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ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
THE MACM1LLAN COMPANY NKVV YORK PAII. LTD. OF TORONTO CANADA. LONDON LIMITKU HOMBAY CALCUTTA MELUCK'KNK THE MACMILLAN CO.AS  BOSTON CHICAGO SAN FRANCISCO MACMILLAN & CO. .
NEW 1 ORK CUT THE MACMILLAN COMPANY 1917 All rights reserved . FORMERLY ASSISTANT PROFESSOR OF MATHEMATICS. HIH SCHOOL OF COMMERCE.D. PH.ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA BY ARTHUR SCJBULIi/TZE. NKW YORK ITNIVEKSITT HEAD OF THK MATHEMATICAL DKI'A KTM EN T.
COPYRIGHT. 1910. 8. IQJS January. September.. Reprinted 1913.A. U. July. 1916. September. .' February. 1911.S. Published Set up and electrotyped. . Cushlng Co. Norwood. Mass. BY THE MACMILLAN COMPANY. May. 1910. J. . 1917. May. 1910 . 1915. August. Berwick & Smith Co. January.
and ingenuity while the cultivation of the student's reasoning power is neglected. not only taxes a student's memory unduly but in variably leads to mechanical modes of study. Until recently the tendency was to multiply as far as possible. are omitted. owing has certain distinctive features. All parts of the theory whicJi are beyond the comprehension of the student or wliicli are logically unsound are omitted. Elementary Algebra. All unnecessary methods and "cases" are omitted. omissions serve not only practical but distinctly pedagogic " cases " ends. The entire study of algebra becomes a mechanical application of memorized rules.. Typical in this respect is the treatment of factoring in many textbooks In this book all methods which are of and which are applied in advanced work are given. shortcuts that solve only examples real value. All practical teachers know how few students understand and appreciate the more difficult parts of the theory. giving to the student complete familiarity with all the essentials of the subject. but "cases" that are taught only on account of tradition. manufactured for this purpose. and conse . chief : among These which are the following 1. in order to make every example a social case of a memorized method." this book. specially 2.PREFACE IN this book the attempt while still is made to shorten the usual course in algebra. " While in many respects similar to the author's to its peculiar aim. etc. Such a large number of methods. however.
there has been placed at the end of the book a collection of exercises which contains an abundance of more difficult work. Topics of practical importance. in particular the requirements of the College Entrance Examination Board. enable students who can devote only a minimum This arrangement will of time to algebra to study those subjects which are of such importance for further work. differ With very few from those exceptions all the exer cises in this book in the "Elementary Alge bra". especially problems and factoring. a great deal of the theory offered in the avertextbook is logically unsound . The best way to introduce a beginner to a new topic is to offer Lim a large number of simple exercises. For the more ambitious student. two negative numbers. etc.vi PREFACE quently hardly ever emphasize the theoretical aspect of alge bra. the following may be quoted from the author's "Elementary Algebra": which "Particular care has been bestowed upon those chapters in the customary courses offer the greatest difficulties to the beginner.g. as quadratic equations and graphs. This made it necessary to introduce the theory of proportions . however. TJie exercises are slightly simpler than in the larger look. The presenwill be found to be tation of problems as given in Chapter V quite a departure from the customary way of treating the subject. In regard to some other features of the book. all proofs for the sign age of the product of of the binomial 3. hence either book 4. are placed early in the course. may be used to supplement the other. and it is hoped that this treatment will materially diminish the difficulty of this topic for young students. all elementary proofs theorem for fractional exponents. e. " The book is designed to meet the requirements for admis sion to our best universities and colleges. Moreover.
while in the usual course proportions are studied a long time after their principal application. elementary way.PREFACE vii and graphical methods into the first year's work. the student will be able to utilize this knowledge where it is most needed. " Graphical methods have not only a great practical value. an innovation which seems to mark a distinct gain from the pedagogical point of view. and they usually involve difficult numerical calculations. based upon statistical abstracts. viz. in " geometry . nobody would find the length Etna by such a method. of the Mississippi or the height of Mt. to solve a It is undoubtedly more interesting for a student problem that results in the height of Mt. but they unquestionably furnish a very good antidote against 'the tendency of school algebra to degenerate into a mechanical application of memorized rules. The entire work in graphical methods has been so arranged that teachers who wish a shorter course may omit these chapters. and of the hoped that some modes of representation given will be considered im provements upon the prevailing methods. such examples. But on the other hand very few of such applied examples are genuine applications of algebra. and hence the student is more easily led to do the work by rote than when the arrangement braic aspect of the problem.' This topic has been preit is sented in a simple. physics. are frequently arranged in sets that are algebraically uniform. is based principally upon the alge . By studying proportions during the first year's work. and commercial are numerous. McKinley than one that gives him the number of Henry's marbles. Moreover." Applications taken from geometry. but the true study of algebra has not been sacrificed in order to make an impressive display of sham life applications.
William P. however. is such problems involves as a rule the teaching of physics by the teacher of algebra. genuine applications of elementary algebra work seems to have certain limi but within these limits the author has attempted to give as many The author for simple applied examples as possible. . Manguse for the careful reading of the proofs and many valuable suggestions. pupil's knowlso small that an extensive use of The average Hence the field of suitable for secondary school tations.viii PREFACE problems relating to physics often offer It is true that a field for genuine applications of algebra. ARTHUR SCHULTZE. edge of physics. NEW YORK. desires to acknowledge his indebtedness to Mr. April. 1910.
.... and Hoots Algebraic Expressions and Numerical Substitutions . Numbers Monomial Monomials 31 31 Multiplication of a Polynomial by a . AND PARENTHESES 15 15 10 . Powers... 34 35 36 Multiplication of Polynomials Special Cases in Multiplication 39 CHAPTER IV DIVISION Division of Monomials 46 46 47 Division of a Polynomial by a Monomial Division of a Polynomial by a Polynomial Special Cases in Division ix 48 61 .. SUBTRACTION..... .....CONTENTS CHAPTER INTRODUCTION Algebraic Solution of Problems Negative Numbers I PAGB 1 1 3 Numbers represented by Letters Factors.. ..... III 22 27 Signs of Aggregation Exercises in Algebraic Expression 29 CHAPTER MULTIPLICATION Multiplication of Algebraic Multiplication of .. II 6 7 10 CHAPTER Addition of Monomials Addition of Polynomials Subtraction ADDITION...
. . /^ . . Quadratic Trinomials of the Quadratic Trinomials of the 78 .63 55 67 to Simple Equations 63 CHAPTER VI FACTORING 76 I..114 .. Type V.. Type II.. The Square of a Binomial x 2 Ixy The Difference of Two Squares Grouping Terms of Factoring . Type VI..X CONTENTS CHAPTER V PAGE LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS Solution of Linear Equations Symbolical Expressions Problems leading . Type IV. . Form x'2 f px f q Form px 2 f qx + r f .. * .. Type Polynomials. Type III.. 80 83 84 86 87 Summary CHAPTER Common Factor Lowest Common Multiple Highest VII . All of whose Terms contain a mon Factor Com77 .... . Complex Fractions 105 CHAPTER IX FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS Fractional Equations Literal Equations ... HIGHEST COMMON FACTOR AND LOWEST COMMON MULTIPLE 89 89 91 CHAPTER VIII 93 93 97 FRACTIONS Reduction of Fractions Addition and Subtraction of Fractions Multiplication of Fractions Division of Fractions 102 104 * . 108 108 112 Problems leading to Fractional and Literal Equations .
.. . CHAPTER XIV 169 .... Evolution of Polynomials and Arithmetical Numbers ..CONTENTS XI RATIO AND PROPORTION Ratio ... CHAPTER XI CHAPTER X PAGE 120 120 121 Proportion SIMULTANEOUS EQUATIONS OF THE FIRST DEGREE Elimination by Addition or Subtraction Elimination by Substitution Literal Simultaneous Equations Simultaneous Equations involving More than .. Two Unknown 129 130 133 138 Quantities Problems leading to Simultaneous Equations . 171 CHAPTER XV QUADRATIC EQUATIONS INVOLVING ONB UNKNOWN QUANTITY Pure Quadratic Equations Complete Quadratic Equations Problems involving Quadratics Equations in the Quadratic Character of the Roots . 140 143 CHAPTER XII GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS AND EQUATIONS Representation of Functions of One Variable ... ... 1*78 178 181 189 191 Form 193 .. 148 164 Graphic Solution of Equations involving One Unknown Quantity Graphic Solution of Equations involving Two Unknown Quantities 168 160 CHAPTER INVOLUTION Involution of Monomials XIII 165 165 166 Involution of Binomials EVOLUTION ... Evolution of Monomials 170 ....
xii
CONTENTS
CHAPTER XVI
PAGK 195
THE THEORT OP EXPONENTS
Fractional and Negative Exponents Use of Negative and Fractional Exponents
....
195
200
CHAPTER XVII
RADICALS
Transformation of Radicals Addition and Subtraction of Radicals
Multiplication of Radicals Division of Radicals
205
206 210
.212
Involution and Evolution of Radicals
.....
214
218
Square Roots of Quadratic Surds Radical Equations
219
221
CHAPTER
THE FACTOR THEOREM
XVIII
227
CHAPTER XIX
SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS
I.
......
.
.
.
.
232
232
II.
Equations solved by finding x +/ and x / One Equation Linear, the Other Quadratic
.
.
234
III.
Homogeneous Equations
Special Devices
236
237
IV.
Interpretation of Negative Results
and the Forms
i
,
.
.
241
Problems
243
CHAPTER XX
PROGRESSIONS
Arithmetic Progression Geometric Progression
Infinite
.
246
24(j
251
Geometric Progression
263
CHAPTER XXI
BINOMIAL THEOREM
.
.
.
.
.
.
..
.
.
255
BEVIEW EXERCISE
.
268
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
CHAPTER
I
INTRODUCTION
1.
Algebra
it
may
arithmetic,
treats of
be called an extension of arithmetic. Like numbers, but these numbers are freletters,
quently denoted by problem.
as illustrated in
the following
ALGEBRAIC SOLUTION OF PROBLEMS
2.
Problem.
'
The sum
x
is five
times the smaller.
Let
two numbers is 42, and the greater Find the numbers. the smaller number.
of
Then
and
Therefore,
5 x = the greater number, 6x the sum of the two numbers. 6x
= 42,
and
3.
x = 7, the smaller number, 5 x = 35, the greater number.
A problem
An
is
a question proposed for solution.
4.
equation is a statement expressing the equality of
two
quantities; as,
5.
6 a?
= 42.
In algebra, problems are frequently solved by denoting numbers by letters and by expressing the problem in the form of an equation.
6.
Unknown numbers
;
are usually represented
as, x, y,
z,
by the
last
letters of the alphabet
but sometimes other letters
are employed. B
1
2
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
EXERCISE
The sum
1
Solve algebraically the following problems
1.
:
of two
times the smaller.
2.
numbers is 40, and the greater Find the numbers.
is
four
twice as
and a carriage for $ 480, receiving for the horse as for the carriage. much did he receive for the carriage ?
sold a horse
A man
A
much
How
3.
and
B own
a house worth $ 14,100, and
capital as B.
A
has
in
vested twice as
invested ?
4.
much
How much
is
has each
The population
of
South America
9 times that of
Australia, and both continents together have 50,000,000 inFind the population of each. habitants.
and fall of the tides in Seattle is twice that in and their sum is 18 feet. Find the rise and fall Philadelphia,
5.
The
rise
of the tides in Philadelphia.
6.
6 times as
7.
Divide $ 240 among A, B, and C so that A may receive much as C. and B 8 times as much as C.
A pole 56 feet high was broken so that the part broken was 6 times the length of the part left standing. .Find the length of the two parts.
off
8.
The sum
If
two
of the sides of a triangle equals 40 inches. sides of the triangle are equal, and each is twice the A remaining side, how long is each side ?
A
9.
The sum
triangle is are equal,
of the three angles of any 180. If 2 angles of a triangle and the remaining angle is 4
times their sum,
there in each ?
how many
degrees are
is
G 10. The number of negroes in Africa 10 times the number of Indians in America, and the sum of both is 165,000,000. How many are there of each ?
B
INTRODUCTION
11.
3
twice as
12.
Divide $280 among A, B, and C, so that much as A, and C twice as much as B.
B may
receive
twice as
13.
Divide $90 among A, B, and C, so that B may receive much as A, and C as much as A and B together.
A
is
which
14.
line 20 inches long is divided into two parts, one of long are the parts ? equal to 5 times the other.
How
travels twice as fast as B, and the tances traveled by the two is 57 miles.
A
sum
of the dis
How many
miles did
each travel ?
15.
4
A, B, C, and
does
A
take, if
B
D buy $ 2100 worth of goods. How much buys twice as much as A, C three times as
much
much
as B,
and
D
six times as
NEGATIVE NUMBE
EXERCISE
1.
2
Subtract 9 from 16.
2.
3.
Can 9 be subtracted from 7 ?
In arithmetic
why
cannot 9 be subtracted from 7 ?
"*
\
4.
The temperature
is
What
5.
noon is 16 ami at 4 P.M. it is 9 the temperature at 4 P.M.? State this as an
at
at
of subtraction.
The temperature
4 P.M.
is
7, and
at 10 P.M.
it is
10
less.
6.
What is the temperature at 10 P.M. ? Do you know of any other way of
below zero) ? What then is 7 10?
(3
expressing the last
answer
7.
8.
Can you think
of
any other
practical examples
which
require the subtraction of a greater
number from a smaller
one?
7.
Many
greater
number from a smaller
practical examples require the subtraction of a one, and in order to express in
a convenient form the results of these, and similar examples,
4
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
it becomes necessary to enlarge our concept of number, so as to include numbers less than zero.
8. Negative numbers are numbers smaller than zero; they are denoted by a prefixed minus sign as 5 (read " minus 5 "). Numbers greater than zero, for the sake of distinction, are fre;
quently called positive numbers, and are written either with a prefixed plus sign, or without any prefixed sign as f 5 or 5.
;
The
fact that a
thermometer falling 10 from 7 indicates 3
be expressed 7 10
below zero
may now
= 3.
is
loss of $ 60,
Instead of saying a gain of $ 30, and a loss of $ 90 we may write
equal to a
$30
9.
$90 = $60.
number
is
The
absolute value of a
the number taken
without regard to its sign. 5 is The absolute value of
10.
6,
of f 3 is 3.
It is convenient for
many
discussions to represent the
positive
a line
numbers by a succession of equal distances laid off on from a point 0, and the negative numbers by a similar
series in the opposite direction.
,
I
I
lit
4
to
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
6
5
3
2
1
+\
4,
+2
+
3
+4
45
+6
y
Thus, in the annexed diagram, the line from
the line from
4 represents
etc.
to 4 6 represents 4 5,
resented by a motion of "three tion of 8 by a similar motion toward the
The addition of 3 is repspaces toward the right, and the subtracleft.
Thus, 5 added to
1
equals 4, 5 subtracted from
1 equals
6, etc.
EXERCISE
1.
3
If in financial transactions
we
indicate a man's income
by
a positive sign, what does a negative sign indicate ?
2. State in what manner the positive and negative signs may be used to indicate north and south latitude, east and west
longitude, motion upstream
and downstream.
INTRODUCTION
3.
5
If north latitude
is
indicated by a positive sign, by what
is
south latitude represented ?
4.
If south latitude
is
indicated by a positive sign, by what
?
is
north latitude represented
5.
the meaning of the year 6 yards per second ? erly motion of
is 6.
What
20 A.D. ?
Of an
east
A
his total gain or loss ?
7.
merchant gains $ 200, and loses $ 350.  350. (b) Find 200
(a)
What
is
higher, is 8
 +7? 8. A vessel
(6)
If the temperature at 4 A.M. is 8 and at 9 A.M. it is 7 what is the temperature at 9 A.M. ? What, therefore,
starts
sails
38 due south,
(a)
from a point in 25 north latitude, and Find the latitude at the end of the
journey.
9.
Find 25 38.
A
22
sails
vessel starts from a point in 15 south latitude, and due south, (a) Find the latitude at the end of the
(b)
journey,
10.
Subtract 22 from
15.
18.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
From 30 subtract 40. From 4 subtract 7. From 7 subtract 9. From 19 subtract 34. From subtract 14. From 12 subtract 20. 2 subtract 5. From 1 subtract 1. From
19. 20.
21.
22.
23.
24. 25.
To 6 2 To To 1 From 1 To  8 To 7 From
add add add
12.
1.
2.
subtract 2.
add add
9. 4.
1 subtract 2.
Add
1 and 2.
26.
the one of
Solve examples 1625 by using a diagram similar to 10, and considering additions and subtractions as
motions.
27.
(a) 28.
Which is the greater number lor 1? (b) 2 or 4?
:
By how much
is
7 greater than
12 ?
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
29.
Determine from the following table the range of tempera:
ture in each locality
NUMBERS REPRESENTED BY LETTERS
11. For many purposes of arithmetic it is advantageous to express numbers by letters. One advantage was shown in 2 others will appear in later chapters ( 30).
;
EXERCISE
1.
4
is
If the letter
t
means 1000, what
the value of
5t?
a=
2.
3.
What is the value of 3 6, if b = 3 ? if b = 4 ? What is the value of a + &, if a = 5, and 6 = 7?
if
6,
and
b
=
4?
is
4.
5.
What
If a
the value of 17
c,
if c
= 5?
ifc
= 2?
marbles,
many
6.
boy has 9c? marbles and wins 4c marbles has. he ?
Is the last
how
7.
How
8.
9.
merchant had 20 much has he left ?
A
answer correct for any value of d ? m dollars and lost 11 m
dollars.
What
is
the
sum
of 8 &
and G
b ?
Find the numerical value
If c represents a certain
of the last
answer
if b
= 15.
10.
number, what represents 9 times
that
number ?
INTRODUCTION
11.
1
From 26 w
subtract 19 m.
12.
if
What is the numerical
From 22m
if
value of the last answer
if
m = 2?
m = 2?
13.
subtract
1
25m, and
find the numerical value
of the answer
14.
m=
2.
Add
13 p, 3p, 6p, and subtract 24 p from the sum.
15.
16. 19.
From
10 q subtract 20
q.
17.
18.
Add lOgand +20 q. From 22# subtract 0.
7 a=
From subtract 26 Add  6 x and 8 x.
x.
20.
From
Wp subtract 10^).
is
What sign, therefore, 140. 21. If a = 20, then understood between 7 and a in the expression 7 a ?
FACTORS, POWERS, AND ROOTS
12.
The
and equality have the same meaning
in arithmetic.
13.
signs of addition, subtraction, multiplication, division, in algebra as they have
If there is no sign between
two
is
letters, or
a letter and a
number, a sign of multiplication
6
is
understood.
written win.
x a
is
generally written 6 a
;
m
x n
Between two
(either
figures,
x
or
)
however, a sign of multiplication has to be employed as, 4x7, or 4 7.
;
4x7 cannot be
14.
written 47, for 47
means 40
f 7.
A product is
=
the result obtained by multiplying together
two or more
Since 24
Similarly,
quantities, each of which is a factor of the product. 3 x 8, or 12 x 2, each of these numbers is a factor of 24.
7, a, 6,
and
c are factors of 7 abc.
15.
A
power
is
thus,
aaaaa
6 aaaaaa, or a ,
is the product of two or more equal factors called the " 5th power of a," and written a5 " the 6th is power of a," or a 6th.
;
;
The second power is also called the square, and the third 2 power the cube; thus, 12 (read "12 square") equals 144.
8
16.
ELEMENTS OF ALQEBEA
The
base of a
power
is
the
number which
is
repeated
as a factor.
The base
of a 3
is a.
17. An exponent is the number which indicates how many times a base is to be used as a factor. It is placed a little above and to the right of the base.
The exponent
of
m
6
is
6
;
n
is
the exponent of an
.
EXERCISE
1.
5
find the numerical value of the square of 7, the cube of 6, the fourth power of 3, and the fifth power of 2. Find the numerical values of the following powers :
2.
3.
Write and
72
.
6.
42
.
10.
11.
.
8
(i)
.
14.
15.
2
.
25 1
.
2*.
7.
8. 9.
2*.
O
9
.
.0001 2
.
4. 5.
52
83
.
10 6
I 30
.
12.
(4)
(1.5)
16.
.
l.l 1
.
.
13.
2
17.
22
+3
2
.
If
a=3, 6=2, c=l, and
18. 19.
3
ci
.
d=^
22.
a*.
find the numerical values of:
24.
2
.
20.
21.
c
10
.
3
(2 c)
ab.
.
26. 27.
2
at).
b2
.
d\
23.
(6cf)
25.
(4 bdf.
28.
If
29.
30.
= 8, what is the value of a? If m = what is the value of m ? = 64, what is the value of a ? If 4
a3
2
jJg,
In a product any factor product of the other factors.
18.
is
called the coefficient of the
In 12 win 8/), 12
19.
is
the coefficient of
is
mw 8p,
12
m is the coefficient of n*p.
A
17
numerical coefficient
a coefficient expressed entirely
in figures.
In
aryx,
17
is
the numerical coefficient.
is
When
stood ; thus a
a product contains no numerical coefficient, 1 1 a, a Bb 1 a*b.
under
=
=
INTRODUCTION
9
20. When several powers are multiplied, the beginner should remember that every exponent refers only to the number near which it is placed.
3 9
2
means 3
3
aa, while (3
2
)
=3ax
3 a.
= 9 abyyy. 2* xyW = 22.2.2. xyyyzz.
afty
1 abc*
7 abccc.
EXERCISES
If
a
= 4, b = 1, c = 2, and x = ^, find the
numerical values of
:
21. root is one of the equal factors of a power. According to the number of equal factors, it is called a square root, a cube root, a fourth root, etc.
3
is
A
6
is is
the square root of 9, for 32 = 9. the cube root of 125, for 6 8 = 125. the
fifth
a
root of a 5 the nth root of a".
,
The nth
Va,
is
fifth root of a,
indicated by the symbol >/""; thus Va is the is the cube root of 27, \/a, or more simply the square root of a.
root
is
A/27
Using
this
(Va)
22.
n
= a.
The
symbol we
may
is
express the definition of root by
the
index of a root
number which
indicates
what
root is to be taken.
sign. In v/a, 7
23.
It is written in the opening of the radical
is
the index of the root.
The
[ ]
;
signs of aggregation are
:
the parenthesis,
.
( )
;
the
bracket,
the brace,
j
j
;
and the vinculum,
ALGP:BRAIC EXPRESSIONS 24. 6. (cfd) 4. 26. 6. 2. or 9 Vx. a polynomial of two terms. 27. 3. + 1]. separated by a sign (6 + c + d} is o c ^and (6 + a monomial. find the numerical value of: Vff. V36". 4(a 6(6 + &). V^a6. [6c] 3 . c = 1. b = 3. x 9. 13. A monomial or term f an expression whose parts are not as 3 cue2. \/c. some number is . A binomial is 62 . 14. 12. 6 a26 7 Vac ~* 2 f 9. 11. 5Vl6c. v'Ta. V3 . 7 = 2. A polynomial is an y. + M f c 4 f d 4 are polynomials. d 7. aVc^. 10 x [4 by 4 + 1 or by 5. !^f\/03 3 ft. are trinomials. Each 10 is of the forms 10 to be multiplied x (4 f 1). 4V3~6c. since the parts are a . expression containing more than one and a 4 term.10 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA They are used. c f d). 15. e. to indicate that the expres* sions included are to be treated as a whole." EXERCISE If a 1.g. 10. 16. 8. A trinomial a polynomial of three terms. 10 x 4"+T indicates that (a b) is sometimes read "quantity a b. a2 + and   \/a are binomials. 17. 2 . is 28. 0. 9. V2a. as in arithmetic. Val \fi?. AND NUMERICAL sym SUBSTITUTIONS An algebraic expression is a collection of algebraic bols representing 25. + c).
6a2 +4a62 ~6c' 27 c 3 +12a(i *15. c=l.30 = 270 . (a (a f b) 7. Ex. i. a2 f + (a + 6)c 6+ a (2 2 c 2 . . 5c +d 2 . 6.9 a& 2 c + f a 6 . 5. Otherwise operations of addition. . find the numerical value of: 9. d=Q. 5c6 2 +6ac3 a 3 17c3 hl2o. each term has to be computed before the different terms are added and subtracted. x=^. + 26+3 c. 2 3a& 2 + 3a2 6a&c2 .19 a 6cd 3 2 3 find the numerical value 6 aft 2 . 52 . c = 2. 12.g. multiplication. 4 . ' f & f c 3 8 d s . 3.. 3a + 56 a 2 . a=4. 2 ). 3 2 If 1. 14.2 + I126.e.4 6^9 ad. * For additional examples see page 268. l 13. 4a6fVaV2^. Find the value of 4 28 +5 32  *^. 8. and division are to be performed in the order in which they are written all from left to right. 1. a 2 6.19 a 2 bcd = 6 5 32 .5 ax 50 a6cd. 10. __ E. d = 0.INTRODUCTION 29. subtraction. EXERCISE 8*  . b = 3. 11 if it In a polynomial each term is treated as were con tained in a parenthesis.390. 2.9 5 32 2 + ^ 5 8 3 . 5 means 3 4 20 or 23. 5=3. 16. 4. Ex. 2. a2 11.9 aWc + f a b . .810 + 150 = .9.19 = 6.99. . 5. = 32 + 4527 = 50. 2 of 6 ab If a = 5. 3 4 . 6. 5a2 2 a2 46cf2^^ + 3 a& +.
a =3. 33. a = 2. a = 4. Six 2 . a. Six times a plus 4 times 32. 1014 The representation of numbers by letters makes it posvery briefly and accurately some of the principles of arithmetic. 30.6 . a =4. 26 of the exercise. 30. Twice a3 diminished by 5 times the square root of the quantity a minus 6 square. 27. : 6. 25. 6 = 3. 28. and other sciences. a = 3. sible to state Ex. 6 = 1. The quantity a 6 2 by the quantity a minus 36. 29. of this exercise? What kind of expressions are Exs. .12 17 & * ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 18 ' 8 Find the numerical value of 8 a3 21. 6=2. and the area of the is triangle S square feet (or squares of other units selected). 6 = 5. 34. and If the three sides of a triangle contain respectively c feet (or other units of length). Six times the square of a minus three times the cube of Eight x cube minus four x square plus y square. 6 = 4. a = 4. if : a = 2. Read the expressions of Exs. 24. 6 = 6. = 3. 38. a = 3. 6.6 f c) (6 a + c). physics.c) (a . then 8 = \ V(a + 6 + c) (a 4. 6 = 6. 22. 12 cr6 f 6 a6 2 6s. 6. 6 = 5. 6 = 7. 26. 23. 35. a a=3. w cube plus three times the quantity a minus plus 6 multiplied 6. 37. 6 = 2. Express in algebraic symbols 31. geometry.
12.INTRODUCTION E.) Assuming g . An electric car in 40 seconds. 14. c. if v . (c) 4. How far does a body fall from a state of rest in T ^7 of a (c) A second ? 3.e. if v = 30 miles per hour. and 15 feet. d. Find the height of the tree. b. 15 therefore feet. 2. A body falling from a state of rest passes in t seconds 2 over a space S (This formula does not take into ac^gt 32 feet. and 5 feet. 84 square EXERCISE 1. and 13 inches. if v : a. A carrier pigeon in 10 minutes. 4. By using the formula find the area of a triangle whose sides are respectively (a) 3.seconds. the three sides of a triangle are respectively 13. b 14. if v = 50 meters per second 5000 feet per minute. i. then a 13. A train in 4 hours. (b) 5.16 centimeters per second. and c 13 and 15 = = = . = (a) How far does a body fall from a state of rest in 2 seconds ? (b) * stone dropped from the top of a tree reached the ground in 2J. 13.g. the area of the triangle equals feet. count the resistance of the atmosphere. S =  V(13hl4fl5)(13H1415)(T314i15)(1413f15) = V421214. . 9 distance s passed over by a body moving with the uniform velocity v in the time t is represented by the formula The Find the distance passed over by A snail in 100 seconds.16 1 = 84.
14 square meters. the 3. and the value given above is only an surface $= 2 approximation. then the volume V= (a) 10 feet. on $ 500 for 2 years at 4 %. fo If i represents the simple interest of i p dollars at r in n years.14 is frequently denoted by the Greek letter TT. (c) 5 miles. If cated on the Fahrenheit scale. 2 inches.14d (square units). $ = 3.). the area etc. square units (square inches. then =p n * r %> or Find by means (a) (b) 6. If the (b) 1 inch. This number cannot be expressed exactly. 5. 32 F. (c) 5 F. : 8000 miles. of this formula : The The interest on interest $800 for 4 years at ty%. (The number 3. diameter of a sphere equals d feet. Find the area of a circle whose radius is It (b) (a) 10 meters. (c) 10 feet.) Find the surface of a sphere whose diameter equals (a) 7.). If the diameter of a sphere equals d units of length. ~ 7n cubic feet. 6 Find the volume of a sphere whose diameter equals: (b) 3 feet. denotes the number of degrees of temperature indi8. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA If the radius of a circle etc. meters. .14 4. is H 2 units of length (inches. the equivalent reading C on the Centigrade scale may be found by the formula F C y = f(F32). (c) 8000 miles. to Centigrade readings: (b) Change the following readings (a) 122 F.
SUBTRACTION. In arithmetic we add a gain of $ 6 and a gain of $ 4.CHAPTER II ADDITION. we call the aggregate value of a gain of 6 and a loss of 4 the sum of the two. While in arithmetic the word sum refers only to the result obtained by adding positive numbers. in algebra this word includes also the results obtained by adding negative. or positive and negative numbers. however. .$6) + ( $4) = ( $10). we define the sum of two numbers in such a way that these results become general. but we cannot add a gain of $0 and a loss of $4. Thus a gain of $ 2 is considered the sum of a gain of $ 6 and a loss of $ 4. Since similar operations with different units always produce analogous results. of $6 and a gain $4 equals a $2 may be represented thus In a corresponding manner we have for a loss of $6 and a of loss $4 (. or that and (+6) + (+4) = + 16 10. Or in the symbols of algebra $4) = Similarly. AND PARENTHESES ADDITION OF MONOMIALS 31. In algebra. the fact that a loss of loss of + $2.
d = 0. 5. (_ In Exs.  0.3. Thus. + 12. The average of two numbers is average of three numbers average of n numbers is the is one half their sum. is 2. EXERCISE Find the sum of: 10 Find the values 17. add their absolute values if they have opposite signs. '. 5. subtract their absolute values and . . 12. 24. find the numerical values of a + b f cjc?. 2326. the average of 4 and 8 The average The average of 2. the one third their sum. 4. is 0. (17) 15 + (14). ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA These considerations lead to the following principle : If two numbers have the same sign. 10. 22. 21. of: 20. + (9). if : a a = 2. lf(2). 33. 6 6 = 3. and the sum of the numbers divided by n. 19. 4 is 3 J.16 32. 18. c = 4. = 5. c = = 5. 23. d = 5. of 2. (always) prefix the sign of the greater.
& 28. sets of numbers: 13. 7 a. }/ Add 2 a. 09. 35. 4 F. and 3 a.. d= 3. 7 yards.7. and $4500 gain. 43. 30. 36. 32.3. = 22. . and 3 a. Find the average of the following temperatures 27 F. 0. 12. 11 (Centigrade). c = 0. 29. or 16 Va + b and 2Vo"+~&. 4. \\ Add 2 a. 10. 3 and 25. and 3 F. . Find the average gain per year of a merchant. .4. Similar or like terms are terms which have the same literal factors. $500 loss. .7. c=14. . & = 15. 34.5. 32. or and . . 13. ' 1? a 26. ^ ' 37. . affected by the same exponents. 5 and 12. : and 1. which are not similar. 10. 2. 5 a2 & 6 ax^y and 7 ax'2 y. = 13. 6. 1. $3000 gain. What number must be added to 9 to give 12? What number must be added to 12 to give 9 ? What number must be added to 3 to give 6 ? C* What number must be added to 3 to give 6? **j Add 2 yards. 31. 7 a. 25. 37. 60. : 48. AND PARENTHESES d = l. Find the average temperature of New York by taking the average of the following monthly averages 30. are similar terms. 66. 55. 38. Dissimilar or unlike terms are terms 4 a2 6c and o 4 a2 6c2 are dissimilar terms. = 23. ' Find the average of the following 34. 72. 6. and 4.13. 10. 39.. 74. : 34. and 8 F.. 33. $1000 loss. 6.5. : Find the average temperature of Irkutsk by taking the average of the following monthly temperatures 12. 3. . $7000 gain. and 3 yards. 2. if his yearly gain or loss during 6 years was $ 5000 gain. 42. 40. 27.ADDITION. SUBTRACTION. 41.
sign. 1 \ f 7 a 2 frc Find the sum of 9. In algebra the word sum is used in a 36. 2 a&. The sum x 2 and f x2 . 12 2 wp2 .ii. b a f ( 6). 7 rap2. Vm f. While in arithmetic a denotes a difference only. ab 7 c 2 dn 6. The sum The sum of a of a Dissimilar terms cannot be united into a single term. 12 13 b sx xY xY 7 #y 7. 10. 5 a2 . or a 6. 13. 2 . Algebraic sum. + 6 af . 2(af &). 5l 3(af6). f 4 a2. EXERCISE Add: 1. 12(af b) 12.13 rap 25 rap 2.18 35. 5Vm + w. 3a . 11 2 a +3a 4o 2. 14 . 12Vmfn. in algebra it may be considered b. sum of two such terms can only be them with the f. : 2 a2. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA The sum of 3 of two similar terms x2 is is another similar term. . either the difference of a and b or the sum of a and The sum of a. The indicated by connecting and a 2 and a is is f a2 . 9(af6). b wider sense than in arithmetic. 11. and 4 ac2 is a 2 a&  4 ac2.
+m """ 20. l^S 25. 3a76 + 5a + 2a3610a+116. without finding the value of each term 34. is . m n ^ 2 Add: 18. 35. "Vx + y Vaj + y 2 2 Vi + + 2 Va. 4x9' 10x38 ADDITION OF POLYNOMIALS Polynomials are added by uniting their like terms. 37.ADDITION. SUBTRACTION. 2a 4a4 + 6a 7a 9a2a + 8. + / + 3 Va. xyz + xyz 12 xyz + 13 xyz + 15 xyz. 5x173 + 6x1733x1737x173. Simplify : AND PARENTHESES 19 15. 2 7 1 26. 33. i xyz co* mn mri Simplify the following by uniting like terms: 29. c 2 ^24. 1 27. 2/ : Add. and to add each column. 30. + y. 6 23. ra 19. n x* 2 22. It convenient to arrange the expressions so that like terms may be in the same vertical column. 36. 17. 21. 2 2 2 31. 17c + 15c8 + 18c + 22c3 +c3 3 3 . a a8 ZL **. 32.
8 abc .3 + 8 + 5 = 1 0.15 6c.7 2 . and J 2 s. cording to descending powers of EXERCISE 12 Add 1.c= 2. 4 2. . 2 Thus. 2 Sum. therefore the answer is correct. c = 1. 3.20 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA . It is not also a406 4c would In various operations with polynomials containing terms with different powers of the same letter.20 c 5 ab 4. of that letter. 2 . 5 .2z and 0^9 z * For additional examples see page 259.41 = 3. f 5 c f But 7 = 10 . 6=2. 6 a7 4 5 x"2 + 7 x* 4 5 7a &+4a fi 5 4 is 6c 8 arranged according to ascending powers 4 7 a&<d? + 9 6 5 4 e 7 is arranged ac aW a.2 6 + 4 c = 1 +4 a. ft any convenient and c. 5. x of x. Numerical substitution offers a convenient method for the addition of checking the sum of an addition. and 2 . 4a46 12 q 5 2 a.g. the following polynomials : 2a 3646 t c. 7 4. . 2c. 2z2 4?/ 2 f2z 2 5 3ar 22/2 4 4 3 /.3 a f 4 the sum a = 1. V3.4 6c + c 2 we proceed as . to show any error. 2 025. . a 4. 9 q 4. the erroneous answer equal 7. e.o c and 4.15 abc .6a& 7 6ca a5c + 4 be 6c 4 26 ca c' 9a& 38.8 & c~15&c 12a&4l5a&c 20c2 flO&c .10 6c 6 c 2 and 7 a&c 4. NOTE. 3 a f 4 1) 4. While the check is almost certain an absolute test e. to add 26 ab . f 110WS: 26 aft. 3a 2? .2 a 26 To check c assign numerical values to then . it is convenient to arrange the terms according to ascending or descending powers 39.g. 4 = 7.3 s. 46 4z 7 c.12 a& 4. = . s.
and 5 Vb 18.Ga 43x45. 2 2 . . 2 ?ft ?/z. SUBTRACTION. 2 and 9m 48m 4. 8. 2 2 and . a.5a^6 f 6) . 2(6 + c) + (c f a). 4 3 . . and 12a 4 15& 20c . 4.5 cr& + 7 6 9. m 4 6.a.a.a . 6 # 4 5 z 4 2 7. 7ar + 3B 5. and 8 3 . a 4 a . ^2 1 e.12.15 5. 4 8 3 4 4 . </ AND PARENTHESES 2i 14d15e + 2/.4 Va . 4 Vc. and and 13.9(a + &) . 3 2 2 3 9 . 4 o^?/ 4 y\ and a. 2xy + 4:XZ}5yz. a) y ^/. 2 3(c f a). 4 ajy 17.3 5 Va 2 2 3 3 2 . 11.4:xy xz 6yz.1 a 4 1 0. 7 4 5 x*y 2 y?y* 3 xf. . d and / 3 ? 12.and 6. a4 6(a a a2 f a f 1. w* 4 3 m n 4 3 m?i 4 2w .6) + 14(a 4 6) 4 10. 10a +lOa 6ll& 10.ADDITION. and v 15.6. 3 2 tf 2 l 2 ^_.7m .7^ 2iB 8 + 2y + 2 8 8 .7v/if. v/20. and 1 4 a . and .3 ay 6 afy + 6 ay/ 4 10 and .(b + c) 1. . 7(a + 5) 4 2 and 6 4 a. 19. 2 ?/. 56 w. . . 16e + 17/90.a 3a 9 y\ 3 afy .5 c ll& 7c 6 4. 16.8 m 2m 12. a 4 a . 18/+6y + d. a2 2 14. . . 4 3 3 ^* f h <l. 8 2 2 3 s 2 3 . 6 # 2 2 2 2 2 2 .a 4 a 4 1. 4(a .Va 4 2 V& 4 6 Vc. + 50 + 62 . ?/ . 3 ?/ 3 ? 2 j and a 2 4.3 mn 2 2 n8 . a2 a. .10 Vc.1.2n 2 2 3 rz .2 #?/ 4 5 a + 4 aft . 6a 5a &47a& 4& and 7. xy3xz + yz.12(a 4. . 4 + 6)  5 (a + 6) + 3. 2 a.12 6 ~5 a . a + 1> 8 2 2 .VS 4 2 Vc. in 8 3 m n 4. + a + 1. e a4 /. a 4ar ! byb 8 c^c 8 . d.
ra + m. does he thereby become richer or poorer ? .17 + 4 ?nfy . 13 1. m 3 3 5y 3 8 . 2 a3 a 4 3 af^. +d a. + 1. . 1.4 2tn* Sic 2 .9aj 2. 5 } and 3 m 3 7 m. and 25. c 3 3 3 2 3 . a 6 2 c. 45a6 2 .11 xy + 12. 16m 7/12my d+e a 6. What away is the value of the sum if two neg ative units are taken ? If three negative units are taken away 4. a s f3o $ xy and 5+a\ ^ "27. 2fa 3 4 a +7a. If from the five negative units three negative units are taken.22 21.m 4m ?/?/ d. f 1.3 taken from 2 ? 5. what to obtain the same result ? total of the units f 1. + n*. What is therefore the remainder is when 2 is taken from 2? When . What is therefore the remainder when 3 is taken 5? Instead of subtracting in the preceding example. f 1. . and 3^2 SUBTRACTION EXERCISE 1. SM/Z + 2 a:?/ f x y bxyz~lx. and 6 + 9 x + 12 26. . 12 xyz. 8 f3f a n2<w +n . 8 . The sum and ? 1. 1. 1. If you diminish a person's debts. how 1. 1. T8a. 5 3 f 4 ?n 4 2m+2m e.. 4^ + 3t*n l2aj 2 a. and 2 24. many negative units re main ? from 2. 22. 1. 1/ . and e + 6y . 2 8 n + <w 2 . f number may be added 3. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 4 w + 3 m + 2 m. s . 6 f c 2 23. is 2.3^* 2n 2 . 1. What other operations produce the subtraction of a negative number? same result as the 6.5< 3 2 s 4^4.
To subtract. 41. Or in symbols. The results of the preceding examples could be obtained by the following Principle. if x Ex. From 5 subtract to The number which added Hence. ab = x. Ex. State the other practical examples which show that the number is equal to the addition of a 40. . Subtraction is the inverse of addition. two numbers are given. From 5 subtract to . The student should perform mentally the operation of chang8 2 6 from 6 a 2 fc. called the minvend.3. the algebraic sum and one of the two numbers is The algebraic sum is given. may be stated number added to 3 will give 5? To subtract from a the number b means to find the number which added to b gives a.ADDITION. In subtraction. ing the sign of the subtrahend thus to subtract 6 a 2 6 and 8 a 2 6 and find the sum of change mentally the sign of . the other number is required. a. 1. 2. and their algebraic sum is required. and the required number the difference. In addition. from What 3. Ex. 3 gives 5 is evidently 8. Therefore any example in subtraction different .g. AND PARENTHESES 23 subtraction of a negative positive number. 3.2. 6 (3) = 8. 5 is 2. 7. +b 3. SUBTRACTION. change the sign of the subtrahend and add. 3 gives 3) The number which added Hence. This gives by the same method. may be stated in a : 5 take form e. ( 6) ( = . the given number the subtrahend. NOTE. From 5 subtract + 3.
3 x* .24 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA we change the subtract 2 x sign of each term 42.5 x + 8. If x = l = 2 t . Ex.f 8 . From _6ar3 3z + 7 2 6ar3 3o2 +7 2 or3 .3 r*5o. To subtract polynomials of the subtrahend and add. Check.
. 41. 43. + a the 2 a. 50. From a3 From 6a 1 subtract f a + b 3 1. 56. 52. From From $ a 3 7 x 2 ?/ 5 a/ + ?/ subtract f ar f 7 a 2 ?/ . From 5 a 2 2 ab ?/' subtract 2 a 2 + 2ab .a 2 j.5 #?/ 2 and check the answer.a From 3 or 2 a:// + 2 subtract 2 1. From 6(af. f 2 aa 7a 2 ?/ 2 subtract a3 take 11 a 2 :c + 2 a . 55. From 5a(>& + 7c From 2 x2 8 a?y + 2 From mn f ??/> 8d 11 cf 17 d. ?/ 3 #?/ 2 y2 . 45. 4v From 6 subtract lt2af3& + 4<7.c. tract 4 x 3.2. 46. 42. f 12 b f From 10 a 12 & f 6 subtract 5 c. and 3 7/ .& 4 subtract a 2 2 4 +4 8 6 6 a& 59. 48.b h c and a & f c subtract a _ 6 _ 2 c. AND PARENTHESES from 14 a 25 Subtract the sum of 2 m and 7 m c 10m. of a 4.7 a . 54. 49. +3x f & f 12 take 3 f ar f 4 x + 11. SUBTRACTION. take 2 8 o# + qt c mt subtract a2 f mn f wp f.4 a^ 4. 51.ADDITION. 96 subtract 10 b 2 From From 1 f & take 1 f b f & s . 2. 6 4 a. 57.5(6 + c) 4(c + a) subtract 7(af&) REVIEW EXERCISES 1.w>t.4 a*& + 6 a & . 44. 6 6 2 2 ?/ . c f d. From 2 a take a & j. 53. of x2 4x f 12 and 3 a2 3 # 3 sub From a3 + 2 a2 4 a subtract the sum of a 3 } a2 2a and a 2 + 4. From a3 subtract 2 a3 f. From 16 + a3 subtract 8 2 a + a2 f a3 From a 4 .6)f. 2 + 4 a& 3 f 6 4 . 47. 58. check the answer. From From x2 the sum sum 7. 2y 2 .
What must be added to b 4^ + 4^ + 2 z. +a add the difference duce 13. years ago ? How old was he a b years ago? .26 4. To the sum of 2a + 66 + 4c and a 2 c. 10 a + 5 b sum of9ci66 + c and 11. ~2a6 + 2c? expression must be subtracted from 2 a to produce a+6? v . 9. to produce find : 0? = x +g c =x 18. Subtract the sum of 5 a2 + 2 7 and 2a2 + 3a and from 2 a2 + 2 a 7. a a + c. 4 6 2 c add the To the 3 sum a3 4 a2 3 between 5 a 12. sum of Subtract the x2 + 2 and 6 a iE 3 2 from x3 + a^ 4 6. subtract # + 1. a 2y + z. + 2. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA From the difference between a? a? 3 j +5 a: 2 + 58+1 + cc and 4 a? 2 +4x 5. 19. 20. +4 and 4 a +1 +a 2 and a2 a. of # 2 8. + 6 + c. 2 m 21. 6. n years hence ? A c How old will he be 10 years hence ? a +b is 2 a years old. A is n years old. 16. What expression must 8a3 2a7? What What be added to 7 a 3 +4a 2 to pro expression must be added to 3a + 56 cto pro duce 14. Subtract the difference of a and a Subtract the sum + f and + 6 + c from a + b + c a +2 y from 2 2 2 ar* 2 */ 10. Subtract the sum s of 6 m +5 m +6m 8 4m* 5 m +4m 2 from 2 ra + 7 m. 6 17. a + 6.15.
Hence the it is sign may obvious that parentheses preceded by the f or be removed or inserted according to the fol: lowing principles 44. 45.2 b . 6 o+( a + c) = a =a 6 c) ( 4. A moved w may be resign of aggregation preceded by the sign inserted provided the sign of evei'y term inclosed is E. A sign of aggregation preceded by the sign f may be removed or inserted without changing the sign of any term. Simplify 4 a f + 5&)[6& +(25.a f = 4a sss 7a 12 06 6. 66 2&a + 6 4a Answer. The beginner will find it most convenient at every step to remove only those parentheses which contain (7 a no others. we may begin either at the innermost or outermost. Ex. SUBTRACTION. . If there is no sign before the first term within a paren* f thesis.a^6)]  } .6 b f (. I. If we wish to remove several signs of aggregation. AND PARENTHESES 27 SIGNS OF AGGREGATION 43.a~^~6)]} = 4 a {7 a 6 b [.& c additions and sub + d) = a + b c + d. tractions By using the signs of aggregation. changed. a+(bc) = a +b . II. 4a{(7a + 6&)[6&f(2&. the sign is understood. one occurring within the other.c. & f c.ADDITION. may be written as follows: a f ( 4.b c = a a & f f. 46. (b c) a =a 6 4 c.g.c.
3. Ex. 2a 2 + 5a(7f 2a )f (55a). 2.y (60.1422) J ] . 21. 6. 6) 2.28 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 15* Simplify the following expressions 1. By removing parentheses.+ 6)f (a2 b). 18. 4. . 2 2 2 a(. 19. 2a (4a 26 +c ). 2 2a. In the following expression inclose the second and third. 271 + (814 . 7 6)+ {a [a: 22. 8.) 5 . 9. a (a + 6). [36+ (a 2c]. 2m 4af 2 2 2 10. 3 3 f 7. + (2a 6 + c ). find the numerical value of { 1422 . 13. Signs of aggregation 1. a (a + 26 c ).: Ex. m f ft) a. 16. m+n + [# (6 (m (r + M> + w n p) ___ ( m~n\p. 14. ? 11. a f (a a . 15.[271 47. 17. last three Inclose in a parenthesis preceded by the sign terms of the See page 260.)]. 5. : x + (2yz). a(3b a3 3 2 2 2c).7i h jp) (m ?*.(a + 6). (m a2 f. the fourth and fifth terms respectively in parentheses. may be inserted according to 43. a a c) + [3 a {3c (c 26 a)} 6a].
7fa. 13. y f 8 . 6 diminished . 2mn + 2q3t. 9. The square of the difference of a and b. 3. SUBTRACTION. The sum of the fourth powers of a of and 6. 5^2 _ r . terms 5. m and n. EXERCISE AND PARENTHESES 16 29 In each of the following expressions inclose the last three terms in a parenthesis : 1.ADDITION. Nine times the square of the sum of a and by the product of a and b. ' NOTE. of the cubes of m and n. The product The product m and n. a\l> > c + d. 2. The sum of tKe squares of a and b.4 y* . 6. The product of the sum and the difference of m and n. 4. m x 2 4. 7. 5 a2 2. In each of the following expressions inclose the last three in a parenthesis preceded by the minus sign : 27i2 3^ 2 + 4r/.2 tf . 5. and the subtrahend the second. Three times the product of the squares of The cube of the product of m and n. 3. z + d. )X 6.1. difference of the cubes of n and m. 12. first. 7. The sum^)f m and n. p + q + rs. The difference of a and 6. II. 10. The minuend is always the of the two numbers mentioned. . The The difference of the cubes of m and n. EXERCISES IN" ALGEBRAIC EXPRESSION 17 : EXERCISE Write the following expressions I. 8. 4 xy 7 x* 49 x + 2.
difference of the cubes of a and b divided by the difference of a and 6.) . b. 16. The difference of the squares of two numbers divided by the difference of the numbers is equal to the sum of the two numbers.30 14. d. 18. dif of the squares of a and b increased by the square root of 15. x cube minus quantity 2 x2 minus 6 x plus The sum of the cubes of a. The sum The of a and b multiplied b is equal to the difference of by the difference of a and a 2 and b 2 . 6. 6 is equal to the square of b. a plus the prod uct of a and s plus the square of 19. and c divided by the ference of a and Write algebraically the following statements: V 17. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA The sum x. (Let a and b represent the numbers.
If the two loads balance. weight at B ? If the addition of five 3 plication example. applied at let us indicate a downward pull at by a positive sign. 2. is by taking away 5 weights from A? 5 X 3? 6. force is produced therefore. If the two loads balance. 4. what force is produced by the Ib. and forces produced at by 3 Ib. 5. weights at A ? Express this as a multibalance. A A A 1. is 5 x ( 3) ? 7. what force is produced by the addition of 5 weights at B ? What. what force 31 is produced by tak( ing away 5 weights from B ? What therefore is 5) x( 3) ? . weight at A ? What is the sign of a 3 Ib.CHAPTER III MULTIPLICATION MULTIPLICATION OF ALGEBRAIC NUMBERS EXERCISE 18 In the annexed diagram of a balance. weights. By what sign is an upward pull at A represented ? What is the sign of a 3 Ib. therefore. 3. let us consider the and JB. two loads balance. If the two loads what What.
9 9. (5)X4. Thus. a result that would not be obtained by other assumptions. Practical examples^ it however.9) x 11. or plied by 3. Multiplication by a negative integer is a repeated sub traction. becomes meaningless if definition. In multiplying integers we have therefore four cases trated illus by the following examples : 4x3 = 412. or 4x3 = = (_4) X The preceding 3=(4)+(4)+(4)=12. (. the multiplier is a negative number. Multiplication by a positive integer is a repeated addition.4)(4) = + 12. 5x(4). To take a number 7 times. . 4 multiplied by 3. ( 9) x ( 11) ? State a rule by which the sign of the product of two fac tors can be obtained. 4 x(8) = ~(4)(4)(4)=:12. examples were generally method of the preceding what would be the values of ( 5x4. such as given in the preceding exercise. 9 x ( 11). 4x(3)=12. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA If the signs obtained by the true.32 8. 48. make venient to accept the following definition : con 49.4) x braic laws for negative ~ 3> = (. NOTE. ( (.4)(. thus. x 11. 4 multi44444 12. times is just as meaningless as to fire a gun tion 7 Consequently we have to define the meaning of a multiplicaif the multiplier is negative. however. and we may choose any definition that does not lead to contradictions. This definition has the additional advantage of leading to algenumbers which are identical with those for positive numbers.
. (2)x9. 7. 2a 2 6c. 33 We shall and negative integers the assume that the law illustrated for positive is true for all numbers.2f 18. 6 2. (2) 8 (. 19. 13. . b = 3. _2. 29. 24.3. NOTE. 5. EXERCISE 19 : Find the values of the following products 1. +5. Law Thus.7. 32. z s 11 aWcx. 8 4 .2 f+x 2 . 16. 8. 9. find the numeri values of: 21. 4 . 2a6 c . etc. 2. c = 25. 10. 27. 4 a2 . tors is no misunderstanding possible. (4)'.4. Formulate a law of signs for a product containing an odd number of negative factors. x= 0.MULTIPLICATION 50. 14. X(5). 5x3. 23. of Signs: TJie positive. Formulate a law of signs for a product containing an even number of negative factors. 4. 30. 6. 8 31.a)( =+ a&.3) (1) 7 2 . _2^ 3. the product of two numbers with unlike &) (a)(+6) = a&. . 3 a2?/2 . 3. about fac (2)X If 6. 17. . If a cal = 4a6c. (c#) . 1. the parenthesis frequently omitted. is 6x7.(4J). 11. 26. 1. 3. 3 aW. 15. Ua b 28. and obtain thus product of two numbers with like signs in signs is negative. (. _3. (7) X (12). 12. 4a f26 2 2a + 3&2 6c* . (10) 4 . x. 6. 22.(a&c) 2 2 .2. (4)X(15). 20. and y = 4. .
6 = . &*) c d*. 2 2 2 .503). or 2 .e. 11.7 &*# =(6  7) (a 2 a8 ) . 3. = 2. 5 3 5 3 2 . 13. B. . 2. of the factors. 1. 4.34 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA of 8 Find the numerical value 33. if =2 a a to  2 2 x2 2 2. : 3a7abc. a = 2. 14. 2.<?.257). This 52. 17. . 7. 2 x (2* 5 7 2 )= 26 5 7 2 . By 3 definition. 6. + 2/). 5 . 3 2 . 4 x (2 25) =8 25. 4.m a 3  4 . i. m*. 2 2 3 6 . IB. 50(112. a 23 =2 Hence 2 x 2 general.. . 4. . a = 3.35). 5. 100. =2 a *. MULTIPLICATION OF MONOMIALS 51. known as of Multiplication : The Exponent Law The exponent of is the product of several powers of the same base the exponents equal to the 8 (ft sum oj Ex.  and 2 25 8 . 5 = 2. 3 3 4 . 36.12 Perform the operation indicated 12.2). Or in m and n are two positive to factors) f n) factors. 3. 78 . a= 1. 6" 127 U . (a6) (a5) 9.2 2 23 + 5 . a8 a=2. 6 aWc x . & = 3. only one of the factors is multiplied by the number. 16. fl*" integers. . am Xa n = (a =aa is m (a a to n factors) (m X fl w = fl /w +w . 34. 53. 2 3 .6 if 35. 5(711. 2(7.7. Ex. EXERCISE 20 : Express each of the following products as a power 1.3). 200.1 2 a 6 f 6 aW . 10.  2 2. 2(14.(7).(2. a 5 (a) (^ + 14 8 2/) (a? + 4 2/) (aj . In multiplying a product of several factors by a number. 6 = 1. Ex. 12 U U . a 2 2 . 9 .. 127  127 9 7 .(12) .
This principle. 3(124342). 29. 21. .3 a2 6(6 a*bc + 2 be  1) = 18 a 4 6 2 c .6 a2 62c f 8 a2 6. 5 2 aft (6 e 8 C a 2ftc). Thus we have in general a(b 56. 23(10004100420).6. 11(3. To multiply a polynomial by a monomial. /). 6 e/ a ( ( 2 a2 ) 3 . 17(10041042). c(4a ftc ).A). 4.4 (2 a 2 ft 3) 2 3 . 4 9 afy 2 a3 ?/ ).f 2). is evidently correct for any positive integral multiplier. (.7 w'W (8 n^W). 2 19 ' mV 2 ft 5  2 ran4 30. tet^m f c) = ab +ac. 25. = (a + 26)+(a + 2 ft) f (a 4 2 ft) + (a + 2 ft) 55. . MULTIPLICATION OF A POLYNOMIAL BY A MONOMIAL we had to multiply 2 yards and 3 inches by 3.3 win ) . 12( + 1 4 i). 6(10420430).7pqt. 31. 2 32. by first multiplying. 3. Similarly the for quadruple of a 4 2 b would be 4 a f 8 54. 24. multiply each by the monomial. 22. 5. If results ft. 34. _4aft. 2. 26. 4 aft 5 aft 2 . 5 aft 3 ( ftc ( 2 2ac). . 19. 35 4 7(6. EXERCISE 21 Find the numerical values of the following expressions. . 2(5fl5f25).5 xy 19 aW lla ( 3 3 tfy 2z*.4a#. ) 2 33. . and then adding : 1. (. the would obviously be 6 yards and 9 inches. 7p*q r*. 20. 35. 23.2 3 aft ).M UL TIPLICA TION 18. ax /) 2 4 1 (. 2(645410). 27. but we shall assume it for any number. 6. 28. 7. called the distributive law. .
Find the factors of 6 Find the factors of 2 or* f 3 x* f arty 3 a4 . Thus to multiply a write (a + y z) and apply the distributive z. 12. 17. 29. 9. 4 13 (4 9 4 5 4). ofy 2 4 +8 2 4 a.60 a& 10 aft.asa product. Find the factors of 5 a 6 . Find the factors of 6 ary . MULTIPLICATION OF POLYNOMIALS 57. . 2 m(mhn \p). 22. Perform the multiplications indicated: 13. 2 4 %Pq\ 14. 7 3 (7 3 f7 +7 10 ).36 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA : Express as a sum of several powers 8. : expression must 24.we b) (x law. 26.6 a6). be multiplied to give 4o.3 aftc).5 w*V f 7 wn).3 x2y 2 + 3 xy. 21. Express 3a^ Find the factors of 3x + 3 y + 3z. By what 25. 5 x\5 pqr + 5 pr 5 x2 . 2 27. 2 2 16. f7a. 5). . 23. 5(5 + 52 + 2 2 5 7 ). Any it closing x +y (a polynomial may be written as a monomial by inb by within a parenthesis. 28.2 mn(9 mV .5 x 7).6) (x f y z) = x(a = (ax b) + y(a b) z(a (az b) bx) f (ay by) bz) by az + bz. . 5 aW( 3 2 2 aW + 3 a 2 2 ?/ 6 c 2 .^ c + 2 . . 19. 3 ). 6 (6 2 +6 +6 10. 7 a 6 c(. 11. 20. ~2mn(m +n p ). 30.
If the polynomials to be multiplied contain several powers of the same letter. Check. are far more likely to occur in the coefficients than anywhere else. .4. To multiply two polynomials.3 a 3 2 by 2 a : a2 + l. 2a3b a66 2 a .3 a 2 + a8 . Multiply 2 + a a. Ex. 59.a .3 a 2 + a8 a a = = I 1 =2 f 2 a 4. the work becomes simpler and more symmetrical by arranging these expressions according to either ascending or descending powers. as illustrated in the following example : Ex. Since errors. The most convenient way of adding the partial products is to place similar terms in columns.2 a2 6 a8 2 a* *  2" a2 7 60.1.a6 =2 by numerical Examples in multiplication can be checked substitution. Multiply 2 a .3 ab 2 2 a2 10 ab  13 ab + 15 6 2 + 15 6 2 Product. Since all powers of 1 are 1.a6 4 a 8 + 5 a* . 2. the student should apply this test to every example.M UL TIP LICA TION 37 58. however. If Arranging according to ascending powers 2 a .3 b by a 5 b. 1 being the most convenient value to be substituted for all letters. a2 + a8 + 3 . multiply each term of one by each term of the other and add the partial products thus formed. this method tests only the values of the coefficients and not the values of the exponents.
(a^26) . 10.2 ^/ ' 2 mnp f. 35. 18.2). (6a~7) 2 . 32. 15. 20. ^ 2 . 12)(a?^2l). 2 . 2) (3 A: 1). (llr + l)(12r (rcya (2m (a (4 a 2 . 26. (8r7*)(6r39. 8. (a 2a + 2)(a3). (6xy + 2z)(2xy 27. 36).4) (x + 1). 30. (a&c 2 + 7)(2a&c3). a 5c)(2a6c). (2s 3y)(3a? + 2y). 22. 7y). 41.1 . 3<7).2m)(l m). 40. 6 2 (6a&c5) 3a6f2)(2a6~l). 13. 2 . 17. 4. * For additional examples see page 261. 3n)(7m f6<7)(5^) + 8n). 36. . 5. 11. .4) (mnp 4. 36) I) 14. 2. 2 (m?n?p (x (a //)4 lA/ //j. 3. 7. (4a 2 33. 29. + & + 1f a^faj 1). 25. OQ OO. 9. l)(raf 2).n)(m 8 n)(m n). 31. 28. 6. I (mfn)(m4. QQ O7. 16.38 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 22* Perform the following multiplications and check the results 1. 2  37. (4af 76)(2tt (4ra fra (5c2d)(2c3d). (2 x* x 2 . 24. (ajf6y)(aj 23. (13 A. (9m2n)(4m + 7tt). 1). (2w 19. (6p (2 f 21. (6i7n)(llJn). 2 (a al)(2a?fl). 12. 4 2).
3. 7. plus the sum of the two unequal terms multiplied by the common term. + 2) (a f 3). 27. 39 The product of two binomials which have a common term. 8. + 60)(f2).e.13). . 14. ( 2 Hence the product equals 25 a'2 54 ft 2 . 17. 9. plus the product of the two unequal terms. ft 16. 11.!!)( (a + 21).4). (10+ (1000 (2. 2 6) (a 3 6).n)(wf w). (J 23. : 23 2. + 5) (1000 + 4). 22. = + EXERCISE Multiply by inspection 1.MUL TIPLICA TION SPECIAL CASES IN MULTIPLICATION 61. (!)(* 5). Find two binomials whose product equals 3x + 2. 18. 2) (1000 + 3). + 3) (a 7). 15. (1001) (100 (1000 + 2). (wi 2^*12)(ajy 6.25)(y+4). 21. 99 (a + 2 6) (a 6). (p12)(p + ll). 26. _3)(a _4). 25. The product of two binomials which have a common term equal to the square of the common term. 16 ft) (5 a) 75 ab. 19. 28. 13. 6. .e. (a3)(a + 2). . (5 a plus the sum of the unequal terms multiplied by the common terms. i.2 6) (a f 6). (*. 3 (a 7) 3 (a 8). 10. 6 ft) (5 a 9 ft) is equal to the square of the common term. 1005x1004. 24. (ra. 2 a? 29. (a (a (a. + 9)(m+9). (ofy* f 3) (tfy* (a5 2 ). 20. i. X 102. (a 102 x 103. plus the product 62. (100 +2) (100 + 3). 25 a 2 . (a 9) (a + 9). 2 5 b z) (a2 f 4 (a 2 4. 12. 75 ab f 54 ft . in of the two unequal terms. (6 12) (6 f. 1) (10 + 2).
oft x 3 y'2 plus the square of the Hence the required square equals 16 xP f. . 63. 8j/ 2 + 49 y4 first . 16 y* t plus twice the product of the i. (x+3i/) 2 . : ar'Sz + a 2 G.e. 35. second. + 6 a + 8. 8. and the second. 31.66 s. III. 6. p 2 p. 49 y*. (a26) 2 .15. Some special cases of the preceding type of examples : deserve special mention II. i. (4 x3 + 7 2 i/ 2 is )' equal to the square of the first. . 34. 77ie square of the of the first. Ex. 32.40 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA of each. i. (a2) (p a . n2 10ii+16. : 24 (a 2. + 3) 2 . 9. plus twice the product of the first and the second. of the following expres Find two binomial factors sions 30. w 2 ro . plus sum of two numbers the square II. m2_ 3m _ 4 2 36. square of the difference of two numbers is equal to the square of the Jirst. 33. 37. 7 a + 10.30. + 6) (a + 2) a) 2 . EXERCISE Multiply by inspection 1. . 3. minus twice the product of the first and the 71ie second.e. is The product of the sum and to the difference the difference of two numbers equal of their squares. III. 2 5.e. 7. 2 (a (*5) 2 . (ain general language : Expressed is equal to tlie square I. plus the square of the second. 4.15. (II) is only a The student should note that the second type special case of the first (I). a2 2 w + 2 w . <J>7) J . of the second.
. 23. two binomials whose corresponding terms are similar. 7)(a 2 2 f 7). (m 27i )(m + 2n 2 5 ). 41. 35. 54. 41 16. 2 2 (5 (a r*2t ) 2 5 (cd 5)(c d 2 . 998x1002. we have 3x 5x + 2y 4y 2xySy* . x*+2xy+y\ a 2 2a6 + & 2 m 2 2mhl. 4 53. 103 36. . 28.998 39. 29. (^. 991 2 2 . : Extract the square roots of the following expressions 43. 11. (2x3yy. + 1) (100 + 2) 2 . a 2 8a6+166 2 . 34. m 2 16. 45. 17. 2 . . 99x101. 2 (2a6c) (2a# (4 a 6 2 2 . 44. 2 . 32. a2 9. 16aW25. 2 . a 2 + 10 ab f 25 b\ Pind two binomial sions 50. 2 11 # ) 2 20. 21. I) 2 . (6afy 2 5) (a. 48. 2 + 11 2 (5 r 2 2 2/ ) 2  Z ) 2 2 (5 r f 2 2 . 2 2 . 12. 31. 52. 46. ( 27. (a 3) 2 2 2 . + 3z) 2 2 . n 2 f4n+4. 14. 62 25n 2 . + 5). (m f 2 tt n)(ra w ) 26  (^ (2m + 3)(2m3). 2 2 5c ) 2 2 19. 2 (4a36) 2 13. 33. (1000 2 . 24. 22 2 .ll^X^+lly (100 30. + 5)(5+a). 55. 2 J ).30 ab + 25 6 64. By actual multiplication. 104 2 37. 7& ) 25. 18. : factors of each of the following expres y?f. ). (3p 9) (6a 2 2 2 . 40. 51. The product of 57. 25 a 9. (100 + 2) (100 2). 38.MULTIPLICATION 10. 49. 9 a2 . . G> +5g)*. 42. 47. (20 f 1) . 22. 2 9a 496 2 56. 15. n*6n+9.
2 2 + 2) (10 43). (x i 5 2 ft x 2 3 6 s). that the square of each term is while the product of the terms may have plus always positive. 65. (3m + 2)(ml). 13. (5a64)(5a&3). 6. 2 10. ) (2 of a polynomial. 11. (5a4)(4al). 7%e square of a polynomial is equal to the sum of the squares of each term increased by twice the product of each term with each that follows it. ((5a? (10 12. plus the last terms. : 25 2. 2 2 2 2 (2a 6 7)(a & + 5). 2 (2x y (6 2 2 + z )(ary + 2z ). 8. 9. 2 (2m3)(3m + 2).42 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA of the result is obtained product of 5 x follows: by adding the These products are frequently called the cross products.f 2 a& f 2 ac + 2 &c. The square 2 (a 4. (2a3)(a + 2). or The student should note minus signs. 5.& + c) = a + tf + c . The middle term or Wxy12xy Hence in general. and are represented as 2 y and 4y 3 x. . (4s + y)(32y). 4. 7. (100 + 3)(100 + 4). plus the product of the EXERCISE Multiply by inspection 1. 3. 14. the product of two binomials whose corresponding terms are similar is equal to the product of the first two terms. sum of the cross products.
2 m 2 + n2 2 "f jp f 2 mn 2 ?wp 2 np. Simplify (x + 6) (a . (u4& + 3c'. 2 2.24] . the beginner should inclose the product in a parenthesis.(m 2 6. + 6 )2(6 + &)~(&4& ).(x . EXERCISE 27 : Simplify the following expressions. In simplifying a polynomial the student should remem.3) .4) . of z : 10. (mf n)(m+2)3m(n + m). s? + y + z + 2xy + 2yz + 2 xz.y? + 8 . + 6)( . 9. 8.24 . 8 2(m 3(6 3 n) 2 3(m + n)H.4) . . = 10 x .X2 + 2 x . Find the square root 11.29. 3. (xy+z)*. + 65) . 6(a 2. : 43 26 (mf n+p) 2 2 . (  2 4) =  20 a. 5.8 x + 15] . ber that a parenthesis is understood about each term.39.r _ 2 . (2a36 + 5c) (3 (. (a2)(a3)~(al)(a4). 4(* + 2)5(3). Check.3)(z. 6. Hence. 12. 66.39.3) (x .5). 4(aj2)h3(7). 8. = . and check the answers !.i2&c) 2 . after multiplying the factors of a term.(>. 13. 4. If x = 1. 6~2(a + 7). 4.(= [ Xa + 2 .M UL TIPLICA TION EXERCISE Find by inspection 1.[a? . n). 3.1 5 = 10 . 4y sf n) 2 . Ex. (a (. 7.5) = (7 . 5. a. 7. 2)6.
44
9.
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
10. 11. 12.
13.
4(m + 2)
(a?
+ 5(w
3)
5)(oj2)
(a;
(n f 5) (w
 2) + (n  7) (n + 4)  2 (n*  2)
14.
15.
6(p+2)7(p9)2(i> + l)(pl).
16.
17.
x 2 y)(3 x f 2 y)  (4  y) (a3 (a f 6)  4 (a + &) (a f 2 6) + (a (5
2
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
2
(a
faf
1)
(
a  1)
 (a + 1) (a  1).
8
CHAPTER
DIVISION
IV
is the process of finding one of two factors and the other factor are given. The dividend is the product of the two factors, the divisor the given factor, and the quotient is the required factor.
67.
Division
if
their product
is
Thus
by
f
to divide
12.
12
by
+
3,
we must find
is
the
;
number which
3 gives
But
this
number
4
hence
_
multiplied
12 r +3
=4.
68.
Since
f
a

f b
fa
_a
and
it
f
a
= f ab = ab b = ab b = ab,
b
f
follows that
4a
=+b
ab
a
ab
a
69.
Hence the law
:
of signs
is
the same in division as in
multiplication
70.
Like signs produce plus, unlike signs minus.
Law
of
,
a8 5 a5
=a
3
for a 3
It follows from the definition that Exponents. X a5 a8
=
.
Or
in general, if
greater than
m n, a
f
and n are positive integers, and m ~ n an = a m a" = a'"", for a
<
m
m
is
45
46
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
71. TJie exponent of a quotient of two powers with equal bases equals the exponent of the dividend diminished by the exponent
of the divisor.
DIVISION OF MONOMIALS
7 3 72. To divide 10x y z by number which multiplied by number is evidently
2x y
6
2
,
we have
z
to
find
the
2x*y
gives 10 x^ifz.
This
Therefore,
the quotient
*
,
=  5 a*yz.
is
Hence,
sign,
of two monomials of their
part
coefficients,
is the
a monomial whose
coefficient is the quotient
preceded by the proper
literal
and whose
literal
found
in accordance with the
quotient of their law of exponents.
parts
73. In dividing a product of several factors by a number, only one of these factors is divided by that number. Thus (8 12 20)?4 equals 2 12 20, or 8 3 20 or 8 12 5.


.

.

.
EXERCISE
Perform the divisions indicated
'
:
28
'
2
.
76H15.
39* 3.
2
15
3"
7
7'
3.
4*
'
4.
5.
j2
12
.
4
2
9
5 11
68
3 19 j3
5
10.
(3
38

2 4 )^(3 4 .2 2).
56
'
11.
3
(2
.3*.5 7 )f(
2
'
12
'
2V
14
36 a
'
13
''
yfflg
35
5.25
12 a
2abc
15
42^
'
56aW
'
UafiV
DIVISION
lg
47
^1^. 16 w
7
20>
7i
9
_Z^L4L.
22.
10 iy.
132 a V* 14 1
*
01
240m
120m
40
6c
fl
/5i.
3J)
c
23.
2 (15 25. a ) = 5.
25. 26.
(18
(
.
5
.
2a )f9a.
2
24.
(7 26 a
2
)
f
13.
DIVISION OF POLYNOMIALS BY MONOMIALS
To divide ax} fr.ef ex by x we must find an expression which multiplied by x gives the product ax + bx J ex.
74.
But
TT
x(a
aa?
Hence
+ b e) ax + bx + ex. + bx f ex = a 4 b +
\.
,
.
c.
a?
To divide a polynomial by a monomial, cfc'wde each term of the dividend by the monomial and add the partial quotients thus
formed.
3 xyz
EXERCISE
Perform the operations indicated
1.
:
29
2.
5.
fl
o.
(5*
_5* + 52)
5.
52
.
3.
97
.
(2
(G^G^G^iG
(11 2
4.
(8 3
+
11 3
+ 11
5)* 11.
18 aft 27 oc
Q y.
9a
4
25 2 )^2
<?
2
.
+8 5 + 8
7) *8.
5a5 +4as 2a
2
a
14gV+21gy
Itf
15 a*b

12
aW + 9 a
2
2
3a
48
,
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
22
4,
m n  33 m n
4
s
2
f
55
mV
 39 afyV + 26 arVz 3
 49 aW + 28 a W  14 g 6 c
4 4
15. 16.
2 (115 afy f 161 afy
 69
4
2
a;
4
?/
3
 23 ofy
3
4
)
5
23 x2y.
(52
afyV  39
4
?/
oryz
 65 zyz  26 tf#z)
5
13 xyz.
f
,
17.
(85 tf
 68 x + 51 afy  34 xy* f 1 7
a;/)
 17
as.
DIVISION OF A POLYNOMIAL BY A POLYNOMIAL
75.
Let
it
be required to divide 25 a
 12 f 6 a  20 a
3
2
by
2 a 2 f 3 a, divide
4
a, or, arranging according to
2
descending powers of
6a3 20a
f
25a12
2 by 2a 
The term containing the highest power of a in the dividend (i.e. a 8 ) is evidently the product of the terms containing respectively the highest power of a in the divisor and in the quotient.
Hence the term containing the highest power
of a in the quotient is
If
the product of 3 a and 2
2
4 a
+
3, i.e.
6 a3
12 a 2
f
9 a, be sub
8 a 2 f 16 a tracted from the dividend, the remainder is 12. This remainder obviously must be the product of the divisor and the rest of the quotient. To obtain the other terms of the quotient we have
therefore to divide the remainder,
8 a2
f
16 a
12,
2 by 2 a
4 a
+
3.
consequently repeat the process. By dividing the highest term in the new dividend 8 a 2 by the highest term in the divisor 2 a 2 we obtain
,
We
4,
the next highest term in the quotient. 4 by the divisor 2 a2 4 a Multiplying
I
+ 3, we
obtain the product
8 a2
16 a
12,
which subtracted from the preceding dividend leaves
the required quotient.
no remainder. Hence 3 a
4
is
DIVISION
The work
is
49
:
usually arranged as follows
 20 * 2 + 3 0a 12 a 2 +
a3
25 a
{)

12
I
2 a2 8 a

4 a 4
a
_
12
+3
I

8 a? 4 16
a
76. The method which was applied in the preceding example may be stated as follows 1. Arrange dividend and divisor according to ascending or
:
descending powers of a common letter. 2. Divide the first term of the dividend by the first term of the divisor, and write the result for the first term of the quotient.
3.
Multiply this term of the quotient by the whole divisor, and
subtract the result
4.
from
it
the dividend.
the same order as the given new dividend, and proceed as before.
Arrange
the
remainder in
as a
expression, consider
5.
until the highest poiver
Continue the process until a remainder zero is obtained, or of the letter according to which the dividend
is less
was arranged
the divisor.
than the highest poiver of the same
letter in
77.
Checks.
Numerical substitution constitutes a very con
venient, but not absolutely reliable check. An absolute check consists in multiplying quotient and divisor. The result must equal the dividend if the division
was
exact, or the dividend diminished by the remainder division was not exact.
if
the
Ex.
1.
Divide 8 a3
f
8 a
 4 + 6 a  11 a
4
2
by 3 a
,
 2.
^ _ _
,
Arranging according to descending powers,
6 a4 6 a4
,
,
+ 8 a8 4 a3
12 a 8
11
a2 a2
f
8a
4
I
3 a
2 a8
2
f
=
a _+ 2
.
7rl,
4 a2
=
7
+
11

3 a2
3
a'
2
+ +
8 a 2 a
4 + 6a  4
50
Ex.
2.
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
Divide a4
 46 6a6
4
3
f
9
2
6
2
2 l by 26 3a& + a
.
Arranging according to descending powers of
a,
we have
a<a4
6 a36
fr
f
f
9 a2 6 2
2 a2 6 2
2
2
46*
I
a2
a*

8 ab 3 ab
 3 a8


+ 2 6^  2 62
46*
 3 a^ + 9a 2 6  6 ab 8
+ 6 a& a  4 6 4  2 a^a + 6 aft  4
Check.
ft*
The numerical
it
substitution a
=
1,
&
=
1,
cannot be used in this
either to use
example since
larger
renders the divisor zero.
Hence we have
a
number
for a, or multiply.
2  8 ab + 2 & 2 ) ( a _ 3 ab  2 6 2 ) (a = [(a2  3 aft) + 2 62 ] [(a2  3 a&)  2 62 ] = (a 2 3 aft) 2 4 6* = a2  6 8 6 + 9 a2 6 2  4 5*.
EXERCISE
30 *
:
Perform the operations indicated and check the answers
2. 3.
(jf_2y15)i<y6).
2 (15 a
2
4.
5.
6.
 46 a# f 16 ) _ 26 mn 4 5 n ) (5 m
2
i/
5
(5
a5 w).
2
*
(m
7.
(6^53^ + 40)^(6^5).
(56
2 a; f
8.
19 x
15) (8
3).
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
2 (25 a
 36
2
ft
)
j
(5
a
f
6
6)
* See page 263.
(a f b) (a V) Since =a a 2 b 2 . . 20. + 23a& + 20)*(2a& + 6).e. (81 m + 1 . 18. Division of the difference of two squares. a I. (3 a 13 m + 47 m + 35 w (1 (5 m f (6a 2 & 2 2 2 3 2 f 2 3 f ) 5 1) . b f b by the difference or by the sum Ex. .2). v/17.2) (3 a . the difference of the squares of two numbers is divisible of the two numbers. 51 15.l. SPECIAL CASES IN DIVISION 78. 19. (8xy + lo22x' y)+(2x y3).18 m 2 ) f (1 G m f 9 m 2 ). 16. .81 c8 f ' ISVftQc 8 64 ' a2 166 2 ' a? 10 1 . EXERCISE Write by inspection the quotient 31 of : 2 x 1 c 2 6 ' 3 ^.11 a + 9 a . c + 3* ' v7 169 a<6 2 ' . (aj 3aj2)^(oj2).DIVISION 14. (a? s 8) 4 *( 2).
16 . 100ry. 1.0001. 12. .52 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA of Find exact binomial divisors of each expressions 9.000. 10. . 9& 2 . f 13. aW 12 a. r/ 1. : the following w a 4 !. 121a a 16 100 11. 15. 36 a4 ?/ 4 . 4 b. 16.49. 14.
CHAPTER V LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS 79. 83. =11. in Thus x 12 satisfies the equation x + 1 13. Thus. A set of numbers which when substituted for the letters an equation produce equal values of the two members. x 20. ond member or right side is that part which follows the sign of equality. second member is x + 4 x 9.r f9 = 20 is true only when a. An equation of condition is usually called an equation. The first member or left side of an equation is that part The secof the equation which precedes the sign of equality. An equation of condition is an equation which is true only for certain values of the letters involved. y = 7 satisfy the equation x y = 13. An identity is an equation of the letters involved. . 82. is said to satisfy an equation. hence it is an equation of condition. . y y or z) from its relation to 63 An known numbers. (rt+6)(aft) = 2  b' 2 . the first member is 2 x + 4. (a + ft) (a b) and b. in the equation 2 x 0. ber equation is employed to discover an unknown num(frequently denoted by x. 81. . which is true for all values a2 6 2 no matter what values we assign to a Thus. The sign of identity sometimes used is = thus we may write . the 80.
90. To solve an equation to find its roots. (Axiom 2) the term a has been transposed from the left to thQ right member by changing its sign.54 84. 4.g. Transposition of terms. fol A linear equation is also called a simple equation. a. the known quan x) (x f 4) tities are = .e. 3. E. If equals be multiplied by equals. If equals be divided by equals. the remainders are equal. expressed in arithmetical numbers literal is as (7 equation is one in which at least one of the known quantities as x f a letters 88. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA If value of the an equation contains only one unknown quantity. Consider the equation b Subtracting a from both members. one member to another by changing x + a=. = bx expressed by a letter or a combination of c. 85. NOTE. the products are equal. A 2 a. 2. Like powers or like roots of equals are equal. 86. 89. A term may be transposed from its sign. x I. The process of solving equations depends upon the : lowing principles. the quotients are equal. 2 = 6#f7.2. A numerical equation is one in which all . 9 is a root of the equation 2 y +2= is 20. the divisor equals zero. If equals be added to equals. 87. . Axiom 4 is not true if 0x4 = 0x5. A linear equation or which when reduced first to its simplest an equation of the first degree is one form contains only the as 9ie power of the unknown quantity. the sums are equal. but 4 does not equal 5. an^ unknown quantity which satisfies the equation is a root of the equation. called axioms 1. . If equals be subtracted from equals.b. 5.
Hence the answer. The second member. and divide both members by the coefficient of the quantity. a? Adding 5 to each term.2 y= f . 4x 1 + 6. may be changed Consider the equation Multiplying each member by x\1. (Axiom 4) When x = 3. 2(11 . To solve a simple equation. is correct. (4y)(6. Unite similar terms. The sign of every term of an equation without destroying the equality. 3 y .6 y f y\ . Uniting similar terms.8. and the known terms to the second. 4fl = 12fl = 13 3. The first member. = 2 (11 3 y) + #*. Uniting. 6a5 = 185 = 13. .9 y + y2 = 22 . x = 3.9 y + 6 y = 20 f 22. 2 x = 6. Transposing. if 55 x members. a= a 6fc.y) = C4 + })(5f The second member. Solve the equation (4 Simplifying. 91. SOLUTION OF LINEAR EQUATIONS 1. Qx 6# = 4x + l + 6.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS Similarly. transpose the unknown terms to the first member. Ex. Subtracting 4 x from each term.2. Solve the equation Qx 5 = 4 f 1. Dividing both members by 2. The first member. if a x = b.3 y) + y 2 = 2(11 + i)^ V= 2) 1 4 = 26 i +  = 26 f f = 26$ JI . y) (5 y) unknown Ex. (Axiom 1) The result is first member to the same as the right we had transposed a from the member and changed its sign. b Adding a to both + a. b c. Dividing by Check. f If y 20 . x = (Axiom 3) 92. Check. x = 93.
50. + 16 = 16 + 17. 3. 2. J.4) = + 3) = \ x 14 x 21 = 7. 11 ?/ a? 18. etc. 20. and check the answers 9.. Transposing. = 60 7 = 16 + 5 : Xx 7 = 14. \x x 2^xfl. 4y 10. 3. aj * See page 264.56 Ex..17 + 4y = 36. it NOTE. 3 = 17 3 a? a?. 247y = 68lly. 9 9a? = 7 13. f Simplifying. a?. 17 9 x + 41 = 12 8 17. 3 7 a.69. + 24) = 6 (10 x + 13). 11. =2 = 3. + 22.7a: = 394a. 24. Solve the following equations by transposing. 17 7 a. If x = 18. 4. + 7(3 + 1) =63. 14y = 59(24y + 21). : 5# = 15+2a. 22. = 2 ?/. x = 18. Dividing by Cfcecfc. 4a + 5 = 29. v23. 13a? 3a?. 13 y 99 = 7 y. 16. 8. . 7. . 7a? 5. 3)= 9(3 7 a. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Solve the equation  (x 4) = \ (x + 3). = 3. 19. = 7. BXEECISB 32* Solve the following equations by using the axioms only 1. = 5a?+18. {(x (x The The member right member left . 12. 15. 32 = 264. 7 (6 x 16). 6.7. 14. 21. a? a?. 17 + 5a. x x 1 . a. a. Uniting. 87 9(5 x 3) 6(3 a? = 63. Instead of dividing by \ botli members of the equation \ x would be simpler to multiply both members by 0.
. 35.1 0) = 0. (a.12) (2 + 5) . is the other part.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS 25. 40. + 4). . 33. 5) (as (a. and apply the method thus found to the algebraic problem. 25. e. a? 28.14 = 0. .g.1) (u . SYMBOLICAL EXPRESSIONS 94. 42.2) (M . : One part is of 70 is 25 . 31. (6 u =5 44.7) (7 x + 4) .1) (a (a? + 3) = .3) + 14. 36. + 7) (.(14 x + 1) + 7) = 285 + 21 a* (z + 2) (a5) :=2. he should first attack a similar problem stated in arithmetical numbers is only. 7(7 x y 26.5(2 u . 29.3) .4) (x + I) + (x + 2) = (x 2(* + l) (2J3)( + 2) = 12. . 41. 30. 39. Evidently 45.5) + 199. . or 70 a?. Hence if one part the other part 70 x.  +6= aj (4 t t t 1 (5 x (a? 2 2 2 2 2 2 (a? . .3) + . a? 43. 27. + 1) 8(75 a?) +24 = 12 (4 . 2 2 * Jaj. and let it be required to If the student finds it difficult to answer find the other part. 7) (a.5)5(7a>8)=4(123a5) + l. 57 734* = 13*~2(5*12). WJienever the student is unable to express a statement in algebraic symbols. . he should formulate a similar question stated in arithmetical numbers only. 34.32.5) = (a. . 6(6a. .(2 + 6) (4 . 38. find the other part. (aj 37. this question.7.4) + 4 w . Suppose one part of 70 to be a?.
one part equals is 10. so that one part The difference between is s. Find the greater one. is a? 2 is c?.58 Ex. so that of c ? is p. 5. $> 100 yards cost one hundred dollars. 3. The difference between two numbers Find the smaller one. 33 2. greater one is g. What number divided by 3 will give the quotient a? ? What is the dividend if the divisor is 7 and the quotient ? . 6. or 12 7. x f y yards cost $ 100 . a. find the cost of one yard. and the smaller one parts. 17. 1. 15. 4. two numbers and the and the 2 Find the greater one. so that one part Divide a into two parts. Divide a into two parts. 14. 13. 9. EXERCISE 1. If 7 2. is d. 11. one yard will cost 100 dollars. Divide 100 into two 12. Hence 6 a must be added to a to give 5. By how much does a exceed 10 ? By how much does 9 exceed x ? What number exceeds a by 4 ? What number exceeds m by n ? What is the 5th part of n ? What is the nth part of x ? By how much does 10 exceed the third part of a? By how much does the fourth part of x exceed b ? By how much does the double of b exceed one half Two numbers differ by 7. smaller one 16. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA What must be added to a to produce a sum b ? : Consider the arithmetical question duce the sum of 12 ? What must be added to 7 to pro The answer is 5. 6. is b. one yard will cost  Hence if x f y yards cost $ 100. 10. Ex. 7.
26. Find 21. and spent 5 cents. b dimes. 28. What What What What is the cost of 10 apples at x cents each ? is is is x apples cost 20 cents ? the price of 12 apples if x apples cost 20 cents ? the price of 3 apples if x apples cost n cents ? the cost of 1 apple if . sum If A's age is x years. 19. y years How old was he 5 years ago ? How old will he be 10 years hence ? 23. A man had a dollars. A dollars. How many years A older than is B? old. How many cents are in d dollars ? in x dimes ? A has a dollars. rectangular field is x feet long and the length of a fence surrounding the field. find the of their ages 6 years hence. numbers is x. 59 What must The be subtracted from 2 b to give a? is a. 34.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS 18. smallest of three consecutive numbers Find the other two. square feet are there in the area of the floor ? How many 2 feet longer 29. How many cents had he left ? 28. 28. and c cents. and B's age is y years. Find 35. and 4 floor of a room that is 3 feet shorter wider than the one mentioned in Ex. amount each will then have. How many cents has he ? 27. and B is y years old. 20. If B gave A 6 25. A feet wide. 22. 33. Find the area of the Find the area of the feet floor of a room that is and 3 30. 32. feet wider than the one mentioned in Ex. A room is x feet long and y feet wide. ?/ 31. 24. is A A is # years old. The greatest of three consecutive the other two. Find the sum of their ages 5 years ago. find the has ra dollars. and B has n dollars.
If a man walks 3 miles per hour. and the second pipe alone fills it in filled y minutes. and "by as much as" Hence we have means equals (=) 95. m is the denominator. How old is he now ? by a pipe in x minutes. . .60 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA wil\ 36. If a man walks n miles in 4 hours. What fraction of the cistern will be second by the two pipes together ? 44. per Find 5 Find 6 45. The numerator If of a fraction exceeds the denominator by 3. as a exceeds b by as much as c exceeds 9. how many miles he walk in n hours ? 37. of 4. find the fraction. The first pipe x minutes. Find a." we have to consider that in this by statement "exceeds" means minus ( ). a. 49. c a b =  9. 46. A was 20 years old.50. b To express in algebraic symbols the sentence: " a exceeds much as b exceeds 9. % % % of 100 of x. How many x years ago miles does a train move in t hours at the rate of x miles per hour ? 41. Find the number. A cistern is filled 43. how many how many miles will he walk in n hours 38. Find a 47. A cistern can be filled in alone fills it by two pipes. What fraction of the cistern will be filled by one pipe in one minute ? 42. If a man walks ? r miles per hour. 48. he walk each hour ? 39. miles does will If a man walks r miles per hour. The two digits of a number are x and y. in how many hours he walk n miles ? 40. of m. Find x % % of 1000.
equal to the sum and the difference of a and b sum of the squares of a and gives the Twenty subtracted from 2 a a. 5. c. third of x equals difference of x The and y increased by 7 equals a. 2. c. a exceeds b by c. of a and 10 equals 2 c.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS Similarly. double of a is 10. the difference of the squares of a 61 and b increased } a2 i<5  b' 2 ' by 80 equals the excess of a over 80 Or. 80. 8 b ) + 80 = a . The excess of a over b is c. of x increased by 10 equals x. of a increased much 8. = 2 2 a3 (a  80. The product of the is diminished by 90 b divided by 7. 3. thus: a b = c may be expressed as follows difference between a : The and b is c. Four times the difference of a and b exceeds c by as d exceeds 9. etc. 80. EXERCISE The The double The sum One 34 : Express the following sentences as equations 1. 6. a is greater than b by b is smaller than a by c. 4. The double as 7. cases it is possible to translate a sentence word by in algebraic symbols in other cases the sentence has to be changed to obtain the symbols. In many word There are usually several different ways of expressing a symbolical statement in words. by one third of b equals 100. same result as 7 subtracted from . 9.
14. B's. symbols B. 16. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Nine is as much below a 13. and C's ages will be 100. In 3 years A will be twice as old as B. 5x A sum of money consists of x dollars.000. as 17 is is above a. 17. (a) (b) (c) A is twice as old as B. they have equal of A's. B's. A gains $20 and B loses $40. and C's age 4 a. (d) In 10 years A will be n years old. (c) If each man gains $500. 12. 6 % of m. of 30 dollars. express in algebraic symbols : 700. 50 is x % of 15. A is 4 years older than Five years ago A was x years old. Express as : equations of the (a) 5 (b) (c) % a% of the second (d) x c of / a % of 4 sum equals $ 90. a third sum of 2 x + 1 dollars. the first sum exceeds b % of the second sum by first (e) % of the first plus 5 % of the second plus 6 % of the third sum equals $8000. pays to C $100. 3 1200 dollars. m is x % of n. the first sum equals 6 % of the third sura. . a. In 10 years the sum of A's. and (a) (6) A If has $ 5 more than B. the sum and C's money (d) (e) will be $ 12. sum equals $20. 11.*(/) (g) (Ji) Three years ago the sum of A's and B's ages was 50. is If A's age is 2 x. #is5%of450. B. they have equal amounts. and C have respectively 2 a. amounts. B's age 20. (e) In 3 years A will be as old as B is now. 18.62 10. x is 100 x% is of 700. a. x 4 If A. a second sum. first 00 x % of the equals one tenth of the third sum. express in algebraic 3x : 10. >.. A If and B B together have $ 200 less than C.
Three times a certain no. number of yards. verbal statement (1) (1) In 15 years A will may be expressed in symbols (2). Ex. Simplifying. Transposing. Let x = the number. be three times as old as he was 5 years ago. The equation can frequently be written by translating the sentence word by word into algebraic symbols in fact. number by x (or another letter) and express the yiven sentence as an equation. In order to solve them. x = 20.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS 63 PROBLEMS LEADING TO SIMPLE EQUATIONS The simplest kind of problems contain only one unknown number. 6 years ago he was 10 . number. Uniting. the required . Transposing. 1. Uniting. by 20 40 exceeds 20 by 20. much as 40 exceeds the number. Ex. Check. x= 15. Write the sentence in algebraic symbols. Three times a certain number exceeds 40 by as Find the number. 2. In 15 years 10. exceeds 40 by as much as 40 exceeds the no. Let x The (2) = A's present age. NOTE. 3 x + 16 = x x (x  p) Or. but 30 =3 x years. A will Check. 3z40:r:40z. 4 x = 80. equation is the sentence written in alyebraic shorthand. The solution of the equation (jives the value of the unknown number. The student should note that x stands for the number of and similarly in other examples for number of dollars. the . 23 =30. . etc. Find A's present age. In 15 years A will be three times as old as he was 5 years ago. denote the unknown 96. x + 15 = 3 x 3x 16 15. 3 x or 60 exceeds 40 + x = 40 + 40. 15. be 30 . Dividing. = x x 3x 40 3x 40 Or. x+16 = 3(35).
twice the number plus 7. 35 What number added to twice itself gives a sum of 39? 44. Six years hence a 12 years ago. How long is the Suez Canal? 10. Find the number whose double increased by 14 equals Find the number whose double exceeds 40 by 10. . 47 diminished by three times a certain number equals 2. Let x 3. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 56 is what per cent of 120 ? = number of per cent. 5. A will be three times as old as toda3r . then the problem expressed in symbols W or. Forty years hence his present age. 14. 3. Find 8. 120. 14 50 is is 4 what per cent of 500 ? % of what number? is 12. by as much as 135 ft. 4. Find the number whose double exceeds 30 by as much as 24 exceeds the number. Hence 40 = 46f. 11. to 42 gives a sum equal to 7 times the original 6. How old is man will be he now ? twice as old as he was 9. How many miles per hour does it run ? . Uldbe 66  x x 5(5 is = *. Find the width of the Brooklyn Bridge. Find the number. % of 120. A number added number. EXERCISE 1.64 Ex. What number 7 % of 350? Ten times the width of the Brooklyn Bridge exceeds 800 ft. Dividing.2. exceeds the width of the bridge. Four times the length of the Suez Canal exceeds 180 miles by twice the length of the canal. Find the number. 13. A train moving at uniform rate runs in 5 hours 90 miles more than in 2 hours. 300 56.
and as 15. F 8.000. The problem consists of two statements I. How many dol A has A to $40. is the equation. make A's money equal to 4 times B's money wishes to purchase a farm containing a certain He found one farm which contained 30 acres too many. times as much as A. five If A gives B $200. and B has $00. written in algebraic symbols. B How will loses $100. two verbal statements must be given. Maine's population increased by 510. If the first farm contained twice as many acres as A man number of acres. while in the more complex probWe denote one of the unknown x. Ex. 65 A and B $200. which gives the value of 8. statements are given directly. . During the following 90 years. A and B have equal amounts of money. the second one. Vermont's population increased by 180. x. The other verbal statement. and another which lacked 25 acres of the required number.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS 15. B will have lars has A now? 17. 1. One number exceeds another by : and their sum is Find the numbers. If A gains A have three times as much 16. numbers (usually the smaller one) by and use one of the given verbal statements to express the other unknown number in terms of x. How many dollars must ? B give to 18. One number exceeds the other one by II. how many acres did he wish to buy ? 19. Ill the simpler examples these two lems they are only implied. 97. Find the population of Maine in 1800. In 1800 the population of Maine equaled that of Vermont. then dollars has each ? many have equal amounts of money. and Maine had then twice as many inhabitants as Vermont. 14. If a problem contains two unknown quantities. The sum of the two numbers is 14.000.
+ a f f 8 = 14. A has three times as many marbles as B. x = 8. = B's number of marbles. consider that by the exchange Hence. 2. Then. expressed symbols is (14 x) course to the same answer as the first method. . < Transposing. Let x 14 I the smaller number. To express statement II in algebraic symbols. If A gives are : A If II. . B will have twice as many as A. 2x a? x j = 6. the sum of the two numbers is 14. 8 the greater number. Let x 3x express one many as A.= The second statement written the equation ^ smaller number. Uniting. although in general the simpler one should be selected. to Use the simpler statement. has three times as many marbles as B. Dividing. x x =14 8. the smaller number. 26 = A's number of marbles after the exchange. B will have twice as viz. I. o\ (o?f 8) Simplifying. which leads ot Ex. terms of the other. = A's number of marbles. = 14.66 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Either statement may be used to express one unknown number in terms of the other. If we select the first one. The two statements I. and Let x = the Then x +. in algebraic i symbols produces #4a. 26 = B's number of marbles after the exchange. unknown quantity in Then. A gives B 25 marbles. = 3. / . x 3x 4 and B will gain. Statement x in = the larger number. the greater number. A will lose. 8 = 11. . 25 marbles to B. Another method for solving this problem is to express one unknown quantity in terms of the other by means of statement II viz.
of dollars to the number of cents. The value of the half : is 11. x from I. Simplifying.550 f 310. have a value of $3. Selecting the cent as the denomination (in order to avoid fractions). 11 x = 5. Dividing. the number of dimes.240. . is 70. 2. Simplifying. 3 x = 45. Two numbers the smaller.10. cents. B's number of marbles. their sum + + 10 x 10 x is EXERCISE 36 is five v v. etc. Never add the number number of yards to their Ex. consisting of half dollars and dimes. w'3. The number of coins II. by 44. 15 + 25 = 40. Let 11 = the number of dimes.5 x . x = the number of half dollars. (Statement II) Qx . 3. x = 6. 40 x . the number of half dollars. 67 x f 25 25 Transposing. Uniting. ..$3. * 98. Find the numbers. x x + = 2(3 x = 6x 25 25). Check. Eleven coins. Uniting.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS Therefore. 50. the price. Check. 50(11 660 50 x )+ 10 x = 310. then.75. A's number of marbles. we express the statement II in algebraic symbols. dollars and dimes is $3. Find the numbers. 50 x Transposing. but 40 = 2 x 20. greater is . Dividing.25 = 20. The numbers which appear in the equation should always be expressed in the same denomination. How many are there of each ? The two statements are I. differ differ and the greater and their sum times Two numbers by 60. x = 15. * ' . 6 dimes = 60 = 310. 6 times the smaller. 60. 45 .10. and the Find the numbers. 1.. The sum of two numbers is 42..10. 6 half dollars = 260 cents.
68 4. McKinley. would contain three times as pints does each contain ? much 13. the night in Copenhagen lasts 10 hours longer than the day. 11. 7. Mount Everest is 9000 feet higher than Mt. 3 shall be equal to the other increased by 10. the number. and the greater increased by five times the smaller equals 22. A's age is four times B's. 9. How many 14 years older than B. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA One number is six times another number. and twice the altitude of Mt. What are their ages ? is A A much line 60 inches long is divided into two parts.000 feet. On December 21. and in Mexico ? A cubic foot of aluminum. as the larger one. Find Find two consecutive numbers whose sum equals 157. and B's age is as below 30 as A's age is above 40. ? Two vessels contain together 9 pints. How many volcanoes are in the 8.. Twice 14. the larger part exceeds five times the smaller part by 15 inches. of volcanoes in Mexico exceeds the number of volcanoes in the United States by 2. What is the altitude of each mountain 12. 2 cubic feet of iron weigh 1600 foot of each substance. How many hours does the day last ? . and four times the former equals five times the latter. Everest by 11. tnree times the smaller by 65. and in 5 years A's age will be three times B's. How many inches are in each part ? 15. Find their ages. McKinley exceeds the altitude of Mt. 6. Two numbers The number differ by 39. cubic foot of iron weighs three times as much as a If 4 cubic feet of aluminum and Ibs. it If the smaller one contained 11 pints more. and twice the greater exceeds Find the numbers. United States. one of which increased by 9. 5. find the weight of a cubic Divide 20 into two parts.
three One of the unknown num two are expressed in terms by means of two of the verbal statements. they would have 3. first According to 3 x number number and according to 80 4 x = the express statement III by algebraical symbols. bers is denoted by x. A and B each gave $ 5 respectively. 8(8 + 19) to C. and C together have $80." To x 8x 90 = number of dollars A had after giving $5. 4 x = number of dollars C had after receiving $10. has. are : C's The three statements A. B. 69 If a verbal statements must be given. or 66 exceeds 58 by 8. II. The solution gives : 3x 80 Check. let us consider the words ** if A and B each gave $ 5 to C. III.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS 99. B. Tf it should be difficult to express the selected verbal state ment directly in algebraical symbols. If 4x = 24. . If A and B each gave $5 to C. the the number of dollars of dollars of dollars A B C has. Let x II. number of dollars of dollars B C had. then three times the money by I. 1. and the other of x problem contains three unknown quantities. = 48. try to obtain it by a series of successive steps. sum of A's and B's money would exceed much as A had originally. 19. x = 8. original amount. and B has three as A. If A and B each gave $5 to C. = number of dollars B had after giving $5. times as much as A. B has three times as much as A. then three times the sum of A's and B's money would exceed C's money by as much as A had originally. The third verbal statement produces the equation. and C together have $80. number had. 5 5 Expressing in symbols Three times the sum of A's and B's money exceeds C's money by A's 3 x ( x _5 + 3z5) (904z) = x. has. and 68. I. Ex. number of dollars A had.
37 Find three numbers such that the second is twice the first. Find three numbers such that the second is twice the 2. and 28 sheep would cost 6 x 90 f 9 + 316 420 = 1185. The number of sheep is equal to twice tho number of horses and x 4 the cows together. x j = the number of horses. 9 cows. + 8 90 x and. x 35 f + = + EXERCISE 1. the third five times the first. 2 (2 x f 4) or 4 x Therefore. each horse costing $ 90. The number of cows exceeded the number of horses by 4. 2. number of sheep. x Transposing. + 35 (x +4) f 15(4zf 8) = 1185. and. x f 4 = 9. and each sheep $ 15. 9 5 = 4 . according to III. 185 a = 925. A and the number of sheep was twice as large as the number How many animals of each kind did he buy ? of horses and cows together. = the number of dollars spent for horses. and the difference between the third and the second is 15 2. The total cost equals $1185. number of horses. according to II. and the sum of the . Dividing.140 + (50 x x 120 = 185. number of cows. 28 x 15 or 450 5 horses. Let then. cows. 1 1 Check. 4 x f 8 = 28.70 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA man spent $1185 in buying horses. and Ex. The I. 28 2 (9 5). = the number of dollars spent for sheep Hence statement 90 x Simplifying. number of cows. sheep. 90 x f 35 x + GO x = 140 20 + 1185. The number of cows exceeds the number of horses by 4. = the number of dollars spent for cows. first the third exceeds the second by and third is 20. III. + 35 x 4. 90 may be written. each cow $ 35. Uniting. three statements are : IT. x = 5. first. 85 (x 15 (4 x I + 4) + 8) = the number of sheep.
000. 7. The gold. and children together was 37. increased by three times the second side. the third 2. and the third exceeds the is second by 5. what are the three angles ? 10.  4. and the third part exceeds the second by 10. first. Find three consecutive numbers whose sum equals 63. the second one is one inch longer than the first. twice the 6. twice as old as B. If the second angle of a triangle is 20 larger than the and the third is 20 more than the sum of the second and first. If twice The sum the third side. A is Five years ago the What are their ages ? C. men. 71 the Find three numbers such that the second is 4 less than the third is three times the second. and the sum of the first and third is 36. A 12. 13.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS 3. equals 49 inches. what is the population of each city ? 8. The three angles of any triangle are together equal to 180. and of the three sides of a triangle is 28 inches.000 more than Philadelphia (Census 1905). and the pig iron produced in one year (1906) in the United States represented together a value . If the population of New York is twice that of Berlin. and 2 more men than women. "Find three is 4.000. the first Find three consecutive numbers such that the sum of and twice the last equals 22. New York delphia. v  Divide 25 into three parts such that the second part first.000 more inhabitants than Philaand Berlin has 1. 9. how many children were present ? x 11. In a room there were three times as many children as If the number of women. and is 5 years younger than sum of B's and C's ages was 25 years. is five numbers such that the sum of the first two times the first. first. v . women. the copper. what is the length of each? has 3.
000. and distance. and 4 (x But the 2) for the last column. and A walks at the rate of 3 miles per hour without stopping. Find the value of each. has each state ? If the example contains Arrangement of Problems. . of 3 or 4 different kinds. and quantities area. i. = 35. 3 and 4.72 of ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA $ 750. The copper had twice the value of the gold. 3z + 4a:8 = 27. Let x = number of hours A walks.e. California has twice as many electoral votes as Colorado.000. 3x + 4 (x 2) = 27. statement "A and B walk from two towns 27 miles apart until they meet " means the sum of the distances walked by A and B equals 27 miles. speed. = 5. how many 100. number of hours.000. 7 Uniting. First fill in all the numbers given directly. start at the same hour from two towns 27 miles walks at the rate of 4 miles per hour. width. Dividing.g. B many miles does A walk ? Explanation. number of miles A x x walks. such as length. Since in uniform motion the distance is always the product of rate and time.000 more than that the copper. we obtain 3 a. then x 2 = number of hours B walks. and Massachusetts has one more than California and Colorado If the three states together have 31 electoral votes. of arid the value of the iron was $300. 8 x = 15. A and B apart. 14. Hence Simplifying. together. but stops 2 hours on the way. After how many hours will they meet and how E. or time. it is frequently advantageous to arrange the quantities in a systematic manner.
2 a = 40. x . 10 x = 200. Cancel 2 # 2 (a 10) = 2s 100. + 8. A sum invested larger at at 5 % terest as a sum $200 4%. were increased by 30 yards. x + 200). 73 of a rectangular field is twiee its width.04 8. 70x10 Ex." gives (2. $ 800 = required sum.04 = $ 40. $ 1000 x . . $ 800 = 800. . 2   and transpose. Multiplying. The an area 40 x 20 =800. l.05 x x . Check. original field has Check. and the width decreased by 10 yards.06 = $ 40.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS Ex. What brings the same is the capital? in Therefore Simplify.x + 00) 2 x2 Simplify. the second 100.053. the area would be 100 square yards less. Find the dimensions of the field. If the length The length " The area would be decreased by 100 square yards. or 700. z = 20.01 = = . fid 1 The field is 40 yards long and 20 yards wide. Transposing and uniting.M(x . x . + 10 x 300 = 2 z2 100. But 700 certain = 800 2.
as a 4. and how far will each then have traveled ? 9. the area would remain the same. 3. but four men failed to pay their shares. and the sum Find the length of their areas is equal to 390 square yards. If the silk cost three times as For a part he 7. A If its length rectangular field is 2 yards longer than it is wide. How many pounds of each kind did he buy ? 8. Six persons bought an automobile. invested at 5 %. twice as large. sum $ 50 larger invested at 4 brings the same interest Find the first sum. A sets out later two hours B . were increased by 3 yards. and in order to raise the required sum each of the remaining men had to pay one dollar more. How much did each man subscribe ? sum walking at the rate of 3 miles per hour.55. together bring $ 78 interest. 1.74 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 38 rectangular field is 10 yards and another 12 yards wide. A of each. and the cost of silk of the auto and 30 yards of cloth cost together much per yard as the cloth. how much did each cost per yard ? 6. paid 24 ^ per pound and for the rest he paid 35 ^ per pound. and a second sum. 2. of coffee for $ 1. A man bought 6 Ibs. each of the others had to pay $ 100 more. Find the dimen A certain sum invested at 5 % %. A sum ? invested at 4 %. Twenty men subscribed equal amounts of to raise a certain money. and its width decreased by 2 yards. sions of the field. but as two of them were unable to pay their share. and follows on horseback traveling at the rate of 5 miles per hour. After how many hours will B overtake A. Ten yards $ 42. Find the share of each. The second is 5 yards longer than the first. mobile. What are the two sums 5.
A sets out two hours later B starts New York to Albany is 142 miles. but A has a start of 2 miles. and another train starts at the same time from New York traveling at the rate of 41 miles an hour. and B at the rate of 3 miles per hour. The distance from If a train starts at . After how many hours.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS v 75 10. and from the same point. A and B set out direction. traveling by coach in the opposite direction at the rate of 6 miles per hour. walking at the same time in the same If A walks at the rate of 2 far miles per hour. how many miles from New York will they meet? X 12. Albany and travels toward New York at the rate of 30 miles per hour without stopping. how must B walk before he overtakes A ? walking at the rate of 3 miles per hour.will they be 36 miles apart ? 11.
which multiplied together are considered factors. if it does contain some indicated root of . a factor of a 2 A factor is said to be prime. J Although Va' In the present chapter only integral and rational expressions b~ X V <2 Ir a2 b' 2 2 ?> . An expression is integral and rational with respect and rational. The prime factors of 10 a*b are 2. consider 105. a2 to 6. a. this letter. it contains no indicated root of this letter . a. we shall not. stage of the work. if this letter does not occur in any denominator. if it is integral to all letters contained in it. f db 6 to b. The factors of an algebraic expression are the quantities will give the expression. if it contains no other factors (except itself and unity) otherwise . 6. 5. 76 . if. An after simplifying. as. 104. vV . \ V& is a rational with respect to and irrational with respect 102. a + 2 ab + 4 c2 . but fractional with respect 103. irrational.CHAPTER VI FACTORING 101. at this 6 2 . An expression is integral with respect to a letter. + 62 is integral with respect to a. it is composite. expression is rational with respect to a letter.
77 Factoring is into its factors. Factor G ofy 2 . it follows that a 2 . 8) (s1). POLYNOMIALS ALL OF WHOSE TERMS CONTAIN A COMMON FACTOR ( mx + my+ mz~m(x+y + z). TYPE I.g. ?/. in the form 4) +3. for this result is a sum.9 x2^ + 12 sy* = 3 Z2/2 (2 #2 . Ex. 01. 2. Since factoring the inverse of multiplication.62 + &)(a 2 . E. . Factor 14 a* W 21 a 2 6 4 c2 + 7 a2 6 2 c2 7 a2 6 2 c 2 (2 a 2 . dividend is 2 x2 4 2 1/ . since (a + 6) (a 2 IP factored. it fol lows that every method of multiplication will produce a method of factoring.3 6a + 1). 2 4 x + 3) is factored if written (x' would not be factored if written x(x and not a product. The factors of a monomial can be obtained by inspection 2 The prime 108.FACTORING 106. 110. 109. or that a = 6) (a = a . 55. or Factoring examples may be checked by multiplication by numerical substitution. Hence 6 aty 2 = divisor x quotient. 2. It (a. y. x. 107. factors of 12 &V is are 3. An the process of separating an expression expression is factored if written in the form of a product. . Divide 6 a% .62 can be &).) Ex. 2. x.3 sy + 4 y8).9 x2 y 8 + 12 3 xy f by 3 xy\ and the quotient But. 1.9 x if + 12 xy\ 2 The greatest factor common 2 to all terms flcy* is 8 2 xy' .
19.12 cdx. and to multiply 3 and 5 to obtain the term which does not contain x or (x 3)(x f 5) 15. 3 2 . 13. 18. 2. to find two numbers whose product is 15 and whose sum is f.g. 17. a(mf7i) + & ( m + 3 (a + 6) 3 /(a + 6). 4 tfy f. : 6 abx .4. 12. 7a & 10. 20. a a 'Ja .6. a6c. 11. (as 3) and (ccf5).5 + 13 8.5 + 2.16 a'V f 48 ctfa^ 2 s 4 : + 34 X 8 a*b f 8 6V . 34 a^c 8 . 15.3. . in general.3.4.78 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 39 Resolve into prime factors 1. in factoring a trinomial of the form x f/>#f q. 3x*6x*.5 x*y 2 17 a? . 7i 13. 3. ) 22  2. 14. two numbers m and n whose sum is p and and if such numbers can be found. TYPE IT. 3 3 5 6. e. 15 2 7. &{20a 6 4 &3 2 . we had to add tain the coefficient of x. Ilro8 9. 5f 2 .30 aty. q*q*q 2 a. 2 2 . 2 23. 8. 4.45 afy . 16. obviously. In multiplying two binomials containing a common 3 and 5 to obterm. 2 + q. 32 a *?/ . 14a 4 5. 2 Or.51 x4 2 6 xy s . QUADRATIC TRINOMIALS OF THE FORM 111. 2 6.51 aW + 68 21. x2 f2 x = 15 we have. 4 8 . .8 c a 15 ofyV . the y factored expression is (x }m)(x + n). f In factoring x2 2x we have to find whose product is g.2. + llm llm.
the two numbers have opposite signs.FACTORING Ex.1 1 a tf a 4. . We may consider 1. the student should first all terms contain a common monomial factor. of this type. 2 6. Hence z6 ? oty+12 if= (x 3 y)(x*4 y ). . 11 a2 and whose sum The numbers whose product is and a. can be factored. 77 as the product of 1 77. Factor a2 .4 . Since a number can be represented in an infinite number of ways as the sum of two numbers. If q is positive.11) (a + 7).11. Factor + 10 ax . Ex. If 30 and whose sum is 11 are 5 a2 11 a = 1. 79 Factor a2 4 x .77 = (a. or 77 l. + 30 = 20. . If q is negative.5) (a 6). and the greater one has the same sign Not every trinomial Ex.30 = (a . or 11 and 7 have a sum equal to 4. but of these only a: Hence 2 . or 7 11.1 afy 8 The two numbers whose product is equal to 12 yp and whose sum equals 3 8 7 y are 4 y* and 3 y*. but only in a limited number of ways as a product of two numbers. the two numbers have both the same sign as p. is The two numbers whose product and 6.6 = 20.a). tfa2  3. Factor x? . however. a 2 . Hence fc f 10 ax is 10 a are 11 a  12 /. 5. it is advisable to consider the factors of q first. 2. as p. m 5m + 6.G) = . + 112. 11 7.11 a 2 . EXERCISE Besolve into prime factors : 40 4. 2 11 a?=(x + 11 a) (a. 4. Therefore Check. determine whether In solving any factoring example.4 x . 3.11 a + 30. Ex. and (a .5) (a ..
ra + 25ra + 100. By actual trial give the correct we find which of the sum of cross products. 17. a 2 +11 a a? 16. + 5<y 24. 2 2 . 29. 24. ay 11 ay +24. ^ </ 2 2 7p8. x*y ra 2 2 4xy 4 wia 2 2 21y.80 7. 8. a2 . (4 x + 3) (5 x 20 x2 is the product of 4 a. 2 ?/ 28. 27. a 2^ 2 a2 + 7ax 18. 36. 26. + 2xS. TYPE 113. 12. 30.500 x + 600. 32. 35. 17a& + 7(U 9a&226 + 8 a 20. and the sum of the cross products equals 13 x. 2 ?/ 5?/14. 20. factors of 6 x 2 and 5 . 16. 3?/4 + a' 2a&24& n + 60+177> a + 7 a 30. x2 23. 6 8 8 4 2 a. such that The The first last two terms are factors of 6 x 2 two terms are factors of 5. 33. 2 ?/ 22. 21. or .17 + 30. a? + 5 + 6 a. 15. QUADRATIC TRINOMIALS OF THE FORM According to 66. in factoring 6 x2 + 5. 2 . + 44. .48 + + 446 200. 19. +7 Hence a? is the sum of the 13 x cross products.6. 9. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBEA x*2x8. . + 4?/21. 2 . 6 a 18 a + 12 a 2 2 ?/ . 25. 4 3 2 . and 5 x. 14. 100 xr . 4 2 . ITT. we have to find two bino mials whose corresponding terms are similar.180 a. 21 a 2 2 . y_ 6y +6y 15?/ 2 ?/ 10. 18. 11. 2 . 31. a 7 a 30. .2) = 20 x2 + 7 x . 13. + 400 x aft a4 4 a 2 .70 x y . 10 x y 2 200 x2 . 16. + 30. 2 2 a' 34. 6 is the product of + 3 and 2.
Hence only 1 x 54 and 2 x 27 need be considered. 11 x 2x. exchange the signs of the second terms of the factors. or G 114. all pos combinations are contained in the following 6xl x5 . 3 x and x. sible 13 x negative. and that they must be negative. The and factors of the first term consist of one pair only. all it is not always necessary to write down combinations. . Since the first term of the first factor (3 x) contains a 3. and r is negative. 18 x 3. 64 may be considered the : product of the following combinations of numbers 1 x 54.e5 V A x1 3xl \/ /\ is 3 a. Factor 3 x 2 .5) (2 x . 27 x 2. a.5 . and after a little practice the student possible should be able to find the proper factors of simple trinomials In actual work at the first trial. then the second terms of have opposite signs. . 3.13 x + 5 = (3 x . but the opposite sign.1). Ex. If the factors a combination should give a sum of cross products.17 x 2o?l V A 5  13 a combination the correct one.FACTORING If 81 we consider that the factors of f 5 as must have is : like signs. the signs of the second terms are minus. 9 x 6. 6 x 9. viz. 2. 54 x 1. If py? \qx\r does not contain any monomial factor. which has the same absolute value as the term qx.83 x f 54. If p is poxiliw. the If p and r are positive. The work may be shortened by the : follow ing considerations 1. we have to reject every combination of factors of 54 whose first factor contains a 3. the second terms of the factors have same sign as q. X x 18. none of the binomial factors can contain a monomial factor.31 x Evidently the last 2 V A 6. 2 x 27.
3x*Sx + 4. 11.300 ab 2 f4 250 .163 x 2 . EXERCISE Kesolve into prime factors 1. 2 2 2 23. . 13.19 a f 6. 17. + 4. 21. 29. 4a2 9tt + 2. 12^17^16. 2 fc . Sar' + SaG. f go.83 x . 24. 2x* + 9x5. . 34. + 11 or 2 + 12 a.10 4a? + 14oj + 12. 14. 32. IV) are special cases of In all examples of this type. 19. and the monomial factors should be removed. 15.2 a 90 x*y . . x54 a. 2. 2 28.30 y 6 4 .83 x = (3 . 30. : 41 2. h r is 2 the most important of the trinomial types. since all others (II. 22. 90 a 8 2 . 2 26.290 xy f 144 y* 4x 8 ofy + 3 y 2 2 4 2 4 f . 9.27).7. 7. 3. 3a + 13a. 6n 2 f 13w + 2.260 xy . 6n + 5?i4.179.82 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 3xl 3s2 x X 115. Therefore 3 z + 64 The type pa.2) (x . 4. SoJ + llay 15 aj* 40*. 10 a . arranged according to the ascending or the descending powers of some letter. 2 31.y + 172/9. 2 2 2 . 2 f3y 4y 40a 90aV + 20aV. 12. 6. 18. 12y 2/6. 100^200^ + 100^. 14 a fa 4.13 xy + 6 y2 12 x 7 ay. 25. 144 x . 2 . X 27 . 10a2 G a2 2 . 10a?2 2 33. 5. 9 y + 32^16. 5m 26m f 5. + 2/3. 8. 35.77 xy + 10 y 23afc + 126 . the expressions should be it. 20. 2i/ * 2 2 x 27. 10. 9a. 16. 5 a6 2 2 9 a . 2 ar* 2 i/ . 2 . 2m t7w + 3.
3 y) 2 is 2VWx 2 x V0y2" = 24 xy. form are special cases of the preceding type.FACTORING 83 TYPE IV.10 x f 16. 116. Expressions of this to factor them according a2 to 65. 11. 25 7. x* . a flOa&46 4 wi f 2 2/ 2 . 16 y? The student should note that a term. THE SQUARE OF A BINOMIAL 2 Jr 2 xy +/. connect the re square roots of the terms which are squares by the sign of the indicate the square of the resulting binomial. and a perfect square. 2.e. 5. and factor whenever possible : 1. . 8. and the remaining equal to twice the product of the square roots of these in order to be a perfect terms. 2 2 . square.  2 xy + if = (x 2 ?/) . 3. 2 9 10gf25. it is more convenient for that type. m + 2mn + n c 2cdd 2 2 . 4 6 m*ti f 9 n*. 13. 9 10a625. i. 9 +6a6 2 2 f a4 . 9. for + 9 y2 = (4 x . 14. of its terms are perfect squares. 10. 12.26 ab + 9 6 2 . and may be factored according to the method used In most cases. 24 xy + 9 y' 2 is Evidently 10 & 24 xy a perfect square. A term when two is trinomial belongs to this type. must have a positive sign. EXERCISE 42 per Determine whether or not the following expressions are feet squares. 6. To factor a trinomial which maining term. 2 . . 4. m 14ww + 49n 2 16 a . x> 2 a 2_4 a & a 2 + 462. however. it is a perfect square.20 xy f 4 y\ .
. 4 3 4 ^ 3 8 10 8 10 ) 4 5 4 5 Ex. . ). 10 a 2 4 2 . 1. 100a2 68 a2 & 2 121. 16. 7. x*Sx + ( 64 a 4 100w +( )+49. 9. 26. a. ). 2 f b 2 2 2 ) (a NOTE. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 16a 2 24a&4. a2 24. !Gar 9 ( )+25.3 * ). 6 2 . . 18. 4a2 l. 2 . 2. 2 20.6 = (a 4 b) = (a* + b*)(a + b)(ab).e.84 15. 225 ofy . aV . 4 2 23. 149 a 81 8. 25. difference of the squares of two numbers is equal of the sum and the difference of the two numbers. : 43 tfy\ a 9. + GO + 25. 48 a +( ). 27. 9a2 . 22. ^//c to the Ex.60 a# + 4. +( )f816 30.  + 6a + ( 9a ( ) + 144 a 2 28. 3. THE DIFFERENCE OF TWO SQUARES JT 2 /. 3. 17. According to 65. 16&*. 2.4 6 = lG(tt +2Z> )(a 26 ). 36 2 4. a.20 ab + 10 b a . 29. 2 . m 4a + 12a + ( 2 4m 2 20 f ( ). 5.64 6 = 16(a .2 ofy + ofy m . 3 Make the following expressions perfect squares by supplying the missing terms : 21. EXERCISE Resolve into prime factors 1. 19. prime. * 2 . ). u2 6& + 2 ( ). 2 . TYPE 117.9& 2 3<> 4 2 . 6.6 m* + 9 m.9 z* = (2 ary + 3 z ) (2 1G a . V. a4 a2 2 f 6 is . Ex. product i.
11. 14.d) 2 .(c 4. One or both terms are squares 1. (m 3n) 2 ( 2 2 . 6. 16p 2 . a2 . Factor a 2 . 36> . Ex.(c + d) 2 = (a + c + cZ) (a . 4. (?/ 2 cc (x y)*. Ex. 2 2 : (mfn) _p 2 . 2. 5. a:) 12. 25a (&c) (mh2n) 2 2 . 2 . 9. (2a5&) (5c9ef) 2 3. (2a (2s + 5) (3a4) 2 2 .FACTORING 85 118. Resolve into prime factors and simplify EXERCISE 44 Resolve into prime factors 1.(I) . 2 . (m7?) y. (a x? f 6) 6 2 . 2 ?/) 16 2 (y f 2 . (m f # 2 2 n) 42:) 10. (x f 3 9 2/ 2 . 2.c . 8. of polynomials. T. 13.
+ 4cy5dx 2 5dy. 5. 4 B.y + 2 2). 8. + bx + ay + by = x(a + &) + y(a + 6) Ex.6z2 + 5 = z2 (.2 ) (3 x . 3. polynomials can frequently be transformed into bi. 2.1. A. ive find that the new terms con common factor. ma ?*a + m& nb.r.4 6 x f 3 a y 2 4. 7.86 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA TYPE VI. Ex. Factor or 5 5 x2 x x f 5. a? 11. 5) . . 4:cx .VI. 12. 9. a5 + ab 6 .a a . which may be factored according to types I. 2. = (3 x + y . Ex. 1. Factor 9 x*y*4:Z 2 f 4 yz. + x + 2x + 2.ab + bx. 119. GROUPING TERMS By the introduction of parentheses.7 c + 2c . . a3 c 3 10ax5ay6bx + 3by. After grouping tain a the terms. the expression becomes the difference of two squares. 10. raV + nV 3 a 2ic 2 m ?/ 2 n 2an3&n + 2ag3&?. a 26 2 2 3 . By grouping. : 45 ax + bx + ay+by.14.(x  5) EXERCISE Resolve into prime factors 1. 6. Factor ax ax f bx f ay f by.and trinomials. x8 .
a 2 10a6 4 2 + 256 2 x ar 2a. 5. 4 a2 .12 aaj 4 6y. 3. 8.9 a2 4 v* 2 . 8. 87 f Factor 4 a2  6 2 + 9 tf .l. +c+ 2 2 2/ . 4. l~a 2a56 2 2 . 8ra 2 + 16.12 ax + 9 a2 + 4 &t/ 4 y2 = (4 a 2 . 6a4 12a2 + 6. although frequently the particular cases II and IV are more convenient. 2a3/ 7. 3. 2. 4. 6 6. 6a4 + 37a2 + 6. 36 9 m . = (a + 6)(a6). 2 7. 6.4 f . $ a8 . First find monomial factors common to all terms. . Arranging the terms.12 z + 9 x2)_ (&2 _ 4 ty + 4 ^2) a. . EXERCISE 47 MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES* Resolve into prime factors !. IV.FACTORING Ex.6 ww + n 2 2 < a 2 4a6 + 46 25. 2. SUMMARY OF FACTORING I.* */2 ft EXERCISE Kesolve into prime factors 1. w m 2.10 xy + 4 y\ 2 .62 + 9 _ 4 _ 12 ax + 4 6y 2 = 4 a 2 . Binomials are factored by means of the formula a 2 6 2 III. Trinomials are factored by the method of cross products. m Gw + 9n * See page 266. : 46 x* 2. : m 2 2 16. + 2xy + y*q*. Polynomials are reduced to the preceding cases by grouping terms. II.
28. (a. 10 a 2 4a 4 26. 13. a5 a 1 4 2 39. + 6 aft + 3 . a3 156. 6 :J 2 2 ft 2 16. __ ft)2 n Qy 2 . 42 s 2 . 5a' 20. 27. 42 x . 19. 50^ + 45. 30. 2 a 128.310 x . 22. or 3 7#2 . 2 17.40.24. 20 >r + 2 ?<s __ G4. 35. 32 aft + 6 4ft 4 . 2 3#4 3a2 36. 49 a 4 4 42 a + 9 a 20a 90a 50. 3 25.85 xy + 42 y 10 w 43 w 9. a6 36.13 c . 3 2 . 29. 4 2 2 ft ft 2a + a*l. 4 a. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA x*xif.88 10. 3 a2 23. (^ 34. 5 a.156. + 14. 18. 25 a + 25 aft . 32. 80 a 2 ft 38. 12. 11. any V 2 ( 51 xyz + 50. . a. 256 4 2 2 ?/) . 4 8 tt 2 z . 24. 48. 13 c . 2 ft . 1 ?v _w 8 2 33. 14. a + a + a + l. 40. 3 41.
Two common factor except unity The H. C. C. 15 aW. 5. C. of the algebraic expressions. 3. II 2 .CHAPTER VII HIGHEST COMMON FACTOR AND LOWEST COMMON MULTIPLE HIGHEST COMMON FACTOR 120. F. 121. 54  32 . 6. The highest is common factor (IT. 13 aty 39 afyV. + 8 ft) and cfiW is 2 a 2 /) 2 ft) .) of two or more . C. of aW. 2. F. Thus the H.  23 3 . If the expressions have numerical coefficients. F. 3 . The student should note H. and prefix it as a coefficient to H. is the lowest that the power of each factor in the power in which that factor occurs in any of the given expressions. the algebraic factor of highest degree common expressions to these expressions thus a 6 is the II. 2 2 . of two or more monomials whose factors . aW. The H. 5 2 3 . F. F. F. 8 . 25 W. 122. C. 5 s 7 2 5. C. of a 7 and a e b 7 . C. F. 5 7 34 2s . 24 s . of a 4 and a 2 b is a2 The H. are prime can be found by inspection. find by arithmetic the greatest common factor of the coefficients. of (a and (a + fc) (a 4 is (a + 6) 2 . C. expressions which have no are prime to one another. 33 2 7 3 22 3 2 . EXERCISE Find the H. of : 48 4. 12 tfifz. 89 . F. F. . F. C. and GO aty 8 is 6 aty. The H. of 6 sfyz. C.
11. 1. 4(m+l) 3 .y + y42. To find the H. 24 a 2 . 225 4a 9 . a2 ar* 4. of: . a2 . 9 aj*(a? .y) 123.y)\ O+ 0^(0.2 ?/) (x . 6 3 a. 52 oryz4. 0^80:416. resolve each polynomial into prime factors. ^f a. 2 . 9. 4 ?io. 8(?/ifl) 14. 4 7/i 3 n2 10 4 mV. 2. 16. 10. . ^707 + 12. 14.6 . 13. . 12 w*nw 8. x* x2 Hence the H. 3). . 95 2/V. 6 a2 y? . 9.90 7. ^a + 5^ + 6. 15.5 y). ELEMENTS OF ALGEBEA 6 rarcV. ^2 2 . 15 xy^ 2 10 arV . 2 . a2 + 2a3. F.y) . 13. F. and apply the method of the preceding article. 6(m+l) (m+2). 10.2 y) (a.6 a&.6.^9.6 a' + 2 a& + 6 . 5 a6 5^ 2 a. 2a f5af 2. Ex. 3 . . 75 a&X 15 bed 11 . aWd. of polynomials. 4 a3 6 4 8 a663 .?/ . .3 xy + 2 y* = (x . 8 a 10 . 8. . 25 m27i. = x 2 y. 15 3ao. 5. 7. (a7 ?/) . 49 C. a2 + 7af!2.7 xy + 10 2 = (x . C. a. of + 4 if. a3 9a. a 3a4. 6 mx . 12 . 16 a . 57 a>V.# 4 afy f 4 .5 + 6. 4(m f ?i) 3 3 5(w + w) 5 7(m + n}\m 2 ri).12 as 66 . 11. C. 3^ 2 4 . F. 38 #y. 65 zfyV.8 a + 16. 12. 1. x2 ^4^ and tf 7 xy + 10 f. 7/ EXERCISE Find theH. 2 . Find the H. 3. 12. 4a f 4a2 2 2 a 2  . C. 8. F. 2 . a3 16 a. y + 3y64. 8 6.5 x3?/ 2 6. 30 mu\ 39 afyV.
M of the algebraic expressions. resolve each expression into prime factors and apply the method for monomials. . Hence the L.) of two or more expressions is the common multiple of lowest degree. 126. =4 a2 62 (a2 .6)2. &) 2 M. L. L. C. M.6 3 ). M.(a + &) 2 (a have the same absolute value. of tfy and xy*. C.C.C.M. C. etc. Obviously the power of each factor in the L. C. 128.M. NOTE. C. Ex. If the expressions have a numerical coefficient. 2. M. 4 a 2 &2 _ Hence. C. 127. which also signs. two lowest common multiples. The L. thus. 1. of 12(a + ft) and (a + &)*(  is 12(a + &)( . = (a f last 2 &)' is (a  6) . M. a^c8 3 .LOWEST COMMON MULTIPLE 91 LOWEST COMMON MULTIPLE multiple of two or more expressions is an which can be divided by each of them without a expression 124. 300 z 2 y. M. but opposite . ory is the L. C. A common remainder. Ex. C. of several expressions which are not completely factored. C. Common 125. of 4 a 2 6 2 and 4 a 4 4 a 68 2 . 2 multiples of 3 x and 6 y are 30 xz y. . Find the L. M. of as &2 a2 + 2a&f b\ and 6a. The lowest common multiple (L. Find the L. 6 c6 is C a*b*c*. To find the L. 2 The The L. M. 60 x^y' 2 . find by arithmetic their least common multiple and prefix it as a coefficient to the L. C. each set of expressions has In example ft). is equal to the highest power in which it occurs in any of the given expressions. M. of the general. of 3 aW.
3(m + n) 4 m 2 . . T a 3 a 2 . 40 abJ. 4 a f 2. 13. 4 a . 17. by. x* ~5a. #. 5 a 2 ^ 2 15 . 2(m 2 . a f 2 19. a 2 fa6. 2 7ic+10. 3 ab. + 2 7i) . a& 4 +& 2 . a^1. 2 a .f 6. f b. a { a~b. or f 3 a 15 #. a. x2 2 + 5 a + 6. ) . a 1. 15. 18. 2 . 9. 2 ic 3 4a 8 a.92 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 50 C. 2 a . 1. G a. 2 . a2 4. x 2 5 a. x2 + 4 a f 4. 5. a?b. 3 6 xif. 8. 3 f2. 6 a. 8 afy. 22. 24. 3 . b 2 . afc'cd 2 . 21. 16. 20 9 a. y*. of: 4. 3(a + b). 6. 14. a. ic 2 ?/. 20.1. a2 ~ab 1. 11. 2 10. bx a? 8 2 lOajflfi. 2 x \2 y.1. a !. 2 . (For additional examples see page 268. x2 5 f 2 3# 5 + 2. 24 x. + 2. 3 Z> . a f 3. 30 a. M. . a 2 a3 . ax {ay ~ 3 a 3 b. Find the L. 6 y. 3. a 2 f 4 a +4. 2 a. 6b 2 . 7. afy. 4 a 5 6cd. ic 23. + 6. 5 a? 5 a? y. 3. 3 (a2)(a3) ( a 3)(a4) 2 2a?b'2ab 2 a. 2. 8 d 5 . (a 4)(a2) 12. xy\ . a. 2 a?b\ a + 2ab + b' 2a2b.
If both terms of a fraction are multiplied or divided by the same number) the value of the fraction is not altered. All operations with fractions in algebra are identical with the corresponding operations in arithmetic. Remove tor. as 8. Thus. an indicated quotient. however. only positive integral numerators shall assume that the all arithmetic principles are generally true for algebraic numbers. F. a b = ma mb . The dividend a is called the numerator and the The numerator and the denominator are the terms of the fraction.ry ^ by their H. a?. 130. TT Hence 24 2 z =  3x . fraction is in its lowest when its numerator and its denominator have no common factors. the product of two fractions is the product of their numerators divided by the product of their denominators. C. rni Thus 132. and i x mx = my y terms A 1. thus  is identical with a divisor b the denominator. Ex. the value of a fraction is not altered by multiplying or dividing both its numerator and its denominator by the same number.CHAPTER VIII FRACTIONS REDUCTION OF FRACTIONS 129. 131. etc. successively all 2 j/' . and denominators are considered. but we In arithmetic. A f fraction is b. Reduce ~ to its lowest terms. common 6 2 divisors of numerator and denomina and z 8 (or divide the terms .
Keduce 62 ~ 2 62 a2 to its lowest terms. tf a*  n2 + 8 a 24 a* _ ap 2 . 3.4) Ex.94 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 133. cancel factors only. Ex. To reduce a fraction to its lowest terms. 6 24 a2 to its lowest terms. Keduce a* ~ 6 a' 4 *8a 6a qs _. _Q 2 6 EXERCISE 51* Reduce i to lowest terms 3 : 95 2 *' o 3 * 3T5"** T^ 12a4 " 3 K 6 ' 32 78 ' ' 2. and cancel all factors that are common to both.6 a + 8) 6 d\a* . . resolve numerator and denominator into their factors. 2.33 7 a 36 arV 18 x2^' 39 a2 6 8c4 * See page 268. Never cancel terms of the numerator or the denominator.
' 32. LJZJ^JL. """. 'M 3 ??i 2fi 25. 23. ^' rt ^  31. 16. ' ^ .n 8 + T> ? wn + n 2 ?i 2 m " *7 . g J 21. 11 ^ Mtr f . .10 a + 3 2 14. _ 3 7i rt< 26.FRACTIONS 7 95 22 a 2 bc 1 4 ^.7 . ~__ 9n _ 22 9. x1 15 ' ft< 4 xy //(/ _. * OQ 3 a3 _6a a/i 2 2 5 ?tt +6 ^. ^" a. 12 15 m m 2 2 7 w. nx 17. 04 !l 9 or 2 6 it*?/ +y 2 12.. 5^10 y 30. n h ' m11 2 m 3 8.*. 9x + "a" 10. ny 4 18. ^+3*. 19. . + ' 4 2 ?/ 27. 29. 3a ^ ^ "^ 2 9 . .
=(z (x + 3)(z.by 3 ^ A 2 ' . C. Ex  Reduce to their lowest common denominator. . and 135. 2> . . mon T denominator. Reduce ^.r 2 2 . ELEMENTS OF 'ALGEBRA Reduction of fractions to equal fractions of lowest common Since the terms of a fraction may be multiplied denominator. C.M.  by 4 6' . Divide the L. and 6rar 3 a? kalr . 1. M. by the denominator of each fraction.D.C. take the L.3) (!)' = . and (a 8). we have (a + 3) (a 8) (!)' NOTE. we have the quotients (x 1).96 134. Since a (z 6 + 3)(s3)Ol)' 6a. ^ to their lowest com The L. multiplying the terms of 22 .1^22 ' . Ex.C.M. we have M^. of the denominators for the common denominator.3)O  Dividing this by each denominator.  of //* 2 . . and the terms of ***. TheL.~16 (a + 3) (x. + 3). and Tb reduce fractions to their lowest common denominator. To reduce to a fraction with the denominator 12 a3 6 2 x2 numerator ^lA^L O r 2 a 3 ' and denominator must be multiplied by Similarly. Multiplying these quotients by the corresponding numerators and writing the results over the common denominator. 1). by any quantity without altering the value of the fraction. 3 a\ and 4 aW is 12 afo 2 x2 . we may extend this method to integral expressions. multiply each quotient by the corresponding numerator. we may use the same process as in arithmetic for reducing fractions to the lowest common denominator.
137. common denominator 6. 2 ay IB. bxby g ! a 5 ' a f5 a2 25 ?. ?y2" m^ S? m 2 7^ m S* **. fractions having a common denominator are added or subtracted by dividing the sum or the difference of the numerators by the common denominator.T n"> ^' 5c 3 26 o atf o> 5 77" ' . 5a 3 zl ' _ 2al n. 74). o o a.a+2 ' a 2 3af 2 ADDITION AND SUBTRACTION OF FRACTIONS 136. they must be reduced to equal fractions which have the lowest common denominator before they can be added (01 subtracted).FRACTIONS EXERCISE 52 97 . 2aj ~ . . . JL. 2. 8 i i. 5?.. j y 3. Since {c c = 5L^ c (Art. a? 1 5 > ^* . . .T 3y Ga1 ax 9 ' 2a . If the given fractions have different denominators. 18. 2 3 9a ~l' 3al 6 8 a ' 2 a8 * 5 4a 8' ' a jj + 6 a 9 ^ . 3. 7i 2 ab* ". . i.Reduce the following to their lowest 1.oj o* or / .^1. 22 a2 5a * ..
4 6 + 2qg+6~agf4a&8 a(aft)(a 2ft) ft 2 a2 a(a + 5 aft .3 ft 2).4 aft + ft ft ) a(a  ft)(a 2ft) 2 =a . (a ft). in the beginning. 2 ^.aft  _ 3 ab + 2 = ( a _ ft)( _ 2 a 2 2 aft :=(. ^ is 2^JT) . 4(2 a 3 ft). a 3 2a + "~ a2 ft).. 2. C.98 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA  Ex ' Sim C.2 = a(a . (a 3 ft) In simplifying a term preceded by the minus sign. T? Ex. understood about terms ( 66) hence he should. (2 ~ a ft) a(a  + 7 ft)fa ft)(a 2 ft)  ft) a(a 2 ft) NOTE. The L. ft) ft ft a(a ~ 3 aft + 2 ft2 a2  2 aft _(a + 2ft)(a2ft) +a (2q + a(a .3 ft).3 ft)(2 a f + : Ga6 + 3 ft). we obtain 2 a the terms of 2(2 a +3 3 ft 6 a f ft _ 2(2 a + ft) 3 ft) (2 a ft) 4(2 a 3 4(2 a ~~ + 3 ft) f (2 a .7 .ft) (a ft ft)~. cr \t Simplify _T__ r* + .. write 2 the product in a parenthesis.20 aft 3ft) f 3 ft 2 4(2a3ft)(2af 4 aft f 21 2 138. (a8ft)(a~ft) 8 2 2ft) 2 =a 4 2 + 2 (2 a 4. the student should remember that parentheses are . e.3 .(a 2 6). L. D. (a . as 4 aft f. D. Multiplying the terms of the first fraction by 2(2 a the second by (2 a . ^ _ ^ a3b ft). ft).ft)(a .2 ' 2 _. a2 ab ft2 Hence the a a2 f 2 6 a2 .g.aft) Ca2 . and adding.3 ft)(2 a + 3 ft) ft ft) (6 a ft) _ 8 a 2 f 24 aft 20 a 2 f f 18 2 + ft 12 a 2 . The results of addition and subtraction should be re duced to their lowest terms.
46 2a 4a 12. 6a116 13 a 15a26 116 e ' 6 2 10. 9m + 7n 3 6m 5n 2x + 3y 3x 15 y x + 2y 45 8. 30 u +? + i _H_ + _*_. 5a76 4a 106 9. + . a 36 ++. 15. a+6 a 6 2 14. A+2_3. 18 v 19. 23.FRACTIONS EXERCISE 53* Simplify : 99 2a4 5 3. 6 c 3a 7. 36 3u 2v v 5 wv 8v 12 uv 13.5 18 ^4f25. 1 f q * 1 m m . 24. 1 1 f w 16. 20. 2. 1* 1 + mf 3 1 M. t3 m2* a _2 6 a 4. j>0 i> 21. + a "" 2 6 ' . 2L + 2a 1 17. a2 a + 3* 2 a 7 af1 ' 2) * See page 270.
3a 9 +. x + 3y x3y Gx x2 2x .9. 2 af1 32. 43. a. a 4 31. 42. _ + a? ?/ + y. a 30. af 1f /j.9 79 6 2 i. a ?^ 40. / IIlNT: Let a 1  39. _ ' a +b +a= ( 38. x2 Q 3 /Yl Qfi ou L "I "I \_ L I * 7 ITi ~T~ 7 TTo O :_ ' i 37 _ 9 <1  1 i 1 '> a2 . 41. ic 1 + 1. _m & 2 i +m 6 i _w 36 a2+ a ^_2&2 35. ! n.LOO ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 26  x*3x + 2 x2 5x 27 ' ~. ^2^+6m 3 45 ' 44. a 2 ^> 2 x2 7x+12~x l7x + 4:~ ' } . 1 34.
6 + 4x 4 x2 . 1. 2 x2 + 2 g 4.17 (2^ + 2x f 53 (2x. 2x 4 x3 to a mixed expression.  4 or 3 2a.'3) 2 EXERCISE expression 54 to a Keduce each of the following fractions : mixed or integral a a +1 9a2 6a + 2 3a m 2 * 5 m f 6 4 m 7 n 2 + 7n + 14 fi . To reduce a fraction to an integral or = + ceo 2 * * (S74) v ' Hence 5a2 15a7 = 5 a2 oa 5a 15a oa 7 5a =a 3 . 2 + 4tf 3 17 . T.FRACTIONS 139. . Reduce . . 101 mixed expression.6 x + 10x4 x2 17 Therefore x y 3g . .  .7 5a v Ex.
integer. Common factors in the numerators and the denominators should be canceled before performing the multiplication.g. Since  = a. each numerator and denomi nator has to be factored. 2. expressed in symbols: c a _ac b'd~bd' principle proved for b 141. Fractions are multiplied by taking the product of tht numerators for the numerator. fractions to integral numbers.) Ex. x b c = numerator by To multiply a fraction by an that integer. 2 a Ex. we may extend any e. !. F J Simplify . or. Simplify 1 J The expreeaion =8 6 . multiply the 142. and the product of the denominators for the denominator. (In order to cancel common factors.102 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA MULTIPLICATION OF FRACTIONS 140.
6 12 d6 4.. _G x 7 a2 5a6 a.20 3a 2 6 ' GoA ai> 56 2c " ar " ' 4 ac2 V V 3m " " +1 " " o?f 2 ~ ' _ 9m JO. 50 . aj 5 1 a? 18.FRACTIONS EXERCISE Find the following products ' 103 55 : 2!v! 2 4 5 8 a2 " ' ^ ' 36^ 21m* ' 17 ab ' ' 2 48 as b*' 34 ab 2 14m4 . 14. 2 25n 2 1 3m +&n 15. 5n a2 43a4 a2 3 a 4 a 2 5ah4 <  x2 + x (x 2 I) 17. 5# 56 / c& 4. 53 *38 " ' 4 ' 14 b* ' 10 a 8 ' " 4af86 76 5c 36C2 10 (a 7a216 a2 2 q~. 6) 12 ot 2 ab + 2 fc a b* o. 4 8. 2 f 5 a.. .
expression by the reciprocal of the fraction. To divide an expression by a fraction. and the principle of division follows may be expressed as 145. invert the divisor and multiply it by the dividend. To divide an expression by a fraction.y3 + xy* x*y~ f y 8 y f 3 2/ x3 EXERCISE 56* Simplify the following expressions 2 x* '""*'*' : om 2 a2 6 2 r  3 i_L#_i17 ar J 13 a& 2 5 ft2 ' u2 +a . The reciprocal of ? Hence the : +* x is 1 + + * = _*_. : a 41 ab * See page 272. Divide Xn?/ . 8 multiply the Ex. 144. x a + b obtained by inverting reciprocal of a fraction is the fraction. Integral or mixed divisors should be expressed in fractional form before dividing.104 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA DIVISION OF FRACTIONS 143. The reciprocal of a number is the quotient obtained by dividing 1 by that number. . * x* f xy 2 by x*y +y x' 2 3 s^jf\ = x' 2 x* . 1. The The reciprocal of a is a 1 f reciprocal of J is  .
1 5 w + 56 a 2 w a2 2 4.6 COMPLEX FRACTIONS 146. or both.^c 2 2 . t ' a^3^4 ? 4* ' a?~ab > a 2 a 4a 4 4 a: +3 m 12 2 f. a a2 4.FRACTIONS 105 . l. A complex fraction is a fraction whose numerator or denominator. Simplify <! c a a2 c 4 L 4. mm 5 a a2 6 2 4g2 2a 2 4g20 25 .T ?/ 4 2 a*?/ 15 #4. a 6 _6 c c ac a6 2 4. Ex.' ' * ' ^5^+4 .6 s + 064.afr 4. ga2 4 8 5 a .&c 2 ~ a 4 a2c 4.10 ?/ _._ # ~ y ' 45 14 in^o 2 ?/ ^y "xy 15 a2 + (Jf fr a b . c ab 2 4 &c* & a .5 ??i 80 50 . are fractional.
C. . c +6. the expression becomes (x EXERCISE Simplify : 57 x 2. . 9. the answer is directly obtained. many examples the easiest mode of simplification ia multiply both the numerator and the denominator of the mplex fraction by the L.y 32 .a ^c c _^ a . 6. B If the numerator and denominator of the preceding examples multiplied by a&c. . & . 7i+~ 7.?/ x y _x^_l X ~V x+y .16 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA In 147. M. Simplify x }. y X 4* 2 y 3. 10. xy x +y Multiplying the terms of the complex fraction by (x y). x* 4. JL. Ex. a m "" . of their denominators. n a 8. i. . 2.
i ~T" * ~ 1 y 19 4 ' !^5n a "~ 12. o 15. 1 +2 1 i " f " ( a + 1 /*_i_i 4 14. : . sy 18. 1 + 1+ 1 ti flgfl a?l ic+1 a. 2 & a 20  a46 13. 1 i 1 2 5 . m^n* n L a 17.FRACTIONS 107 1 i m 11.~l (For additional examples see page 273.) .
f3# + C:E=6f7212. 4 4)  x. tions.l)(z + 3) = .9(se + !)( 14 x 2 . Multiplying by (x Simplifying. 1.48. 148. !)(&+ 1) (x + 3). + 1) (a + 3) . Solve 5 I 14 x +1 x +3 I). Uniting. = 6. of the denominator.28 a = 5 x2 .14 (a. 2x Transposing. Multiplying each term by 6 (Axiom 89). If = 64. = 6. a. M. 9x x Check.42 + 9. each member is reduced to 1. 108 . 2 3. 2. Uniting.9 x2 + 9. these Ex. 6 = = 72 72 3 (a.  2(x 2 + 3) Removing parentheses. 2z2a.28 x + 42 = . each member is reduced to Ex. If x 6. 14 z 2 + z 2 + 20 x .8 x = . 5(3 85 Check. . 5 x2 + 20 x + 15 15 . Clearing of fractions. x = 6. Bx 12 Qx.1.CHAPTER IX FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS FRACTIONAL EQUATIONS If an equation contains fracbe removed by multiplying each term by the may L. Solve ^2^ = 63 2 x 12 * + **. C. Transposing.
1+5 & ^0 ^ a? = 19 1 11. +4 14. 4 y 2 ^ 16 20 +2 334 y2 y3 == on . a. ^' 2. 15. a: 7 a. +1 = 5. 18. '  4 13. 1 *> = 2. o ""~TiT" ' 3 12. . 3 a? '2 4 "  2 a? "T"" 4 4.FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS EXERCISE Solve the following equations : 109 58 ^ 4 3 _ +7 a? 32 3 10. 16. . ^1 = 9. = xx a? a? hi x +^ + 3 = 11.1 _77 a.= 2. a/  5 a/ = 12.
. ?_=_.  2  13 _J_ = _J3 . 31 31. ^^ ' 39 7 ' x.110 ELEMENTS Of ALGEBRA 24. J_. 25. and after simplifying the resulting equation to clear of all denominators. 32 6 . y+3~2 29.  38 = 40. 2^12 = 2 = 34._ _ . 26 26. 3 3x2 51 3x*2x 23 x 3x2 22 36. it is advisable first to remove the monomial denominators only. . and" the remaining one a polynomial. If two or more denominators are monomials. 3x 35. 2 20 x+3 x3 3 o^ 28 .11_4 x 149. . 33. + 26 2^43 1 4^9 1 2a?3 A* 37. 27 . . 4a4l4* + l~.
10 x f 6 __ 4a. Solve the following equations 41 : 5a. 24 a. Dividing. C. . 5 = 20 g 5 a: ~ Jff 1 . If a.2 3 ~  == 7a.. of the monomial denomina~ &Q =: n 16 x 2( +3~ x 16 x  2. M.r7 5 +l 6afll~~ 3 6xflO ' 5 2a?~25 15 17a?~9 14 28 6414 . 26 a. the 1 5 L.2 42 9 43. Transposing and Multiply ing by 6 uniting. Check. 5# 10.  5 = 20 x 45. 60. each member is reduced to ^.FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS Ex.29 50712' 9 18 . Solve 111 10 Multiplying each term by tors. = 9. 1. a. 5x x : = 9. Transposing and uniting. f 13 8#f 2__ 2x 5 7 15 ~~716* 6a? 44.1.
= = 6 6c 7 6c. If 3ac L= = a ? . =a 2 151. 5> a.be. l to = !=?_=^6? a f 6. Literal equations ( 88) are solved by the same method as numerical equations. bx f 6)z = 3 & 2 ab. fr Reducing lowest terms. 3(ac) c) Multiplying by 3 (a . jr. Thus.2 ac + 3 aft . = 2 f b 2 . + 2 ac 9 a& 3 ab Simplifying. y.m bx 2 mn) x. = 6 a2 .1. find a in terms of b and c. When the terms containing the unknown quantity cannot be actually added.3 6 2 = a' . to Transposing all terms containing a 6 ab 6 ac one member. b a a a z Clearing of fractions. they are united by factoring. ax + bx ax (a f IP Transposing. and multiplying by a(9 b 4 c 4 c) = 7 &c. 2. a. ax f x f. Uniting the Dividing. unknown letter is not expressed by or z. Ex. .c) (3 a ac 6(rtfc)(ac) 6 a2 6 a& +6 6c = (2a + &)(3ac). Dividing. = l^ 9 b 4 . Ex. f ~ 5c.m 2* = (a f 6) mnx = (1 4.112 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA LITERAL EQUATIONS 150.2 62 2 ab. 4 ac 1.& . Uniting. It frequently occurs that the x.
c 18. denoting the interest. 30. 11. = rt. 6. t. 10. If s If 16. 17. If * 33. 12. . solve for a. + xx = 1. i The formula for simple interest ( 30. 4.= c a Z> . If s (wi n) x =px + q.= H. = 3 (6 a). = 5. a? x!7  a ITo x T _ ~ 2 8. Ex. a + 26+3aj=2o + 6 + 2a?. = 8 4 #. m a? x . . IIL n b + &o. c. * Solve the same equation for^). 3(2a + aj) 25 ?+l '~~ a/ 1 = 2L . rate. + 3a. mx = n. ^ ax a^ 26. .FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS EXERCISE Solve the following equations : 113 59 *. 14. q solve for/. co?. 13. Find the formula for: () The (6) (c) principal. a. 15.a. f P =+!. = vt. _ 2. p the principal. solve for . 31. 29. The The i time. 4.i l . 34. If ^^ = a 1 32. 1 f. in terms of other quantities. 3(* 8. and n the number of years. f ^o.= n. 5) is t =^. r the number of $>. 3. = 6 (m f n) = 2 a + (m?i)a?. = 2(3a = aajffta? + 7^ = 0*+^ 4 (a x) 1 a). iw 21. . 9. s = Vt solve for v. 2 solve for y a.
of minute spaces the hour hand moves Therefore x ~ = the number of minute spaces the minute hand moves more than the hour hand. C is the circumference of a circle whose radius R. A can do a piece of work in 3 days and B in 2 days. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA (a) Find a formula expressing degrees of Fahrenheit terms of degrees of centigrade (<7) by solving the equation (F) in (ft) Express in degrees Fahrenheit 40 If C. ..180. days by x and the piece of work while in x days they would do respectively ff ~ and and hence the sentence written in algebraic symbols ^. is 36. A would do each day ^ and B j. and 12 = the number over. = 16^.114 35. hence the question would be formulated After how many minutes has the minute hand moved 15 spaces more than the hour hand ? Let then x x = the required number of minutes after 3 o'clock.20 C. Multiplying by Dividing. In how many days can both do it working together ? If we denote then / the required number by 1. Ex. = the number of minute spaces the minute hand moves over. 12. x Or Uniting. 100 C. 1. Find R in terms of C and TT. 2. then = 2 TT#. Ex. . When between 3 and 4 o'clock are the hands of a clock together ? is At 3 o'clock the hour hand 15 minute spaces ahead of the minute : hand.. ~^ = 15 11 x ' !i^=15. PROBLEMS LEADING TO FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS 152. 2 3 .minutes after x= ^ of 3 o'clock.
= 100 + 4 x. u The accommodation train needs 4 hours more than the express train. 180 Transposing. hours more than the express train to travel 180 miles. Ex." : Let x  = the required number of days. and the statement. fx xx* = 152 +4 (1) Hence = 36 = rate of express train.FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS A in symbols the following sentence 115 more symmetrical but very similar equation is obtained by writing ** The work done by A in one day plus the work done by B in one day equals the work done by both in one day. Explanation : If x is the rate of the accommodation train. The speed of an express train is $ of the speed of an If the accommodation train needs 4 accommodation train. what is the rate of the express train ? 180 Therefore. Clearing. But in uniform motion Time = Distance . 4x = 80. Solving. the required number of days. or 1J. 3. = the x part of the work both do one day. 32 x = . then Ox j 5 a Rate Hence the rates can be expressed. in Then Therefore. the rate of the express train." gives the equation /I).
ceeds the smaller by 4. 3. is equal 7. and one half the greater Find the numbers. The sum 10 years hence the son's age will be of the ages of a father and his son is 50. How much money had he at first? 12 left After spending ^ of his ^ of his money and $15. Find A's 8. How did the much money man leave ? 11. which was $4000. A man left ^ of his property to his wife. one half of What is the length of the post ? 10 ter. to his son. and J of the greater Find the numbers.116 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 60 1. to his daughand the remainder. and 9 feet above water. make 21. and found that he had \ of his original fortune left. and of the father's age. money and $10. by 3. by 6. length in the ground. Twenty years ago A's age was  age. A man lost f of his fortune and $500. 9 its A post is a fifth of its length in water. J of the greater increased by ^ of the smaller equals 6. Find two consecutive numbers such that 9. ex What 5. fifth Two numbers differ 2. its Find the number whose fourth part exceeds part by 3. is oO.  Find their present ages. are the The sum of two numbers numbers ? and one is ^ of the other. a man had How much money had he at first? . Two numbers differ l to s of the smaller. of his present age. Find a number whose third and fourth parts added together 2.
what is the rate of the express train? 152. and after traveling 150 miles overtakes the accommodation train. and it B in 6 days. In how many days can both do it working together ? ( 152. 117 The speed of an accommodation train is f of the speed of an express train. If the rate of the express train is f of the rate of the accommodation train. . and losing 1* ounces when weighed in water? do a piece of work in 3 days. and has he invested if his animal interest therefrom is 19. How much money $500? 4%. A man has invested J of his money at the remainder at 6%.) 22. and B in 4 days. A has invested capital at more 4%. Ex. 3. At what time between 7 and 8 o'clock are the hands of ? a clock in a straight line and opposite 18. air. ounces of gold and silver are there in a mixed mass weighing 20 ounces in 21. 2. after rate of the latter ? 15. Ex. ? In how many days can both do working together 23. An ounce of gold when weighed in water loses fa of an How many ounce. what is the 14. At what time between 4 and ( 5 o'clock are the hands of a clock together? 16. 152. A can do a piece of work in 4 clays. and B In how many days can both do it working together in ? 12 days.) ( An express train starts from a certain station two hours an accommodation train. If the accommodation train needs 1 hour more than the express train to travel 120 miles. investments. at 4J % and P> has invested $ 5000 They both derive the same income from their How much money has each invested ? 20. and an ounce of silver fa of an ounce. ^ at 5%.) At what time between 7 and 8 o'clock are the hands of a clock together ? 17. 1. A can A can do a piece of work in 2 days. Ex.FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS 13.
.e. is 42. . they can both do in 2 days. A in 6. it is possible to solve all examples of this type by one example. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA The last three questions and their solutions differ only two given numbers. . Answers to numerical questions of this kind may then be found by numerical substitution. and apply the method of 170. B in 30. n x Solving. and n = 3. To and find the numerical answer. In how in the numerical values of the : many days If can both do we let x = the it working together ? required number of days. Then ft i. if B in 3 days. by taking for these numerical values two general algebraic numbers. 2. B in 5. 6 I 3 Solve the following problems 24. m and n. Find three consecutive numbers whose sum equals m. Ex. 3. Hence.g. make it m 6 A can do this work in 6 days Q = 2. is 57. we obtain the equation m m .= m f n it Therefore both working together can do in mn f n days. Find three consecutive numbers whose sum Find three consecutive numbers whose sum last : The two examples are special cases of the following problem 27.= . A in 6.414.009 918. is A can do a piece of work in m days and B in n days. B in 12. therefore. 25. Find the numbers if m = 24 30. B in 16. e.118 153. A in 4. : In how many days if can A and it B working together do a piece of work each alone can do (a) (6) (c) in the following number ofdavs: (d) A in 5. The problem to be solved. 26.
last three examples are special cases of the following The difference of the squares of two consecutive numbers By using the result of this problem. respectively (a) 60 miles. 88 one traveling 3 miles per hour. (b) 35 miles. (b) 8 and 56 minutes. If each side of a square were increased by 1 foot. . Two men start at the first miles apart. if m and n are. the area would be increased by 19 square feet. is ?n . and how many miles does each travel ? Solve the problem if the distance. squares 29. 3 miles per hour. 4J miles per hour. by two pipes in m and n minutes In how many minutes can it be filled by the respectively. the Two men start at the same time from two towns. (d) 1. 5 miles per hour.000. After how many hours do they meet. (b) 149. and how many miles does each travel ? 32. and the second 5 miles per hour.001. The one: 31. 2 miles per hour. solve the following ones Find two consecutive numbers the difference of whose squares : find the smaller number. the rate of the first.721.FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS 28. is (a) 51. : (c) 64 miles. 3J miles per hour. two pipes together ? Find the numerical answer. the second at the apart. (a) 20 and 5 minutes. 119 Find two consecutive numbers the difference of whose is 11. After how many hours do they rate of n miles per hour. 34. Find two consecutive numbers the difference of whose is 21. Find the side of the square. A cistern can be filled (c) 6 and 3 hours. meet. same hour from two towns. (c) 16. squares 30. d miles the first traveling at the rate of m. respectively. 33. and the rate of the second are. 2 miles per hour.
b. 6 12 = . b. antecedent. In the ratio a : ft. all principles relating to fractions if its may be af)plied to ratios. term of a ratio a the is is the antecedent. E. terms are multiplied or divided by the same number. Simplify the ratio 21 3. the antecedent. 1. b is a Since a ratio a fraction. Thus the written a : ratio of a b is . " a Thus.5. A ratio is used to compare the magnitude of two is numbers. a ratio is not changed etc. the second term the consequent. etc. 158. is numerator of any fraction consequent. the denominator The the 157." we may write a : b = 6. b is the consequent. the symbol being a sign of division.g. : : 155.or a * b The ratio is also frequently (In most European countries this symbol is employed as the usual sign of division. The ratio of first dividing the two numbers number by the and : is the quotient obtained by second. . The first 156.) The ratio of 12 3 equals 4. Ex. : A somewhat shorter way would be to multiply each term by 120 6. The ratio  is the inverse of the ratio . instead of writing 6 times as large as ?>.CHAPTER X RATIO AND PROPORTION 11ATTO 154.
16 x*y 64 x*y : 24 48 xif. b. term is the fourth proportional to the : In the proportion a b = c c?. either mean the mean proportional between the first and the last terms. The last first three. : 1. 62:16. 5 f hours : 2. 6. In the proportion a b : = b : c. b is the mean b. $24: $8. 27 06: 18 a6. Simplify the following ratios 7. A proportion is a statement expressing the equality of proportions. 7:4 T T 4 . two  ratios. 1. 10. 3:1}. 8^ hours. and c. 3:4. 61 : ratios 72:18. J:l. 7f:6J. = or:6=c:(Z are The first 160. 16. 16a2 :24a&. : is If the means of a proportion are equal. and the last term the third proportional to the first and second 161. : ratios so that the antecedents equal 16:64. a and d are the extremes. 4. 159. : ay . the second and fourth terms of a proportion are the and third terms are the means. 9. terms. and c is the third proportional to a and .RATIO Ex. extremes. AND PROPORTION ratio 5 5 : 121 first Transform the 3J so that the term will 33 : *~5 ~ 3 '4* 5 EXERCISE Find the value of the following 1. 17. 3 8. 18. equal 2. Transform the following unity 15. 3. proportional between a and c. The last term d is the fourth proportional to a. b and c the means. 12. 11. 4:5f : 5.
164. ad = be. 6 ccm. t/ie product of the means b is equal to the Let a : =c : d. pro portional. and the time necessary to do it.'* Quantities of one kind are said to be inversely proportional to quantities of another kind. " we " NOTE. is equal to the ratio of the corresponding two of the other kind. then G ccm. of iron weigh 45 grams. 3 4. In any proportion product of the extremes.30 grams. Hence the weight of a mass of iron is proportional to its volume. = 30 grams 45 grams. if the ratio of any two of the first kind is equal \o the inverse ratio of the corresponding two of the other kind. a b : bettveen two numbers is equal to the square root Let the proportion be Then Hence 6 =b = ac. q~~ n . i. The mean proportional of their product. ccm. : c. 163. of iron weigh . Hence the number of men required to do some work. If 6 men can do a piece of work in 4 days. 2 165. : : directly proportional may say.e. of a proportion. If the product of two numbers is equal to the product of two other numbers^ either pair may be made the means. Clearing of fractions. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Quantities of one kind are said to be directly proper tional to quantities of another kind. or 8 equals the inverse ratio of 4 3.) mn = pq. !. then 8 men can do it in 3 days. and the other pair the extremes. Instead of u If 4 or 4 ccm. 163. if the ratio of any two of the first kind. are : : : inversely proportional.) b = Vac.122 162.__(163. briefly. If (Converse of nq. and we divide both members by we have ?^~ E.
(163. If 6 : a a : 6 =c : : d.) a + b:a = c + d:c. 1. (Composition. By inversion 5 : 4 =6 : x. V. then =d c. a:c=b:d. hence the proportion true. (Division. + b:b = c + d:d.) Any is of these propositions may be proved by example : a method which illustrated by the following To prove This is b if d true ad  Or if But Hence ^ =^' o = be = be. = 35 . Change the proportion 4 5 = x 6 so that x becomes the : : last term. Or IV. ad ( 163. bd bd. is 4$ = 35. is Ex.) a b b=c b = c)d:c d. 166. I. a+b a (Composition and : : : Division. ad = be.) (Called Alternation.PATIO Ex. Determine whether the following proportion 8:6 = and 5 x 7 7 : true rn 8 x t: 4. 12x Hence a? = 42.) II. a III. . (Frequently called Inversion. 2.) = f f = 3 J. if 6 : 7. These transformations are used to simplify proportions.) d 167. d d. AND PROPORTION x = 12 : 123 Find x. I.
= 12 5ft. 3n JJ =n x NOTE. To simplify the proportion 11 : 5:6 =4 x : x. 9. to simplify 48:21=32:7x. To simplify m 3n ? = + *. 11 : 5 : 15:22=101:15. 1 : 3 3 Divide the antecedents by : = = 5 1 : jr. IV. To simplify the proportion 8 Apply division. its ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Alternation shows that a proportion is not altered when its consequents are multiplied or divided by antecedents or the same number. 72:50 m n (m n) = (m + rif m 2 : 18:19 6 2 : = 24:25. 2. and determine whether they are true or not : 6. 5. Or III. 6 =4 : x. : 3 = 5 f x : x. E. : x.g.!=!*. = ^2x x Or Dividing the antecedents by m. = 2:x. = 180:125. 3. . Apply composition. 120:42 2 2 7. i. mx tin Apply composition and division. 4.124 IT. Simplify the following proportions. = 20:7. 8ajy:17 = i^:l^. A parenthesis is understood about each term of a proportion. 5 5. = 2:3. 13 = 5f llf : : n 2.:J 62 : Determine whether the following proportions are true 1. . the consequents by 7. 8. V.e. = 7:2f 3J. x = 2. 3:3 1:1 divide the antecedents by 16. 10. EXERCISE 5^:8 = 2:3.
41. 13. 35. ratio of y. . 4 and 16. a?:15 15. 2. 2 a and 18 a. 22. 6 x = y. ra + landra 1. 14 and 21. 16 and 28. 03:a?=135:20. 18. 112:42 = 10:a. 31. x:5 = y:2. 17. 23. a. 29. 3t. f. and 2/. : . y : b y : =x 1 =x : a. form two proportions commencing with x : = xy. 27. mx = ny. 9 x = 2 y. 6. (a : : 45. 14.x: 6:5 a : x. ra. 2= 5 x x. 52. 3. 21 : 4z = 72 : 96. 5= 18 a? : a?. 4 a*:15ab = 2a:x. Find the third proportional 24. 6x = 7y.RATIO AND PROPORTION Determine the value of x 11.6 : : Find the fourth proportional 19. = 2 + x: x. = l^:18. 12.:ff. 20. Find the mean proportional 30. 47. + fyx = cy. if : 40. rap. 5. 44. 16. 1. ra 2 .j>. w. to: = 35:*. : 53. 46. 25. 34. 26. = 3 43 + x. 2 3 = y #.  32. 22: 3 19 2 : : 49. 21.. = 5 x 12. 28. = 15o. Find the 37. : : Transform the following proportions so that only one contains x: 48. 1 and a. to : a and 1. 51. 16 n* x = 28 w 70 ra. 3. b. 38. 39. to : 9 and 12. terra 2:3 = 4. rag. 2. 43.8:1. : a2 . 4. 33. 42. a 2 and ab. : 125 40:28 = 15:0. 50. 8 a 2 and 2 b 2 Form two x 10 If ab proportions commencing with 5 from the equation 6 36. x m = y n. 7iy = 2:x.
(e) The distance traveled by a train moving at a uniform rate. What will be the volume if the pressure is 12 pounds per square inch ? . othei (a) Triangles as their basis (b and b'). 1 (6) The circumferences (C and C ) of two other as their radii (R and A"). and the time. A line 11 inches long on a certain 22 miles. (c) The volume of a body of gas (V) is circles are to each inversely propor tional to the pressure (P).126 54. under a pressure of 15 pounds per square inch has a volume of gas is A 16 cubic feet. the area of the larger? the same. and the : total cost. and the area of the rectangle. and the time necessary for it. the volume of a The temperature remaining body of gas inversely proportional to the pressure. the squares of their radii (e) 55. State whether the quantities mentioned below are directly or inversely proportional (a) The number of yards of a certain kind of silk. (b) The time a The length train needs to travel 10 miles. areas of circles are proportional to the squares of If the radii of two circles are to each other as circle is 4 : 7. what 58. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBEA State the following propositions as proportions : T (7 and T) of equal altitudes are to each. and the speed of the train. A line 7^. (c) of a rectangle of constant width. (d) The sum of money producing $60 interest at 5%. 56. 57.inches long represents map corresponds to how many miles ? The their radii. The number of men (m) is inversely proportional to the number of days (d) required to do a certain piece of work. and the area of the smaller is 8 square inches. (d) The areas (A and A') of two circles are to each other as (R and R').
Then Hence BG = 5 x.000 168. 2. Hence or Therefore Hence and = the first number. x=2. so that Find^K7and BO. produced to a point C. x = 6. 4 ' r i 1 (AC): (BO) =7: 5. 11 x x 7 Ex. 7 x = 42 is the second number. 2 x Or = 4. it is advisable to represent these unknown numbers by mx and nx.RATIO AND PROPORTION 69. Divide 108 into two parts which are to each other 7. is A line AB. 11 x = 66 is the first number. : Ex. Therefore 7 = 14 = AC. 4 inches long. Let A B AC=1x. 11 x f 7 x = 108. = the second number. . What is the greatest distance a person can see from an elevation of 5 miles ? From h miles the Metropolitan Tower (700 feet high) ? feet high) ? From Mount McKinley (20. 127 The number is of miles one can see from an elevation of very nearly the mean proportional between h and the diameter of the earth (8000 miles). When a problem requires the finding of two numbers which are to each other as m n. AB = 2 x. as 11 Let then : 1. 18 x = 108.
consists of 9 parts of copper and one part of ounces of each are there in 22 ounces of gun metal ? Air is a mixture composed mainly of oxygen and nitrowhose volumes are to each other as 21 79. m in the ratio x: y % three sides of a triangle are 11. 12. 7. 9. Gunmetal tin. A line 24 inches long is divided in the ratio 3 5. cubic feet of oxygen are there in a room whose volume is 4500 : cubic feet? 8. : 4. what are its parts ? (For additional examples see page 279. Divide 20 in the ratio 1 m. 3. 6. Divide 44 in the ratio 2 Divide 45 in the ratio 3 : 9.000 square miles. 13. : Divide a in the ratio 3 Divide : 7. 2.128 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 63 1. and 15 inches. The total area of land is to the total area of is water as 7 18. and the longest is divided in the ratio of the other two. How many ounces of copper and zinc are in 10 ounces of brass ? 6.) . 11. find the number of square miles of land and of water. : Divide 39 in the ratio 1 : 5.000. Water consists of one part of hydrogen and 8 parts of If the total surface of the earth oxygen. How many grams of hydrogen are contained in 100 : grams 10. If c is divided in the ratio of the other two. How many gen. What are the parts ? 5. How many 7. How The long are the parts ? 15. : 197. 14. Brass is an alloy consisting of two parts of copper and one part of zinc. The three sides of a triangle are respectively a. of water? Divide 10 in the ratio a b. and c inches. 12.
If satisfied degree containing two or more by any number of values of 2oj3y = 6. Hence. =. there is only one solution. the equations have the two values of y must be equal. such as + = 10. if there is different relation between x and * given another equation. y = 5 /0 \ (2) of values..CHAPTER XI SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS 169.e. However. 2 y = .L x If If = 0.y=. the equation is satisfied by an infinite number of sets Such an equation is called indeterminate. etc. Hence 2s 5 o = 10 _ ^ (4) = 3. is x = 7. The root of (4) if K 129 . An equation of the first unknown numbers can be the unknown quantities. From (3) it follows y 10 x and since by the same values of x and to be satisfied y. y = 1. values of x and y. y (3) these unknown numbers can be found. which substituted in (2) gives y both equations are to be satisfied by the same Therefore. if . a? (1) then I. expressing a y. x = 1.
Therefore.26. Any set of values satisfying 5 x + 6 y = 60 will also satisfy the equation 3 x f. 172. 174. x H 2y satisfied 6 and 7 x 3y = by the values x = I. for they cannot be satisfied by any value of x and y. of elimination most frequently used II. y = 2. The first set of equations is also called consistent. for they express the x f y 10.3 y = 80. to The two methods I. and 3 x + 3 y =. the last set inconsistent. are simultaneous equations. (3) (4) Multiply (2) by  Subtract (4) from (3). = .24. Substitution. By By Addition or Subtraction. Independent equations are equations representing different relations between the unknown quantities such equations . 30 can be reduced to the same form f 5 y Hence they are not independent. 21 y . for they are 2 y = 6 are But 2 x 2. Solve y=6x 6x f Multiply (1) by 2. ELIMINATION BY ADDITION OR SUBTRACTION 175. 4y . 3. y I 171. E. 6 and 4 x y not simultaneous. 6x . unknown quantity. cannot be reduced to the same form. The process of combining several equations so as make one unknown quantity disappear is called elimination. 26 y = 60.X. viz. A system of two simultaneous equations containing two quantities is solved by combining them so as to obtain unknown one equation containing only one 173. same relation. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA A system of simultaneous equations is tions that can be satisfied a group of equa by the same values of the unknown numbers. ~ 50.130 170.
131 Substitute this value of y in either of the given equations. y = 2. are like. 3. Transposing. 37. 3.15 y 39 x + 15 y Add (3) and (4).14 =8.2 = 9 + 4 = 13. Therefore Check. 64 x = 040. Multiply (1) by Multiply (2) by 5. Check. preferably 3x Therefore + 4 = 13 x = 3. y = 1. 60 . 10 + 5 1 = 135. add the equations. 5 13 . subtract the equations. whose coefficients In general. = 235. 10 . EXERCISE answers: 64 Solve the following systems of equations and check the ' . by addition or subtraction : numbers as (3) (4) (6) 176. 8 2. + 2. 25 x . x = 10. Therefore Substitute (6) in (1).2 = 6. eliminate the letter have the lowest common multiple. x = 10.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS the simpler one (1).3 1 = 47. Hence to eliminate Multiplyy if necessaryy the equations by such will make the coefficients of one unknown quantity equal. 3y = 3. coefficients If the signs of these if unlike. = 406.3 y = 47.
9 *.5 y = 2.3. + 2/ 17. = 24. x 11. 19< I a. f 3# ?/ = 0. I oj 5y = 17. 13. 7 ' 1fi fl . = 41. f 3X 7x 14.v 23. J I y = 1U. v ^ = ll. _. ' 94 ^4 ' 15 ' ^  25 * 60. O t K 8.ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 5. 13 61 l7a. + 3?/ { 3 x f 2 y = 39. * + 3 y = 50.f2/ ' = 50. I . 9 1 r 20. = 6. I i 3 a. ' 12.4. ] ^ . . I ~ y~~> 22.1ft is 1 fl<>* r A + 22/ = 40.3. i 3. [2o.
(1) (2) Transposing 2. tity in the Substitute this value for one unknown quan other equation. EXERCISE Solve by substitution : 65 f5aj l3a. 8. 3. 133 Solve 7 y in (1) (27. = 2. . x ) ^"" 13. Hence to eliminate by substitution : Find in one equation the value of an unknown quantity in terms of the other. I3ar + 2y and dividing by . and solve the resulting equation. Substituting this value in (2) 3 7 ( ?/ t " 8 +2y= + 4 y 25 y Clearing of fractions.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS ELIMINATION BY SUBSTITUTION 177. = 60. = 4#8. = 2y + 10. 21 y 24 Therefore y = 26. = 13. This value substituted in either (1) or (2) gives x 178.
and check the answers: + 5(y + 5) = 64. f8(z8)9(y9) = 26. (4t(x\) ' ""^IT 3. the equation must be cleared of fractions and . Whenever one unknown quantity can be removed without clearing of fractions. it is advantageous to do so in most cases.6)7(y7)==18. . 21z6y=9. 43 + 8f3y + 7z From (3). (3) (4) (6) (6) Multiplying (6) by 2 and (6) by Sx + 6y = Adding and 3S. (8) 1 +8 2 _ 7 EXERCISE 66 Solve by any method. x = l. 4* + 3y = 19. Substituting in (6) .134 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 179. \ \6(a. 7 y = 6. From 9 = 36. (7) (7) (8) . 29 x = 29. 7x_2y=3. Solve 2 7 (2) Multiplying (1) by 12 and (2) by 14. 3 (1) Ex. simplified before elimination is possible. 2 y = . however. (4). 3. + 212y4 = 14.3.
10 2a?5 17.f2 2. 16. = 3. 4 11. 14. a. . . 12. yM a. J 9.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS 3x 4. 4(5 x l2(315 8 8. a. 2 4^ ~ 3 = 13. 10. 4~2v 3a?2^4 3 1 18.1) + 5(6 y . ff "*" _13 ~ 4 2' 15. . +y 2 . 135 "25 ' 6 ' tsjj ' r4(5.1) = 121.
f y . and y.and x y . 3x\" 1 23 24. {. e. <X + 20. but some expressions involving x.#.Q ^ 4 21. . l_3 4' 2/41 2 a. In many equations it is advantageous at first not to consider x and y as unknown quantities. * ((* (( . ?~y . 180. 22.136 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 4_1 2' 19.
Dividing by 11 3 = #.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS x Ex.3 xy. by the regular Clearing (1) and (2) of fractions. (2) (3) a. 2* * x 2. 15 y + 8 x . . (4) (6) (6) (7) 2x(5). Clearing of fractions. x 3. 137 Solve y y (1) . y. of this type.4 x = 4 xy. Substituting x = 3 in (1). can also be solved Examples method. etc. however. Therefore y=4. 33 = 11 x. x 2x(2). 1. (4) + (G). . EXERCISE Solve : 67 2' 1. y 4. y 1.
6w3 + bny = 6p. Solve (1) (2) (1) (2) (8) x x (4). x y 331 9. 253 7.= 5. x 8. 4 13. y MOi y a. Ex. LITERAL SIMULTANEOUS EQUATIONS 181. 21 9 .= o 6. n. bmx = en anx anx + bny (3) (4) ftp. x y 5. 1.138 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 4 6 K . 10 " 12 25 U y 6. = en. . 6.
d. fax f = l. and I if 13. x f my = 1. ap. (1) (2) (7) an bm (6) (7) x w. amx + bmy amx f any = any (an cm. 6. . apan cm. Uniting. From and L the same simultaneous equations find d in terms of a. s in 11. x 12. bmy bm}y ap cm. ny = fy/ I sc 1.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS Uniting. From the same equations find s in terms of a.cm y= EXERCISE 68 bm f 6y = c. 14. x a. f 5. f 6^ [ nx f my == m. a Find a and terms of n. Dividing. W . . . . and I. ax + by = 2 a&. 139 (an bm)x = en bp. w. d.W.y = = 9a + 46.
= 30. 3.140 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA SIMULTANEOUS EQUATIONS INVOLVING MORE THAS TWO UNKNOWN QUANTITIES three unknown quantities three simultaneous independent equations must be given.2 + 3. 1. etc.by 2. (6) + 3 Therefore Substituting the values of x and z 2 x = (7) in (1). l.8 = 1. 3. four equations containing four unknown quantireduced to three equations containing three unknown quantities. 3y = Hence Check. y =* 2. 4. 8B12y + 17 x 16z z = 32 Oa + 12?/.12 y + 6 z = .2 + 4. Solve the following system of equations: = 8.lf> z . 8 x . eliminating one and is the unknown quant iff/ from any pair of equasame unknown quantity froni another pair. Ex.16. 1. 17 x 100 z Therefore Substitute this value in (4). 182.1+4. To solve equations containing By tions. f 3y 12 =s 8. 6. ties are Similarly.25. 4.15z=12 Adding. Multiplying (2) + = 20 12 2 10 (4) Multiplying (3) Adding. 20. .13.3=4. Multiplying (1) by Multiplying (2) by 4. (4) (5).9z =11 x (6) Eliminating x from (4) and (5). = 3. (1) (2) (3) Eliminate y. (8) 2. x + 12 y .3 = 8. by 3. the to the solution problem reduced of two simultaneous equations containing two unknown quantities.
== 6. k 2/ f 2 x a. a? 11. 2 4. + 2 y f 2 = 35. + y f z = 15. 12. 10. 8. 7. y f ?/ M 2? = 4. a? + 709 = 26. 49. 14. ~6?/ 5. 2z = 40. 4 = 42. 2 .SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS EXERCISE 10 x 69 141 1. x 13. 15 2 = 45. f 2 i/ f z = 14.
^ = 2. ? = llz.3 y + . 22. = 8*. 1510 4 17.6 2. = 5. 84 21. . ?/ 3x = 0. . 4. 27..2 a. 16. x _2 3 ' 0742! J 18. =s 20.142 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 15. . 19. (3 _.42 = 2. 23. 60. 32.
however. (1) 100s + lOy + z + 396 = 100* + 10y + x. ( 99. +2+ 6 = 8. z + x = 2 n. and to express In complex examples. = l. 2 = 6. 2 = 1(1+6). and Then 100 + 10 y +z the digit in the units' place. Simple examples of this kind can usually be solved by equations involving only one unknown every quantity. the number.y 125 (3) The solution of these equations gives x Hence the required number is 125.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS 143 x 29. + z = 2p. symbols: x + y +z 8.2/ 2/ PROBLEMS LEADING TO SIMULTANEOUS EQUATIONS 183. = 2 m. The sum of three digits of a number is 8. as many verbal statements as there are unknown quantities. # 4. M=i. x : z =1 : 2. Ex. Obviously of the other . unknown quantity by every verbal statement as an equation. Check. The three statements of the problem can now be readily expressed in . 1. and if 396 be added to the number. y * z 30. Find the number. 1 digit in the tens place. . Let x y z = the the digit in the hundreds' place. to express it is difficult two of the required digits in terms hence we employ 3 letters for the three unknown quantities. 1 = 2. The digit in the tens' place is  of the sum of the other two digits.) it is advisable to represent a different letter. + 396 = 521. . Problems involving several unknown quantities must contain. the first and the last digits will be interchanged. either directly or implied. y 31.
ELEMENTS OF ALGE13KA If both numerator and denominator of a fraction be . C. who travels 2 miles an hour faster than B. Since the three men traveled the same distance. 4 x = 24. direction. 6 x 4 = 24. Or (4)2x(3). (3) C4) = 24 miles. = 8. From (3) Hence xy Check. 3. + I 2 (1) and These equations give x Check. = the fraction. 3 xand y I 1 (2) 5. x 3 = 24. B. the fraction is reduced to  and if both numerator and denominator of the reciprocal of the fraction be dimin ished by one. (1) (2) 12. the fraction Let and then y is reduced to nurn orator. starts 2 hours after B and overtakes A at the same How many miles has A then traveled? instant as B. 2. we obtain. 8 = xy + x xy = xy f 3 x 2 y = 2. xy a: 2y 4y 2. increased by one. By expressing the two statements in symbols.144 Ex. Ex. Find the fraction. = Hence the fraction is f. the distance traveled by A. x 3x4y = 12. x y = the = the x denominator . y = 3. 3+1 5+1 4_2. and C travel from the same place in the same B starts 2 hours after A and travels one mile per hour faster than A. 2. 5_ _4_ A. .
2. the digits will be interchanged. and the two digits exceeds the third digit by 3. Find the number. The sum 18 is is and if added of the digits of a number of two figures is 6. Find the numbers. ? What 9. and its denomi nator diminished by one. If 9 be added to the number.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS EXERCISE 70 145 1. Find the number. 183. If the denominator be doubled. part of their difference equals 4. the Find the fraction. added to the numerator of a fraction. if its numerator and its denominator are increased by 1. Half the sum of two numbers equals 4. The sum of the first sum of the three digits of a number is 9. 5. and the fourth 3. number by the first 3. A fraction is reduced to J.) added to a number of two digits. it is reduced to J. both terms. the fraction is reduced fraction. . tion ? 8. the fraction equals .}. Find the numbers. and the numerator increased by 4. If 4 be Tf 3 be is J. and four times the first digit exceeds the second digit by 3. Four times a certain number increased by three times another number equals 33. the number (See Ex. Five times a certain number exceeds three times another 11. and the second one increased by 5 equals twice number. to L <> Find the If the numerator and the denominator of a fraction be If 1 be subtracted from increased by 3. fraction is reduced to \. and twice the numerator What is the fracincreased by the denominator equals 15. the value of the fraction is fa. the last two digits are interchanged. If 27 is 10. and the second increased by 2 equals three times the first. 1. 7. If the numerator of a fraction be trebled. its value added to the denominator. to the number the digits will be interchanged. Find the numbers. Find the fraction. 6.
. partly at 5 %. the annual interest would be $ 195.000 is partly invested at 6%. the rate of interest? 18.grams. 13. How 6 %. in 8 years to $8500. What was the amount of each investment ? 15. bringing a total yearly interest of $530. 19. much money is invested at A sum of money at simple interest amounted in 6 years to $8000. and 4 %. A man invested $750. Ten years ago the sum of their ages was 90. now. Three cubic centimeters of gold and two cubic centimeters of silver weigh together 78 grains. Find the rates of interest. respectively ? 16. 14.146 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 11. and money and 17. 5 %. If the rates of interwere exchanged. If the sum of how old is each now ? at invested $ 5000. Find the weight of one cubic centimeter of gold and one cubic centimeter of silver. What was the amount of each investment ? A man % 5%. What was the sum and rates est The sums of $1500 and $2000 are invested at different and their annual interest is $ 190. and partly at 4 %. a part at 6 and the remainder bringing a total yearly interest of $260. and 5 years ago their ages is 55. 12. Ten years ago A was B was as as old as B is old as will be 5 years hence . and B's age is \ the sum of A's and C's ages. and the 5% investment brings $15 more interest than the 4 % investment. and in 5 years to $1125. Two cubic centimeters of gold and three cubic centimeters of silver weigh together 69 J. Find their present ages. the rate of interest ? What was the sum of A sum of money at simple interest amounted in 2 years to $090. A sum of $10. partly at 5% and partly at 4%. Twice A's age exceeds the sum of B's and C's ages by 30. and The 6 investment brings $ 70 more interest than the 5 % % 4% investments together.
but if A would double his pace. BC = 7 inches. Find their rates of walking. 23. is the center of the circum scribed circle. 1 NOTE. and CE If AB = G inches. cows. andCL4 = 8. ED = BE. and GE = CF. c. A r ^ A circle is inscribed in triangle sides in D. three AD = AF. 24. and angle BCA = 70. what is that = OF. It takes A two hours longer 24 miles. $ 50 for each cow. 25. angle c = angle d. B find angles a. and sheep. BC=7. and F. and F. respectively. for $ 740. E. triangle Tf AD. How many did he sell of each if the total number of animals was 24? 21. and F '(see diagram). In the annexed diagram angle a = angle b. BD = HE. and angle e angle/. he would walk it in two hours less than than to travel B B. the length of NOTE. then AD = AF. An C touch ing the sides in D. receiving $ 100 for each horse. and $15 for each sheep.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS 147 20. and AC = 5 inches. If angle ABC = GO angle BAG = 50. BE. . The sum of the 3 angles of a triangle is 180. and their difference by GO . Find the parts of the ABC touching the three sides if AB = 9. and CF? is a circle inscribed in the 7<7. what are the angles of the triangle ? 22. If one angle exceeds the sum of the other two by 20. A farmer sold a number of horses. the three sides of a triangle E. . The number of sheep was twice the number of horses and cows together. are taken so ABC. points. On /). and e.
3). (2. and r or its equal OA is . or its equal OM. PN are given. and point the origin. two fixed straight lines XX' and YY' meet in at right angles. (7. the ordinate of point P. and PN _L YY'..CHAPTER XII* GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS AND EQUATIONS 184. * This chapter may be omitted on a 148 reading. and PJ/_L XX'. Abscissas measured to the riyht of the origin. 186. and respectively represented Dare and by (3 7 4). the ordinate by ?/. (3. first 3). then the position of point is determined if the lengths of P P3f and 185. 2). B. ?/. The of Coordinates. lines PM the and P^V are coordinates called point P. . PN. (2. PM. is the abscissa. and whose ordinate is usually denoted by (X ?/). YY' theyaxis. hence The coordinates lying in opposite directions are negative. is The point whose abscissa is a. The abscissa is usually denoted by line XX' is called the jraxis. and ordinates abore the xaxis are considered positive . It' Location of a point. Thus the points A. jr.
2). (3.and(l. 4) and (4. 8. (0. 12. Graphic constructions are greatly facilitated by the use of crosssection paper. 3).(!. all all points points lie lie whose abscissas equal zero ? whose ordinates equal zero? y) if y 10.GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS The is 149 process of locating a point called plotting the point. 4). Where do Where do Where do all points lie whose ordinates tfqual 4? 9. 4) from the origin ? 7. and measure their distance. What are the coordinates of the origin ? If 187. Plot the points: (4. 0).1). 4. Graphs. 2). 3).4). (4. (4. 0). 3). 3.e. (4. 71 2). What Draw is the distance of the point (3. (4. 4). 0). paper ruled with two sets of equidistant and parallel linos intersecting at right angles. Draw the triangle whose vertices are respectively (l.3). Plot the points (6. 6. 6. What is the locus of (a?. (5. 1). 2J). 11. . 2).) EXERCISE 1. two variable quantities are so related that changes of the one bring about definite changes of the other. Plot the points: (4. =3? is If a point lies in the avaxis. i. (4. Plot the points : (0. . whose coordinates are given NOTE. which of its coordinates known ? 13. the mutual dependence of the two quantities may be represented either by a table or by a diagram. (4. (See diagram on page 151. 2. 0). 1). (0. the quadrilateral whose vertices are respectively (4. (1. (2. !).
. we obtain an uninterrupted sequence etc. ure the ordinate of F. may be found on Jan. 1. A graphic and it impresses upon the eye all the peculiarities of the changes better and quicker than any numerical compilations. By representing of points. in like manner the average temperatures for every value of the time.150 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA tables represent the average temperature Thus the following of New volumes 1 Y'ork City of a certain to 8 pounds. D. we meas1 . ABCN y the socalled graph of To 15 find from the diagram the temperature on June to be 15 . 188. ically each representing a temperature at a certain date.. but it indicates in a given space a great many more facts than a table. and the amount of gas subjected to pressures from pound The same data. or the curved line the temperature. Thus the average temperature on May on April 20. 10 . 15. may be represented graphby making each number in one column the abscissa. Thus the first table produces 12 points. A. representation does not allow the same accuracy of results as a numerical table. and the corresponding number in the adjacent column the ordinate of a point. B. from January 1 to December 1. however. C.
: 72 find approximate answers to the following Determine the average temperature of New York City on (a) May 1. the merchant. physician. . uses them. (b) July 15. The engineer. Whenever a clear. (c) January 15. the matics. EXERCISE From the diagram questions 1. as the prices and production of commodities. the rise and fall of wages. and to deduce general laws therefrom. etc.GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS 151 i55$5St5SS 3{utts33<0za3 Graphs are possibly the most widely used devices of applied matheThe scientist uses them to compile the data found from experiments. Daily papers represent ecpnoniical facts graphically. (d) November 20. concise representation of a number of numerical data is required. the graph is applied.
ELEMENTS OF ALGEKRA At what date (a) G or dates is New York is C.? is is the average temperature of New York 6. How much warmer 1 ? on the average is it on July 1 than on May 17.. is 10. During what month does the temperature decrease most rapidly ? 13. At what date is the average temperature highest the highest average temperature? ? What What is 4.. When the average temperature below C. From what date to what date does the temperature increase (on the average)? 8. When What is the temperature equal to the yearly average of the average temperature from Sept. Which month is is the coldest of the year? Which month the hottest of the year? 16. How much. During what month does the temperature change least? 14. (1) 10 C. (freezing point) ? 7. on 1 to the average. ?  3. 15. 1 to Oct. 1 ? does the temperature increase from 11. (c) the average temperature oi 1 C.. ? 9. At what date is the average temperature lowest? the lowest average temperature ? 5. During what months above 18 C. is ture we would denote the time during which the temperaabove the yearly average of 11 as the warm season. 1? 11 0. from what date to what date would it extend ? If .152 2. (d) 9 0. June July During what month does the temperature increase most ? rapidly 12.
09 yards. Construct a diagram containing the graphs of the mean temperatures of the following three cities (in degrees Fahren heit) : 21. One meter equals 1. Draw .GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS 18. 19. 20. 153 1? When is the average temperature the same as on April Use the graphs of the following examples for the solution of concrete numerical examples. Hour Temperature . a temperature chart of a patient. in a similar manner as the temperature graph was applied in examples 118. Draw a graph for the 23. From the table on page 150 draw a graph representing the volumes of a certain body of gas under varying pressures. NOTE. transformation of meters into yards. Represent graphically the populations : (in hundred thou sands) of the following states 22.
2 8 y' + 3 y is a function of x and y. etc. the daily average expenses for rent.50. 29. amount to $8. 3. 1 to 1200 copies. then C irJl. (Assume ir~ all circles >2 2 . An expression involving one or several letters a function of these letters. +7 If will respec assume the values 7. to 27.) T circumferences of 25. function If the value of a quantity changes. The initial cost of cost of manufacturing a certain book consists of the $800 for making the plates.. 3. from R Represent graphically the = to R = 8 inches. books from for printing. if 1 cubic centimeter of iron weighs 7. . A 10 wheels a day.g.. 2 is called x 2 xy + 7 is a function of x.. 2. represent his daily gain (or loss). 28. if he sells 0. etc.50 per copy (Let 100 copies = about \. if x assumes successively the tively values 1. if each copy sells for $1. If dealer in bicycles gains $2 on every wheel he sells. 26. x* x 19. 2 . x 7 to 9. the value of a of this quantity will change. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA If C 2 is the circumference of a circle whose radius is J2. 190. x increases will change gradually from 13.50.) On the same diagram represent the selling price of the books.5 grams. 2 x f 7 gradually from 1 to 2. and $. 9. to 20 Represent graphically the weight of iron from cubic centimeters. Represent graphically the cost of butter from 5 pounds if 1 pound cost $. e.inch. gas. Show graphically the cost of the REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS OF ONE VARIABLE 189. Represent graphically the distances traveled by a train in 3 hours at a rate of 20 miles per hour. binding. 4.154 24.
be also represented by a graph. hence various values of x The values of a function for the be given in the form of a numerical table. etc. may.1). 2 (1. If a more exact diagram is required. it is In the example of the preceding article. 1 the points (3. values of x2 nates are the corresponding i. construct '. Ex. is supposed to change. to con struct the graph x of x 2 construct a series of 3 points whose abscissas rep2 resent X) and whose ordi1 tions . 155 A variable is a quantity whose value changes in the same discussion. however. plot points which lie between those constructed above. as 1. 4). (1. Thus the table on page 1G4 gives the values of the functions x 2 x3 and Vsr. and (3.g. 2). . Graph of a function.GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS 191. 2. 3 (0. Draw the graph of x2 f. is A constant a quantity whose value does not change in the same discussion. Q. 9).0). for x=l. to x = 4.e. 9). The values of func192. may .2 x may 4 from x = 4. J). a*. and join the points in order. To obtain the values of the functions for the various values of the following arrangement be found convenient : . E. ( 2. 4).1). x a variable. while 7 is a constant. 3 50. (1^. (2.
4).) For brevity. 194. Thus 4x + 7. 7 .4). 1).156 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Locating the points( 4. rf 71 . Draw y z x the graph of = 2x3. as y. 2. A Y' function of the first degree is an integral rational function involving only the power of the variable... Thus in the above example.. = 0. 5). = 4.20). (3. straight line produces the required graph. (2. r */ +* 01 . If If Locating ing by a 3) and (4. the function is frequently represented by a single letter. and joining in order produces the graph ABC.2 x . 2 4 and if y = x f. y = 6.. Ex. or ax + b f c are funclirst tions of the first degree. j/=3. It can be proved that the graph is a straight of a function of the first degree line. (To avoid very large ordinatcs. and join(0.. the scale unit of the ordinatcs is taken smaller than that of the x. if /* 4 > 1i > > ?/ = 193. 4J. hence two points are sufficient for the construction of these graphs. . (4. etc.
The values of x that make 2 4 a? + 2 = 0. x+1.5)2. 7. if y = 2. The smallest value of the function. 12. a? the graphs of the following functions: + 2. l. 4a? I.8)'. 4 a. Jar . (If) Va25. 9. 1J. = The values of a*. = 4. y = 2x = 4. xl. a? 1. 2.2 4 # + 2 equals 2. (C ) (2. 1J. i.e. xz + x. 15. (</) The roots of the equation x2 4 x f 2 = 2. fa 17. 1 8 10. 2 4 x f 2 = 0. the diagram find (a) (e) (3. if a. 6 fa.5)2. . a? 2 4. (a) (6) (c) (d) (e) The values of y. if the function equals zero. . 22. 16. 3 a 8. 2 2. 2J. Draw the graph of : from #= 4 to 05 = 4. 23x. 11. (d) (^) 1 to and from 2 . 18. The values of a*. 2 a. 2 a. 2 or 2 20. a ar. (ft) (_ 1. 2x + 3x a?. a?. 1. 19. The values of a?. ?/ a. The roots of the equation 2 f 2 a a*2 = 0. (/) The roots of the equation x The roots of the equation a2 4 x f 2 = 1. 2. 14. if"a. + 4.or. and (a) (6) (c) (d) The values of the function if x = \. 21. 3. The value of x that produces the smallest value it* of the function. from x VlO'S". Draw the graph ofy=2j2# and from the diagram determine : #2 from # = 2 to a?=4. (/) Vl2^ (0) V5. 8. a.GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS EXERCISE 73 157 Draw 1. The roots of the equation 2 {2x a*2 = l. (7i) (c) 23. a* 13. the function. 2 2 a. 6. 1J. J. 5. 3. Draw the graph of or from the diagram determine: 4 a? +2 a. 2J.
158 24. then y = . Therefore x = 1.where x c is a constant. i. to Fahrenheit readings : Change 10 C. if c Draw the locus of this equation = 12. If two variables x and y are directly proportional. that graph with the o>axis.24.. what values of x make the function x2 + 2x 4 = (see 192). ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Degrees of the Fahrenheit (F.. C. it is evidently possible Thus to find to find graphically the real roots of an equation.. Represent 26. 1 C. the abscissas of 3. A body moving with a uniform t velocity of 3 yards per second moves in this seconds a distance d =3 1. 25. that the graph of two variables that are directly proportional is a straight line passing through the origin (assume for c 27. From grade equal to (c) the diagram find the number of degrees of centi1 F. y= formula graphically.e. .24 or x = P and Q. GRAPHIC SOLUTION OF EQUATIONS INVOLVING ONE UNKNOWN QUANTITY Since we can graphically determine the values of x make a function of x equal to zero. we have to measure the abscissas of the intersection of the 195.) scale are expressed in degrees of the Centigrade (C. 14 F. 32 F. Show any convenient number)..) scale by the formula (a) Draw the graph of C = f (F32) from to (b) 4 F F=l.. If two variables x and y are inversely proportional. then cXj where c is a constant. 9 F.
0. z 2 4x 6 a2 6. (a) x2 = 0. 10. viz. 2 and 1. 197.f 9 = 0. a2 2a. 6. is called a quadratic equation. (a) (6) 9. crosssection paper is used. the points may be found otherwise by inspection. + + = where a. or 5 2. (0. An equation of the the form ax2 bx c 0. 4. a: (a) (6) (c) 6a.7 2 a 5 = 0. 3. 13. 14. de = termine the points where If the function is 1. 11. Such equations in general have two roots. draw through 1) a line parallel to the #axis. = 0. and determine the abscis 1 sas of the points of intersection with the graph.GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS 196. tion x 2 159 To +2x solve the equa4 1. . Y' EXERCISE 4x_ 7 74 : Solve graphically the following equations 1. 12. 7. 8. and c represent \3 2 1 1/2 known quantities. 6.
unknown quantities. 3x _ 4 . NOTE. Ex. 4) and (2. Ex. represent graphically equations of the form y function of x ( 1D2). if y = is 0. Thus If in points without solving the equation for the preceding example: 3x s . X'2 Locating the points (2. = 0. produces the 7* required locus. ?/ =4 AB. solve for ?/. Hence if if x x  2. i. 199.2 y ~ 2. 4) and them by straight line AB (3. fc = 3. 1) and 0). (f . Hence. ?/. 2). T . and joining by a straight line. If the given equation is of the we can usually locate two y. Hence we may join (0. Equations of the first degree are called linear equations. and join the required graph. y = l. Represent graphically Solving for y ='"JJ y. that can be reduced Thus to represent x   L^ \ x =2  graphically. Graph of equations involving two unknown quantities. locate points (0. y y 2. we can construct the graph or locus of any Since we can = equation involving two to the above form.1. . 0).160 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA GRAPHIC SOLUTION OF EQUATIONS INVOLVING TWO UNKNOWN QUANTITIES 198. y= A and construct x (  graphically. == 2.e. If x = 0. Draw the locus of 4 x + 3 y = 12. because their graphs are straight lines.2. first degree.
GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS 161 200. The coordinates of every point of the graph satisfy the given equation. Graphical solution of a linear system. we obtain the roots. and CD. Solve graphically the equations : (1) \xy\. (2) . equation x= By measuring 3.15. 202. 3. linear equations have only one pair of roots.57. The every coordinates of point in satisfy the equation (1). 201.1=0. The roots of two simultaneous equations are represented by the coordinates of the point (or points) at which their graphs intersect. To find the roots of the system. and every set of real values of x and y satisfying the given equation is represented by a point in the locus. By the method of the preceding article construct the graphs AB and and CD of (1) (2) respectively. the point of intersection of the coordinate of P. AB y = . parallel have only one point of intersection. 203. viz. Since two straight lines which are not coincident nor simultaneous Ex. P. AB but only one point in AB also satisfies (2).
4. which consist of a pair of parallel lines. the graph of points roots. 3x 2 y = 6. construct CD the locus of (2) of intersection. In general. 4. Measuring the coordinates of P. 3. Since the two  we obtain DE. 4. This is clearly shown by the graphs of (1) arid (2). 2. Using the method of the preceding para. (4.. Solve graphically the : fol lowing system = = 25. they are inconsistent. 3. and . the point we obtain Ex.g. V25 5.y~ Therefore. 1. e. The equations 2 4 = 0. . Locating two points of equation (2). we of the + y* = 25. 0. etc. P graphs meet in two and $. 4.162 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA graph. and joining by a straight line. 2 equation x 3).5. x2 . 0. = 0. Inconsistent equations. intersection. if x equals respectively 0.0. 3.9. 3). 5. i. there are two pairs of By measuring the coordinates of : P and Q we find 204. 2. obtain the graph (a circle) AB C joining. 1. (4.5. AB the locus of (1). 4. Locating the points (5.e. 5. 4. (2. 0) and (0. 4.  4. parallel graphs indicate inconsistent equations. (1) (2) C. There can be no point of and hence no roots. Solving (1) for y. 4. y equals 3.0). (1) (2) cannot be satisfied by the same values of x and y. and + 3).
10. 8. vice versa. as 2^3 and 3x f ==l 2y =6 tical have identical graphs. a. and. . a+r/=6. state reasons. 4. idengraphs indicate dependent equations. 3. the graphs of the following systems. '163 Dependent equations. 2. EXERCISE 75 Construct the loci of the following equations: 1. \ 2x + 3^ . 5. 1 6* + 7 y = 3. 2x 3?/=6. 16 23. y= a2 2x y6. and solve each If there are no solutions. 16 22.. y = 4.GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS 205. y=x + 5. 9. 20. x~y=0. 6. y 2 4. 19. Draw system. if possible. 17. 7.
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA "~ U # .164 24. 25. CUBES. 4 a = 3(6 .14 y = . Show that the same values of x and y cannot satisfy the : three equations x f 5y = 5. 28. 26.y). AND SQUARE HOOTS . TABLE OF SQUARES. 30.8. 29 . 3 31.
follows that 3. Involution is the operation of raising a quantity to a Since a power effected positive integral power. 3 f a = f a = +. ( 2 aft ) 9 is negative. a2 6 6 = ?> 2+2 5 5 + 2 = a. a special kind of product. To find (#(**&)" is a problem of involution. 2. fa. All odd powers of a negative quantity are negative. etc. is may be by 207. = a2 5 =6 (5 )* n m n (a ) = a (a 2 3 ) a2 b5 . INVOLUTION OF MONOMIALS 208. powers of a positive quantity are positive. 52. . ( 3 2 6 3 )* = ( 3 a2 6 8 ) . on to in factors 4. ( 3 a268 ) ( a 8 = _ (2m ) (8 ____ 16 *)"" 27 n 165 . All even powers of a negative quantity arc positive.a2 . 2. ^4/? it According to 50.CHAPTER XIII INVOLUTION 206. 8. ( a) is positive. = 6+ 5 + +fi = fi 62. Law of Signs.faa a a a Obviously 1. a = a3 . involution repeated multiplication. According to 1.
(^^) 2 .6 (a 8 8 . 76 : (>y. raise ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA the exponent of the power of a power. (a ) 2 5 . raise its terms to the required EXERCISE Perform the operations indicated 1. (a ) 2 4  3. 5. \ 3 J '  MW 10. V 3xy )' INVOLUTION OF BINOMIALS 209.166 To find To To power.6) = a . 4. The & cube of a binomial (a 3 3 _j_ we obtain by multiplying (a 2 2 + 6) 1 by + and = a + 3a 6 + 3a6 + * 6) . a product to a given power. (2ar). 2. the required power. 3 2 2 8 . raise a fraction to a power. (277171 )*.3 a 6 f 3 a6 . 2 11 (afc ) . amVy) 3 . ' 27 ' / _4_ _4_V ' 11. 210. The square of a binomial was discussed in 63. V V/ 13. 15. multiply tht raise each of its factors to given exponents. 6. . ^/2?n?A 4 ' 30. 16. 4 /2mV. 24.
(6m+2w) (3 8 . 8 (a??/) 3 . pansions. 2. 2 . 15. 13. 6. are obtained by multiplication.27 ay + 9 x y2n 2 EXERCISE 77 Perform the operations indicated: 1. Ex. 12. and decreases in each succeeding term by L . (afl) . a. 9.INVOLUTION Ex.  lx  (7 a (1 I) 3 17. 4 4 2 2 3 4 . 86 3 w + 3 w + ra8 126 + G6l. 21. nent of the binomial. 2 a8 3a2 + 3al. + 3a 6 + 3a& f& ^Sx^ + S^ ^ 3 2 2 3 . 3. . +5a) 22. = s= (2s) 8 a.3(3 a*)a(y = 27 a . 5 5 4 2 2 3 s . (3a (a (4 62 l) 3 . The higher powers of binomials. frequently called ex.6 2 8 ft) . Find the cube 2 6 n of 3 x* . An 1. 8. . 5. (3 x .3 y. 3 . (5 (1 a) 3 . 1. 211. 1 f 3 2 3 . as follows : + 6) = o + 3 d'b + 3 a6 + + 6) = a + 4 a?b + 6 a & + 4 a6 + b (a = a + 5 a 6 + 10 a*b + 10 a 6 f 5 aM + 6 (a + 6) 8 8 2 (a b*.) 14. 167 Find the cube of 2 x f.y) = (3 y?y . TJie exponent of a in the first term is the same as the expo2. 3 8 . 23. 16. 2. 4. etc. (aj7) . (m2) 8 (w+w) 3 8 10. + a 2 a. (3af26) 8 . 3 3 + 3(2aO*(Sy) + 3(2aj)(3y)> + 36 z2y + 54 xy* + 27 y3 . (a + &)8 . examination of these results shows that : The number of terms is 1 greater than the exponent of the binomial. 7. or*  Find the cube root of 19. : a 20. + 4aj) 3 . (3 (l I) 2 8 .y . 18.
Ex. 5. (3a f5) 5) 4.81 y 2 8 9 8 4 ) . 17. (lfa 6 2 ) 5. 6. 13. Expand (x = ic 5 f 5 x*y + 10 ^V + 5 .168 3. . (mnp 5 I) 5 . 12 EXERCISE Expand: 1. . mn 5 2 5 ) . 15. (mJ) 4 11. 2. 10. Ex. 24.96 ^y f 216 o?y . and increases by 1 in each succeeding term. (2 a 4 . and the powers negative. TJie coefficient of any term of the power multiplied by the exponent of a.216 a^ 4. of the second term equals the exponent of the binomial 6. 23. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA T7ie exponent ofb is 1 in the second term of the result. (1 + 4 ?/) .2. (2 4. 3. 4 (1for) 5 . ( &) 5 . . . 4 . The minus. 4. (2w 2 2 fl) 4 . * 2 4 ) 16 ic 8 . 1. 9. Expand (a??/) x5 5 x4 y + 10 x'2 (and odd + 212. 78 s . (la&) 4 12. is the coefficient of the next term. Ex. 18. (tff1) (cfd) . (a~^) 5 . 5. 10 x*y* + 2 5 xy* + y5 . 14. and the result divided by 1 plus the exponent of b. (m 2 + n) 8 . (m fl) 2 20. Expand <? 2 (2 #  3 y3 ) 4 2 . since the even powers of signs of the last answer arc alternately plus y are positive. (l 8 . 25. 3. (af 5) . (m 5 I) 2 22.4(2^(3 ^'+(3 y . The The coefficient coefficient of the first term is 1. (2a5c) (1 f 2 4 a:) 4 . (?>i?i f c)*. (?/i~w) : 16. 21. . . 8.a) 3 19. (p + q) 4 * 7. (w 4 ?i) 4 .4(2 * )'(3 *f) f 6(2 ^) (3 y ) 8 . .
\/a = x means x n = y ?> a. 215. called real numbers. quantity may the be either 2wsitive or negative. for (f 3) 2 ( 3) equal 0. for distinction. 4 4 . or x &4 . for (+ a) = a \/32 = 2. and all other numbers are. 109 . V \/P 214. 1. a) 4 = a4 . Evolution it is is the operation of finding a root of a quan the inverse of involution. tity . numbers. Every odd root of a quantity has same sign as and 2 the quantity.CHAPTER XIV EVOLUTION 213. etc. or 3 for (usually written 3) . which can be simplified no further. Since even powers can never be negative. it is evidently impossible to express an even root of a negative quantity by Such roots are called imaginary the usual system of numbers. or y ~ 3. (_3) = 27. Thus V^I is an imaginary number. It follows from the law of signs in evolution that : Any even root of a positive. 27 =y means r' = 27. and ( v/o* = a. V9 = + 3. \/"^27=3. = x means = 6. 2.
\/2 4 9 .125. = 19472. 14 63 25 = V2 3* = 2 32 6 . Ex. v^SjW 3 = 2 a ^/gL^g = * c* A 82 &c*. 9. V5 v/2 7 2. 7. To extract a root of a fraction. 4 v. extract the and denominator. V?. To extract the root of a power. Ex. .64 5 4 . roots of the numerator \/18 . Ex 5 a" . 2 . .lL. Ex. 9. VT8226 = V25 2 729 . 3. Ex. for (2 a 2 6c4 ) 8 = Ex. index. 62 = V2* . Ex.  100 a 2 .for(*Siy = 3 3 6 c* \ c*J 2 2 b' ?*243 ft^c20 216. 6.9 = 136. 6 7 = 030. EXERCISE 1. fy 5 3 .170 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EVOLUTION OF MONOMIALS The following examples root : are solved by the definition of a . 8.1.201) = 2. 6. 7 . 7. = V26TIT81 = 53. 3 33 53 .(. 7 . V36 9 4.4. 79 2 v/2 5 . Find (x/19472) Since by definition ( v^)" = a. v/2^. 2. 82 . 3i . 5. 2. Ex. v/^i2 = a*.200 . for (a")" a = a mn 3. 8. 10. for (a 3 )* = a 12 . 3/0** = am . divide the exponent by the A root of a product equals the product of the roots of the factors. = 199 + (_ 198) . we have (Vl472) 2 Ex. V25 9 16. .
4/. .3 y2) ( vV . 2yh2/ 4  9^ + 60^ + 2 2/ . 2 . 30.6 tfif + 9 y = O . (Vl24) { 2 EVOLUTION OF POLYNOMIALS AND ARITHMETICAL NUMBERS 217.) 4 3 EXERCISE 80 : Extract the square roots of the following expressions 1. 45 V5184. A trinomial is a perfect square if one of its terms is equal to twice the product of the square roots of the other terms.3. 2 . 32. 116. 1. 6. \/d \Vab r + b\ 9. a* 4 8 2 . Find the square root of a2 . 2 f ( V240) 3 . In such a case the square root can be found ( 116.(V200) f ( VI5) 2 . 5.98.) by inspection. V20 . 3.EVOLUTION 171 28. 34. ( VH) + (Vl9) 2 2 . 33. (V2441) ~(V2401) 36. Hence _ 6 ary f 9 y = (s ./).3 . a f2 l 2 + l. ^40^4. 29. 31. V8.6 ofy 2 f 9 y4 .75. V9216. 2. ( VI5) x ( VT7) 2 2 2 2 x ( V3) 35. Ex.
a2 + & + c + 2 a& . 12.b 2 2 to its square. term a of the root is the square root of the first The second term of the root can be obtained a.72 aW + 81 & 4 .172 7. let us consider the relation of a f. 15.2 &c. 14. 10.2 ac . #2 a2  16. 8 . The work may be arranged 2 : a 2 + 2 ab + W \a + b . and b. multiplied by b must give the last two terms of the as follows square. 2ab . a\b is the root if In most cases. The term a' first 2 . . ELEMENTS OF ALGEBEA 4a2 44a?> + 121V2 4a s . second term 2ab by the double of by dividing the the socalled trial divisor. mV14m??2)f 49. it is not known whether the given expression is a perfect square. 11. In order to find a general method for extracting the square root of a polynomial. 2 . the that 2 ab f b 2 = we have then to consider sum of trial divisor 2 a. however. and b (2 a f b). the given expression is a perfect square.2 ab + b . 2 2 218. i. a f. 2 49a 8 16 a 4 9. + 6 + 4a&.> 13.e.
Explanation. 173 x* Extract the square root of 1G 16x4 10 x* __ . . \ 24 a 3 4f a2 10 a 2 Second remainder. the required root (4 a'2 8a + 2}. */'' . . .  24 a 3 + 25 a 2  12 a +4 Square of 4 a First remainder. Second trial divisor. Ex. Multiply the complete divisor Sx' 3y 3 by Sy 8 and subtract the product from the remainder. 24# 2 y 3 by the trial divisor Dividing the first term of the remainder. double of this term find the next is the new trial divisor. 1. 8 a 2 . By doubling 4x'2 we obtain 8x2 the trial divisor.EVOLUTION Ex. 219. We find the first two terms of the root by the method used in Ex. First complete divisor. . 4 x2 3 ?/ 8 is the required square foot. the first term of the answer. by division we term of the root. and consider Hence the their sum one term. 10 a 4 8 a. 2. 8 a 2  12 a +4 a f 2. we obtain the next term of the root 3 y 3 which has to be added to 2 the trial divisor. The square . 8 a 2 Second complete divisor.24 afy* f 9 tf. 8 /. The process of the preceding article can be extended to polynomials of more than three terms.24 a + 4 12 a + 25 a8 s . . of x. 8 a 2 2. 1. First trial divisor. 6 a. As there is no remainder. 2 Subtracting the square of 4x' from the trinomial gives the remainder '24 x'2 + y. Arranging according to descending powers of 10 a 4 a. Arrange the expression according to descending powers root of 10 x 4 is 4 # 2 the lirst term of the root. is As there is no remainder. and so forth. Extract the square root of 16 a 4 .
9m 4 20m3 30m 4. 6. 17.12m 5 4. + 81 a 454 a + 81. 36it. 15.V430^425^ 4m 4.25.162 a2 60 a10 4.6 . 18.9. 2 4. 36a 460a 473a 440a 416a 3 2 13.54 a 40 a 6 4 9 a4 . 3 a2 a4 4 2a + a4 2 or 41 3 2 a3 + 1. 16.174 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 81 : Extract the square roots of the following expressions 2. a? 2 .2^43^42^ 46 5 4 a. 16x6 4. 4 36 a 2 12 4 4 16 a4 4 46 a 4 4 44 a 8 f 25 a h 12 a 4 4 25 a6 4.42 a*& 4.12 a6 2 2 3 4 4 64 .42 a f 49 a 6 16 a4  24 a3 4 J 2 3 3 4 4 . 19.40 a 22 .a 6 x*y 2 .16.10 x2 4. 16 _^ + 2 JX XT 4a. 25 m 20 w + 34 m . 25 x 4 f 40 afy 446 x 2 if 4 24 a^ 8 4 9 4 i/ .12 m 4. 3. . 1 4. 13#4 413ar 44a.4 x 4. 436^?/469a.24 or . 4 .73 a8 .73a4 440^436^460^.20 o 4. 6 6 2 49 a 4 . 20.37 a ^ . 14. l 4. 9. 412 a& f 37 a' 6 . 729 4. 5. 10.20 J or 2 16 x 4. 8.25 x 4 4. 2 x2 3 2x. 12. 6 11.14^44 ic 4^ 3 12^. > 7. 4 4?/ 42x 4 3 j/ 2xif 6 a5 4. 24. x 6 4 4 0^4. 5 4 16 4 iK .
Ex.000. which may contain one or two). the square root of 7744 equals 88. of 10. etc. As 8 x 168 = 1344.000 is 1000. and we may apply the method used in algebraic process. the integral part of the square root of a number less than 100 has one figure.. and the complete divisor 168. Thus the square root of 96'04' two digits. Hence the root is 80 plus an unknown number.000 is 100. 2.1344. the first of which is 8. etc. of a number between 100 and 10. Therefore 6 = 8. = 80. a f>2'41 '70 6 c [700 + 20 + 4 = 724 2 a a2 = +6= 41) 00 00 1400 + 20 = 1420 4 341 76 28400 = 1444 57 76 6776 . 7744 80 6400 1 +8 160 + 8 = 168 1344 1344 Since a 2 a Explanation. Find the square root of 7744. the first of which is 9 the square root of 21'06'81 has three digits. beginning at the and each group contains two digits (except the last.000. square root of arithmetical numbers can be found to the one used for algebraic Since the square root of 100 is 10. first . of 1. the preceding explanation it follows that the root has two digits. the consists of group is the first digit in the root. and the square root of the greatest square in units. Hence if we divide the digits of the number into groups. 175 The by a method very similar expressions. 1. and the first remainder is. The is trial divisor = 160.176. the first of which is 4. From A will show the comparison of the algebraical and arithmetical method given below identity of the methods. Ex. Find the square root of 524.EVOLUTION 220. two figures. then the number of groups is equal to the number of digits in the square root. a 2 = 6400.
Roots of common fractions are extracted either by divid ing the root of the numerator by the root of the denominator.1 are Ex. 3.1T6 221. places. or by transforming the common fraction into a decimal. 12. EXERCISE Extract the square roots of : 82 . ELEMENTS OF ALGEKRA In marking off groups in a number which has decimal begin at the decimal point. annex a cipher.7 to three decimal places. we must Thus the groups 1'67'24. Find the square root of 6/.70 6. and if the righthand group contains only one digit.688 4 45 2 70 2 25 508 4064 6168 41)600 41344 2256 222. in .0961 are '.10. The groups of 16724.GO'61.
31. 37.) 40. 13. 34. 35. Find the side of a square whose area equals 96 square yards. 1.4 square when R = radius and 11. = 3.22. 1. 36. 32.58 square 38. T\. 5. 30. whose area equals 48.53. 33. 39.EVOLUTION Find 177 to three decimal places the square roots of the follow ing numbers: 29. . TT Find the radius of a (Area of a circle circle 1 equals irR .01. Find the mean proportional between 2 and . feet. feet. Find the side of a square whose area equals 50. JT .1410. J.
or equation of the second degree. 6#2 = x* 24.g. but no higher power e. or affected. x = + 2 or x =2. 225. Transposing.. quadratic equation contains only the square of the axt unknown quantity. 2)* + 5 = 33. + bx f c r= is a complete quadratic ax 2 = m is a pure quadratic equation. Solve 13 x2 19 etc. is A quadratic equation. 1. complete. is frequently written x 13( 2)2 = 7(  19 = 33 . x 2 7. Dividing. is 12. 2 ic = a. Extracting the square root of each member.CHAPTER XV QUADRATIC EQUATIONS INVOLVING ONE UNKNOWN QUANTITY 223. Ex. absolute term of an equation is the terra which / does not contain any In 4 x 2 unknown quantities. This answer Check. A pure quadratic is solved by reducing it to the form and extracting the square root of both members. 2. 6 y2 = 17. = 7^ + 5. 224. ax 2 + bx + c = Q. 178 . or incomplete. A pure. quadratic equation is one which contains both the square and the first power of the unknown A quantity. x f 12 = the absolute term PUKE QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 227. 226. The 7 equation. = 4. . an integral rational equation that contains the square of 4x the unknown number.
7 = 162. 4.2. ' =: y? b* b .25. + 4 ax = ax + 4 a 2 + x2 f 2 x2 = 8 a 2 4 a2 x2 = x = V 4 a2 x= x = . 7. 8. or Therefore. 2 2 a. 16^393 = 7. 6(2)=10(ajl). 0^ + 1 = 1. o. s3 ? + oj x +3 = 4. Solve 179 . ax Transposing and combining. EXERCISE Solve the following equations 1. 2 4fc 5' 18. 15^5 = 6. : 83 2. . Dividing by Extracting the square root.=g x2 4 a2 Clearing of fractions. 5.QUADRATIC EQUATIONS Ex. 3. (a? 9. 10. . 19 + 9 = 5500. 4 ax. 2.
' 4. 2a f 1 23. 28. The sides of two square fields are as 7 2. its area contains =a 2 f b2 . 29. Find is the number. is one of _____ b The side right angle. and the two other sides respectively c 2 contains c a and b units.180 on __!_:L ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA a. 108. and their product : 150. 26. 4. 24. 228. EXERCISE 1. If 22 = ~^. The two numbers (See is 2 : 3. 9 & { c# a x +a and c. A right triangle is a triangle. If 2 f 2 b* = 4w 2 f c sol ve for m. 2 . solve for d. solve for r. 3. r. If s = 4 Trr ' 2 . 22 a. may be considered one half of a rec square units. opposite the right angle is called the hypotenuse (c in the diagram). 2. If the hypotenuse whose angles a units of length. 25. 2 . is 5(5. solve for v. : 6. and the sum The sides of two square fields are as 3 : 5. If G=m m g . If a 2 4. Find the side of each field. Find the side of each field. = a 2 2 (' 2 solve for solve for = Trr .b 2 If s If =c . Find the numbers. find a in terms of 6 . . A number multiplied by ratio of its fifth part equals 45. . and the first exceeds the second by 405 square yards.) of their squares 5. then Since such a triangle tangle. 2 : 3. and they con tain together 30G square feet. Three numbers are to each other as 1 Find the numbers. 84 is Find a positive number which equal to its reciprocal ( 144). 27.
The hypotenuse of a right triangle is 2. The area $ /S of a circle 2 . The hypotenuse of a right triangle is to one side as 13:12. let us compare x 2 The left the perfect square x2 2 mx f m to 2 . 24. . To find this term. Find these 10. . 4. Find the unknown sides and the area. (b) 44 square feet. in how many seconds will a body fall (a) G4 feet. and the third side is 15 inches. J = 12. Solve Transposing. The area : sides are as 3 4. A body falling from a state of rest. 9. 8. 181 The hypotenuse of a right triangle : is 35 inches. its surface (Assume ir = 2 .7 x f 10 = 0. is and the other two sides are equal. Find the radii. make x2 Evidently 7 takes the place 7x a complete square to to which corresponds m 2 . Find the sides.) COMPLETE QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 229. Method of completing the square. (b) 100 feet? = . sides. 2m. passes in t seconds 2 over a space s yt Assuming g 32 feet. and the other two sides are as 3 4.2 7 . we have of or m = . add () Hence 2 . the formula = Trr whose radius equals r is found by Find the radius of circle whose area S equals (a) 154 square inches. Two circles together contain : 3850 square feet. radii are as 3 14. of a right triangle Find these sides. The following ex ample illustrates the method or of solving a complete quadratic equation by completing the square. 8 = 4 wr2 Find 440 square yards.) 13. .QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 7. 7r (Assume and their = 2 7 2 . the radius of a sphere whose surface equals If the radius of a sphere is r. member can be made a complete square by adding 7 x with another term. x* 7 x= 10. and the two smaller 11.
2 a2 . 80^69^2 = 9 x2 sc Transposing. Therefore. 2 ax f 2 o) s a . adding member). (*~8) a = at . Ex. Hence to solve a complete quadratic : Reduce the equation to the form x*\px==q. 62 x 5 = f. 22 7 2 + 10 =0. J. Transposing. 2 a* a. Hence Therefore Check. 230. = x\ = 2. or J. 2  . or x = 2.182 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 2 Adding ( J) to each member.x(l = . 15 x 2 Dividing by 9. 7 5 + 10 = 0. Complete the square by adding the square of one half the coefficient of x. Or (*i) x Extracting square roots.. a.2. Transposing. = 6.  \.a.e. a Clearing of fractions. Uniting. = \ # = ff. . Ex. Simplifying. = .1. Extract the square root and solve the equation of the first degree thus formed. Extracting square roots.  x Q) 2 to each Completing the square (i. x x2 x x2 + 2 a2 x f a = 2 ax.
4 ~ a2 Transposing.1+2?= "*"   Vl .QUADRATIC EQUATIONS Completing the square. x . Extracting square root. 183 Simplifying. x = l+ * a = 1 +2 <* V IT * Therefore * Vl < EXERCISE 85 .
49. Solving this equation we obtain by the method of the preceding 2a The roots of substituting the values of a. \bx\. article. = 12. 2 Every quadratic equation can be reduced to the general form. 2x 3 4. =8 r/io?.c = 0. . ao. x la 48. 231. Solution by formula. =0. and c in the general answer. o^ or } 3 ax == 4 a9 7 wr .184 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 45 46. any quadratic equation may be obtained by 6.
3. 6.  . 14. 13. 2or } 5o. TIO. ?i 2 . Reducing to general form. 2 o. 6^+5^ 56. 7. 2 a? = 44 x . a. 7^ + 9 x 90. 185 Solve 5 x2 = 26 x5. 10. Hence Therefore =p 1 t b = (p 2 + 1). 6. 3 x 11 + 10 = 0. 26. 19. 1. 2.. 2 .4 4 5 . 2 a. 11. 12.  P + VQ^+T? ^4^ EXERCISE Solve by the above formula 1. 6 10 2024 =6or 10 l. : 86 + 2 = 0. 6m = 7 m + 12 = 64 7 x2 2 2 a. 5 x2 Transposing. b =  + 20 == = 0. 4. 2# 11 + 15 = 0. Solve 2 j>o? p*x x px* a 2 p.25 x. 6 Ex. 15. = 12 . c = 5. V^tT)* . 18. 2. 21. 9. = 64120?. 16.QUADRATIC EQUATIONS Ex.15 x9 25x* = 21 . 20. c p. 20 x Hence Therefore a = 5. 17. 6 . 8.
a? 28  7al=7s be required to solve the 232. x(x <2 . a=:i^^. 3x?+x = 7. Let it e(l uation: 5^ + 5=26*. and 6. 26. or # 5 is zero. Evidently this method can be applied to equations of if one member of the equation is zero and the other factored. the prodif x has (1) (2) such a value that either or a?. 0. 25. Therefore the equation will be satisfied 5x _. = 0. = 0. member can be Ex. orz roots. Eesolving into factors. we x obtain the roots =^ or x = 5.4) = . (5 a? !)(. all or. x2 = 1 . = 14. = 0. Solve a*= 7a? + 15x 2 2* . Clearing for fractions. 23. 233. 27 x== 42a. =7 x se 2 2 + 16 x. 2S3x 1 2 . Solution by factoring. 24. if either of the uct is zero.2. 2a^7x sc(2 16rc Therefore a = 0. Bx 1 1.5) =0. transposing terms to one member.x. 1. factors Now. . }. Transposing.5 Solving (1) and (2). 5) = 0. Hence the equation has three + 3) (x 2xf3=0. ar>8o.186 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA to Find the roots of the following equations places : two decimal 22. 5 = 0. any degree. Factoring.
0^ + 21 = 10 10. + 8=s: 7. 3) = 0.(. such a common divisor must be made equal to zero.3)(x + 3 3. is 5) = 0.  3) 2 4 (x = 0. 5 = 0. 3 or 2 a. 13. The equation I. 14. 2. 5. } 2 2 (5 . 2o3 f9a. let it be required to solve If or x we divide both = 2. Or Hence the 234. we 9 obtain x 4.:=0. members by x But evidently the value x 3 3.6)) = 0. Therefore x =3 = 2. + 9 f 20 x = 0. 4. : 87 = 0. the resulting expression equation contains fewer roots than the original one.24 = 0. 7.QUADRATIC EQUATIONS Ex. (aj4)(a. 3) Factoring. 0^ ar> 11. 0(02) = 7(02).= 24. a?10a=:24. + 6)=0. 2. + 100. 3^ = 0(1106). EXERCISE Solve by factoring 6 2. 4)(z3) = 0. 8. x2 f 2 x . 12. 9. In order If both to obtain all roots of the original equation. 3^ 25^ + 28 = 0.g. 3# y 5 = 0.e. members of an equation are divided by an involving the unknown quantity. a?. 3.3 =5 or = 2 3 obtained from the 5 (x or x equation x (x = is also a root. a* 10a=24. O roots are 2. for a: . 4or + 18a f 8a. and the equation thus formed be solved. aj( 15. Ex. Form an equation whose roots are 4 and 6. + 10 a = 24. 16. 6. 3. evidently (x Or 4)(x . (*2)(x + 2)(a3)=0. ar'Sa^ 12. 187 Solve x? 3x x*(x 2 4x + 12 = 0. E.
(a + 1) (a.3) = (s + l) (3 a). 50. or 3 a 2 2 a? 26. '3a!J  . 2. ara + ft + c*. f ELEMENTS OF ALGEKRA tt(3tt + 7tt)=6tt. a 2 =(x a)b.188 17. 27. 25. (2a? 3) (a 24. 20. w(w x2 2 w)=6tt. + 2)= (y( j_ ? (+ 3)(a?+2). uz + u 21. 22. 23. 18. 19.
The sum of the squares of two consecutive numbers 85. The 11. 3. 56. G. 5. 57. Find the number. 2. Find the number. 6. 2. of their reciprocals is 4. but frequently the conditions of the problem exclude negative or fractional answers.2. The difference of . 7. and whose sum is is 36. Problems involving quadratics have lems of this type have only one solution. 4. 3. Divide CO into two parts whose product is 875. its sides of a rectangle differ by 9 inches. feet. What are the numbers of ? is The product two consecutive numbers 210. 189 the equations whose roots are 53. and the difference Find the numbers.3. 0. . 8. Find the sides. Find the numbers. 5.QUADRATIC EQUATIONS Form 51. Find two numbers whose difference is 40. 88 its reciprocal A number increased by three times equals 6J. 54.3. 58.9. PROBLEMS INVOLVING QUADRATICS in general two answers. 2. 2.3. 55. number by 10. Find a number which exceeds its square by is .0. and whose product 9. and equals 190 square inches. Twentynine times a number exceeds the square of the 190. EXERCISE 1. : 3. 52.0.1. 1. two numbers is 4. 2. and consequently many prob 235. 1. is Find two numbers whose product 288. 2. area A a perimeter of 380 rectangular field has an area of 8400 square feet and Find the dimensions of the field.
Find the rate of the train. one of which sails two miles per hour faster than the other. it would have needed two hours less to travel 120 miles. and Find the sides of the rectangle. exceeds its widtK AD by 119 feet. dollars. and the slower reaches its destination one day before the other. ABCD. and lost as many per cent Find the cost of the watch. he had paid 2 ^ more for each apple. watch cost sold a watch for $ 21. sold a horse for $144. At what rates do the steamers travel ? 18. If he each horse ? . he would have received 12 apples less for the same money. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA The length 1 B AB of a rectangle. 17. . other. The diagonal : tangle as 5 4. Two steamers and is of 420 miles. and lost as many per cent Find the cost of the watch. 14. had paid $ 20 less for each horse. 13. watch for $ 24. A man cent as the horse cost dollars. c equals 221 Find AB and AD. If a train had traveled 10 miles an hour faster.10. Two vessels. a distance One steamer travels half a mile faster than the two hours less on the journey. start together on voyages of 1152 and 720 miles respectively. and the line BD joining two opposite vertices (called "diagonal") feet. vessel sail ? How many miles per hour did the faster If 20.190 12. ply between the same two ports. as the 16. of a rectangle is to the length of the recthe area of the figure is 96 square inches. A man bought a certain number of apples for $ 2. What did he pay for each apple ? A man bought a certain number of horses for $1200. What did he pay for 21. 19. 15. and gained as many per Find the cost of the horse. he would have received two horses more for the same money. A man A man sold a as the watch cost dollars.
B AB AB 2 191 grass plot. ^3^ = 7. a point taken. 24. 237. 30 feet long and 20 feet wide. EQUATIONS IN THE QUADRATIC FORM An equation is said to be in the quadratic form if it contains only two unknown terms. Find TT r (Area of a circle . If the area of the walk is equal to the area of the plot. =9 Therefore x = \/8 = 2. Find the side of an equilateral triangle whose altitude equals 3 inches. The number of eggs which can be bought for $ 1 is equal to the number of cents which 4 eggs cost. How many eggs can be bought for $ 1 ? 236. (tf. and the unknown factor of one of these terms is the square of the unknown factor of the other. Find and CB. so that the rectangle. 27. is surrounded by a walk of uniform width. and working together. the two men can do it in 3 days. By formula. Solve ^9^ + 8 = ** 0. 23 inches long. In how many days can B do the work ? = 26. and the area of the path the radius of the basin. how wide is the walk ? 23. A needs 8 days more than B to do a certain piece of work. constructed with and CB as sides. Equations in the quadratic form can be solved by the methods used for quadratics.) 25.QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 22.I) 4(aj*l) 2 = 9. or x = \/l = 1. A rectangular A circular basin is surrounded is  by a path 5 feet wide. contains B 78 square inches. as 0. Ex. 1. of the area of the basin. is On the prolongation of a line AC. .
aV+9o 4 =0. T 17. 4 : 89 10a. 8. 3 a4 44s + 121=0. 2 h9:=0. EXERCISE Solve the following equations 1. (a: +aj) 18(x2 +a. 4 8 = 2 a* 2. 9. 2 16 a^40 11.)+72=0. 19. 4 2 4 37aj 2 = 9. Hence Le. a 21or=100. 12. y8)=0. >. 6. = 13.192 238. 18. Ex. 16. Solving. Let x + 15 = J < Then or or rf 15 = 0. 7. 4 6.T 2 2 . or y = 8. a. 10. 4 a. 2. 436 3. stitute ELEMENTS OF ALGEBEA In more complex examples it is advantageous to sub a letter for an expression involving a?. 4. a4 5o. ^^ ~ 28 (a? ^ 2:=Q> . = 1.2 =4. 2 (^Z)  "3 14. a? 15 1=2*.
negative. Determine the character of the roots of the equation 4 x2 . 2 4 ac 2a Hence / 1 4r2 = a Or .c 4 ac is called the discriminant of = 0. and unequal. 3. rational. . Relations between roots and coefficients. ( 2a Hence 1. it 2a follows 2 : 2.2 z . Hence the roots are real. Ex. If b Ifb* 2 If b Iflr 4 ac is is is 4c 4 ac a positive or equal to zero.Vfr 2 4 ac T* b Vi .QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 193 CHARACTER OF THE ROOTS 239. 1. Determine the character of the roots of the equation 3 a 2 . the roots are real. 240.bx 4. are denoted __ Tl If the roots of the equation ax2 4. kac 4 ac is 'not a perfect square. c the roots are real. Ex. The expression b 2 the equation ay? 4. the roots are rational. a perfect square. the roots are imaginary. b 4. and equal. rational.5) = 04. Since ( 12) 2 4 4 9 = 0. 2.2) 2 4 3 (. the roots are equal.bx 4 by ' i\ and r2 then . 241.f> = 0. Ifb 2 Jfb 2 is zero. is 4ac not zero. the roots are unequal. The quadratic equation oa/* 2 f bx f c = has two roots.12 x + 9 = 0. the roots are irrational. The discriminant =(.
Sa^ + 2 Ooj 2 Solve the following equations and check the answers by forming the sum and the product of the roots 19. ^12.g. 9x2 ~ the In each of the following equations determine by inspection sum and the product of the roots: 13. 5a 26a? + 5 = 0. lla. 18. = 0. x2 4 x 0^ or j + 205 = 0. 17.. 15. x2 7 10. or + 10 + 4520 = 0. 21. The sum of the roots equal is to the coefficient of x with the sign changed. 60 2 = 0. 2a 4z5 = 0. = 5x. 24. (b) The product of the roots equal to theubsolute term. tfmx+p^Q. 2 7. 12. 10 x = 25 x + 1. 5aj 9.2 + 4a: + 240 = 0. : a 2 . 23.194 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 2 a? these results If the given equation is written in the form may be expressed as follows : x +a += a 0. = Q. + 2a15 = 0. + 12 2  . 2 a. the sain of the roots of 4 x 5 x 3 =: is j. If the (a) coefficient ofx 2 in a quadratic equation is is unity. 22. their product isf. + 2a. 4. + 18 2 8. 14.19 # 20. n a?3 ' ~ == l 5. 6. 12~x = x 2 . = 0. 9a3 = 0. = 0. f 2 E. ar + ^ + 2^2 = 0. x2 !i>x + 2 z2 2 16. 2 : 3. 5oj aj + l = 0. 3a. 2x* + 6x + 3 = 0. 2. EXERCISE 89 a Determine without solution the character of the roots of the following equations 1. o.
> m therefore. It is.a" = a m n mn . (a ) s=a m = aw bm a . We assume. we may choose for such symbols any definition that is con venient for other work. instead of giving a formal definition of fractional and negative exponents. that a an = a m+n . a m a" = a m+t1 . (a m ) w . The following four fundamental laws for positive integral exponents have been developed in preceding chapters : I. The first of these laws is nition of power." means "is greater than" 195 similarly means "is . hence. we let these quantities be what they must be if the exponent law of multiplication is generally true.CHAPTER XVI THE THEORY OF EXPONENTS 242.* III. Then the law of involution. no Fractional and negative exponents. very important that all exponents should be governed by the same laws. while the second of the first. provided w > n. and . 4~ 3 have meaning according to the original definition of power. such as 2*. the direct consequence of the defiand third are consequences FRACTIONAL AND NEGATIVE EXPONENTS 243. must be *The symbol smaller than. II. = a"" < . 244. m IV. (ab) . ~ a m f. however. for all values 1 of m and n.
since the raising to a positive integral power is only a repeated multiplication. 31. (xy$. 24. To find the meaning of a fractional exponent. 4~ . 28. laws. . ml. fractional. Assuming these two 8*. a . etc.g. 0?=^. Hence Or Therefore Similarly. a*. 23. at. as.  we find a? Hence we define a* to be the qth root of of. ^=(a^) 3* 3 . a\ 26. Write the following expressions as radicals : 22. Let x is The operation which makes the fractional exponent disappear evidently the raising of both members to the third power. 245. m$. a?*.196 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA true for positive integral values of n. 30. (bed)*. 25. 3*. e. or zero exponent equal x. '&M A 27. 29. disappear. = a. n 2 a. we try to discover the let the meaning of In every case we unknown quantity and apply to both members of the equation that operation which makes the negative.
: 197 33. 7z* Find the values of 47. v/o&cT 34. 5 a* = 10. equal to unity. a. however. 35. If. 5L is indeterminate Indeterminate. a . is The operation which makes the zero exponent disappear 2 evidently a multiplication by any power of a. e. Solve the following equations 39. 49. Let a = a.\/n.g. 246. 3* = 27. 41. 43. is Therefore the zero power of any number NOTE. \fi?. ty?.THE THEORY OF EXPONENTS Express with fractional exponents 32. 27* = 3. a * a2 Or a=l. e.g. 50. the base is zero. a* * = 3. 44. 37. 40. 42. hence is . v'mT 36. Vo5 . 46. : 2' 4* = 4. 48. = 2. To find the meaning of zero exponent. 64* + 9* + 16* + (32)*. = 49. 38. : 4* + 9* + 16* + 25* + 36*. 45. = 2. \/xy \/m.
cr n. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA To find the meaning of a negative exponent. . a a a = = a a a a1 1 a. vice versa. each is The fact that a if = we It loses its singularity 1 sometimes appears peculiar to beginners. Or a"# = l. Let x= or". an x = a.g. or the exponent. 248. by changing the sign of NOTE. Multiplying both members by a".198 247. in which obtained from the preceding one by dividing both members by a. a8 a 2 = 1 1 .2 = a2 . etc. consider the following equations. Factors may be transferred from the numerator to the denominator of a fraction. e.
2m~i 43. 27."* 38. 22. 40. 36. 3 a. a. 7~ l a 2b 2 . 1 L ?>i""i 3 cci . 6 or 2 ^^ ^. c 32. Write with radical signs and positive exponents 35. ^L. m . 2 . ""^T"*' Write without denominators 29. rfS. 66 45. 39. 25. * 24. 2 . : or 5 . .THE THEORY OF EXPONENTS EXERCISE Find the values of: 91 199 Express with positive exponents 21. : mi m~^. : * 31 l> ' <W* arV 8 30. a^ 41. ^?2 y' 34. f (2w)~i 1 . . 44. 3 a? * 42. 37.
5  75 USE OF NEGATIVE AND FRACTIONAL EXPONENTS 249. of: 3ll4~* 60. ar = i. 59. Ex.26)* 1 (I) 2 . = . 17' 2 51. It then follows that: Fractional and negative exponents may be treated by the same methods as positive integral exponents.1.81 f (a . = 5. 55.9*. 47. (. 57. 2 =f 3* = f x~ l 50.343)* + (. 61. 54. (81)* + (3f)*(5 TV)*3249 + 16 * . 58.6). . and we shall hence assume that all four laws are generally true. 49.200 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA : Solve the equations 46.001. z 5or*=10. (a*&~*)* + (aVM = a*&~* + V ' = '*&* Ex 2 .(. + 1~* f 21 . = ^. 10* Find the values 56. 53. = l. Examples relating to roots can be reduced to examples con taining fractional exponents.008)* + A. 1. 52. + A_. 10* 5* = . 48. z* = 1. It can be demonstrated that the last three laws for any exponents are consequences of the first law. 250.
4 5.4 a8 . 7*.4 2 a? 2 ar 1 . (d) If required. OA 20. 79 . Negative exponents should not be removed until all operations of multiplication^ division. 72 .7W.^/5^5.&. 12. 6a. 8 ' 9.5a. 26. 25 26  2~ 8 2~ 9 22..$*.4 . 7~ 6 . . Perform the operation indicated. EXERCISE Simplify : 92 2. 7~ 5 27  . 17. 27  28. Remove the negative exponents. etc. 23. .&. 3sVS.3 aj" a. 6. 201 Expressions containing radicals should be simplified as : follows (a) (6) (c) Write all radical signs as fractional exponents. remove the fractional exponents. &. a. __ 29 /m '=V a9 ia. V5. . 14. 16. 3. 95 ^9i 5**. NOTE.THE THEORY OF EXPONENTS 251. 7. ' 11. 10. 3 a. are performed. S'sS8. 14an (4**(Va) 4 . 18. 16. 6 *. 13. / 7fv 7.7*.$". 4 x^.5. #* a.6 *' 6 *25.7i.
6 35.202 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 32. 2. 1.2 d . we wish to arrange terms according to descending we have to remember that. 40. 1. lix = 2xl =+1 Ex. Divide by ^ 2a 3 qfo 4. The 252. 1 Multiply 3 or +x 5 by 2 x x. 34. V ra 4/ 3 \/m 33. Arrange in descending powers of Check. If powers of a?. the term which does not contain x may be considered as a term containing #. powers of x arranged are : Ex.
THE THEORY OF EXPONENTS
EXERCISE
93
203
Perform the operations indicated:
2.
3.
4. 5. 6.
(7r8Vr + r>)(9 Vr7). 2  1 ). (a + a f 1) (a~ + a
2 2 2
7.
8. 9.
10.
11.
(4
a 3
 24 a  9  3 a~ )
1
2
r
1
(a"
 3).
12.
13.
14.
+ + 47i) + 35V5?)*(5Vp + l). VS" ^ ( Vo Vft) H (a~ f 7 a ^a~ + 1C a*b~  33 a 6~ + 14 a(3 a _&)*. (^? + ^/^ + */fr^ 15. 16. (a6 + 2V6c c)^(Va+V6 Vc). 17. y^TTOa; f 13  12 * + 4 aF*.
(13Vp
5
l
(Va^f aV^&Va
l
3
)
3
2
2
^>~
3
2
1
1
)
(
1
18. 19.
Vor
2
2 x h or
2
2 or
1
f
3.
V25 #
 2()"ar r+ 34  12 x f 9 x*.
20.
^^
l
21. 22.
23. 24.
25.
+2
a?
8
(l+4^flO^ + 20oTf 25^T f24\/i?f 16
(1+V2)V2. (2+V2)(V22). (5+V3)(52V3).
26. 27.
)*.
(13VS)(2 + V5).
(VU  V2)(Vn~3V2)
204
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
:
Find by inspection
28.
29.
(x*
+ 3)(tf*f 2).
35.
36.
8 (a;*
yi)
.
a*
+ 3l5.
V2
(5*2*
2
.
30.
31.
32.
38. 39.
(3^
(#* ^
(fl
2*)
f
.
33. 34.
5) (x*
5).
40.
(m
n)
f
(m*
11
f
n 5 ).
CHAPTER XVII
RADICALS
253.
A
radical is the root of
a quantity, indicated by a
radical sign.
254.
The
radical is rational, if the root can be extracted
exactly; irrational, if the root cannot be exactly obtained. Irrational quantities are frequently called surds.
^9
4^
\/2,
(*
+ V) *
are radicals.
= 2, V(a + 6) 2 are rational.
V4af
b are irrational.
255.
root.
The
order of a surd
is
indicated by the index of the
va
\/2
/
.
is
is is
of the second order, or quadratic. of the third order, or cubic. of the fourth order, or biquadratic.
Vc
256. A mixed surd is the product of a rational factor and a surd factor; as 3Va, a;V3. The rational factor of a mixed surd is called the coefficient of the surd.
An
257.
factor.
entire surd is
one whose coefficient
is
unity; as
Va,
Similar surds are surds
3v/2 and 6
which contain the same irrational
are similar.
av^
3V2 and
3 V8 are dissimilar.
206
206
258.
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
Conventional restriction of the signs of roots.
All even roots
e.g.
may
be positive or negative,
VI = + 2
or
2.
Hence
6. which results in four values, viz. 14, 6, To avoid 14, or this ambiguity, it is customary in elementary algebra to restrict
the sign of a root to the prefixed sign.
Thus
5 V4 4 2 V4
= 7 VI = 14.
If the object of an example, however, is merely an evolution, the complete answer is usually given thus
;
=
(oj 2).
259.
Since radicals can be written as powers with fractional
exponents, all examines relating to radicals
may
be solved by the
methods employed for fractional exponents.
Thus, to find the nth root of a product ab we have
T
1
1
(a6)"==a"6"
I.e.
(242).
to extract the root of a product, multiply the roots of the
factors.
TRANSFORMATION OF RADICALS
260.
Simplification of surds.
A radical is simplified when the
expression under the radical sign is integral, and contains no factor whose power is equal to the index.
Ex.
1.
Simplify
= \/25~a~ Vb = 6 a*VS.
4
Ex.
2.
Simplify
v/16.
J/lB^^.
4/2
= 2^.
RADICALS
.
207
261 When the quantity under the radical sign is a fraction, we multiply both numerator and denominator by such a quantity as will make the denominator a perfect power of the same
degree as the surd.
Ex.
3.
Simplify V.
Ex.
4.
Simplify
EXERCISE
94
208
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
/s
37.
39.
j
*x+y
38.
n
\ 2m
262.
An
same manner
imaginary surd can be simplified in precisely the as a real surd thus,
;
42.
V16a
:
,
2
.
44.
2\
Simplify and find to three decimal places the numerical
values of
47.
48.
VJ.*
49.
50.
Vf.
VJ.
VA
263.
Reduction of a surd to an entire surd.
Ex.
Express 4 a V& as an entire surd.
EXERCISE
Express as entire surds
1.
:
95
4V5.
3.
2\/lL
5.
6.
7.
2.
3V7.
4.
3^5.
a VS.
8.
* See table of square roots on page 164.
RADICALS
264. Transformation of surds to surds of different order.
209
Ex.
1.
Transform \/uW into a surd of the 20th order.
Ex.
2.
Transform
\/2,
V3, and
\/5 into surds of the
same
lowest order.
V2 = 2* = a* = '#64. ^ = 8* = 3A= ^gi. ^5 = 6* = 6* =^125.
1
Ex.
3.
Reduce the order of the surd tyaP.
Exponent and index bear the same relation as numerator and denominator of a fraction ; and hence both may be multiplied by
same number, or both divided by the same number, without changing the value of the radical.
the
EXERCISE
Reduce
1.
96
:
to surds of the 6th order
2.
Va?.
fymn.
3.
\/ v
4.
v'c?.
5.
\
z
\
^3
6.
mn.
Reduce
7.
8.
to surds of the 12th order
9.
:
V2~a.
\/a4 6 2c.
\/3ax.
11.
12.
\/oP6.
13.
14.
a.
^v/mV
10.
\/5a5V.
Express as surds of lowest order with integral exponents and indices
:
15.
v/o
5
.
16.
\/oW.
17.
v/IaT .
2
18.
\/
20.
A/^
22.
VSlmV.
24.
^6. 4^/4. ^4. in order of magnitude : \/7. 3. 40. 28.2. A/3. if dissimilar. subtract surds. V2. v/3. To add or form. + . 32. Simplify V~ . v/3. terms their If the resulting surds are similar.3\ .10 V2 =  V2. connect them by proper 1. ^2. ^/IT. ^2. V2. reduce them to their simplest add them like similar add their coefficients) . \/5. 26. </2. ADDITION AND SUBTRACTION OF RADICALS 265. </3. 39. ^3. 30.210 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA : Express as surds of the same lowest order 25. 5V2. I VJ + 3VT8 . Simplify V + 3 VlS. A/2. s!/3. 33. VS. Arrange 35. V3. 27. v/4. 29. 2\ 3*. signs. (i. ^2. V2. \/7. V5. ^7.2 V50. 36. Ex. ^30. 3  s/ / 3ft 2  3 ^y Ex. 34. 37. Ex.2 V50 = V2 + 9 V2 . 3: \/=^8 v~ 8ft 2 s/a. 31. v^S. </20. ^126. Simplify/a35 ~ o . 38. ^4.e. ^5. V3.
10. 6. 4. 13. VT2 + 2V27 + 3V759V48.RADICALS EXERCISE 97 : 211 Simplify the following expressions 2. 4V805V45. 8VT8J2V32 7.J a6 V4 aft. 14. 3.3V20 + 6V5. . 6. VJ+V8V1 + V50. V175V28+V634V7. 11. V18+V32VT28+V2. + 3V835V2. 9. 2V87Vl8f5V72V50. 8. 12. V45c3 3 abv'ab V80~c~3 f V5a c + c 2 + 3 aVo^ 3 Va^ .
Multiply 3\/25^ by 5\/50Y 3v / 2 . 1. 98 ab ^" fab 1 " . 5 4/6072 = 16^6272. Multiply 5 V7 8\/7 6\/7. . 2.6V35 106 460V35100 . Ex.212 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA . 3.2 VS by 3 Vf + 10 VB.2v/6 + IPV6 105. . 26^ . 6*.fab V \~\ jab FW MULTIPLICATION QEJRABIQALS 266. 23. for a~\/x b~\/y ab^/xy.100 = f 44 VS6 6 + 44\/36. the Surds of the same order are multiplied by multiplying product of the coefficients by the product of the irrational factors. and then multiplied. y* = Ex. Multiply V2 by 3\/l. Dissimilar surds are reduced to surds of the same order. Ex.
3. 19. (V6 + 1) 1 .RADICALS EXERCISE 1. 12. (6V23V3)(6V23V3). (Va Va 36. 6 V4 5. (2V3) 8 . 41. 38. 37. 25. VTO. 7.VSS. V20 V30. (VmVn)(Vm+Vn> 33. 28 . V5 Va VaV?/ V Vr 16. 213 98 11. + VB)(2V5). ( Vm \ 1 Vm) (Vmf 1 6(Vaf Va { Vm). fWa 17. 6. 2. 34. 40. a?. (5V58V2)(5V5 + 8V2). 13. V3 V6. 10. 27. 40 10 30. 4. V2aV8^. V2 V50. 21. v/4. v/18 v"3. 9. (VmVn) (V3V2) 8 . (3 20. (5V22V3CVS)V3. 14. 18. .^/2. \/3 \^). (V2+V3+V4)V3. 6. Vll. aVa. VlO V15. V42. 2 . 39. 15. V3 Vl2. 8.
Va v/a. 268. (3V52V3)(2V3V3). 51. 44. 49. 52. ELEMENTS OF ALGEHRA (3V55V3) S . it more convenient to multiply dividend and divisor by a factor which makes the divisor rational. 46. (5V72V2)(2VT7V2). 53. (5V2+V10)(2V51). 43. a fraction. the quotient of the surds is If. (V50f 3Vl2)4V2== however. 60.214 42. is 1 2. E. .y. (3V32Vo)(2V3+V5). Monomial surdn of the same order may be divided by multiplying the quotient of the coefficients by the quotient of the surd factors. all monomial surds may be divided by method. Ex. V3 . v/a  DIVISION OF RADICALS 267. Ex.V5) ( V3 + 2 VS). 47. 48. (2 45. a VS f a?Vy = \/  x*y this Since surds of different orders can be reduced to surds of the same order.
57735. is Since \/8 12 Vil = 2 V*2.by the usual arithmetical method. is illustrated by Ex.g. arithTo find. e. Divide VII by v7.RADICALS This method. Evidently. metical problems afford the best illustrations.. 3. To show that expressions with rational denominators are simpler than those with irrational denominators. + 4\/5 _ 12v 3 + 4\/5 V8 V8 V2 V2 269. /~ } Ex. Divide 4 v^a by is rationalizing factor evidently \/Tb hence. by V7. called rationalizing the the following examples : 215 divisor. Divide 12 V5 + 4V5 by V. 4\/3~a' 36 Ex. the rationalizing factor x ' g \/2. VTL_Vll ' ~~" \/7_V77 .73205. 1. .73205 we simplify JLV^l V3 *> ^> division Either quotient equals . however. . we have V3 But if 1. . The 2. the by 3 is much easier to perform than the division by 1. we have to multiply In order to make the divisor (V?) rational. Hence in arithmetical work it is always best to rationalize the denominators before dividing.
7320. To rationalize the denominator of a fraction whose denom inator is a binomial quadratic surd. 272. i. VffV?. and Given V2 = 1. 14. A.216 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 99 Simplify : 1. 23 . Vll 212*. A. Vn V7 ' * 8. V8?^ V7 xy T 13 11 n V7 ~ VH 5 2. ^/H . 2V5 ' 2 V3 o vfi* ' ^ Va 12. V5 270. 20.2361. 7. 21. . The product of two conjugate binomial surds is rational . multiply numerator and denominator by the conjugate surd of the denominator. V48 25. V3 24 . if 4=V50 Two binomial quadratic surds are said to be conjugate. they differ only in the sign which connects their terms. Va + Vb and Va Vb are conjugate surds.. V8 JL. find to four decimal places the numerical values of: 19. 271.4142. V5 = 2. V2 22 . V8 12. . V3 = 1.
2.= 18. s Simplify a. Find the numerical value of : V2 + 2 2V21 e .1 xVtf a. V2+2 _ V2+2 2\/2+l_6 + 6\/2. 1.RADICALS Ex. .07105 = 7 7 2V21 2V21 2V2 + 1 EXERCISE Eationalize the denominators of : 100 .Vs2 . Ex. 3. .vffi^T _ . Ex. V82 2V3 1fVS . 217 Simplify 2V3V2 ' V3V2 ~ = 4 + V5.
218 6 . V5V7 18> ^SVg. V32* to 1 Find the third proportional + V2 and 3 f 2V2. INVOLUTION AND EVOLUTION OF RADICALS 273. find to _!_. V21 = 25 . V3 + 1 1+V5 _ 3V5 ' V5+2 31. = V3 = 1. 19.5 3 = 125.W3.7320. . v 2V3 28.4142.2361. Vo1 26. Given V2 1. it can easily be shown that VcT = ( V) w Hence 3 V25~ = ( V25) 3 . 2V5V18 mVm Va 22. four places of decimals 23 . V52 17 1Va? Vg+v/2 5V77V5 ' V3V2 15. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 13 ~3 V51 14 A 16. 6V7. J?_. : and V5 = 2. 24. 27. By the use of fractional exponents .
V643 . \/l6*. on the other hand. V255 .RADICALS 219 274. Find the square of EXERCISE Simplify 1. 2. . : 101 (3Vmw) 2 . it to this form. \/125" . SQUARE ROOTS OF QUADRATIC SURDS 275. the If. To find the square root of a binomial square by inspection. we had to find problem would be quite simple if presented in the form v52V3 5 + 3. In other examples of involution and evolution. 3 (V2~u)  7. v8f 2\/15. Simplify Ex. 3. To reduce is two numbers whose sum 5 and 3. viz. introduce fractional exponents : Ex. 1. 11. ( V5 + V3) = 5 + 2 V5~^3 + 3 2 = 8 + 2 VIS. 9. 8. According to G3. 5. 2. we must find 8 and whose product is 15. 4. 2 12.
2 A/2 = V9A/2 = 3 . coefficient of the Irrational Write the binomial so that the term is 2. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA l. Find Vl2 4. These Ex. 3.6 V2. Find Vll . 2. is Find two numbers whose sum numbers are 10 and 2.6\/2 = ^9 .A/2. ^TT.6 A/2 = Vll Find two numbers whose sum numbers are 9 and 2. +2 Ex. 2 \/18. Find V4 + VJ8. is 11.2 \/20. and whose product is 18.220 Ex. 12 and whose product is 20. EXERCISE 102 : Extract the square roots of the following binomials . The Hence ^11 .
member to 2. : 221 Vl32V22.1. \/x Vx = + 3 = 7. x2 = x f 2. r 22. Solve vVf!2a = 2. Transposing and uniting. V4 + V12 RADICAL EQUATIONS 276. (2x xrf 1. 4. = xa + 4 x f 4. 4x x = 2. The value x =2 reduces each . . V48 23.e. they are transto formed into rational equations.V48 4 20. * 4 * 2 V6 VT 4.RADICALS Simplify the following expressions 18. VT . a. 19. Ex.. examples to simplify the equation as it is necessary in most as possible. by raising both members equal powers. +=. first involution. i. 277. Before performing the involution. 8. Dividing by Check. Radical equations are rationalized. are radical equations. If all radicals do not disappear through the the process must be repeated. 5. much and to transpose the terms so that one radical stands alone in one member. Transposing Vsc2 + f 12 12 Squaring both members. A radical equation is an equation involving an irrational root of an unknown number.
x + 1 + 2 Vx'2 + 1 x + (. x = J.3. radical equations require for their solution the squaring of both members. 4#f 4 = 9. Factoring. f V/2TT25 = 5 + x 7 = 12. 5 and The squaring of both members of the given equation introSince duced the new root 1. Squaring both members. = 12 = 144 24\/4# + 1 = 120. the first member = V2. 2. . an equaSquaring both members we obtain or 1. a socalled extraneous root. at . The results of the solution of radical equations must be substituted in the (jlren equation to determine ivhether the roots are true roots or extraneous roots. Transposing. Therefore Check. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBltA Solve V4 x + 1 f V4 f 1 . or = VzMx2 7 x f f 7 x + 9. 278. Transposing and uniting. the roots found are not necessarily roots of the given equation 279. f 25 = 12. viz. Transposing and uniting. Extraneous roots. Vitf 4x f 25 f 25 4x f 1 25. Solve Vx f Squaring both members. = 9 x2 18 x + 8x 2 25xf3 = 0. Ex.222 Ex. Squaring both members. they may be extraneous roots.1) = 0. V24~+~l = 0. 3. tion usually introduces a new Squaring both members of an equaThus x 2 = 3 has only root. . It = 3 x . Therefore CftecAr. Dividing by 24. viz. tion which has two roots. (x 3) (8 x x = 3. 24 \/4 # Transpose V4 x Squaring both members. \/4 jc~+~l = 5. 5. V4afT~l. . one root. 2 Vx^ Dividing by 2. a. member =\/2 + jV2=v^.
Hence there is only one root. ViTie 4 z2 . Transposing. both members reduce to 5. for it satisfies the equation . tlie Jeft both members reduce member = 12T V2. = } would be a VaT+T Ex. Therefore. NOTE. \ does not satisfy the given. V2x' 8 42x43 Transposing. (x x = 3. Hence x = the only root. . * Exclude all solutions which do not satisfy the equation or which make the given radicals imaginary. and to 5. Solve the following equations : = G. . If If x 3 = 3. Solve Vz+T + V2aT+3 = + "b"x f A5_ 15. 4 VxT~0 = \/8 x f 1. x root of the preceding equation. If the signs of the roots were not restricted. Factoring.48 x + 2 x2 53 f 141 = 0. . viz. Squaring.47) = 0. 2 z 2 4 6 x 4 3 = 144 . Check. the right member = V2. = 3.3) (2 x . 2 Clearing of fractions. equation it is an extraneous root.RADICALS Hence x If a. 4. is x V. 223 x = 3.2 r.12 . or x *j. + 6~ieT~3 .
Therefore . Solve af*. Factoring.224 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 280. radical equations may be solved by the method of 238. Many 1. Ex.33 af* + 32=0.
2Va. 2_8z 440 = 49. 3. 3 6. y then x2 .RADICALS Raising both members to the  power. x + Vx a? = 6. it will be found that 9 and 1 satisfy the equation.i~24 = 0. Q .8 z40 = 7. = 0. 225 x = 32~* or 1"* = ^ or 1. 45 14VJB = . x =6 or 3. Let 8 x f 40 . . 412a* = 16. o. This can be seen without substituting.8 x 2 Hence y' 2y = 35. or y or Therefore 2 y = 5.*2a. make the given radicals * Exclude extraneous roots and roots which imaginaries. x Since both =9 or 1. 2. = 26. But as the square root is restricted to cannot be equal to a negative quantity. Vi 2 8a. + 40 = 6. = 7. some of the roots be extraneous. while 6 and 3 are extraneous roots.35 = 0. + 40 = Vz2 $x + 40 = y. 5.f40= 5. _ 2 y . EXERCISE 104* its Solve the following equations: 1. Ex. Substituting. members of the equation were squared. 2. 4. for 6 and 3 are the roots of the may 2 equation Vx' 8x it positive values.8 x + 40 = 36. Solve x* 8x x* Adding 40 to both members.
15. a. 18.f 18 = 24. 12. 2. 14. 6 Va?~3o~ = y? 3 x f . 20. 16. +x . ar fll x 3x 12 V5l? +1 1^7^30 = 1 ^ + G V2^"^I + 2 = 4. 19. +3= 6. 2 7a?HV^ 3 7a.226 11. or 2 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 8a f 40 2 V* 2 8.a 440 = 35. a^x2 5 2 13. 17. 4 V SB* 4 a.
CHAPTER XVIII THE FACTOR THEOREM 281.2 + 4. ^ = 381+2.4 a. = 2. substituting Q " and ani^ ^ 2 respectively for Quotient " and Remainder. to x we # = 2 3.<fo f e is divided by x Let then 2 4 8 ca: f (to + e (x = w. 3 2 Ex. if Q was known. 227 . 1. find the remainder when m. ax4 4.360 = 244. does not contain a?." transposing.3 x~ + 4 x + 8 is divided by x remainder (which does not contain a?). we make a? what the value of Q. a? R = x* .bx? + ex2 4. Hence. Let then find the remainder obtained z = 3. even if Q is unknown. could. Ex.2 + 80 = 12. " Or. then (x 2)Q 0.2) Q . by dividing 3 x* f. no matter If. assign any value whatsoever and would always obtain the same answer for R.3 x + 4 + 8 As 72 (a? . 2.2 x 5 by x 3. Without actual division. however. we can find the value of R by making x = 2. E = ax + &z + m) Q. then or* 2 and there is a 3 x2 f. Without actual division. R = am* + 6m3 + cm2 + tZw + e. f 8 = (a? 2) x Quotient f Remainder. If x* .
x* s 2 4. The Factor Theorem. EXERCISE Without actual division dividing : 105 find the remainder obtained by 2. of the division 3) is m in place of x. 5 (4x . + 6. 5. x*x + 4x Tx + 2\)y x + 2. 3 x2 4) is a factor of x    00 *. ing x becomes zero x8 3 x2 2 4 when 2 x If a rational integral expression involvm is a is written in place of x. The remainder obtained by dividing (x + 4)4 _ (3 + 2) ( X  1) +7 by x  1 is 6* 3 .g.4x411)^0 + 4 ( 3) . a100 50 a47 4 48 a2 b.3)f 11 =. 2 j 7. the divisor is a factor of the dividend.8'= 0.4(. hence (x divided by x 4. x is divided by x The remainder 6 sion involving If an integral rational expresm. fora?.949. If the remainder is zero. + 3x3 2x* 32x12 by a?3. the remainder equals 8 2 x . 43 3 E.g. + ^by x + b. 8. 3. a f b 7 by a ^14y ~132/  283. + 7 = 632. the remainder is obtained by substituting in the given expression E.8. x m is factor of the expression. Only factors of the absolute term need be substituted . x5 a^ 7 b 5 by x 6. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA The Remainder Theorem. if 8 42  .228 282. } 2 by a1.
x 4o8 + 2a^ + 4a?~3 =0 4^ or* f 9 or* 2 a? aj? a? a? 2 4 3 . then x8 7 x'2 4. ^ + 7y + 2y40 = 0. f 5. 1ft : ar*f 6aj 2 o?5ar 3 l + lla.e. Let x = . _ . 24. 6. 18. 9. factors of the absolute term. 229 1. f 15 does not vanish. 1. + 15. 8. + 27 + 27.49 = 0. . 3 2 : 7. 2. The 5. 15. Factor a? 15. 2o? m 6ra fllm 6.7 f 5a 18 divisible by x 2. 3. f 3. a 8a f 19 a 12. Let x = 1 then 7 x + 7 a. p 5^ + 8p 4.7 + 16 . 7 2 a? 2 f 7a?f 15. 21. 106 division.7 x + 15 = 0. 23. 7 46 = 0.1. 8. a + 32. 20. show that divisible 4x 2 j +3x 2 a? 2 2 as 5 is or 2 by is a. m f m n 14. are f 1. x* 34 ar 5 225 is divisible by x 5. oj 5x2 f3a. i. a 2a + 4. 4m p~m p + 16m^ 12. Therefore x ( 1). m 4 n4 25 mV + 19 ran 13. a^8^ + 19a.TEE FACTOR THEOREM Ex.9^ + 23^15. a 5x 6. or 5 4 + 3^ . + ttt15 = 0. ^10^429^20=0. 1.13m + 30 10. 8 }3 3 2 3 s 2 3 4 8 2 2 4 s 3 t . 5 Solve the following equations by factoring 15.12. is a factor. Resolve into factors 4.12 = 0. a. f 16) EXERCISE Without actual 1.1. 2m 5m . 5.r6 = 0. we obtain 7  7 x2 + x + 16 = (x + l)(x 2  8 a. 11. 2 2. x8 By dividing by x a?8 f 1. & p*. 25. or x 4. 17. a? 19.
If n is a Theorem that 1. is odd. For substituting y for x.xy +/).230 285. x* f/ = (x +/)O . It y is not divisible by 287. Factor consider m m 6 n9 . Factor 27 a* f 27 a 6 8. it follows from the Factoi xn y n is always divisible by x y. 2 Ex. 2. ar +p= z6 e. By we obtain the other factors. if n is even. 286. xn y n y n y n = 0. Two special cases of the preceding propositions are of viz. 1. 2 8 (3 a ) +8= + 288. : importance. if w is odd." . if n For ( y) n f y n = 0.g.y n is divisible by x f ?/. We may 6 n 6 either a difference of two squares or a dif * The symbol means " and so forth to. xn f. actual division n. 2. The difference of two even powers should always be considered as a difference of two squares. and have for any positive integral value of If n is odd. Ex.  y 5 = (x  can readily be seen that #n f either x + y or x y. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA positive integer.
f n)(m 2 mn f w 2 )(wi . 28. however. as 27=0.= . preferable. 26. since it more directly to the prime factors. a. Factor a 12 EXERCISE Resolve into prime factors : 107 Solve the following equations: 25. x3 8=0.THE FACTOR THEOREM ference of two cubes. leads 231 is The first method. y 3 +8=0.i mn f w 2). 3. 27. Hence = (m Ex.
* A I. Hence " /  X y = =} 4. If two of the quantities x f y. x y.CHAPTER XIX SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 289. 232 . Simultaneous quadratic equations involving two un known quantities lead. The degree of an equation involving several unknown quantities is equal to the greatest sum of the exponents of the unknown quantities contained in any term. 4 xy = 16. 290. in general.y4 is of the fifth degree. Squaring Solve (1). (5) Combining (5) with (1). xy x*y f y = 4 is of the second degree. xywe have 3. xy are given. ==5 > 1^ = 4. to equations of the fourth few cases. however.1. = 6. *The graphic solution of simultaneous quadratic equations has been treated in Chapter XII. (4) Hence. the third one can be found by means of the relation (ojjy) 2 4 xy Ex. + 6 a?V . EQUATIONS SOLVED BY FINDING x +y AND xy 291. of quadratics. can be solved by the methods degree. & + 2 xy + = 25. 2 2/ (1) (2) (3) (2) x 4.
EXERCISE Solve: 1. " "' "' { r 8. F* Lx ' 2 (1) ' (2) (3) (4) 2 + 3 = 293. roots of simultaneous quadratic equations must be e. = . b=3.SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 292. 1. The arranged in pairs. ^. 108 2. 12. In many cases two of the quantities x f y. x and xy are not given.g. the answers of the last example are : r*=2. 3. but can be found. r (" 1 = 876. I I x + y=7. ' 10. 233 y.
or JJ. Ex. THE OTHER QUADRATIC 294. . EXERCISE Solve : 109 47/ = 0. r^ 2 as ] f.  42 y + Transposing. 7 . 4 y = 20. 5.  .~ y = 5. ^ f or* f 4 xy = 28. or y = 1 . ' ' . I x+y = a.20) = 0. x " (3) 49 etc. Substituting in (2) Simplifying. =^ 18* ONE EQUATION LINEAR. can be solved by eliminating one of the unknown uantities by means of substitution.4 [ ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA x 4. I* Jj ^ [. 9 y2 17 y 2 + ) 8 (y  40 y (17 y 1 Hence Substituting in (3).. 6 "I 14.o 18. la.  f J. A system of simultaneous equations. Factoring. + 29 = 0. 2 (1) From (1) we have. . 19. one linear and ne quadratic. aj = 2. Solve 2 x + 3y = 7.i/ = r 13. 3.a. ( \ ~^V\ + 2 / 2y 2 ?/' .?/ i = 6.
4^ 3 x 2 y 3 y3 A and # 2 2 xy 5 y2 are homogeneous equations. one equation of two simultaneous quadratics is homogeneous. 8 V~80 Hence y =1 y . quantities. x2y. 3 y2 Substituting in (1). ' x*. III. HOMOGENEOUS EQUATIONS homogeneous equation is an equation all of whose terms are of the same degree with respect to the unknown 295. 9. ':il e :) . 10.SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS y 7. 235  > ' 1 lla 8 12~ 10 13. If of the preceding type. (x to solve the 2t/)(2 x = ( Hence we have two systems (3) (1) From (3). y* + 2y = 3. Solve . = 1 3 3.3 2x 2 Ex. 3y) : Factor (2). 1. the example can always be reduced to an example 296. 4 f + 2 y = 3. (1) (2) 7 xy + G if = 0.
Solve 2. = 0.20 xy + 15 y 2 = 2 x 5. j Substituting y in (2). } VI09. (rc2/)(llx5y) 16 xy f 5 y 2 (3) Hence solve : (2) From (3). (1) Eliminate 2 and 6 by subtraction. (3) (4) Subtracting. = 0. 109 a.2 ^ EXERCISE Solve: 6ar 7aK/427/2 ==0. the problem can be reduced to the preceding case by eliminating the absolute term.236 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 297. 2. 11 a2 Factoring. 2 . y = 110 f 10^370^ + 7^ = 16^7^ . (1) (2) x x 5. 15 x2 . If both equations are homogeneous with exception oi the absolute terra. = Ex.
Some of the more frequently used devices are the following: 299. Solve * + '* { Dividing (1) by (2). SPECIAL DEVICES Many examples belonging to the preceding types.6. 2 (3) (4) Squaring (2). ' <"" =m _ 14 ' &. Division of one equation by the other.175 ay = 12. which in most cases must be left to the ingenuity of the student. y? a? f . A. E. and others not belonging to them. f 1 150 a?. can be solved by special devices. 150 */2 .y = 7. Bxy9. . ' ^ 15.!.SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 237 m U.125 ay = .xy 4. " IV. Equations of higher degree can sometimes be reduced to equations of the second degree by dividing member by member. 2 xy + y2 = 10. (4) (3).3^42^=43. 298.
238 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 111 Solve * : fajy=152. Solve Ex. Some simultaneous ?/. from (2). considering not x or but expressions involving x and as the as x . x +y y etc. i ^ *>. B. = 189. y = 3. xy. (1 > (2) 1. Therefore x = 16. x 2 . y .. we have from (1). In more complex examples letter for advisable to substitute another such expressions. i" <Vx f ' unknown 6. quadratics can be solved by ?/. 2. * ' 300. Considering V# + y and y as quantities and solving. at first it is unknown quantities. f^ + 3 7/ = 133. Vx y 4 or V^^y = 3 x 4 or But the negative roots being extraneous. = 12 J. we obtain by squaring. jc~ y = 9.
Solve (1) (2) Let Then r __ 17^ + 40. 7. F+y+ . Hence we have 7 x 4 to solve the two systems U) : x ! + */ = 17. [2x + : y= 17.SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS . 6. 2. I e. . The solution produces the roots EXERCISE Solve : 112 5. 4. Hence = V or = 4. 36* 2. 239 Ex. M6.
f 18. ' x2 1 6 xy = 15. ' ** 5x+ 7y = 13 ' ' 1 f. * . = 198. 27.21 ^ = 15. 19 ' 26. = y 1 y* .4 y = 47 a. . 16. 2 or 5 CCT/ + 3 f + 3 . 25. + o5)(6hy) = 80.240 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Solve by any method : far' 9 + a^lSG. . ( xy (7 m 2 n*. x 1 20' = 41 400' =34.
30. ^ oo .  But this equation is satisfied by any is value of a?. . 7' j/ 39. . etc 302. Q 7. . 32. = 48201. as a . 31. oo 301. The results of problems and other examples appear sometimes in forms which require a special interpretation. 3 a2 38. etc. y % 9 f*K 36. Interpretation . 25 34. ~\ OK OO. 33. INTERPRETATION OF NEGATIVE RESULTS AND THE FORMS OF 5 .SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS i 241 y . or ~ indeterminate. . hence may be any finite number. 203): ix y Solve graphically (see 40.of  According to the definition of division. finite  =x y if = x.
and becomes infinitely small. equation. be the numbers. without exception. (1) = 0. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Interpretation of ? e. + I) 2 x2 ' f 2x + 1 x(x + 2)= .decreases X if called infinity.i solving a problem the result or oo indicates that the all problem has no solution. 1. ToU" ^100 a. and .can be If It is made larger than number. however x approaches the value be comes infinitely large.increases if x de x creases. or infinitesimal) This result is usually written : 305. i. is satisfied by any number. great. Or. Let 2. .e. or that x may equal any finite number. i. The ~~f fraction . the If in an equation terms containing unknown quantity cancel. 306. cancel. the answer is indeterminate. The solution x = indicates that the problem is indeter If all terms of an minate. (a: Then Simplifying. (1). TO^UU" sufficiently small.g. as + l.000 a.x'2 2 x = 1. customary to represent this result by the equation ~ The symbol 304. it is an Ex. x f 2. I. 1.e. of the second exceeds the product of the first Find three consecutive numbers such that the square and third by 1. . Hence such an equation identity. while the remaining terms do not cancelj the root is infinity. (1) is an identity.242 303. oo is = QQ. Hence any number will satisfy equation the given problem is indeterminate. Interpretation of QO The fraction if x x inis infinitely large. By making x any * assigned zero. creases. = 10.
42 and' their product is 377. Solve ~o 3 x v ~K 6 x r x 6 4. 243 Solve the system : (1) (2) From Or. The sum is of squares 2890. two numbers is 76. * 6. 1=0. 3. The sum of two numbers Find the numbers. EXERCISE 1. and the sum of Find the numbers. Solve .8 x + 15 6. (2). Find three consecutive numbers such that the square of 2. no numbers can satisfy the given system.e. . Solve x a. the second exceeds the product of the first and third by 2. 113 is One half of a certain number equal to the sum of its Find the number. Solve  9 7. Solve (aj + 1) : (x + 2) = ( + 3) 114 : (a? + 4). third and sixth parts. z = 1 Substituting. y finite QO. 2. and a. = oo.2 y = 4.SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS Ex. is their 2. EXERCISE PROBLEMS 1. 4 3 x x5 a2 . Hence /.
Find the side of each square. Find the other two sides. and the edge of one exceeds the edge of the other by 2 centimeters. 8. The sum of the areas of two squares is 208 square feet. and the edge of one. 148 feet of fence are required. is 6. of a rectangular field feet. 14. and the side of one increased by the side of the other e. Find the sides. Find the sides of the rectangle. But if the length is increased by 10 inches and 12. is is 17 and the sum 4. Find the numbers. Two cubes together contain 30 cubic inches. increased by the edge of the other. 6.) The area of a right triangle is 210 square feet. p. 10. and its The diagonal is is perimeter 11.quals 20 feet. 103. the area becomes f% of the original area. and the hypotenuse is 37. two numbers Find the numbers. 146 yards. and is The area of a rectangle remains unaltered if its length increased by 20 inches while its breadth is diminished by 10 inches. rectangle is 360 square Find the lengths of the sides. and the diago(Ex. The volumes of two cubes differ by 98 cubic centimeters.244 3.) 53 yards. and the sum of ( 228. Find the edge of each cube. To inclose a rectangular field 1225 square feet in area. of a right triangle is 73. The hypotenuse is the other two sides 7. equals 4 inches. 9. Find the edges. 255 and the sum of 5. Find these sides. 13. 12. Find the dimensions of the field. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA The difference between is of their squares 325. is the breadth diminished by 20 inches. the The mean proportional between two numbers sum of their squares is 328. Find two numbers whose product whose squares is 514. 190. . The area of a nal 41 feet.
their areas are together equal to the area of a circle whose radius is 37 inches. 245 The sum of the radii of two circles is equal to 47 inches. by the product of 27 be added to the number. (Surface of sphere If a number of two digits be divided its digits. Find the radii. the quotient is 2. irR *. differ by 8 inches.) 17. Find the number. . is 20 inches. and if the digits will be interchanged. and the equal to the surface of a sphere Find the radii. The radii of two spheres is difference of their surfaces whose radius = 47T#2.SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 15.) (Area of circle and = 1 16.
2 d must be added to a. a f d. The progression is a.. 4. Hence / = a + (n ... The common differences are respectively 4. to produce the 3d term.11 246 (I) Thus the 12th term of the 3 or 42.. 19. . series 9. of the following series is 3. 3 d must be added to a. a + d. progression. . of a series are its successive numbers. f . Since d is a f 3 d. The common Thus each difference is the number which added an A. 15 is 9 f. and d. The terms ARITHMETIC PROGRESSION 308.. the second a descending. . to each term produces the next term. (n 1) d must be added to a. added to each term to obtain the next one. 3. The first is an ascending. a 11.. 17. + 2 d.1) d. P.CHAPTER XX PROGRESSIONS 307. the first term a and the common difference d being given. a + 2 d. is derived from the preceding by the addition of a constant number. An arithmetic progression (A. 10. P. 12. a. : 7. P..7. 16. 11. .. to produce the nth term. To find the nth term / of an A.) is a series.. except the first. 309. to A series is a succession of numbers formed according some fixed law.. a 3d. to produce the 4th term. each term of which.
. = a + (a Reversing the order.. the last term and the common difference d being given. 5. . . 9. P.8.16.. 19. Which (6) (c) of the following series are in A. 6. 5. Find the 5th term of the 4. 3. 9. = I + 49 = *({ + . ? (a) 1. P. if a = 5. 2. . 115. 7. 247 first To find the sum s 19 of the first n terms of an A. 1J. 6. . 2*=(a + Z) + (a + l) + (a + l) 2s = n * . 8.. (a + + (a + l) l). 24. 10. Find the 7th term of the Find the 21st term series . 2J. 1. 6.. = 2. 5. = 99. Find the nth term of the series 2. 5. d . Find the 10th term of the series 17. 8. 6 we have Hence . 3.. (d) 1J.... . of the series 10. 4. a = 2... Find the 101th term of the series 1. 3..3 a = l. 2 EXERCISE 1... Find the 12th term of the 4.. Or Hence Thus from (I) = (+/). Adding. 3. P. 8. 2.. .4. 1. series 2. d = 3...' cZ == . series . 7. .. 21. 3. the term a.PROGRESSIONS 310. first 2 Write down the (a) (6) (c) 6 terms of an A. 4^. 7. 2 sum of the first 60 I (II) to find the ' ' odd numbers. 5. 99) = 2600.
31. 1. the other two may be found by the solution of the simultaneous equations . 4. 12.(# 1 2) f (x f 3) H to a terms. to 10 terms. 20. 19. 7. 11. Sum the following series 14. 17. . . : 3. \n. 7. to 8 terms. to 20 terms. '. 15. and a yearly increase of $ 120.5 H + if f to 10 terms. to 20 terms. strike for the first yard. . hence if any three of them are given. . 1J. 23. striking hours only.7 f to 12 terms. 7.. + 3. 8. 33. In most problems relating to A. . 2. 11. (x +"l) 4. 13. 18. 29. and for each than for the preceding one. Jive quantities are involved. How much does he receive (a) in the 21st year (6) during the first 21 years ? j 311.248 Find the 10. 3. 15. > 2f 2. to 20 terms. 1. . 22.1 f 3. 11. . + 2f3 + 4 H hlOO. 15. 2J. to 7 terms. 21. . 1. $1 For boring a well 60 yards deep a contractor receives yard thereafter 10^ more How much does he receive all together ? ^S5 A bookkeeper accepts a position at a yearly salary of $ 1000. 11. Q^) How many times in 12 hours ? (&fi) does a clock. 1+2+3+4H Find the sum of the first n odd numbers. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA last term and the sum of the following series : . 16. to 15 terms. rf. 6. 16. 12. (i) (ii) . P. to 16 terms.
or 144 = 12 + 12 d=ll. .. Substituting in (2). a = 12. 3 n2 52 n + 204 = 0. the and the sum of all terms 1014. is Thus x the arithmetic mean between a and a=b x. = 1014. 2. 204 = ^ (a + 49). P. When is called the arithmetic three numbers are in A. From (1). = a + (w. #. = 1014.6. 111. hence n = 6. l)e?.. x=  4 the arithmetical mean between two numbers is equal to half their sum. the second one mean between the other two.6 n). 6. But evidently n cannot be fractional. The series is. 49 (1) (2) Substituting. 100. (1) 1014 = ^(12 + 144). J = 49. or 11 J. s 24ft last term 144. Solving. d = 6. 312. and b form an A. or if x Solving. 78 n Substituting in (1). if s = 204. if a. 2 (2) From Hence (2). is 12. 67. 6 n2 . 56. 78. 23.~n~\ 408 6). = 13. 89. Find the series. Ex. The first term of an A. = 144. 204 = ^ (98 . I Substituting in (I) and (II). I.e.104 w + 408 = 0. a = 49 6(71 .1) .PROGRESSIONS Ex. P. 133. 45. . 34. P. 1. n d. Findn.1). 12. n = 6. = n(104 . 122. 144.
= 16. n = 13. 78. = 1870. = 17. a x f b and a b. 13. = 45. Find w. s == 440.250 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 116 : Find the arithmetic means between 1. f? . y and #f5y. 7. How much did he save the first month? 19. 10. s = 70. d = 5. Given a = . . 6? 9. Given a = . and all his savings in 5 years amounted to $ 6540. Between 4 and 8 insert 3 terms (arithmetic is means) so that an A. produced. Find d. n = 20.3. and s. has the series 82. Given a = 4. 74. ceding one. = 83. n = 4. 8. How much . of 5 terms 6. f J 1 1 / . T? ^. a+ and b a b 5. 15. Between 10 and 6 insert 7 arithmetic means . 12. Find n. Find d. n = 16. man saved each month $2 more than in the pre 18. Find a Given a = 7. 17. Given a = 1. Find a and Given s = 44. n. Find?. A $300 is divided among 6 persons in such a way that each person receives $ 10 did each receive ? more than the preceding one. 4. 16. n has the series ^ j . n = 17. How many terms How many terms Given d = 3. = ^ 3 = 1. 11. P. = 52. I. m and n 2. Find d and Given a = 1700. 14. 3. I Find I in terms of a.
..arn ~ l . 4 (1) . The 314. r n~ l . 36. except the multiplying derived from the preceding one by by a constant number. ar. P. . 2 a. The progression is a. I. the following form 8 nf + q(lr") 1 r . ratios are respectively 3. +1. P. To find the sum s of the first n terms term a and the ratio r being given. (I) of the series 16. 24.PROGRESSIONS 251 GEOMETRIC PROGRESSION 313. of a G.g. is 16(f) 4 . 2 arn (2) Subtracting (1) from (2). 36. <zr . fl lg[(i) l] == 32(W  1) = 332 J.. 4.. 108. the first term a and the ratios r being given. Therefore Thus the sum = ^ZlD.. P. rs = s 2 .. A geometric progression first. (II) of the 8 =s first 6 terms of the series 16. is it (G. and To find the nth term / of a G. called the ratio.) is a series each term of which. . Hence Thus the 6th term l = ar n~l . If n is less : than unity. s(r 1) 8 = ar" 7* JL a. 24. E. ... 4. 36. the first = a + ar for ar f ar Multiplying by r. NOTE. g== it is convenient to write formula' (II) in *. ar8 r. or 81 315. 12. 2. a?*2 To obtain the nth term a must evidently be multiplied by .. . . . or..
72. 117 Which (a) of the following series are in G. 1. .. (b) 1. fa. l. +f%9 % . Ex.54. 10. .288. 3.4. i 288. first term 4. whose . Write down the first 5 terms of a G. f.. P.18. 9. 80.18. (it.252 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 316. Write down the first 6 terms of a G. . first 5. Find the 5th term of a G. .l.. And the required means are 18. In most problems relating to G. 576. the other two be found by the solution of the simultaneous equations : may (I) /=<!/'. 676. To insert 5 geometric means between 9 and 576. is 16.. P. Hence the or series is 0. hence. (d) 5. 72. fa.. whose and whose second term is 8. . 25. first term is 125 and whose common . Find the 7th term of the Find the 6th term of the Find the 9th term of the ^. 2 term 3.5.. 0.. .*. ? (c) 2. Jive quantities are in. 36.. series . volved . . 144. . 144.. .. if any three of them are given. whose and whose common ratio is 4. EXERCISE 1. 9. 9. P. a = I. 18. 288. Find the 6th term of the series J. 144. 676 t Substituting in = r6 = 64. series Find the llth term of the Find the 7th term of the ratio is ^. f. series 6. Evidently the total number of terms is 5 + 2. 36. 7. is 3. 20.. 36. 4. 8.. . . 6. P.6. series 5. Hence n = 7. . \ t series . r^2. . .. + 5. P. 4.._!=!>.72. or 7. I = 670.5.
J. Consequently the sum of an infinite decreasing series is By n less r^Ex. 25S series : 32. a^. and hence ~ r . 12. = 3. Therefore 8^ = 1 i =1 1 '. 243. I. . 1.PROGRESSIONS Find the sum of the following 11. 14.nV> i*> !718. >"> . 16 . 24. 22. is less than unity. J. + 4 ..i a9 . to 8 terms.. 14. 27. 4. 42.. the value The formula for the sum may if n increases* = _ fl flf made taking n sufficiently large. Find a and 4.. Z s. 81. Find a and Given r = 3. 81. 2. 12 terms. s = 605. J. 126. . 20. to 6 terms. P. Find the geometric mean between 7. 36. Find a and n = 4. 15. of r n decreases. Find a and Given r = Given r = 2. a. . .. be written If the value of r of a G. Prove that the geometric mean between a and b equals Vo6. to 7 . n = 5. may be than any assignable number. 48. to 6 terms. Given r = n Z 5. M. 13. 21..J and 270. 72. 23. 54. . n = 5. to 5 terms. Find the sum to infinity of the series 1.. = 3. J. INFINITE GP:OMETRIC PROGRESSION 317. 19. to 6 terms. 1. . s = 310. r . to G terms. to 7 terms. == 160.
ratio 15. = . 14. 16. .191919. I. 100. 66 Therefore . 250. 9. = 990 . is 9.27777 .. . 118 : infinity of the following series 3. i i J..072 + .1.. the diagonal of each equal to the side of the preceding one.717171.. 1.72.= . what is (a) the sum of the areas.. .... Find the sum to infinity. 2. 3. Find the value 9. r = j.. 1. 4. 65 = 1L 110 EXERCISE Find the sum to 1.555. first and the common term. .37272 .. . The sum Find the of an infinite G. = . and the first term is Find 17.. 8.. The sum r.. 12.. Given an infinite series of squares... 5. .)7?7272 .3727272 . If the side of the first square is 2 inches. 9..254 Ex..= _4Z* . is 16. P.. . . 12.. 1. 10. is J.. = a .00072 f . of all squares ? ... . .. . 8.. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Find the value of ... P.. . . 6. If a = 40. 13.01 ^ . i.99 . =A+ 10 i.. 1. (6) the sum of the perimeters. .272727. 1 r = . 6. of an infinite G. 7. ..3 + .3121212. 4. of: 11. . .. 5.. The terms afteAhe first form an infinite G.Ql.. 40. P. Hence .072. 16. 2.
Find the middle term of f f x }\8 : ) 27. 14. (a2) 6. (z2 ^ Simplify 9. Find the 5th term of Find the 3d term of + b) . (a + b) . l 2. 29. a6 8 16 in . 12.6) 20 .a2) 25 Find the 5th term of f Vx + ^r 18. 26.BINOMIAL THEOREM EXERCISE 119 257 Expand the following 3. 4 7.b ). 20. 5. : (1 + xy. coefficient of . Find the 6th term of (x . 4 (1+V#) + (1 Va) 4 . . 13. . (a 100 . Find the 4th term of (w Find the 5th term of 12 ri) 11 . (s + i). 28. Find the middle term of (x + y) 4 Find the middle term of (a b)\ . + a) Find the 4th term of 7 (a f 2 b) . 10. 4. 11. 15. a4 b 12 in (a f 6)16 Find the coefficient of a5 b 15 in (a . . . 7 . 2 2 24. 21.6) . /2a+Y\ 8. 25. (xy) : 6 . Find the Find the u 13 coefficient of a?b in (a f 5) . (\ 9 . Find the middle term of (m ri) 16 Find the 99th term of (a + b) m im Find the 1000th term of .b) w (a (a f (1 . Find the coefficient of a?V" in (a Find the coefficient of 23. 16. Find the 3d term of fa f V ^Y Va/  19. 22. 17.
3. 6. 4. 2. 5. 5. 5J lj 2j 3} 8 4j y 8 . 4 ft  c) 2. 2J 4J 16 x* 32 afy 24 afya 1. 5. 3. 4 2. 2. 4. (ft c)(c 4 ) 3.f ac 1. 2. 3. c if 7 . if = = 2.258 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA REVIEW EXERCISE Find the numerical values 1. 3. 4. 2. 6. 3. y 3. 1. 2.  2. 2. 4. 1. 1. *=M  M 3J f 2 2 ] 2 ] 2 1 3 1 3 1 M. 3. 2. 4 (2 a  13 a a b + a ft 31 a 2 ft 2  38 3. 2. 1. ^+^ 3. 3. 3. = 2. + 2. 1. (c 3. 1. + 1. 2 (2 a  3 aft f 4 2 ft ). 2. ft 4 ) 5. 2. 1. 4.  2. 2. 2. 2. 2. aft 3 + 4. + c(a  c). 3. . 1. 5. 5. if = = = 2. 1. 24 4. 1. 3. 3. 6. 2. 3. 5.  8 ^ 2. 1. 1. 7. 1. 2. (ca)(cft)' 4. l. 3. if x^l. 4. 2. 2. 3. 1. 6. c = = = 2. 3. of : 27 x* ~ 27 xy or f 9 xy~ 1 # 8 . + 2. 4 *2  4 xy  4 ^+ a: ?/ 2 ?/ + 2 3. 6. 4. a8 + ~T 3 2 ft' a2 + + 3T r C + + c2 + 2 . 5. 4.] a 2^ aft + r 3 a l} 2 be 4. 3. 1. 2. if a ft c = = = 4. 4. 3. 2. 2. 3. 1. if y=2j 2.c )(fta) 1. 4. 4. 5. 3. 1. 1.a(a 4. 2. 2. 2. 3. 2. 3. 2 . 5. 4. a ft c = = 2. 3. 1. 3. . 2.  a)(a 1. 2. i (aft)(ac) a 6 (ft. ft) . 5. 2. 3.
= 2. + 8 x4 *y . 2.2 x2 . or . . 1. 2.3 a?y .259 x c) . 4 a 5 9 4 2 */.  2 x 2// + 3 2 x?/  7 y3 . + x/y 2 + + y'2z + 2 3 x 10 y'2 + 5 z2 . . 7 xy 3 . 4.8 3 + 7 x4 . ' b) + 3.' 4 x2 2  5 z3 8 . 15.2.4 xyz + 4 xy'2 . b(x (b 1. 15. 2 a3 7 y4 3 // f ax'2 .a 4 . 40. 5. 11 z 4 x4 12 17.4 x'2 f 12 x and 5 2 + 7 x8 . 17. 2 x 8. 5. 5. a.4 yz\ 7xy* + z 3. x 2 +  2 ax* f a zx + 2 ?/ a8 . 4. f 8. 16.8 y y 5 4 * 8y. 26.7 + .7 ys.4. 24. 21.a) . x 3 11. + 4 ?y . 4 y 13. 9. 20. Add the following expressions and check the answers : 10. 2 2 x2 + and 9 2:2 y' xy. 6. .2. 3. 8 . a /> 3.5 xy 3 + + 4 .a8 .7 y 2* 4. 7. xy 2 12 xy* + G y4 4 xy*  zy + 12 xy*  4 y4 . c(x (c g)(x 6) = 1. 2 . 25. a 4 + 11 a .\ yz + xz. 7y 4 . 1 + 3 x + 2 x 8 . 6 a4 4 a8 . x3 2 a2 .x 2 + 4 2 ~ 10 z 2 + z 2 + 11 yz + 8 2:2 . x = 4. 18. 2. 4 z . by The and c is represented radius r of a circle inscribed in a triangle whose sides are by the formula Find r.11 z 3 4 4 ?p 2 . + 2. 4. x 3 x' 14. 21. 41.r 6 x  4 xy . r> . . 29.x 5 4 .2 z8 4 x. 9. 8. + 1. (5.c' 2 4 / . a. 2  + 12 a 8 . ~c)(b. 1.3 xyz. 2.2 a?y + 3 aty . c)(x a} . + 3 y 2* . x3 f 3 ax'2 . 10. 10 z 8 12  6 2 8.11 x 5 12 z 7/ 3 ary. 6 y4 y 4 + 3 z8 .1. if a 6 = = c = 3. x C 4 4x y + . c = 3. a: .a 5 a . 3.5. 11 x 8 + 14 x^ij .  a) (c 2. 4 x 4 .8 + 2 // .2 x?/. 4a + 9 a2  3 a5 . 12.10. + 4. 5. and 3 y 8 f 12 z 8 .
ft. 4 4 4.a ft. : a x .5.(x* .x . Simplify 31.(4 * .x 2 4.3 x . 33. 0" 30. 4 2 x2 23.?> x 4 20.2 x 8y2 44 .n/ 4 4 12 x 5 4 4 x?y 4 2 x6 f 4 x 4 ?/ x// 5 ?/ . c =x y }~ z. ft 25. x'2 . and 7 x a 2x 2 ax'2 4. and 2 Vl 4*/ 2VT+7 .(4 x 2 .[4 z 8 .4) . = x y ft z. 4vTT~y 3. 4 2 x8 x 4 4. 5 10 4 G 11 4.(5 c .1 and x 8 G 11 4 3 x2 +  from G x2 4 x. / x5 2x 4 # 3 y5 G x a 4 3 5 x*. and 4 4 2 xs 4 and 5 x 3 y 5 . the From sum of 2 1 sum 2 c of ft 4.2 . . . . and d= c c 4 x4#4z </.c. 34.4 x from the sum of 9 x 2. 3 x2 133ft[l7a5ft^[7fl3ft{4fl~4ft(2a3ft)}]]. Take the sum 4x 4.{2 x 2 . 3 ft. take the sum of G x 5 . . f ft. of a.2 a . and a 2 ft 4 ft 3 c take sum  2 c 4 2 a and 2 a 5 x c. Take the sum of G a8 4 4 4 a 2x 4 . 3 4 5 10 2  7 12 .x2 . find (a) a (ft) (c) a 4(</) 4. 29. 2 c  2 a  and 2 a 3 x2 28.{G * 2 . and a ft 4 ft 3 c take  6 a. and .3 .4. 4 3 From 44 the 3 // and G x 4y 2 x2 2 .1).] 26.[3 if  (3 _^ ft 6 ft f c)}] a: .(5 y .#48. of 2 x 8 4 4 x2 4 9 and 4 x . 3 x Subtract the difference of x 8 4 .5 10 b 3 \ G 11 = ft x4y42.c. 36.c 4 3 a. [4 I 2a47c(7ft44c)[6a3ft4 2~c44c{2a(ft2T2)}].3 x 3 from G a 8 2 a 2x  4 x8 22.3 . 7 12 .3. Add 9 Ifcc 2 7 12 .4 x 8 from ax 2 4 6 x8 4 21. c 4.5 .8 3 4. From of 2 the 4.4 ft) 4.6T .6 x ] . 4 . 2 xy 4 the ^V 4 G x5 From take 4 sum sum 2 c of . 542 x 2 and . Find what expression added the ft to 3 x 2 2 x 4 3 will give 27.[4 x 4.(7 x 4. . sum of .2 _[5ft{^ 2 8 4 x* .4\/i + x 3Vl 4. c 4ft.x 4. Take the sum of 3 x 4. 7 x x the ft 4 x2 11 x. (/) a +  ft 4 6 +  rf. (*) a  c.2) . 6 VI ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 4X5V14. x8 x2 2 a'2x. 4 3 5 y/ . 2 x 32. a  ft + c.(a .x .27~~7)}].. 2 x2 + 2 y5 24.2 3 ax 2 . 5 10 + 7 . 5 4 7 12 . 35.2 .1)}] .7.c 3 a. .4 Vl 4.260 19.(x 4.
56.(2 x2 . a .(7 i + 4 r:) .6c) (a + f c). 63. . 2 53.[7 a 36 {4 a 46 (2 a 3 ft)}]]. (x . (a:2)(r4)(a:9).12).6 x + 5 x'2) (2 . 60. 2 2 x + !)(* .0)} .3~ft f 2 c + 4 ^ . (. 2 52. 51.[0 a 5a + 2 c + 4 c . (a 2 + 2 + c 2 . .& + {.r 2 + !>ar + 3)(^ 2 .* 2 + (x + x + l)(a: (z 1).3 c)]. + 4x + 5)(j.b (c . 67. 43.(7 a.3c). 68. .6 xy . (x. . . 2 a) (2: + 7/ a)(x 2 2 66. 54.3 a + 3 + aft)(a + 3). (a 2 + 2 + c 2 + aft + ac .a~^~c)K].[2 . 2 : 7e)a}]. (r (1 (a. 50.2c(V/ .96 [17 a.[4 x  5 . . (a 2 + 2 + 9 .4 a .{2 a .(2 a 2 . (ar + 7)(ar + 5)(a: + 3).2 zz .{3 c .{2 a (ft .ac .Z .[3 y [2 ft 2 z + {4 (3 a ar 40.ab .3T~2~s)} + 5 2].6)}].3 yz)(2 a (* 2 ft ft ft ft ft ft ?/ ft ft ft ?/ a: 61. .ary + 2) (^ 4 ?/ *V + *)(! + ar)(l + ^ 2 )(1 + **). 5a(7ft+4c) + [6 a.3)(*5)(* 7).rf)} + a [. . 45. (/> 4 . (4 + 3a 2 . (2 x 2 3 ar+ 1)(3 z 2 x+ 1). 64.1).c).(4 d . (5 a 39. 57.(6 .56.(5 y .3 z 2 ). + 2)  (4 x 2  2 x 7)}].c 2 .2)(1 . 'J 44.2x + 3).4 a 2 + a 4 ). +  ^+ y)(x 2 ) (x + a 2 )(a: 4 + a 4 ).2 2 + 1)(7.(2 .5 )}] + {4 c . a {. (.2a . 65.  2 a  {3 2x a .7).3).JT^T+1)} + (2 . . 48. + *+!){> + 2).3 *). 2 ft 41. )(lz a ). (x 2 + 4 y 2 + 3 z 2 ) (. 13 a . 7 a 2 261 {5 2 a2 2 a + (2 a 2 i j 38.r 2:c+ l)(ar. 49. (1 55.REVIEW EXERCISE 37. 62. 3 x 42.2 2 . (4 z 2 + 9 2 + ^ 2 .(2 a + 5 a . 2 f [3 c 7 a . 46. 4 + 2 2 + 1).e '/)}] (2a + 2b . 59. (1 ar+a.be) (a 58.2 <?)} 13 ft ft _[&{2c(3d + Perform the operations indicated 47.5)} + (3 a 2 .
5 .z)(x y + z)(.z) .y)\x y). 90.am&t 4 A 2 *). O (x (a 2 + 4 y y) 2 a J 4 . b 4.y + z)(x + y . 91.m np c .(a 2) (s 4 ft.ft) + 4(2 . ft 8 ft) 4 ft 8 4. (x (x ( + *) . 2 (x 2 .v) 4. 4 (a + ft)(a 2 81. 83.2 (a . 8 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA (a 2  z 3) (a 8 2 a + z 3 )(a 6 2 + a: 6 ) (a 12 a (a  + l)(a 2 f 2a + l)(a + + ( a: 12 ).6*y .y'*4y 2m )OK y I)(a m ). (.(^ 4 y 2 )  4 ^/(.y). 89.3 a . 2 + a 2 ). ft" l Simplify 80.q).c) 2 . 1).:y)( a. ar .3 (ft . 1).2 (y 4. . (a) (a (ft) a8 4 ft 8 4. p(p + ?) + 4 A) (a . 73.> 2 2 + 2 3 9). 70.b 4. 84.c) 4) (ft 4.(a? 4 y)*(x  y). 75. 77. 3[a{2 a (a 4ft 4 2 2 ^>) c) 44 a2 a8 4 2 4. Prove the following 8 4.(a 48 8 8 4. 74. 87. ft ft ft a}.c)]. .c 8 4 3(6 c)(c 4 a)(n + 2 ft).262 69.c . 76. 86.2ft) 8 ( + 2 ft).n pc).ft) 4 .c) .{3 a . 94. 88.9y2).2 ft}) f (3 a . 4. a (a 2 2a + + " 4 l)(u 2a n f (:r a. 82.O (a 4(a 4. xy y 2 ).ac b + n~ + /? 2c n ft n an b c)(a"* ?n + + c).2y)(. 4 4 . ft 78. f 72.a) 2 . 71. by multiplying out each 4 side of the equality.(4 .3y) a (* 2 4.(/>  3 v)^(.c .c) . ft /.<f(p . _ ft) (a: + a)(x + b) + (bc)(x + ft) (a: 4.(x 42 y) O 2 4 y) (^ 44 y ). (p 2 .a) (a? 4(c 4 y) (y c)(ar 2 ft + 8 a).r3y)4l)y( a :y)^2y)418 // (2ry)46 8 // . 85.c c 2 4 2 am 20 (??2 + : n 6 f p ) (w . (a (2 b)*(a 4.x + y + z).a) (2 + 7(7> ~ 'y) 2 4. ft 95. 92. (a 2 ft 2n 4.z\x 4.r 2 . (x 4 2 y) (2 ^ 3 y)2(/ y) (^ 3 V)  . 93. .(ft 4.c) rr identities.c) j. + (rtP+i 4 2 6)(a^+ .(c 4.c)} . 79. a(2 + 4 3ft) 2 (2a 4 4 8 ^) .
2 (a+ . Cr (z 27y l9a:y) (a:3yy 6 ) r 2 (a: 4 xy 4 y 2 ).2 2% 4. 117. (80 a 112. (4 4 3 a  4  5 a 3 .1).y 2 4. 26 (a 4 c). 110. 118. 1O4. 109.y 2 ) 4 a 2// 2 /> 8 a. (a 8  8 68 8 4.REVIEW EXERCISE Simplify : 263 96.27 x* . 3*. 106.(y 2 ~ (a 2 ) 5 y 6 a  12).16 a 6 4.9 x 2 . 4 (a 8 44 16 a 2 4 4 256) s ~4 2 (a 4 4a ^ 4 16).(a 1 2 8 .2 xy 8 . 120.2y 2 4.xy 4.5 b*).b) 98. (. (8 x* 115. O3a n O2a 4~ i O4a 2a T (3' 3m n ~*~ 3 3n 3") 3".c 4 6 afo) f + ^ 4 ).) . ( y 8_o7)^^2 + 3 y + 0). 2 4 41 x 4a.5 a 21 (10 a 4 5 a*) Qafl^ = 5 a*. [10( 4. 114.y 4 ) . 122. 4 (6 x 4 23 x s 33 z 43 42 a.&) 8  5(a n 4 2 6) ] 5(a 4 &) 6 (a 4. 108. 10).4 aft . (2 y 44 2 y 2 4 02 y 23 a 4 3 16 y a 50 4 48) 2 111.'30) ~ (4 ^  5 x 4 10).3 a"+ 4. a*.5 xy).a". (x* 4 9 ax 8 44 12 .6 y 4 4. .21 x*if) (4 ^ 2 . 103. 123. 116.v/ ~ // = a: .(7 xi/ .(2 a 2 .(x 2 . .&). (2< 107. 113. r . 25 4 . 20) * (3 a* 4 4 a? + 5). 121.y 4 . 1).*) (x 8 .2 y 2 ) 3 xy (25 . (a 8 ^4 + 8 & 8) (  2 2 119.r 4 4. 99 100. 102. 124.35 x 2 2 ) .40 />) . (20 x*  4 72 x 2  35 4.6 ) (a** (a (x 10 3 J 1 a  1). 105.
142.2 {3 8)} ^ 5(13 4(j = 5{2 x .(x f 9).2(5 .3) = 12 . By what expression must x* + G x2  4 a: 1 be divided to give x2 + 5 # 9 as quotient. .3 x).2) + 2(ar + 4). 1) . .8 6 .7) = 4 .r + 7[or . .264 125.3).19) + 5 = 4 . 129. 137.18 *&) (1 . 1) = 2(* .1) (a? . 148.5). 3(2 x 134. with 8 as remainder? Solve the following equations and check the answers: 133.2(4 .5) = 12(4 x .(j a? 144.(3 a? 2 [2 x + (x 4. 42(3ar 145.G) .4) .  9)  7(0 x a?  32) + 5 = 4x  3(2 j  3).2(j: .r>) . 143.3 a (1 + * l l 1 3 f 2 &).27 a 3" . (4 x .l)(ar + 2) (a: (ar (2ar 2 4} = 2(3 x .2(10 x .n . . By what expression must 3 a 2 ab + & 2 ? be divided to give the quotient 3 a 2  2 6 2  8 ttfc 8 + 2187? . 3) = x\x .(x .3 a#z) (ar + y + s). (*+ + . o o 140.3) (3 x 4.9) 4.3(* + 4) + 9} . 5(2 x .2 7^~5] + 1). 10(2 x 141.5{. 135. .1) . 10(2 x 5 x + 3(7 x .3 a:). x 147.12 M 132.9) + 3. 2 4(ar .(1 .7) = (7 x  1 1) (3 x .3(2 z . 126.(x + 3) ] .2) (a: + 3).x+ + x a ) ~ (x a + + x).4(0 x . (1 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA + a8 3  G ax z8  8 z 8) 5 (1  a  2 x). . (5a: 150. 138. . 136. 2(3 x + 4) 8 [2 (a: . y (* l x. 1 o + 5 + 1=15. remainder when a 4 3 a b B + 12 a 2 6'2  b* is divided By what expression must a: f 3 be multiplied to give 4 x*7 8 a*b + 4 a 131.2) = 3 . 5 146.3). 128. 3) a: a: a: +?+4= o 13. 7(2 x . 127.7(4 * .4) .(9 x + 10) (a:  3) . 139. 149.a:)]}. What is the 2 by a*ab + 26 ? 130.22.
? .19) + 42. 153.5*) + 47. (x (x a.2) (7 *) + (*. (b) At what temperature do the Centigrade scale and the Fahrenheit scale indicate equal numbers? (c) How many degrees C. 158.9) + (a. + 5) 2 (4a:) 2 =r21a:. = 2 C.(5 x . Find five consecutive numbers whose sum equals 100. ^ + ?=13 + 2o 10 o . (3 O + .3) = (3 x .29) 2 = 1.4) (a . .a:) + 229. (7 14 . 166.7) (1 x . 154.5)(. 164. these two angles would be equal. .2) (j? + 1) + (x .25) 2 . (a) If C.5 x) = 45 x .14) (a: + 3).3)(* (ar 2 7)  113. 5(ar x . angle of a triangle is twice as large as the first. 265 152. find the value of F.1) (s + 3).T)O .. A man is 30 years old how old will he be in x years? 168. If the area of the frame inches.2).76. 2 4 . 156.l)(z .j Write down four consecutive numbers of which y is the greatest. (2 .1) O + 4) = (2 * . . There are 63 sheep in three flocks. + 5) = (9 . (a . how wide is the picture ? surrounded 108 square is 172. a: ar a.2 x) (4 .2(x ~ 1) + 12 = 0. and if 15 were taken from the third and added to the first.3) (3 .r + 3) .REVIEW EXERCISE 151. 157. By how much does 15 exceed a ? How much must be added to k to make 23? 167.5(x . will produce F.8) = (2 x 4. = 15. The sum What 171. transformed into F.3) (a: . .3) (j.24. The second contains 3 first. + 10) (ar . =  (F 32).6 x) (3 . sheep are there in eacli flock Y The second of the three angles of a triangle is 180. . The formula which transforms Fahrenheit (F. 159.) readings of a thermometer into Centigrade readings is C.2 x) = (1 .17) 2 + (4 x . 155.z) (4 . (a. f^ + ^sO. 161. are the three angles? is A picture which is 3 inches longer than wide by a frame 2 inches wide.3) (3 . + 2) + (5 . 160. 162.2) a + 7(x . How many 170.7) (a.5) = (3 . 163. and the third twice as many as the first. sheep more than the 169. 165. + 4) (2 x + 5).(* + 2)(7 z + 1) = (* .
179. z 2 92. 180.36. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA A A number increased by 3. Four years ago a father was three times as old as his son is now. 7/ 191. ll?/102. same result as the number diminished by 175. How many are there in each window ? . father. A each 177. 12 m. if each increased 2 feet. A the boy is as old as his father and 3 years sum of the ages of the three is 57 years. A boy is father.56. An The two express train runs 7 miles an hour faster than an ordinary trains run a certain distance in 4 h. 2 2 + a _ no. dimension 182. . 15 m. power one of the two Find the power of each. Find the age 5 years older than his sister 183. 4 a 2 yy 42. 181. The length is of a floor exceeds its width by 2 feet. side were one foot longer. and 5 h. The age of the elder of it three years ago of each. 10x 2 192. and the father's present age is twice what the son will be 8 years hence. 176. 3 gives the same result as the numbet multiplied by Find the number. the ana of the floor will be increased 48 square feet. 178. and  as old as his Find the age of the Resolve into prime factors : 184. A house has 3 rows of windows.266 173. 186. 13 a + 3. respectively. 3 gives the 174. sister . Find the number. x* 185. 190. number divided by 3. +x 2. 6 in each row the lowest row has 2 panes of glass in each window more than the middle row. aW + llab2&. + 11 ~ 6. 188. + a. Find the dimensions of the floor. train. 189. younger than his Find the age of the father. the sum of the ages of all three is 51. and the middle row has 4 panes in each window more than the upper row there are in all 168 panes of glass. is What are their ages ? Two engines are together more than the of 80 horse 16 horse power other. 187. two boys is twice that of the younger. . What is the distance? if square grass plot would contain 73 square feet more Find the side of the plot. . was three times that of the younger. z 2 + x .
10 y a x* . a. x 5 . a: 236. a: 231.6. 245. 24 2 + 2 . 14x 2 25ary + Gy 2 3 x* x 2 . ifWy+b. a. wiy + la mx + aw. 2 .10 xy. 213. a+a* + o a +l. 3 ap 2 . . a: 4  a: 2 a: V 2 . 8 a. x 219.64.19 z 4 204.x + 1. 3 x 2 .14 2 . 246. 230.3 xf + 3 * 2y . 2 + x 2 ) 2 . 235. 4 f yx* + z*x + z*y. 2 afy 13 28 a: ary + 66 y. + 198. # 2  29 y + 120. 15 x 2 + 26 x a .77 y + 150.3 c/> + 6 cq. 16x 4 81.19 a . 221.a 2/A 214 12 x*y . 212. + 3a 196. 218. 2 2 y f 1.c) 2 . a.6 aq . 238. 2 a: 2 + 4y2) 2 + 240. 208. . 267 199. a 2 . (13z 2 5# 2) 2 2 2 (a 6 (12 c 2 ) 2. 233. 5 x 2.1. 209. 8 a: ar. x* + 8 2 + 15. 210. 7x 2 225.10. z + 5x 2 . x*y 223. 202. + 2 . + 30 x. 2 x 2 . 227.c) 2  (a . 12 x +4.(b + rf) 2 . y 2 194. 206.12 * .6s. . 4 m +^. 2 a 2 .8 6 2. 229. .28. 3y 248.REVIEW EXERCISE 193. *2 234. a a: a: 237. 215. 5 ?/ + 1 1 a*b . (a + . 211. 232.6 y2 + 4. + 8. 217. 216. 203. 2  5 xy 13 y a. a^a 226. .y) y) 6 a 2 + 5 a . 7a 228. 11 2 + 10 20 x 4 .r?/f y 2 9.xm y + xym  + (a c)  (c rf) 242.22 z + 48.6 2 ?/ . 224. xm+l 243. 195. 207.(a + z2 ) 2 (a 2 3 (x (r + y + a. . + G *2#2 + 9 x*y\ 6 x* + 5 a:y . 23 12. 244. 60 a 2  a: // 205. 2 200. 222. 3 x V . 201. 239. 3y 2 + ary .20 z 8 a: 220. 2 a 8 . a: .3 xy. z 2 2. 4a 2& 2 241. 6 197. 2a te 3% ly 247.21 a:  54. 9a4a6 (a 2 + b . . a.
5 ab f 2. z 2 268. x 2 4. a.9 x + 14.14 bx a%% 8 . x 2 .9. a 4.a + 2 4.23 + 12. + 20 x 4. 2 a. .2/ 2 .&z. x 2 + 2 x .9 x .11 a 2 . 2 2 + 39 xy 4. x 2 f 9j: + 20.17 x + 6 * 14 273 P a 5y>+4. x* .23 x f 20. 270.3.3 x .2 ax 2 + 2 for 2 .M. 15 # 2 z/ /. + 3 x + 2.1 9 .73 xy .11 x f 28.12.6 by.a 2 />c 2 f 3. 257. 3 ay 4. 22x2 a. 2 + 7 r f 2. G(x+  l)'\ 9(x 2  1). 2 . x* .2 aft*. 260. ft a. + 8 x + 5. 7 12 2 2 . * 2 .2 z . x 2 + 5 f . I Find the II.ry .268 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 249.4.10 a 4.16 x . + 8. 8 2 + 10 x . 3 a% 2 .10.91. 251.8. 2 z 2 f 13 x + 1 5. 258. 269. a 3 a 2 2 . x*y* 4. of: 266. 10 x 2 . ^27/7 + 12 2?6 28 x 2 12 Jr 2__7^/_ J/ 2 + 3 .x .4 ab + 1. a: . 6. z 2 267. 7 ax 250. * a .ry 21.13.36. 264. 259. 8 xf < 3 xy + a. 18 x 2 . : x2 4 a: ~ + a. 28 2 f 71 x . 254. 265. 10 a. 3 #2 255. * 2 .9 xy + 14 y 2 ar ar a: .G7 x f 33.18 ry + 32 y 2 2 . Reduce to lowest terms 271.r + a# + az f 2 6z fry 4. 2 8 . 252. + 23 x f 20.80. a? a: a: // 262.120.3 abc .48 afy 2 .77 + 77 ' 2?5 5 ' 2 5 a: 2 7 .7 f 5. F. 2 x2 .15.15 + 30. x 2 + 4 + 3. of: 253. 30 ^ .r . C. 1 x ar Find the L. x 2 263.18 xy + 5.C. 5 x 2 256. 261. _ 40 y 2 272 f f 2 !8a: .(55. * 2 .
.REVIEW EXERCISE 277 8 agg 269  6 a.. fr 293 ' y <? 294 2 2 2 + 2 cV + 2 a 2^ 2  4  ft* ~ c4 295 296 ' 297 ' .n 2 )P * 287 " 281 2 q^( 2  a: 2 ) m 288 ' . + ac .J' 4 2 2 w mp .rL. _ "* m ~n w 4 + 2 7w% 2 f sa .2 22 + 2 2 yz 4 2 zx 2 + ary _ _ 22 _ 292 ^  ?/. 9 286 1 1 + 2* 3 x f *2 ar + a . m 4. a.2c a: 282.ar 1 279.2* + 3 x* 280.(y 2 z) * t (j. y)' z2 283 t 290 ' x'2 2 y* + z2 + 2 0:2 291 *2 + y 2 + 0.  9 ' 2Q4 4 *2 ' 8x+8 ' 278.!/. 8 . z2 (a 2 + c)a. 289 ' . 285 z4 n* + a. *2 " 2 + Oge.
^_2*(m 308. x x ~~ +^ i ^ ~ ''^ . + 19) 2Lz + 3 x " 2 99 ' i x +4 *3 a +7 300. 4 3 301. Lnl + ar 2 a. a? __ + *_ + + la?la? * a l 303. ^n m+n "*" + n) 2 g 309. x + 3 ^ "" 310 x a: 2 a: 2 2 a:  17 a:2 ar3 x 2 5a:i6" . X2 (ca)(ai) 1 x2 4 (a +9 i_ 20 a . x 7. a (: a) (x 2.270 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA : Find the value of 298 23. O(ca) 306. 2 + 7 _ 44 3. 6) _ ~ i 305. (a: 1 + l)(ar + 2) (x + l)(ar + 2)(* + 3) 302. (a 1 1 + a b c) (a + ^ ct) (a + a c)(a f e) 304. ^. _L + 12 x 1 + 35 1 307. * 19 23 19(23 23.
. i 271 + b a2 + ft 2 312.(a . 2ft 2 a8 3 314. 1 _. a: 1 313.ft) 2 322.+ a 10 z 2 2 *2 9*+ 20 *2  8* + 15 315.BE VIEW EXERCISE 311. nl g(jL+ 2 ) ^^^_ 318. Dx x(l *) * 8(1*) 4(1 +*) 2 8(1 + 4(1 ._ '(a6)*(a:r)a 323. 2 + y 2 319. . 1a: + y a. (1 . 1 x2 + + a. ( ftc g~ft ( 6_ c) 2_ (a..*) + * 2) 321  c) 2 . _ x8 . (a? 4 2) 317. } .2 1 f 1 + : *2 1  2 x' 316.
2 a2  2 a  ' 03 i^+^T 42 ^2 _ l5rt~+~54* 327 8 ' ^ .y20  2y + 4 2 .V  + y  x 3y a .ll. .2 +lOar 2 a.15 33 . ' a: 2 2 5 sy a: f zy + 4 y* .6* t 328./  3 y  6 ( 331 g gy ' f a 3y ~ 6 q  9 G 2 y/ + 5 ?/ 6 G fl y~4y+ 15 ^e  10 6y 332 3 a: +lly10 4 xy 8 2  a.28 8 2  11 2 + J?_ x fl^^ffjje _ 2 12 a 4 a + a  4 6~7** 27^12^7 . 4 y2 2 5 x8 2 z6 3 y 10 a: 2 + 8 2 . 2 x* 8 x2 4 r8 i + 2 a..272 Simplify: ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA ~ 324. . 20 44 333.5 a .19 xy + 6 y 2 8 x* a: ?/ ' ~" 6 y 333. 2 ?/ 4g~0yg 10 o# 2 ~ x 6 a* x' 2 24 y 2 1 . 2 ^ "" 1B x + 40 y *2 + 5 x  3. z2  4 x  ^ "" 12 *. a: 2 x* .9 *// + 27 .a: ' 2 + 0^ + ^2^7 a.y 2 x (a?4y) 3(2 x  ' _ ^/ 3 y) 2 8 330 .B ~ 1037  329 4 a. 2 lOx 5x.7 xy + 12 x .7 acy + 12 y2 + 5 a:y + y 2 .. * 3a.4 x?/ 2 ^_ G x 2 + 13 gy_+ . 250 5 10 2 325.2 y2 ' 334 *2 ' + 2 y 8 a.
+ r .1V.y. (aWi + iJ.REVIEW EXERCISE 336. 5 343. 348.. \5yl 341. : 1+ i. +^ a: y x . ' 2 "l 5 . + l + IV. aj 339.) 2 . ( 342. a>74 . 7 ( ?f!?. 1 345. 278 C  ~ a c* \ c* ~ b a2 q2 h c 5 5 ~ a c b q  q c 6 * \ : f 1 \  { 337. 352. fl. f V. a: 349 _ o. ** i.r 5 2 . xi 347. 338. w \.13 13 s 11 Find the numerical values of 351. (a \ + lV. ' ~ ~ x2 + 8 + 76 2" 350. (af2/. 344. (ar \ 346. ?_2 ^ . Simplify : 353 ^3 * 2 L pE+1 a /2x~l V 5a:~2 10 4 354. + ni + . \x yj 340. if a = 3.
+ x x a . ar xy + yl x* 358. I  I f 366.274 355 f 5 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA U<>3) 356 fl V ___ _/ 2(*l)J + ya xl x 1* YTx 2 110*W*1 1** JUal + xy 357. 1+2 362. (~ 364. i+5 1+1 9 x2 f 363. _ + l a 359. (a a b yx c yabc 361. W?* (* + 1 + 2x) \3a _ 1 + 2x \3a 1 365. a2 4 . y360.
2  m 373 "1*7 374. b c 368.REVIEW EXERCISE 2 275 f 367. 6 a c b a b b 1 ' ~ _^ . (1 +ab)(l+bc) 369. . \b* + c* b + b b*c*)^ c ^\ b (b* f c*) } c 4 c a b . 370 ' 1 (/')(&o) 1 a 372. a + .
4(* . 379. """ 2J 7 ' + 2 28 ear7 + i3JTo^ . <3 378. a: r ~ 2 + 5"^  10 xf x  382. 2(3 x (x + 4) + 10) + 1 (x + 7) = 0. + 6)+  (* + J = _j_ j(* v/ O + 5)10 ^\:) / 380. 3 Solve the equations : or a: 2 (a. 1 + 16ar_63 24 g 2T~~~ia 7 12f a 8 a' 389 5  14(arl) 18 105 390. + 1) 45 O 377.276 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 375. # k 1 _j j a: 2 a: 3 383.*2 = 15. 5 3 vC 7 a: 385 10 17 387 * L*J> _ 14 1 7ar = (5 ar 10ar + 15 . ^ .^^ + x f o 51) +2J = 0. . 5*8. 8  376. . r 1  3(* + 1)} ! ' . __4 2x 3_ = !. 5 {2 x 381. J !__7. 20 iLf5 + !*=! = 2 J.
 ft) = 2(ar  ) (a.8 = .2 a:  1. f 1 1 + a 403. u '2 a. "i 2 37370 ^ x i x x + 1 a?  R  7 ~r * 1 a.75 x f . 3* 177.1 . 400. (8 x  3) (x 2  1) = (4 x a: 1) (4 x  5). ^ (a .5 1 f 1 x  2 = x . (x ~ a)(x f 6) f c = ^ (z a: + 2 a)(a: a: 5 i)..147. . a.. 40. y ~ rt ^= & ~ 402. n a 4O5 b b x f (a:  a) + a(a.25. 397.REVIEW EXERCISE 391. JLg:== 7wa: c c } q.  J). c . l)(x  a) (a:  3) 42 3(4 *  2)(ar + 1). 396. a: a)(a:  &)(>: + 2a +2&) = (a: + 2 a) 408. 399.25 x + .  8 9* x ~r. _____ . + 4 a.6  . 277 x 4 _x 5 _ _ a: ar.* 2 + *2 " 2 ~ ^ H. 6 7 7 ^ 2 1(5 a. .6~a: 7 _ x 8~a. m x 398.5 x =r f .5 ^ ~ a: a. b 404. 401.
mx ~ nx (a ~ mx nx c d d c)(:r lfi:r a b)(x . 411. Tn 6 hours . f a x f x f c 1 1 ab b x 415.(c rt a)(x  b) = 0. x 1 a x x1 ab 1 1 a x a c + b c x a b b ~ c x b 416 417. hour. a x ) ~ a 2 b 2 ar a IJ a. Find the number. and was out 5 hours. 421. (x . A in 9 hours B walks 11 miles number of two digits the first digit is twice the second. A man drives to a certain place at the rate of 8 miles an Returning by a road 3 miles longer at the rate of 9 miles an hour. down again How person walks up a hill at the rate of 2 miles an hour. the order of the digits will be inverted. far did he walk all together ? A .278 410. In a if and 422. he takes 7 minutes longer than in going.(5 I2x ~r l a) . (x f ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA a)(z  b) = a 2 alb = a (x f b)(x 2 . a x a x b b x c b _a b f x 414.c) . Find the number of miles an hour that A and B each walk. 2 a x c x 6 f c a + a + a + 6 f walks 2 miles more than B walks in 7 hours more than A walks in 5 hours.  a) 2 6 2a. 4x a a 2 c 6 Qx 3 x c 419. How long is each road ? 423. 18 be subtracted from the number. and at the rate of 3^ miles an hour.a)(x b b) (x b ~ ) 412. 420. 418 ~jo.
Find the mean proportional to 429. ax is \ by  ex + dy. 430.2 (a + &*) (a h & ) = (a ) (a 6). Which of the following proportions are true? (9 c. . Find the fourth proportional 426. find the angles of the triangle. of the sixth and ninth parts of the less. a  t>.& 5 ) (a 8 .49 63). 432.46 2): (15a 2 . a8 f 2 ab f 6 2. Find the length of the parts. 5 7 or 151 208? 437.a 2^ 8 + aft* . a + 5. Solve 436.REVIEW EXERCISE 424. : If is one equal 434. The sum of the three angles of any triangle is 180. 8 8 5 ~ a*b + a*b* . a. z 2 y. angle of a triangle is to another as 4 5 and the third angle to the sum of the first two.31 afc + UV ) = (15 a 2 + 31 ab + H 6) (25 a2 . Find two consecutive numbers such that the sum of the fifth and eleventh parts of the greater may exceed by 1 the sum. If a b : =5 n : 7. b. . . 435. z2  y\ x* xy + y*. y. Prove that the number of miles one can see from an elevation of h feet is very nearly equal to ^  miles. if . find : a : c. wi* + y= ny. 2 2 8 2 . When will the second steamer overtake the first? 425. x 427. : m n(n x) =p : m n(p : x).6 8 ). (a + 6 ) (a + ft) = (a (3a 2 2 : : fc : : : . d. : i. 3 and 1J. Find the ratio x 5x : = 7y . 431. Which ratio is greater. and : b : c = 14 : 15. A line 10 inches long divided in the ratio m:n. 433. 279 A in 2 lowed steamer which goes at the rate of 264 miles a day is foldays by another which goes 286 miles a day. 428. 438.iand 22 22 I a . + 4ft):(Oo + 86)= (a26):(3o46).
5j + 7 7 = = 2. 21 7 = 27 + Op. 9/> = 2 .4 12 . 456. = 25. 451.rf2# = l. 8 x + y = 19. Find the value of a. 20y + 21 18a = 50 + 25y. 455. 453. a: 2y= = 1 . a: a: + 5y). 459. 7jr9y = 17. 3 a.280 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA x. of two spheres are to each other as the cubos of a sphere 2 inches in diameter weighs 1:2 ounces. 4 = 5 y + 29. 449. />(. 29(a + &) : x = 551 (a 3  ) 19(a  &). 444.7 y = 25. 15ar = 20 + 8y.3 y = 3 5 f 7 . ax + ly = 2 a*x + & 2# = a + b.. 454. if 2 ft : 439. 457. 5z4:# = 3. 28 = 5 a . 452. 5 2 = 7 .11 y = 95.59 = 3 z. 3 . . Solve the following systems: 441. 33 x + 35 y = 4 55 * . ?/ 447. 42 = 15y + 137. 5#+ 10 = 27 a. 56 + 10y = 7a.35. 2 (3 a + 2 ab  8 ft) : 2 (5 a f 4 ai  12 ft 2 ) = a? : (5 a  6 ft). 450. 446. x + 17 # 53. c. 448. x + 5 y = 49 3 x . ft. a. The volumes If their diameters.11 7. 443. . 8 . what is the weight of a sphere of the same material having a diameter of 3 inches ? 440. 16. . 445. ft. 1(3  a. 7a?y = 3. 7 442. + 5y = 59. 9ar7# = 71. .55 y = . .*.89 = q.(or l(*2y)=0. ox f &// = 2 + y) = a + 8a + 21+3ft = 0. /) ar a. 7 a: . 5x+4y=lQ. 458.
^ + i^ = 7.. i 47O _ 3~12 } 4* 471. ax cx by = m. 8 461.7. 3 x 28i + 7 ~~~^ = 5. 473. ' a: + 2 g + 3 y _ 467.REVIEW EXERCISE 460.?/ + 1 .2y) (2 = 2J. _ & +y 3 dx+frj c\ . ax by = c \ 472. 465.  = 2. 475. car = 4 rf cte  ey =/. + eyn. 4 g ~ 2 7g + 3 . _ 469. i = 5.c=563y. 468.+ =2. (or . 3 a? _ y 7 a? 3 y _ 1 12 15 ~~10 4 __ 10 "10 463. x y 474.
A sum of money at simple interest amounts in 8 months to $260. latter would then be twice the son's A and B together have $6000. and if each be increased by 5 the Find the fraction. the Find their ages. and becomes when its denominator is doubled and its numerator increased by 4 ? j 478. Find two numbers such that twice the greater exceeds the by 30. half the The greatest exceeds the sum of the greatest and 480. What is that fraction which becomes f when its numerator is doubled and its denominator is increased by 1. A number consists of two digits 4. also a third of the greater exceeds half the less by 2. whose difference is 4. Find the principal and the rate of interest. Find the fraction. by 4. and in 20 months to $275. Find the numbers. Find the numbers. Find their ages. There are two numbers the half of the greater of which exceeds the less by 2. A sum of money at simple interest amounted in 10 months to $2100. least The sum of three numbers is is 21. Find the sum and the rate of interest. Of the ages of two brothers one exceeds half the other by 4 is equal to an eighth of 482. thrice that of his son and added to the father's. if the sum of the digits be multiplied by the digits will be inverted. age. 485. If 31 years were added to the age of a father it would be also if one year were taken from the son's age . to . and 5 times the less exceeds the greater by 3. and in 18 months to $2180. 483. If 1 be added to the numerator of a fraction it if 1 be added to the denominator it becomes equal becomes equal to ^. . 479. A spends \ of his. In a certain proper fraction the difference between the nu merator and the denominator is 12. fraction becomes equal to . 487. 481. years. and the other number least. 477. had each at first? B B then has J as much spends } of his money and as A. How much money less 484.282 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 476. Find the number. 486. and a fifth part of one brother's age that of the other.
. 495. 3ar 503.z = 12. 3 x 500. 2 ar + 3 y 2 z = 8 . 1+1 = 6. = 209. 4 497. 2a:f 7. ~ 507. . a.? + 2y = 8. 3 a: + 5=84. z y ifi = z x 502. 7. a: 499. 492. of two the sum of the digits also if number. f + 3 y 62 4 y 4a. 2y + 3a = ll. .REVIEW EXERCISE 488. The sum of two numbers squares is b. + y 5 y = 101 . 2/>3r = 4. . 2 e. = 15. 7 4#+ 3z = 35. 7 + 2 z . a. 4z+3z = 20. 5 + a. * + 425  = . 498. = 20. x s + y z = 18J . a: + // = 11. 2 a. . y Solve : x +z= 5. 494. 493. *i. and the difference of their Find the numbers. 496. There is 283 digits which is equal to seven times the digits be transposed the new number Find the will exceed 10 times the difference of the digits by 6. x y f z = 13. 2y + 2z = a: 2. ifi = x a. : Solve the following systems 491./ 504. a: + ?/ 2z = 15. 1. 8. 5^ 9z = 10.5#+2z = $x a: G. z y x 25 . 2 2 = 41. a: f z = 79. \ . Find two numbers whose sum equals is s and whose difference equals d.z = 20. 489. x f y f z 29 . a number . 4 506./ f z =a. 30 2^ 3^ = ' ' 4r=9. + # +z= 35. 490.
284 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 516. + : = 1472. 36 + c. 523. i=a + 6 c. z z =3a&c. !f == 2800. 517. + + 3579 2+?. ll" . ra? + y 2 + 524 x \ +y + = + t jx [y + 9 = 3af& + r.
530. In circle A ABC. In how many days can each alone do the same work? 526. How long will B and C take to do . if L and Af in 20 minutes. in 28 minutes. 90. the first and second digits will change places. they would have met in 2 hours. his father is half as old again as his mother was c years ago. and losing 14 pounds when weighed in water? (b) How many pounds of tin and lead are in an alloy weighing 220 pounds in air and 201 pounds in water ? in 3 days. N. Tu what time will it be filled if all run M N N t together? 529. (a) How many pounds of tin and lead are in a mixture weighing 120 pounds in air. Find the numbers. and BE. What are their rates of travel? . CD. E 533. . Two persons start to travel from two stations 24 miles apart.REVIEW EXERCISE 285 525. AB=6. if the number be increased by Find the number. 532. An (escribed) and the prolongations of BA and BC in Find AD. A number of three digits whose first and last digits are the same has 7 for the sum of its digits. Find the present ages of his father and mother. and 23 pounds of lead lose 2 pounds. A can do a piece of work in 12 days B and C together can do the same piece of work in 4 days A and C can do it in half the time in which B alone can do it. it separately ? 531. A boy is a years old his mother was I years old when he was born. 527. A vessel can be filled by three pipes. and third equals \\ the sum third equals \. B and C and C and A in 4 days. it is filled in 35 minutes. L. and B together can do a piece of work in 2 days. sum of the reciprocals of of the reciprocals of the first of the reciprocals of the second and the sum 528. If they had walked toward each other. 37 pounds of tin lose 5 pounds. AC in /). if and L. touches and F respectively. When weighed in water. and CA=7. and one overtakes the other in 6 hours. Tf and run together. Throe numbers are such that the A the first and second equals . BC = 5. M. .
546. How is t / long will I take 11 men 2 t' . 542. x 8 549. Draw the graph of y 2 and from the diagram determine : + 2 x x*. the time of whose swing a graph for the formula from / =0 537.e. to do the work? pendulum. The values of y. The values of x if y = 2.  7. Represent the following table graphically TABLE OF POPULATION (IN MILLIONS) OF UNITED STATES. x 2 544. b. 2. c. If to feet is the length of a seconds. z 2  x x  5. 550. x*  2 x. x*. if x = f 1.3 Draw down the time of swing for a pendulum of length 8 feet. The roots of the equation 2 + 2 x x z = 1. 548. of Draw a graph for the trans The number in of workmen Draw required to finish a certain piece the graph work D days it is from D 1 to D= 12. The value of x that produces the greatest value of y. 545.286 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA : 534. One dollar equals 4. then / = 3 and write = 3.10 marks. AND BRITISH ISLES 535. .  3 x. 2  x  x2 . + 3. 543. x 2 + x. x *x + x + 1. i. Draw the graphs of the following functions : 538. The greatest value of the function. d. 536. a.  3 x. from x = 2 to x = 4. 547. GERMANY. 2. 540. formation of dollars into marks. the function. 3 x 539. 2 541. 2 x + 5. FRANCE. . e.
z 4 .  2 1 a: a. a. x 2 ~ 2 . . 2 x 2 560.9 = 0. 3 . ' = 8.4 = 0. 2 a.r 1 561. g. if y =m has three real roots. If y +5 10. .11 x* + + 2 8 569. 2.0. 2 567. = 5. x 5 . a. and make the unit of the b.3 x .4 . 556. 565. Find the greatest value which ?/ may assume for a negative x. i. J. 564. + 10 x . c. Find the value of m that will make two roots equal if y = m. 553.= 0. 2 ~0a: + 9 = 0. Solve// = 0.10 x 2 + 8 = 0.3 . 2 554. f. e. // Solve y Solve y = 5. h. 15. 3 x* .5 x .17 = 0.6 + 3 . 2 8 . 3 x .r a: a: x a.= 0. 555. a? 4 x . a: 559. a. 18 x  4 = 0. Solve 552.3 x .G .' 2* + Z  4 = 0. 557. 558. Determine the number of real roots of the equation y Determine the limits between which m must lie. r?.) How In far does a how many body fall in 2^ seconds? seconds does a body fall 25 meters? Solve graphically the following equations : x*"2x7 = Q.r . \ to t = 5. 562. z 2 . 287 by a falling body is The formula 2 ] f/f for the distance traveled a. 572. graphically from t = (Assume g = 10 scale unit of the t equal to 10 times the scale ^ 2 . c. Which negative value of x produces the greatest value of y ? : Solve graphically 570 ' 571.7 = . 568.11 = 0. Represent meters.4 x 2 + 4 .1 = 0. x 4 .3 = 0.13 = 0.REVIEW EXERCISE 551. 563. 3 + 3 z . x* . + 5 . j. 566. .15 = 0.
+ . 593. (a. 2 + f 9 6 + 25 c 2 10 ac  a6. 604. (aiy.4 + 4 a 8^6 + 9 a a^e _ 6 aW + 8 9(5 a: 7 // fe . xY. a: f 2 2 aAa: + 2 ?/ . 2 611.48 a*h + 6 a: ?/ 10 6. 589. jj+. x + z2) 8 . a: f ~+ x [ 10 ^i  1 V 6x + 4 + 610. a. x [ ?/ 577. .x + 2 )'2 601. 2  2 aa: 2 . 600.4 x*y* + 3 4 6 .4. . 592. fMV  586 ' ^ (a + 6)T ' 587.  128 a 10 6 30 3 a: + 2 ?/ ' 100 a 8 /. 599. = 2 \*> + a: [ ^ = 4' = 581. 608. f ^s_ 14 a 4/. Extract the square roots of the following expressions: 602.%) 4 (aa. 609. 3 . : y* or 25. 2 943 ++ ~bx.128 a*^ + 04 aty 10 3 5 zy . + jf:ji f590> (2 (3 (1 Perform the operations indicated 584. 6 + 1) . 2  100 aW + 100 aW. 588. + ^) + (air%)8. + + 4 . (a  8 ft) . 3 (f. <r)3  2 3 a:) . + + 4 x) (l 2 ^) . (1 (1 (1 . {f_7l j? 2* + ''.5 xy = 0. 579.288 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 4. a 8 606.a:) 6 (1 2 2 (2 + 3 x + 4 ) f (2 3 x + f. 582. (1 + x a. 4 (1a:) 3. a 2a. 2 (2 a ft 6 + + 4 a 6& 2 + x f 13 2 . 2 2 a:' ) + x' )'2 . 1 . a:. 5 a*.frf : 583.o 2 [ ?/ > 3'  578. a: . j^f = 3. 48 xf + a: 4  04 aty 6 a: // 16 2 605. 4 .2 2 + y. 595. a 612.2 & 2 ) (4 a: ?/ 14 a: 1 2 2 ?y 4 a: 10 2 + x^f . 598. 585 594.2 6a: + 30 &c a. 64 a 12 603. (# 2) . f ?>) 3 591. 597. [ y =10. + %) (a* + *) 5 . 596. 4 a.(1 .4 8 f 4 4 + i 2 ) 2 f (a 1 . 9  4 fSb 607.
f 4 aft 8 + 4 ft . 3a.8 aft 6 + 8 21G. 210. 620. and the Earth's period equals 3G5J Solve the following equations : 640. = 87.49.\/4090. According to Kepler's law. 2 2) 2 +x = 14. 49.1024 x + a: 256. 4 289 of : 4 4 a*b + a2 2 /. 2 + 21Ga. 494210400001. 4370404. 44352. 49042009. 21. 632. 650. a 642. = . 624.2410. 25023844. 633. the cubes of the distances of the planets from the sun have the same ratio as the squares of their periods of revolution about the sun. 2 + 189 z = 900.448 z + 1120 a: 4  1792 x* + 1792 2 . + 24 a 2 4 . x 2 f x ~  16 = 0.191209.30.2. (x 9 x 646. 614. 637.V250 . 647t x 2 648 649. If the distances of Earth and Jupiter from the sun are at 1 days. 623. V950484 . a 8 10 a* 8 aft 7 + ft 8 . 2.53 x ~ . 615. 9a. 035. find Jupiter's period. f (x + 5) 2 = (x + .871844. 626. 4J. 636. 10 a 4 32 fe 2 + 81. 8*' + 24* = 32. Find to three decimal places the square numbers : roots of the following 627. 634. 625 : 621. 40. 639. 9g.*. 645. + 112 a 8 . 629. a 8 of:  8 tvb + 28 a 6 //2  50 a c ft 8 + 70 a 4 ft 4  50 a 8 ft 6 + 28 a 2ft 618. 622. 628. + 54 'x*y* . = 0. 7) 2. 643. 638. x 2 . *+* = 156.12 a?y + y*. 10:r 4 + 9G* 3 + HI x s  108 afy 616. ft . x2 + 9x _ 5x _ 22 66 ? * + 9 . = 70. 0090. GGff. 32 631. 644. 651. 942841. Find the eighth root 617. Find the square root of 619.15174441. 630. + 2 21 x = 100. x 2 641. /. 371240. : 5. VOIOOD + V582T09.150. V 635.REVIEW EXERCISE Find the fourth root 613.
290 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA """ ar a x b ab .
ax . = 0. 7^^ ^3" ^^ ^T 704. 2 2 697.c = 0. 707. 2 ft 2 2 fi 2 = 0. ax 2 698. + ~T~ * a + b x = rj* 2 4(5 4 x + + Ox + 4 691. 692. (x 2 +3a:) 2 2a. 693. 1 + V* 2bx + a 2 + 2 ax . 699. 695. . 2 2 . 694. 2 (:r + :r)O 2 + :cf 1) = 42. 706. 2 ' 3 2 a:)  28 + 21 + 5 '^ = 0. a. . 708. 2 702. 696.REVIEW EXERCISE ~ 291 X+ x 1> a +c ~ a i~ i c ~ b  ~ " x 690. 1 __ : )'*' _i.2 a(l + & )z fa 2 (1 ax + to f ru: 2 . 2(4 :r 7r\O /'r'S = a: 0. ex abc= fx 0.a a )jr .bx .2V3:r 2 V5 a: f + fa + 1 = 0. 4 a: + 4 ^^ 6a:x2 8 701.
Find two consecutive numbers whose product equals 600. 716. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA +36 = 0. 721. needs 15 days longer to build a wall than B. What two numbers are those whose sum is 47 and product A man bought a certain number of pounds of tea and 10 pounds more of coffee. 16 x* .44#2 + 121 = 0. The difference of the cubes of two consecutive numbers is find them. What number exceeds its reciprocal by {$. what is the price of the coffee per pound ? : Find the numerical value of 728. A equals CO feet. . of a rectangle is 221 square feet and its perimeter Find the dimensions of the rectangle.292 709.40 a 2* 2 + 9 a 4 = 0. 717. 725. In how many days can A build the wall? 718. 12 4*+  8. The area the price of 100 apples by $1. Find two numbers whose 719. 729. A man bought a certain number of shares in a company for $375. he many 312? he had waited a few days until each share had fallen $6. If a pound of tea cost 30 J* more than a pound of coffee. if 1 more for 30/ would diminish 720. Find four consecutive integers whose product is 7920. 723. 727. 722. in value. 2n n 2 2 f2aar + a 5 = 0. a: 713. 724. paying $ 12 for the tea and $9 for the coffee. 714 2 *2 ' + 25 4 16  25 a2 711. Find the altitude of an equilateral triangle whose side equals a. 217 .l + 8 8 + ft)' (J)* (3)* + (a + 64 + i. 3or i 16 . and working together they can build it in 18 days. ___ _ 2* 5 3*27 715. **13a: 2 710. How shares did he buy ? if 726. Find the price of an apple.25 might have bought five more for the same money. sum is a and whose product equals J.
34.X . (x* 2 a M+ f a8) (x*  2 aM" a).l). (v/x). f + M 6* f 6) (a* U*") 4 a*6^ (<i* &*). 46.2)(x2 4. 32. n.aft* 1 + a 2*. 1 + l)(>r 2  i + 1). 40. 48 ^i? x T ^ ^2? x sT~ x . 35. +w 5 n* +w n 3 + n )(m* 3 n^).2? 50.2 d*m* + 4 d)(w* + 2 rfM + . 41. . 293 (y* (a* + f y* + y*+l)(y*.aM ?n^n^ f ft*c*)(a* + 6* + c*). + &2)( a 2_ 1 j2).2 ). 42. + a^ 1 + a 26" 2 )(l . (4 x~* + l 3 ar 2 + 2 2 ) a.1 f c" ). 1 6.REVIEW EXERCISE implify : 30. . (4 a: 2  12 x* 28 x + 9 x*  42 x* + 49)*. 38. (x* (i* (a2 (a(1 1 4 d*).1 + c.)(ai + &. + a*x* x*)(a* /^ (a* (rrr + c^ s M ' + x*). (^ (a* (a^ ary* + x^y f y*) * + * (x*  y*). 37. +   c* + 2 + ^ + cbf 44.1 + x. 36. 33. 39. 52. (64 x~ + 27 y r (4 x~^ + 3 y"*).1 f ^ 2). 43. 31.
\/G86 v/lGv/128. [1r^ T 1 i . + V22 + + 12 V2b8  760. 754. JU. 757.. 768. 761. vff + V^~ 4^ 2^/2 776. 758. 759. 4\/50 4 SVlOOO. 2V2 2V3 .1+J 756. ~ r* x .294 753._ 1 4j "r O/lf * ^ ^ II r* 4"*" 1 A "1 1. 2^3(^2^21 + 4^3^:0. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 755.
789. 87 ac + 6t  12 ^ + 2 Vab Simplify 801. Find the square roots of the following binomial surds: 784. 786. 10 785. y/a + Va Va x x + x 781. c 792. 790.2 V30. 3J .4 V(j. . 3812VIO.VlO. . 7 + 3 V5 ( 7 7  3 V'5 ( 2 4 73V5 + 3V5 + V3 + V3 4  5 . 806. 16 + 2V55.IIEVIEW EXERCISE y/a 295 f 780. . 783. 92VI5. 14 791. a 9442V5. + 2V21. 103 788. 787. 7512V21. 13 799. 794. 793.12VIT.2V3* ^ 807. . x 782. Va 809. f x Va z Va f x + Va a.
833. 812.f 5 = V5x + 4. 814.13 = 0.4 = 0. 815.\/2y  810.V? = 813. + 103Var. 829. 819.V2 ar 10. 818.  5 + V3 f 12 817.g. + Vx . /9ar a: = 17.296 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA . 836. 9 7 3 + V3a:+ = 0. 811. VaT+lJ f ^l . Va: + 28 f + V9 x . V14 a. Find the sum and difference of (ar + V2yx 2)* and 1.1 V* + 60 = 2 Vx~K5 + V5.28 = 4 V2 ar 14. V3 f 1 V4a. \/2(r+ /3 a: 1) + v/2 x + a: 15 = 13. \/12 a. 2\/^"+~5 + 3Vor7 = V25 . f 2 VaT+1 1 a: 832. (x a: 2 ) 4 . 831. = 1. 3 x + 2 . + ViTli + V7 . 816. V2a: Va: + 3 + ar 2 Vx f 1 834.Vc^lJ . Va: .79. 830. 820. x/aT+l .
4 x 8 858.3 a:. a: : Resolve into prime factors 843. + 1. 27 862. 2 a: 64 y*. 4 a: 2 842. 9. + 216 rt aty a 10 .1000 6. 16 859.  3x a. . a* * 1 + a8 8 a.10 = 118. 729 867. a. a 8 873.7x + 3 = 3ar(a. x* 8 ^ 8 2 a#* a. 863. 8a: 2 4 f 8 a: + 2 19a. 839.1. a 8 850. 8 4a: 8 a. 8^27^. 852. 876. V4 x 2 . a*" & 6n .3 x . 19 x 14. x 8 2 857. 275 8 l. f 841. 8 8 848. 5 a 4 7 a8 . 845. 40 x 2 7 f 49. 844. a: 2 + 4\/3^~. 8 . 871. f 12. . 868. a 18 4. 6 2 f 3 6 s. x 4 + f 2 a. a. + 512 y8 874. 2 x 3. 2 f 2 18a: f + 16. y 4. 64 a 866. a 872. a l0m . 865.ab9 ft*.28 a 4 xy 8 80.3 Va: 2 . 875.3 . 853. a 8 869. a. a. z*y 8 l64a. 4o. 8 a. x 6 x4 f + + a: x f 1. a. a. a: 849. +3 4 +  4. 8 + 4 4 ar 2 2 a. 840. 4 a. x 11 a^ J 13 854. 8 2a. 64.10 x f 1 = 10 x + L * 2 . + . 4 x* 847. 8 + a: 5 8 a. 2 f" + a/ 15.12. 856.a. 855. 5 x* f 297 9) 11 x . 870. 27 y 8.KEVIEW EXERCISE 838. 8 860. .12\/(ar44)(5z~ = 36. 8 8  13 a. 846. . 861.1)+ + Vo: 2 + 3 x f 5 = 7 . . 6. f b**. 864. 851. a: .x*y + 3x f 2.
1 = 2 a#. 895. 2 + xy = 10. x 8 3 = 13:3. a# f + xy = 126. + 2y=\2. 886. 900. x 882. xy 2 a: a: ?/ a. = ? + p"iaL+L=13. a.xy + y 2 = 19. a: a.Vi' + 1 1_3. 3 x 2 . . What must be the value of m and n to make 8 + mx 2 + nx f 42 exactly divisible by 2 2 and by a. 2 f ary = 8 + 3. 899. : x 3? Solve the following systems 881. 896. y*+ xy . x*xy. a:y . 2 = 2 + 5. y y 2 y 2 1121. 2 + xy = 28. . y(a:2 + y 2 ) = 25 x. 894. 5.298 877. . 4 2 2 + afy 2 + f ary + y = 37. 2 . y 2 4. 8 8 + y y 9 9 a: = = 37 a: 152. z 2 898. that 1001 79 of 1 is divisible by 1000.15. a: 884.35. a: 1 1 _ 5 892. 889. 2 .y 2 = 2 y + 2. xy + y = 32. 885. a: + y 2 = 34.5 xy + 4 f = 13. . 890.y 2) = 20. 5x 3 exactly divisible 879. 2 2 = 16 y.sy = 198. x a: lI = xz . a: 2 897. f a: a: 4 ?y = 481. +y f y = 7.y 2 + V(j. y = 28. 2 + 2 f = 17. . 901. f ?/ a: a: . a: 888. 2 3 2 z3 xy + y = 7. xy(a:y + 1) = 6. 878. + ary + 2 = 37. 2 + 3 y 2 = 43. ar(ar + y ) 2 2 2 2 xy . 2 + y 2 . 883.y = 2 ay + a a# = 2 aa: + 6 a. 887. y 2 2 8f. M1 891 1 . a.18. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Show Show 3 ? that 99 + 1 is divisible by 100. 2 + ary = 8 y + 6. For what value m is 2 #3 mx* by x  880. a. 1 x 893. .
3 y 2 + xy = 1. 2 y 2 f ay/ = 16.REVIEW EXERCISE 902. + 2 a:y + = 243.16 y 3 8 = . 908. yz = 24. 9 f 8 y f 7 ay/ = 0. x f 2 a:y = 32. (* 918. 2 924. 4 (a. ^ 2 . (o. 911. 2 915. + a. 910. y + a:y = 180.3)2 = 34. 2 + y = 2 a 4.y = a(ar + y). 2 2 2 916.y) (a? . a: * a: a: ar 928.2 y) = 49 2 919. y 3 2 2 922. y . (0 Vx f 10 f v^+T4 = 12. xy + 2 y 2 = 65. ?/ ^: ^f!i^2. 920. 2 2 f 4 a: ar// or f a. a. ary y = 8.#y + 2 = 27. (3 x .y) = 33. 909. # + xy + y = 7. y # 2 2 f f y = 84. y x 2 = by.x) = 21.V + y 2 = + xy + y a = (a? . + ary = a*.6. * + y = 444.23 = 200.y2 = 22.y)^ 03 926 12 +y +y 927. 917. 921. + ?/) .3(* + y) = 6. a: a. 914. + y 8 = 189. 907. 2 913.y) (3 y . 3 :r(3 . + y)(a. + 2 y) (2 + ?/) = 20. 905. 2 * 2 ~ g. 906. 23 x 2 . x + y}(x + y) = 273. a:y xy 929. x* + ary f y 2 = 9. xy + x= 15.3) 2 f (y . L/ay = a: + 5? + g = ^ + g.y). x 2 ry + y = 3. f y 2 x 2 y = 1. = 8. 923. (!) * . y 2 + 3 ary = 2. x 4 299 xy z 904. 2 5 xy = 11.r a. xy 2 2 x 2y 2 = 0. y 2 + xy = b 2 925. (a. xa 903. . or or a? a: a: . a o o 2 j + a:y = 2. y 49(x 2 2 = 6 2 (x 2 + y 2). x + y 2 = aar. . ^ 2 + 2 a:y = a a 2 3 a: a: a. . 7 + 4 y f 6 ary = 0. + y = 9. + 2 ary = 39. 7 y . *y . ny ft ma: = * a 2 m*. 3 y 8 ) =1216. 912. Vary + y = 6. a: y zx 12.
(y (* + y)(y +*)= 50. Find the length and breadth of the first rectangle. Find the side of each two circles is IT square. If each side was increased by 2 feet. the difference of their The is difference of their cubes 270. 935. find the radii of the two circles. In the first heat B reaches the winning post 2 minutes before A. y( 934.square inches. feet. 34 939. (3 + *)(ar + y + z) = 96. In the second heat A . .300 930. and also contains 300 square feet. and the difference of 936. + z) =108. Assuming = y. A plantation in rows consists of 10. 944. 937. 931. and B diminishes his as arrives at the winning post 2 minutes before B. is 3 . 942. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA (*+s)(* + y)=10. The sum of the circumferences of 44 inches.000 trees. two squares is 23 feet. a second rec8 feet shorter. feet. A and B run a race round a twomile course. The sum of two numbers Find the numbers. Find the numbers. and the sum of their cubes is tangle certain rectangle contains 300 square feet. there would have been 25 more trees in a row. The sum of the perimeters of sum of the areas of the squares is 16^f feet. = ar(a? f y + 2) + a)(* + y 933. *(* + #) =24. z(* + y + 2) = 76. (y + *) = . the The sum of the perimeters of sum of their areas equals 617 square feet. 152. Tf there had been 20 less rows. the area of the new rectangle would equal 170 square feet. diagonal 940. Find the sides of the rectangle. A is 938. is 20. + z)=18. The diagonal of a rectangle equals 17 feet. y(x + y + 2) = 133. two squares equals 140 feet. two numbers Find the numbers. is 3. The perimeter of a rectangle is 92 Find the area of the rectangle. and 10 feet broader. rate each man ran in the first heat.102. and the Find the sides of the and its is squares. and the sum of their areas 78$. 943. s(y 932. The difference of two numbers cubes is 513. 2240. How many rows are there? 941. much and A then Find at what increases his speed 2 miles per hour.
The diagonal of a rectangular is 476 yards. at Find the his rate of traveling.REVIEW EXERCISE 301 945. Two starts travelers. the difference in the lengths of the legs of the Find the legs of the triangle. distance between P and Q. A number consists of three digits whose sum is 14. A and B. 952. and travels in the same direction as A. sum Find an edge of 954. The square described on the hypotenuse of a right triangle is 180 square inches. and the other 9 days longer to perform the work than if both worked together. The area of a certain rectangle is 2400 square feet. and if 594 be added to the number. . Find the eter 947. the digits are reversed. 949. Two men can perform a piece of work in a certain time one takes 4 days longer. 951. overtook miles. whose 946. is 407 cubic feet. and its perim 948. The area of a certain rectangle is equal to the area of a square side is 3 inches longer than one of the sides of the rectangle. A rectangular lawn whose length is 30 yards and breadth 20 yards is surrounded by a path of uniform width. Find the number. that B A 955. 950. triangle is 6. Find the width of the path if its area is 216 square yards. Find in what time both will do it. Find the number. . its area will be increased 100 square feet. at the same time A it starts and B from Q with the design to pass through Q. When from P A was found that they had together traveled 80 had passed through Q 4 hours before. P and Q. . each block. the square of the middle digit is equal to the product of the extreme digits. and that B. If the breadth of the rectangle be decreased by 1 inch and its is length increased by 2 inches. was 9 hours' journey distant from P. 953. Find its length and breadth. if its length is decreased 10 feet and its breadth increased 10 feet. What is its area? field is 182 yards. set out from two places. Find two numbers each of which is the square of the other. the area lengths of the sides of the rectangle. The sum of the contents of two cubic blocks the of the heights of the blocks is 11 feet. A certain number exceeds the product of its two digits by 52 and exceeds twice the sum of its digits by 53. unaltered.
5. fourth of the unity. '. 18th terms of an A. 5.321? 965. 3 + 5 7 + .. .. = 4..1 4 f j$V . !Ll^ + n . (x + O 2 4 y 2 ) + O 8 + y*) + y) + x(x 2 4 y 2} 4. P. to infinity. How many Sum Sum terms of the series 1 + 3 + 5 + amount to 123.. Find the difference between the sums of the series 5 n + !Lni n " 4 4. Sura to 24 terms. to n terms. 975.3151515. 971. ^ 1 . first ? n+l(n + l) The 10th and The term and the T + ( + +!) V (to J' infinity).. . 4. P. . Sum Sum to infinity.. Find the Find the common 977. *" 968. f + 1 . 964.. 9th and llth terms of an A. 16 962. and 976..to infinity.. 961. are 29 and 53. n to n terms. such that the sum of the 1 terms is one sum of the following five terms. difference. Sum Sum Sum to 10 terms. 969.. Evaluate (a) .. to 7 terms.. 958. + (iiven a +  4 d . P.. 12434+ j I 967. Find n f (ft) .v 973. (x 4 to n terms. : + f 24 21 24 4f 32 36 1G 10. \ . 974.4142 . Find the sum of 4. Find an A.. ^ Vfirst five 959.. 4 4 to 7 terms .x*(x 3 f 8) + y) + (2x + f) + (3 x + y 8 ) 4.. 36 963. 3 . 1G series . the first term being Find the sums of the 960. 966. s  88. Sum to 20 terms. J.V2 .  2. 972. (to 2 n terms). are 1 and sum of 20 terms. Find n.. ^1 + Vj 1 2  . the terms being in A.. .141414. 970. x(x to 8 terms. 957.454. P.302 956. 1 to n terms. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Sum to 32 terras.>/) to infinity.
303 979. "(. If of 2 of integers + 2 1 + 2'2 by which is it is the sum of the series 2 n is prime. and so on. Find four numbers in A. The Arabian Araphad reports that chess was invented by amusement of an Indian rajah.+ lY L V. Find n. : + 9   V2 + .. 980. 1. to infinity may be 8? .. The sum 982. and of the second and third 03. How many sum terms of 18 + 17 + 10 + amount .3 ' Find the 8th 983. then this sum multiplied by (Euclid. P. who rewarded the inventor by promising to place 1 grain of wheat on Sessa for the the 1st square of a chessboard. Find the number of grains which Sessa should have received. Insert 8 arithmetic means between 1 and . 0. first 984.001 4. The 21st term of an A. What 2 a value must a have so that the sum of + av/2 + a + V2 + . P. doubling the number for each successive square on the board. is 225.1 + 2.. 4 grains on the 3d. such that the product of the and fourth may be 55. Find four perfect numbers. all A perfect number is a number which equals the sum divisible. 985. Find the sum of the series 988. .2 .) the last term the series a perfect number.REVIEW EXERCISE 978... named Sheran.01 3. Insert 22 arithmetic means between 8 and 54. P. 992. and the sum of the first nine terms is equal to the square of the sum of the first two. v/2 1 + + + 1 4 + + 3>/2 to oo + + . of n terms of 7 + 9 + 11+ is is 40. 2 grains on the 2d. and the common difference.. to oo. 986..001 + .04 + . 989. Find the first term. to n terms. 5 11. of n terms of an A.. 990. The term. Find the value of the infinite product 4 v'i v7! v^5 . 987. to 105? 981.
One of them travels uniformly 10 miles a day. 999. 1001. 1003. prove that they cannot be in A. 1000. areas of all triangles. 994. in this circle a square. 997. Under the conditions of the preceding example. The sides of a second equilateral triangle equal the altitudes of the first. The side of an equilateral triangle equals 2. Insert 4 geometric means between 243 and 32. P. AB = 1004. Each stroke of the piston of an air air contained in the receiver. The sum and sum . and G. find the series. are 45 and 765 find the numbers. and so forth to infinity. In a circle whose radius is 1 a square is inscribed. . and so forth to Find (a) the sum of all perimeters. 512 996. c. the sides of a third triangle equal the altitudes of the second. are 28 and find the numbers. In an equilateral triangle second circle touches the first circle and the sides AB and AC. third circle touches the second circle and the to infinity. ft. The sum and product of three numbers in G. (a) after 5 strokes. (6) the sum of the infinity. in this square a circle. of squares of four numbers in G.304 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 993. is 4. and the fifth term is 8 times the second . pump removes J of the of air is fractions of the original amount contained in the receiver. Two travelers start on the same road. after how strokes would the density of the air be xJn ^ ^ ne original density ? a circle is inscribed. (6) after n What strokes? many 1002. P. (I) the sum of the perimeters of all squares. 998. ABC A A n same sides. 995. inches. P. Insert 3 geometric means between 2 and 162. are unequal. and if so forth What is the sum of the areas of all circles. Find (a) the sum of all circumferences. P. at the same time. If a. P. many days will the latter overtake the former? . The fifth term of a G. The other travels 8 miles the first day and After how increases this pace by \ mile a day each succeeding day.
1014.o/) 14 . (12 #) 7 . x) 18 . 1009. Find the two middle terms of (a *2 x) 9 . Find the coefficient a: X  \88 1 in 1019. 1008. Find the middle term of 1020. Write down the expansion of (3 1007. Write down (x the first four terms in the expansion of + 2 #). coefficient of x 9 in (5 a 8 7 . 1011. a: 8 7. . Find the middle term of (a + b) 1016.iV 2i/ 5 . Find the two middle terms of 1013. + lQ .ft) 19 . . Find the eleventh term of /4 x >> .REVIEW EXEHCISE 1005. ) 1021. Expand  2 a. Write down the (a first 305 three and the last three terms of  *)". 2 ) 5. Find the 9th term of (2 al 1010. Find the two middle terms of ( ( 9 . (1 1018. Find the fifth term of (1  a:) 1015. 1006. 1012. Find the middle term of (a$ bfy.l) w f . Find the middle term of ( . Write down the 1 5a  6 V .
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simple simultaneous . . 232 mean progression . .. .. 97.108 160 " ...... 9 ** .193 11 . . . . .. . linear literal Common ** * difference . t 53 120 .181 105 " Complex fraction " Evolution Composition . . lowest ratio " '* . ..210 130 " Addition value 4 15.Base of a power Binomial " theorem 54 8 45 130 10 255 9 Elimination Equations ' 63 consistent fractional .. . Brace Bracket Character of roots . ... 49 Clearing equations of fractions 108 8 ' graphic solution. graphic tion of representa ....241 45 45 Dividend Division Divisor Axiom . ... 160 in quadratic form 191 .. sum Consequent Consistent equations 210 27 10 18 ... 123 ..130 .... 112 54 54 251 ..] Abscissa Absolute term .. 37. Checks Coefficient 20. . 158.INDEX [NUMBERS REFER TO PAGES.. . . 232 169 807 . . . Constant Coordinates Cross product 155 148 41 " Alternation 123 Antecedent Arithmetic *' 120 Degree of an equation Difference . . . .. 129. . 54. signs of Algebraic expression . 8 .178 Completing the square . . quadratic .. . 249 246 20 10 23 193 . Aggregation..... . 19. . . .. 246 91 " multiple. 148 178 Conditional equations Conjugate surds . .. .. numerical .. 9.. Discriminant Discussion of problems Arrangement of expressions Average . 129 54.
. Mathematical induction . 23 10 91 102. 205 . Product '* 76 Infinite. .. . Known numbers . 195 33. 114. .. Graphic solution of simple equations Graph of a function Grouping terms Highest . . . 63. addition of " square of . arithmetic 346 120 338 341 53 70. . . 184 54. 189. . Integral expression Interpretation of solutions Progressions. Negative exponents 11 . 241 123 geometric ... G. 130 9 Power Prime factors Problem. . . ..31. 45.105 Monomials 03 Multiple. 143. . 42 7 Independent equations Index . . . . 45. Like terms Linear equation . 34. 246 251 121 Inversion Involution Irrational Proportion 105 Proportional. 1 Quadratic equations Quotient Radical equations Radicals . 195 4 13 ous equations 100 158 . directly. 89 235 Parenthesis Perfect square 53 ... Geometric progression . Imaginary numbers . . 112 . .. 178 45 221 205 Law of exponents . . .. . 227 . . 120 Member. first and second .. 109 102 . INDEX 8 .. 195 Extreme Factor " theorem " II. . 84. 120 Lowest common multiple 70 . 83 10 19 Polynomial Polynomials.808 Exponent Exponents. . . exponent . . . arithmetic . common factor Homogeneous equations Identities . . C Factoring 222 Literal equations . P . 9... 180. 253 28 70 1. L.251 Graphic solution of simultane.C Multiplication . law of Extraneous roots . 227 geometric . Mean " 81) proportional Mean. 205 148 148 27 86 Ordinate Origin . Fourth proportional Fractional equations u Fractions. inversely 122 numbers . 243 7 . Insertion of parentheses .. numbers . 91 .154 Order of operations " of surds . 212 . 45 Laws of signs ..108 Minuend . . Inconsistent equations . . 17 65.
..INDEX Ratio national Rationalizing denominators 76.. ... ..... 9. 4 155 9 " of . 45 Trinomial 240 .. 309 171 133 120 Square root Substitution 205 Real numbers Reciprocal 215 Subtraction 169 Subtrahend 104 22 Remainder theorem Removal of parenthesis Root Roots of an equation " character of " ... 27 17 Unknown numbers . absolute 54 Variable . . 255 120 54 10 sum and product of ... . . 129....... Sum. . .. 1 Simple equations Simultaneous equations Square of binomial 205 Value. 23 18 228 27 9 205 10 Term " absolute 54 193 178 Theorem. 232 Vinculum Zero exponent 40 42 197 Printed in the United States of America. algebraic Surds .. 193 Rule of signs Series Signs of aggregation Similar and dissimilar terms Similar surds 33. binomial Third proportional Transposition .. polynomial ...
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MANGUSE STrtn gork THE MACMILLAN COMPANY 1918 All rights reserved .ANSWERS TO SCHULTZE'S ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA COMPILED BY THE AUTHOR WITH THE ASSISTANCK OP WILLIAM P.
COPYRIGHT. August. BY THE MACMILLAN COMPANY. 8. Mass. December..A. 1913. Gushing Co. Berwick <fe Smith Co. 1916.S. Published September. Norwood. 1910. 1910. 1917. Reprinted April. Set up and electrotypcd. . U. NorfoooS J.
9. 6. 4. 9. 6 yd. 5000. 14 11. 4.. 9. 3. 8. A . 8. 2. 16. 1. 14. 3. 18.000. 2. 10. Page Page Ilis expenditures. 7. 5. = 5 81. 10g. 9. 1. 30?. 210.2. 20 B. . in. C $1(50. 13. 3. $100. 27. 16f 2. 12. 1. Australia ft. 8. 7. _ 32. 1.1. 11. }. 19. 7. 25. 27.000. 8. 10.000. 3. B $4700. per sec. 3 m. 11. 6* 16. 21. 26z. 15. 1. 2. 2. Yes. A Bl 7. arithmetic. ^. Page 1. 3. . 37 S. 1. 8. 6. loss. 13 S. 37. 32. 5. 11. 6.3. 5. 16. 9. Seattle 12 Philadel 9. 16 in. 2. 126. 9. 14. ft. Ot 15. 48 ft. 18. 20. 16. 14. 16. 7. 18. 0. 28. 17. 16. 5. 17. sign. + 1. 6. 1. Page 4. $40. 29. 8 ft. 1.000. 18. 12. 32. 15. 7. 2. $160.C. A 15. 6. in 12. 49. 8. 19. B $ 128. 3* 7. 7. 9 16  larger than 7. 19. 1. 9. 5. in. 72 = = 216. 6. 24. 1 16. 11. 0.  13.. sign. 32. 6. 19 4. T . A 38 mi. 2. 24. 1. 12. 27. 9. 576. 6. 22. 2. 4. 10. 36. 3. 4. 15. b. 5.000. 12. 22. 16 in. 3. . 24. 25. 12.000. 1.8. 10. 12. 12. 13 V. 3. .000.150. 13. 28. 9 14. 12.. South America 46. 3.ANSWERS Page phia 8 in. 14. 20. Not 5. 8 13. 5. 1.. 2. 2. 6. 2. 16. 12. 9 = 4. is $10. 150. C $ 16.000 Indians. (a) (/>) 1. 4. 17. 3.000 negroes. 1.12. 20... 16. 21.$9400. 26. 512. 17. 15. 3. 89. 32. C $60. 4.  2 p. 49. Page 13. 16. 5. 12. 106. 18. 21. 13. Multiplication. 3 below 0. 25. . 10. 1. 2. 15.. B $20.00000001. 17. 25. 14. 2 5. 10. 7. 13. 128. A $90. 2. 18. 11. 20. 30. c. 64. 29. 14. 9 m. B $80. 14.  22 20.  1. 13 d. 2. 3. 59. 8. 14.21 24. 4.  1. westerly motion. $ 1 50 10. 115. 3. 85.. 9. 16. B 10 mi. 20 \. 3. 2  Page 8. 10.. 6. 3. 144. 7. 13. 73. 7m. 23. x. 256.000. 1. 2 ~ 15. Page?. Page 8. 10. x. 6. 6. 3. 20 jo. 3. 7. V 23. 192. i .
18. 0* Page 3 w" 0. 11. (ft) 12. 4<> 2 ?t Vc. Page 18. 21^. 34. 8. (ft) $40.000 sq.rty8. 35. 38 ab. 25. 6. . 9. 2oVmf?i. 7. rt. \'\ 4.. (a) r>23ifcu.GOG. 4. 5. 15. 0. 27. //'. 173. 15. 21. 3a. 27. 10. <i~ 26. 14. 23.  3. ]*. 8. 17. 7. 21 a 3 4 10. 237.94(>.  40. $r*y 4 3x?/ 4 m* run  . 8. 13 cu. 2.. 04. ft. 3. 2. 3 . 3. (ft) mi. 5. + v> 2 . ^. 26. a 32. 19. 5. 24. Page 7. 14. 1. f  5e 35. 0. 14.32 c2 > ft 3 . . o^ft. v'ft a4 4 a a 41. $80.  11. 20. 6. 0. I.<>Gq.  0. 3(c4a). 36. ft' 3 . 22. 38. 4.000 . 8. 8. 20. 32. 27. 3. 13.x. 5x+3.'J. 23. 3 a* + 2 at*. 11. 3.ft. (a) 50. (a} 100 1(5 cm. 33. 29. 22. t.~4. 5. 4 9/^/rl 2. 1. (r) 2G7.14 sq. 36. 7 7. i:5.. (ft) Page 2. 33. (ft) 7.ab. II.4  2ft 2 33. ft. 7. :. 3. 8. m + 3(a.900. 17. 35. +/2(/. (a 4 4. ft f 19. 57. (<7) (a) 314 sq. 30. Polynomial. sq. r/ \(\xyz.. ft. Page 21. 58. 4. 12. 2. 2. a ft c. 17. 1. 0.r~ f 34. in. 41. 104.. 31. 51 f. 8. (a) <> sq. 16. 18. a3 a2 4 a 4 1.3 * 10 r5 <3 . 11. 12 a.1. (c) S(i.. 2.5 (ft) sq. 5. 0. 3. 1. 14. It. 14. 14. 3. 1. 4. 1. :J!>r'. 15. r+l. 5.. 2. 0. 9. 5. . 18. 27.  1. ft)  3 /A  8x :i (/* 4 ft)(X 36 2 "'* ~ 5V (a ft). 20. 4 y/ . 16. 18. Page 23. .  12. 37.. (b) 135 mi. 0. 24. ft n. 29. 16. + 5. 1. Trino inial. 4. a2 4 15^44.r f 15. yyz+xyz*.. . 9. 7.5f> sq. 92. 17. Monomial. 22. 9. 0.  2 4 13 ft 2 . (59. 31. 32 2 ftc. 14:). 42.ft) 4. 21. in.ii ANSWERS Page 11. 3rf 27. . _ 4 . 7. 19. 27.'JO ft. 50. c.9?/2 8. Va'+Y2 8^2 . 12.  xV 3 y. 13. 314 sq. 20(. 6<t.r 2 . w. 27. 4. + ft). 32. = 81.. 25. arty 1 20. 13. ft. 14. 10. 13. (V) (rf) (ft) 50. 13. 13. 39.. WIN + wiw. 16. 1. in. 0. Pagel4r. 2V^4^/ 8 x* 6. $3000 Page 6. r:A 29. y. Binomial. vi 14. Page 31. 12. ft. 00 24 04 ft. m 24. 21. x^ 20. 11. ^). .a . 1.. 9. 10. 15. = ()501. 15.4 ft. (c) 8. 17. ??i??. 15a. 3 y v> <Mft 3* 2. 12. 16. 43w//2 17. 31. 2x' 2 5 . . 12. (r) 2000 m. . 12yd. (r) 78. 240. 49. 22.. 30. (a) 200. 3. jrif 4 9. 15. 19. mi.q 4. 18. (r) 2. 5. 6. 22( 19. 8. 28. 2ftx. 34. 25. 28. 30. Polynomial.6) 38. 35. 28. 12. 3. in. 26. #1111.
h.r 2. (5x47 3. 15. (mn} 11. 8 . 1. ab a. x a8 1. 3. w 17.2. Page 8. 3m2 n 9 (a + $) 2 . 15. '  . 12. 7. s_r>a5. 3 a .  17. 11. 2 a f 6 414. 2 y' 4 . 4 21. 21. a2 9. 18.7. f ft 9. m*  n*. 40. 22. 4. a2 24.a~. 9.r 2 + 4?/ 4l).  b* 4 r 1 . 24.ws 2 ft) . 14. 14. 17. a 3a 4 2 &. Page 7. a a. 0. ii\ 22. 50. 3 m. 16. 37. 36. 34 39. 2. 18. 1. 1 4. . !  </ .aft. x  + 3z. 2. 10 x. M + 10. 56. a 10w. 5 2 Page 29. 2 + a4l).  23.4. 5. 2 a 37. 55. _ Page 30. f 2 ?/  2. w* ( .(a f 6) + 4(1 + c) . . + 4 m4 4 8 7?i 8  G m. 8 + 2 a . ?>4tl 53. 25.a*.2 a2 2m 2 4.(7x2 Ox2). 33. 14. a' 4ab + ?/. c. 2x 4 a 13. ?/. /> Zmn + qt G/ 4 . ti. 20.  1. r. ' 12 m?/'2 27.4 d.8(c + a). (2n' 43p 47 ). :5 41.3 6. 24. Exercise 16. 7. 59. 38. 8 b. 25 47.1. 6. ?> 22.a . 5. . (yz~d}. . 3 a3 & 41.  b. 36.(2 x2 . _5a<>&43c.  14 afy . 58. 4. j)(g1. . 4r 2 . a2 4 2 ft 4 Ve. 6. 30. 26. 2. . 7. 20. 2 17. 26. . 10. 1. 3. 5x 2 rt ft. 19. 2 2 2 6.x f 1 2 .1 . ar. 2m. lOrt 15w4.a'2 . 3 Ji 8 .4c 3 8 8 J. 14.a f 54. mn. 0. 2.5 4 2 3 ?/ . a 3& .. 5. x3 . G. 21. 19. . 29. .2 . (w4w)(ww). 2m(4? 2 4ir#(2.2 57. 43.r. . 6.2 a. 17.5. + c 4 d x + 6 e. 2. 10 m. 4. 51. + 4 c. 4. 2 3x f z. 4.3x 2 2 tf. 25. Page 44. 34. 25. ri\ 18. a 52. 13. 2a. 2. 2 .Oa: + 10. 10. . + 6. 2. 13. . a 4 + ft. a. 1.. 1 + 45. 3. a 6 2 . a 3 . 5. . 8. .AXSH'EJtS Page 23. G a bd.  12.'U4j>. 12. 20. 12. a + a. 32. 11. 8. . 2 2. ?/i 13. 19. 31. 3 nv> w 3 a 24 npy . 11.11. 2 3. + 2y. a f 2 f 2 9. 7  # + 12. a). 32 w 2 w. 2 4.6 x + 0) 16. a  ISjfat. 0. 814. + a 2 f 2 a 4. 8 8 . 16.  a: 2. 2// 16.abc.2 ft 2 r2 10. 35.5 z?/ + 3 y . 22. 4wipg>' 27. 42. 364c. 4. 7. 7 a5 1 . 18. t). 1. 2. 28. a  49. 8a*b8<tb'\ a + /> fc + 4 r. + 8. &. c2 . 24 b 46. 2 6. a + (ftc4df). 31. 2m + 2w. 2 4 5 2 a3 1. 2a: 2 4x. 21. 1. 2. a4 4 4. 2 . 8. \ :{ 2 a 48. 6. ft Exercise 17.l. 15. 7  a + 2 + c. 4ft ~. 12. Page 28.r' 2 z2 2 4 a 1. 26. n*. c.c.  4 b 17 y*. . 10. ^ <. _2?> 2 + 3 x 9. 24. ( 7.  G J8 r  4 a <?.4x. 2.
18> ^* = a . 27. 28. 161b. 2 a2 (y 2 . 7 + r/m 4^4^414. 52 + 6s 12. 34. 12 ^. 2 * 80 . . 2.6 wiw 24 n 2 36 + 65 ww . fa 2. iSx8 . 15 lb. 14. 1904. . (+3)x6=+16. 30.25 + 14.000. 2*8f x2 6x4. 22. 7G .14 a 2 _6g8 + 9 2_i2g + 8. 10. a 8 . 4. 9. 3 a 2 46.22 ac + 30 c2 + 43 2 2 8. . 1. . 4 a8 . 25.3 a 2 6 + 3 aft 2 . 15. 20. 4. . 120. 31. 84. 90. .21 a 3 c2 21. 7. 6. 16. . 3 ?i w 1(5 pag'V 2 W 2 . 1. 24. + 7. 108. 29. 30. 1. 3. 42.19p" + 19^ 10 . 6. 34. 23. 30 n?b*c*. 18. + O4 66 . 18. 23. 12. 2 7t A. 33. 27. 9 w 2 + 13 n . 18. +15. 3(*+0 + 2). 31. 20. 2. a*b*c. 25. 2. 26. 18a% y. 28. etc. 23. 24. +. . 20.25 x* + 25 x + 20 . 4. 3 a 3 . 2''.iv ANSWERS + &)(. 10. 16. 8. Page 38. 210. 7. 2 8 xy f 4 a. 15. ! 2.44 aWc 16 abxy. 17. 18. 30. 4 m3 + 9m2 + m. 36. 5aft(a 126 2). 11. 83 In + 1 n*. 29. Page 7. 2 w +2 2 . 4. a. 14 m 2 .18 w w + 10 WI M . 12. 3. .12. 770. 60. 14. 33. 4 jcy*z*>. 8. (x f ?/)  a 12 10. 20 aW. 4 fc.16 a 2 + 32 a .28 p'^/. 108.:>/ . 2 2 +2621ft 2 . 14. 20. 22.8 12. 14f 5. 26. ci 5 . 04. a + ft. 17. Page 35. 5. 30.14 w 2 2 . 2 n8 29 a + 30.11 xyz . ^^ = 20. 32. 21. 16. 25 4 4. 5. s 9 ww. 2 ll9HH 2) + . 13. 13. 66 8W 34. 12. 19. 21. 76 8 a' 1 .6) =a2 31.12.32. . 10. 16. ft 17.. 13. 8. 3. 42. 17. 28. 4 7> 4 :j !} . . 2. 8. ll 2 i.14 ?/i r?/6j/ 5. 6. 10c 2 19rd+0c? a I' . 127"'. 13.. 9z 8 16z2 9z + 10. 29.36 35. 2 ). 32. Ox a 5 . 35.. 9 13. . 14. 8. 18. 17. 2 + aft 4 ft 2. 25.14 xyz + 14 a:y0. f 26. 15. 2 a*62 c2 + 11 a&c . ?> 4 .>(/ r . m.7(50.6 2 .32 y s s G . 20. 24. 33. 29. 64. 4200. a: 3a: 2 (2a:f iHa. a: . 6 . 0. 22. ?/ . 20. 24. 4. 2z 8 s 2 3zl. 9. 1400. r' 2 a: j/ (? ft . 38wiw. 25.21. Page 5. 216. + 58 .26. 28. 27. 11. 216. 2 ).10 3 30 a a 4 c f 15 aWc . 2 .1.r% 2 2 ry.64 190 p6. 7. 23. 38 a*b 6 : 24. 3300. 7. 15 q\ 6. 19.15. 21. x2 xy42^.2. //. 60. 4aWy. 15.r + 7 1S + 2 mp. 34. 30 j9 jt?g j .69 rt + 21 132 + r . 15. 40 r 2 . 8 . 16 51. 22. 1. 4. 2 wiw 8 + 2 wiwp 2 2 x*y* 15. 19.16 x2/ 5 4. . 30. 27.. 11. 4 a2 . 24. ISartyW e*f*tj. 2 2 2 . 6". . 37. 18. 30 ? 49 p*qh*t.(3x2_4^+7). 360. 1.14 . Page 36. 1. Page 3. 10. 16. n (a6) 125. 0. 3.20 xyz . 30. 343. 27. 102. 19. a. 161b. 16 lb. a. 11. 12 x2 2 . 66 39 k* . 1.57 p6 3 2 4 25. 21 a'&c. 6. 9.8 4a12 a2 ftf 5aft2 f 6 6.35 a*b*c8 f 14 a?/e .19 + 2. 13.
9999.6 y4 10. 2 62 V2 132.r* 2 30. ?/H)0. + 3)(3).m 30 6 4 1. 35. w'n 2 //^ + 25. 8)(?i (x2)(x3). 7> . 10 p 2 g ?> 2 ?/ + 49 & 4 2 16. 14. 11. 4.4 12. . 55. 30. 4 . 26. 18. 37. 45. + <z 22 2 4 20 rt2 32. 52. 30 x + 19 x3 . Page 39.x2y22. (w+4)(m4). a2 >2 2 2  84 a a + 49. 31. 53.8. ^' J  7 f 12.500. 40.15.14 jp + 49. 36. (x  2) (x Page (rt2).000. 44. 33. 4. V + o ft . 4 . + a2 12 ab 2 8 0. 4.35 ab 9.5 ~ 81. x4 4 121 4 ?/ .009.16 a3 f 50. a3 0.712. 9.996. 25. 2 m3 + 4m2 . m'2 +18?rt 2 ' + 81. . x 4 ?/4 + ab . 2 (5 a 3). ^/> 8 4 .^V"' . 1. ab . 25 25.84 a' 9. 2 . y. 39. x 2 f xy + 9 41.004. Om2 4 6m 6. 2 a' + 2 ?/ 5 + a 3. 1. 3wi2 m Page 42. 10. (n 2 5. . . . a' . 1. 10. +4 34. 29. 4 m'2 40 (i V2 c 2 + 25 r 4 22. .098. 25 a 2 6 2 . 14.009. 10. 2xV+6x2y2^2 +22. 10. 21 2 . 10.4 a&+ 4 &*. 7. x4 28. 25 r 4 ?/i 30. 2 4 2 2 64 . (a (3 54. 2 . 16.p132.3. + 2 9. .6 xy . 2 6' .20.2. + 4 t*. I/). 26. +  m' 1.008. 2 +10s281. x2 GiC+5.ab . 990.020. 4 x2 13. 12 x2 .606. n + 2. 7. 34.1. + 2 fz& + 2 i> + p + 9. 10 a' 2 . . 484. 1). Page 12./ . 441. 8 a W . a + 25.5 ?i m #2 4 ?7i%'2 4 . fo*. a 2 . 2 1: 21. (p 2. 8. 17. 1. 2 a 2 + a ..r . .x2 + 6 x2y 2 . 2 j3 Z . 23. 2 0)(p + 5). x 48.^ + a? + 1. 33. 35. 1. + 7 6)(3a~76>.001. 38. 2. ' 46. 15.6. 32.49. .201. 9 4 /> .404. 10. ~ 6 20 . 36.10 35. ^V^4 . 24. 6 x6 + 13 x3 . ) 4' 6/ 49. 10 a 4 ?. 6. 19. 9. a4 4 ?/ . 24 ab + 9 & 2 .r . 27. ft' 11.00 + 37. 10. 999. 8. 14. 31. 7. 6. . a + 56. s rc 47. 9990. 9801. 5. 2 a4 6 4 +8 a2 6 2 2x4 +7x 2 6 2 15 6 4 36. 11. 33. 10. 3. x* . 40. (46c + 5) (4 abc 43.ri 17. 10. 24. . 4 2 //. 41.+ l5J x// + 9 2 2 4 ^ 4 ()Or 2 20. . 8. 29. 998. 5. 4 a&c + c2 30 x 4 ?/ 23.25. 40.  12 xy +9 2 >2 ?/ 2. 30 /><. 15. 2 4 a + 4. 10. a2 ' + 48Z100.10 x + 25. 32. m 2 . 2 a' y' . x*2^f I. . 1. r. 2). a + 25. 4 21.^. lflrt 2 8 + l. 36. (r ?/) (x 6 (b + 5 ?i)(& 50. 6 2 + 6lf>0. 51. 2. 56. r*d< x/2 ?/'2 18. 10. 39. . . 3. 42. +   5).2 y*.4 n. + 12. + 4 a +4. 4x21. p 2 . (a + 4) (a + 2). ( 5) O5)(w + 3).2 x + 2 x. .ANSWERS 28. 20a 2 21a + 4. 8 38. n2 a4 6. 41.2 6 + 13. 36 a 4 . 27.6 x2 13. G a6 2.020. 166. 2 12. 57.. 28. 37. 2 fr .<* &2 + 106 + tt + .54 p 2 + 81. 2 (6 a + 3) (3a66)(3a6&).994. 34. 19. p4 + . + 10 + 121 y*. ab. 7 . (w4)(w + l). 31.000.810. 22 x 2 ?/ 2 y + 121 x4 29. m 3 j) 3 . (m + 6)(m3). 4 + 25 q*.
+ 16 r 4 + 12 a'2 //2 .11 _ 5x _ _ o 18. 2. 4 pq. 5 4 a Oft. 3.29. 1/*./ 4. Page 13. yfl. Exercise 27.rw. 46. 5. c 12. 10. 5. 6.r' ~ 16. 3. ft. G. ??. 14. 4. 8.3 a 41.3^V.w.rw f 8 . 9. 13. 2 4. 5 aft 4 ft 2 4 8. 21. _ 2 a . 4. 9. 8 x . 8 x5 ? + 4 1. j) . 24.1. 5. 13. . a. 14.3 5. Page 7. sr 11. 9 5 4a' 2 ft 6. 3 a. *3 y 4 . 2 4 2 x 4. 4. 20. 20 15.1. aft 4 tt ac 2 ftc. a 4 4 ft. 2 ?/' .2 <</. ft* ft / .x^.5 a .2 1 //. 2. /r . r//.24 . 75 a 2 29. 3. .34. m L 4. 2. 01. 8.8 y. 6. 17.VI ANSWERS 43. 6. 17. 8.3 x 2 2 4. r ft. :r !>. 5. . l 4 .2 ftc .25 c .r?/ j/.9 d.27 x 2 4. 2 m2 4 2 w2 7. 12. . Page 51. w .23. 21.2 2 . 4ft. Osy. .5 n*. 4 a* 4 9 11. 1. 6x 3. . 3.7. 4. 44. 14. 5. .1. +w .2 . 3. a 2 410 + 9 r 8 + w2l ftc. 6 x 2 t/ 2 4 .000. 7 r . 15.8. 18. 5.2 ac .8 yn . 47. 8 r<ft 4 2 . 12. 11 4. m'2 3. 9.1.2 .2 aft 4. 125. 4. 2. 1.5 mp.15 21. 14. a 10.1.10 xy*. 1000 1000 .yar 4 */ ?/ Page 50. . i 9. + 4. 12. ft 17.12 aft 4 20 ac .r'^ 15. 5. 6. 11. 3 l48m47?n 2 20. 5^418(7.  3 c. 8 ?/ . '. 3 5 a4  4 a2 4. 1. 19. 18. 1.r?/. 11.> 10. 9w 2 + 0m+ 1. 1. 16. abc 7. 7a 2 ftc 4 4c42a.15. 4 x. 12. ft ? ft' ft ft. 4x43?/. 2 a 3 ft. 2 .y3. Page 11. a 2 . + c 2 4 aft2 ac + 4 ftc.  12 y 25. 3. r 7.2. .c ft*/ 1  ft' ?/ . 50.r ?/ ??i ?).8 <r 2 2 ?/' . . 4. 4xy + 13 <) . x 2 + 2r f J. 4.1. 3 aft 20.6 :rs 4.  10. . 2 ^r ???' 2 . 8. 10. 2 4 3 9. 19. 8 ?/ . aft.r" 20 S? . 10. 2 1. z. 2 ?/ 4. a 2 44 a2 ft' 4 ft 2 2 4. a 2 ft 4 9 c3 .10 2 + z 2 410. 16. 2 ft 2 ?nc w . 22. 23. 4 c m . 8. . 15.1*5 2 r 2 . 4. ?/2. Exercise 2 a:// 26. 135.8. // 19. 26. 2 12. 8. . . 5. 5. 2. 4 ac. 14 r 2 . 2 ? 14 .2 wZ 4. . 3*y2 w + 1. 9. 13. 4 n2 4 +p ft 2 42 2 aft 2 mn + 2 mp 4 10 a ft \ x* 4 4 2 z2 + 2 jrz a2 2 2 f 25  2 np. 14. a r'43 ll'a^S 15.30 ftc.  . 1. .25. f>r* 4.9 4. Page 22.  5 z* . a2 x 8 4 ft 8 . 4 x y 2 7 x + 5. w 2 . c3.1.7 arty 4 4 x 2 //V2  3 Z2 3 1.+ 77 15. 16. + x?/ 2 1. 2 2 + 2 a. 6 <z 2 4 ft 3 .2 .4. as _ 10 16. y 7. aftc 52.r .3 w 4*7 m 2 3 mn . 7a3ft. 13.3 ry.21 2 2 f + .  11.lit x + 4. 17. 10 ft. r/2 4. 13. 7. Page 48. 5 a  (5 ft. 2 . x4. i 2 tji. 13. 2. 12.2 ar. 1. aft 12. ti'jry1 7. x 4. a 8 4. 4 d 2 4.n. 49. x' u' 2 2 z~ 4. 9. 2 ?/ ft Page 2.2 2 2 8 . 6. + 3.3 3. 4 a 2 4.
(c) 2a? + 3 (/) (2fl58)h(8aria)=60. + 10 b + c ct. % 4. l. 2b 22. 4^ = 100. b. 29. 4. 20. m+ 11. <>. 11. ( a f 4. ft.000. 17.(3x  700) = 5. ] 2 ri 42. sq. y 2z p= 3 (a c. 2. 16. 8. 2 ct. 3x2. 15. 10.  2\. 7. 00. # + 20yr. Page 61. 11. Jj12.  />) a = all. 1. 31.. 3x  1700) = 12. (A) 3 x f (4 x . 100 d ct. 13. 27. (> 27. 37. 3 9. " lir. 36. 4(a ft) c = 8. 46. 23. 12.rr2.. 1. 57. 800 = x + 1300. 43. 18. 35. 6. 33. (>.10) 100. 26. 2. . 2. a 8. 21 2. 41. 2. 7. 22. ct. Page 31. a 10. 44. ct. (a) ' 12. lOx 10 + w. 7x 2 Page 21.. 40. 7.r1. iL*. y yr. (c) 2x. ^ 12 sq. rn mi. 25. Page 40. 1.  9 = 17 a. + 4x 3y 34. ct. 25. 36. 2=10. 17. 16. 16. 28. 23.(3x+ = rraxlO. . 7. 4 f 39. x 48. 9. m +~m 3. 37. 5.r ct. (c) (2zf 600) (3 =4. 8. 5. 19. 13. d. x = m. m=  100 2x=2(3x~10). 18. 3. b. 100 2. 6. 24. 45. + f + b 2. 10) (6) 2 zf 20 3^740. s.100. 10) + = (a) 2 x . 42. 50= L 100 15. 4. fix. !). '^ . 60 25 1. I. 32. 10 >_&. 29. 2x + 35. 14. I. "mi. 17. 100 14. . 100= ^. 4. 10. Page 13. 6. = 5 ?i x 460. 90 7 2 + 10 = c. f (I. . y 50. 38. 22. . 14. 10 x sq.7).  1$. 30. 5. x + 1=a. 33. 41. Page 6. 47. 1&. 3. 15.ANSWERS Page 9. 20. ) 2^ x 20 =a 7. 19. x 49.. 2. 39. xy ft. ? 43. y 100 a 24. 7. 38. 11. 1. 5. 10 yr. 8 n  10 yr. 30. 44. y ?>i x + 26. X 60. }f. 6.200) f(^ + (e) 200.x700. (d) 2a + 10 = n. / + y + a// 12 yr. x y $ 6 yr. ft. 1. 3. 5. 5. 34. f = eZ 2 x. 6. 10. + 3x + 2y + 32. 9.  6 10. r>?imi. 12. 20. 2b. + 3 = 2(3* . . 13. 0. (</) 2a. n M. 4. 'nj 100 a 28. + (d) 2 x + (3 sc 700) = (x f 1200)  x. x. 0. f 6)(o 62. 7. v (6) 2x.ab a. 10 a. ft. 58. (2 a. lO. 10. 4. r tx mi. 7.6 = *. 2. 59. vil 56. </ 20.p+7. x 2y 10 act. d + !. .
0. 05. 600.5. 3. 15. Page 7. 8 2 19.3. 72.8. Oaj(o62cd). 3. 1. 13. 8. 12.000 copper. + 7)(y3). 5$ hr.000. 5pt.y"). 4.. 13. w (/) 64. (y7)(y + 2). 50. 7. a 12. 15. 6.000 ft.000 Phil. (y8)(y + 2). .. 25.21. 9. 1. 17z8 (l3z + 2x'). 16. 10 yr. (z5)(z2). (a + 4)(a + 8). 2). 180. 10. 9. 22. z?/(4^ + 5xy . 20.79. 10 Cal. 25 yr. ^ .000. 3.. 10. Page 5. 10. 7. 8.13. 71. 9.(5z . 20 yr. 2. (yll)(y4). 100 1.3aftc + 4).3. 10. 18. 3 hr.24..0. 8.000 gold. 20 yr. 40 yr. 78.210^. 17.000. ( + 4)(*2). 11. 9. 2 2 ?/ 21. 90 mi. (2a63?2_4 a /^) 16. 10.16. 82 mi. 10 yd. 19. 30.1). 18. Pace 65. 20. 1200. (c) ^ v ' . 250. 7.. (a + 5)(a + 6). 55. 42yr. 18.5p + 7 g ). 4. Y. . k ' _ ft v J (d) 100 100 ' V ' ' 100 100 100 =^8000. 28yr.000 N. 2. 9.. 15. 6. 7 hr. ?(g ? g+ 1). 10. 5. (a5)(a4). 68. Page 79. 2. 15. 12. 3. 11. 1313.2. 8(a6 2 +6c2 c2 a2 ).000. 2.2).6). 2.. 3 (a +&)(*. 25. = _?_(2ar + 1). 2 3 6 7. 3. 7. 8. 5 Col. ~=90. 10 yr. 1 lb. 67. by 12 yd. 2. 13. 6. 21. 12 mi. 20. 23. 52. 45 in..  PageSO. 24J. 12. 8 in. 7a*fe(2a & l). 2 2 2 5.. 14. 6. Page Page 4. 4. 7.. 20 yd. 29. 150. 30.5. 5. 80 A. 10.. 5. 1. 15 mi. 74. (y 13. 3. 11 in. 11. 6 aty (3 + 4 6) 2. 11. a a (a 8 a+l). . 6. $40. 300. (p + 7)(3a5&). 9. 2$. (ro3)(w2). 30 yr. 15. Page Page 4. 8. 14.. 1250.11. 8. .30) + (2s + 1) v v ' ' 5 18. 14. 30 mi. 12. 13.000 ft.000 Berlin. 70^. 4.22. MOO HXT 100 100 ^~ (5z30) =900. 4pt. (e) i* + A. (6) (6 a 30) =20.000. 4. 1. 8 12. 6.411.000. 200. 160 lb. 14. 6. 3x (3r. 6rt 2 11.vili ANSWERS (a) V J^. 1..10. 8.. (m + n)(a + 6). 12. 85 ft.000. 200. 100. 5. 1. 70. 17.. 2. (a + 6) (a + 3).7. (y + 8)(y2). 12. 13. ? 2  = SJL+J10 13. 90. 7. 9 in. 5 lb.. Page Page 480 12.3). (*4)( + 11. 10 Mass. 14. 75. 11 w(w' + wi . Ib. 17 7>c(2 a'^c2 . 6. 13 a 8 4 * 5 (53 xyz + x y'W). 11 pV (2 p8 . 14. 8. 1. 480. 3. 15 yd. 5. 78. 15 in. 4. (a 4) (a. Page 7. 1200. '2 > 10aVy(2a 2 ay43y 2 ).000 pig iron. 9.
23. + 2 )(a + ft)(aft). + 4) (a. (5a4ft)(2 a~3 ft). (* + y)(zy).1). (a 6 6) (a 4. (a a: 19. 3. ( 2 4 19. (4 13. . a .7)(2z f 1). Yes.2 ft). (3#y)(+4y). x(x +y)(x y). (x + y4 )(x . Yes. 12.4p). 11. 17. Oa 2 (a2)(al). (3a. 33. . 18. . (4 18. (m7n) (a.1). Yes. 32. 200 (x + l)(x + 1). y) (a. (5 a 2) (2 a 3). 20. (g . (:52y)(2a!3y). + 3). 19. (w + 20)(w + 5). No. (3*2)(. 2. . 40 x. 8) (a. 103x97. No. 27. + 5) a. 10. 7. a*(5a f l)(flr . No. 26. (m + n + 4p)(w + .1). ix 18. (15a + 46*)(16a46). 2 y(ll x 2 + 1)(11 x2 . 27.11 ft)(a6). 15. 12. 5.y (6x + 4)(5x4). . 34. Yes. 6.3 y 2 )(2 a: 2 f y'2 )2 3 Yes. 24. (0 (l+7a)(l7a). (y8) 2 2 . (7 a + 4) (2 a . 8. 31.y) 2 aft. (0 + 6)(66). No. x (z + 2)(x + 3). Yes. 9. 22.3). 21. 12. 36. (13a +10)(13a 10).r2). 9ft w(?3) 140 w 2 27. 19. (6n + l)(+2). Yes. 25. 13. (a2 + 10) (a2 2). 22. (2yl)(y + 9). (m + w) 2 5. (a*& + 9) (aft + 3) (aft 3).11 6) (a 4. Yes. 100 (a. (15z2y)(x5y).6) 2 2 . 9.. (3 n + 4) (2 (3x+l)(x + 4). 34.5y)(3a. . (2o + l)(2l). 7.c 2 ). (2xl)(x + f>). 7. 25. Yes. (5x . (w ~ n (x . 4. Yes. 216 aft. 21.8). 28. (a 4 10) (a 4 + 3). 16. (m + n +p)(m + wp).2). (4al)(a2). (a + 8)(a3). 10(a + ft)(aft). 11. (6 a. 25. 23. 3a. 2 17. 2 2 15. . 9. (4a. y(x. 1. (10 aft + c 2 (10 aft .4 6). 35. 15. 9. 26.   . 29. Page 82. (15ay2) 2 . 13x7. 7 6) (a 10 6). 5. 26. 14. 1. 20. 10(2 30.1). a. 2 3 by2 Yes. 23. 14. (7 ay + 8) (7 ay 2 2 13. 25. . 2. y) 2 29.3)(z2). (az + 9)(ox2).9*). Yes. (5a +l)(5a l). 16. + 2y). 10(3 5 6) 2 . 24. + 3)(c44). 25. 18. 3. (2 *+!)(* 9). (5xy ) 3 ft 8 B 2 (12+ y 2 )(12y 2 ). (ay8)(ay3). 17. 26. Yes. 2(2s + 3)(a: + 2). 8. (2 a? 4. 20. . 24 9. 23. (9y4)(y + 4).  x (5 a. (2w+l)(ro + 3). 30.2 y). 21.2). 10 y2 (\) x + l)(x~ 3). 27. 10x2 (y9)(y + 2). (ft + ll)(aftll). x\x 24. 32. 22. Yes. (a 3 + 10)(a. 30. 17.6) 2 1. 2). . 29. 4. + 8)(g3).+4 y)(3x4 y). (5wl)(m5).4. 2. 24. 10. Page 83. 28. + 3?i) 2 (5x2y) 2 . (10a + ft)(10aft). 11. a(2u. + y + . (4y3)(3y + 2). a 2 (w7)(w + 3). 10 a 2 (4 . 8. (n2 + 12)(n 2 + 5). 10(a . 21. 31. 9.w*)(l 2 n 2 ). Page 84. (a. 13x(a + ft)(aft). 100(x. 16. 3(x + 2)(zl). (y + 4)(yl). + 0(90 Page 85. f 2). . (<7 20.ANSWERS 16.y4 ).7) (a. 2(9a:8y)(8a:0y). (a (p8)0> + l). 35. No. . (l + x )(l + x )(l + x)(lx). 28. 10. 3)(3a. 1. . 2 No 4. 22. 33. 4 (a . + 9^)(oxy . 6.* (2 y + 3)(y.2 by2 6. 3. (w* (3a26). 14. 2 y' (2y3)(2yl). 10.
r(3x' 2 4 (14. 13. 5 x8 3.i4l)(x4l)(x~l). 4). 8. 14. 2. c 5 b 5 + 9 iZ) . a 2 (a9). 20. 30. (c. ( { &). 14. 4. 3 x4 . 4 a8 .?>) H. (5 al) 3) (f> a/> 15 ?>).?50)(xt/z. (a &4.^ c)((> 4 3 (3 w 2 w 4 m  ). 2 5 a 2 6c 2 3. 24. 24x sy s 9.'J)(' . . 12. a8 .& (a 5 & 4#  2 y) (a 1.  29. . 6. (a 9. 4.y '2 2). 6. 8x.>*)(:> 4 lj 4.4. ( rt 23. a 4.!) (x42)(x2). 17(x43//)(x2y). (2 a ~ f> b 4. Page 90.  WIM. y). 3p (^9)(j) 4). 13. K + l) a (a 5 />z 9. fi(c426). 450.n). 12. 11.4)(?  5 (6a 4l)(a +)2( 2x2/)(x2?/). 18. 39.w )(l 4 w 2 )(l 3 + ( y) r)(x ( .4. (Ox  7 ?/)(7 x4 y/).7)(^ {I 12. 14. 8. ah}. 2 2 10. 10. ?i(w 4y) .4). (xf!/)' 3 4 w)(m. 6. 1(V/ 88.) j).2 y).8). 2 8(w .e 4. (w * . y6. 8. (^ + ?>_8). 4. (a />. . x 4. . 4 a s &8 . 2(5 a  ft) (a 3 ?>). 11. 10(2 (3 4.l)( a 25. 8 4 15 ?>)(a 34. Page 89. (. Page 86. 4. 41. 3(. 6. (7/1 2) (m 41). 37. Exercise 47. (^ 7. 15. 2 2 3 . x(x f y)(jr . ( 4 1 ) (2 m .42 x 4. x  1).9). 2 + . (x. 5. b) (r 4.y)(fi a . 4 3. + 2 //).36). ( y). a + a b. (14.7s) (2 a. 17. (16 4  2(5 n . a(a 2 + !)(+ !)( . 40. x . (2x7)(x 2 2). 10(8x' 4l) 4. 7.8) ( (16. Page 92.2)(x 1.1). + 3.0+ 12). 9. 6 f c). 9. 16. 11. 6.b. 4. Page 12.  (w' 4. 8. n  r)(5a 10.))(x  ^OC 1 1). 2 . (5 31. 15 M. (a + (2a3fc)0*+ tf)Or 41) (^42).^ 48. 4  9. 8). 12.3. (x//.?/). r x 2 */3 . 42). (a 4. 2. x43. 22. 35. 7.4). 42a 3 x. (!__/>). 5. (f> + fo 7.3. (w4w) 2 1. 2 k (wi 4.&). a (a + 2 6). 2 (a 4.y. 32..y). 2 2 (3a 4// )(x4>/).//)(5y x(x4ti<0. 7. (* _ 2 )(a 4. 5. 2(m4l)' .&). 11.2).8) n 43*). (> 1.  (m3n + a + b)(m 3nab). 15. a 41.5 m2 x2. 13. 8. ANSWERS r)(4x (4x 4. 13( 33. ^ . 4 6. (5a+l)(9a). 1. 2 y) ^ . (r420(4 10. 80a6 4 40 aV>*>c >d\ !)&(<* 4.^46) a?/ 2 /> + o) (ff n 2 T>). a 2_rt4l)(a rt 1). 2 a 2 13x 3 y. 7.3)(x 4. (5 26. 12 m 2 (m n) 2 . l. Gp).1) 3. 6. 7. ( (<> r4y3 . 8. y )(. O + ?/4<?)O ?> 4 q). 5  (2 2 . y(2x?/). a x 3 10. 28. (5^4. 27.5 <:  9 </) (2 a 12. 5. . 8.'})(c . 2 21. 4. 16. 38. 2 1. (m  I)' 6.X 5. ?>). a 4. . ( a ^)(^3. Exercise 46. 36.1). 2. 13 x 8 2 . 19 13> (7rt3)(7a~3). 19.2). 4. ofc)( fid). 3(47>44)(^4'> 22/)((3x). 14.'/)('< 4. 3x(x?/) 4.y (m + 2 u + (\p)(m + \ . 2. 3. Page 87. 2. 4& 2 )(tt4/>)('e 62 2 2 4l)(a' & &) 5).a + (< (3 7>)(3  a l fo). 4. 7.
+5 1. (a2y2 (a3) 2 (a4) 2 14.6). +8b a 4 3 / ^. + y) (a: y). 2(2al) + l). 18. 6a2&(rt6). a 10 25. 1). + &) 2 ( . ?_!&. b ! 21. x 24. + &)(&) ( . w 2 ^ (!L 5 +2 3 i + 63 3^1 rr Pace 991 20 . 13. // m+1 !+*?. a 23. (a2)(a + 2)2. x 22.ANSWERS 10. x 12.  1). 11. 30(3 2 (a 15.
+ lH + . rt 3a2 + ~3a a 3.  **/* + 84 _. 4c 10. 2x1 + 5x 12 + ^. ^~ 29. _*^p5_^^_. + 2H 1 ^. r > 'a2 f an f ft' ' 2(czft) (x 2. 6.Xll ANSWERS 21 2 . i. w + _ i + _J? a w+4+ ? 3 8. 6. 28. ^i 2n a 22 9x * T 94 4<i ^ 33 9 ^ 37 (a 2 b)' (a + ft) a 42.y~ z ' ] 5 x2 y + :j y. Page 100.80 MP 2 30 ?/ r + t S ^ 2ft "' 180 wv 15. 26. 1. 30. 4. 11. w1 + ac w 4 7. 2 a. 4 L 8 2 . ' 2 7. 7. 3a 2 2) ' i (x ' t+3) 5x (wi8)(w go a 3ffl + 13 + *2)(x + 3)' 19 ' rtv+Ji:'. 6a5f^. + ^8 1 a 2 1 ~ 41. ab121 12 ft 2 8 a 2 196 a2 8. 6. a 5. i^. . ^iie^+JoJ^^ilOa bc 9 11 92 aft  1>*  10 12 + qc + ab ' 238 . 0.50 ~ 1/2 . a 2 ft 2 + 21 ft' 1 4m m2 26 9 fi 7 .. A^. c 8. xy 43. Page 101.2g ftc 46 ?t ~ 30 y .
b 2. 4. 1. 1. 5. 3. x 1. 38. 15. +3 ( + 15. 5. b a f +c 14. 9. ?+_!?>. 7. 5. 4. 21. I) 2 3z 1. xiii in <l ~ 2b 18.  10 X + u. 3. 9. 10. 29. 5 be _J_. 1. J. 1. 11. Page 110. 1. 3. 12 28. Page 111. . f 7. 6 . 6. ^i 11. 44. . 3. 4a3ft. 30. 1. 41. (>. 39. n . ft 2 f 1 + a + 1 Page 109. Page 113. . 16. a 17. 8. J. 35. 26. n 16. 23. 37. 4. 17. 34.y 7. 18. 20. flf. a. J. 32. 15. Of. 3 7 i o. 4. 21. y(x + x ?/). 25. 0. 1.^U\WF### X<6. 46. 6. 4. w^x 2 b Page 105. 4. 11. c 8. an 18. 8j_m 7 3. 1. 36. Page 106. 4. ^_. 3. 13.ft . 2 re +3y mn 10 lo. 11. m 9.^_. 12. 16. x\. 1. ac mp lf> n 12. 7. 42. (a + y) 2 Page 104. 3. 2ft a i m x. 9. 40. 15. + f. 6. pf n 6 1. ?. 45. (y + (z 12. ' 6.L+ft. 17. 14. 1. 27. 7. f Page 107. 24. 5 6 Q 5 a 12. 0. 2 47. n m a + 13. 11. 43. 6. 2) 19. ! 4 20. 8. 14. j L . . a2 2. 31. 14. 33. 10. ft. 11. x 05m ' 5. 6. 1^)2 ' 2 1) 2 13. 19. 12. A. 7.  V o 4. 5. 21.
000 1 = 23.. 9. 3. 75 . 300. 21. 8. 4. 8. 275:108. (ft) 28. .9. (d) 4 da.10.. 4fl M_. No. 3. 3. 1:1 = 1:1. $45. 7. Yes. 1. 10. (a) 4 min. [>> ^ a . 12. . (a) 25. :2. 23< &n b ' . Page 125. 2. 3:2. 15. (c) 8300. 1: ~. Yes. ft. = A's. 4~r~ n . 30. . 5 2. 11. a 4 ft.. 6. 28. .000. r/ i  PM xx HXH />/ Page 114. #V ~~ 34. 30ft. 14. w 18.137. Yes. ^?i min.. 26 30. $00. ~m . 10. 15. 12. J ^'. 5ft 30mi. 33. 10^ oz. n 32. 36.. 1:1 = 1:1..138. 8. 9.2. 15. Page 117. 2:1. (ft) 5 da. 21ft min. 1:4. 2. 20.0 & . 16. jj. 3. 31. 2x:3y. 20. . 40wn.000. 300. (d) 500. nm. w 21. 13. after 18. 17.000. J.2. 14. 9J oz. 8. 18. 7T 2 Page 116. 10. 10. min.x + y. 6. 74. Page 124. 1. 4. 10. _JL. silver.XIV '/ . 13. 3 da. f . 24. Yes. * 7:9. 5. P+ ^ 33. 33. 7. 30 mi. IV s. 4x'2 :3?/ 2 1 ./hr. 1:3. 11 hrs. ^p^ r ~ 7. w 44. 7. b 25 ' mft 26 ' w 27 ^ ' ~i~ ^ . 4. 13. 19. 7} 18. Page 118. 1. 212. 26. (ft) 104.004. 5. 1^'. 12.. 10 yrs. 1 : 12. 9.0. 7 . ^m . after 20. 15. 14. f. 16. xy. 10. 19. 4.15.002.. 1:1 = 1:1. 3. 17. 21.} da. 26 mi. (c) 2 hr. 2 20.000 If da. 10. 5. Page 121.. (a) 30. after $12. 38ft min. 22. Page 119. () 2. 1:1=1:1. (ft) 5 hr. " 0. 40 yrs. 3. 32. . Yes. 1. 7. $30. 30 yrs. dn ~ mi. 1 da. 17.000. . $0. 6. 13.  C . 18. Yes. 11. 15. 24 mi. 7. 9$. 15. 7.  29. 11. (r) 3^ da. 10. 3 : 19 = 4 : 25. 9ft. $40.11. gold. 19.  + . 81. (a) 12 hr. 40 mi. 9. 34. 5. 8. (ft) (r) 8 hr. 10. 27.139. 15. 0. 19. 8301 hr. 17. Yes. 14.001. ANSWERS 16. 20. 55 mi./hr. Yes. No. 5 25. 500. 24.003. 4.. 00. min. 16. 35. a 4 ft 3 T 29 30 ' 5T (a) ^ 10 (ft) 31. 18. '"I 22. 300.
2. a +b 1. copper. 7. 10. 56.^ 0?j ' gms. t 5. 3}. 8. 14. 15. 9./':</ c a f :y=2:9. a~. 8.3. 4. "lO. x 42. . 10.12. : XV 27. Page 136. x +y x + 74 7 \. (a) Directly.3. 32+ mi. 19. *. ' 55. 8. 31J. cu. 3. 2. 29." ^ 2.. 14. 23. 3. 20 20 J ^. . OJ. .1. 12. 3. b x 37.36. 2. 5. 6*. 2.3.. 17. i. y 1. 9.]. 6 10 = 12. 6. 4.4. 2.3. y :y =.) 31. 41. . Page 134. 50. 1.5. 14.5.5. ig 6. 3. 7. 39. 2. 49. . : 23. 22. 7^. 9.7.1. J. 5:3 = 4: x. 21. 3. : : T 1' : /> : . 21. Page 135.x a. . 45. Page 5. . J. + 7>i//  ft 1 . 1 1 : : : : : : (I.8 oz. 30.4. 6.3. 2. 27. 1. 8. 44. 40.6. 3 2=3 x. 7.4. 4. 11 w a 13. 3."2:1.J. 58. 5. 7.5. I. 3. 2. w 8. (b) Inversely. 11. 2. water. 2. 2. + b 7 .1. 4. 19. 8. + W. Page 133. 11. l.12.160. 22.a. x:y a: b. 32j.17. 1. ft. 23. 25. 10. 12. 16. 1(5. 4.2. x y y . 11 5 . 20. 2. 4. 17. 9. a f 2 2 = 5 x. 1.2.000 sq. 54. 5. 7. 40. 48.2 x. mi. 7. 5 2. : : : ?/ : tf : ?/ : : : : : : : : : sr. \. 6. 25. 4.5.3. 2. 200 mi. 5. 1.3. 24. 2 n . 15. 12. 19. 26. . in n. 4.20. 57. 16. 5. 127. 11. a 3. . 2. 3. 8. 2. 13. 1 18 = 3 51. y . 2. . . 3. 2. : />. 2. Page 131. 141. 13. 10. 4. 2. . 6. 28. 7. 59. 46. 3.5. 7. tin. y a y = 7 0. 2. 9  15. OJ. 7. Page 132. 4. ~ 1. in.57. 7. = R~ R>'\ V V = P> P. s<i. 52. 4. 30. 24 1 (e) Directly. Page 137. 174+ Page 128. J. 19 3 . = 7 b'.C ?/ a . 5. 38.5. 5:0 = 10:12. 9.  28. 11. jc:y = n:m. 17.ANSWERS 22. 2. 14. 7. 9. Inversely. 24. 8.4. : . 1. mi. 20. + m* <7^' 10 7)C 14. J pq. (</) ft. 5. 4. 13. 36. 7. 5.15 x. 11. () Directly.1. 2. 13. 1.3. 43. Page 9. +m ' 12 3_a ' 7^ 10 ' 1 . 53. 15> 9. \\.3. 138. 1.5. 9.2. . 4. $. 32  <>' 33  4 <^: 34 : : . 5. 31. 20 cu. 55. 1. 7.15.*. 16.000 sq. 1.. (<l) A A (e) m m = d> (. 5.9. 35. x y = 1 = 3 2. 7. 2. 2. () 7 Page 126. 25. 2. Of. 26. 9. 4. 6. 13J.3. 7.4. 945 11 10 . .7. 12.' : : : : <>.2 oz.22.5. w. ini. 3.r. : : . 41.46. 4.3. 1 rt * vm^1. 36. 47. lo mi. 18. 3. 2.J 3. 19 OJ. (b) C C' = fi JR'. land.1. 3.  ?. 3. 3  24. (I.  19. 5.840.2.li. /. 7.
2. 90.  11. 3.. A's 30 18. ad _(?jrJL. 12. B's 40 yrs. $ 1000. 10. 25. 1. 30. 4 ' q. Jan.3. 5. m + n p. $900 5%. 5. 22. 23. m . 4. . 7. 3. Nov. 20. 25. Page 146.. 2. . 3. 4. 1. <*ft/ bd 1. 9. 17. 25.33. 3. 12.10. 19. a =J (n  1) rf. 20. yrs. (a) 12. 21.2. . 16. 5%. Apr.65. 4. On the x axis. 2t2. A's 50 13. 11. 3. 26. Page 153. Apr. 24. 16 to July 20. 423. 4. 24. 0. . C's 10 yrs. $250. 8. 3. at 15. $4000. 14. 3. 5. 3. a. 1. 2. July 20. About 12f. 8. 1. ' w_i 7 fr^ m w ' 2 m+w . 2. 2. yrs. 31. 18. 16. 3). B's 15 yrs. 7.4. 3. (ft) 20. 4. 6. (5. 8.. 2. 40. 1. 5. ' . 7. 21. (a) Apr. 13.4. 16. 1. be 10. 9.4./hr. 10.9. 4. On the y axis. 24. 1.n + p. 3. ' 6 3 a. 4 mi. be 7. 13. m f 8. 19 gms. 2. . & May. 29.1. 2. Page 149. 14. 6. .  Zn  "(^ll 14. 10^ gms. 3.3.^. 3. 2. 3. ft 3. . 7. 9. 20 to Oct. 147. 17. Nov. 11. 6%. u 2ft. July. Feb. 20. 5. 4. 6. Nov. 5. 7. 11. 2. 10. Oct. 16. (ft) 23 J. 20 & Oct. 6. The ordinate. 4. 3. & part of Sept. 6. Page 151. June. 1. 3. through point (0. $3000. Jan. 6 cows. 6. ^.1J. 25. . m f 9. On 11. 19. 1. Page 145. 1. ad AzA. . afcd ae ftd 8 ft. & part of Feb. 30. 6. 11. 23. Nov. 20.  17. 9. 1. 18.7. 1. 2 a. July. 1 (d) Apr. 5. Jan. 10. 5.. = ^ a Page 141.l. 32. 4. 4. 16. 4... Page 152. 20. 12. Page 143. 3. 72. 14. 7.1. 15. A a parallel to the x axis. 10. 18. 24. (<f) 13. . 4. 7. Aug. 2 horses.0. 2. . 4. 6. parallel to the x axis 0.$2000. . 9. 0. 7. 0. 2. 15.0. 2. Apr. 100. 2. 2. 18. 11. 27. May 5. 00.2.3. M 2. 7. C's 30 yrs.$5000. 1 (c) Jan. 16. 2. 2. SL=J o ft r^2.8. 8. 28.& w_ i ae 22 5 L=. Jan. 23f . . J. 2. 15.XVI Fagel39. 30. $6500at3Ji%. 3. 26. 13. 4. 10 sheep. 5. Page 22. $500. 12. 3. 4. &. 40. 12. Jan. 3. 5. 7. (c) . 11. 9. 17. 3. Page 142.
1. 3. 5. .25. 10.64.75..75. 3. 3. 2.AN WE US 'S xvii Page 157. 10 C. 125 a 8 12.5.73. _ 9 x ^27 1 . 10. 27 27 81. 17.25. 4. a 29. 2. 14. 3.  . jgiooyiio 17. 2 l.17 (ft) (c) 2. . .34F. 1. 1. (gr) 21. 1. 2. ft 2 4. 19. 12. . G. . 4. Inconsistent. 13. 13. 2.4 a^ft 4*/ 3 + t/*. 11. (c) 14 F. a + ft. 3. Page 163. a 10 ' a ll V&. . .4. 14. H..79. 3 . 3.79. 4wn8 + n4 5. ImW. 1 4. .25.6. . 2. . 44 + 6t/2 m4 4m8 H6m2 4m4l.8 n 27 a 4 ft 4 f 8.73. 12. . 1. 8. Page 158. 4 ) 21. 2ft4 Page 168. 3. 5. . 64_ a 12 ft 27 ' a 121 81 a 4) ft 44 a 4TO a3 l. (e) 3. 1. Page 159.4 aft h a 2 ft 2 . (a) 5. 30. 1. . ft . SlstyW 7. * 16. 3.24." 23. f. (/) 3.  12 ft xW  26 31. 1 23. 9.59.5. 2. x3 3x2y + 3x?/2 2 a 3 +3a 2 +3a + m8 6w _ i. 13 . 27 19. 9 and Page 166.7. xW. 2. . 9. 125 16. 28. 27. 27 a6 ft  9a 2 1. 1. 125a 28. 3. 2. 14. aH64 a2 + 36 aft 2 +8 8 27a135a2 ft4225aft2 125ft8 . Indeterminate. 30. () (rt) 3. 5 and 2. 83.87 (0) 3 (c) and and 1 2. Indeterminate. 22. 3.1.24. 3. +3 4. 8 a1. H. 2. m. (ft) (ft) 2. 10. i/* 25 a8 343x30 ' 1 125 29. 25. 4. 2 a&m Page 167. f 10. x*f 4x 8 + 6x2 f4 xf 1. f. 4}. 6. 0. 26. f12 wi 9. (c) 7. 4. 5. (a) 12. (ft) 2.1. (a) 4. (c) 2.83. 5.41 and . (e) 2. 1. 11.25. . 1.64. . 2. 2. 1. 2. 8 1 f f g*. 1 + I5a 3 + 75a6 + 150 126a 9 ft . 3. 81 ". 15.75. 1. 15 . . 3. 8mW. 3. 1. 3. Page 164. 1. f4p 7+6p g f4pg 6. (ft) and (d) 2. Inconsistent.27. 5. 0C. . 6. . . 21.13. 13C.  1. (ft) (d) 2. 1. \ft) 5. 8. (<?) 2.75 (ci) 3^. 32F.67. 5. m + 8 m% f 60 win2 4. 24. 5.59 . 27a 3 27 343 a 6 27 2 +9al. 2. 3. xy. a 6o&i85 c i5o . 1. 4. 3. 24.3. .84.  1. 7.3 aft 2 + 8 ft . 2. 2. 2. . . (a) 2.5 (ft) 3. 8. 2. 18C. 4. 2. . 22. .73 ami .24 .83.. 15. 04 x 12 */ 1 '^ 1 2 t  9 11.2 (ft)  1. . m4 1/ m%+6 w2 n f 2.25. 19. 1. xg .. 11. 147 a 4 ft 21 a 2 12. 14. 1. 15. + a 4 ft* . 1^. 4. 3. 2 2 22.41 and 23. 3. 16. I21a 4 ftc 2 18.3. 20. 2. 1. 18. 13. 20. ' :=_!. (/) 3.73.
70. 18. 15. a. 64. 8 /. (rt' (2 a (7 4 10. 1. 0. 21. fe *?>' ?> fi .3 ab + 2 2 ). 6. 99. 36. 6 (\x 3. (6 a + 5 a + 4 a ). 30. 71.5. + i)). (a + 2 +l). a 7 + 7 b + 21 + 36 4 & 8 + 35a 3 & 4 6 6 7 . m 13. 5. 7.94. + 4 x2 + Ox4 +4^ + x8 10. 81 + 540 + 1360 a 4 + 1500 a 2 + 025. 18. 3 2 ^. 1 + 5 a?b* + 10 a 4 b* + 10 a& + 5 a/> + a 10 10 i c5 . . 33.+3^ + 4. . 8 4 se 1 1 :J . 6. 11.i c 6 15.^). w 8 + 8 in n + 28 5 5 4 4 3 8 2 w c + 10 w 2 2 c 3 + 5 mwc 4 + r5 18. . 7. 10 x G a 4 . w w + 5 W w c + 10 19. ? : 1 .r 2 + S:r2/2 ). ? .10 a~ + 5 a . 8. (48 + 6.  +X '. a 2 . 1. 9. 14. 9. c 10 6 :l 20.037. (a + y+l). 2 2 7. +(^ 2 3^ + 2). (x' l). j/^/t^/' wi n 4 p*+ 10 w 8 w y 10 wi 2 w 27> 2 +6 w/ip. 3M. 10. /> 4 ). 2. 2.5). 24.XV111 7.1. 2. 19. +3 + 5 4. 26. 1247. 7. (Gx + (i + 2a. 9. ro 12 + 4 m+ w + 4 w + l. ( Page 174. 3. (ab + c).f 1 m 9 16. 11. 12. 57.7 /)). 100 *6 + GOO x 1000 2 + G25. + + ?V 22.GO a c + 23. 11. 34. (7 (2 2 3 2 16. a ). 8. a. 2. 6. 30. 119. f 21 rt'6 + 7 f 6 13. 763. fr ft i/ /> ^  23 . 12.1000 ac 3 + (J25 c 4 24. ( x + 2 x 2z + 4). 32 r^ 10 + 80 w 8 + 80 wt c + 40 m 4 + 10 m'2 + 21. +35. 9. 14. . AN S WE no . 5 5 8.a b 22. 23. 13.+ 50 m*w* + 70 w 4 4 + f>6 ?n *w 6 +28 >/* + 8 mn + w 8 17. 1 + 8 z + 24 2 + 32 r + 10 x 4 25. 12. . 17. 6. (x + y\ 90. + (win . 10*. 22. 18. 1. 25. 27. 5. 1 1 ?>). (6a + 4a + 3a + 2). . (23 alt + 7 (4rt +3 (5m 2 Cm + 3).x ). 978. Page 176. 14.y2 ). 15. r> 4 : 1 . . 31. . 72. 16. + Z). 2. 8. m* m*>n + 16 w 4 2 +5 c*d+ 10 c 3 tf2 + 10 c 2 d+6 c<74 + d5 20 in s + 15 w 2 w 4 G mw 6 + w 6 11. 00. 84. 5.6. 309. 2 4 8 2 . + y). 21.  x. 11. 420. GOO 2 c 2 . 3. wi 8 + 3m 2 . 14. (4a2 9& 2 13.2).5 a 4 + 10 a9 . Page 172. . 8. 10. Zll. ^i. I 8x2). (ly). 2 ?>i?< >2 10. 6. 3 6 23. 300. 1 w + 5 m' G 7 w. ?7i 1 1 3 1. (a 2. (1 (x2y). 3 2 8 3 12. Page 170. 90. 3. 19. 40. 17. 3. 1. 2038. 101. (5^ + 4x?/ + 3?/ ). 32+ 80 a +80 a* +40 a 3 + 10 a 4 fa 5 14. 25 19. 32. 16 6 w . 237. . 15. + l). (27 + 3 a xy 8 21. 2(> + ( 2 7>). 16. 180 . ??i ?i . 76. l lV (l+? + & + x J x V s 24. 4. 20. 247. 16. 28. (Gn + 5 a + 4 a). (3a. 20. 4. 2 49 . Page 171. 5. 9. ).83. 15. 2 12. 4. 17. 3 w 2 H2 + 3 4 n 4 . rt .1. 2 2 4. 98. 8. 90. (l + x + . (2 a + ft). (:' + (2a3a: 2 + a. 4. 5. 10. 35. a: l . 20. 9. + 29. 13. 20.r 2 + 6jt).
J. }. 12. " ^_ 22. 1 7. 16. 8.. 2. 12. 29. Page 183. 25. 5. . 11. 39. 3. 7}. . 23. 4. 37. 32. 6. > w ft. 22.. Page 179. 2. 2. 3. 19. 10. 13. 15. 9. 10.916 yds. a + 61. l~8. 15. ^^7m. 28 in. 30. 4J. 5. 5.. f. vV'TA 24. 9. 8. 3. 2. 2.13. i ^.. 36. 3. (afl).4. 4 W**. . 1 38. 4. >TT 26.18. 9. 7. *.4. 1. 30. 15 1 10.367. 16n. 3. 5. 3. 2.. () 2. a. 40. 35. 28. 14.  5. 25. 3. 17. 6. 18. 7. 23.}. 1. Page 181. 25 J. 4. 14. ft. 6. 5.V 8j. 1&. 2. 17. If ^. 3. . Page 185.  43. V. 1. V2. 2 sec..237. 36. 26. ft. . 7.6. 2.5. f ^ is. ^.690. 24.  2. 5.4. 8. ii :J _7. V17. 5. 44.  3. 11. 8. 6J.a. 10. 14.1. 7. 9. 47. \/3.6. 4. 24. 20. 1 f Vl3. . 34. .Sn. 7. 7. 9. 6. 9. 1. 11. 7. 4. 7 in. 21 in.645. or 5..6. 21. 29. f. 12.469. 35. / 11.. 13. 21yds.6. v 17. 13. {. 4. 8. 5. 9 15 ft. 10. 4. 6V'2J. 6yds.60. 2. 16. . 16. 39 in. 27. 5. 3. 12. 3.  14.798 yds. 15. 12. 1. 10. 40. .ANS WERS 22. 29. Page 177. or 3. 3.*. xix 26.236. 10.243. 4. m. 41. 2. 1. w..935. 32. 1.  1. 37.w 18. 2. 17. f 3. . 7563. 7. 27. 5. 50. 7 45. Page 180. 10. 20. 13. 1. 15.. 11. 39. 3J. 4. 19. 5. Af^. 5. 42. 20. 3. 3. 7. 1. 21 28 ft. 1.  f. 15. V35 1. 12. 3. 7. 6. (6) Vl4 3. * 1. Page 184. 9. 36 in.1. 4 n. 31. 4. 48. 23. ft. 34. 8. ZLlAiK 19. vYb. 16. ~ V^3.5. . 6V21. 21. 12. 5f.?. f . 4. >i 27.i. 18. 46. 11. 14. 270 sq.742 in. 10. 4 TT M 28. 28. 33. 6.005. 2] see. . 6561. 12. /. 10. 21. 5. 6 f !. V J l. 2. 4 a. ^. 13. 2. 31.925 ft. 6.522 38. 14. 7. 6. _ iVaft.6. 4. 5.  f. 49. m. i. (< + ?>). 5083. V2. 1. f f V. 4. 9. JJI. 33.
. f 6 52 a.3. 1_^L ft 14. 1. a. 6. 0. 2. 0. 0. Real. 2. unequal. x* 51. 3. 25. 8\/2 17. 25. i.a. orf. 47.  i.  9x <). 2./hr. $80.2.74. 6. 21. 1. . 3. 2. 15. 1. . 1. 24. 20. Real. 40. V2./hr.2. 8 or 12 mi. 0. 1.02. *'' 12. unequal. 1. AB = 204 ft. Imaginary. 1. 3. unequal. 8.10. 28. 6V64. 11.Oa. Real. 2. 39./hr. 26.7. V7..2.2 x2 . 12. 13.. 2. 0. 7. 49. + 11 x. 6. 14.  5. = 0.  2.1. unequal. 34. rational. unequal. 0.  13. . 29. 5. 0. 1 . 9.2. ANSWERS 22. 2. 20 eggs. f. 1. 20 nii. Real. 3. 3. 5. 13. 35. If. 8. V2. '  f 5. $30 or $70. 15. irrational.7. 2. 3. . a. Page 187. 3if. 0. 58. 2 V3 in. jr . 3.2.59.41. . rational. Real. rational. 10 mi. 56. 2 .4.23. 21.* 2.'. 3. 23. VV11. 11. 2. . 45. . 2.48 3. 20. a + 1. AB = 3. . unequal.0*8. 8. U. 3. s 11. 57. 27. 18. 2.1. 25. 19 in.62. .2. 2. 7./hr. 4. Page 192. 2.37. 27.XX Page 186. 2. 7. 3. r* i.4. 4. i . 44. unequal. .48. 1. . 28. 3. 10 or 19. 3. 43.5 x + 6 = 0. 12.  6. 1. irrational. 37.a 3 a.70. 3. 9. 1. 9.7. . 52. 3. 4. Imaginary. 64.  1. . 1). 120 ft. 3. 55. 31.2. rational. 32. 24. 1. 5. 25. . 26.  1. 10. 33. 0. 3. . 6. 1. 1. 26. 1 3. H. 6.2. 64c. 3. . 53. Real. 5. 23. 15 ft. 0.2. 3. a + 6. rational. 14. Page 191. 38. 2. ' 1. V^l. unequal. 9. equal. equal. 30. V^l. 5. 0. 0. 6. equal. 10 mi. 17.5^. x2 + B .a. 2. 4. 1. %. Real. 22. 12.4. in. unequal. 1.3.2. 23. 19. 10. 1. x*4x=0. 12.  1. 42. V ~ 16 4 2. 2. 2 4jr + x2 8 3 = 0.  1. 50. 15. 2. #<7=3.l. Imaginary.  Page 194. 7. 48. 0. . 0. .5. 4 da. 6. 4. 26. 16. t is. 24.. 41. 12. 6. 6^2 in. 2 ft. 10 in.17. a8 . ft. Real. 16. .23.  24. 35. 0. 4. + 7 x + 10 = x*x 2 6x = or .4. 21. 5 ft. 3.4. 4.. V^~2. 1. 8. 20. v^^fcT"^. 46. 1.  2. x 14. 7. 7.  1.. . 4. 2.1. 36. 2. 1. 7. 19. Page 188. (5 10. 7.6. 2. 27. 22.  5. 0. .6 = 0. 2.3. f. 16. 2. _ 19. Page 190.$40 or $60. ^l/>> = 85 ft.12 = 0. 28. 18. 3. Page 189.]. 10. 6. 4. 3. 3. 70 ft. 6. $ 120. 4. 18. . 3. Imaginary.12.
m. 8.  48. 243. 3. *V. \/3. 7. 26. 3. Vr. x. 7 .17. 1. 5\/5. 3 4 11. 44. 4. v'frc 18. 49. 9. 29. 15. 38. n\/* Page202. 25. 4. 13. . . 2. 19. 22. 52. 0. 46. 28. . 24. 19. 50. 84. 42. 4. 21. r. &. 16. 29. 11. 5. Jb \. aW\ 40.32. 6  AAf. 8. 4. 54. 23. 18. v. 5. ^49. v^T4 m. J. 55. 11. 8. 5. 7. 1. 12. 3. 57.2. r*. 30 a. 9. 3. J. 7V7.//^. 5.  f. 30. m'. . 25. \/. 2.6. 8. . )." 17. 31. 59. vV. 12*2 61. 21. 1. xxi 15. 53. 32. 16. 2. p. 14. 19. 9. z + 22. a. 23. 39. _! V3. vm. .. . fx'^z'l 23. 9. 2V a. 8. 3. 4. 10. 25. 21. J. 18. 14. V^ 34. 17. 14. \ . \/r\ 11. 49. 32.ANtiWEUS rational. 2. ^Sf 3 38. 9. 'J. 3. 24. a 18 . 1.  a'2 . 2 L ( V. i. 2. 4. 14. 20. 16. 10. \. v'frW. 27. Page 197. 1 39. Page 199. 1. 125. ) 2 >J i 10. ar 1 . 47. J 3. 13. : . 20. 49. 1. J. 60. 16. 33. 2. 17. 43. ifa. 8. . 19. 15. 7. 22. 2.  5. 5. (m 26. y . 2. 2.  f .  J j.1 5 15. $7. 3. 1. 49. 50. 10. 4. l  5 12. 0. Page 201. JV37. 2. Page 200. 33. 12. 13. 9. 1. 20. 0. 35. 3. 8. 28.^7. 30. 40. x/25. 17. 51. . 27. 1. I. 1. 1V1. 29. 31. 37. ? . \a\ \/^. 47. y. 24. 3. 20. \. 13. x$. 1. 2. 6. v/3. 58. jV 10. 5. 33. 10. . 18. 15. 3. 6. 48. 8. 56. 1. 3. 3. 45. 36. Page 196. wA 46. 41. 4.
10.x^y* + y%. 13 a. . 135V6. 22. 5 22. 17. . 7. 39. 11.577. V 5 47. 37. . x y. v'TM. 2\/7. 32.12 *^ + x 7/> x  a** + or " 2 + 1. 6. 3 x^y 33. 3. 31. 9. 10.rV:r. V.632. 19. 3. 3. 8V/) 15. 03r* 7. 23.r^ 5 a~ 2 ft~ 1 + Vft. ^88". 4. + Vic + 25. 17. + 1. 16. 21. 45. 25.692.707. . 2v (T 2aVf. v/^r 5  A/^~. 9. 28. 5 ( . 36. 2 a?>V2 a.XXii ANSWERS 1. 21. V63. Vr 8. abVab. 5.3 + 40 3 . 62V(J. 2.yl : .. Va 2 "ft. + 2 ar 1 ). 3^2.'\ 14. (a 27. Page 207. ^7 \AOx. l 5. r c . 48. 30. T. x. 49. 20. 31. 195V3. 4 or + 3 9 <r + 12. x 7  34. 24. 20. 34 r 6. yV35. . 11V3. 26. 43. y (a + ft) V2. Vz2 ?/ 2 44. + + ft. 10. 19. 2. .f. (o* 2. a 4 +* + !. / V3.2 VlO. Va a + 2 a^b* 14. . 28. x^ . a2 4. 34. x%  3 ^+ 1. k/2. 3 4\/2. 8a6V5. 1 2 or 1 ?. 1. V2 + 4 V22. 9. . 2 4 z2 l 3. 30. 3V5. 20&V6. 37.  a Vft 2 121 b. 26. 2. + 2 Vzy + y 1. 33. 2. 9 . 24. r 17  Page 204. JIV6. 50. 3^ + 2). 101 1. 1) 3V3. 5. 2. V.r. 41. 40. 2 x* 15. 27. 2. 16. ). 12. 29. 13. ftV 46. 32. 3 \ 39. 13 35. 2 '"V5.2 18. 4aV^J 16. 3 a~ 3 (x (. 40.). + 2). 6. x + 5 x3 + 0. 18. 38. 7. 51. 13. 8. v^. 8. V80. (Va (5xJ Vft+Vc). + 2 V22. Page 208. a^ + 2^+1. x 25. 1+2 v/i + 3\/!^ + 4 x. (x' (l 1+x). y.Vxy 35. 4. 29. 3V^T. a 3. ^: V2c. + . ?tV?w. 11. 3 42. 2>X2. 15.  2 3:r.648. m* n*. Page 203.
\^6. v 25^4714 V2"a. \XOfl6Vi5. 25. Vtf +3+ 33. xx 1. 40. 0. v/8. 32m27n. __ rw 3 \~s~' ] * . 34. 36. . 24. ab 4. 9. aVa. 16. 1V5. 10V(). 74\/Jl 120 46. 36. 39. 48. 8  \/15. 21. 4. 19. / \/w/t 4 13. \/2. 13.  3. VJla. 53. 7. 18. 21 23. 22. 26. 2. 37. + 20. V5. 28. 8V2. 20. V8. V3"m. 43. r)\/(l Vrtr. v^4. 23. \/abc*. ^9. ^\/3. V2. x/w^ 8. V2. 27. 35. 27. 30. 2. 2 \/2. 6. \/128. D 45. x/125. 16. 6. 4 >/3. ^v 7 15. 42. 11. 46. VT5. 10. v/i). : ^32. Vn. 17. fl^Vac. v/lO. 34. 5v/2. Vdbc.T*. 8v2T 12. 40. 25. ^27. 9. 4\/5. v^f. 2. 5V2. 41. V/. v^a. Page 214. 3 V15  47. 0. 32. w?i. 6x2?/. + VlO  v y (5. 14. ^ 3 b 5 24. \/04a. "v/wi ??. 3 V2. . 1.ANSWERS _ Page 209. 10. \V3. x/8l. v^lf. 8V73\/IO. 2\/7. vT). 2yV2?/. 11. \^r^bVabc. 39. 4. V3. 6. 14. 5 \/2. "^8000. V3. Page 216. 7. 9 VlO + 4. ..r v/^ v^fr*. 3. v/9. 13\/3. 3. 1. 37. 6+2V5.30 2. 2 ate. x/8. 6. . 33. v7^. 5. 2 1. rtv/5. 3. 31. \/8. 1. x/3. 32. 15. '. 51. 35. a\/5c. \^6. 30 Vl4. b. 9. 15. 44. 5. . 12. 52. 24. 19. 18. 4VO. 6aV2\^. 3v^2. v/l2. 38. 2 28. 3\/wi. 3 Vl5 30. x/27. 29. 17. 12. 38. 3. 6. \/a6c. 31. 3. W). VLV/ ^i?i= a: . 17. 8. 21. 14. 16. 2. 10. Page 210. 4 a*. v"5. a2  b. 50. 3\/15  6. v^O. m ?i2Vm/t.J Page 212. 7\/(l 7VTO. a^\/a7>. v"3. 2. . 7. x/4. 23. 6V2. 26. 18. 3\/2. Page 213. 8. % 29. v^30. 22. V5. 5V2. 11. . Vat. 13. x/8L v/27. Page 211. 2 V'3. 6 2\/0. 14c 4 V5. 5. 49.
w 6. 29. 4V3 + 6. 4. 4.\/TO). 21 ' Vob 26. 21. m f. \. 2 . 8.1. 7. 2. 13. 3. . 4. 19. 6. Page217. 15 f 3 V2L 4.7083. 1. 5 V65. 100.464. 14. 16. 9. 3(7+3V5). 7.V3).2. 1. (2Vll). 32. 12. {. 7.  f. 10. 28. 12. Page220. 27. 34. 14. 8. 12. 6 (V2 + 1). 8 V3V2. 33. fV2. 7. Va. 10. 25. 10. 7. 2V2. 4. (a 1. 23. _^JflJ?.3. 224. 24.W + 12 v/7  3 \/15 .81. . 1. . (VllV2). (Vf + (4 V2). Page 28. 20. 3. ' 22 i . Page 225. 11. 5. V3. 2V3. 31.5530. ^. j 15. 6. 5. .2828. i(Vf Vft). 9 mn. (V5f 5. 16. xy 2. K>/0 + \/2). 1. 14. 8. 2. 11. 5.XXIV 7. 4 14. 15. 5 f.3535. 8. 0.3. V2. 18. 4. 22.4142. 4. 30. 6. 25. 12. 1. 4. 2ajV2*. 18. A . ^(VlO\/2). 20.^ (\/22 4. 512. 10. (V51). 22. 1. 20. 5. 3. 6 V. V3. 19. 8.601. 11. Page 218. 2. 25.7071. 1. \/57t. (2V2). . 1. 23. 16. 5.5. 16.1805. n*. 4. 5.2. 19. 15. 4. 29. 9. 7. .732. .  2. 20. (\/5V2). (V8 + V2. 4. 5 + 2 vU 17. 10. V35. 21. 8. 125. 9. +3 V2). 12. (3+ v/2). 1. p 6 13. j. 16. 8. 17. 9. 23. V. 10. 30. 3. 11. 6. 25. 3V23. 9.9. 5. (V6 + 2V2). J. Page 223. x 20. 26. \/3). 7. Page 219. 18. 2!5_. 16. 17. 13. 5.732. !^ 6 4. Page 226. 6. 0.13. 16. 4. 24. 9. 2V3. 18. 2. i^Lzi. 26. 4. 24. (2. V6c. . nVTl. 2. 1. 15. 11. 37. ^. .. 19. (V21). f. + 6) 2 . 18. 17. V3 . 27. 9. (2f V"5).6. V3. 25. 14.4722. 7 f 5 4. 36. 35. 81. 3. 24. (\/3f 1). 4. 13. J. 7.625 10. ^\/2. 15. 7 Page221. 22. 16. 11. 2. V^TTfc. 23. 3. ^r. 21. 9. Vf6fVtf. Va. 5. 2. 2x^2^.64. 17. 1. 81. ~ Vac _c 0. 23. 64.0606.389. 19. 25. . 4.1547.  13. . ANSWERS 8.6 V3. 12. i^ ~ 1 v ^. 15. 3. + 5V2. 4.  . 10. 8. V5. 9. 25. 216. 27. * 3. (VaT^v a).
1. 5.22. 3. 4. b . 6. 5. 20.4). 2. 4 1. 5. 3 . 6. . 3. 13.2. 15. . (rt. 8 6 & 0. 4. 4. . . 30 30. 1. 5. P. 3. V3. 10. 2 <? 4a2 . 8. 5. 1 . 1. 10. 1. 11. 1. 2.1)(4 a + 2 a + 1). 18. 87 . J. 50.Y. (2 a. (s + l)(x2 :r + 1). 13. 1 . 56l). 2.ANSWERS Page 228. 1 . (a2)(:iB2 f 2a44). 1. 0. 3.3. 15. (10 #0(100 + 10^ + 4 ). 12. 6 2 2a + 2).nl^EI. 2.^a. 30. 3. 17. 1. 7. 28. . J. 10. ' J. t/ 23. 8. 1. 1 6. 3. (a + l)(a*a 8 + aa + l).2 ) ( 10 w 2 n 2 f 4 winy 2 Page 231. 1.f 2)(sc 2 2 r + 4). 4 . (pl)(p2)(p2). 73.4. 5.w 4 + 1).a) (04 + 8 a + a 2 ). J Page 235. (a .2. 4. 3. (la&)(l46 + 2 & 2 ). (a+&)( 2 14. . 2. 26. & + 6 2 ). .4. 19. (a 4. 3. 20. 8. 1.  2. 2 > 1.+ ^)( 4 a 2 6 2 h6 4 ). 14. a . 2. 4.  1. 0. 17. 3. 4. 2.l)(z 2 + z + 1). 1 . 0. (B43). 8.  J. Page 236. .3 2. 1. o& (3m 3 7)(9w 6 +21m*+49). 4. (1 +a 2 6 2 )(l a 2 6 2 +a 4 6 4 ).3). 12 24 y . 3. 2. . 7. 4. 3. 1. 1 . 2. 19. 2. y. 13. 4 4. 1. J 24. 1 (?> x/^3. 2 V^ . 4.3.  f . . 7. 13. 3. 8. 18. 4.1. 25. 3 9.  16). 2. 6. . a: :} . 11. . 14. . 23. (a + 2) (a Page 229. (w2)(m3)(2m + 5).  5. 21.5. 2 . 6. 16. 3 . 30 . 4. 4. 19. (w . Page 233.3. 10. //. 2.. 24. 3.3. (4 mn . (wp)(w2p)(wi3p)(w*42p). 1 3. 22. 22. 3. qpl. . ( 16. a(.  1. + 6 4 )(a*a' 6 + a 2 6 2 a& 8 H6*). 2. 14. 7. 4. 2. 2. 5. 2. (+!)( 2) 10. 30.l)(a 4 + a + a 2 f a f 1). 3.10. 13. 6. (&y2a#H4). 4. 2. 2. 5. 25. (m 4 + l)(ro. 12. 4. 0. 10. a(l+a)(l_afa 2 ). 3. 4. 4. 0. f>. 7. ~ f7. 3. . 5. l. 25. 2 .2. 1. 15.1. 3. 1.r . 2. 12. 2.  3. 2.3. 5. 2. 7. 3. 16. 11. =A^Z3. (2a + l)(4a*2a + l). a  . 11. 4 . 3. 3 . 2 6. 4.l)(m . 25. 6. 1. 20. XXV 4. 3. 5. \/0. 8. 2 . 1.2)(* . 3 5. 2. 9. 12.l)(a 2 + a f 1). . 3. 5. 4. 17. 21. (a. . 5. 3. 2. 2. 2. 4 20. .3. 2 6.  4.2)(m.l)(a3)(a .8a 18.12. 7. (pl)(p3)(p6). 2 &. 5. 0. 0. 27(2 a 4fc)( 4 2 2 (a 4 &)(* + 4 & + !&*). 1. 6. 3.  3. (xy + 5) (x*y* . (r.  3. 12. 9. f . .0. . 11.  . 3. . 2.2 + (row)(w4w)(w a + 6mw f w 2 ).7. 0.4. 2 . 100.5 xy + 25) 22. (8. Page 234. 24. 2. 11. (63)(6' t 18. 1. 73. 9. (a. 7. . . o. 10. 1.
. n. (&) 2. 69. 17. 14.13. 18. 900. 25. 3. (/>) "_. 10. _ 5. f>. 3. 14. 1.. 2 10. Page 238. 4 8. 29. 55. 35.  11. . . 5. = QO 6. . 12 ft. 4. 0. _ 13 (0 6. 3. 4. 4. . 30. 2. 13. 3. 3. 1. . 2 26. 7. 1. 3.. Exercise 114. 5. 12. 1. 1. $. 50. 3 2. 41. 40 25 in. 15. 37. 8 3. 4. 7. 8. 2. 12 d.3.4. . . 2n. 1.4.  1. 8.. 4. n . . 2. 3. 35 a. J. 14. 9. . 1. 20. . Page 239.. 30. 1J. 2>/3. 2 ft. . 2. 37. 31.3. j. i j. 1. 9. 1. 3 3. 2 . 1. 3 cm. 5. 5. 2. 3. 3 . 2. 2V7. 5. 8. oo .. 2. 2. 5050. 3. 2. 3. ( 3. . 3. 4. ft. co . 0. 2. 2 . . 4. J. 5 4. +  n. 3. 11. 2 Y> V .18. 15. 6. 18. 5. 12 1. 5. (a) $3400. 13. 20 in. 16. 3. in. 17. . 1. 3. 2 1. 5. 15. 1. . 6. 13. 1 2. 5 cm. 4. 37. 11. 1 . 3 . 9. . . 4. 31. J. 15. 1 . 1. 1. 7 3. 84. 28yd. 22. 11. 8. 3. m + n. 12.3. 4. c. 1. 2. 3. 8 . 21. 3.3. 23. 1 . 7. $. 15. V3~. 6. in.3. in. 21. 16. 2. 6.  . 1 . Page 247. 2. 10. 2. 18. Page 244. in. 11. 2.3 . Page 240. . 5.xxvi Page 237. 5. 17. 11. 3. 4 6. 4 . 1. . 4 34. 22. 3.3. f. . m27. 24. 35 ft. 1. ft. 9.30. 38.. . Page 241. 4. 3 4. 14. 30 13. GO . 2 . i'ljVU. 17. 12. Page 245. ft.1. 2. 1.5. 48. 3.6. 7. 2. 14. 4. 4. no co . 20 7. 8. 1 . . oo. ^~2. 39. Exercise 113. (a) 5. 5. 20. oo . ' j.136.0. 78. 3V5. . 1. Page 243. 1.020. 4. J. 3. . . _ 7.. 288. 4. 17. _ 10. 4. 5. 24. 3.e. 8ft. 5. 5. 512. 7f solution. 8. 1.0. 2 16. x 4. 10. $VO. 8. } . 2. 3. 1. 19. 3. 50. 125 125. . \/6. . 0. . 8.2. 12. 1. 6.  2 . 5. i.1.5. 17. 3 . 4. 7.200..1. i i i . 5. 35^ 5. 400. 2. 5. 2. 15. 33. 36. . 14. 1. 19. .y. 201. 21 30. ri*. 5 .4. . Indeterminate. 12. 12ft. 12... ANSWERS 2. Page 248. 15. (>. 4. f*. 1. 1. 1. 2. 14. Indeterminate. jj. 9. 16. 7. 45yd. 2. 1. . 1. 11. in. 1. m28. $46. }.6. 32. . tn 2. 40 1} 9 3 ft. 23. 1. . 2. V7. . 40 in. 2 2. ^ }. and _ 4. 40. 7. 3. 4. 26.4. 1. 4. 9. '>. 4.3. 5. 4. 512. \. 3. 10.
A. 4. 8. 0. 22. **+. 16 11. 9. 4. .v Page 253.  17. 100. 27.53. 9. 4. 18. 18. 16.870 m*n*. 7. 70. 1. 3. x r 4. 13. J 2 //2 25. y ^ 5  ^\ ). . 7. 4. 6i. 1. 21. 4950 M 2 b y *. 7 2 x 4 x8 . 5. 27. 6.5 M ' 41 fc 5 . 2.ANSWERS Page 250. '23. 16. 6. 1 14. 7. . 15. 22.5 x. Jj? 45. 495. . 8. 910. 3. 15. 120 aW. 16.x' 10 . 0. 6. 53. 29. ~v 9. 2. 12. 2.^ ?>i 2412x4. 27. f y 8 + z* . c. <. 125.5*7 + ^4 1 12 w 4 10 x' 2 //^. 4. 2.7 10. 5. 11.5. ?/i 6 x llj . 4.  101. 81. 21. 17. 304. 6. JSg. ~ an . 32. 3. 1. . 192. 70. 4 0.170. 1JH. ().4 &z x>&. 0. 20. w9  8. 12. 48.130 x30 189 a 4 24. 6.419. 16. 8.700. 0. 2. 8. 4. G. 05. 1. 1.5 J4 10 47 d*b 6 4 4. 6. . 25. 2. 10 14.K 4 4 50 x 5 4 28 x 4 4 ^8 1 g ! .^ x2 ^x w ^2 ? . . 45 Page 257. \ w 4 . :r 4 4 8 x 28 x~ 60 . 128. . 3. 20. 5. (?>) 4 8(2 V2). 28. 2. 35.1. 2.920. 10. 9. 343. 410. and 1. 9.r 4. 220 . 27. 6. 10. 280 53. 3. 1 7 4. r r j. 12.0. 19. 10. Y11. 3. 8.12 x*y 16. d. 12. . Ja. x4 . . 0. . 7. 3. 1. 2.x^ 4 x8 15 x 4.5y 4 . 105. 10.210. 4. 327. 10. B . 3. 4.13. 26. 13.6. 23. 16. 9. 04.192. 2.6 . in. . Page 254. .384. 75. 1820. 3. ^a 8.r x>/ 7 3. 5. 12. x + Vy. vy. 5. 1. } $ 50. ' 1.10 a 3 ?/2 10 4<J aW 4.8. 0. 12. 7. 10. 20. Page 259. 405. 18.504. 0.120. 11. 7. 8. . 4. 4. 13.<2 4. &' 14. 11. 44. 6. r 5 4.680.470.2 45 a 8 /).3 ays. sq. 5. 8. 1. 15. 17. 2i* 7f. 4. 343. 7 x4 17. 16.2 9. 45. 2 1 x 4 6x'2 12. 1. 12. 9. 125. 5. 3. f 7 ^ 14 x 84 4 . 005. 4.^ 448 x a' 3 /') . 6. 5. 2.r^  280 x 4 4i^S + 6. 708. 2. . i 10. 5. 14. 45. a. f r6 4  20 rV 42 15 xV 8 . 500 x3 10 4 4 072 a? 3 . 12. 3. 15. 35. 2.4. 1000 aW. 1. 17. xxvii 1. 8. 0. 15. 19. 55. % 4 20 ab* 42 330 x 4 15. 8J. 4. 7. 8. 5. 5. Page 258.  20 flW. I. 5 13. 3. 18. 4. 4. 4. 8. 3. 04. 0. 7. 3 4 15 a 8 11 4 14 a  1  2 y* . 8 4x' 2 . REVIEW EXERCISE .15 x 4 //'?/ a5 4 J 5 4 Z> 4. 16.r* 4 70 . 43.5. 8 . 50. 8 1. 70. Page 252. . 19. />*. 1. a4 4 14.
94.15 4 62 x  72. r 5 VFTx + vTfy + 1.105. c3 4 58. x } 4. 27. a* 4. y 4 z* 0. x 3 4. 132. 15 ab 4 Oac 4 6 be. a* a 8 a aftc. x2 3x2/?/ 2 112. ?/ .{ 54. 21. ft n . 8 x* + 27 y 2 x2 2 .  . .4. 130.18 ?/ 5x4. 3 a . 0.4 x?/2 3 4. 102. . + 28 x2 13x 3 56. .2.4. . 40. 243x4729. 36 + 9c9 a x3 4 + 8.3 b .1. 107. 104. 9 2w 128. 10 a 12 b.3 103. 23.3 a 2 '6 w 4. + a 4. 3 c . 16. 2 2a 2 2 2(a. x . . I 57. . 46. 2 . 1x 4 x3 xty6 a 24 3  Page 262. x 8 + x 4 y* 67.  e +/. 2 a. 99. x2 5r*x ft 5 . . .a. 24 a 2 6 3 x3 0. 86.ac 44 aft. 52. 120.3 mn p 2/ x 4 . a J . 70. 63. 6a6c. ?/ 3. x3  15 x 2 48 ?/ .  + 16 a/> 8  a*2a 2 6 2 +& 4 74.y*.6 b.a' 'ft 4. f5+7.  ft 3  13 a 4 + ll a 2 2. a' 111.2. 2 . . 2 x'V2 90. x' .5x4. 1 . 32. x4 f + 23 .  12 a.4 x 2 .3 a'ft. 5 42. 0. 12 x. 2 . 81 ?/ 4 108 xy 3 75. fi :ry 42 4  a 2 4 a 2 ft 2 3 119. 14 x . 4ft y3.5 3 2 y2 5 a2 4 2 aft 4 ft. . . 1 121. 100. 2 2 x2 ?/ 2 4 63 4 ?/ . . a2 2 aft 2 2.5 b + c . (d) x  (a) 2 x 2 ?/ 4 ?/ (ft) 2 y 2 y 2 g (c) 3 x +y 11 a: y 4 3 2 .+ 4 2 ft) (a 4. 8 . 1 x 45.a 2 x 2a . (a + ft)" 98.x 51. az 4. 2 aft 3 4 3 ft 4 . 35. 4 Page 264.a6 2 4. 9x. x' 79. a 3m 4. 3 a 5 a 5.3 . 72. 5x 2 2x43.x. ft x6  3 x5 4 9 x4  27 x 3 1. 2 2 9 ^4 2 59. 2 30 .a*ft 2 126. 4 69. fc' 6 p'2 q  54 ? 3 . 24. 114.3 aftc. 2 113. 10 4.xxviii ANSWERS 19. 105.9 x . 3 36 b c .x24 73.2 x 4. . 66. xyxzyz.ft). a 4 .x4 + y'2 z 4. a4 x. 16t/. Page 260. 2 2 *  3 2n 101. 3 r2 2 ?/ 2  ax . 25. 127. x 2 . + z. 131. . () 2 x 33. x2 471x4. 30. 43.c. . 0. 88. t 81. 4 65. 2 x2 108. 2 x2 4. 3 y2 2z2 ~3xy?/. 4 . ?> .41.c 3 4. 96.1. 93. ft2ft 4 4l. x2 2 . 4 ! . 4. 37. df. 26. 2 q. 36. 3 a 44.36 xfy 2 a 8 ?* 3 4.5. 61. m " + n + P3c .  3 x2 . 31. 4 fee 4. ^ .x 2 4. 2 53.4. 4. x* .1w 77.4. 5x + 2y~z. 122.  + 3 x2 . 62. 125. x 8  a8 . a~b 89. 110. x?/ 2 2/V2 4 2 x2z2 4 92. * 60. 8x3 8x. 1 + 4 xy.^a . x2 + 4 x7 9 y2 x4 4 4.  4 a3 85.5 3n 4.9 b.1. Page 263. 3~ n 4. . . . 5 4 4.fee 2 4. 38.6 am b\ 129. _55_7c 48. 4 2 . x4 3 4 2 x 2 4 0.4 2 4 c2 42 . . 49.2. 76. + f 2 2 (/) 2 34. 6 c 47.a" xy 2 2/' 3 .. +^ + ft W.c. x2 a2 1 . /> 4 83. 12 a/.4 x y 87.7. + 3 a?.2 c . . x3  15 x 2 71 x  105. 64. . 3a'2 Page 261. 118.1 4 jry 4 x . &p 84. 39.2 xy + 4 y2 106.18 x?/0.x x*  f 2 ax 4.2 x^. 124. 1 a"* 4 an . 82. .4 ac. 22.3 x?/ 2 1/ 4a 3 a o_a 4 a2 +l. 4 15 x 5 . !! 71. 2 2/' . 80. 50.5 a 2x8 x 3 . 4.1. x 4.7 x   15. 7 + 3 xf 2. 28. 6 8 j27 40 ab. 133. 3a~2c. .rty x2 4 123. 6y 2 a2 _52 45 = 73(). 6 a2 97. 91. as 20. 2 a2 4 aft 5 116.3 x 2 + 3 x . 4 115. x8 x2 55.a'2 c. 13 + 2 s. x 8 + x 4 68. x 3 41. . 4 4 4 ft*" 3 4 + 2'2 ~+ 2 81 x2 134.3 y. ft /> 78. 109. 29.15 x 6 x4 ?/ Ilx 2 ft a8 4 8 y4 .
186. (?/+l)(yl). 199. 232. (x + 2)(x .y + 3)(r (. 15.9)(xf 2). + 7)(rt4). 154. (x . 163. 10). . + 3). (3x  . 12 yr. (a 2 +l)(a*+ 1). 143. 167.2 )(x+y) 228.y2 ). (32)(2a ftc v?y(x + 223. m. (ox + /)(5xy)(x+3 y)(x3 y). 6. 206.m)(x + a).2ac + 229. ft. 183. 236. y 245. 178. 233. 4. (x^ + x1) 234. 12. p. (JT y 225. a + 2x2 ). 148. (2x3y) 3 xy(x.r + 4).11) (5x 2)(2x + 3). 19. . 224. 10 in.I2y). + 6 y) (x 2 y) . HI. 216. (. 237. .  1. 12) (j. 218. 8 204. 202.3 y). .2) (3 x .. 214. 159. 147. 205. 23 18. 2 (4 x . 147 mi. 226. 2a(42ft)(2fo). 172.. (5 x . 30 + xyr. 2. 142. ry(x (a (y + + * 221. (7x2//) 203. 187. a 2 (15.6 . 48 h. (a 2 + 2a6. (r^x + 1). 149.r & (a + ary c)(a 1 2 + ) + 3y). 240. . 176. 175. 182. 168. (3a + 4?> + o(5crt). 189. + 3) (x f f>) . 169. 3. (y7)(y + 188. 162. +)(x2 x^+2. 136. ? >2 ft ?) ft 242. ( jc // a 2 (a1). 20. ?.2). 210. (y  17)(y + (>). 21. 238. Page 265. 30 yr. 32 h. 2^. 12 yr. 171. 5. Or (a + 2)0el). 10 ft. + 11) (a 10).3. 2 2 (a. (3x2?/)(2.y)(z . (7 x + y +y+ 2)(x . 230. Page 266. 24. (x  42 yr.4xl). 164. 8(ar}(/)27). 156. 155. (y 7f))(y 196. 36ft. (a& 192. (xyX^+y" )1 243. 2. 161. aft. 193.3) (2/3y). 4 2 ?/(x  ll)fx 3). + 22). (2a + l)(a .y)(jc + 7 y). 1. 185. 2(d)(rt + + c+c2). (4 x 2 + 9)(2 x 4.1(5) 200. 12 6 panes. 2. 217.y). (233). x(x f 3)(x+ 2). (y + 1) a(3 + 26)(3a2ft). 138. 37 1. 152. ( + 2y)(2x3y).l)(a 2 +3). (y _ ft)(y 4. 6). . 160. 247. 180. 218. Iff 145. 211. 4. G7. 195. x(x + 6) 213. a(a./_4). (a} 59.c2 )(a 2 2 +2a/) + c 2 ). 201. 10. 2 xy(3 x . y  y 165. C3 y _l)(. 220. (/ 246. (ab + 8) ( 7). 140. 137. (5x + 2) (3 x yfory) +4). 197. 75. 173.l)(x8 + x2 . (r7y)(ai. y. 1. 30. 2.1). 1. Page 267. 144..3 y)(a . (7 c 2 ). 10). 150. + y. 181. 6. 239. (2 198. 1.2. z(x10)(xl). 1. 2. 20.y) (\r3y). 190. 1. (y_24)(y5). 22.1). 166. (at (4 a +!)( + 3). 170.c) + or OB (2 + 4 y) Oe* + 2 s). 151. 15.r . (x 227.l)(y + 1). xxix 139.2). 174. (x + l)(xl)(y + l)(yl). 1. 40 yr. 3. fc'2a+62c). (6) 40. 153. 1. 212.6)(4 + 6). 215. (8x + 3)(3x4). a. 7. 208. 191. 235. 3(x .1). + 2) + 9a. (c) 160 C. 15  a. r>x 2 (4x. 219. 177. (x + 6)(x6). 157. 2(x8)(x3). 241. 231. p. . y3. as 194. 207..ANSWEKti 135. 184. 179. 146. 244. 12. 222. k.3). yr.6) (2 x + 1). 50. 18. 158. 209.
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389. f. 6 ?/+:>. 11. T\. 382. 404. a 2 . 9^. (a + b + c\ . 2 ab  a Page 276. 3. 394. 343 00 351. If. l . L . 379. 360.  1. 390. . 387. 20. + x 362. . 386. 1.7. 7. 396. 4.J . 400. 392. 6a. 376. . 4 rw.. 4. 393. 27 ^" li'oy 3 r J // J 341. l'j. 325. + 4 & 4 \ b.1 ')_ x'2 + 4x + 381. y 4 I 340. 333. 339. 3. 377. 1. 388. ^_:r f> 331. . _*L'L+. 0. 355. 4 A. * 357.  1 356. 380. 405. ab.XXXI Page 272. xa' 2 '2 7/ + 4 f Page 273. 395. 399. 2 327. 397. 364. x 54 359. 370. 385. 2(q. 375. T+^.(5 a .H ' 2wi ^' /' . <L 409. 2. 2 r36 384. 0. 398. Page 274. 0. 12. j 328. 383. 329. 2. m. **" ~ 2 3 > + 8 x* f 2 y 4 1 ^ 350. Page 277. 7/i ^ _ . a +6. A^izA??r+J!j/?_ *x 330.1. 2 ?/ 363. . 2 ). S. 1.vin a /r " 337. 1. 1 i 2 ^.3. 361. 0. 408. ^"" 4 s . 407. 13 391. ?/ + 3 332. ?=. 2(a i 403. 1.!. 365.)Cr4)__ . " 4 378. a + b + 6).". ?>*. A^L5L. 3. 336. c 402. 324. 5 ^^K^+M^ AC^Ln?). + 335. a) A^_. 366. 326. 334. ^ 3 // . . 401.. 406.
vz in. + () 433. . . 411.12. 5. (&) 443. 24 days.. 5. 477. 1$. 422. 0.  7. 1. 430. a* 424. 12. 428. 502. i. 479..  453. B $ 2500. 21. 2. 0. 51. 5. (a) 1. 432. 5. 10. . 481. .7. 498. />c c(f be. 464. . *+. 439.4. $2000 at 0%. 472. (&) true.  1. fc.te + . 0. . ^. 478. 418. 1.  505. L (c) I. .  2. 90. : />a. 40. A 5 mi . 427. 482. 484. 459.7. 84. . 4. 503. 10. 490. 0. 2 438. \. ^r?i 434.7. . ^V. 468. 9. 32 yr. 2. B 4 mi.XXX11 ANSWERS ab. 412. 467. 2. 456. 452. 6. b 449. 429. 10. 3. 450. 3. 480. 492. Page 280. . 466. 2$. 508.55. c 6fc 10.. 1. 447. 436. 32.3. . 440.  . 435.2. 3a 4 5.  f>. a 22 . 2.  7. 0. 425. 442. 501. (c) not true.4. 2.7. 445. 0. 2. 33. 10$. . 6. i a b 451. 6. 20 yr. ISjmi. . Page 278. 8. 461. 53 yr. 421. . 5. 40 oz. 506. 494. . 5.m  m+ M in. + b ' + a __ b c ' 2 w f w 417. 18. 0. 496.0.0. 10.2. 499. 3 .. 426. 14 miles. a + + ft c. I. '.  10. fj.7. 460. 42. 410.. 7. Page 282. 7. Page283. 10. . m. 1 a /?$+&?. 17. 22. 20.488. 63. . 17. ISJini. 4. 2. . 50. 448.5. not true. 1. A $ 3500.1. 6. 6. 10. \ 1. 2.3. 2 a 2. & 491. 7. 2. 454. <L+ 6 (. 441. 419. 487. 495. (a  c).rz Page 279. 7. 465. 8. 2. 423.46. 7.  2. L2 a  6 . 493. 1. 455.  2.. Page 281. 420. c. 7 : . 5J. 463. ft 5. 4. 446. 507. 486. . 444. 8.}. 462.  2f 504. 10. 11. 413. 483. 6. 28 yr. 3. 6 f c a + ? & ~ a 0. 497. m 1 : wi. (d) true. z8 +?/ 3 431. 500. 4. !L=4. 476. ' $260 at 0%.  1.}.} ' c^acjd} ^ fcfZ a/ ?>rf + 86 (. * . 485. 458. 457. 6.489. 8. (d  6) f.
8 mi. 1. tin. Page 288. Page 285.5. .6 2. 3f 4f. 3. 21*_. 0000. g(rc+ 6c).2 xt/ a4 + x3 4 6 x4 3 xG fx.1.3. > ^ . 553.37. . 4 8 x2 ?/4 605. 3.21. 1 1  2 x 7 2 f 3 2 x' 2 + x8 f x4 . .8.25m. 554. + 26 + . . 3.83. 562.5 f. 1. 525.3.10. ft 584.3. 2. 532. . . 1. 551.5. tin. 3. 2.3. 528. .9. 8. .  (a) 2.1.04.   (h) 8.5. 581. 2.78.56 sec. 24 da. imag. 563. 5. 561.8. 2. 3.20.5+. S82 c.88. (c) 4. 1 600.ANSWERS Page 284. 555. f ? a f ft __ + c C). 1. . 567. 1. (c) 3. 579.  ft*. . + 26x2 + 10 x4 ).03..3.38. xxxin 511.21 a2 + 3x + 3x2 rA 86 3 4 ft + 35 4 + 21 2&6 fts + 7 7 rt?> 6 a^ _ 8 +^ 57. (a) 74 Ib. y% Z * 586.% rr\* 585. 3.4 x + . 565.15. 2. 24. 1. 1.4. .6.4. 4.  J(a f + 2c).3.  + + c.75. 1 . da. 6435. . 515. 6.r8 596.6. 3.02. 232. 1..4. J7] min.  2. 4. 0.5. 4* da. 1. .  2ft da.8.  4. 2$.15. 509. 2(6 597.7.f 1. (i) 3. ._ ft 523 a 2 ftc 2 524. 564. 583.53.0. 1$.03. 4. 1. ^ ft 4. f. 3. 3. 530.31. (e) (c) 2. 558.5.02. M ft c 2 ft 3465.51. (ft) 4.1. <z ft 1.. 591. 4 0. + 35 86 4 4 &8 3 + 589.1. 1. lead. 593. 40 Ib.78. (6) 3. 1.10.6. 1. If 572. 2. 1J.24. f36a28x8 592.0.xj/ f xV . + 12 x .14. .  7. 578. 2 1. 512. 5.3. 2 a 8 x 8 + 6 ax&fy 2 x + 12 a 2xt2 b*y'2 + 2 6 4 ?/ 4 595.  . 582. per hr. (d) 537. _ 4. . 576. Page 287. or 8. 536. 2(4 602. H. 569. . . 2 imag. 574.02. 31. 4. 1 580. 7^ da. 3. 8 +3 x f 6 x2 2 a4 & 604. 14.4. 1. . o> . lead.  imag. 3. (ft) Ill Ib.02. (6) . . . 556. f. 533. 552.35. (/)  10 to 8. 3. 598.16.6. y 4.24 sec. 1. 3. 2. a f ft + c. a*8a + 24tf 82a. 513. 2. 4.33. 1. Roots imaginary.75.05.62. 1. x8 . 1. 4.62.. .54.24. 4. + 6 tf f 3 . 1. 5. 531.83..12. 575. 6. 599. 603.04. 516. 2 . 560. 1.30. 4 mi. per hour.1. 527.52. l+4x+0x 2 +4x 8 f x4 4 4 594.xV f +6 a2 &2  4 6. 7.  3. 3 da. .7.0. 559.  2 a*b + 3 a6 3 . 2 .2.  (a) (d) 1.8. T . 571. (gr) 10 1. 526. 4. 27 y* f\4 .8 x3^. 115 Ib.37. 577. a 7 687i 588i tt e a _ _3 7 ir 7 rt e & + 2 1 a 5 ft 2  rt 4^2 + i 3 ^254 590.3. _^ 2754x .  557. 550. 3 . . 2 2. (e) 570.00. . 514.7.0. a+ Page 286. 529. 8 a6 42x + 8x2 + 2x 8 4x4 601. _ 3. 1. 4.15. 566. .4. 510. 1.  1.54.73. 2 1. 2 10. 5. 518.4. 568. a + ft  a  f c. . 3. .1.31.55. i _ 4 sc2 + 6 + 10a:8 + a6) . 1 . 2. 573.25.
. ANSWERS ( 3 x 2 S 2 . 670. 1m*. 631. 698. . 4330 da.25. 627. 616. /> 4. 898. 608.  a2  a (ab). 700. 5. 662. (*_ + a: 611. \+ab 699. o. 690. I}'/. 629. a 1J. If 665. 1010. 1 704. la6 2. ^ _ \/3 +^~< 2 a a +^ 694. 653. 641. 2 x 44 ^/. 6. 614. 2&). 654. 622. ' 674. 4 V 0. 683. 0. 1 2. 2. 1. ^.2f Page 290.f 3 V^3). 4. . 692. 9.001.3. 7003. V7. 10.203.049. <T! . 702. 626. b . 5002. 696. 971. 637. 2. 657. 50. Page 289.  3.  .  13. 647. b 664. 633.  684. 6. 0. 621.2f (5 4.702. ^^ 695. 607. 646. 2 ab + a  &. 1 V5 1. 701. a 2. y  619. V"^TJ. 0. . ab. 8 f 3. 4. 691. 2 a  6*. 2. 0. 0. 703. + ~^'2 + a 1. ix 2 . 3 x2 . n^l +^. / V^+lO^M"^. 2 a: 4. 661. V2.3. If b. b. 3. 613.  4. 678< 682. 1. ' fe 2 ). 25. 635. if 4/> 671. K 5 2 V2. 2 a 688. ft). 2. l/'3. V^~3). 636. a. 655. 618. . 648. fta a/> ^A. 210. 9*. 644. + 2 A (i f Page 291. 2 / 2 4. . 666. 640. 3. 642. 623. 4. 677 680. 624. 7.a~ {Z 663. a 4.303. a + b. J^^. 8. 25. 009.3f l 668. . If 658. V2. . 660.. 1$ 639. 2 + 36 )K3 + ( 687. 706. be ac \. 6 685.  1. 630.  6. 612. (a3&45rj. 4$.>A 610.  2f r 659.7/ ~ +w ( 7>) ^~ V3 ^' 3. 656.002. 0.04. z  1. fe + a. 3 681. 5. 645. 620. 2. 5. .  4.3. 703. 8 6 fo . 2092. 643.XX XIV 606. 652. 5 3.43^4. 651. . 679. 634. . 705. 11. If. . 625. 615.c ) 697. c. 669. 2.y.3. 2f. 628. 2. 2f. a ' 2 + . 617. \. 7. 708. . x3 4 3 x x ' 4 X* 609.b. 12. ab 689. 638. af6fc __ __ ( a 4. 4. 11. 1. 1. 1 ^  7Q7> b j(_ (_ x/^15). If . 672. 2. ^ 1. 14.  ft. If f 667. i. .14 If 1. 4 676. 13. a 673. 650. 3.. 5. 2.001. ^. 632. 649. 3 a. 78. 1 ~a .0.b 686.
789. 730. v/7 / . iv/Jj.V/^ 741. 792.rJ w L 754. 746. VV> L4V34. 725. 763. 767. 750.2 4 w" + 4 d" + Hid. 3V7. 5. x i f^' . .. 1. 739..4 . 756. 17ft. 24 4 . fyaw&cu. 2x3^ a. a + 6 +cx* 2 (t' 3 1 a*&M. 777. 714. 794. a 5 .. 768.11.10. 300. Hi a. 729. 3V72VO. cr*lr*. . 39. 59. 782 785. 737. 1. . 734.r. a db Va^T < 45da.8.1 />f f + lr'~ + _L a 4 6..2. r. 7  3V5. 32>/2. 718. a 2  x2 . 722.^. J(v'lO2V 791. 1^ _ 760. 728. 8. 3. 4 x' 5 x 4 3 x~* ( 2 ar 1. 15 shares. 715. Page 293. 731. 1 I . 793. 758. > 748. 4 104 v/2. 724. 1 [ + '> J. *+V( x 2 "r 2 )' ^ 786. 30\/10 764. 753. 721. 726.^ 743. 733. 723. mn. "V313. j 742.4 . 1 747. 778. 788. 33^2. 732. 3^. ^ Ti i a*tj~ 4. 24. 25. y  1. 1. 727. 3 VlT 795. 342V3. 3 720. 796. 749. . + < 735. / 787. 24V2. 776. + 6 2 tf'c. 717. 8.r+y> 759. ^7xy. 719. 5. 29\/3. v'll. 2\/53V2.9.ANSWMHti Page 292. 738. . a 2 6^. 773.~ . i 2.12 af V^ 4 744. a:* . Page 294. T%. 769. 47. VIO\/3. 2 V2 . 740. 790 2v 3v 2. 709. 00. 710. 1 752.V2. 34. 712. 736. 716.9. 755. ^ ?>. 751. i^. 3V52V3. rt3 2 ^i^. 713.257.1 . a". ^ . 3V72V3. x\y. VT14V5. ^^ f ^3 _ r} t 2 i3x 4 rt + + 2u: 8'o'a +a2 3 . 13ft. 711.
. 900. 16xyV2*/^~x2 . **. \/5. . (x .a 4 + 1). 836. (x 4. 844. 886. 5. 2. 899.7 4 1) 846. 2/ 856. 3. (2 x + 3 y} . . (2x (r. 842. Va. 2 + 2)^ 3 + (a 4 5 f 8). 6 $. x.7). 4. .  839. 13. . . 848. ( 4 4. X4 1). 884. 881. (x42?/)(x2y)(4x . 3. 867.+ m f ") (a* ).0. 6. 829. 823. _ 3 ^ 860 r + 3) . a* 4. 837.rae) (4 . ^. 897.7)(4 x. db 7. 898. 6+V7. 10. 0.1.y) 852. (  ?>) (a + ^> . 826. 4. (x 2 f r . . 3. 2 *x 807. H./>") (a'. 879. 810. (a + 2 ?>c)(a 2 2fl?>44 ?/V ). 868. a(ft)( 873.  ' .f. ((' 1). b' 2 821. (4 c 4. 4. (x3).4. (am l)(a m + 1) 4m . 6. 1.1) (a 8 . 4. 7. 2 j 889. n =  29.. are extraneous. 2. ANSWERS 798. 820.1) . 2. 893. (x 845. 892. 4. 4. (x 2 . 2. 8(?/ + 2x2 ?/ ~ x 4 ). 4.l)(x . 851.4)(1 f 4 a 4 10a 2 ). 3. %7 ?/ ( 2 >wt 2wt ft ft 4 rc f 1 '* Page 298.a 2m W" 4 ^ m f & 2m 870.r4). 816. ^VG.7. +j!>. 861. 3 . Page 297. (2x3?/^)(4x2 4Ox^ + 9//%2).a 2 2 ). 17.a 3 " 4. 17. 23. 4. 808. 25. 3. $. m = 2. 2. 5. 2. o.10 ab 4. 847. 4. 4. 843. 6 4 V&  e " X/^^+A^ + 2 *a o l V 2 802. $. 880. (:r 11. Va + 6 + Vtt"fc. 11.r?/ 50(i ( 2)(5 04. 2  2. . (3 862. 4 . 859. f 3 866> (9 + 8 ) 81 ^3 _ 72 xy 4 04 ^). 0. 2. V 3. + d)*. ^ V}. (a 1) (x 4. (2 a . Page 296. 890.l)(x + 2). 48. '0 3 2 an 4 3(> n 6 ). 817. a(ry + 864. 830.l)(x + 3)(2x43). 825. f.XXXVI 797.. 822. 0.2w . (2 4. o 828. 872. 14.5) (x + * 853. 5. 1. 8. 811. 857. 4. 2 2 .25 ?>2). 888. . 2 .3)(x + 4). 841. (xl)(^~3)(.  + l(l^). x . . Hoots . 891. . J V.  1. 858.1)(V 2 . 831. Hoots are extraneous. 3. . 6(a6)(o a + + &). 801.4. m 875. jV3 f 3. a^*4l)(aa 4 + l).3.3.5 b) 4 1). (x*y*ryz + z*). 2. 840. a2 ^E*!. 894. 1. 833. 2 (x 4*4. 1 1. 876. 7. 3. 882.2) (x 4 2). (. 812. 8. 4 818. 4 885. \/2.om 441) (a 855. 1. 8 09. 834.7). 838.  tt 815. 19. 849. 5. 2 . (1 . 2 806.. 827. (x + y) (x f y) (x + y) (x . 3. 2 m . (x + 0X024.2 ax 4. 895. 2 . 5). 813. (a m . 835. 863. ) (a' 874. 896.r . 3. 1. 883. 2 854. 0. 799. 2. (x . (a 4 871. 11.1)(0 865. 3. 4 1)(4 x jc jr ::} ?> ?> . 5. ( 869. 1C. 6. . 819. 804.l)(x . 800. 7. 20). 1 . 2. 824. a 42)(x . (3 b . 7. 814.4) 860. Va 803. 887.1).6 xy + 9 )(4 x 2 (9x 4l2x + 10). 832.
0. i>. 6 da. 6 a 915. J. 5. f.744. 909. . . 905./hr.. 12. 0. . 7. 111. 4. 6. 8.. . 3. Page 301. ^y. ft. 6 . 15 946. w. 922. ft. 923.760 sq. 9 in. 333. v/(ai !)(&910. T3. 8. 932. 920. 2. 2. 11.. 945. 1. 5. 3. 6 a + 3 2 ft ' 4 3 & 928. V5 fj. 480 8 sq. 921. 940. 73. 903. T 6. 906. J. 108. . ft. 930. 927. 908. .' ifcVira^ 2 3. 1 XXXVll ' a 1. 60 949. 1. 1 . 3. i1" 913.. 8128. S07. 939. 987. 919. 937. 917. ft. Page 303. 12 mi. . 2. 980.. 10. 2. 11. . 2 w 914.615. yd. 952.2. 56. 100 rows. 982. 2. 11. 8. w 3. 959. 6..0. =F J.ANSWERS oJV 41 6 901. 4.. $(l 4. . . 28.446. . 954. 904. 3. 986.1.. 936. 951. 2. 2 ft. 964. 962. %* . 1 _2 . ft.  26j. 950. f ft 4 . 2. . 943. 977.01. 40 16 in. 7 ft.111. 2 1. dL 4. 14 . 4... 4.651. 2 i ' a V. 2. 960. 8. 902. 3. a + . 938. 66 924. 4. 7 or 30. 955. 12. 978. 1 2.. 3. '3 3 in. . 496. Page 302. 935. T 6. 8. . ft. 1 1. 5 .1.  1. 947. r ft ' < Page 299. i 3. 1). 115. 280. 934. 248. 984. Page 300. 28.1 = 9. 948. 944. 1. 6. 4. ft. 941. 4. 3. 957. . 8. 933. 7. 912.  1 . 8 . 963. tt2 19. 0. 12 in. 3 4 . 333. 918. 18. . 2. 5. . 931. ft. 5. 983. J(_ ft. 80. 3 . Y. 0. . 8. 6 1 1. 15 16 ft. I) v/Ca^T)^ 2 5. 6. . V5 T 2 . 956. 925. 916.I.. a. 981.. V^3). 1 + V953. 8. 5. 2 yd.V~~3). 6..2. . 4. 6. Z ^. 7. 4. i(6 in. 942. 2. 329. 10.073. 12. 7. 985. 6. 911. 4 6 mi. Va926. 979.709. 4.. 11. ?/i 6. 4 in. 20 19 ft. 3). 5l4f. 961. 958. i 8. 4 . 28.
(6) 8(1 . 12. 120 a. 996. in. X. 1010. Page 304.xxxviii ANSWERS 989. (J. 48. a a 13  13 ax + 78 a3 4y*> . 1013. 243 ?/ 810 x 2 + y 1080 x* 4 5 ?/ 720 * 240 r 8 7 ?/ . 120 i^l^. 1006. 1016. 997. Page 305. () 12(2+V3). 994.. " 1710 rtV and 1710 252 35. 2(2 v/2). 162.92.18. 1017. 24. + 448 . 1012. . 2 . 1(5. 0. ~ \. 4. 991. 1018. 6 70 .128 I.378 1015.  5&7 1021. 1008. 1001. (5.870 z8 . 995. . 1 8 8 2. 3003.'^^ } ( . (a) 2^ + 1 \/2). 0. 8.51. 1005. 5 :J2 r 10  14 y + 84 y*  280 + 5(>0  72 C K 4 2 MJiy 8 r? " 8 . ^f (2f3V2). + v 2). 4 and 1020.  W1W JI + 1 / 1 _ _L\ a . 993. . r = 2. 1007. 992. (a) (6) ^ 1002. 1009. (Z>) 999. 1000. 78 n+ a' x 2 t  13 .870 a 6 1011.. 32 13 (tx 4V3.378 <W and 92. ^Trsq. 988. 1003. 72. 9 /> l 6 /> 6 . 1019. 192.192rt?)r 120 *. 990. 108. 1 1004. 1014. 9 da. 12.
Half leather. THE MACMILLAN COMPANY PUBLISHERS. A examples are taken from geometry. The introsimpler and more natural than the methods given In Factoring. 6466 FIFTH AVBNTC. but none of the introduced illustrations is so complex as to require the expenditure of time for the teaching of physics or geometry. xiv+563 pages. etc.D. which has been retained to serve as a basis for higher work. $1. i2mo. not The Advanced Algebra is an amplification of the Elementary. physics. Ph. xi 4 373 pages. without the sacrifice of scientific accuracy and thoroughness. Half leather. and commercial life. especially duction into Problem Work is very much Problems and Factoring. save Inequalities. and the Summation of Series is here presented in a novel form. great many work. Particular care has been bestowed upon those chapters which in the customary courses offer the greatest difficulties to the beginner.ELEMENTARY ALGEBRA By ARTHUR SCHULTZE.25 lamo. The author has emphasized Graphical Methods more than is usual in textbooks of this grade. so that the Logarithms. $1. proportions and graphical methods are introduced into the first year's course. To meet the requirements of the College Entrance Examination Board. very numerous and well graded there is a sufficient number of easy examples of each kind to enable the weakest students to do some work. which have been omitted from the body of the work Indeterminate Equahave been relegated to the Appendix. but the work in the latter subject has been so arranged that teachers who wish a shorter course may omit it ADVANCED ALGEBRA By ARTHUR SCHULTZE. The more important subjects tions. comparatively few methods are heretofore. book is a thoroughly practical and comprehensive textbook. All subjects now required for admission by the College Entrance Examination Board have been omitted from the present volume. than by the . but these few are treated so thoroughly and are illustrated by so many varied examples that the student will be much better prepared for further The Exercises are superficial study of a great many cases. HEW TOSS . given.10 The treatment of elementary algebra here is simple and practical.
25 i2mo. but these few are treated so thoroughly and are illustrated by so many varied examples that the student will be much better prepared for further work. but none of the introduced illustrations is so complex as to require the expenditure of time for the teaching of physics or geometry. save Inequalities. The more important subjects which have been omitted from the body of the work Indeterminate Equahave been relegated to the Appendix. great many A examples are taken from geometry. $1. not The Advanced Algebra is an amplification of the Elementary. HatF leather. xiv+56a pages. without Particular care has been the sacrifice of scientific accuracy and thoroughness. The author grade. All subjects now required for admission by the College Entrance Examination Board have been omitted from the present volume. proportions and graphical methods are introduced into the first year's course. especially duction into Problem Work is very much Problems and Factoring.D. $1. In Factoring. has emphasized Graphical Methods more than is usual in textbooks of this and the Summation of Series is here presented in a novel form. 12010. HEW YOKE . To meet the requirements of the College Entrance Examination Board. The introsimpler and more natural than the methods given heretofore. Logarithms. etc. but the work in the latter subject has been so arranged that teachers who wish a shorter course may omit it ADVANCED ALGEBRA By ARTHUR SCHULTZE. than by the superficial study of a great many cases. bestowed upon those chapters which in the customary courses offer the greatest difficulties to the beginner. physics. so that the tions. xi f 373 pages. book is a thoroughly practical and comprehensive textbook. there is a sufficient number of easy examples of each kind to enable the weakest students to do some work. comparatively few methods are given.ELEMENTARY ALGEBRA By ARTHUR Sen ULTZE. 6466 7HTH AVENUE.10 The treatment of elementary algebra here is simple and practical. Ph. The Exercises are very numerous and well graded. Half leather. which has been retained to serve as a basis for higher work. THE MACMILLAN COMPANY PUBLISHBSS. and commercial life.
7 he . Hints as to the manner of completing the work are inserted The Order 5. more than 1200 in number in 2. By ARTHUR SCHULTZE and 370 pages. xttt PLANE GEOMETRY Separate. $1. SCHULTZE.. under the heading Remarks". Proofs that are special cases of general principles obtained from the Exercises are not given in detail. 6. . Half leather. 4. These are introduced from the beginning 3. Cloth. lines. ments from which General Principles may be obtained are inserted in the " Exercises.D. THE MACMILLAN COMPANY PUBLISHERS. Many proofs are presented in a simpler and manner than in most textbooks in Geometry 8. and no attempt has been made to present these solutions in such form that they can be used as models for classroom work. The Schultze and Sevenoak Geometry is in use in a large number of the leading schools of the country. Preliminary Propositions are presented in a simple manner .r and.10 L. Algebraic Solution of Geometrical Exercises is treated in the Appendix to the Plane Geometry . Cloth. Difficult Propare made somewhat? easier by applying simple Notation .10 By ARTHUR This key will be helpful to teachers who cannot give sufficient time to the Most solutions are merely outsolution of the exercises in the textbook. The Analysis of Problems and of Theorems is more concrete and practical than in any other distinct pedagogical value. textbook in Geometry more direct ositions 7. of Propositions has a Propositions easily understood are given first and more difficult ones follow . i2mo. Attention is invited to the following important features I. aoo pages. The numerous and wellgraded Exercises the complete book. wor. State: . 10. 6466 FIFTH AVENUE. xii + 233 pages. KEY TO THE EXERCISES in Schultze and Sevenoak's Plane and Solid Geometry. NEW YORK . iamo. PLANE AND SOLID GEOMETRY F. Pains have been taken to give Excellent Figures throughout the book. 9. izmo. SEVENOAK. Ph. at the It same provides a course which stimulates him to do original time. $1. guides him in putting forth his efforts to the best advantage. 80 cents This Geometry introduces the student systematically to the solution of geometrical exercises.
12mo.The Teaching of Mathematics in Secondary Schools ARTHUR SCHULTZE Formerly Head of the Department of Mathematics in the High School Commerce. New York City. . " is to contribute towards book/ he says in the preface. . $1. methods of teaching mathematics the first propositions in geometry the original exercise parallel lines methods of the circle attacking problems impossible constructions applied problems typical parts of algebra. 370 pages. of these theoretical views. making mathematical teaching less informational and more disciplinary. . enable him to " The chief object of the speak with unusual authority. New York DALLAS CHICAGO BOSTON SAN FRANCISCO ATLANTA ." The treatment treated are : is concrete and practical. . THE MACMILLAN COMPANY 6466 Fifth Avenue. Students to still learn demon strations instead of learning how demonstrate. and not from the information that it imparts. .25 The author's long and successful experience as a teacher of mathematics in secondary schools and his careful study of the subject from the pedagogical point of view. Most teachers admit that mathematical instruction derives its importance from the mental training that it But in affords. . and Assistant Professor of Mathematics in New York University of Cloth. causes of the inefficiency of mathematical teaching. . a great deal of mathematical spite teaching is still informational. . Typical topics the value and the aims of mathematical teach ing .
supply the student with plenty of historical narrative on which to base the general statements and other classifications made in the text. New York SAN FRANCISCO BOSTON CHICAGO ATLANTA .AMERICAN HISTORY For Use fa Secondary Schools By ROSCOE LEWIS ASHLEY Illustrated. which put the main stress upon national development rather than upon military campaigns. All smaller movements and single events are clearly grouped under these general movements. Studies and Questions at the end of each chapter take the place of the individual teacher's lesson plans. An exhaustive system of marginal references. Cloth. Maps. " This volume etc. THE MACMILLAN COMPANY 6466 Fifth Avenue. $1. is an excellent example of the newer type of school histories. i2mo. but in being fully illustrated with many excellent maps. Topics. diagrams. which have been selected with great care and can be found in the average high school library. diagrams. photographs. The book deserves the attention of history teachers/' Journal of Pedagogy.40 is distinguished from a large number of American textbooks in that its main theme is the development of history the nation. This book is uptodate not only in its matter and method. The author's aim is to keep constantly before the This book pupil's mind the general movements in American history and their relative value in the development of our nation. and a full index are provided.
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