 x5 4 9 x4  27 x 3 1. x 2 . 12 x. 4 15 x 5 .3 .x4 + y'2 z 4. 3 a 44. 5x + 2y~z. (a + ft)" 98. 35. 4 4 4 ft*" 3 4 + 2'2 ~+ 2 81 x2 134. 4. 4ft y3. 27.  ft 3  13 a 4 + ll a 2 2. ?/ .a6 2 4. . 8x3 8x. 4 115. 132. 4. 0.ft).7.x24 73. a~b 89. x' 79. a4 x. . 14 x . 40. 4 fee 4. x* .  3 x2 .105. 39. Page 260.15 4 62 x  72. 107. 88. 110. 102. 114..1. ?/ 3.7 x   15. 127.x.2.18 ?/ 5x4. 12 a/. x2 471x4. 1 + 4 xy. 2 53. ft2ft 4 4l.^a . a* 4. 4.2. 96.5 3 2 y2 5 a2 4 2 aft 4 ft. 36. 37. 29.4 x y 87.3 aftc.3 mn p 2/ x 4 .4 2 4 c2 42 .3 a 2 '6 w 4.3 a'ft. 1x 4 x3 xty6 a 24 3  Page 262. a 3m 4. 24 a 2 6 3 x3 0. Page 263.2.x x*  f 2 ax 4.5x4. . 5 4 4.2 xy + 4 y2 106. . 50. + 3 a?. m " + n + P3c .5 b + c . 49.  e +/. 122. (d) x  (a) 2 x 2 ?/ 4 ?/ (ft) 2 y 2 y 2 g (c) 3 x +y 11 a: y 4 3 2 . .c.ac 44 aft.a" xy 2 2/' 3 .3 103. 23. 5x 2 2x43. a J . x4 f + 23 . ft n . 99. 0.4 x 2 .1. 16.1. t 81. 1 121. ft /> 78.18 x?/0. + f 2 2 (/) 2 34. 70. 131. 1 . x2 3x2/?/ 2 112. 4 2 . 86.4.a. . . 5 42. 82. .  + 16 a/> 8  a*2a 2 6 2 +& 4 74. 24. 13 + 2 s. 26. 8 x* + 27 y 2 x2 2 . . 4 Page 264. +^ + ft W.5 a 2x8 x 3 . 3 r2 2 ?/ 2  ax . 2 . + z. as 20.a*ft 2 126. az 4.a' 'ft 4. 3a'2 Page 261. /> 4 83. 81 ?/ 4 108 xy 3 75.x 51. x' . 133.9 x . 10 4.
15. 235. 186. 161. 147. 206. x(x f 3)(x+ 2).y)(jc + 7 y). 167. 217. 2(x8)(x3). + y.y + 3)(r (. 1. 7. (7 c 2 ). 180. 154. 181. 218. ( + 2y)(2x3y).. 146. ?. 138. + 6 y) (x 2 y) . C3 y _l)(. (233). 178. 148. 224. 147 mi. 2a(42ft)(2fo).6) (2 x + 1). . 37 1. 171. a 2 (15. 211. . 214. (y _ ft)(y 4.3 y)(a . 21.11) (5x 2)(2x + 3). 10). p. (xyX^+y" )1 243. 2. (y7)(y + 188. y 245. 197. 22. 2 xy(3 x . as 194. a. 2^. k. 142.3). 163. (a 2 +l)(a*+ 1). 241. 238. 226.c) + or OB (2 + 4 y) Oe* + 2 s). 36ft. 12 yr. 8 204. 152. (x 227. . 215. (2x3y) 3 xy(x. 212. 172. 205. 1.r . (x^ + x1) 234. 2. 30 yr. 75. 1. 222. .3) (2/3y).2ac + 229. (6) 40. 183.. (?/+l)(yl).2. (JT y 225. 144. ( jc // a 2 (a1).3 y). 174. HI. . 156. 137. 240.l)(y + 1). 185. (4 x 2 + 9)(2 x 4.2).1). (x + l)(xl)(y + l)(yl). 12 yr.. 207. 173.y) (\r3y). a(a. 176. 209. 40 yr. 164. y. (r7y)(ai. 184. 218. + 11) (a 10). ? >2 ft ?) ft 242. 170. 190. 195.  1. 30. 149. 247. 15  a. xxix 139. (/ 246. (3x  . Iff 145. (r^x + 1). 231. 24. p. 189. . + 2) + 9a.9)(xf 2). 175.m)(x + a). (ox + /)(5xy)(x+3 y)(x3 y). 15. 177. 157. 239. 12 6 panes. 3. (7 x + y +y+ 2)(x .. yr. (2 198.6 . 10 ft. y3. 216. 6. 3. 4 2 ?/(x  ll)fx 3). 150. 2 (4 x . 220. 158.l)(a 2 +3). Page 267. (32)(2a ftc v?y(x + 223. 219. (x + 6)(x6). 1. 143. ry(x (a (y + + * 221. (8x + 3)(3x4). (. Page 266. 162. 187.1).r + 4). 1. (y_24)(y5). 1. .I2y). 237. 18. 201. y  y 165. (x  42 yr.l)(x8 + x2 .y)(z .2). (y 7f))(y 196./_4). 244. Page 265. + 3) (x f f>) . 166. (3a + 4?> + o(5crt). (y + 1) a(3 + 26)(3a2ft). fc'2a+62c). 48 h. 159.1(5) 200. (at (4 a +!)( + 3). 2. 50. 169. 168. m. 6). (y  17)(y + (>). Or (a + 2)0el). 2 2 (a. (a& 192.6)(4 + 6). 153. 8(ar}(/)27). 3(x . (c) 160 C. 30 + xyr. 2. + 7)(rt4). aft. (5 x . 4. x(x + 6) 213. 236. 136. + 22).1). 2.c2 )(a 2 2 +2a/) + c 2 ). 20.ANSWEKti 135. 6. (x . 12. 1. +)(x2 x^+2. 12) (j. (ab + 8) ( 7). a + 2x2 ). 202.2 )(x+y) 228. 12. 191. (a 2 + 2a6. 4. (2a + l)(a . (x + 2)(x . 232. 10 in. 32 h. 1. 179. 23 18. 160. 140. 2(d)(rt + + c+c2). 230. 210. (5x + 2) (3 x yfory) +4). 5.r & (a + ary c)(a 1 2 + ) + 3y). + 3). 19. 199. 193. 151. 20. (3x2?/)(2. ft.4xl).3. 233. 182. 155. z(x10)(xl). 208. r>x 2 (4x.2) (3 x . (a} 59. G7.y2 ). 10).y). 10. (7x2//) 203.
263. 3). x . 279. (2 (x 4 (x 4 3) (x . *. o(x4l). 310. 261. &). 7^T 2 . x12. 295. 251. 3. \')(s x  5) (x 4 2)(x 4 . a.  7. 4 11) (xJ^l^^J. Ca&c 1)(M 253. x 267. 43 '^rJ'. ?^ZLiZ 308. 303. 10. 0. 4 II 4 )rt 5x42. 3). ^/>J. 249. (x 4 (x 4 1) 5) 275. a~ ' b*). 250. 305. 7 x 265. 2x(x)(x 4 3x44. *>).2* i^^ !^. 264. 307. 266. (7 255.4) 1) (3 x .(x  4) (x4 304. 2. 258.^^^^^^^^. 256. 2 4 300. x ?/ z 1.  3xyf x// 257.. 3  262. x 283.AN 8l\' Eli S Page 268. x3y 4 1)( 4 2 252. 0. 2 x  3. 298. ^^A^ + w^ n(w4 n) a 309. > 4. 306. ^ 299. (x44)(x3)(?/47)  Page 270. 5. 301. 4 5. (^4) (x x'2 13) 5x46 . 259. 254. 7.1.4). 268. o.   . + f. (a 4 A)(2 x 5. ? 1) 302. 269.^ ^^. 260.
370.J . 389. * 357. 13 391. <L 409. 395. 0. 4. 0. 398. 3. 407. (a + b + c\ . . **" ~ 2 3 > + 8 x* f 2 y 4 1 ^ 350. 7. 394. 4. 383. + 4 & 4 \ b. ?=. 334. 408. 27 ^" li'oy 3 r J // J 341. 387.1 ')_ x'2 + 4x + 381. 361.vin a /r " 337. 1. 390. l'j. . 1.!. a + b + 6).1. A^izA??r+J!j/?_ *x 330. 325. 343 00 351. 0. 386. 400. a) A^_. m. y 4 I 340. 4 A. 404. 4 rw. 2 327. 20. 333. ^ 3 // . 336.H ' 2wi ^' /' . 339. 388. 375. 399. 324. ?/ + 3 332. j 328. 2 ab  a Page 276. 2 ?/ 363. 355.(5 a . 2(q. f. 6 ?/+:>. 329.XXXI Page 272. 1. 376.. ^"" 4 s . If. + 335. l . 2. 379. T\. a 2 . + x 362. A^L5L. . ?>*. c 402. _*L'L+. 406. 1. 1 i 2 ^. 385. 12. 326.7. 405. 5 ^^K^+M^ AC^Ln?). x 54 359. 365. 364. 397. 2(a i 403. S. Page 277. ^_:r f> 331. 2 ). . " 4 378. 2 r36 384. . 366. L . 401.)Cr4)__ . 7/i ^ _ . Page 274.  1 356. . 3.". 1.3. 360. 380. xa' 2 '2 7/ + 4 f Page 273. ab. 6a. 9^. 3. 11. 0. a +6.  1. 393. 392. 382. 2. T+^. 377. 396..
 453. 411. a + + ft c.. 0. 5. !L=4. a* 424. 2. 0.}. 10. 421. 1. 1. ISJini. 482. 18. 7. <L+ 6 (.2. 454. 8. z8 +?/ 3 431. 10. Page 278. 0. 503. 2. 500. 2. . 429. 501. 4.  7. 478. 6. 21. . 494. Page 282. 446. 476. . 498. L (c) I. 51. 461. fc. c. 17. 5. (a  c). 485. . 425. 435. 1. 8. 7. 33. 483. 10$.rz Page 279.0. 6 f c a + ? & ~ a 0. 413. m 1 : wi. B $ 2500. 462.12. 426. 459.  505.4. 450. 479. 3a 4 5. 442. 28 yr. 420. 9. 423. Page 281. ' $260 at 0%. 3 .  7. b 449. 42. 6. 2. 455. 22.0. fj. '. 12. I. . 3. 32. 0.  2.m  m+ M in.te + . 428. 430. 1$. 444. 2 a 2.  2.4. 466.46. 2.} ' c^acjd} ^ fcfZ a/ ?>rf + 86 (. L2 a  6 . ^V. \ 1.5. . 90. 447. i a b 451. 2 438.vz in. & 491. 6. \. 24 days. .2. 495. 493.  .7. 8. 487. 472. m. 439. 499. 477.  1.  f>.489. A $ 3500. 481.7. ^. . 418. . 445. 468. 11. 20 yr. 467. Page283. 20. 84. 5. 422. . Page 280. . (c) not true. 436.. 8. 496. 463. 17. 2. ^r?i 434. (&) 443. 457.  1. 2. ISjmi. .7.7. 10. 452. 497.. 5. 432. 50. 53 yr. 484. 7. (d) true. 3.. 441. 4. />c c(f be. 6. 7 : .7. 0. a 22 . (d  6) f. 2. (&) true. 419.XXX11 ANSWERS ab. 507. .. 460. $2000 at 0%. 508. 4.. 2. . 0. not true. 10. . + () 433. A 5 mi . 5J.3. 3. 5. 458. 440. . + b ' + a __ b c ' 2 w f w 417.55. 4. 2$. : />a. 492. 6.}.3. B 4 mi. 10. 32 yr. 10. 2.  2f 504. 40 oz. . . 10. 502. 5. (a) 1. * . 1. *+. 410. 506.1. 6. . 6. 490. 486. 1. c 6fc 10. 427. 0. ft 5. 412.488. 1 a /?$+&?. 464. 465. 456.  10.  2. 480. 40. 7. 63. 14 miles. i. 448. 7.
1. 1.78.4. 3.5. lead. .  + + c.10. 1. 3. . per hr.88. 1.15. . 3 da. 599.  557. 2. 21*_. (a) 74 Ib.3.31.15. 24.00. xxxin 511. _ 4.8. 0.2. 4. .04. 1J.3. 2 a 8 x 8 + 6 ax&fy 2 x + 12 a 2xt2 b*y'2 + 2 6 4 ?/ 4 595. f.f 1.37.05. 3f 4f. 565.4. 3. ft 584. 514. 2.24. . .0. 560. imag. y% Z * 586.% rr\* 585. 40 Ib. .8.6. 1. . y 4.8 x3^. 1$. 550. i _ 4 sc2 + 6 + 10a:8 + a6) . . 1. 3. 526.5+.12.8. 593.54. 115 Ib. 518.7. 4.25.54.16.24 sec. 515. 574.1.37.3. 568.7.1. 533. (6) . + 6 tf f 3 . .9. . . (e) 570.53.02. (i) 3. 3.3. 553.03.51.30.8.  J(a f + 2c). (c) 4.4. 1 600. 536. Page 287._ ft 523 a 2 ftc 2 524.6 2. Page 285.04. .02. Page 288.4. 3.73.0.52. 1. J7] min.0.55. 582.83. 4. 510.25m. 1. 3. o> . 7^ da.  ft*. 2$. 1. 0000.15. 1. .3. 2 imag. 1. 4 0. 1. ^ ft 4. (c) 3. 1 . 532. 3. 4.  (a) (d) 1. 1 1  2 x 7 2 f 3 2 x' 2 + x8 f x4 . 8 a6 42x + 8x2 + 2x 8 4x4 601. . 31.1. 577. 8 +3 x f 6 x2 2 a4 & 604.56 sec. f ? a f ft __ + c C).  2ft da. Roots imaginary. 4.38.3. 1. 6435. _ 3..5. 2. H.. 4. per hour.ANSWERS Page 284. 1. .  1. 556. a f ft + c. 8. .3. . 2. > ^ . 552. 4 8 x2 ?/4 605. x8 . 2. 1.. 5. 563. T . 2 .r8 596. . S82 c. 564.14.1. 571.  7. (ft) Ill Ib. 3. 24 da. 598. 3. 2(4 602.21. 3. + 26x2 + 10 x4 ). 509. 555. 573. 4.xV f +6 a2 &2  4 6. l+4x+0x 2 +4x 8 f x4 4 4 594. 530. 576. 1.24. 2. 583.1.0. f36a28x8 592.1.6.62. _^ 2754x . 1.5.21 a2 + 3x + 3x2 rA 86 3 4 ft + 35 4 + 21 2&6 fts + 7 7 rt?> 6 a^ _ 8 +^ 57. . a*8a + 24tf 82a.03. 2. . g(rc+ 6c). 5. 528. (ft) 4. . 6. tin.75. . 2. 579. 27 y* f\4 . . 575.5. 513. 562.2 xt/ a4 + x3 4 6 x4 3 xG fx. 4 mi. f. + 35 86 4 4 &8 3 + 589. 4. + 12 x . 567. 6.78. 4* da.35. 531. (/)  10 to 8. 7. 14. 3. 2 . 559.4. 554. 2 2.  2 a*b + 3 a6 3 . 8 mi.  imag.20.02. 1 580.6.5..  . 2. . M ft c 2 ft 3465.02. a 7 687i 588i tt e a _ _3 7 ir 7 rt e & + 2 1 a 5 ft 2  rt 4^2 + i 3 ^254 590. 566. (e) (c) 2. 1.5 f.31.xj/ f xV . 3.  2.83. 558.75. If 572.4.62. + 26 + . 1. lead. a + ft  a  f c. 603. 569.6. 1. 4. . 529. 232. 2(6 597. 5. 591. da.   (h) 8. 1. .3.10. (gr) 10 1. 527. 516. 1 . 561. 2 1. 551. tin.  (a) 2. 512. 2 1. 525. or 8.33. 2 10. (6) 3. <z ft 1. (d) 537.4 x + . 3 . 578. 1.. 5. a+ Page 286. 581.  4. .7.  3. 3.
b 686. K 5 2 V2. 7003. 644. i. 653. 1 ^  7Q7> b j(_ (_ x/^15). 2.203. ab. 683. 677 680. 706. 6.  4. 691. ^ _ \/3 +^~< 2 a a +^ 694.  6. 78. 10. 690. 655. a 4. 657. 608. 1 2. /> 4.XX XIV 606.y. 640.3. 615. 1$ 639. 2f. . 0. . if 4/> 671.3. 25. 2092. 0. be ac \. + ~^'2 + a 1.f 3 V^3).  4. . 1 V5 1. <T! . V^~3). z  1. 4. 638. 009. a 673. 700. 662.0. n^l +^. 11. 2. 625. 621. 5 3. 2 a 688. 6.b. . 3 x2 . 618. 616. 703. . . 636. 5. 2 ab + a  &. 2f. 3. 3. 3. + 2 A (i f Page 291. y  619.3f l 668.>A 610. 614.2f (5 4. 971. 624. 627. 696. 637. 2 + 36 )K3 + ( 687. 1m*. 2 / 2 4. 7. 705.43^4. af6fc __ __ ( a 4. 702. . 660. b. 898.  3.7/ ~ +w ( 7>) ^~ V3 ^' 3. 3 a. 678< 682.04. 645. 8 f 3. 5. 672. a ' 2 + . 708. ' fe 2 ). . 623. 622. 4330 da. 1. 656. 2. a 1J. 652.. 654. 5002. V2.  2f r 659. 646. 2. 1 ~a . b . V2. 1 704. J^^. 2. . 701. 647.303. 9*. 607.001. 634.a~ {Z 663. ' 674. 692. a. If 658. ab 689. 4. 14.. 620. 1. 8 6 fo .  .001. la6 2. 2. o. ix 2 .  a2  a (ab). 2. ^. . 612. (*_ + a: 611. 1. 8. fta a/> ^A. Page 289.c ) 697. . fe + a. ^^ 695. a + b. . 703. 0.3.3. (a3&45rj. 1. 6 685.  13. ^. / V^+lO^M"^. I}'/.25. 661. 648. \. b 664. ft). 643. 0. 4$. 2. 613. 210. 642. 3 681. 0. 698. a 2. 11. 617. 670. If f 667. x3 4 3 x x ' 4 X* 609.049.  1. 4. 2&). 629. c.14 If 1. 2. 5. If 665. 630. V7. 4 V 0. 2 x 44 ^/. 631. 12.  ft. If b. 50. 0.  684. ^ 1. 7. 641. 651. .2f Page 290. . 13. 2 a: 4. 5.702. l/'3. 25. 1010. If. 633. 649. If . 635. 669. \+ab 699. 679. 666. V"^TJ. 632.002. 626. 9. 650. 2 a  6*. 4 676. 4. 628. ANSWERS ( 3 x 2 S 2 .
. ^ . 13ft. ^7xy. 24.11. 763. 753.. 8. Page 294. 15 shares.9.1 . 1. 00. 756. 3 VlT 795. 790 2v 3v 2. 733. 778. 59. 723. v/7 / . 793. x\y. 33^2. 732. + 6 2 tf'c.. 788. 300. a:* . 782 785.4 .10. rt3 2 ^i^. y  1.ANSWMHti Page 292.1 />f f + lr'~ + _L a 4 6.257. a 5 . v'll. VT14V5. 17ft. 739. 749. 719. 25.~ . VIO\/3. 768. iv/Jj.12 af V^ 4 744. / 787. . 758. 1 747.8. ^ Ti i a*tj~ 4. 3V72V3.. a 2  x2 . 722. 717. Hi a. 714. mn. 7  3V5. 2 V2 . > 748. 711. 731. 710. 777. 721. 3 720. 716. 751.r+y> 759. . 2\/53V2. fyaw&cu. 4 104 v/2. 794. x i f^' . ^^ f ^3 _ r} t 2 i3x 4 rt + + 2u: 8'o'a +a2 3 . 740. . 1 I . J(v'lO2V 791. . 2x3^ a. 718. 789. 24V2.V2. 4 x' 5 x 4 3 x~* ( 2 ar 1. 730. 738. 712.4 . 24 4 . Page 293. 796. 3V7.. 736. 729. 737. r.9. 3V52V3.^. 29\/3. 47. 746. 725. 792. 755.2 4 w" + 4 d" + Hid. 5. 734. 726. 34. 727.rJ w L 754. ^ ?>. 776. 767. 3. 1. a 2 6^. 342V3.^ 743. cr*lr*. VV> L4V34. 715. a". T%. 773.r. 750. *+V( x 2 "r 2 )' ^ 786. "V313. 3V72VO. 3^. a db Va^T < 45da. i 2. 769. 1^ _ 760. j 742. 724. 1.2. 30\/10 764. 1 752. 39. i^. 8. a + 6 +cx* 2 (t' 3 1 a*&M. 709. + < 735. 728. 32>/2.V/^ 741. 5. 713. 1 [ + '> J.
1. 881.5) (x + * 853. 20). 2. 3. . 2 2 . x . 4. 2/ 856. 5). . 892. (x*y*ryz + z*). (a m . 825.3. 829. 14. 800. 867. 3. 868.7). 848. 6. 2. 4.2w . 890. 887.4) 860. ( 4 4. 1. 2. (2 4. x. 5. 835.7.l)(x + 3)(2x43). (x42?/)(x2y)(4x . 2 j 889. ANSWERS 798.3. 8(?/ + 2x2 ?/ ~ x 4 ). (2 x + 3 y} . a 42)(x . 851. 48. %7 ?/ ( 2 >wt 2wt ft ft 4 rc f 1 '* Page 298. 858. ^. .. 2.a 3 " 4. 811. (x . 1 .a 4 + 1). 6(a6)(o a + + &).l)(x . ) (a' 874. (x + y) (x f y) (x + y) (x . . .om 441) (a 855.y) 852. 4. 6. 3. 896. 817. 834.r4). Va. (x3). Va 803. 810. (1 . . 2.1)(0 865. 4. 880.rae) (4 . 804. ^ V}. 895. Va + 6 + Vtt"fc.l)(x . a2 ^E*!. . 11. 1C. 7. 7. 826. (x 845. db 7. are extraneous.a 2 2 )./>") (a'. 888. 823. 2 . 4 . a^*4l)(aa 4 + l). 872.1)(V 2 . (3 b . 11. \/2. (  ?>) (a + ^> . (x 2 . 4. 833. m 875.+ m f ") (a* ). 8. '0 3 2 an 4 3(> n 6 ). 2 806. 1. +j!>. 879. 25.1) (a 8 . . 5.. 801. 838. (4 c 4. a* 4. 842. 837. 847. 13. 3 . 799. 899. 1.4. 891.l)(x + 2). (.1) . 827.  ' . 876.6 xy + 9 )(4 x 2 (9x 4l2x + 10). 2. 816. 861. H. 2 854. ^VG. 3. 824. 894. 840. $.7)(4 x. 808. J V.10 ab 4. 849. 2 . 4. 831. 1 1. 813. 4. 1. (a 1) (x 4. _ 3 ^ 860 r + 3) .1). (:r 11. 1.0. 3. 882. (2x3?/^)(4x2 4Ox^ + 9//%2). .  tt 815. b' 2 821. 0. X4 1). 19. . (x + 0X024. 893. m = 2. 23. 4 818.a 2m W" 4 ^ m f & 2m 870. 6+V7. 0.XXXVI 797. Page 296. . 897.4)(1 f 4 a 4 10a 2 ). 2. 17. 836. 2 *x 807. 8 09. 0. 2.  839. 859. 2 (x 4*4. (a 4 871. 7. 2 + 2)^ 3 + (a 4 5 f 8). a(ft)( 873. 3. 6 4 V&  e " X/^^+A^ + 2 *a o l V 2 802. Hoots are extraneous.25 ?>2). 6. 830. 814. 820. 886. 3. 17. 812. 7. 884. 4. (2 a . 5. 819. 843. $. (x 2 f r . (xl)(^~3)(. Hoots . 3. 2. (x 4. 844. 6 $. 2. (a + 2 ?>c)(a 2 2fl?>44 ?/V ). o. 832.f. a(ry + 864. jV3 f 3. o 828. 10. (2x (r.r?/ 50(i ( 2)(5 04. (3 862. 3. f. 2 m .4. 900. f 3 866> (9 + 8 ) 81 ^3 _ 72 xy 4 04 ^). 4. 863.3)(x + 4). 4. 5. n =  29. 898. 3. 4 885.7 4 1) 846. \/5. 2 .2 ax 4. V 3. 822. 857. 4 1)(4 x jc jr ::} ?> ?> . . 8. 841.2) (x 4 2). (x . (am l)(a m + 1) 4m .  1.5 b) 4 1). ( 869. 16xyV2*/^~x2 . Page 297. ((' 1). **. + d)*.r . 0. 883. .7).. 4. 2  2. 5.  + l(l^).
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2 . 1 1004. 1017. 108. 1005. 997. 72. Page 305. 6 70 . (Z>) 999.18.378 <W and 92. 1006. 992.92. 48. 993. in.  W1W JI + 1 / 1 _ _L\ a . (5.  5&7 1021. (a) (6) ^ 1002. 5 :J2 r 10  14 y + 84 y*  280 + 5(>0  72 C K 4 2 MJiy 8 r? " 8 .378 1015. 1 8 8 2. 1(5. 8.192rt?)r 120 *. 120 a. 32 13 (tx 4V3. 78 n+ a' x 2 t  13 . 0. 120 i^l^. 12. 9 da. 991. (a) 2^ + 1 \/2). ^f (2f3V2). ~ \. ^Trsq. 2(2 v/2). . 4 and 1020. 996.128 I. a a 13  13 ax + 78 a3 4y*> . 1012. 12. 192. () 12(2+V3). r = 2. 24. 1008. 1000.. + v 2). 1007.'^^ } ( . " 1710 rtV and 1710 252 35. 243 ?/ 810 x 2 + y 1080 x* 4 5 ?/ 720 * 240 r 8 7 ?/ . 0. 1016.870 z8 . . 1003.51. 994. 1009. Page 304. 990. 1018. 9 /> l 6 /> 6 . 1010..xxxviii ANSWERS 989. 988. 995. 4. 1019. 3003. . 1001. X. 162.870 a 6 1011. (J. + 448 . 1013. (6) 8(1 . 1014.
which have been omitted from the body of the work Indeterminate Equahave been relegated to the Appendix.25 lamo. so that the Logarithms.ELEMENTARY ALGEBRA By ARTHUR SCHULTZE. The introsimpler and more natural than the methods given In Factoring. xi 4 373 pages. All subjects now required for admission by the College Entrance Examination Board have been omitted from the present volume. and commercial life. HEW TOSS . The author has emphasized Graphical Methods more than is usual in textbooks of this grade. without the sacrifice of scientific accuracy and thoroughness. i2mo. especially duction into Problem Work is very much Problems and Factoring. Half leather. which has been retained to serve as a basis for higher work. save Inequalities.D.10 The treatment of elementary algebra here is simple and practical. given. physics. 6466 FIFTH AVBNTC. book is a thoroughly practical and comprehensive textbook. not The Advanced Algebra is an amplification of the Elementary. than by the . THE MACMILLAN COMPANY PUBLISHERS. comparatively few methods are heretofore. $1. etc. but none of the introduced illustrations is so complex as to require the expenditure of time for the teaching of physics or geometry. but the work in the latter subject has been so arranged that teachers who wish a shorter course may omit it ADVANCED ALGEBRA By ARTHUR SCHULTZE. xiv+563 pages. and the Summation of Series is here presented in a novel form. Ph. Half leather. very numerous and well graded there is a sufficient number of easy examples of each kind to enable the weakest students to do some work. To meet the requirements of the College Entrance Examination Board. but these few are treated so thoroughly and are illustrated by so many varied examples that the student will be much better prepared for further The Exercises are superficial study of a great many cases. A examples are taken from geometry. proportions and graphical methods are introduced into the first year's course. great many work. The more important subjects tions. Particular care has been bestowed upon those chapters which in the customary courses offer the greatest difficulties to the beginner. $1.
The more important subjects which have been omitted from the body of the work Indeterminate Equahave been relegated to the Appendix. there is a sufficient number of easy examples of each kind to enable the weakest students to do some work. physics. bestowed upon those chapters which in the customary courses offer the greatest difficulties to the beginner. $1. not The Advanced Algebra is an amplification of the Elementary. In Factoring. etc. 12010. To meet the requirements of the College Entrance Examination Board.ELEMENTARY ALGEBRA By ARTHUR Sen ULTZE. especially duction into Problem Work is very much Problems and Factoring. save Inequalities. Logarithms. comparatively few methods are given. but the work in the latter subject has been so arranged that teachers who wish a shorter course may omit it ADVANCED ALGEBRA By ARTHUR SCHULTZE. The author grade. All subjects now required for admission by the College Entrance Examination Board have been omitted from the present volume. The introsimpler and more natural than the methods given heretofore. has emphasized Graphical Methods more than is usual in textbooks of this and the Summation of Series is here presented in a novel form.25 i2mo. THE MACMILLAN COMPANY PUBLISHBSS. great many A examples are taken from geometry. and commercial life. The Exercises are very numerous and well graded. xi f 373 pages. Half leather. proportions and graphical methods are introduced into the first year's course. 6466 7HTH AVENUE. Ph.10 The treatment of elementary algebra here is simple and practical. HatF leather.D. which has been retained to serve as a basis for higher work. without Particular care has been the sacrifice of scientific accuracy and thoroughness. HEW YOKE . $1. but these few are treated so thoroughly and are illustrated by so many varied examples that the student will be much better prepared for further work. so that the tions. xiv+56a pages. but none of the introduced illustrations is so complex as to require the expenditure of time for the teaching of physics or geometry. than by the superficial study of a great many cases. book is a thoroughly practical and comprehensive textbook.
$1. 9. NEW YORK . Ph. Cloth. The numerous and wellgraded Exercises the complete book. Cloth. Preliminary Propositions are presented in a simple manner . xttt PLANE GEOMETRY Separate. SCHULTZE. xii + 233 pages. These are introduced from the beginning 3. and no attempt has been made to present these solutions in such form that they can be used as models for classroom work. Difficult Propare made somewhat? easier by applying simple Notation . i2mo. ments from which General Principles may be obtained are inserted in the " Exercises. 80 cents This Geometry introduces the student systematically to the solution of geometrical exercises. KEY TO THE EXERCISES in Schultze and Sevenoak's Plane and Solid Geometry. lines. Attention is invited to the following important features I.10 L. textbook in Geometry more direct ositions 7. Half leather. By ARTHUR SCHULTZE and 370 pages. guides him in putting forth his efforts to the best advantage.r and. State: .. Hints as to the manner of completing the work are inserted The Order 5. under the heading Remarks". iamo.D. Proofs that are special cases of general principles obtained from the Exercises are not given in detail. Algebraic Solution of Geometrical Exercises is treated in the Appendix to the Plane Geometry . izmo. 6. 4. wor. SEVENOAK. aoo pages. The Schultze and Sevenoak Geometry is in use in a large number of the leading schools of the country. 7 he . more than 1200 in number in 2.10 By ARTHUR This key will be helpful to teachers who cannot give sufficient time to the Most solutions are merely outsolution of the exercises in the textbook. at the It same provides a course which stimulates him to do original time. of Propositions has a Propositions easily understood are given first and more difficult ones follow . $1. PLANE AND SOLID GEOMETRY F. 6466 FIFTH AVENUE. THE MACMILLAN COMPANY PUBLISHERS. . The Analysis of Problems and of Theorems is more concrete and practical than in any other distinct pedagogical value. Pains have been taken to give Excellent Figures throughout the book. Many proofs are presented in a simpler and manner than in most textbooks in Geometry 8. 10.
370 pages. and Assistant Professor of Mathematics in New York University of Cloth." The treatment treated are : is concrete and practical. . causes of the inefficiency of mathematical teaching. Typical topics the value and the aims of mathematical teach ing . methods of teaching mathematics the first propositions in geometry the original exercise parallel lines methods of the circle attacking problems impossible constructions applied problems typical parts of algebra.25 The author's long and successful experience as a teacher of mathematics in secondary schools and his careful study of the subject from the pedagogical point of view. enable him to " The chief object of the speak with unusual authority. New York DALLAS CHICAGO BOSTON SAN FRANCISCO ATLANTA . . making mathematical teaching less informational and more disciplinary. a great deal of mathematical spite teaching is still informational. of these theoretical views. . Most teachers admit that mathematical instruction derives its importance from the mental training that it But in affords.The Teaching of Mathematics in Secondary Schools ARTHUR SCHULTZE Formerly Head of the Department of Mathematics in the High School Commerce. . " is to contribute towards book/ he says in the preface. 12mo. . . Students to still learn demon strations instead of learning how demonstrate. New York City. $1. THE MACMILLAN COMPANY 6466 Fifth Avenue. and not from the information that it imparts. . .
40 is distinguished from a large number of American textbooks in that its main theme is the development of history the nation. diagrams. An exhaustive system of marginal references. and a full index are provided. but in being fully illustrated with many excellent maps. is an excellent example of the newer type of school histories. Cloth. supply the student with plenty of historical narrative on which to base the general statements and other classifications made in the text. The book deserves the attention of history teachers/' Journal of Pedagogy. Studies and Questions at the end of each chapter take the place of the individual teacher's lesson plans. which put the main stress upon national development rather than upon military campaigns. " This volume etc. All smaller movements and single events are clearly grouped under these general movements. i2mo.AMERICAN HISTORY For Use fa Secondary Schools By ROSCOE LEWIS ASHLEY Illustrated. Topics. diagrams. Maps. This book is uptodate not only in its matter and method. New York SAN FRANCISCO BOSTON CHICAGO ATLANTA . THE MACMILLAN COMPANY 6466 Fifth Avenue. The author's aim is to keep constantly before the This book pupil's mind the general movements in American history and their relative value in the development of our nation. photographs. which have been selected with great care and can be found in the average high school library. $1.