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ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
. LONDON LIMITKU HOMBAY CALCUTTA MELUCK'KNK THE MACMILLAN CO. LTD.THE MACM1LLAN COMPANY NKVV YORK PAII.AS  BOSTON CHICAGO SAN FRANCISCO MACMILLAN & CO. OF TORONTO CANADA.
HIH SCHOOL OF COMMERCE. PH.D. NKW YORK ITNIVEKSITT HEAD OF THK MATHEMATICAL DKI'A KTM EN T. FORMERLY ASSISTANT PROFESSOR OF MATHEMATICS.ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA BY ARTHUR SCJBULIi/TZE. NEW 1 ORK CUT THE MACMILLAN COMPANY 1917 All rights reserved .
May. 1910 . Norwood. September. 1910. Cushlng Co. .. 1916. BY THE MACMILLAN COMPANY. 1915.COPYRIGHT. Reprinted 1913. . 1910. 1911. Mass. May. . July. September. J. U. January.S. 1917. Published Set up and electrotyped. 8.A. Berwick & Smith Co.' February. August. IQJS January.
" While in many respects similar to the author's to its peculiar aim. and conse . but "cases" that are taught only on account of tradition. Typical in this respect is the treatment of factoring in many textbooks In this book all methods which are of and which are applied in advanced work are given. in order to make every example a social case of a memorized method. manufactured for this purpose. giving to the student complete familiarity with all the essentials of the subject. owing has certain distinctive features. All unnecessary methods and "cases" are omitted.. and ingenuity while the cultivation of the student's reasoning power is neglected.PREFACE IN this book the attempt while still is made to shorten the usual course in algebra. All parts of the theory whicJi are beyond the comprehension of the student or wliicli are logically unsound are omitted. specially 2. however. The entire study of algebra becomes a mechanical application of memorized rules. not only taxes a student's memory unduly but in variably leads to mechanical modes of study. etc. All practical teachers know how few students understand and appreciate the more difficult parts of the theory. chief : among These which are the following 1." this book. are omitted. Until recently the tendency was to multiply as far as possible. omissions serve not only practical but distinctly pedagogic " cases " ends. Such a large number of methods. shortcuts that solve only examples real value. Elementary Algebra.
etc. The best way to introduce a beginner to a new topic is to offer Lim a large number of simple exercises. The presenwill be found to be tation of problems as given in Chapter V quite a departure from the customary way of treating the subject. differ With very few from those exceptions all the exer cises in this book in the "Elementary Alge bra". hence either book 4. there has been placed at the end of the book a collection of exercises which contains an abundance of more difficult work. all proofs for the sign age of the product of of the binomial 3. are placed early in the course. In regard to some other features of the book.vi PREFACE quently hardly ever emphasize the theoretical aspect of alge bra. especially problems and factoring. a great deal of the theory offered in the avertextbook is logically unsound .g. as quadratic equations and graphs. all elementary proofs theorem for fractional exponents. This made it necessary to introduce the theory of proportions . may be used to supplement the other. in particular the requirements of the College Entrance Examination Board. For the more ambitious student. Topics of practical importance. the following may be quoted from the author's "Elementary Algebra": which "Particular care has been bestowed upon those chapters in the customary courses offer the greatest difficulties to the beginner. " The book is designed to meet the requirements for admis sion to our best universities and colleges. enable students who can devote only a minimum This arrangement will of time to algebra to study those subjects which are of such importance for further work. e. two negative numbers. TJie exercises are slightly simpler than in the larger look. however. and it is hoped that this treatment will materially diminish the difficulty of this topic for young students. Moreover.
and hence the student is more easily led to do the work by rote than when the arrangement braic aspect of the problem. By studying proportions during the first year's work. are frequently arranged in sets that are algebraically uniform. " Graphical methods have not only a great practical value. and they usually involve difficult numerical calculations. McKinley than one that gives him the number of Henry's marbles. in " geometry .PREFACE vii and graphical methods into the first year's work. to solve a It is undoubtedly more interesting for a student problem that results in the height of Mt. The entire work in graphical methods has been so arranged that teachers who wish a shorter course may omit these chapters. the student will be able to utilize this knowledge where it is most needed. physics. but they unquestionably furnish a very good antidote against 'the tendency of school algebra to degenerate into a mechanical application of memorized rules. and of the hoped that some modes of representation given will be considered im provements upon the prevailing methods. viz." Applications taken from geometry. is based principally upon the alge . such examples. based upon statistical abstracts. elementary way. and commercial are numerous. an innovation which seems to mark a distinct gain from the pedagogical point of view.' This topic has been preit is sented in a simple. but the true study of algebra has not been sacrificed in order to make an impressive display of sham life applications. of the Mississippi or the height of Mt. Moreover. nobody would find the length Etna by such a method. But on the other hand very few of such applied examples are genuine applications of algebra. while in the usual course proportions are studied a long time after their principal application.
ARTHUR SCHULTZE. edge of physics. genuine applications of elementary algebra work seems to have certain limi but within these limits the author has attempted to give as many The author for simple applied examples as possible. pupil's knowlso small that an extensive use of The average Hence the field of suitable for secondary school tations. April. William P. however. 1910. Manguse for the careful reading of the proofs and many valuable suggestions. is such problems involves as a rule the teaching of physics by the teacher of algebra. desires to acknowledge his indebtedness to Mr.viii PREFACE problems relating to physics often offer It is true that a field for genuine applications of algebra. . NEW YORK.
..... AND PARENTHESES 15 15 10 .... .... .CONTENTS CHAPTER INTRODUCTION Algebraic Solution of Problems Negative Numbers I PAGB 1 1 3 Numbers represented by Letters Factors... Numbers Monomial Monomials 31 31 Multiplication of a Polynomial by a .. and Hoots Algebraic Expressions and Numerical Substitutions .. III 22 27 Signs of Aggregation Exercises in Algebraic Expression 29 CHAPTER MULTIPLICATION Multiplication of Algebraic Multiplication of ..... 34 35 36 Multiplication of Polynomials Special Cases in Multiplication 39 CHAPTER IV DIVISION Division of Monomials 46 46 47 Division of a Polynomial by a Monomial Division of a Polynomial by a Polynomial Special Cases in Division ix 48 61 ... II 6 7 10 CHAPTER Addition of Monomials Addition of Polynomials Subtraction ADDITION... Powers. SUBTRACTION.
HIGHEST COMMON FACTOR AND LOWEST COMMON MULTIPLE 89 89 91 CHAPTER VIII 93 93 97 FRACTIONS Reduction of Fractions Addition and Subtraction of Fractions Multiplication of Fractions Division of Fractions 102 104 * . 80 83 84 86 87 Summary CHAPTER Common Factor Lowest Common Multiple Highest VII .. .. Type Polynomials. Quadratic Trinomials of the Quadratic Trinomials of the 78 ... Complex Fractions 105 CHAPTER IX FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS Fractional Equations Literal Equations . The Square of a Binomial x 2 Ixy The Difference of Two Squares Grouping Terms of Factoring . Type V... ... 108 108 112 Problems leading to Fractional and Literal Equations . . * ... Type II. Type IV. Type III.114 . Type VI... /^ .. Form x'2 f px f q Form px 2 f qx + r f .X CONTENTS CHAPTER V PAGE LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS Solution of Linear Equations Symbolical Expressions Problems leading . All of whose Terms contain a mon Factor Com77 ..63 55 67 to Simple Equations 63 CHAPTER VI FACTORING 76 I. .
.. 140 143 CHAPTER XII GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS AND EQUATIONS Representation of Functions of One Variable ... 1*78 178 181 189 191 Form 193 . .CONTENTS XI RATIO AND PROPORTION Ratio .... .. 171 CHAPTER XV QUADRATIC EQUATIONS INVOLVING ONB UNKNOWN QUANTITY Pure Quadratic Equations Complete Quadratic Equations Problems involving Quadratics Equations in the Quadratic Character of the Roots . 148 164 Graphic Solution of Equations involving One Unknown Quantity Graphic Solution of Equations involving Two Unknown Quantities 168 160 CHAPTER INVOLUTION Involution of Monomials XIII 165 165 166 Involution of Binomials EVOLUTION .. Evolution of Monomials 170 .. CHAPTER XIV 169 . CHAPTER XI CHAPTER X PAGE 120 120 121 Proportion SIMULTANEOUS EQUATIONS OF THE FIRST DEGREE Elimination by Addition or Subtraction Elimination by Substitution Literal Simultaneous Equations Simultaneous Equations involving More than .... Evolution of Polynomials and Arithmetical Numbers ...... Two Unknown 129 130 133 138 Quantities Problems leading to Simultaneous Equations ..
xii
CONTENTS
CHAPTER XVI
PAGK 195
THE THEORT OP EXPONENTS
Fractional and Negative Exponents Use of Negative and Fractional Exponents
....
195
200
CHAPTER XVII
RADICALS
Transformation of Radicals Addition and Subtraction of Radicals
Multiplication of Radicals Division of Radicals
205
206 210
.212
Involution and Evolution of Radicals
.....
214
218
Square Roots of Quadratic Surds Radical Equations
219
221
CHAPTER
THE FACTOR THEOREM
XVIII
227
CHAPTER XIX
SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS
I.
......
.
.
.
.
232
232
II.
Equations solved by finding x +/ and x / One Equation Linear, the Other Quadratic
.
.
234
III.
Homogeneous Equations
Special Devices
236
237
IV.
Interpretation of Negative Results
and the Forms
i
,
.
.
241
Problems
243
CHAPTER XX
PROGRESSIONS
Arithmetic Progression Geometric Progression
Infinite
.
246
24(j
251
Geometric Progression
263
CHAPTER XXI
BINOMIAL THEOREM
.
.
.
.
.
.
..
.
.
255
BEVIEW EXERCISE
.
268
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
CHAPTER
I
INTRODUCTION
1.
Algebra
it
may
arithmetic,
treats of
be called an extension of arithmetic. Like numbers, but these numbers are freletters,
quently denoted by problem.
as illustrated in
the following
ALGEBRAIC SOLUTION OF PROBLEMS
2.
Problem.
'
The sum
x
is five
times the smaller.
Let
two numbers is 42, and the greater Find the numbers. the smaller number.
of
Then
and
Therefore,
5 x = the greater number, 6x the sum of the two numbers. 6x
= 42,
and
3.
x = 7, the smaller number, 5 x = 35, the greater number.
A problem
An
is
a question proposed for solution.
4.
equation is a statement expressing the equality of
two
quantities; as,
5.
6 a?
= 42.
In algebra, problems are frequently solved by denoting numbers by letters and by expressing the problem in the form of an equation.
6.
Unknown numbers
;
are usually represented
as, x, y,
z,
by the
last
letters of the alphabet
but sometimes other letters
are employed. B
1
2
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
EXERCISE
The sum
1
Solve algebraically the following problems
1.
:
of two
times the smaller.
2.
numbers is 40, and the greater Find the numbers.
is
four
twice as
and a carriage for $ 480, receiving for the horse as for the carriage. much did he receive for the carriage ?
sold a horse
A man
A
much
How
3.
and
B own
a house worth $ 14,100, and
capital as B.
A
has
in
vested twice as
invested ?
4.
much
How much
is
has each
The population
of
South America
9 times that of
Australia, and both continents together have 50,000,000 inFind the population of each. habitants.
and fall of the tides in Seattle is twice that in and their sum is 18 feet. Find the rise and fall Philadelphia,
5.
The
rise
of the tides in Philadelphia.
6.
6 times as
7.
Divide $ 240 among A, B, and C so that A may receive much as C. and B 8 times as much as C.
A pole 56 feet high was broken so that the part broken was 6 times the length of the part left standing. .Find the length of the two parts.
off
8.
The sum
If
two
of the sides of a triangle equals 40 inches. sides of the triangle are equal, and each is twice the A remaining side, how long is each side ?
A
9.
The sum
triangle is are equal,
of the three angles of any 180. If 2 angles of a triangle and the remaining angle is 4
times their sum,
there in each ?
how many
degrees are
is
G 10. The number of negroes in Africa 10 times the number of Indians in America, and the sum of both is 165,000,000. How many are there of each ?
B
INTRODUCTION
11.
3
twice as
12.
Divide $280 among A, B, and C, so that much as A, and C twice as much as B.
B may
receive
twice as
13.
Divide $90 among A, B, and C, so that B may receive much as A, and C as much as A and B together.
A
is
which
14.
line 20 inches long is divided into two parts, one of long are the parts ? equal to 5 times the other.
How
travels twice as fast as B, and the tances traveled by the two is 57 miles.
A
sum
of the dis
How many
miles did
each travel ?
15.
4
A, B, C, and
does
A
take, if
B
D buy $ 2100 worth of goods. How much buys twice as much as A, C three times as
much
much
as B,
and
D
six times as
NEGATIVE NUMBE
EXERCISE
1.
2
Subtract 9 from 16.
2.
3.
Can 9 be subtracted from 7 ?
In arithmetic
why
cannot 9 be subtracted from 7 ?
"*
\
4.
The temperature
is
What
5.
noon is 16 ami at 4 P.M. it is 9 the temperature at 4 P.M.? State this as an
at
at
of subtraction.
The temperature
4 P.M.
is
7, and
at 10 P.M.
it is
10
less.
6.
What is the temperature at 10 P.M. ? Do you know of any other way of
below zero) ? What then is 7 10?
(3
expressing the last
answer
7.
8.
Can you think
of
any other
practical examples
which
require the subtraction of a greater
number from a smaller
one?
7.
Many
greater
number from a smaller
practical examples require the subtraction of a one, and in order to express in
a convenient form the results of these, and similar examples,
4
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
it becomes necessary to enlarge our concept of number, so as to include numbers less than zero.
8. Negative numbers are numbers smaller than zero; they are denoted by a prefixed minus sign as 5 (read " minus 5 "). Numbers greater than zero, for the sake of distinction, are fre;
quently called positive numbers, and are written either with a prefixed plus sign, or without any prefixed sign as f 5 or 5.
;
The
fact that a
thermometer falling 10 from 7 indicates 3
be expressed 7 10
below zero
may now
= 3.
is
loss of $ 60,
Instead of saying a gain of $ 30, and a loss of $ 90 we may write
equal to a
$30
9.
$90 = $60.
number
is
The
absolute value of a
the number taken
without regard to its sign. 5 is The absolute value of
10.
6,
of f 3 is 3.
It is convenient for
many
discussions to represent the
positive
a line
numbers by a succession of equal distances laid off on from a point 0, and the negative numbers by a similar
series in the opposite direction.
,
I
I
lit
4
to
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
6
5
3
2
1
+\
4,
+2
+
3
+4
45
+6
y
Thus, in the annexed diagram, the line from
the line from
4 represents
etc.
to 4 6 represents 4 5,
resented by a motion of "three tion of 8 by a similar motion toward the
The addition of 3 is repspaces toward the right, and the subtracleft.
Thus, 5 added to
1
equals 4, 5 subtracted from
1 equals
6, etc.
EXERCISE
1.
3
If in financial transactions
we
indicate a man's income
by
a positive sign, what does a negative sign indicate ?
2. State in what manner the positive and negative signs may be used to indicate north and south latitude, east and west
longitude, motion upstream
and downstream.
INTRODUCTION
3.
5
If north latitude
is
indicated by a positive sign, by what
is
south latitude represented ?
4.
If south latitude
is
indicated by a positive sign, by what
?
is
north latitude represented
5.
the meaning of the year 6 yards per second ? erly motion of
is 6.
What
20 A.D. ?
Of an
east
A
his total gain or loss ?
7.
merchant gains $ 200, and loses $ 350.  350. (b) Find 200
(a)
What
is
higher, is 8
 +7? 8. A vessel
(6)
If the temperature at 4 A.M. is 8 and at 9 A.M. it is 7 what is the temperature at 9 A.M. ? What, therefore,
starts
sails
38 due south,
(a)
from a point in 25 north latitude, and Find the latitude at the end of the
journey.
9.
Find 25 38.
A
22
sails
vessel starts from a point in 15 south latitude, and due south, (a) Find the latitude at the end of the
(b)
journey,
10.
Subtract 22 from
15.
18.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
From 30 subtract 40. From 4 subtract 7. From 7 subtract 9. From 19 subtract 34. From subtract 14. From 12 subtract 20. 2 subtract 5. From 1 subtract 1. From
19. 20.
21.
22.
23.
24. 25.
To 6 2 To To 1 From 1 To  8 To 7 From
add add add
12.
1.
2.
subtract 2.
add add
9. 4.
1 subtract 2.
Add
1 and 2.
26.
the one of
Solve examples 1625 by using a diagram similar to 10, and considering additions and subtractions as
motions.
27.
(a) 28.
Which is the greater number lor 1? (b) 2 or 4?
:
By how much
is
7 greater than
12 ?
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
29.
Determine from the following table the range of tempera:
ture in each locality
NUMBERS REPRESENTED BY LETTERS
11. For many purposes of arithmetic it is advantageous to express numbers by letters. One advantage was shown in 2 others will appear in later chapters ( 30).
;
EXERCISE
1.
4
is
If the letter
t
means 1000, what
the value of
5t?
a=
2.
3.
What is the value of 3 6, if b = 3 ? if b = 4 ? What is the value of a + &, if a = 5, and 6 = 7?
if
6,
and
b
=
4?
is
4.
5.
What
If a
the value of 17
c,
if c
= 5?
ifc
= 2?
marbles,
many
6.
boy has 9c? marbles and wins 4c marbles has. he ?
Is the last
how
7.
How
8.
9.
merchant had 20 much has he left ?
A
answer correct for any value of d ? m dollars and lost 11 m
dollars.
What
is
the
sum
of 8 &
and G
b ?
Find the numerical value
If c represents a certain
of the last
answer
if b
= 15.
10.
number, what represents 9 times
that
number ?
INTRODUCTION
11.
1
From 26 w
subtract 19 m.
12.
if
What is the numerical
From 22m
if
value of the last answer
if
m = 2?
m = 2?
13.
subtract
1
25m, and
find the numerical value
of the answer
14.
m=
2.
Add
13 p, 3p, 6p, and subtract 24 p from the sum.
15.
16. 19.
From
10 q subtract 20
q.
17.
18.
Add lOgand +20 q. From 22# subtract 0.
7 a=
From subtract 26 Add  6 x and 8 x.
x.
20.
From
Wp subtract 10^).
is
What sign, therefore, 140. 21. If a = 20, then understood between 7 and a in the expression 7 a ?
FACTORS, POWERS, AND ROOTS
12.
The
and equality have the same meaning
in arithmetic.
13.
signs of addition, subtraction, multiplication, division, in algebra as they have
If there is no sign between
two
is
letters, or
a letter and a
number, a sign of multiplication
6
is
understood.
written win.
x a
is
generally written 6 a
;
m
x n
Between two
(either
figures,
x
or
)
however, a sign of multiplication has to be employed as, 4x7, or 4 7.
;
4x7 cannot be
14.
written 47, for 47
means 40
f 7.
A product is
=
the result obtained by multiplying together
two or more
Since 24
Similarly,
quantities, each of which is a factor of the product. 3 x 8, or 12 x 2, each of these numbers is a factor of 24.
7, a, 6,
and
c are factors of 7 abc.
15.
A
power
is
thus,
aaaaa
6 aaaaaa, or a ,
is the product of two or more equal factors called the " 5th power of a," and written a5 " the 6th is power of a," or a 6th.
;
;
The second power is also called the square, and the third 2 power the cube; thus, 12 (read "12 square") equals 144.
8
16.
ELEMENTS OF ALQEBEA
The
base of a
power
is
the
number which
is
repeated
as a factor.
The base
of a 3
is a.
17. An exponent is the number which indicates how many times a base is to be used as a factor. It is placed a little above and to the right of the base.
The exponent
of
m
6
is
6
;
n
is
the exponent of an
.
EXERCISE
1.
5
find the numerical value of the square of 7, the cube of 6, the fourth power of 3, and the fifth power of 2. Find the numerical values of the following powers :
2.
3.
Write and
72
.
6.
42
.
10.
11.
.
8
(i)
.
14.
15.
2
.
25 1
.
2*.
7.
8. 9.
2*.
O
9
.
.0001 2
.
4. 5.
52
83
.
10 6
I 30
.
12.
(4)
(1.5)
16.
.
l.l 1
.
.
13.
2
17.
22
+3
2
.
If
a=3, 6=2, c=l, and
18. 19.
3
ci
.
d=^
22.
a*.
find the numerical values of:
24.
2
.
20.
21.
c
10
.
3
(2 c)
ab.
.
26. 27.
2
at).
b2
.
d\
23.
(6cf)
25.
(4 bdf.
28.
If
29.
30.
= 8, what is the value of a? If m = what is the value of m ? = 64, what is the value of a ? If 4
a3
2
jJg,
In a product any factor product of the other factors.
18.
is
called the coefficient of the
In 12 win 8/), 12
19.
is
the coefficient of
is
mw 8p,
12
m is the coefficient of n*p.
A
17
numerical coefficient
a coefficient expressed entirely
in figures.
In
aryx,
17
is
the numerical coefficient.
is
When
stood ; thus a
a product contains no numerical coefficient, 1 1 a, a Bb 1 a*b.
under
=
=
INTRODUCTION
9
20. When several powers are multiplied, the beginner should remember that every exponent refers only to the number near which it is placed.
3 9
2
means 3
3
aa, while (3
2
)
=3ax
3 a.
= 9 abyyy. 2* xyW = 22.2.2. xyyyzz.
afty
1 abc*
7 abccc.
EXERCISES
If
a
= 4, b = 1, c = 2, and x = ^, find the
numerical values of
:
21. root is one of the equal factors of a power. According to the number of equal factors, it is called a square root, a cube root, a fourth root, etc.
3
is
A
6
is is
the square root of 9, for 32 = 9. the cube root of 125, for 6 8 = 125. the
fifth
a
root of a 5 the nth root of a".
,
The nth
Va,
is
fifth root of a,
indicated by the symbol >/""; thus Va is the is the cube root of 27, \/a, or more simply the square root of a.
root
is
A/27
Using
this
(Va)
22.
n
= a.
The
symbol we
may
is
express the definition of root by
the
index of a root
number which
indicates
what
root is to be taken.
sign. In v/a, 7
23.
It is written in the opening of the radical
is
the index of the root.
The
[ ]
;
signs of aggregation are
:
the parenthesis,
.
( )
;
the
bracket,
the brace,
j
j
;
and the vinculum,
11. [6c] 3 . separated by a sign (6 + c + d} is o c ^and (6 + a monomial. d 7. 9. c f d). + 1]. or 9 Vx. 10. 10 x 4"+T indicates that (a b) is sometimes read "quantity a b. as in arithmetic. 4V3~6c. b = 3. 8. 16. 17.g. to indicate that the expres* sions included are to be treated as a whole. A monomial or term f an expression whose parts are not as 3 cue2. 14." EXERCISE If a 1. some number is . 2 . 6. V36". ALGP:BRAIC EXPRESSIONS 24. V3 . \/c. Each 10 is of the forms 10 to be multiplied x (4 f 1). 7 = 2. (cfd) 4. + M f c 4 f d 4 are polynomials. Val \fi?. 15. find the numerical value of: Vff. e. c = 1. x 9. V2a. v'Ta. !^f\/03 3 ft. A trinomial a polynomial of three terms. aVc^. is 28. 10 x [4 by 4 + 1 or by 5. 4(a 6(6 + &). 6. are trinomials. 3. + c). AND NUMERICAL sym SUBSTITUTIONS An algebraic expression is a collection of algebraic bols representing 25. 26. A polynomial is an y. expression containing more than one and a 4 term. A binomial is 62 . 27. a polynomial of two terms. a2 + and   \/a are binomials. since the parts are a .10 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA They are used. 2. 6 a26 7 Vac ~* 2 f 9. 5Vl6c. 13. 0. V^a6. 12.
and division are to be performed in the order in which they are written all from left to right. = 32 + 4527 = 50. l 13. a2 11. 5.9 a& 2 c + f a 6 . 4a6fVaV2^. find the numerical value of: 9. 52 . 5c6 2 +6ac3 a 3 17c3 hl2o. 12.99. * For additional examples see page 268.810 + 150 = .e. Ex. 5a2 2 a2 46cf2^^ + 3 a& +. x=^. ' f & f c 3 8 d s . 5 means 3 4 20 or 23. . i.4 6^9 ad. 5c +d 2 . 6.9 aWc + f a b . EXERCISE 8*  . 2.19 = 6. 3. .INTRODUCTION 29. 6. 2 ). 5=3. a 2 6. 3 4 . c=l. 3a + 56 a 2 . multiplication. (a (a f b) 7. c = 2.30 = 270 . 4. each term has to be computed before the different terms are added and subtracted. 2.390.9. 16. subtraction.19 a 2 bcd = 6 5 32 .. Ex. d=Q. 2 of 6 ab If a = 5. 11 if it In a polynomial each term is treated as were con tained in a parenthesis. 1. 10. 3 2 If 1.g. 2 3a& 2 + 3a2 6a&c2 . Otherwise operations of addition. .5 ax 50 a6cd. 6a2 +4a62 ~6c' 27 c 3 +12a(i *15.19 a 6cd 3 2 3 find the numerical value 6 aft 2 . Find the value of 4 28 +5 32  *^.9 5 32 2 + ^ 5 8 3 . 14. 8. a=4. 4 . d = 0.2 + I126. + 26+3 c. b = 3. . 5. __ E. a2 f + (a + 6)c 6+ a (2 2 c 2 .
.6 f c) (6 a + c). a = 4. 30. Read the expressions of Exs. if : a = 2. a a=3. 33. w cube plus three times the quantity a minus plus 6 multiplied 6. 12 cr6 f 6 a6 2 6s. 1014 The representation of numbers by letters makes it posvery briefly and accurately some of the principles of arithmetic. and other sciences. The quantity a 6 2 by the quantity a minus 36. 6 = 4. 24. and the area of the is triangle S square feet (or squares of other units selected). Express in algebraic symbols 31. 34. Six 2 . 25. 6 = 6. a = 3. a = 4. 30.c) (a . a =4. 38. then 8 = \ V(a + 6 + c) (a 4. Six times a plus 4 times 32. Twice a3 diminished by 5 times the square root of the quantity a minus 6 square. 6 = 7. = 3. 6 = 5. and If the three sides of a triangle contain respectively c feet (or other units of length). 26. 29. 6.6 . 6. geometry. 6 = 5. a = 2. 35. 37. Six times the square of a minus three times the cube of Eight x cube minus four x square plus y square. a = 3. 28. 6 = 1. : 6. 27. 26 of the exercise.12 17 & * ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 18 ' 8 Find the numerical value of 8 a3 21. 6 = 6. 23. a. 6=2. physics. a =3. 6 = 2. 22. of this exercise? What kind of expressions are Exs. 6 = 3. sible to state Ex.
and 13 inches. = (a) How far does a body fall from a state of rest in 2 seconds ? (b) * stone dropped from the top of a tree reached the ground in 2J. 2. By using the formula find the area of a triangle whose sides are respectively (a) 3. then a 13. b 14. i.e. the area of the triangle equals feet.g. 84 square EXERCISE 1. the three sides of a triangle are respectively 13. 13. 9 distance s passed over by a body moving with the uniform velocity v in the time t is represented by the formula The Find the distance passed over by A snail in 100 seconds.) Assuming g . count the resistance of the atmosphere. 15 therefore feet. A carrier pigeon in 10 minutes. . and 5 feet. Find the height of the tree. if v = 30 miles per hour. A train in 4 hours. b.seconds. 14. 4. and 15 feet. 12. A body falling from a state of rest passes in t seconds 2 over a space S (This formula does not take into ac^gt 32 feet. (b) 5. if v = 50 meters per second 5000 feet per minute.16 centimeters per second. S =  V(13hl4fl5)(13H1415)(T314i15)(1413f15) = V421214.INTRODUCTION E. How far does a body fall from a state of rest in T ^7 of a (c) A second ? 3. if v : a. c. and c 13 and 15 = = = .16 1 = 84. if v . (c) 4. An electric car in 40 seconds. d.
is H 2 units of length (inches. $ = 3. (c) 10 feet. to Centigrade readings: (b) Change the following readings (a) 122 F. (c) 8000 miles. denotes the number of degrees of temperature indi8. then the volume V= (a) 10 feet. on $ 500 for 2 years at 4 %.14 square meters. Find the area of a circle whose radius is It (b) (a) 10 meters. 6 Find the volume of a sphere whose diameter equals: (b) 3 feet.). 2 inches.14 4. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA If the radius of a circle etc. If cated on the Fahrenheit scale. then =p n * r %> or Find by means (a) (b) 6.14d (square units). the 3. the equivalent reading C on the Centigrade scale may be found by the formula F C y = f(F32). fo If i represents the simple interest of i p dollars at r in n years. (c) 5 miles. If the (b) 1 inch. diameter of a sphere equals d feet. . square units (square inches.).) Find the surface of a sphere whose diameter equals (a) 7. of this formula : The The interest on interest $800 for 4 years at ty%. and the value given above is only an surface $= 2 approximation. : 8000 miles. This number cannot be expressed exactly.14 is frequently denoted by the Greek letter TT. the area etc. 5. ~ 7n cubic feet. meters. If the diameter of a sphere equals d units of length. (c) 5 F. (The number 3. 32 F.
Or in the symbols of algebra $4) = Similarly. In arithmetic we add a gain of $ 6 and a gain of $ 4.$6) + ( $4) = ( $10). we define the sum of two numbers in such a way that these results become general. in algebra this word includes also the results obtained by adding negative. we call the aggregate value of a gain of 6 and a loss of 4 the sum of the two. but we cannot add a gain of $0 and a loss of $4. . While in arithmetic the word sum refers only to the result obtained by adding positive numbers. In algebra. Since similar operations with different units always produce analogous results. Thus a gain of $ 2 is considered the sum of a gain of $ 6 and a loss of $ 4. SUBTRACTION. of $6 and a gain $4 equals a $2 may be represented thus In a corresponding manner we have for a loss of $6 and a of loss $4 (. AND PARENTHESES ADDITION OF MONOMIALS 31.CHAPTER II ADDITION. or that and (+6) + (+4) = + 16 10. however. the fact that a loss of loss of + $2. or positive and negative numbers.
. (17) 15 + (14). 4 is 3 J. 6 6 = 3. 24. The average of two numbers is average of three numbers average of n numbers is the is one half their sum. 33. c = 4. add their absolute values if they have opposite signs. (_ In Exs. (always) prefix the sign of the greater.3. EXERCISE Find the sum of: 10 Find the values 17. the average of 4 and 8 The average The average of 2. 4. subtract their absolute values and . 2326. is 2. 22. = 5. 5. 19. is 0. and the sum of the numbers divided by n. the one third their sum. of: 20. 12. Thus.16 32. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA These considerations lead to the following principle : If two numbers have the same sign. '. if : a a = 2. + (9). 5. 21. d = 0. find the numerical values of a + b f cjc?. 18. 23. of 2. c = = 5.  0. 10. lf(2). d = 5. + 12.
: 34.4. 31. and 4. 5 and 12. ' 1? a 26. 7 a. & = 15. 0. which are not similar. = 13. & 28. 1. . or 16 Va + b and 2Vo"+~&.. . and 3 yards. 6. 3. 37. 25. 2. 7 a. . and 3 F. AND PARENTHESES d = l. 34. : 48. and 8 F. are similar terms. : and 1. 35. 38. Find the average temperature of New York by taking the average of the following monthly averages 30. ' Find the average of the following 34. 42. 60. 13. 5 a2 & 6 ax^y and 7 ax'2 y. 30. sets of numbers: 13. . \\ Add 2 a. 6.. Similar or like terms are terms which have the same literal factors.7.ADDITION. . c=14. $3000 gain. 66. 72. What number must be added to 9 to give 12? What number must be added to 12 to give 9 ? What number must be added to 3 to give 6 ? C* What number must be added to 3 to give 6? **j Add 2 yards. 3 and 25.5. if his yearly gain or loss during 6 years was $ 5000 gain. $7000 gain. 11 (Centigrade). : Find the average temperature of Irkutsk by taking the average of the following monthly temperatures 12. 40. 74. affected by the same exponents. 12. Find the average gain per year of a merchant. 43. SUBTRACTION. Dissimilar or unlike terms are terms 4 a2 6c and o 4 a2 6c2 are dissimilar terms. 10. ^ ' 37. $500 loss. 09.13. = 22. 4 F. and $4500 gain. .7. 10. 10. c = 0. 27. 36. . and 3 a. .. 55. 39. 29. }/ Add 2 a. 33. d= 3. 7 yards. 32. 32. Find the average of the following temperatures 27 F. or and . and 3 a. 4.5. 6. 2.3. $1000 loss. 41. = 23.
11 2 a +3a 4o 2. 5Vm + w. 10. The sum The sum of a of a Dissimilar terms cannot be united into a single term. 11. 12Vmfn. : 2 a2. 5 a2 . b wider sense than in arithmetic. In algebra the word sum is used in a 36. 2 . 12 2 wp2 . or a 6. 1 \ f 7 a 2 frc Find the sum of 9. 3a . The indicated by connecting and a 2 and a is is f a2 .ii. b a f ( 6). While in arithmetic a denotes a difference only. in algebra it may be considered b. EXERCISE Add: 1. 2(af &). 12(af b) 12.13 rap 25 rap 2. 12 13 b sx xY xY 7 #y 7. and 4 ac2 is a 2 a&  4 ac2. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA The sum of 3 of two similar terms x2 is is another similar term. .sign. either the difference of a and b or the sum of a and The sum of a. Algebraic sum. 14 . 9(af6). + 6 af . f 4 a2. Vm f. 13. The sum x 2 and f x2 . 7 rap2. sum of two such terms can only be them with the f. ab 7 c 2 dn 6. 5l 3(af6). 2 a&.18 35.
i xyz co* mn mri Simplify the following by uniting like terms: 29.ADDITION. and to add each column. 17. 3a76 + 5a + 2a3610a+116. 4x9' 10x38 ADDITION OF POLYNOMIALS Polynomials are added by uniting their like terms. 2 2 2 31. 30. 32. + y. 35. It convenient to arrange the expressions so that like terms may be in the same vertical column. l^S 25. "Vx + y Vaj + y 2 2 Vi + + 2 Va. n x* 2 22. 17c + 15c8 + 18c + 22c3 +c3 3 3 . 33. a a8 ZL **. + / + 3 Va. ra 19. xyz + xyz 12 xyz + 13 xyz + 15 xyz. 2/ : Add. 37. 2a 4a4 + 6a 7a 9a2a + 8. 2 7 1 26. m n ^ 2 Add: 18. is . +m """ 20. Simplify : AND PARENTHESES 19 15. 1 27. 5x173 + 6x1733x1737x173. 36. without finding the value of each term 34. 6 23. 21. c 2 ^24. SUBTRACTION.
While the check is almost certain an absolute test e.g. . the erroneous answer equal 7. 2 .12 a& 4. x of x. of that letter. it is convenient to arrange the terms according to ascending or descending powers 39. 2 025. 9 q 4.2 a 26 To check c assign numerical values to then . f 5 c f But 7 = 10 . V3.3 a f 4 the sum a = 1. 3.10 6c 6 c 2 and 7 a&c 4. NOTE. 7 4. = .4 6c + c 2 we proceed as . therefore the answer is correct. 6 a7 4 5 x"2 + 7 x* 4 5 7a &+4a fi 5 4 is 6c 8 arranged according to ascending powers 4 7 a&<d? + 9 6 5 4 e 7 is arranged ac aW a. 2 Thus.15 6c. Numerical substitution offers a convenient method for the addition of checking the sum of an addition. 3a 2? . to add 26 ab . 2 Sum. 2z2 4?/ 2 f2z 2 5 3ar 22/2 4 4 3 /. 4 = 7. a 4.41 = 3. and J 2 s. 4 2.o c and 4. 46 4z 7 c. . 4a46 12 q 5 2 a.20 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA . to show any error. the following polynomials : 2a 3646 t c. .15 abc . 5 . cording to descending powers of EXERCISE 12 Add 1. e.8 & c~15&c 12a&4l5a&c 20c2 flO&c .6a& 7 6ca a5c + 4 be 6c 4 26 ca c' 9a& 38. 3 a f 4 1) 4.2z and 0^9 z * For additional examples see page 259. ft any convenient and c. It is not also a406 4c would In various operations with polynomials containing terms with different powers of the same letter.3 s. c = 1. 6=2.3 + 8 + 5 = 1 0.20 c 5 ab 4. and 2 .8 abc . f 110WS: 26 aft. 2c.g. s. 5.2 6 + 4 c = 1 +4 a.c= 2.7 2 .
3 ay 6 afy + 6 ay/ 4 10 and . + a + 1.7v/if. 7(a + 5) 4 2 and 6 4 a. 3 2 2 3 9 . 56 w. m 4 6. 3 ?/ 3 ? 2 j and a 2 4. 7 4 5 x*y 2 y?y* 3 xf. and 1 4 a . and and 13. 4(a .and 6.4 Va .5 c ll& 7c 6 4. .a. 2 2 . ^2 1 e.a 4 a 4 1. xy3xz + yz.12 6 ~5 a .VS 4 2 Vc.Va 4 2 V& 4 6 Vc. 18/+6y + d. 4 3 .15 5. and 5 Vb 18. d.9(a + &) .7^ 2iB 8 + 2y + 2 8 8 . a) y ^/.7m . 4 ajy 17.3 5 Va 2 2 3 3 2 . 2(6 + c) + (c f a).4:xy xz 6yz. 6 # 2 2 2 2 2 2 . and . 2 and 9m 48m 4.3 mn 2 2 n8 . .a. 2 3(c f a).(b + c) 1. 8.8 m 2m 12.a . . 4 + 6)  5 (a + 6) + 3. . 4 8 3 4 4 . and v 15. 11. . 6 # 4 5 z 4 2 7. and 8 3 .ADDITION. 7ar + 3B 5. .5 cr& + 7 6 9. 10a +lOa 6ll& 10.5a^6 f 6) . a2 a. </ AND PARENTHESES 2i 14d15e + 2/.12(a 4. 16e + 17/90. and 12a 4 15& 20c . 19.1 a 4 1 0.a 3a 9 y\ 3 afy . 4 3 3 ^* f h <l.6) + 14(a 4 6) 4 10. a. 4. w* 4 3 m n 4 3 m?i 4 2w . in 8 3 m n 4. . 2 ?ft ?/z.6. . 4 Vc. . 2 2 and .2n 2 2 3 rz . a 4 a . + 50 + 62 . a 4 a . a + 1> 8 2 2 .10 Vc. 2 ?/. 16.12. 2 a. 2xy + 4:XZ}5yz. 4 o^?/ 4 y\ and a.2 #?/ 4 5 a + 4 aft . e a4 /. 8 2 2 3 s 2 3 .1. v/20. 3 2 tf 2 l 2 ^_. . ?/ . d and / 3 ? 12.Ga 43x45. 6a 5a &47a& 4& and 7. a4 6(a a a2 f a f 1. a 4ar ! byb 8 c^c 8 . a2 2 14. SUBTRACTION.
3 taken from 2 ? 5.. 1. The sum and ? 1. c 3 3 3 2 3 . 1. 1. f 1. is 2. 45a6 2 . 8 f3f a n2<w +n . . If from the five negative units three negative units are taken.9aj 2.m 4m ?/?/ d. 13 1.17 + 4 ?nfy . f number may be added 3. 12 xyz. and 6 + 9 x + 12 26. f 1. 8 . and 3^2 SUBTRACTION EXERCISE 1. and 25. many negative units re main ? from 2. 1.22 21. 16m 7/12my d+e a 6. +d a. + 1. 1. how 1. 2 8 n + <w 2 . SM/Z + 2 a:?/ f x y bxyz~lx. If you diminish a person's debts. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 4 w + 3 m + 2 m. 22. and e + 6y . What is therefore the remainder is when 2 is taken from 2? When .ra + m. 6 f c 2 23. 5 3 f 4 ?n 4 2m+2m e. + n*. 1. 2fa 3 4 a +7a. and 2 24. 1/ . s .4 2tn* Sic 2 . What other operations produce the subtraction of a negative number? same result as the 6. T8a. a s f3o $ xy and 5+a\ ^ "27. a 6 2 c. does he thereby become richer or poorer ? .11 xy + 12. m 3 3 5y 3 8 . 4^ + 3t*n l2aj 2 a. . What away is the value of the sum if two neg ative units are taken ? If three negative units are taken away 4. 5 } and 3 m 3 7 m. What is therefore the remainder when 3 is taken 5? Instead of subtracting in the preceding example.3^* 2n 2 . what to obtain the same result ? total of the units f 1. 2 a3 a 4 3 af^.5< 3 2 s 4^4. .
Therefore any example in subtraction different . the other number is required. In subtraction. State the other practical examples which show that the number is equal to the addition of a 40. Ex. In addition. ( 6) ( = . if x Ex. the algebraic sum and one of the two numbers is The algebraic sum is given. may be stated in a : 5 take form e. ing the sign of the subtrahend thus to subtract 6 a 2 6 and 8 a 2 6 and find the sum of change mentally the sign of . To subtract. the given number the subtrahend. and the required number the difference. change the sign of the subtrahend and add. This gives by the same method. 7. 3. from What 3.2. two numbers are given. The student should perform mentally the operation of chang8 2 6 from 6 a 2 fc. 1. called the minvend. The results of the preceding examples could be obtained by the following Principle. Or in symbols. From 5 subtract to The number which added Hence. 6 (3) = 8. 41. 3 gives 3) The number which added Hence. 3 gives 5 is evidently 8. ab = x.g.3. NOTE. From 5 subtract to . Ex. . AND PARENTHESES 23 subtraction of a negative positive number. may be stated number added to 3 will give 5? To subtract from a the number b means to find the number which added to b gives a. 2. +b 3. a. 5 is 2. From 5 subtract + 3. SUBTRACTION. Subtraction is the inverse of addition. and their algebraic sum is required.ADDITION.
From _6ar3 3z + 7 2 6ar3 3o2 +7 2 or3 .f 8 .24 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA we change the subtract 2 x sign of each term 42.3 x* . To subtract polynomials of the subtrahend and add. Check. If x = l = 2 t . Ex.3 r*5o.5 x + 8.
w>t. ?/ 3 #?/ 2 y2 .5(6 + c) 4(c + a) subtract 7(af&) REVIEW EXERCISES 1. 4v From 6 subtract lt2af3& + 4<7. . + a the 2 a. From a3 subtract 2 a3 f. 57.4 a^ 4. AND PARENTHESES from 14 a 25 Subtract the sum of 2 m and 7 m c 10m. 6 4 a.7 a . 96 subtract 10 b 2 From From 1 f & take 1 f b f & s . 54. 51. From From $ a 3 7 x 2 ?/ 5 a/ + ?/ subtract f ar f 7 a 2 ?/ . 55. 47. tract 4 x 3. of x2 4x f 12 and 3 a2 3 # 3 sub From a3 + 2 a2 4 a subtract the sum of a 3 } a2 2a and a 2 + 4. 58. 2. From 6(af. From 5a(>& + 7c From 2 x2 8 a?y + 2 From mn f ??/> 8d 11 cf 17 d. 45. take 2 8 o# + qt c mt subtract a2 f mn f wp f. 49. check the answer.4 a*& + 6 a & . 6 6 2 2 ?/ . c f d. 56. From 2 a take a & j. 43.a From 3 or 2 a:// + 2 subtract 2 1.c.b h c and a & f c subtract a _ 6 _ 2 c. From 16 + a3 subtract 8 2 a + a2 f a3 From a 4 .& 4 subtract a 2 2 4 +4 8 6 6 a& 59. and 3 7/ . 50. f 12 b f From 10 a 12 & f 6 subtract 5 c.a 2 j. From From x2 the sum sum 7. 53. 42. of a 4. 2 + 4 a& 3 f 6 4 . 46. +3x f & f 12 take 3 f ar f 4 x + 11.6)f. 48.ADDITION. SUBTRACTION. From 5 a 2 2 ab ?/' subtract 2 a 2 + 2ab . 41.5 #?/ 2 and check the answer. f 2 aa 7a 2 ?/ 2 subtract a3 take 11 a 2 :c + 2 a . 2y 2 . 44. From a3 From 6a 1 subtract f a + b 3 1. 52.2.
2 m 21. + 6 + c.15. to produce find : 0? = x +g c =x 18. years ago ? How old was he a b years ago? . +4 and 4 a +1 +a 2 and a2 a.26 4. of # 2 8. 19. 6. Subtract the sum s of 6 m +5 m +6m 8 4m* 5 m +4m 2 from 2 ra + 7 m. ~2a6 + 2c? expression must be subtracted from 2 a to produce a+6? v . + 2. 16. a a + c. a + 6. n years hence ? A c How old will he be 10 years hence ? a +b is 2 a years old. 4 6 2 c add the To the 3 sum a3 4 a2 3 between 5 a 12. 9. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA From the difference between a? a? 3 j +5 a: 2 + 58+1 + cc and 4 a? 2 +4x 5. 10 a + 5 b sum of9ci66 + c and 11. What must be added to b 4^ + 4^ + 2 z. +a add the difference duce 13. To the sum of 2a + 66 + 4c and a 2 c. 20. a 2y + z. Subtract the difference of a and a Subtract the sum + f and + 6 + c from a + b + c a +2 y from 2 2 2 ar* 2 */ 10. What expression must 8a3 2a7? What What be added to 7 a 3 +4a 2 to pro expression must be added to 3a + 56 cto pro duce 14. subtract # + 1. 6 17. A is n years old. Subtract the sum of 5 a2 + 2 7 and 2a2 + 3a and from 2 a2 + 2 a 7. sum of Subtract the x2 + 2 and 6 a iE 3 2 from x3 + a^ 4 6.
b c = a a & f f. changed. we may begin either at the innermost or outermost.& c additions and sub + d) = a + b c + d. II. 4a{(7a + 6&)[6&f(2&. 46. If there is no sign before the first term within a paren* f thesis.ADDITION.6 b f (.a~^~6)]} = 4 a {7 a 6 b [. 66 2&a + 6 4a Answer. 6 o+( a + c) = a =a 6 c) ( 4. Hence the it is sign may obvious that parentheses preceded by the f or be removed or inserted according to the fol: lowing principles 44. Simplify 4 a f + 5&)[6& +(25. Ex.2 b . the sign is understood.a^6)]  } . may be written as follows: a f ( 4. If we wish to remove several signs of aggregation.a f = 4a sss 7a 12 06 6. The beginner will find it most convenient at every step to remove only those parentheses which contain (7 a no others. one occurring within the other. & f c. I.g.c. (b c) a =a 6 4 c. a+(bc) = a +b . A moved w may be resign of aggregation preceded by the sign inserted provided the sign of evei'y term inclosed is E.c. A sign of aggregation preceded by the sign f may be removed or inserted without changing the sign of any term. SUBTRACTION. tractions By using the signs of aggregation. 45. AND PARENTHESES 27 SIGNS OF AGGREGATION 43. .
may be inserted according to 43. (m a2 f. [36+ (a 2c]. 15. 2. 16. a(3b a3 3 2 2 2c). 8.y (60.)]. Signs of aggregation 1. a a c) + [3 a {3c (c 26 a)} 6a]. a (a + 6). By removing parentheses. 2 2 2 a(. 21. 13. 2m 4af 2 2 2 10.+ 6)f (a2 b). 14. m+n + [# (6 (m (r + M> + w n p) ___ ( m~n\p. 9.(a + 6).) 5 . a (a + 26 c ). 7 6)+ {a [a: 22.7i h jp) (m ?*. 17. : x + (2yz). ? 11. + (2a 6 + c ). Ex. find the numerical value of { 1422 . 18. last three Inclose in a parenthesis preceded by the sign terms of the See page 260. 4.28 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 15* Simplify the following expressions 1.1422) J ] . .: Ex. 3. 2a (4a 26 +c ). 2a 2 + 5a(7f 2a )f (55a). 6. 19. 6) 2. the fourth and fifth terms respectively in parentheses. a f (a a . 5. In the following expression inclose the second and third. 3 3 f 7. 2 2a. 271 + (814 . m f ft) a.[271 47.
and the subtrahend the second. 4 xy 7 x* 49 x + 2. . m and n. 10. 7. 7. 3. The sum of the fourth powers of a of and 6. 2. difference of the cubes of n and m. The minuend is always the of the two numbers mentioned. 2mn + 2q3t. SUBTRACTION.4 y* . In each of the following expressions inclose the last three in a parenthesis preceded by the minus sign : 27i2 3^ 2 + 4r/. EXERCISE AND PARENTHESES 16 29 In each of the following expressions inclose the last three terms in a parenthesis : 1. 5^2 _ r . The sum of tKe squares of a and b. first. Nine times the square of the sum of a and by the product of a and b. The sum^)f m and n. terms 5. 5 a2 2. z + d.7fa. a\l> > c + d. 6. 9. 4. 12.ADDITION. of the cubes of m and n. The The difference of the cubes of m and n.1. II. EXERCISES IN" ALGEBRAIC EXPRESSION 17 : EXERCISE Write the following expressions I. 6 diminished . 5. The square of the difference of a and b. y f 8 . The product of the sum and the difference of m and n. The difference of a and 6. p + q + rs. 13. ' NOTE. 8.2 tf . m x 2 4. 3. )X 6. Three times the product of the squares of The cube of the product of m and n. The product The product m and n.
16. 6.) . (Let a and b represent the numbers. difference of the cubes of a and b divided by the difference of a and 6. x cube minus quantity 2 x2 minus 6 x plus The sum of the cubes of a. dif of the squares of a and b increased by the square root of 15. The difference of the squares of two numbers divided by the difference of the numbers is equal to the sum of the two numbers.30 14. b. d. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA The sum x. and c divided by the ference of a and Write algebraically the following statements: V 17. 18. The sum The of a and b multiplied b is equal to the difference of by the difference of a and a 2 and b 2 . 6 is equal to the square of b. a plus the prod uct of a and s plus the square of 19.
3. If the two loads balance.CHAPTER III MULTIPLICATION MULTIPLICATION OF ALGEBRAIC NUMBERS EXERCISE 18 In the annexed diagram of a balance. is by taking away 5 weights from A? 5 X 3? 6. let us consider the and JB. 5. what force 31 is produced by tak( ing away 5 weights from B ? What therefore is 5) x( 3) ? . weight at A ? What is the sign of a 3 Ib. and forces produced at by 3 Ib. two loads balance. weights at A ? Express this as a multibalance. weight at B ? If the addition of five 3 plication example. If the two loads balance. therefore. 2. what force is produced by the Ib. If the two loads what What. is 5 x ( 3) ? 7. weights. A A A 1. applied at let us indicate a downward pull at by a positive sign. what force is produced by the addition of 5 weights at B ? What. force is produced therefore. 4. By what sign is an upward pull at A represented ? What is the sign of a 3 Ib.
4)(4) = + 12. 9 x ( 11). (5)X4.4) x braic laws for negative ~ 3> = (. 4x(3)=12. This definition has the additional advantage of leading to algenumbers which are identical with those for positive numbers. times is just as meaningless as to fire a gun tion 7 Consequently we have to define the meaning of a multiplicaif the multiplier is negative.9) x 11. 4 x(8) = ~(4)(4)(4)=:12. thus. or 4x3 = = (_4) X The preceding 3=(4)+(4)+(4)=12. 9 9. To take a number 7 times. 4 multiplied by 3. x 11. a result that would not be obtained by other assumptions. Multiplication by a negative integer is a repeated sub traction. 4 multi44444 12. 48. becomes meaningless if definition. Practical examples^ it however. ( (. 5x(4). ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA If the signs obtained by the true. make venient to accept the following definition : con 49. examples were generally method of the preceding what would be the values of ( 5x4. such as given in the preceding exercise. (.32 8. and we may choose any definition that does not lead to contradictions. the multiplier is a negative number. . however. or plied by 3. Thus. Multiplication by a positive integer is a repeated addition. In multiplying integers we have therefore four cases trated illus by the following examples : 4x3 = 412. ( 9) x ( 11) ? State a rule by which the sign of the product of two fac tors can be obtained. NOTE.4)(.
3) (1) 7 2 . 24.2f 18. of Signs: TJie positive. NOTE. (2) 8 (. 14. 17. 3. (c#) . 2a6 c . 15. etc. 4 . about fac (2)X If 6. EXERCISE 19 : Find the values of the following products 1. 9. find the numeri values of: 21. _2^ 3. and obtain thus product of two numbers with like signs in signs is negative. (7) X (12). z s 11 aWcx. 2. tors is no misunderstanding possible. c = 25. 32. 8 4 . b = 3. 20.2 f+x 2 . Formulate a law of signs for a product containing an odd number of negative factors. 4a f26 2 2a + 3&2 6c* . . and y = 4. 13.2. x= 0. 8. is 6x7. Ua b 28. _3. 5x3. 1. +5. 10. Law Thus. 7. (10) 4 . 3 a2?/2 . . 27. 22. 11. X(5). If a cal = 4a6c. 16. 26. 5.3.MULTIPLICATION 50. 6 2. 8 31. 2a 2 6c. 30. x. the parenthesis frequently omitted. 19.a)( =+ a&. 33 We shall and negative integers the assume that the law illustrated for positive is true for all numbers. 3 aW. 6. the product of two numbers with unlike &) (a)(+6) = a&. . Formulate a law of signs for a product containing an even number of negative factors. 23.4. 1. 4 a2 . 6. 29. 4. _2. . (2)x9.7. .(a&c) 2 2 . 12.(4J). (. 3. (4)X(15). (4)'.
34. a 2 2 . 100. a 23 =2 Hence 2 x 2 general. MULTIPLICATION OF MONOMIALS 51. 3 2 . a= 1.(7). =2 a *. (a6) (a5) 9.12 Perform the operation indicated 12. 6 aWc x .. 7. Ex. . : 3a7abc. &*) c d*. 2.  and 2 25 8 . 127  127 9 7 .<?. or 2 .(12) . 2 2 2 . 2 x (2* 5 7 2 )= 26 5 7 2 . a = 3.34 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA of 8 Find the numerical value 33. only one of the factors is multiplied by the number. 4 x (2 25) =8 25. B. m*..2 2 23 + 5 . .2). 6" 127 U . 9 . if =2 a a to  2 2 x2 2 2. 6 = 1.503). fl*" integers. 2(7. 5 3 5 3 2 . 2 2 3 6 . 50(112. 5. IB. By 3 definition. This 52. 4. + 2/). 16. 2(14.1 2 a 6 f 6 aW . 1.m a 3  4 . i. 2.3). am Xa n = (a =aa is m (a a to n factors) (m X fl w = fl /w +w . 4. a 5 (a) (^ + 14 8 2/) (a? + 4 2/) (aj . 4.7 &*# =(6  7) (a 2 a8 ) . a8 a=2. 10. 11.257). EXERCISE 20 : Express each of the following products as a power 1. 2 3 . 3. .(2. 200.35). 6.  2 2. 36. 13. & = 3. 5 . 3 3 4 .6 if 35. .e.7. Ex. In multiplying a product of several factors by a number. 17. = 2. known as of Multiplication : The Exponent Law The exponent of is the product of several powers of the same base the exponents equal to the 8 (ft sum oj Ex. 12 U U . 6 = . 53. 5 = 2. 5(711. . Or in m and n are two positive to factors) f n) factors. 78 . of the factors. a = 2. 3. 14.
the would obviously be 6 yards and 9 inches. 2(645410). _4aft. To multiply a polynomial by a monomial. 3. (. If results ft. 5 2 aft (6 e 8 C a 2ftc). 4 9 afy 2 a3 ?/ ). and then adding : 1. 12( + 1 4 i).7 w'W (8 n^W). c(4a ftc ).M UL TIPLICA TION 18. is evidently correct for any positive integral multiplier. Thus we have in general a(b 56.f 2).4a#. 20.3 a2 6(6 a*bc + 2 be  1) = 18 a 4 6 2 c . 21. .2 3 aft ).5 xy 19 aW lla ( 3 3 tfy 2z*. 35. 5. multiply each by the monomial. 25. 3(124342). 2(5fl5f25).4 (2 a 2 ft 3) 2 3 . 27. 4 aft 5 aft 2 . 5 aft 3 ( ftc ( 2 2ac). . . 22. This principle. MULTIPLICATION OF A POLYNOMIAL BY A MONOMIAL we had to multiply 2 yards and 3 inches by 3. 34. ax /) 2 4 1 (.3 win ) .6. by first multiplying. EXERCISE 21 Find the numerical values of the following expressions. 26. . 2. 31.A). 4. 23(10004100420). 2 32. 2 19 ' mV 2 ft 5  2 ran4 30. 23. Similarly the for quadruple of a 4 2 b would be 4 a f 8 54. 11(3. 7. but we shall assume it for any number.7pqt. 17(10041042). 35 4 7(6. 29. tet^m f c) = ab +ac. 6. 19. 24. . (. ) 2 33. 6(10420430). 7p*q r*. = (a + 26)+(a + 2 ft) f (a 4 2 ft) + (a + 2 ft) 55. 6 e/ a ( ( 2 a2 ) 3 . . 28. called the distributive law.6 a2 62c f 8 a2 6. /).
6 (6 2 +6 +6 10. .^ c + 2 . Thus to multiply a write (a + y z) and apply the distributive z.5 w*V f 7 wn). 21. 11. 5(5 + 52 + 2 2 5 7 ). be multiplied to give 4o. Any it closing x +y (a polynomial may be written as a monomial by inb by within a parenthesis. 2 4 %Pq\ 14.5 x 7). .we b) (x law.6 a6). 5 x\5 pqr + 5 pr 5 x2 . ofy 2 4 +8 2 4 a. 5). 2 2 16. 26. 22. 30.2 mn(9 mV .60 a& 10 aft. Perform the multiplications indicated: 13. 19. 4 13 (4 9 4 5 4).3 x2y 2 + 3 xy. 20. Find the factors of 5 a 6 . 17. 3 ). Express 3a^ Find the factors of 3x + 3 y + 3z. : expression must 24. . 9. f7a. Find the factors of 6 ary . 28. 29. 7 a 6 c(. . Find the factors of 6 Find the factors of 2 or* f 3 x* f arty 3 a4 . 5 aW( 3 2 2 aW + 3 a 2 2 ?/ 6 c 2 .3 aftc).asa product. 23. By what 25. 2 m(mhn \p). 2 27. MULTIPLICATION OF POLYNOMIALS 57.36 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA : Express as a sum of several powers 8. 12. ~2mn(m +n p ).6) (x f y z) = x(a = (ax b) + y(a b) z(a (az b) bx) f (ay by) bz) by az + bz. 7 3 (7 3 f7 +7 10 ).
Since all powers of 1 are 1. If Arranging according to ascending powers 2 a . .a . the work becomes simpler and more symmetrical by arranging these expressions according to either ascending or descending powers. this method tests only the values of the coefficients and not the values of the exponents. multiply each term of one by each term of the other and add the partial products thus formed.3 a 3 2 by 2 a : a2 + l. Ex.1. Multiply 2 + a a. Since errors.4.3 ab 2 2 a2 10 ab  13 ab + 15 6 2 + 15 6 2 Product. If the polynomials to be multiplied contain several powers of the same letter. however.a6 =2 by numerical Examples in multiplication can be checked substitution. the student should apply this test to every example.M UL TIP LICA TION 37 58. Multiply 2 a .3 a 2 + a8 . 2.2 a2 6 a8 2 a* *  2" a2 7 60. 59. 2a3b a66 2 a . To multiply two polynomials.a6 4 a 8 + 5 a* . 1 being the most convenient value to be substituted for all letters. a2 + a8 + 3 . Check.3 b by a 5 b. are far more likely to occur in the coefficients than anywhere else. as illustrated in the following example : Ex. The most convenient way of adding the partial products is to place similar terms in columns.3 a 2 + a8 a a = = I 1 =2 f 2 a 4.
29. 7y). l)(raf 2). * For additional examples see page 261. 40. (2s 3y)(3a? + 2y). 36). (llr + l)(12r (rcya (2m (a (4 a 2 . 4 2). (4af 76)(2tt (4ra fra (5c2d)(2c3d). 3. I (mfn)(m4. 36. 26. (4a 2 33. 12)(a?^2l).n)(m 8 n)(m n). 10. 6 2 (6a&c5) 3a6f2)(2a6~l). 20. 2  37. 9. (2 x* x 2 . (13 A. (2w 19. 5. 3n)(7m f6<7)(5^) + 8n). (6xy + 2z)(2xy 27. (6i7n)(llJn). 31. 2 (a al)(2a?fl). a 5c)(2a6c). 2 . 28. . ^ 2 . 13. QQ O7. 11. 15. (6a~7) 2 . (a&c 2 + 7)(2a&c3).2). (9m2n)(4m + 7tt). 12. 4. 22. 32. 2 (m?n?p (x (a //)4 lA/ //j.1 .38 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 22* Perform the following multiplications and check the results 1. 2 . 7. 36) I) 14. 35. 2.2 ^/ ' 2 mnp f. 17. OQ OO. (a 2a + 2)(a3).4) (mnp 4. (a^26) . + & + 1f a^faj 1). 30. (8r7*)(6r39.2m)(l m). 16. (6p (2 f 21. (ajf6y)(aj 23. 1). 2) (3 A: 1). 6. 41. 24.4) (x + 1). 8. 25. 18. 3<7). .
17. plus the sum of the two unequal terms multiplied by the common term. + 2) (a f 3). : 23 2. 18. (ra. + 9)(m+9). (p12)(p + ll). 75 ab f 54 ft . 39 The product of two binomials which have a common term. 11. 1005x1004. Find two binomials whose product equals 3x + 2. (10+ (1000 (2. 2 5 b z) (a2 f 4 (a 2 4. (a3)(a + 2). (!)(* 5). 20. 22. (wi 2^*12)(ajy 6. 6. 9.2 6) (a f 6). plus the product 62. . 26. 2 6) (a 3 6). 15. (ofy* f 3) (tfy* (a5 2 ). The product of two binomials which have a common term equal to the square of the common term. (100 +2) (100 + 3). . + 3) (a 7). 1) (10 + 2).13).!!)( (a + 21). in of the two unequal terms. (1001) (100 (1000 + 2). + 5) (1000 + 4). 10. 24.4). 19. 27. (J 23.n)(wf w).e. (a (a (a. plus the product of the two unequal terms. ft 16. 14. 25. i. 21.e. 28. X 102.25)(y+4). 16 ft) (5 a) 75 ab. (*. (a 102 x 103. 6 ft) (5 a 9 ft) is equal to the square of the common term. 3 (a 7) 3 (a 8). (a 9) (a + 9). 2 a? 29. (5 a plus the sum of the unequal terms multiplied by the common terms. (6 12) (6 f. _3)(a _4). 2) (1000 + 3). = + EXERCISE Multiply by inspection 1. ( 2 Hence the product equals 25 a'2 54 ft 2 . 8. + 60)(f2). 7. 3. 25 a 2 . . 99 (a + 2 6) (a 6). 13.MUL TIPLICA TION SPECIAL CASES IN MULTIPLICATION 61. i. 12.
: 24 (a 2. 7. III. 16 y* t plus twice the product of the i. 77ie square of the of the first. 7 a + 10. plus the square of the second. minus twice the product of the first and the 71ie second. oft x 3 y'2 plus the square of the Hence the required square equals 16 xP f. w 2 ro . of the following expres Find two binomial factors sions 30. : ar'Sz + a 2 G. 8. 35. m2_ 3m _ 4 2 36. 6. 2 (a (*5) 2 .15. + 6) (a + 2) a) 2 . 9. 3. and the second. plus sum of two numbers the square II.e. i.40 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA of each. EXERCISE Multiply by inspection 1. (x+3i/) 2 . 2 5. Some special cases of the preceding type of examples : deserve special mention II. 8j/ 2 + 49 y4 first . (ain general language : Expressed is equal to tlie square I.30. 33. n2 10ii+16. plus twice the product of the first and the second. second. of the second. . Ex. is The product of the sum and to the difference the difference of two numbers equal of their squares. a2 2 w + 2 w . 49 y*. i. 63.15.66 s. square of the difference of two numbers is equal to the square of the Jirst. 4. 31. + 3) 2 . 37. 32. <J>7) J . + 6 a + 8. (4 x3 + 7 2 i/ 2 is )' equal to the square of the first. (a26) 2 . . p 2 p. (II) is only a The student should note that the second type special case of the first (I).e. (a2) (p a . 34. III.e. .
31. x*+2xy+y\ a 2 2a6 + & 2 m 2 2mhl. 52. 2 (2a6c) (2a# (4 a 6 2 2 . (a 3) 2 2 2 . m 2 16. + 1) (100 + 2) 2 . 22.30 ab + 25 6 64.MULTIPLICATION 10. 11. . 28. 22 2 . 18. 55. + 5). : factors of each of the following expres y?f. 33. 32. 104 2 37. 4 53. we have 3x 5x + 2y 4y 2xySy* . 51. 15. (^. 41. n 2 f4n+4. ). 46. 24. 44. 41 16. 42.998 39. 17. . 9 a2 . 2 . (100 + 2) (100 2). 7)(a 2 2 f 7). 34. (3p 9) (6a 2 2 2 . two binomials whose corresponding terms are similar. a2 9. 991 2 2 . 103 36. 47. + 3z) 2 2 . 2 2 . 25 a 9. 2 2 5c ) 2 2 19. (20 f 1) . 35. 998x1002. . 2 9a 496 2 56. 2 J ). n*6n+9. 62 25n 2 . 16aW25. 12. I) 2 . 21. 29. (6afy 2 5) (a. (m 27i )(m + 2n 2 5 ). 2 . 54. 2 + 11 2 (5 r 2 2 2/ ) 2  Z ) 2 2 (5 r f 2 2 . ( 27. 14. (2x3yy.ll^X^+lly (100 30. 49. 99x101. 38. By actual multiplication. a 2 8a6+166 2 . G> +5g)*. 2 11 # ) 2 20. : Extract the square roots of the following expressions 43. (m f 2 tt n)(ra w ) 26  (^ (2m + 3)(2m3). 45. The product of 57. 7& ) 25. (1000 2 . 2 . 2 2 (5 (a r*2t ) 2 5 (cd 5)(c d 2 . a 2 + 10 ab f 25 b\ Pind two binomial sions 50. + 5)(5+a). 40. . 23. 2 (4a36) 2 13. 48.
sum of the cross products. 4. (3m + 2)(ml).f 2 a& f 2 ac + 2 &c. (5a4)(4al). 7. 2 10. plus the last terms. the product of two binomials whose corresponding terms are similar is equal to the product of the first two terms. or The student should note minus signs. (4s + y)(32y). 9. 2 2 2 2 (2a 6 7)(a & + 5). (100 + 3)(100 + 4). (5a64)(5a&3). 8. 5. (2a3)(a + 2). 11. 2 2 + 2) (10 43). The square 2 (a 4. that the square of each term is while the product of the terms may have plus always positive.& + c) = a + tf + c . 65. and are represented as 2 y and 4y 3 x. 2 (2m3)(3m + 2).42 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA of the result is obtained product of 5 x follows: by adding the These products are frequently called the cross products. (x i 5 2 ft x 2 3 6 s). 6. 13. 3. The middle term or Wxy12xy Hence in general. ) (2 of a polynomial. . 7%e square of a polynomial is equal to the sum of the squares of each term increased by twice the product of each term with each that follows it. 14. 2 (2x y (6 2 2 + z )(ary + 2z ). ((5a? (10 12. : 25 2. plus the product of the EXERCISE Multiply by inspection 1.
3. Simplify (x + 6) (a . ber that a parenthesis is understood about each term.(x . 3. s? + y + z + 2xy + 2yz + 2 xz.y? + 8 . 13.[a? . (  2 4) =  20 a.3)(z. n). : 43 26 (mf n+p) 2 2 . 66. + 65) . 4.X2 + 2 x . 7.5). Ex. = 10 x . and check the answers !.r _ 2 . = . 4(* + 2)5(3). 9. 4(aj2)h3(7). . a.(m 2 6. of z : 10.8 x + 15] . EXERCISE 27 : Simplify the following expressions. 5.4) . + 6)( .39. 6(a 2. 6. + 6 )2(6 + &)~(&4& ).M UL TIPLICA TION EXERCISE Find by inspection 1. (mf n)(m+2)3m(n + m). 7. If x = 1. (a2)(a3)~(al)(a4).1 5 = 10 .(= [ Xa + 2 . (a (. 4. 6~2(a + 7). after multiplying the factors of a term. the beginner should inclose the product in a parenthesis. 8. (xy+z)*. 8. 5. 2)6.(>.4) . 2 2.24] . 2 m 2 + n2 2 "f jp f 2 mn 2 ?wp 2 np. Hence. 12.3) (x . (2a36 + 5c) (3 (. (u4& + 3c'. 8 2(m 3(6 3 n) 2 3(m + n)H.24 .29. Check.39.i2&c) 2 . In simplifying a polynomial the student should remem.3) . 4y sf n) 2 .5) = (7 . Find the square root 11.
44
9.
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
10. 11. 12.
13.
4(m + 2)
(a?
+ 5(w
3)
5)(oj2)
(a;
(n f 5) (w
 2) + (n  7) (n + 4)  2 (n*  2)
14.
15.
6(p+2)7(p9)2(i> + l)(pl).
16.
17.
x 2 y)(3 x f 2 y)  (4  y) (a3 (a f 6)  4 (a + &) (a f 2 6) + (a (5
2
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
2
(a
faf
1)
(
a  1)
 (a + 1) (a  1).
8
CHAPTER
DIVISION
IV
is the process of finding one of two factors and the other factor are given. The dividend is the product of the two factors, the divisor the given factor, and the quotient is the required factor.
67.
Division
if
their product
is
Thus
by
f
to divide
12.
12
by
+
3,
we must find
is
the
;
number which
3 gives
But
this
number
4
hence
_
multiplied
12 r +3
=4.
68.
Since
f
a

f b
fa
_a
and
it
f
a
= f ab = ab b = ab b = ab,
b
f
follows that
4a
=+b
ab
a
ab
a
69.
Hence the law
:
of signs
is
the same in division as in
multiplication
70.
Like signs produce plus, unlike signs minus.
Law
of
,
a8 5 a5
=a
3
for a 3
It follows from the definition that Exponents. X a5 a8
=
.
Or
in general, if
greater than
m n, a
f
and n are positive integers, and m ~ n an = a m a" = a'"", for a
<
m
m
is
45
46
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
71. TJie exponent of a quotient of two powers with equal bases equals the exponent of the dividend diminished by the exponent
of the divisor.
DIVISION OF MONOMIALS
7 3 72. To divide 10x y z by number which multiplied by number is evidently
2x y
6
2
,
we have
z
to
find
the
2x*y
gives 10 x^ifz.
This
Therefore,
the quotient
*
,
=  5 a*yz.
is
Hence,
sign,
of two monomials of their
part
coefficients,
is the
a monomial whose
coefficient is the quotient
preceded by the proper
literal
and whose
literal
found
in accordance with the
quotient of their law of exponents.
parts
73. In dividing a product of several factors by a number, only one of these factors is divided by that number. Thus (8 12 20)?4 equals 2 12 20, or 8 3 20 or 8 12 5.


.

.

.
EXERCISE
Perform the divisions indicated
'
:
28
'
2
.
76H15.
39* 3.
2
15
3"
7
7'
3.
4*
'
4.
5.
j2
12
.
4
2
9
5 11
68
3 19 j3
5
10.
(3
38

2 4 )^(3 4 .2 2).
56
'
11.
3
(2
.3*.5 7 )f(
2
'
12
'
2V
14
36 a
'
13
''
yfflg
35
5.25
12 a
2abc
15
42^
'
56aW
'
UafiV
DIVISION
lg
47
^1^. 16 w
7
20>
7i
9
_Z^L4L.
22.
10 iy.
132 a V* 14 1
*
01
240m
120m
40
6c
fl
/5i.
3J)
c
23.
2 (15 25. a ) = 5.
25. 26.
(18
(
.
5
.
2a )f9a.
2
24.
(7 26 a
2
)
f
13.
DIVISION OF POLYNOMIALS BY MONOMIALS
To divide ax} fr.ef ex by x we must find an expression which multiplied by x gives the product ax + bx J ex.
74.
But
TT
x(a
aa?
Hence
+ b e) ax + bx + ex. + bx f ex = a 4 b +
\.
,
.
c.
a?
To divide a polynomial by a monomial, cfc'wde each term of the dividend by the monomial and add the partial quotients thus
formed.
3 xyz
EXERCISE
Perform the operations indicated
1.
:
29
2.
5.
fl
o.
(5*
_5* + 52)
5.
52
.
3.
97
.
(2
(G^G^G^iG
(11 2
4.
(8 3
+
11 3
+ 11
5)* 11.
18 aft 27 oc
Q y.
9a
4
25 2 )^2
<?
2
.
+8 5 + 8
7) *8.
5a5 +4as 2a
2
a
14gV+21gy
Itf
15 a*b

12
aW + 9 a
2
2
3a
48
,
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
22
4,
m n  33 m n
4
s
2
f
55
mV
 39 afyV + 26 arVz 3
 49 aW + 28 a W  14 g 6 c
4 4
15. 16.
2 (115 afy f 161 afy
 69
4
2
a;
4
?/
3
 23 ofy
3
4
)
5
23 x2y.
(52
afyV  39
4
?/
oryz
 65 zyz  26 tf#z)
5
13 xyz.
f
,
17.
(85 tf
 68 x + 51 afy  34 xy* f 1 7
a;/)
 17
as.
DIVISION OF A POLYNOMIAL BY A POLYNOMIAL
75.
Let
it
be required to divide 25 a
 12 f 6 a  20 a
3
2
by
2 a 2 f 3 a, divide
4
a, or, arranging according to
2
descending powers of
6a3 20a
f
25a12
2 by 2a 
The term containing the highest power of a in the dividend (i.e. a 8 ) is evidently the product of the terms containing respectively the highest power of a in the divisor and in the quotient.
Hence the term containing the highest power
of a in the quotient is
If
the product of 3 a and 2
2
4 a
+
3, i.e.
6 a3
12 a 2
f
9 a, be sub
8 a 2 f 16 a tracted from the dividend, the remainder is 12. This remainder obviously must be the product of the divisor and the rest of the quotient. To obtain the other terms of the quotient we have
therefore to divide the remainder,
8 a2
f
16 a
12,
2 by 2 a
4 a
+
3.
consequently repeat the process. By dividing the highest term in the new dividend 8 a 2 by the highest term in the divisor 2 a 2 we obtain
,
We
4,
the next highest term in the quotient. 4 by the divisor 2 a2 4 a Multiplying
I
+ 3, we
obtain the product
8 a2
16 a
12,
which subtracted from the preceding dividend leaves
the required quotient.
no remainder. Hence 3 a
4
is
DIVISION
The work
is
49
:
usually arranged as follows
 20 * 2 + 3 0a 12 a 2 +
a3
25 a
{)

12
I
2 a2 8 a

4 a 4
a
_
12
+3
I

8 a? 4 16
a
76. The method which was applied in the preceding example may be stated as follows 1. Arrange dividend and divisor according to ascending or
:
descending powers of a common letter. 2. Divide the first term of the dividend by the first term of the divisor, and write the result for the first term of the quotient.
3.
Multiply this term of the quotient by the whole divisor, and
subtract the result
4.
from
it
the dividend.
the same order as the given new dividend, and proceed as before.
Arrange
the
remainder in
as a
expression, consider
5.
until the highest poiver
Continue the process until a remainder zero is obtained, or of the letter according to which the dividend
is less
was arranged
the divisor.
than the highest poiver of the same
letter in
77.
Checks.
Numerical substitution constitutes a very con
venient, but not absolutely reliable check. An absolute check consists in multiplying quotient and divisor. The result must equal the dividend if the division
was
exact, or the dividend diminished by the remainder division was not exact.
if
the
Ex.
1.
Divide 8 a3
f
8 a
 4 + 6 a  11 a
4
2
by 3 a
,
 2.
^ _ _
,
Arranging according to descending powers,
6 a4 6 a4
,
,
+ 8 a8 4 a3
12 a 8
11
a2 a2
f
8a
4
I
3 a
2 a8
2
f
=
a _+ 2
.
7rl,
4 a2
=
7
+
11

3 a2
3
a'
2
+ +
8 a 2 a
4 + 6a  4
50
Ex.
2.
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
Divide a4
 46 6a6
4
3
f
9
2
6
2
2 l by 26 3a& + a
.
Arranging according to descending powers of
a,
we have
a<a4
6 a36
fr
f
f
9 a2 6 2
2 a2 6 2
2
2
46*
I
a2
a*

8 ab 3 ab
 3 a8


+ 2 6^  2 62
46*
 3 a^ + 9a 2 6  6 ab 8
+ 6 a& a  4 6 4  2 a^a + 6 aft  4
Check.
ft*
The numerical
it
substitution a
=
1,
&
=
1,
cannot be used in this
either to use
example since
larger
renders the divisor zero.
Hence we have
a
number
for a, or multiply.
2  8 ab + 2 & 2 ) ( a _ 3 ab  2 6 2 ) (a = [(a2  3 aft) + 2 62 ] [(a2  3 a&)  2 62 ] = (a 2 3 aft) 2 4 6* = a2  6 8 6 + 9 a2 6 2  4 5*.
EXERCISE
30 *
:
Perform the operations indicated and check the answers
2. 3.
(jf_2y15)i<y6).
2 (15 a
2
4.
5.
6.
 46 a# f 16 ) _ 26 mn 4 5 n ) (5 m
2
i/
5
(5
a5 w).
2
*
(m
7.
(6^53^ + 40)^(6^5).
(56
2 a; f
8.
19 x
15) (8
3).
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
2 (25 a
 36
2
ft
)
j
(5
a
f
6
6)
* See page 263.
18. 16.11 a + 9 a . c + 3* ' v7 169 a<6 2 ' .l. 51 15. (81 m + 1 . 19. Division of the difference of two squares. (aj 3aj2)^(oj2).18 m 2 ) f (1 G m f 9 m 2 ). (3 a 13 m + 47 m + 35 w (1 (5 m f (6a 2 & 2 2 2 3 2 f 2 3 f ) 5 1) .81 c8 f ' ISVftQc 8 64 ' a2 166 2 ' a? 10 1 . .e. EXERCISE Write by inspection the quotient 31 of : 2 x 1 c 2 6 ' 3 ^. a I.2) (3 a . the difference of the squares of two numbers is divisible of the two numbers. b f b by the difference or by the sum Ex. . + 23a& + 20)*(2a& + 6). (a? s 8) 4 *( 2).DIVISION 14. 20. (8xy + lo22x' y)+(2x y3). v/17.2). SPECIAL CASES IN DIVISION 78. (a f b) (a V) Since =a a 2 b 2 . .
100ry. . . 4 b. 1. 14. 36 a4 ?/ 4 . 16. : the following w a 4 !.0001. 16 . 121a a 16 100 11. aW 12 a. r/ 1.49. 9& 2 .52 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA of Find exact binomial divisors of each expressions 9. f 13. 10. 12.000. 15.
(a + ft) (a b) and b. is said to satisfy an equation. (rt+6)(aft) = 2  b' 2 .r f9 = 20 is true only when a. second member is x + 4 x 9. A set of numbers which when substituted for the letters an equation produce equal values of the two members. the first member is 2 x + 4. hence it is an equation of condition. ond member or right side is that part which follows the sign of equality. . . An equation of condition is usually called an equation. 81. y y or z) from its relation to 63 An known numbers.CHAPTER V LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS 79. in the equation 2 x 0. y = 7 satisfy the equation x y = 13. The sign of identity sometimes used is = thus we may write . in Thus x 12 satisfies the equation x + 1 13. =11. ber equation is employed to discover an unknown num(frequently denoted by x. the 80. . x 20. Thus. 83. The first member or left side of an equation is that part The secof the equation which precedes the sign of equality. 82. An identity is an equation of the letters involved. An equation of condition is an equation which is true only for certain values of the letters involved. which is true for all values a2 6 2 no matter what values we assign to a Thus.
Like powers or like roots of equals are equal. the remainders are equal. = bx expressed by a letter or a combination of c. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA If value of the an equation contains only one unknown quantity. the products are equal. Consider the equation b Subtracting a from both members. the known quan x) (x f 4) tities are = . called axioms 1.b. 9 is a root of the equation 2 y +2= is 20. (Axiom 2) the term a has been transposed from the left to thQ right member by changing its sign. 2. an^ unknown quantity which satisfies the equation is a root of the equation. the sums are equal. the divisor equals zero. Transposition of terms. 86. fol A linear equation is also called a simple equation. 89. one member to another by changing x + a=. A 2 a. A term may be transposed from its sign. 4. A numerical equation is one in which all .g.e. NOTE. If equals be subtracted from equals. If equals be divided by equals. . If equals be added to equals. A linear equation or which when reduced first to its simplest an equation of the first degree is one form contains only the as 9ie power of the unknown quantity. Axiom 4 is not true if 0x4 = 0x5. x I. 90.54 84. the quotients are equal.2. but 4 does not equal 5. E. a. The process of solving equations depends upon the : lowing principles. expressed in arithmetical numbers literal is as (7 equation is one in which at least one of the known quantities as x f a letters 88. To solve an equation to find its roots. 87. 85. If equals be multiplied by equals. 2 = 6#f7. 5. . 3.
Check. x = 3. Unite similar terms. (4y)(6. = 2 (11 3 y) + #*.3 y) + y 2 = 2(11 + i)^ V= 2) 1 4 = 26 i +  = 26 f f = 26$ JI .2 y= f . Uniting similar terms. is correct.y) = C4 + })(5f The second member. Subtracting 4 x from each term. The first member. The second member.2.9 y + 6 y = 20 f 22.9 y + y2 = 22 . a? Adding 5 to each term. and the known terms to the second. 3 y . and divide both members by the coefficient of the quantity. To solve a simple equation. Ex. may be changed Consider the equation Multiplying each member by x\1.6 y f y\ . 4fl = 12fl = 13 3. x = (Axiom 3) 92. a= a 6fc. transpose the unknown terms to the first member. (Axiom 4) When x = 3. SOLUTION OF LINEAR EQUATIONS 1. . if 55 x members. y) (5 y) unknown Ex. Transposing.8.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS Similarly. The sign of every term of an equation without destroying the equality. 2 x = 6. Qx 6# = 4x + l + 6. if a x = b. Solve the equation Qx 5 = 4 f 1. Uniting. 4x 1 + 6. x = 93. b Adding a to both + a. Hence the answer. 6a5 = 185 = 13. (Axiom 1) The result is first member to the same as the right we had transposed a from the member and changed its sign. Solve the equation (4 Simplifying. The first member. Dividing by Check. b c. 91. Dividing both members by 2. f If y 20 . 2(11 .
3 7 a. 12. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Solve the equation  (x 4) = \ (x + 3). 4a + 5 = 29. {(x (x The The member right member left . 14y = 59(24y + 21). 3 = 17 3 a? a?. 87 9(5 x 3) 6(3 a? = 63. Solve the following equations by transposing. + 22. a?. Transposing. 2.. 21. = 2 ?/. a.17 + 4y = 36. 7a? 5. Instead of dividing by \ botli members of the equation \ x would be simpler to multiply both members by 0. = 3. \x x 2^xfl. and check the answers 9. 20. 8. 24. x x 1 . 9 9a? = 7 13. v23. 50.7a: = 394a. 22. 6. it NOTE. 7. a? a?. 19. Uniting. 32 = 264. 3)= 9(3 7 a. J. + 7(3 + 1) =63. 7 (6 x 16).. 13a? 3a?. 17 9 x + 41 = 12 8 17. 3. 11. 13 y 99 = 7 y. 3.4) = + 3) = \ x 14 x 21 = 7. BXEECISB 32* Solve the following equations by using the axioms only 1. + 16 = 16 + 17. + 24) = 6 (10 x + 13).69. =2 = 3. : 5# = 15+2a. 17 7 a. aj * See page 264. 4. x = 18. 17 + 5a. 4y 10. . etc. . Dividing by Cfcecfc.7.56 Ex. 16. If x = 18. = 60 7 = 16 + 5 : Xx 7 = 14. a. = 5a?+18. 14. 11 ?/ a? 18. 247y = 68lly. = 7. 15. f Simplifying.
this question.7. 33. he should formulate a similar question stated in arithmetical numbers only. 57 734* = 13*~2(5*12). .7) (7 x + 4) . (6 u =5 44. (a. 27.1 0) = 0. . SYMBOLICAL EXPRESSIONS 94. 31.  +6= aj (4 t t t 1 (5 x (a? 2 2 2 2 2 2 (a? . 38.14 = 0.3) + 14.5)5(7a>8)=4(123a5) + l. 2 2 * Jaj. Evidently 45. 35. he should first attack a similar problem stated in arithmetical numbers is only. a? 43. Suppose one part of 70 to be a?.g. + 4). is the other part.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS 25. and let it be required to If the student finds it difficult to answer find the other part. or 70 a?. 7) (a. 41. find the other part. 7(7 x y 26. . 36. . 42.4) (x + I) + (x + 2) = (x 2(* + l) (2J3)( + 2) = 12. + 7) (. 6(6a. a? 28.5(2 u . e. 40. and apply the method thus found to the algebraic problem. . 30. 25.1) (u .(2 + 6) (4 . (aj 37. .(14 x + 1) + 7) = 285 + 21 a* (z + 2) (a5) :=2. 39.1) (a (a? + 3) = . : One part is of 70 is 25 .5) + 199. 29.2) (M . . .4) + 4 w . Hence if one part the other part 70 x.5) = (a.32.3) . WJienever the student is unable to express a statement in algebraic symbols. .12) (2 + 5) . 5) (as (a. + 1) 8(75 a?) +24 = 12 (4 .3) + . 34.
one yard will cost 100 dollars. is a? 2 is c?. 17. one yard will cost  Hence if x f y yards cost $ 100. 3. Divide 100 into two 12. 10. x f y yards cost $ 100 . 6. 1. so that of c ? is p. 6. 5. 33 2. 14. 13. 4. Find the greater one. If 7 2. The difference between two numbers Find the smaller one. 11. By how much does a exceed 10 ? By how much does 9 exceed x ? What number exceeds a by 4 ? What number exceeds m by n ? What is the 5th part of n ? What is the nth part of x ? By how much does 10 exceed the third part of a? By how much does the fourth part of x exceed b ? By how much does the double of b exceed one half Two numbers differ by 7. or 12 7. so that one part Divide a into two parts.58 Ex. 9. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA What must be added to a to produce a sum b ? : Consider the arithmetical question duce the sum of 12 ? What must be added to 7 to pro The answer is 5. and the smaller one parts. What number divided by 3 will give the quotient a? ? What is the dividend if the divisor is 7 and the quotient ? . is d. smaller one 16. 15. greater one is g. Hence 6 a must be added to a to give 5. Ex. find the cost of one yard. Divide a into two parts. is b. EXERCISE 1. 7. a. $> 100 yards cost one hundred dollars. so that one part The difference between is s. two numbers and the and the 2 Find the greater one. one part equals is 10.
LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS 18. is A A is # years old. How many cents are in d dollars ? in x dimes ? A has a dollars. What What What What is the cost of 10 apples at x cents each ? is is is x apples cost 20 cents ? the price of 12 apples if x apples cost 20 cents ? the price of 3 apples if x apples cost n cents ? the cost of 1 apple if . 26. Find the sum of their ages 5 years ago. 33. 28. feet wider than the one mentioned in Ex. 34. 28. y years How old was he 5 years ago ? How old will he be 10 years hence ? 23. ?/ 31. amount each will then have. If B gave A 6 25. Find the area of the Find the area of the feet floor of a room that is and 3 30. find the of their ages 6 years hence. find the has ra dollars. 20. and c cents. A feet wide. sum If A's age is x years. 59 What must The be subtracted from 2 b to give a? is a. and 4 floor of a room that is 3 feet shorter wider than the one mentioned in Ex. 19. The greatest of three consecutive the other two. and spent 5 cents. b dimes. and B's age is y years. smallest of three consecutive numbers Find the other two. and B has n dollars. numbers is x. square feet are there in the area of the floor ? How many 2 feet longer 29. How many cents had he left ? 28. 22. How many years A older than is B? old. and B is y years old. 24. Find 21. A dollars. rectangular field is x feet long and the length of a fence surrounding the field. A man had a dollars. How many cents has he ? 27. Find 35. A room is x feet long and y feet wide. 32.
A cistern is filled 43. 46. If a man walks n miles in 4 hours.50. What fraction of the cistern will be second by the two pipes together ? 44. A was 20 years old. of m. . and "by as much as" Hence we have means equals (=) 95. as a exceeds b by as much as c exceeds 9." we have to consider that in this by statement "exceeds" means minus ( ). in how many hours he walk n miles ? 40. % % % of 100 of x. per Find 5 Find 6 45. How many x years ago miles does a train move in t hours at the rate of x miles per hour ? 41. miles does will If a man walks r miles per hour. 49. and the second pipe alone fills it in filled y minutes. m is the denominator. If a man walks 3 miles per hour. he walk each hour ? 39. Find the number.60 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA wil\ 36. of 4. The two digits of a number are x and y. The first pipe x minutes. find the fraction. The numerator If of a fraction exceeds the denominator by 3. c a b =  9. Find x % % of 1000. Find a 47. A cistern can be filled in alone fills it by two pipes. If a man walks ? r miles per hour. How old is he now ? by a pipe in x minutes. 48. how many miles he walk in n hours ? 37. a. . Find a. how many how many miles will he walk in n hours 38. What fraction of the cistern will be filled by one pipe in one minute ? 42. b To express in algebraic symbols the sentence: " a exceeds much as b exceeds 9.
double of a is 10. 9. of x increased by 10 equals x. 4. c. 5. 8 b ) + 80 = a . of a and 10 equals 2 c. 6. Four times the difference of a and b exceeds c by as d exceeds 9. same result as 7 subtracted from . third of x equals difference of x The and y increased by 7 equals a. a exceeds b by c. of a increased much 8. cases it is possible to translate a sentence word by in algebraic symbols in other cases the sentence has to be changed to obtain the symbols. The double as 7.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS Similarly. = 2 2 a3 (a  80. The excess of a over b is c. EXERCISE The The double The sum One 34 : Express the following sentences as equations 1. thus: a b = c may be expressed as follows difference between a : The and b is c. equal to the sum and the difference of a and b sum of the squares of a and gives the Twenty subtracted from 2 a a. by one third of b equals 100. 2. the difference of the squares of a 61 and b increased } a2 i<5  b' 2 ' by 80 equals the excess of a over 80 Or. 3. 80. a is greater than b by b is smaller than a by c. etc. In many word There are usually several different ways of expressing a symbolical statement in words. c. The product of the is diminished by 90 b divided by 7. 80.
B's age 20. 16. 12. In 10 years the sum of A's. the sum and C's money (d) (e) will be $ 12. 5x A sum of money consists of x dollars. is If A's age is 2 x. B's. In 3 years A will be twice as old as B. A If and B B together have $ 200 less than C.. they have equal amounts. B's. (e) In 3 years A will be as old as B is now. x is 100 x% is of 700. 18. and C's ages will be 100.*(/) (g) (Ji) Three years ago the sum of A's and B's ages was 50. 14. pays to C $100. B. 3 1200 dollars. 6 % of m. first 00 x % of the equals one tenth of the third sum. they have equal of A's. amounts. x 4 If A. express in algebraic 3x : 10. A is 4 years older than Five years ago A was x years old. sum equals $20. 11. and C have respectively 2 a. (c) If each man gains $500. symbols B. a. 17. express in algebraic symbols : 700. and (a) (6) A If has $ 5 more than B. as 17 is is above a.62 10. . #is5%of450. A gains $20 and B loses $40. Express as : equations of the (a) 5 (b) (c) % a% of the second (d) x c of / a % of 4 sum equals $ 90. a. >. a second sum. 50 is x % of 15. the first sum exceeds b % of the second sum by first (e) % of the first plus 5 % of the second plus 6 % of the third sum equals $8000. a third sum of 2 x + 1 dollars. m is x % of n. of 30 dollars. the first sum equals 6 % of the third sura. (d) In 10 years A will be n years old. and C's age 4 a. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Nine is as much below a 13. (a) (b) (c) A is twice as old as B.000.
much as 40 exceeds the number. number of yards. 2. equation is the sentence written in alyebraic shorthand. 3 x or 60 exceeds 40 + x = 40 + 40. Three times a certain no. Uniting. be 30 . 6 years ago he was 10 . A will Check. Dividing. Check. x + 15 = 3 x 3x 16 15. Let x The (2) = A's present age. Transposing. . verbal statement (1) (1) In 15 years A will may be expressed in symbols (2). Transposing. 3 x + 16 = x x (x  p) Or. be three times as old as he was 5 years ago. number. 4 x = 80. 1. etc. denote the unknown 96. = x x 3x 40 3x 40 Or.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS 63 PROBLEMS LEADING TO SIMPLE EQUATIONS The simplest kind of problems contain only one unknown number. In order to solve them. The equation can frequently be written by translating the sentence word by word into algebraic symbols in fact. x= 15. 15. Ex. the required . NOTE. In 15 years 10. the . 3z40:r:40z. The student should note that x stands for the number of and similarly in other examples for number of dollars. x+16 = 3(35). In 15 years A will be three times as old as he was 5 years ago. number by x (or another letter) and express the yiven sentence as an equation. Simplifying. Find A's present age. x = 20. Let x = the number. Ex. exceeds 40 by as much as 40 exceeds the no. Three times a certain number exceeds 40 by as Find the number. Write the sentence in algebraic symbols. Uniting. 23 =30. by 20 40 exceeds 20 by 20. The solution of the equation (jives the value of the unknown number. but 30 =3 x years.
Dividing. What number 7 % of 350? Ten times the width of the Brooklyn Bridge exceeds 800 ft. Find the number whose double increased by 14 equals Find the number whose double exceeds 40 by 10. . 120. 3. twice the number plus 7. to 42 gives a sum equal to 7 times the original 6. by as much as 135 ft. A number added number. Uldbe 66  x x 5(5 is = *. A will be three times as old as toda3r . ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 56 is what per cent of 120 ? = number of per cent. How long is the Suez Canal? 10. 4. 14. 5. 11. Four times the length of the Suez Canal exceeds 180 miles by twice the length of the canal. Six years hence a 12 years ago.64 Ex. A train moving at uniform rate runs in 5 hours 90 miles more than in 2 hours. Hence 40 = 46f. then the problem expressed in symbols W or. Forty years hence his present age. Find 8. 300 56. Let x 3. Find the number. 47 diminished by three times a certain number equals 2. EXERCISE 1. Find the number. Find the number whose double exceeds 30 by as much as 24 exceeds the number. % of 120. Find the width of the Brooklyn Bridge.2. How old is man will be he now ? twice as old as he was 9. 35 What number added to twice itself gives a sum of 39? 44. 13. exceeds the width of the bridge. 14 50 is is 4 what per cent of 500 ? % of what number? is 12. How many miles per hour does it run ? .
five If A gives B $200. make A's money equal to 4 times B's money wishes to purchase a farm containing a certain He found one farm which contained 30 acres too many. the second one. If the first farm contained twice as many acres as A man number of acres. If A gains A have three times as much 16. numbers (usually the smaller one) by and use one of the given verbal statements to express the other unknown number in terms of x. One number exceeds another by : and their sum is Find the numbers. B will have lars has A now? 17. F 8. statements are given directly. written in algebraic symbols. The other verbal statement. how many acres did he wish to buy ? 19. 1. If a problem contains two unknown quantities. 97. How many dollars must ? B give to 18. During the following 90 years.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS 15. is the equation. A and B have equal amounts of money. 14. Ex.000. and Maine had then twice as many inhabitants as Vermont. and another which lacked 25 acres of the required number. How many dol A has A to $40. Maine's population increased by 510. In 1800 the population of Maine equaled that of Vermont.000. times as much as A. while in the more complex probWe denote one of the unknown x. x. Vermont's population increased by 180. which gives the value of 8. two verbal statements must be given. One number exceeds the other one by II. then dollars has each ? many have equal amounts of money. The problem consists of two statements I. Find the population of Maine in 1800. 65 A and B $200. The sum of the two numbers is 14. B How will loses $100. and B has $00. Ill the simpler examples these two lems they are only implied. and as 15. .
the greater number. Another method for solving this problem is to express one unknown quantity in terms of the other by means of statement II viz. A has three times as many marbles as B. although in general the simpler one should be selected. 2x a? x j = 6. o\ (o?f 8) Simplifying. the smaller number. Statement x in = the larger number. The two statements I. = B's number of marbles. in algebraic i symbols produces #4a. and Let x = the Then x +. the sum of the two numbers is 14. If A gives are : A If II. 8 the greater number. which leads ot Ex. I. Dividing. . 26 = A's number of marbles after the exchange. terms of the other. 8 = 11. 26 = B's number of marbles after the exchange. x 3x 4 and B will gain. < Transposing. expressed symbols is (14 x) course to the same answer as the first method. Then. Uniting. = 14. . To express statement II in algebraic symbols. Let x 3x express one many as A. If we select the first one. 2. / . = 3. B will have twice as viz. B will have twice as many as A. = A's number of marbles. x x =14 8. + a f f 8 = 14. x = 8. . has three times as many marbles as B.= The second statement written the equation ^ smaller number. unknown quantity in Then.66 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Either statement may be used to express one unknown number in terms of the other. 25 marbles to B. consider that by the exchange Hence. A gives B 25 marbles. A will lose. to Use the simpler statement. Let x 14 I the smaller number.
Simplifying.25 = 20. the number of dimes.5 x . * ' . Eleven coins. the number of half dollars. . x = 6. * 98. is 70. Check. x = the number of half dollars. but 40 = 2 x 20. A's number of marbles. B's number of marbles. etc. and the Find the numbers. cents. we express the statement II in algebraic symbols. x from I.10. The value of the half : is 11. 6 times the smaller. of dollars to the number of cents. . 6 dimes = 60 = 310. 50(11 660 50 x )+ 10 x = 310.. Never add the number number of yards to their Ex.10. Dividing. the price. Dividing. Selecting the cent as the denomination (in order to avoid fractions). 50. Find the numbers.75. greater is .550 f 310. (Statement II) Qx . 3 x = 45. How many are there of each ? The two statements are I.. 67 x f 25 25 Transposing. The sum of two numbers is 42.10. then. Find the numbers. 2. 6 half dollars = 260 cents. dollars and dimes is $3. 60. their sum + + 10 x 10 x is EXERCISE 36 is five v v. Let 11 = the number of dimes. Check. 11 x = 5. x x + = 2(3 x = 6x 25 25). 50 x Transposing. 15 + 25 = 40. The number of coins II. 1. 40 x . x = 15. by 44. have a value of $3. The numbers which appear in the equation should always be expressed in the same denomination. Uniting. consisting of half dollars and dimes. w'3.240. 45 . 3. Uniting.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS Therefore. Two numbers the smaller.. Simplifying. differ differ and the greater and their sum times Two numbers by 60.$3.
7. 6. On December 21. Mount Everest is 9000 feet higher than Mt. and twice the greater exceeds Find the numbers. and four times the former equals five times the latter. one of which increased by 9.000 feet. McKinley. What are their ages ? is A A much line 60 inches long is divided into two parts. How many inches are in each part ? 15. Find their ages. Twice 14. it If the smaller one contained 11 pints more. How many hours does the day last ? . A's age is four times B's. the larger part exceeds five times the smaller part by 15 inches. the night in Copenhagen lasts 10 hours longer than the day.. 2 cubic feet of iron weigh 1600 foot of each substance. and the greater increased by five times the smaller equals 22. 5. How many volcanoes are in the 8. would contain three times as pints does each contain ? much 13. find the weight of a cubic Divide 20 into two parts. and in Mexico ? A cubic foot of aluminum. Everest by 11. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA One number is six times another number. and in 5 years A's age will be three times B's. 11. 9. What is the altitude of each mountain 12. of volcanoes in Mexico exceeds the number of volcanoes in the United States by 2. How many 14 years older than B. and twice the altitude of Mt. the number. 3 shall be equal to the other increased by 10. McKinley exceeds the altitude of Mt. as the larger one. and B's age is as below 30 as A's age is above 40. United States. Two numbers The number differ by 39. Find Find two consecutive numbers whose sum equals 157. tnree times the smaller by 65. cubic foot of iron weighs three times as much as a If 4 cubic feet of aluminum and Ibs. ? Two vessels contain together 9 pints.68 4.
19. The third verbal statement produces the equation. = number of dollars B had after giving $5. first According to 3 x number number and according to 80 4 x = the express statement III by algebraical symbols. then three times the sum of A's and B's money would exceed C's money by as much as A had originally. the the number of dollars of dollars of dollars A B C has. then three times the money by I. Let x II. sum of A's and B's money would exceed much as A had originally. 69 If a verbal statements must be given. number of dollars of dollars B C had. = 48. Ex. they would have 3. . and C together have $80. or 66 exceeds 58 by 8. If 4x = 24." To x 8x 90 = number of dollars A had after giving $5. 1. Tf it should be difficult to express the selected verbal state ment directly in algebraical symbols. original amount. has. I. B. and B has three as A. 8(8 + 19) to C. 4 x = number of dollars C had after receiving $10. number of dollars A had. The solution gives : 3x 80 Check. and 68. three One of the unknown num two are expressed in terms by means of two of the verbal statements. bers is denoted by x. II. III. try to obtain it by a series of successive steps. let us consider the words ** if A and B each gave $ 5 to C.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS 99. and the other of x problem contains three unknown quantities. 5 5 Expressing in symbols Three times the sum of A's and B's money exceeds C's money by A's 3 x ( x _5 + 3z5) (904z) = x. times as much as A. A and B each gave $ 5 respectively. are : C's The three statements A. number had. If A and B each gave $5 to C. B. B has three times as much as A. has. and C together have $80. If A and B each gave $5 to C. x = 8.
+ 35 (x +4) f 15(4zf 8) = 1185. The number of sheep is equal to twice tho number of horses and x 4 the cows together. x j = the number of horses. x Transposing. according to II. sheep. number of cows. according to III. = the number of dollars spent for sheep Hence statement 90 x Simplifying. x = 5. number of cows. 9 cows. Dividing. The I. The number of cows exceeded the number of horses by 4. number of sheep. 9 5 = 4 . The total cost equals $1185. and each sheep $ 15. first. and 28 sheep would cost 6 x 90 f 9 + 316 420 = 1185. 85 (x 15 (4 x I + 4) + 8) = the number of sheep. 90 may be written. 2. A and the number of sheep was twice as large as the number How many animals of each kind did he buy ? of horses and cows together. 1 1 Check. III. x 35 f + = + EXERCISE 1. x f 4 = 9. 28 2 (9 5). each cow $ 35. first the third exceeds the second by and third is 20. 28 x 15 or 450 5 horses. and.140 + (50 x x 120 = 185. 185 a = 925. 37 Find three numbers such that the second is twice the first. cows.70 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA man spent $1185 in buying horses. Let then. 2 (2 x f 4) or 4 x Therefore. number of horses. three statements are : IT. 4 x f 8 = 28. = the number of dollars spent for horses. and the difference between the third and the second is 15 2. Find three numbers such that the second is twice the 2. The number of cows exceeds the number of horses by 4. = the number of dollars spent for cows. the third five times the first. each horse costing $ 90. Uniting. and the sum of the . 90 x f 35 x + GO x = 140 20 + 1185. + 35 x 4. and Ex. + 8 90 x and.
9. and the third part exceeds the second by 10. is five numbers such that the sum of the first two times the first. and the pig iron produced in one year (1906) in the United States represented together a value . twice the 6. 7. If twice The sum the third side. the second one is one inch longer than the first.000 more inhabitants than Philaand Berlin has 1. and the third exceeds the is second by 5. If the population of New York is twice that of Berlin. The gold. equals 49 inches. how many children were present ? x 11. New York delphia. twice as old as B.  4. the third 2. men. A is Five years ago the What are their ages ? C. women. the first Find three consecutive numbers such that the sum of and twice the last equals 22. If the second angle of a triangle is 20 larger than the and the third is 20 more than the sum of the second and first. and is 5 years younger than sum of B's and C's ages was 25 years. 13.000 more than Philadelphia (Census 1905). and 2 more men than women. first.000. what is the population of each city ? 8. the copper. Find three consecutive numbers whose sum equals 63. "Find three is 4. A 12. first. and the sum of the first and third is 36. The three angles of any triangle are together equal to 180. v  Divide 25 into three parts such that the second part first. In a room there were three times as many children as If the number of women. and of the three sides of a triangle is 28 inches.000.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS 3. what are the three angles ? 10. what is the length of each? has 3. v . increased by three times the second side. and children together was 37. 71 the Find three numbers such that the second is 4 less than the third is three times the second.
Find the value of each. The copper had twice the value of the gold. such as length. 14. 3z + 4a:8 = 27. and distance. and A walks at the rate of 3 miles per hour without stopping. and Massachusetts has one more than California and Colorado If the three states together have 31 electoral votes. we obtain 3 a.000. B many miles does A walk ? Explanation. of arid the value of the iron was $300. number of miles A x x walks. i. . 3 and 4. and quantities area.000 more than that the copper. Let x = number of hours A walks. statement "A and B walk from two towns 27 miles apart until they meet " means the sum of the distances walked by A and B equals 27 miles. and 4 (x But the 2) for the last column. Dividing.72 of ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA $ 750.e. First fill in all the numbers given directly. or time. how many 100.000. then x 2 = number of hours B walks. California has twice as many electoral votes as Colorado. 3x + 4 (x 2) = 27. start at the same hour from two towns 27 miles walks at the rate of 4 miles per hour. of 3 or 4 different kinds. it is frequently advantageous to arrange the quantities in a systematic manner. Hence Simplifying. number of hours. width. 8 x = 15. speed. but stops 2 hours on the way.000. has each state ? If the example contains Arrangement of Problems. After how many hours will they meet and how E. 7 Uniting. A and B apart. = 35. Since in uniform motion the distance is always the product of rate and time. together. = 5.g.
$ 800 = 800.05 x x . 70x10 Ex.x + 00) 2 x2 Simplify. 10 x = 200. $ 800 = required sum. original field has Check. were increased by 30 yards. l. or 700." gives (2. If the length The length " The area would be decreased by 100 square yards. x .04 8. Find the dimensions of the field. Cancel 2 # 2 (a 10) = 2s 100. Multiplying. . 2 a = 40. and the width decreased by 10 yards. the area would be 100 square yards less. The an area 40 x 20 =800.06 = $ 40.053. + 8. But 700 certain = 800 2. + 10 x 300 = 2 z2 100. the second 100.04 = $ 40. x . . Transposing and uniting.01 = = . x + 200). What brings the same is the capital? in Therefore Simplify. 73 of a rectangular field is twiee its width. $ 1000 x . fid 1 The field is 40 yards long and 20 yards wide. A sum invested larger at at 5 % terest as a sum $200 4%. 2   and transpose.M(x . Check.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS Ex. z = 20.
Six persons bought an automobile. invested at 5 %. After how many hours will B overtake A. together bring $ 78 interest. how much did each cost per yard ? 6. 1. sions of the field. If the silk cost three times as For a part he 7. A sum ? invested at 4 %. mobile. and follows on horseback traveling at the rate of 5 miles per hour. paid 24 ^ per pound and for the rest he paid 35 ^ per pound. twice as large. 3. but as two of them were unable to pay their share.55. A man bought 6 Ibs. each of the others had to pay $ 100 more. What are the two sums 5. of coffee for $ 1. the area would remain the same. A If its length rectangular field is 2 yards longer than it is wide. Find the share of each. and in order to raise the required sum each of the remaining men had to pay one dollar more. 2. A of each.74 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 38 rectangular field is 10 yards and another 12 yards wide. The second is 5 yards longer than the first. A sets out later two hours B . and its width decreased by 2 yards. and a second sum. and the sum Find the length of their areas is equal to 390 square yards. but four men failed to pay their shares. Find the dimen A certain sum invested at 5 % %. and the cost of silk of the auto and 30 yards of cloth cost together much per yard as the cloth. sum $ 50 larger invested at 4 brings the same interest Find the first sum. How much did each man subscribe ? sum walking at the rate of 3 miles per hour. were increased by 3 yards. Ten yards $ 42. as a 4. Twenty men subscribed equal amounts of to raise a certain money. and how far will each then have traveled ? 9. How many pounds of each kind did he buy ? 8.
and B at the rate of 3 miles per hour. walking at the same time in the same If A walks at the rate of 2 far miles per hour. Albany and travels toward New York at the rate of 30 miles per hour without stopping. traveling by coach in the opposite direction at the rate of 6 miles per hour. how many miles from New York will they meet? X 12. A and B set out direction. and from the same point. but A has a start of 2 miles.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS v 75 10. The distance from If a train starts at . After how many hours. and another train starts at the same time from New York traveling at the rate of 41 miles an hour. how must B walk before he overtakes A ? walking at the rate of 3 miles per hour.will they be 36 miles apart ? 11. A sets out two hours later B starts New York to Albany is 142 miles.
a. a factor of a 2 A factor is said to be prime. An expression is integral with respect to a letter. a. 104. we shall not. it is composite. at this 6 2 . this letter. a + 2 ab + 4 c2 . J Although Va' In the present chapter only integral and rational expressions b~ X V <2 Ir a2 b' 2 2 ?> . consider 105. if. vV . The factors of an algebraic expression are the quantities will give the expression. + 62 is integral with respect to a. if it contains no other factors (except itself and unity) otherwise .CHAPTER VI FACTORING 101. it contains no indicated root of this letter . which multiplied together are considered factors. 5. as. if this letter does not occur in any denominator. irrational. An expression is integral and rational with respect and rational. 76 . The prime factors of 10 a*b are 2. \ V& is a rational with respect to and irrational with respect 102. but fractional with respect 103. f db 6 to b. if it does contain some indicated root of . a2 to 6. expression is rational with respect to a letter. stage of the work. if it is integral to all letters contained in it. An after simplifying. 6.
Ex.3 sy + 4 y8). x. E. 2. An the process of separating an expression expression is factored if written in the form of a product. or that a = 6) (a = a . for this result is a sum. 2.9 x2 y 8 + 12 3 xy f by 3 xy\ and the quotient But.62 can be &). factors of 12 &V is are 3. 8) (s1). 109.) Ex. 01. in the form 4) +3. 77 Factoring is into its factors. TYPE I. It (a. since (a + 6) (a 2 IP factored. POLYNOMIALS ALL OF WHOSE TERMS CONTAIN A COMMON FACTOR ( mx + my+ mz~m(x+y + z). Factor G ofy 2 . . dividend is 2 x2 4 2 1/ . ?/. The factors of a monomial can be obtained by inspection 2 The prime 108.g. it follows that a 2 .62 + &)(a 2 .3 6a + 1). or Factoring examples may be checked by multiplication by numerical substitution. 2.FACTORING 106. it fol lows that every method of multiplication will produce a method of factoring. Hence 6 aty 2 = divisor x quotient. 2 4 x + 3) is factored if written (x' would not be factored if written x(x and not a product. Factor 14 a* W 21 a 2 6 4 c2 + 7 a2 6 2 c2 7 a2 6 2 c 2 (2 a 2 . 107.9 x2^ + 12 sy* = 3 Z2/2 (2 #2 . x.9 x if + 12 xy\ 2 The greatest factor common 2 to all terms flcy* is 8 2 xy' . 110. 55. y. . Since factoring the inverse of multiplication. Divide 6 a% . 1.
8 c a 15 ofyV .5 + 13 8.g. 15 2 7.5 x*y 2 17 a? . 34 a^c 8 . two numbers m and n whose sum is p and and if such numbers can be found. TYPE IT.51 x4 2 6 xy s . a(mf7i) + & ( m + 3 (a + 6) 3 /(a + 6). 7i 13. 3. 8. we had to add tain the coefficient of x. 32 a *?/ . Ilro8 9.16 a'V f 48 ctfa^ 2 s 4 : + 34 X 8 a*b f 8 6V . 4 tfy f. 12. 15.3.51 aW + 68 21. 2 6. 14. 2 + q. in factoring a trinomial of the form x f/>#f q.30 aty. In multiplying two binomials containing a common 3 and 5 to obterm. f In factoring x2 2x we have to find whose product is g. (as 3) and (ccf5). x2 f2 x = 15 we have. ) 22  2. obviously.12 cdx. 3x*6x*.5 + 2. in general. e. 19. 14a 4 5. 13. 2 Or. 11. 2. 3 2 .4. 17. q*q*q 2 a. and to multiply 3 and 5 to obtain the term which does not contain x or (x 3)(x f 5) 15. .2. 2 2 . 2 23. a6c. 16. : 6 abx .3. QUADRATIC TRINOMIALS OF THE FORM 111. 7a & 10.78 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 39 Resolve into prime factors 1.45 afy . . the y factored expression is (x }m)(x + n). a a 'Ja .6. 4. to find two numbers whose product is 15 and whose sum is f. + llm llm. &{20a 6 4 &3 2 . 18. 5f 2 . 3 3 5 6. 20.4. 4 8 .
4. the student should first all terms contain a common monomial factor. is The two numbers whose product and 6. + 30 = 20. 11 a2 and whose sum The numbers whose product is and a. but of these only a: Hence 2 . If 30 and whose sum is 11 are 5 a2 11 a = 1.11) (a + 7). determine whether In solving any factoring example.5) (a 6). If q is negative. Therefore Check.11 a 2 . m 5m + 6. Hence z6 ? oty+12 if= (x 3 y)(x*4 y ). it is advisable to consider the factors of q first. Factor x? . . 11 7.a). the two numbers have opposite signs. a 2 . however. 2 6.1 1 a tf a 4. of this type. Ex. as p.FACTORING Ex. Factor a2 . and the greater one has the same sign Not every trinomial Ex. 77 as the product of 1 77. . Factor + 10 ax . can be factored.G) = . 5. the two numbers have both the same sign as p. 79 Factor a2 4 x . or 77 l. Hence fc f 10 ax is 10 a are 11 a  12 /. We may consider 1.11.30 = (a .. Since a number can be represented in an infinite number of ways as the sum of two numbers. 2 11 a?=(x + 11 a) (a.11 a + 30. EXERCISE Besolve into prime factors : 40 4. but only in a limited number of ways as a product of two numbers. 2. tfa2  3. or 11 and 7 have a sum equal to 4. .77 = (a. and (a . Ex. + 112. If q is positive.5) (a .1 afy 8 The two numbers whose product is equal to 12 yp and whose sum equals 3 8 7 y are 4 y* and 3 y*.6 = 20.4 . 3.4 x . or 7 11.
32. 2 2 a' 34. 10 x y 2 200 x2 . 33. a? + 5 + 6 a. 12. + 400 x aft a4 4 a 2 . 2 ?/ 5?/14. By actual trial give the correct we find which of the sum of cross products. 2 .2) = 20 x2 + 7 x . 24. TYPE 113. a 7 a 30. QUADRATIC TRINOMIALS OF THE FORM According to 66. 13. in factoring 6 x2 + 5. . 9.48 + + 446 200. 2 2 . 4 2 . 11. ^ </ 2 2 7p8. 2 . we have to find two bino mials whose corresponding terms are similar. 30. . x*y ra 2 2 4xy 4 wia 2 2 21y. 2 ?/ 28. 29. 15. such that The The first last two terms are factors of 6 x 2 two terms are factors of 5. y_ 6y +6y 15?/ 2 ?/ 10. ay 11 ay +24.17 + 30. 31. 20. 35. and 5 x. 27. 100 xr . + 30. a2 .70 x y . a 2^ 2 a2 + 7ax 18. 17. or . 16. 19. 25. 8. . +7 Hence a? is the sum of the 13 x cross products. ITT. 6 8 8 4 2 a. 4 3 2 . ELEMENTS OF ALGEBEA x*2x8.500 x + 600. 2 ?/ 22. 36. 18. + 5<y 24. 2 .80 7. + 4?/21. 6 is the product of + 3 and 2. x2 23.6. 17a& + 7(U 9a&226 + 8 a 20. 21 a 2 2 . a 2 +11 a a? 16. 21. (4 x + 3) (5 x 20 x2 is the product of 4 a. 6 a 18 a + 12 a 2 2 ?/ . 26. 14. ra + 25ra + 100. and the sum of the cross products equals 13 x. 3?/4 + a' 2a&24& n + 60+177> a + 7 a 30. factors of 6 x 2 and 5 . + 2xS. + 44. 16.180 a.
Ex. 27 x 2. 2. The work may be shortened by the : follow ing considerations 1.5 . the If p and r are positive. sible 13 x negative. 2 x 27.FACTORING If 81 we consider that the factors of f 5 as must have is : like signs.17 x 2o?l V A 5  13 a combination the correct one.83 x f 54. all it is not always necessary to write down combinations. If the factors a combination should give a sum of cross products.1). X x 18. a. then the second terms of have opposite signs. 3 x and x. which has the same absolute value as the term qx. the signs of the second terms are minus. all pos combinations are contained in the following 6xl x5 . . If p is poxiliw. 11 x 2x. 9 x 6. .e5 V A x1 3xl \/ /\ is 3 a. 3.13 x + 5 = (3 x . the second terms of the factors have same sign as q. Hence only 1 x 54 and 2 x 27 need be considered. we have to reject every combination of factors of 54 whose first factor contains a 3. and r is negative. Since the first term of the first factor (3 x) contains a 3. If py? \qx\r does not contain any monomial factor. and that they must be negative. 6 x 9. but the opposite sign. or G 114. Factor 3 x 2 .5) (2 x . and after a little practice the student possible should be able to find the proper factors of simple trinomials In actual work at the first trial. 18 x 3. 54 x 1. none of the binomial factors can contain a monomial factor. The and factors of the first term consist of one pair only. exchange the signs of the second terms of the factors. viz.31 x Evidently the last 2 V A 6. 64 may be considered the : product of the following combinations of numbers 1 x 54.
6. X 27 . 2x* + 9x5. 16. 9a. 4a2 9tt + 2. f go.300 ab 2 f4 250 . + 4. 9 y + 32^16. 20. 144 x . EXERCISE Kesolve into prime factors 1.163 x 2 .2 a 90 x*y . 100^200^ + 100^. 17. 29. 2.77 xy + 10 y 23afc + 126 . SoJ + llay 15 aj* 40*. 3a + 13a. 2 2 2 23. the expressions should be it. 2 fc . 18. 5. 2 ar* 2 i/ .10 4a? + 14oj + 12. 10a?2 2 33. h r is 2 the most important of the trinomial types. 2 f3y 4y 40a 90aV + 20aV. 34. arranged according to the ascending or the descending powers of some letter. 2 28. 5 a6 2 2 9 a . and the monomial factors should be removed. . 13.13 xy + 6 y2 12 x 7 ay. 21. 6n 2 f 13w + 2. 2i/ * 2 2 x 27. + 11 or 2 + 12 a. 7. 25. 12. 3. 2 2 2 . since all others (II. 2 .7. x54 a. 2 .30 y 6 4 . 10 a . 8. 11. 2 26.19 a f 6. 6n + 5?i4. . 4. 5m 26m f 5. 2m t7w + 3. 9. 3x*Sx + 4.260 xy .2) (x . 12y 2/6. 22. 24. 35.27).83 x . + 2/3. 14 a fa 4. .179.y + 172/9.82 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 3xl 3s2 x X 115. 12^17^16. 90 a 8 2 . 2 31.83 x = (3 . 15. 10a2 G a2 2 . Therefore 3 z + 64 The type pa. 32. 10. Sar' + SaG. 14. 30. IV) are special cases of In all examples of this type. : 41 2.290 xy f 144 y* 4x 8 ofy + 3 y 2 2 4 2 4 f . 19.
2 2 . 8. . it is more convenient for that type. 12. 2 . however. 16 y? The student should note that a term. for + 9 y2 = (4 x . 25 7. Expressions of this to factor them according a2 to 65. 14. and may be factored according to the method used In most cases.26 ab + 9 6 2 . and the remaining equal to twice the product of the square roots of these in order to be a perfect terms. it is a perfect square. must have a positive sign.10 x f 16. x> 2 a 2_4 a & a 2 + 462. . 4 6 m*ti f 9 n*. form are special cases of the preceding type. 10.3 y) 2 is 2VWx 2 x V0y2" = 24 xy. and factor whenever possible : 1. A term when two is trinomial belongs to this type. 6. 2.e. x* . and a perfect square. 24 xy + 9 y' 2 is Evidently 10 & 24 xy a perfect square. 11. 4. EXERCISE 42 per Determine whether or not the following expressions are feet squares. connect the re square roots of the terms which are squares by the sign of the indicate the square of the resulting binomial.20 xy f 4 y\ . To factor a trinomial which maining term. m + 2mn + n c 2cdd 2 2 . 2 9 10gf25. 5. m 14ww + 49n 2 16 a . a flOa&46 4 wi f 2 2/ 2 .FACTORING 83 TYPE IV. THE SQUARE OF A BINOMIAL 2 Jr 2 xy +/. 9. 116. square. 9 10a625. 9 +6a6 2 2 f a4 . 3. of its terms are perfect squares.  2 xy + if = (x 2 ?/) . 13. i.
36 2 4. 4 3 4 ^ 3 8 10 8 10 ) 4 5 4 5 Ex. . 2 20. 2 f b 2 2 2 ) (a NOTE.6 m* + 9 m. 10 a 2 4 2 . 1. 48 a +( ). +( )f816 30. * 2 . Ex.64 6 = 16(a . 149 a 81 8. 27. According to 65. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 16a 2 24a&4.9 z* = (2 ary + 3 z ) (2 1G a . : 43 tfy\ a 9. 3.  + 6a + ( 9a ( ) + 144 a 2 28. 2 . EXERCISE Resolve into prime factors 1. !Gar 9 ( )+25. 9. 2. a4 a2 2 f 6 is . 225 ofy . V. 16. ). x*Sx + ( 64 a 4 100w +( )+49. 2 . a. 3. 18.3 * ).60 a# + 4. 16&*. prime. aV . 4 2 23. u2 6& + 2 ( ). 4a2 l.84 15. a2 24. 25. 3 Make the following expressions perfect squares by supplying the missing terms : 21. 17.20 ab + 10 b a . 22. + GO + 25. product i. a. 100a2 68 a2 & 2 121. 26. 5. . THE DIFFERENCE OF TWO SQUARES JT 2 /.4 6 = lG(tt +2Z> )(a 26 ). 6. 29. .2 ofy + ofy m . ). m 4a + 12a + ( 2 4m 2 20 f ( ). difference of the squares of two numbers is equal of the sum and the difference of the two numbers.e.9& 2 3<> 4 2 . ^//c to the Ex. 7. 6 2 . 19. 2. ). TYPE 117. 9a2 .6 = (a 4 b) = (a* + b*)(a + b)(ab). 2 .
of polynomials. (m 3n) 2 ( 2 2 . Factor a 2 . Ex.FACTORING 85 118. Resolve into prime factors and simplify EXERCISE 44 Resolve into prime factors 1. 4. 13. (m7?) y. Ex. a2 . T. (2a5&) (5c9ef) 2 3.(c 4. (2a (2s + 5) (3a4) 2 2 . 2. 2 ?/) 16 2 (y f 2 .d) 2 . 8. 2 . 9. 25a (&c) (mh2n) 2 2 . (m f # 2 2 n) 42:) 10. 16p 2 . 14.c . One or both terms are squares 1. a:) 12. 2 . 11.(c + d) 2 = (a + c + cZ) (a . 36> . 2 2 : (mfn) _p 2 . 6.(I) . (a x? f 6) 6 2 . 2. 5. (x f 3 9 2/ 2 . (?/ 2 cc (x y)*.
a5 + ab 6 . 6.6z2 + 5 = z2 (. 3. 8.(x  5) EXERCISE Resolve into prime factors 1. which may be factored according to types I. After grouping tain a the terms. + 4cy5dx 2 5dy. 4 B.7 c + 2c . By grouping. 2.1. Factor or 5 5 x2 x x f 5. . + bx + ay + by = x(a + &) + y(a + 6) Ex.86 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA TYPE VI.a a . x8 . + x + 2x + 2. ive find that the new terms con common factor. 1.2 ) (3 x . : 45 ax + bx + ay+by. Ex.VI. Ex. ma ?*a + m& nb. raV + nV 3 a 2ic 2 m ?/ 2 n 2an3&n + 2ag3&?. 9. Factor 9 x*y*4:Z 2 f 4 yz.and trinomials. a3 c 3 10ax5ay6bx + 3by. . 10.y + 2 2).4 6 x f 3 a y 2 4. a 26 2 2 3 . GROUPING TERMS By the introduction of parentheses. 12. polynomials can frequently be transformed into bi. a? 11. A.14. 4:cx . 5. 2.ab + bx. 119. Factor ax ax f bx f ay f by. 5) . = (3 x + y .r. the expression becomes the difference of two squares. 7.
8. although frequently the particular cases II and IV are more convenient. + 2xy + y*q*. 6.62 + 9 _ 4 _ 12 ax + 4 6y 2 = 4 a 2 .* */2 ft EXERCISE Kesolve into prime factors 1. IV.l. First find monomial factors common to all terms. w m 2. .FACTORING Ex.12 aaj 4 6y. 4. 5. 36 9 m . 6 6. $ a8 . 3. +c+ 2 2 2/ . 8ra 2 + 16. 2. .10 xy + 4 y\ 2 . EXERCISE 47 MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES* Resolve into prime factors !. Arranging the terms. 2 7. Trinomials are factored by the method of cross products. a 2 10a6 4 2 + 256 2 x ar 2a. l~a 2a56 2 2 .6 ww + n 2 2 < a 2 4a6 + 46 25. 6a4 12a2 + 6. : m 2 2 16.9 a2 4 v* 2 . m Gw + 9n * See page 266.4 f . 4 a2 . 2a3/ 7. SUMMARY OF FACTORING I.12 ax + 9 a2 + 4 &t/ 4 y2 = (4 a 2 . 3.12 z + 9 x2)_ (&2 _ 4 ty + 4 ^2) a. Polynomials are reduced to the preceding cases by grouping terms. Binomials are factored by means of the formula a 2 6 2 III. 6a4 + 37a2 + 6. = (a + 6)(a6). 2. II. 87 f Factor 4 a2  6 2 + 9 tf . : 46 x* 2. 8. 4.
32. 256 4 2 2 ?/) . 6 :J 2 2 ft 2 16. 2 17. __ ft)2 n Qy 2 . 35. 4 2 2 ft ft 2a + a*l. 80 a 2 ft 38.13 c . 48. 42 x . a + a + a + l. 2 a 128. 13.24. 40. 2 ft . + 6 aft + 3 . 50^ + 45. 3 a2 23. 30. any V 2 ( 51 xyz + 50. a6 36. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA x*xif. 27. a3 156. 20 >r + 2 ?<s __ G4.85 xy + 42 y 10 w 43 w 9. 25 a + 25 aft .40. a. 3 25. 29.88 10. 28. 22. or 3 7#2 . . (a. 19. 4 a. 10 a 2 4a 4 26. 4 8 tt 2 z . 24. 3 2 . 13 c . 11. 5a' 20. 12. 2 3#4 3a2 36. 18. 49 a 4 4 42 a + 9 a 20a 90a 50.310 x . 1 ?v _w 8 2 33. (^ 34. 32 aft + 6 4ft 4 . 3 41. 5 a. a5 a 1 4 2 39.156. + 14. 14. 42 s 2 .
8 . 5 s 7 2 5. The highest is common factor (IT. C. expressions which have no are prime to one another. C. C. Thus the H. . C. 5 7 34 2s . of aW. and GO aty 8 is 6 aty. C. C. 33 2 7 3 22 3 2 . F. of a 4 and a 2 b is a2 The H. C. II 2 . C. 12 tfifz.) of two or more . and prefix it as a coefficient to H. Two common factor except unity The H. F. 121. 6. F. aW. 15 aW. of 6 sfyz. of : 48 4. + 8 ft) and cfiW is 2 a 2 /) 2 ft) . The H. F.CHAPTER VII HIGHEST COMMON FACTOR AND LOWEST COMMON MULTIPLE HIGHEST COMMON FACTOR 120. 89 . F. The H. 2. F. 5. 5 2 3 . F. of two or more monomials whose factors . of the algebraic expressions. the algebraic factor of highest degree common expressions to these expressions thus a 6 is the II. 25 W. If the expressions have numerical coefficients. find by arithmetic the greatest common factor of the coefficients. 2 2 . of a 7 and a e b 7 . The student should note H. C. F. F. 54  32 . C. are prime can be found by inspection. F.  23 3 . EXERCISE Find the H. 24 s . is the lowest that the power of each factor in the power in which that factor occurs in any of the given expressions. 13 aty 39 afyV. 3. of (a and (a + fc) (a 4 is (a + 6) 2 . 122. 3 .
F. 16. (a7 ?/) . 30 mu\ 39 afyV. 4 ?io. C. 9. 13. x2 ^4^ and tf 7 xy + 10 f. 12 . 5 a6 5^ 2 a. a2 ar* 4. 15. 15 3ao. 6 mx . 12. 10. 2 . y + 3y64. 7. 52 oryz4. 1.5 y). F. a3 9a. . a2 + 2a3. . 25 m27i. 8 a 10 .2 y) (a. 7/ EXERCISE Find theH. 4 a3 6 4 8 a663 . 2 . 2 . 4a f 4a2 2 2 a 2  .8 a + 16. 0^80:416. a 3a4. . = x 2 y. C. C. To find the H. 95 2/V. of + 4 if. 14.6 a' + 2 a& + 6 . 49 C. Ex. 65 zfyV. 1. ^f a. 3^ 2 4 . 225 4a 9 . ^a + 5^ + 6.# 4 afy f 4 . 3 . a. ^2 2 . resolve each polynomial into prime factors. and apply the method of the preceding article. 2a f5af 2. 9. F. 4(m f ?i) 3 3 5(w + w) 5 7(m + n}\m 2 ri). 12. a2 + 7af!2. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBEA 6 rarcV. 8.5 x3?/ 2 6.?/ . 3.2 ?/) (x .6. 8. 8(?/ifl) 14.12 as 66 . 24 a 2 . 6 3 a. 11. 57 a>V. of polynomials.y) 123. . F. 10.y + y42. 2 . . 75 a&X 15 bed 11 .6 a&. 6 a2 y? . . 38 #y. a2 . 12 w*nw 8.^9. x* x2 Hence the H.y) .7 xy + 10 2 = (x .3 xy + 2 y* = (x . 3). 2.y)\ O+ 0^(0. 4(m+l) 3 . 9 aj*(a? . 11. 4 7/i 3 n2 10 4 mV.6 . 13. 15 xy^ 2 10 arV . 6(m+l) (m+2).90 7. aWd.5 + 6. a3 16 a. 16 a . Find the H. 8 6. ^707 + 12. of: . 5.
LOWEST COMMON MULTIPLE 91 LOWEST COMMON MULTIPLE multiple of two or more expressions is an which can be divided by each of them without a expression 124. M. Ex. 128. L.C. Hence the L. M. 127. thus.M. M. C. 6 c6 is C a*b*c*. of tfy and xy*. of as &2 a2 + 2a&f b\ and 6a. =4 a2 62 (a2 . resolve each expression into prime factors and apply the method for monomials. A common remainder.6 3 ). Obviously the power of each factor in the L.(a + &) 2 (a have the same absolute value. = (a f last 2 &)' is (a  6) . . To find the L. 4 a 2 &2 _ Hence.) of two or more expressions is the common multiple of lowest degree. C. The lowest common multiple (L. M. find by arithmetic their least common multiple and prefix it as a coefficient to the L. 300 z 2 y. If the expressions have a numerical coefficient.M. ory is the L. Find the L. 126. a^c8 3 . Common 125. etc. two lowest common multiples. each set of expressions has In example ft). NOTE. C. 1. 60 x^y' 2 . C. 2 The The L. C. C. which also signs. of several expressions which are not completely factored. The L. of 4 a 2 6 2 and 4 a 4 4 a 68 2 .C. M. Ex. of 3 aW. C. 2. Find the L. L. C. &) 2 M. 2 multiples of 3 x and 6 y are 30 xz y. C. is equal to the highest power in which it occurs in any of the given expressions. . but opposite . M.6)2. M. of the general. M of the algebraic expressions. M. C. of 12(a + ft) and (a + &)*(  is 12(a + &)( .
4 a . x* ~5a. 8 afy. T a 3 a 2 . 30 a. ic 23. 3 6 xif. 5 a 2 ^ 2 15 . 3.f 6. M. + 2 7i) . 2 a. 21. 20 9 a. 6 y. 3 . 7. x 2 5 a. f b. bx a? 8 2 lOajflfi. 3 Z> . 8. 16. 15. afc'cd 2 . a?b. 2(m 2 . y*. (a 4)(a2) 12. 4 a f 2. 11. by. 3 ab. a f 3. a& 4 +& 2 . a2 4. xy\ . 13. a^1. 5 a? 5 a? y. 2 a . + 6. ic 2 ?/. a 2 fa6. 8 d 5 . a2 ~ab 1. G a. x2 5 f 2 3# 5 + 2.1. 3 (a2)(a3) ( a 3)(a4) 2 2a?b'2ab 2 a. a f 2 19. a { a~b. . x2 2 + 5 a + 6. 22. + 2. b 2 .92 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 50 C. a 2 a3 . 2 a?b\ a + 2ab + b' 2a2b. or f 3 a 15 #. 2 . 17. a 2 f 4 a +4. 2 7ic+10. of: 4.1. 20. 3 f2. (For additional examples see page 268. 6. 3(m + n) 4 m 2 . 6 a. 18. 6b 2 . ax {ay ~ 3 a 3 b. 3. x2 + 4 a f 4. 9. #. 40 abJ. a !. 24. 2 . ) . 2 . 2. 2 a . 14. a. a. 24 x. Find the L. 4 a 5 6cd. 5. 1. 2 ic 3 4a 8 a. a. a 1. 2 x \2 y. afy. . 2 10. 3(a + b).
Reduce ~ to its lowest terms. The dividend a is called the numerator and the The numerator and the denominator are the terms of the fraction. and denominators are considered.CHAPTER VIII FRACTIONS REDUCTION OF FRACTIONS 129. Remove tor. 131. only positive integral numerators shall assume that the all arithmetic principles are generally true for algebraic numbers. All operations with fractions in algebra are identical with the corresponding operations in arithmetic. successively all 2 j/' . rni Thus 132. a?. fraction is in its lowest when its numerator and its denominator have no common factors. the product of two fractions is the product of their numerators divided by the product of their denominators. F. however. thus  is identical with a divisor b the denominator. TT Hence 24 2 z =  3x .ry ^ by their H. and i x mx = my y terms A 1. a b = ma mb . common 6 2 divisors of numerator and denomina and z 8 (or divide the terms . Ex. If both terms of a fraction are multiplied or divided by the same number) the value of the fraction is not altered. the value of a fraction is not altered by multiplying or dividing both its numerator and its denominator by the same number. but we In arithmetic. an indicated quotient. Thus. etc. C. 130. A f fraction is b. as 8.
cancel factors only. _Q 2 6 EXERCISE 51* Reduce i to lowest terms 3 : 95 2 *' o 3 * 3T5"** T^ 12a4 " 3 K 6 ' 32 78 ' ' 2. Keduce 62 ~ 2 62 a2 to its lowest terms.6 a + 8) 6 d\a* . 6 24 a2 to its lowest terms.33 7 a 36 arV 18 x2^' 39 a2 6 8c4 * See page 268. 2. and cancel all factors that are common to both. tf a*  n2 + 8 a 24 a* _ ap 2 . 3. Never cancel terms of the numerator or the denominator. Ex. To reduce a fraction to its lowest terms. .94 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 133. Keduce a* ~ 6 a' 4 *8a 6a qs _. resolve numerator and denominator into their factors.4) Ex.
19.FRACTIONS 7 95 22 a 2 bc 1 4 ^. . ^+3*..10 a + 3 2 14. 23. 9x + "a" 10. ^' rt ^  31. g J 21. . ny 4 18. . ' ^ . n h ' m11 2 m 3 8. _ 3 7i rt< 26. ~__ 9n _ 22 9. ^" a.7 . 5^10 y 30. + ' 4 2 ?/ 27. 29. 16. 'M 3 ??i 2fi 25.' 32. """. x1 15 ' ft< 4 xy //(/ _. 3a ^ ^ "^ 2 9 . 12 15 m m 2 2 7 w.n 8 + T> ? wn + n 2 ?i 2 m " *7 . LJZJ^JL. nx 17. * OQ 3 a3 _6a a/i 2 2 5 ?tt +6 ^. 04 !l 9 or 2 6 it*?/ +y 2 12. 11 ^ Mtr f .*.
C. TheL. =(z (x + 3)(z.M. . Since a (z 6 + 3)(s3)Ol)' 6a. multiplying the terms of 22 . Reduce ^.by 3 ^ A 2 ' .3) (!)' = . C.  by 4 6' . take the L. ELEMENTS OF 'ALGEBRA Reduction of fractions to equal fractions of lowest common Since the terms of a fraction may be multiplied denominator. . and the terms of ***. we may extend this method to integral expressions. we have (a + 3) (a 8) (!)' NOTE.~16 (a + 3) (x.  of //* 2 . 1). by the denominator of each fraction. C. 1. Ex  Reduce to their lowest common denominator. and Tb reduce fractions to their lowest common denominator. mon T denominator.r 2 2 . and 6rar 3 a? kalr . and 135. M. by any quantity without altering the value of the fraction.D. we have M^.C. . multiply each quotient by the corresponding numerator.96 134. we have the quotients (x 1). ^ to their lowest com The L. of the denominators for the common denominator. Divide the L. and (a 8). Multiplying these quotients by the corresponding numerators and writing the results over the common denominator.1^22 ' . Ex.3)O  Dividing this by each denominator. 2> . To reduce to a fraction with the denominator 12 a3 6 2 x2 numerator ^lA^L O r 2 a 3 ' and denominator must be multiplied by Similarly.M. we may use the same process as in arithmetic for reducing fractions to the lowest common denominator. + 3). 3 a\ and 4 aW is 12 afo 2 x2 .
a+2 ' a 2 3af 2 ADDITION AND SUBTRACTION OF FRACTIONS 136. 18. 7i 2 ab* ". o o a. . . j y 3. 2aj ~ . a? 1 5 > ^* . JL. 5a 3 zl ' _ 2al n. If the given fractions have different denominators. 22 a2 5a * . fractions having a common denominator are added or subtracted by dividing the sum or the difference of the numerators by the common denominator.. 5?. ?y2" m^ S? m 2 7^ m S* **.T n"> ^' 5c 3 26 o atf o> 5 77" ' .T 3y Ga1 ax 9 ' 2a . i.Reduce the following to their lowest 1. bxby g ! a 5 ' a f5 a2 25 ?.FRACTIONS EXERCISE 52 97 .oj o* or / . Since {c c = 5L^ c (Art. . 2. 8 i i. 2 ay IB. common denominator 6. 74). .. .^1. 137. 3. 2 3 9a ~l' 3al 6 8 a ' 2 a8 * 5 4a 8' ' a jj + 6 a 9 ^ . they must be reduced to equal fractions which have the lowest common denominator before they can be added (01 subtracted).
ft).ft)(a . a 3 2a + "~ a2 ft). The L.g. (a ft). D.ft) (a ft ft)~.98 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA  Ex ' Sim C.7 . 4 6 + 2qg+6~agf4a&8 a(aft)(a 2ft) ft 2 a2 a(a + 5 aft . Multiplying the terms of the first fraction by 2(2 a the second by (2 a .20 aft 3ft) f 3 ft 2 4(2a3ft)(2af 4 aft f 21 2 138. ft) ft ft a(a ~ 3 aft + 2 ft2 a2  2 aft _(a + 2ft)(a2ft) +a (2q + a(a .. in the beginning. ^ _ ^ a3b ft).3 ft).aft  _ 3 ab + 2 = ( a _ ft)( _ 2 a 2 2 aft :=(. 4(2 a 3 ft). C. D. The results of addition and subtraction should be re duced to their lowest terms.. 2.3 ft)(2 a + 3 ft) ft ft) (6 a ft) _ 8 a 2 f 24 aft 20 a 2 f f 18 2 + ft 12 a 2 . (a 3 ft) In simplifying a term preceded by the minus sign.2 = a(a . 2 ^.4 aft + ft ft ) a(a  ft)(a 2ft) 2 =a . we obtain 2 a the terms of 2(2 a +3 3 ft 6 a f ft _ 2(2 a + ft) 3 ft) (2 a ft) 4(2 a 3 4(2 a ~~ + 3 ft) f (2 a . (2 ~ a ft) a(a  + 7 ft)fa ft)(a 2 ft)  ft) a(a 2 ft) NOTE.(a 2 6).3 ft)(2 a f + : Ga6 + 3 ft).2 ' 2 _. (a8ft)(a~ft) 8 2 2ft) 2 =a 4 2 + 2 (2 a 4. T? Ex.3 ft 2). ^ is 2^JT) . (a . cr \t Simplify _T__ r* + . as 4 aft f. e.aft) Ca2 . understood about terms ( 66) hence he should.3 . the student should remember that parentheses are . write 2 the product in a parenthesis. and adding. L. a2 ab ft2 Hence the a a2 f 2 6 a2 .
1* 1 + mf 3 1 M. 1 f q * 1 m m . 6 c 3a 7. 9m + 7n 3 6m 5n 2x + 3y 3x 15 y x + 2y 45 8. a2 a + 3* 2 a 7 af1 ' 2) * See page 270. 20. a+6 a 6 2 14. A+2_3. 1 1 f w 16. 15. 5a76 4a 106 9. a 36 ++. 30 u +? + i _H_ + _*_. t3 m2* a _2 6 a 4. 2L + 2a 1 17. 6a116 13 a 15a26 116 e ' 6 2 10. j>0 i> 21. 46 2a 4a 12. 23. 24. + . 2.5 18 ^4f25. + a "" 2 6 ' .FRACTIONS EXERCISE 53* Simplify : 99 2a4 5 3. 36 3u 2v v 5 wv 8v 12 uv 13. 18 v 19.
af 1f /j. a. x + 3y x3y Gx x2 2x . _ + a? ?/ + y. 2 af1 32. 41. a ?^ 40.9 79 6 2 i. ic 1 + 1.9. a 2 ^> 2 x2 7x+12~x l7x + 4:~ ' } . 1 34. _m & 2 i +m 6 i _w 36 a2+ a ^_2&2 35. 43. / IIlNT: Let a 1  39. 42. 3a 9 +. _ ' a +b +a= ( 38. a 30. x2 Q 3 /Yl Qfi ou L "I "I \_ L I * 7 ITi ~T~ 7 TTo O :_ ' i 37 _ 9 <1  1 i 1 '> a2 . ^2^+6m 3 45 ' 44. ! n. a 4 31.LOO ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 26  x*3x + 2 x2 5x 27 ' ~.
6 + 4x 4 x2 . 2x 4 x3 to a mixed expression.  4 or 3 2a.6 x + 10x4 x2 17 Therefore x y 3g .FRACTIONS 139.  .17 (2^ + 2x f 53 (2x. 2 + 4tf 3 17 . . 2 x2 + 2 g 4. To reduce a fraction to an integral or = + ceo 2 * * (S74) v ' Hence 5a2 15a7 = 5 a2 oa 5a 15a oa 7 5a =a 3 .'3) 2 EXERCISE expression 54 to a Keduce each of the following fractions : mixed or integral a a +1 9a2 6a + 2 3a m 2 * 5 m f 6 4 m 7 n 2 + 7n + 14 fi . 1. Reduce . 101 mixed expression. T. .7 5a v Ex. .
Since  = a. each numerator and denomi nator has to be factored. and the product of the denominators for the denominator. Simplify 1 J The expreeaion =8 6 . !. or. Common factors in the numerators and the denominators should be canceled before performing the multiplication. we may extend any e. (In order to cancel common factors. expressed in symbols: c a _ac b'd~bd' principle proved for b 141. F J Simplify . x b c = numerator by To multiply a fraction by an that integer.) Ex. integer.g. 2 a Ex.102 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA MULTIPLICATION OF FRACTIONS 140. fractions to integral numbers. 2. multiply the 142. Fractions are multiplied by taking the product of tht numerators for the numerator.
. 14. 5# 56 / c& 4.20 3a 2 6 ' GoA ai> 56 2c " ar " ' 4 ac2 V V 3m " " +1 " " o?f 2 ~ ' _ 9m JO. 6) 12 ot 2 ab + 2 fc a b* o. 2 25n 2 1 3m +&n 15.6 12 d6 4. 2 f 5 a..FRACTIONS EXERCISE Find the following products ' 103 55 : 2!v! 2 4 5 8 a2 " ' ^ ' 36^ 21m* ' 17 ab ' ' 2 48 as b*' 34 ab 2 14m4 . 50 . _G x 7 a2 5a6 a.. 53 *38 " ' 4 ' 14 b* ' 10 a 8 ' " 4af86 76 5c 36C2 10 (a 7a216 a2 2 q~. aj 5 1 a? 18. 4 8. 5n a2 43a4 a2 3 a 4 a 2 5ah4 <  x2 + x (x 2 I) 17.
: a 41 ab * See page 272. and the principle of division follows may be expressed as 145. 144.104 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA DIVISION OF FRACTIONS 143. To divide an expression by a fraction. . 8 multiply the Ex. To divide an expression by a fraction. Integral or mixed divisors should be expressed in fractional form before dividing. The reciprocal of ? Hence the : +* x is 1 + + * = _*_. The reciprocal of a number is the quotient obtained by dividing 1 by that number. * x* f xy 2 by x*y +y x' 2 3 s^jf\ = x' 2 x* . expression by the reciprocal of the fraction. 1. Divide Xn?/ .y3 + xy* x*y~ f y 8 y f 3 2/ x3 EXERCISE 56* Simplify the following expressions 2 x* '""*'*' : om 2 a2 6 2 r  3 i_L#_i17 ar J 13 a& 2 5 ft2 ' u2 +a . x a + b obtained by inverting reciprocal of a fraction is the fraction. The The reciprocal of a is a 1 f reciprocal of J is  . invert the divisor and multiply it by the dividend.
' ' * ' ^5^+4 . are fractional.5 ??i 80 50 . A complex fraction is a fraction whose numerator or denominator.^c 2 2 .10 ?/ _.afr 4.&c 2 ~ a 4 a2c 4. or both. Ex.FRACTIONS 105 . mm 5 a a2 6 2 4g2 2a 2 4g20 25 . c ab 2 4 &c* & a . Simplify <! c a a2 c 4 L 4. l. t ' a^3^4 ? 4* ' a?~ab > a 2 a 4a 4 4 a: +3 m 12 2 f.1 5 w + 56 a 2 w a2 2 4.T ?/ 4 2 a*?/ 15 #4. a a2 4. a 6 _6 c c ac a6 2 4.6 COMPLEX FRACTIONS 146. ga2 4 8 5 a .6 s + 064._ # ~ y ' 45 14 in^o 2 ?/ ^y "xy 15 a2 + (Jf fr a b .
x* 4. & . y X 4* 2 y 3. Ex. . a m "" . xy x +y Multiplying the terms of the complex fraction by (x y). c +6.a ^c c _^ a . the answer is directly obtained.?/ x y _x^_l X ~V x+y . 6. 2. . i. B If the numerator and denominator of the preceding examples multiplied by a&c. of their denominators. JL.y 32 .16 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA In 147. C. 10. 9. the expression becomes (x EXERCISE Simplify : 57 x 2. . n a 8. many examples the easiest mode of simplification ia multiply both the numerator and the denominator of the mplex fraction by the L. Simplify x }. M. . 7i+~ 7.
1 + 1+ 1 ti flgfl a?l ic+1 a. i ~T" * ~ 1 y 19 4 ' !^5n a "~ 12. : .) . 1 +2 1 i " f " ( a + 1 /*_i_i 4 14.~l (For additional examples see page 273. sy 18. 1 i 1 2 5 .FRACTIONS 107 1 i m 11. 2 & a 20  a46 13. m^n* n L a 17. o 15.
14 z 2 + z 2 + 20 x .8 x = . If x 6. these Ex. 2x Transposing.f3# + C:E=6f7212.28 a = 5 x2 . a. . 9x x Check. Transposing. C. 5 x2 + 20 x + 15 15 . Clearing of fractions. Uniting.l)(z + 3) = . = 6. 2 3. 2z2a.CHAPTER IX FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS FRACTIONAL EQUATIONS If an equation contains fracbe removed by multiplying each term by the may L.14 (a. If = 64. 1.28 x + 42 = . tions. 5(3 85 Check. Bx 12 Qx.42 + 9.48. Multiplying each term by 6 (Axiom 89). Uniting. !)(&+ 1) (x + 3). each member is reduced to 1. Multiplying by (x Simplifying.  2(x 2 + 3) Removing parentheses.9 x2 + 9. Solve ^2^ = 63 2 x 12 * + **.9(se + !)( 14 x 2 . 108 . 4 4)  x. of the denominator. each member is reduced to Ex. 148. x = 6. + 1) (a + 3) . = 6. Solve 5 I 14 x +1 x +3 I). M. 6 = = 72 72 3 (a.1. 2.
1 *> = 2.FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS EXERCISE Solve the following equations : 109 58 ^ 4 3 _ +7 a? 32 3 10. 3 a? '2 4 "  2 a? "T"" 4 4. . o ""~TiT" ' 3 12. 4 y 2 ^ 16 20 +2 334 y2 y3 == on . ^1 = 9.1 _77 a. 16. . '  4 13. a/  5 a/ = 12. 1+5 & ^0 ^ a? = 19 1 11. +4 14.= 2. ^' 2. 15. +1 = 5. a. a: 7 a. 18. = xx a? a? hi x +^ + 3 = 11.
32 6 . 3 3x2 51 3x*2x 23 x 3x2 22 36. ?_=_. . 3x 35. ._ _ . If two or more denominators are monomials. and after simplifying the resulting equation to clear of all denominators. 31 31.110 ELEMENTS Of ALGEBRA 24. 4a4l4* + l~. 26 26. 27 . and" the remaining one a polynomial. 25.  38 = 40. 2 20 x+3 x3 3 o^ 28 . ^^ ' 39 7 ' x. it is advisable first to remove the monomial denominators only. 33. y+3~2 29. + 26 2^43 1 4^9 1 2a?3 A* 37.11_4 x 149. J_.  2  13 _J_ = _J3 . 2^12 = 2 = 34. . .
Dividing. 5x x : = 9. If a. 5# 10. Solve the following equations 41 : 5a.1.r7 5 +l 6afll~~ 3 6xflO ' 5 2a?~25 15 17a?~9 14 28 6414 . C. 10 x f 6 __ 4a. Solve 111 10 Multiplying each term by tors. .  5 = 20 x 45. of the monomial denomina~ &Q =: n 16 x 2( +3~ x 16 x  2. Transposing and Multiply ing by 6 uniting. 24 a. f 13 8#f 2__ 2x 5 7 15 ~~716* 6a? 44.29 50712' 9 18 . = 9.2 42 9 43. Transposing and uniting. 1. 5 = 20 g 5 a: ~ Jff 1 . 26 a. Check. a.2 3 ~  == 7a.. M. 60. each member is reduced to ^.FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS Ex. the 1 5 L.
Ex.2 ac + 3 aft .m 2* = (a f 6) mnx = (1 4. jr. Thus. =a 2 151. When the terms containing the unknown quantity cannot be actually added. = l^ 9 b 4 . 3(ac) c) Multiplying by 3 (a . 4 ac 1. Ex. bx f 6)z = 3 & 2 ab. Literal equations ( 88) are solved by the same method as numerical equations. y.m bx 2 mn) x. = 6 a2 . 2.112 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA LITERAL EQUATIONS 150.3 6 2 = a' . find a in terms of b and c. ax + bx ax (a f IP Transposing. Uniting the Dividing.c) (3 a ac 6(rtfc)(ac) 6 a2 6 a& +6 6c = (2a + &)(3ac).2 62 2 ab. b a a a z Clearing of fractions.1. ax f x f. fr Reducing lowest terms. to Transposing all terms containing a 6 ab 6 ac one member. It frequently occurs that the x. f ~ 5c. Uniting. = = 6 6c 7 6c. If 3ac L= = a ? . a.be. + 2 ac 9 a& 3 ab Simplifying. Dividing. l to = !=?_=^6? a f 6. unknown letter is not expressed by or z. they are united by factoring. . 5> a. and multiplying by a(9 b 4 c 4 c) = 7 &c.& . = 2 f b 2 .
= 5.= n. t. If s (wi n) x =px + q. f ^o. . = 6 (m f n) = 2 a + (m?i)a?. f P =+!. 3.FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS EXERCISE Solve the following equations : 113 59 *. + 3a. If * 33. 3(2a + aj) 25 ?+l '~~ a/ 1 = 2L . _ 2.= H. 15. Find the formula for: () The (6) (c) principal. IIL n b + &o. If ^^ = a 1 32. and n the number of years. solve for a. = 3 (6 a).i l . r the number of $>. 4. 9. c. p the principal. in terms of other quantities. mx = n. The The i time. a? x!7  a ITo x T _ ~ 2 8. a + 26+3aj=2o + 6 + 2a?. . 30. . 4. i The formula for simple interest ( 30. 13. 1 f. 3(* 8. 2 solve for y a. 31. q solve for/. 10. solve for . s = Vt solve for v. 34. 11. If s If 16. 5) is t =^. Ex. = rt. 17. . = vt. c 18. a. 29. ^ ax a^ 26. = 2(3a = aajffta? + 7^ = 0*+^ 4 (a x) 1 a). co?. + xx = 1. * Solve the same equation for^). = 8 4 #. rate. m a? x . denoting the interest. iw 21. 14.= c a Z> . 12. 6.a.
Ex.. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA (a) Find a formula expressing degrees of Fahrenheit terms of degrees of centigrade (<7) by solving the equation (F) in (ft) Express in degrees Fahrenheit 40 If C. Ex.114 35. PROBLEMS LEADING TO FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS 152. A would do each day ^ and B j. is 36. A can do a piece of work in 3 days and B in 2 days. Multiplying by Dividing. C is the circumference of a circle whose radius R. 2. Find R in terms of C and TT. 1. . . In how many days can both do it working together ? If we denote then / the required number by 1. = 16^.20 C. then = 2 TT#. and 12 = the number over. hence the question would be formulated After how many minutes has the minute hand moved 15 spaces more than the hour hand ? Let then x x = the required number of minutes after 3 o'clock. of minute spaces the hour hand moves Therefore x ~ = the number of minute spaces the minute hand moves more than the hour hand.. ~^ = 15 11 x ' !i^=15.180. = the number of minute spaces the minute hand moves over. days by x and the piece of work while in x days they would do respectively ff ~ and and hence the sentence written in algebraic symbols ^.minutes after x= ^ of 3 o'clock. 2 3 . x Or Uniting. 12. When between 3 and 4 o'clock are the hands of a clock together ? is At 3 o'clock the hour hand 15 minute spaces ahead of the minute : hand. 100 C.
= 100 + 4 x. the required number of days." : Let x  = the required number of days. 3. hours more than the express train to travel 180 miles. The speed of an express train is $ of the speed of an If the accommodation train needs 4 accommodation train.FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS A in symbols the following sentence 115 more symmetrical but very similar equation is obtained by writing ** The work done by A in one day plus the work done by B in one day equals the work done by both in one day. what is the rate of the express train ? 180 Therefore. fx xx* = 152 +4 (1) Hence = 36 = rate of express train. 180 Transposing. and the statement. Solving. = the x part of the work both do one day. or 1J. u The accommodation train needs 4 hours more than the express train. in Then Therefore." gives the equation /I). 32 x = . Clearing. Explanation : If x is the rate of the accommodation train. 4x = 80. Ex. the rate of the express train. But in uniform motion Time = Distance . then Ox j 5 a Rate Hence the rates can be expressed.
and found that he had \ of his original fortune left. money and $10. by 3. its Find the number whose fourth part exceeds part by 3. make 21. How did the much money man leave ? 11. and one half the greater Find the numbers. is equal 7. length in the ground. and of the father's age. The sum 10 years hence the son's age will be of the ages of a father and his son is 50. and 9 feet above water. Find a number whose third and fourth parts added together 2. J of the greater increased by ^ of the smaller equals 6. which was $4000. is oO. are the The sum of two numbers numbers ? and one is ^ of the other. a man had How much money had he at first? . to his daughand the remainder.  Find their present ages. How much money had he at first? 12 left After spending ^ of his ^ of his money and $15. ceeds the smaller by 4. one half of What is the length of the post ? 10 ter. of his present age. 3. A man lost f of his fortune and $500. by 6. Find A's 8. Find two consecutive numbers such that 9. fifth Two numbers differ 2. Two numbers differ l to s of the smaller. Twenty years ago A's age was  age. 9 its A post is a fifth of its length in water. A man left ^ of his property to his wife. ex What 5. to his son. and J of the greater Find the numbers.116 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 60 1.
) 22. investments. ^ at 5%. what is the 14. ounces of gold and silver are there in a mixed mass weighing 20 ounces in 21. 2. In how many days can both do it working together ? ( 152. Ex. ? In how many days can both do working together 23. air. and after traveling 150 miles overtakes the accommodation train. If the accommodation train needs 1 hour more than the express train to travel 120 miles. At what time between 4 and ( 5 o'clock are the hands of a clock together? 16. An ounce of gold when weighed in water loses fa of an How many ounce.) ( An express train starts from a certain station two hours an accommodation train.FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS 13. A can A can do a piece of work in 2 days. At what time between 7 and 8 o'clock are the hands of ? a clock in a straight line and opposite 18. and B in 4 days. and has he invested if his animal interest therefrom is 19. Ex. what is the rate of the express train? 152. and it B in 6 days. at 4J % and P> has invested $ 5000 They both derive the same income from their How much money has each invested ? 20. and an ounce of silver fa of an ounce. and losing 1* ounces when weighed in water? do a piece of work in 3 days. A has invested capital at more 4%. If the rate of the express train is f of the rate of the accommodation train. 117 The speed of an accommodation train is f of the speed of an express train. 152. A can do a piece of work in 4 clays. .) At what time between 7 and 8 o'clock are the hands of a clock together ? 17. and B In how many days can both do it working together in ? 12 days. Ex. A man has invested J of his money at the remainder at 6%. after rate of the latter ? 15. 1. How much money $500? 4%. 3.
and apply the method of 170. To and find the numerical answer. if B in 3 days. . Ex. is 57. is A can do a piece of work in m days and B in n days. A in 4.118 153. e. B in 16. is 42.009 918. Find three consecutive numbers whose sum Find three consecutive numbers whose sum last : The two examples are special cases of the following problem 27. therefore. 6 I 3 Solve the following problems 24.= . In how in the numerical values of the : many days If can both do we let x = the it working together ? required number of days. 26.414.g. Answers to numerical questions of this kind may then be found by numerical substitution. Find the numbers if m = 24 30. we obtain the equation m m . n x Solving.= m f n it Therefore both working together can do in mn f n days. : In how many days if can A and it B working together do a piece of work each alone can do (a) (6) (c) in the following number ofdavs: (d) A in 5. . The problem to be solved. Then ft i.e. they can both do in 2 days. Hence. it is possible to solve all examples of this type by one example. . A in 6. B in 30. by taking for these numerical values two general algebraic numbers. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA The last three questions and their solutions differ only two given numbers. make it m 6 A can do this work in 6 days Q = 2. A in 6. Find three consecutive numbers whose sum equals m. B in 12. B in 5. and n = 3. m and n. 2. 3. 25.
The one: 31. 119 Find two consecutive numbers the difference of whose is 11. squares 29. d miles the first traveling at the rate of m. two pipes together ? Find the numerical answer. . (b) 149. and how many miles does each travel ? Solve the problem if the distance. and how many miles does each travel ? 32. is (a) 51.001. 33. last three examples are special cases of the following The difference of the squares of two consecutive numbers By using the result of this problem. 3J miles per hour. (b) 8 and 56 minutes. Find two consecutive numbers the difference of whose is 21. is ?n . 34. by two pipes in m and n minutes In how many minutes can it be filled by the respectively. squares 30. meet. 2 miles per hour. the area would be increased by 19 square feet. (c) 16. (a) 20 and 5 minutes.FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS 28. the rate of the first. respectively (a) 60 miles. solve the following ones Find two consecutive numbers the difference of whose squares : find the smaller number.000.721. 5 miles per hour. If each side of a square were increased by 1 foot. 3 miles per hour. same hour from two towns. Find the side of the square. After how many hours do they rate of n miles per hour. 4J miles per hour. (d) 1. respectively. Two men start at the first miles apart. 2 miles per hour. and the second 5 miles per hour. 88 one traveling 3 miles per hour. and the rate of the second are. the second at the apart. A cistern can be filled (c) 6 and 3 hours. the Two men start at the same time from two towns. After how many hours do they meet. (b) 35 miles. if m and n are. : (c) 64 miles.
instead of writing 6 times as large as ?>. Ex.CHAPTER X RATIO AND PROPORTION 11ATTO 154. " a Thus. etc. E. The ratio of first dividing the two numbers number by the and : is the quotient obtained by second.or a * b The ratio is also frequently (In most European countries this symbol is employed as the usual sign of division. b. the second term the consequent.g. the symbol being a sign of division. In the ratio a : ft. The ratio  is the inverse of the ratio . a ratio is not changed etc. : A somewhat shorter way would be to multiply each term by 120 6. antecedent. b. the antecedent. the denominator The the 157." we may write a : b = 6. A ratio is used to compare the magnitude of two is numbers. b is the consequent. b is a Since a ratio a fraction.5. The first 156. 6 12 = . : : 155. . term of a ratio a the is is the antecedent.) The ratio of 12 3 equals 4. Simplify the ratio 21 3. Thus the written a : ratio of a b is . all principles relating to fractions if its may be af)plied to ratios. 1. is numerator of any fraction consequent. terms are multiplied or divided by the same number. 158.
: ay . 11. 12. The last first three. : 1. a and d are the extremes. either mean the mean proportional between the first and the last terms. equal 2. AND PROPORTION ratio 5 5 : 121 first Transform the 3J so that the term will 33 : *~5 ~ 3 '4* 5 EXERCISE Find the value of the following 1. Simplify the following ratios 7. 9. and c. term is the fourth proportional to the : In the proportion a b = c c?. and the last term the third proportional to the first and second 161. $24: $8. 4. 27 06: 18 a6. 16a2 :24a&. 3:1}. In the proportion a b : = b : c. 18. 1. proportional between a and c. extremes. : is If the means of a proportion are equal. 159. 7:4 T T 4 . 61 : ratios 72:18. The last term d is the fourth proportional to a. 16 x*y 64 x*y : 24 48 xif. b is the mean b. two  ratios. 16. 3:4. = or:6=c:(Z are The first 160. 7f:6J.RATIO Ex. terms. and c is the third proportional to a and . 4:5f : 5. b and c the means. 8^ hours. 3 8. the second and fourth terms of a proportion are the and third terms are the means. 3. 17. 62:16. : ratios so that the antecedents equal 16:64. 10. A proportion is a statement expressing the equality of proportions. 5 f hours : 2. 6. Transform the following unity 15. J:l. b.
and we divide both members by we have ?^~ E. Hence the weight of a mass of iron is proportional to its volume.122 162. 163.e. 163. : : directly proportional may say.) mn = pq. If (Converse of nq. t/ie product of the means b is equal to the Let a : =c : d. of iron weigh .'* Quantities of one kind are said to be inversely proportional to quantities of another kind. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Quantities of one kind are said to be directly proper tional to quantities of another kind. " we " NOTE. if the ratio of any two of the first kind is equal \o the inverse ratio of the corresponding two of the other kind. Clearing of fractions. 2 165. : c. 6 ccm. Instead of u If 4 or 4 ccm. i. then 8 men can do it in 3 days. = 30 grams 45 grams. is equal to the ratio of the corresponding two of the other kind. q~~ n .) b = Vac. briefly. ad = be. 3 4. a b : bettveen two numbers is equal to the square root Let the proportion be Then Hence 6 =b = ac. pro portional. !. In any proportion product of the extremes. then G ccm. and the other pair the extremes. 164.__(163. of a proportion. and the time necessary to do it. ccm. If 6 men can do a piece of work in 4 days. Hence the number of men required to do some work. The mean proportional of their product. of iron weigh 45 grams. if the ratio of any two of the first kind. are : : : inversely proportional.30 grams. If the product of two numbers is equal to the product of two other numbers^ either pair may be made the means. or 8 equals the inverse ratio of 4 3.
bd bd. (Frequently called Inversion. AND PROPORTION x = 12 : 123 Find x. a III. ad = be. 12x Hence a? = 42. (Composition.) a b b=c b = c)d:c d. . d d. If 6 : a a : 6 =c : : d. is 4$ = 35. Determine whether the following proportion 8:6 = and 5 x 7 7 : true rn 8 x t: 4.) d 167. Or IV. hence the proportion true.) Any is of these propositions may be proved by example : a method which illustrated by the following To prove This is b if d true ad  Or if But Hence ^ =^' o = be = be. 2. is Ex. ad ( 163.) a + b:a = c + d:c.) = f f = 3 J. if 6 : 7. 1. V.) II. I. 166.PATIO Ex. (163. These transformations are used to simplify proportions. Change the proportion 4 5 = x 6 so that x becomes the : : last term. I. a:c=b:d. By inversion 5 : 4 =6 : x. + b:b = c + d:d. then =d c. (Division. = 35 .) (Called Alternation. a+b a (Composition and : : : Division.
8. To simplify the proportion 11 : 5:6 =4 x : x. EXERCISE 5^:8 = 2:3. x = 2. the consequents by 7. = 20:7. = 2:x. 5 5. i. its ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Alternation shows that a proportion is not altered when its consequents are multiplied or divided by antecedents or the same number. 4.!=!*. Apply composition. Simplify the following proportions. 3:3 1:1 divide the antecedents by 16. and determine whether they are true or not : 6. : x. = 12 5ft. . mx tin Apply composition and division. A parenthesis is understood about each term of a proportion. 3n JJ =n x NOTE. 8ajy:17 = i^:l^. Or III. To simplify the proportion 8 Apply division. 72:50 m n (m n) = (m + rif m 2 : 18:19 6 2 : = 24:25. 6 =4 : x. 5. : 3 = 5 f x : x. = 2:3. 2.g. IV. 3. 1 : 3 3 Divide the antecedents by : = = 5 1 : jr. 13 = 5f llf : : n 2. 9.:J 62 : Determine whether the following proportions are true 1. To simplify m 3n ? = + *. . 11 : 5 : 15:22=101:15. 10. to simplify 48:21=32:7x. V. = ^2x x Or Dividing the antecedents by m. = 7:2f 3J. 120:42 2 2 7.124 IT. E. = 180:125.e.
to : 9 and 12. terra 2:3 = 4.:ff. 1. 8 a 2 and 2 b 2 Form two x 10 If ab proportions commencing with 5 from the equation 6 36. 2 a and 18 a. ra. 03:a?=135:20. + fyx = cy. 12. = 2 + x: x. 16. 38. 42. 3. 33. y : b y : =x 1 =x : a. to : a and 1. Find the 37. 39. 23. 13. 7iy = 2:x.. and 2/. 25. 3. 50. 6x = 7y. 9 x = 2 y.j>. 47. 4 a*:15ab = 2a:x. 26. form two proportions commencing with x : = xy. mx = ny. f. = 15o. w. 2 3 = y #. 5= 18 a? : a?. 2. : 125 40:28 = 15:0.  32. 6 x = y. . 4 and 16.x: 6:5 a : x. 35. rag. 2= 5 x x. 6. 21. to: = 35:*. 14. = 5 x 12. b. 1 and a. Find the mean proportional 30. 44. ra + landra 1. 2. a. x m = y n. 28. 22: 3 19 2 : : 49. 14 and 21. = 3 43 + x. 43. 20. 5. 51. 112:42 = 10:a. 34. 21 : 4z = 72 : 96. : a2 . 29. ratio of y. 31. x:5 = y:2. = l^:18. 41. : . rap. a 2 and ab. 18. 17. a?:15 15. (a : : 45.RATIO AND PROPORTION Determine the value of x 11. 22. 46.6 : : Find the fourth proportional 19.8:1. Find the third proportional 24. : : Transform the following proportions so that only one contains x: 48. 16 and 28. 4. 52. 16 n* x = 28 w 70 ra. : 53. 27. ra 2 . 3t. if : 40.
126 54. 56. and the speed of the train. State whether the quantities mentioned below are directly or inversely proportional (a) The number of yards of a certain kind of silk. (d) The areas (A and A') of two circles are to each other as (R and R').inches long represents map corresponds to how many miles ? The their radii. areas of circles are proportional to the squares of If the radii of two circles are to each other as circle is 4 : 7. and the area of the rectangle. and the time necessary for it. and the area of the smaller is 8 square inches. the area of the larger? the same. the squares of their radii (e) 55. and the : total cost. What will be the volume if the pressure is 12 pounds per square inch ? . The number of men (m) is inversely proportional to the number of days (d) required to do a certain piece of work. A line 7^. (d) The sum of money producing $60 interest at 5%. othei (a) Triangles as their basis (b and b'). A line 11 inches long on a certain 22 miles. (e) The distance traveled by a train moving at a uniform rate. under a pressure of 15 pounds per square inch has a volume of gas is A 16 cubic feet. (b) The time a The length train needs to travel 10 miles. (c) of a rectangle of constant width. the volume of a The temperature remaining body of gas inversely proportional to the pressure. what 58. (c) The volume of a body of gas (V) is circles are to each inversely propor tional to the pressure (P). 1 (6) The circumferences (C and C ) of two other as their radii (R and A"). 57. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBEA State the following propositions as proportions : T (7 and T) of equal altitudes are to each. and the time.
as 11 Let then : 1. 127 The number is of miles one can see from an elevation of very nearly the mean proportional between h and the diameter of the earth (8000 miles). 18 x = 108. Hence or Therefore Hence and = the first number. Therefore 7 = 14 = AC. When a problem requires the finding of two numbers which are to each other as m n. 11 x = 66 is the first number. Let A B AC=1x. 11 x x 7 Ex. Divide 108 into two parts which are to each other 7. 4 ' r i 1 (AC): (BO) =7: 5. .RATIO AND PROPORTION 69. 11 x f 7 x = 108. produced to a point C. 2 x Or = 4. so that Find^K7and BO. = the second number. x=2.000 168. AB = 2 x. it is advisable to represent these unknown numbers by mx and nx. What is the greatest distance a person can see from an elevation of 5 miles ? From h miles the Metropolitan Tower (700 feet high) ? feet high) ? From Mount McKinley (20. is A line AB. : Ex. 4 inches long. Then Hence BG = 5 x. x = 6. 2. 7 x = 42 is the second number.
If c is divided in the ratio of the other two. 7. Divide 44 in the ratio 2 Divide 45 in the ratio 3 : 9. of water? Divide 10 in the ratio a b. How many grams of hydrogen are contained in 100 : grams 10. Gunmetal tin. what are its parts ? (For additional examples see page 279. Divide 20 in the ratio 1 m. 14. The three sides of a triangle are respectively a. What are the parts ? 5. 2. 13.) . How The long are the parts ? 15.128 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 63 1. 12.000 square miles. and c inches. 12. m in the ratio x: y % three sides of a triangle are 11. 3. : Divide a in the ratio 3 Divide : 7. cubic feet of oxygen are there in a room whose volume is 4500 : cubic feet? 8. How many gen. : 4. 11. 9.000. : 197. : Divide 39 in the ratio 1 : 5. consists of 9 parts of copper and one part of ounces of each are there in 22 ounces of gun metal ? Air is a mixture composed mainly of oxygen and nitrowhose volumes are to each other as 21 79. A line 24 inches long is divided in the ratio 3 5. and 15 inches. and the longest is divided in the ratio of the other two. The total area of land is to the total area of is water as 7 18. 6. How many 7. How many ounces of copper and zinc are in 10 ounces of brass ? 6. find the number of square miles of land and of water. Brass is an alloy consisting of two parts of copper and one part of zinc. Water consists of one part of hydrogen and 8 parts of If the total surface of the earth oxygen.
such as + = 10.L x If If = 0.CHAPTER XI SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS 169. =. is x = 7. The root of (4) if K 129 . the equation is satisfied by an infinite number of sets Such an equation is called indeterminate.. if there is different relation between x and * given another equation. a? (1) then I. values of x and y. which substituted in (2) gives y both equations are to be satisfied by the same Therefore. Hence 2s 5 o = 10 _ ^ (4) = 3. if . y (3) these unknown numbers can be found.y=. there is only one solution.e. the equations have the two values of y must be equal. etc. x = 1. An equation of the first unknown numbers can be the unknown quantities. 2 y = . From (3) it follows y 10 x and since by the same values of x and to be satisfied y. However. If satisfied degree containing two or more by any number of values of 2oj3y = 6. y = 1. expressing a y. Hence. y = 5 /0 \ (2) of values.
~ 50. viz. 6x . of elimination most frequently used II.130 170. y = 2. same relation. unknown quantity. the last set inconsistent. x H 2y satisfied 6 and 7 x 3y = by the values x = I. are simultaneous equations.26. Solve y=6x 6x f Multiply (1) by 2. By By Addition or Subtraction. The process of combining several equations so as make one unknown quantity disappear is called elimination.3 y = 80. (3) (4) Multiply (2) by  Subtract (4) from (3).24. for they cannot be satisfied by any value of x and y. 3. and 3 x + 3 y =. Substitution. 172. = . for they are 2 y = 6 are But 2 x 2. 26 y = 60. The first set of equations is also called consistent. 6 and 4 x y not simultaneous. ELIMINATION BY ADDITION OR SUBTRACTION 175. 30 can be reduced to the same form f 5 y Hence they are not independent. cannot be reduced to the same form. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA A system of simultaneous equations is tions that can be satisfied a group of equa by the same values of the unknown numbers. to The two methods I. 4y . y I 171. Independent equations are equations representing different relations between the unknown quantities such equations . Any set of values satisfying 5 x + 6 y = 60 will also satisfy the equation 3 x f. Therefore. 174. for they express the x f y 10. 21 y . A system of two simultaneous equations containing two quantities is solved by combining them so as to obtain unknown one equation containing only one 173.X. E.
coefficients If the signs of these if unlike. Multiply (1) by Multiply (2) by 5. 3y = 3. 60 .14 =8. 10 + 5 1 = 135. = 406. x = 10. 3.3 y = 47. Transposing. subtract the equations. 131 Substitute this value of y in either of the given equations. 3. add the equations. + 2. 37. by addition or subtraction : numbers as (3) (4) (6) 176.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS the simpler one (1). y = 1. Therefore Check.3 1 = 47. x = 10. y = 2. = 235. Check. 5 13 . eliminate the letter have the lowest common multiple. 8 2. whose coefficients In general.15 y 39 x + 15 y Add (3) and (4). 25 x .2 = 9 + 4 = 13. Therefore Substitute (6) in (1). preferably 3x Therefore + 4 = 13 x = 3. 10 . are like. 64 x = 040. Hence to eliminate Multiplyy if necessaryy the equations by such will make the coefficients of one unknown quantity equal.2 = 6. EXERCISE answers: 64 Solve the following systems of equations and check the ' .
I . ' 12. ' 94 ^4 ' 15 ' ^  25 * 60. I i 3 a. I oj 5y = 17. 13 61 l7a. _.ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 5.1ft is 1 fl<>* r A + 22/ = 40. 7 ' 1fi fl .3. + 2/ 17. v ^ = ll. x 11. f 3# ?/ = 0.v 23. f 3X 7x 14. I ~ y~~> 22. = 41.f2/ ' = 50. [2o.9 *. ] ^ . . = 24. i 3. 9 1 r 20. O t K 8. 19< I a. * + 3 y = 50.3. = 6.5 y = 2. + 3?/ { 3 x f 2 y = 39. 13.4. J I y = 1U.
Substituting this value in (2) 3 7 ( ?/ t " 8 +2y= + 4 y 25 y Clearing of fractions. EXERCISE Solve by substitution : 65 f5aj l3a. = 2y + 10. = 60. 8. x ) ^"" 13. 133 Solve 7 y in (1) (27. 3. . Hence to eliminate by substitution : Find in one equation the value of an unknown quantity in terms of the other. = 13. (1) (2) Transposing 2. = 4#8. tity in the Substitute this value for one unknown quan other equation. This value substituted in either (1) or (2) gives x 178. = 2.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS ELIMINATION BY SUBSTITUTION 177. I3ar + 2y and dividing by . 21 y 24 Therefore y = 26. and solve the resulting equation.
3 (1) Ex. (4t(x\) ' ""^IT 3. it is advantageous to do so in most cases. 7 y = 6. simplified before elimination is possible. (8) 1 +8 2 _ 7 EXERCISE 66 Solve by any method. Substituting in (6) . (7) (7) (8) .6)7(y7)==18. x = l. the equation must be cleared of fractions and . 21z6y=9.3. (4). 43 + 8f3y + 7z From (3). + 212y4 = 14. however. \ \6(a. and check the answers: + 5(y + 5) = 64.134 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 179. 4* + 3y = 19. From 9 = 36. . 7x_2y=3. 2 y = . Solve 2 7 (2) Multiplying (1) by 12 and (2) by 14. (3) (4) (6) (6) Multiplying (6) by 2 and (6) by Sx + 6y = Adding and 3S. f8(z8)9(y9) = 26. 29 x = 29. 3. Whenever one unknown quantity can be removed without clearing of fractions.
1) + 5(6 y . a. 135 "25 ' 6 ' tsjj ' r4(5. 12. = 3. J 9. 10. 10 2a?5 17.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS 3x 4. 4(5 x l2(315 8 8. . 4~2v 3a?2^4 3 1 18. 2 4^ ~ 3 = 13. ff "*" _13 ~ 4 2' 15. +y 2 . . a. 14.f2 2. 4 11. yM a.1) = 121. . 16.
.#. 3x\" 1 23 24. l_3 4' 2/41 2 a. f y .Q ^ 4 21. * ((* (( . {. e. 22. and y. but some expressions involving x. In many equations it is advantageous at first not to consider x and y as unknown quantities. ?~y . <X + 20.136 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 4_1 2' 19. 180.and x y .
2* * x 2. x 3. Substituting x = 3 in (1). (4) (6) (6) (7) 2x(5). x 2x(2). Therefore y=4. 1. 137 Solve y y (1) . (4) + (G). of this type. Dividing by 11 3 = #. EXERCISE Solve : 67 2' 1. however.3 xy.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS x Ex. by the regular Clearing (1) and (2) of fractions. (2) (3) a. Clearing of fractions. 15 y + 8 x . .4 x = 4 xy. y 1. y 4. . etc. 33 = 11 x. can also be solved Examples method. y.
253 7.= 5. 21 9 .= o 6. n. 6w3 + bny = 6p. x 8. Solve (1) (2) (1) (2) (8) x x (4). 6.138 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 4 6 K . bmx = en anx anx + bny (3) (4) ftp. x y 331 9. 10 " 12 25 U y 6. 1. Ex. y MOi y a. . x y 5. = en. LITERAL SIMULTANEOUS EQUATIONS 181. 4 13.
apan cm.W.y = = 9a + 46.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS Uniting. and I. w.cm y= EXERCISE 68 bm f 6y = c. d. f 5. 14. a Find a and terms of n. x 12. f 6^ [ nx f my == m. . Dividing. From the same equations find s in terms of a. . s in 11. (1) (2) (7) an bm (6) (7) x w. bmy bm}y ap cm. . W . x a. 6. 139 (an bm)x = en bp. . ax + by = 2 a&. Uniting. x f my = 1. and I if 13. ap. From and L the same simultaneous equations find d in terms of a. d. ny = fy/ I sc 1. amx + bmy amx f any = any (an cm. fax f = l.
8 = 1. l. Solve the following system of equations: = 8.12 y + 6 z = . (8) 2.13.1+4. etc.by 2. eliminating one and is the unknown quant iff/ from any pair of equasame unknown quantity froni another pair. by 3. (6) + 3 Therefore Substituting the values of x and z 2 x = (7) in (1).2 + 4.2 + 3.140 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA SIMULTANEOUS EQUATIONS INVOLVING MORE THAS TWO UNKNOWN QUANTITIES three unknown quantities three simultaneous independent equations must be given. . = 3. ties are Similarly. (4) (5). the to the solution problem reduced of two simultaneous equations containing two unknown quantities. = 30. four equations containing four unknown quantireduced to three equations containing three unknown quantities. To solve equations containing By tions.25. Ex. 20. 4.16. 3y = Hence Check.3 = 8. Multiplying (1) by Multiplying (2) by 4. 1. 6. 1. 8B12y + 17 x 16z z = 32 Oa + 12?/.3=4. (1) (2) (3) Eliminate y. Multiplying (2) + = 20 12 2 10 (4) Multiplying (3) Adding. x + 12 y . 17 x 100 z Therefore Substitute this value in (4). 182.lf> z . 8 x . y =* 2. 3.15z=12 Adding. 3. 4. f 3y 12 =s 8.9z =11 x (6) Eliminating x from (4) and (5).
a? + 709 = 26. + 2 y f 2 = 35. 4 = 42. 2 4. 14. 15 2 = 45. y f ?/ M 2? = 4. k 2/ f 2 x a. == 6. 12. 2 . f 2 i/ f z = 14. ~6?/ 5. + y f z = 15. a? 11. 2z = 40. x 13.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS EXERCISE 10 x 69 141 1. 8. 49. 10. 7.
= 5. ?/ 3x = 0. 84 21.. ? = llz.6 2. . ^ = 2.2 a.142 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 15.3 y + . 4. 32. =s 20. 1510 4 17. 19. = 8*. 27. 22. (3 _. x _2 3 ' 0742! J 18. . 23. . 60. 16.42 = 2.
2/ 2/ PROBLEMS LEADING TO SIMULTANEOUS EQUATIONS 183. symbols: x + y +z 8. 2 = 1(1+6). Obviously of the other . and to express In complex examples. the first and the last digits will be interchanged. and Then 100 + 10 y +z the digit in the units' place. # 4. = 2 m. (1) 100s + lOy + z + 396 = 100* + 10y + x. . The sum of three digits of a number is 8. Check.y 125 (3) The solution of these equations gives x Hence the required number is 125. Simple examples of this kind can usually be solved by equations involving only one unknown every quantity. either directly or implied. y 31. .) it is advisable to represent a different letter. x : z =1 : 2. Problems involving several unknown quantities must contain. unknown quantity by every verbal statement as an equation. as many verbal statements as there are unknown quantities. 1. the number. ( 99. + z = 2p. y * z 30. + 396 = 521. M=i. = l. however. Let x y z = the the digit in the hundreds' place. and if 396 be added to the number. Find the number. to express it is difficult two of the required digits in terms hence we employ 3 letters for the three unknown quantities. The three statements of the problem can now be readily expressed in . The digit in the tens' place is  of the sum of the other two digits.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS 143 x 29. z + x = 2 n. 1 digit in the tens place. 2 = 6. 1 = 2. Ex. +2+ 6 = 8.
we obtain. the fraction Let and then y is reduced to nurn orator. Or (4)2x(3). 3+1 5+1 4_2. Find the fraction. ELEMENTS OF ALGE13KA If both numerator and denominator of a fraction be . = Hence the fraction is f. (1) (2) 12. Ex. = the fraction. and C travel from the same place in the same B starts 2 hours after A and travels one mile per hour faster than A. C. (3) C4) = 24 miles. Since the three men traveled the same distance. . starts 2 hours after B and overtakes A at the same How many miles has A then traveled? instant as B. direction. + I 2 (1) and These equations give x Check. From (3) Hence xy Check. 2. B. y = 3. 2. x 3 = 24. increased by one. 4 x = 24. 8 = xy + x xy = xy f 3 x 2 y = 2. 6 x 4 = 24. who travels 2 miles an hour faster than B. the fraction is reduced to  and if both numerator and denominator of the reciprocal of the fraction be dimin ished by one. 5_ _4_ A.144 Ex. x y = the = the x denominator . x 3x4y = 12. xy a: 2y 4y 2. 3 xand y I 1 (2) 5. the distance traveled by A. = 8. By expressing the two statements in symbols. 3.
The sum 18 is is and if added of the digits of a number of two figures is 6. added to the numerator of a fraction. the last two digits are interchanged. the digits will be interchanged. the value of the fraction is fa. Find the number. If 4 be Tf 3 be is J. number by the first 3. if its numerator and its denominator are increased by 1.}. it is reduced to J. and the fourth 3. Find the fraction. 2.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS EXERCISE 70 145 1. fraction is reduced to \.) added to a number of two digits. tion ? 8. 183. and the second one increased by 5 equals twice number. Five times a certain number exceeds three times another 11. Find the numbers. Find the number. ? What 9. 6. both terms. the number (See Ex. and the two digits exceeds the third digit by 3. 7. Find the numbers. If 9 be added to the number. If the denominator be doubled. 1. its value added to the denominator. 5. to the number the digits will be interchanged. Half the sum of two numbers equals 4. . the Find the fraction. The sum of the first sum of the three digits of a number is 9. and four times the first digit exceeds the second digit by 3. If 27 is 10. the fraction equals . and the second increased by 2 equals three times the first. Four times a certain number increased by three times another number equals 33. and its denomi nator diminished by one. and the numerator increased by 4. Find the numbers. the fraction is reduced fraction. A fraction is reduced to J. to L <> Find the If the numerator and the denominator of a fraction be If 1 be subtracted from increased by 3. If the numerator of a fraction be trebled. and twice the numerator What is the fracincreased by the denominator equals 15. part of their difference equals 4.
grams. Two cubic centimeters of gold and three cubic centimeters of silver weigh together 69 J. partly at 5 %. A man invested $750. Find the rates of interest. Find the weight of one cubic centimeter of gold and one cubic centimeter of silver. Twice A's age exceeds the sum of B's and C's ages by 30. the rate of interest ? What was the sum of A sum of money at simple interest amounted in 2 years to $090. the rate of interest? 18. Ten years ago A was B was as as old as B is old as will be 5 years hence . 13. Find their present ages. and the 5% investment brings $15 more interest than the 4 % investment. 14. and 5 years ago their ages is 55. Three cubic centimeters of gold and two cubic centimeters of silver weigh together 78 grains. partly at 5% and partly at 4%. a part at 6 and the remainder bringing a total yearly interest of $260. and The 6 investment brings $ 70 more interest than the 5 % % 4% investments together. 5 %. If the sum of how old is each now ? at invested $ 5000. bringing a total yearly interest of $530. What was the amount of each investment ? A man % 5%. How 6 %. now. and partly at 4 %. A sum of $10. 12. Ten years ago the sum of their ages was 90. much money is invested at A sum of money at simple interest amounted in 6 years to $8000. and B's age is \ the sum of A's and C's ages.000 is partly invested at 6%. What was the sum and rates est The sums of $1500 and $2000 are invested at different and their annual interest is $ 190. respectively ? 16. and money and 17. the annual interest would be $ 195.146 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 11. . If the rates of interwere exchanged. and in 5 years to $1125. and 4 %. 19. in 8 years to $8500. What was the amount of each investment ? 15.
triangle Tf AD. and F '(see diagram). receiving $ 100 for each horse. 1 NOTE. and e. and F. points. Find their rates of walking. and angle BCA = 70. BE. ED = BE. BD = HE. is the center of the circum scribed circle. and AC = 5 inches. andCL4 = 8. and CF? is a circle inscribed in the 7<7. On /). In the annexed diagram angle a = angle b. what are the angles of the triangle ? 22. A r ^ A circle is inscribed in triangle sides in D. 24. and $15 for each sheep. respectively. but if A would double his pace. 23. three AD = AF. $ 50 for each cow. An C touch ing the sides in D. cows. The number of sheep was twice the number of horses and cows together. he would walk it in two hours less than than to travel B B. . E. and GE = CF. BC=7. 25. A farmer sold a number of horses.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS 147 20. and angle e angle/. B find angles a. are taken so ABC. c. what is that = OF. the three sides of a triangle E. and sheep. the length of NOTE. and CE If AB = G inches. angle c = angle d. If angle ABC = GO angle BAG = 50. BC = 7 inches. then AD = AF. The sum of the 3 angles of a triangle is 180. It takes A two hours longer 24 miles. for $ 740. and F. Find the parts of the ABC touching the three sides if AB = 9. If one angle exceeds the sum of the other two by 20. and their difference by GO . . How many did he sell of each if the total number of animals was 24? 21.
and ordinates abore the xaxis are considered positive . * This chapter may be omitted on a 148 reading. (2. is the abscissa. and r or its equal OA is . Thus the points A. and point the origin. PN. 2). is The point whose abscissa is a. PM. It' Location of a point. hence The coordinates lying in opposite directions are negative.CHAPTER XII* GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS AND EQUATIONS 184. lines PM the and P^V are coordinates called point P. (7.. and PN _L YY'. . ?/. first 3). B. (2. The of Coordinates. and respectively represented Dare and by (3 7 4). YY' theyaxis. The abscissa is usually denoted by line XX' is called the jraxis. and whose ordinate is usually denoted by (X ?/). 186. two fixed straight lines XX' and YY' meet in at right angles. then the position of point is determined if the lengths of P P3f and 185. and PJ/_L XX'. or its equal OM. 3). jr. Abscissas measured to the riyht of the origin. the ordinate of point P. the ordinate by ?/. (3. PN are given.
4) from the origin ? 7. (4. which of its coordinates known ? 13. Plot the points : (0. the quadrilateral whose vertices are respectively (4. 3). 4). 2). 4.GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS The is 149 process of locating a point called plotting the point. 8. What Draw is the distance of the point (3. 11. (4. =3? is If a point lies in the avaxis. (See diagram on page 151. (4. 1). 3). (4. 1). 2J). Where do Where do Where do all points lie whose ordinates tfqual 4? 9. 0). Plot the points: (4. !). What is the locus of (a?. 0). 4). 0). Plot the points (6. (0. i. Graphic constructions are greatly facilitated by the use of crosssection paper.4). . (0. (4.and(l. all all points points lie lie whose abscissas equal zero ? whose ordinates equal zero? y) if y 10. What are the coordinates of the origin ? If 187. Draw the triangle whose vertices are respectively (l. (4. Plot the points: (4.1). 71 2). (1. the mutual dependence of the two quantities may be represented either by a table or by a diagram. 2). Graphs. . and measure their distance. 12. 2. paper ruled with two sets of equidistant and parallel linos intersecting at right angles. 3). 0). 6. (3. 3. two variable quantities are so related that changes of the one bring about definite changes of the other.3). whose coordinates are given NOTE. 4) and (4.(!. (2. 6.2).) EXERCISE 1.e. (5.
ure the ordinate of F. and the corresponding number in the adjacent column the ordinate of a point. 15. A. Thus the first table produces 12 points. ABCN y the socalled graph of To 15 find from the diagram the temperature on June to be 15 . and the amount of gas subjected to pressures from pound The same data. in like manner the average temperatures for every value of the time. ically each representing a temperature at a certain date. 10 . Thus the average temperature on May on April 20. may be found on Jan.. from January 1 to December 1. 188. however. C. By representing of points. we meas1 . A graphic and it impresses upon the eye all the peculiarities of the changes better and quicker than any numerical compilations. D. representation does not allow the same accuracy of results as a numerical table. B. . or the curved line the temperature. 1. but it indicates in a given space a great many more facts than a table. we obtain an uninterrupted sequence etc.150 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA tables represent the average temperature Thus the following of New volumes 1 Y'ork City of a certain to 8 pounds. may be represented graphby making each number in one column the abscissa.
the rise and fall of wages. uses them. . Whenever a clear. (b) July 15. concise representation of a number of numerical data is required. Daily papers represent ecpnoniical facts graphically. the merchant. The engineer. (c) January 15. and to deduce general laws therefrom.GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS 151 i55$5St5SS 3{utts33<0za3 Graphs are possibly the most widely used devices of applied matheThe scientist uses them to compile the data found from experiments. the graph is applied. physician. the matics. EXERCISE From the diagram questions 1. etc. : 72 find approximate answers to the following Determine the average temperature of New York City on (a) May 1. (d) November 20. as the prices and production of commodities.
?  3. (freezing point) ? 7.? is is the average temperature of New York 6. During what month does the temperature change least? 14. Which month is is the coldest of the year? Which month the hottest of the year? 16. ? 9.. is 10. (1) 10 C. is ture we would denote the time during which the temperaabove the yearly average of 11 as the warm season. When What is the temperature equal to the yearly average of the average temperature from Sept. June July During what month does the temperature increase most ? rapidly 12. ELEMENTS OF ALGEKRA At what date (a) G or dates is New York is C. During what months above 18 C. 15.. from what date to what date would it extend ? If . How much. When the average temperature below C. 1? 11 0. From what date to what date does the temperature increase (on the average)? 8. At what date is the average temperature lowest? the lowest average temperature ? 5. At what date is the average temperature highest the highest average temperature? ? What What is 4. How much warmer 1 ? on the average is it on July 1 than on May 17. (d) 9 0. 1 ? does the temperature increase from 11. (c) the average temperature oi 1 C.152 2. During what month does the temperature decrease most rapidly ? 13. 1 to Oct.. on 1 to the average.
From the table on page 150 draw a graph representing the volumes of a certain body of gas under varying pressures. Draw . 19. NOTE. Draw a graph for the 23. 153 1? When is the average temperature the same as on April Use the graphs of the following examples for the solution of concrete numerical examples. 20.09 yards. One meter equals 1. in a similar manner as the temperature graph was applied in examples 118.GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS 18. a temperature chart of a patient. Represent graphically the populations : (in hundred thou sands) of the following states 22. transformation of meters into yards. Construct a diagram containing the graphs of the mean temperatures of the following three cities (in degrees Fahren heit) : 21. Hour Temperature .
+7 If will respec assume the values 7. 190. A 10 wheels a day.inch. represent his daily gain (or loss). ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA If C 2 is the circumference of a circle whose radius is J2.. binding. amount to $8. 9. if he sells 0. 26. The initial cost of cost of manufacturing a certain book consists of the $800 for making the plates. 2 . books from for printing. x* x 19. function If the value of a quantity changes. if each copy sells for $1.. Show graphically the cost of the REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS OF ONE VARIABLE 189. 2 x f 7 gradually from 1 to 2. 28. and $. etc. from R Represent graphically the = to R = 8 inches. etc.50. gas. the daily average expenses for rent. 2 is called x 2 xy + 7 is a function of x.50. x increases will change gradually from 13. if x assumes successively the tively values 1.50 per copy (Let 100 copies = about \..154 24. e. then C irJl. . 29. An expression involving one or several letters a function of these letters. If dealer in bicycles gains $2 on every wheel he sells. 2. the value of a of this quantity will change. to 20 Represent graphically the weight of iron from cubic centimeters.) On the same diagram represent the selling price of the books. 1 to 1200 copies. if 1 cubic centimeter of iron weighs 7. Represent graphically the distances traveled by a train in 3 hours at a rate of 20 miles per hour.g. (Assume ir~ all circles >2 2 . x 7 to 9. 2 8 y' + 3 y is a function of x and y.) T circumferences of 25. 3. 4.5 grams. to 27. 3. Represent graphically the cost of butter from 5 pounds if 1 pound cost $.
1). for x=l. To obtain the values of the functions for the various values of the following arrangement be found convenient : . a*. 3 50. may . is supposed to change. etc. while 7 is a constant. as 1. 155 A variable is a quantity whose value changes in the same discussion. values of x2 nates are the corresponding i. 2). If a more exact diagram is required. is A constant a quantity whose value does not change in the same discussion. E.e. hence various values of x The values of a function for the be given in the form of a numerical table. 2 (1. (2.g.2 x may 4 from x = 4. and (3. J). and join the points in order. to con struct the graph x of x 2 construct a series of 3 points whose abscissas rep2 resent X) and whose ordi1 tions . Thus the table on page 1G4 gives the values of the functions x 2 x3 and Vsr. may. 2. 3 (0. Q. 4). it is In the example of the preceding article. 9). x a variable. ( 2. (1.0). to x = 4. . 9). 1 the points (3. Draw the graph of x2 f. plot points which lie between those constructed above. Graph of a function. be also represented by a graph. The values of func192.1). (1^.GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS 191. however. Ex. construct '. 4).
rf 71 . Ex. 194. etc. (4. and join(0. as y. . hence two points are sufficient for the construction of these graphs. A Y' function of the first degree is an integral rational function involving only the power of the variable. = 0.2 x . 2.... Thus 4x + 7. = 4. j/=3.20). 5). straight line produces the required graph. 4). y = 6. 4J... and joining in order produces the graph ABC. If If Locating ing by a 3) and (4. the scale unit of the ordinatcs is taken smaller than that of the x. 1). (To avoid very large ordinatcs. 2 4 and if y = x f. (2. Draw y z x the graph of = 2x3. Thus in the above example. the function is frequently represented by a single letter. (3. It can be proved that the graph is a straight of a function of the first degree line.156 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Locating the points( 4.) For brevity.4). if /* 4 > 1i > > ?/ = 193. or ax + b f c are funclirst tions of the first degree. 7 . r */ +* 01 .
3. 1. (C ) (2. 1 8 10. and (a) (6) (c) (d) The values of the function if x = \. 2 a. (d) (^) 1 to and from 2 .GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS EXERCISE 73 157 Draw 1. = 4. The value of x that produces the smallest value it* of the function. 3. The roots of the equation 2 {2x a*2 = l. from x VlO'S". xz + x. l. Draw the graph ofy=2j2# and from the diagram determine : #2 from # = 2 to a?=4. The roots of the equation 2 f 2 a a*2 = 0.8)'. a* 13. 2 4 x f 2 = 0.2 4 # + 2 equals 2.5)2. 19. 2. 3 a 8. Draw the graph of or from the diagram determine: 4 a? +2 a. 7. The smallest value of the function. 2 2 a. (/) Vl2^ (0) V5. The values of x that make 2 4 a? + 2 = 0. 14. (ft) (_ 1. The values of a?. if"a. 9. if a. 2.5)2. 2 or 2 20. = The values of a*. 16. 6. . J. 23x.e. fa 17. 2x + 3x a?. if the function equals zero. a? the graphs of the following functions: + 2. a. 6 fa. 18. 2 2. (If) Va25. Jar . Draw the graph of : from #= 4 to 05 = 4. 21. a? 2 4. a? 1. xl. The values of a*. x+1. 22. i. y = 2x = 4. the diagram find (a) (e) (3. 15. a?. . 1J. a ar. ?/ a. (7i) (c) 23. 11. if y = 2. + 4. (a) (6) (c) (d) (e) The values of y. (</) The roots of the equation x2 4 x f 2 = 2. 4a? I. 2J. 2 a. (/) The roots of the equation x The roots of the equation a2 4 x f 2 = 1. 8. 2J.or. 5. the function. 4 a. 1J. 1J. 12.
If two variables x and y are inversely proportional. we have to measure the abscissas of the intersection of the 195.. A body moving with a uniform t velocity of 3 yards per second moves in this seconds a distance d =3 1.24 or x = P and Q. it is evidently possible Thus to find to find graphically the real roots of an equation. Therefore x = 1. 9 F..where x c is a constant.e. that graph with the o>axis. Show any convenient number).. 25.. .158 24. If two variables x and y are directly proportional. 1 C. what values of x make the function x2 + 2x 4 = (see 192). Represent 26. 14 F.24. then y = . y= formula graphically. then cXj where c is a constant. if c Draw the locus of this equation = 12. that the graph of two variables that are directly proportional is a straight line passing through the origin (assume for c 27. C. GRAPHIC SOLUTION OF EQUATIONS INVOLVING ONE UNKNOWN QUANTITY Since we can graphically determine the values of x make a function of x equal to zero.) scale are expressed in degrees of the Centigrade (C. 32 F. From grade equal to (c) the diagram find the number of degrees of centi1 F. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Degrees of the Fahrenheit (F. i. the abscissas of 3.. to Fahrenheit readings : Change 10 C.) scale by the formula (a) Draw the graph of C = f (F32) from to (b) 4 F F=l.
7. and determine the abscis 1 sas of the points of intersection with the graph.f 9 = 0. de = termine the points where If the function is 1. 13. 0. 11. and c represent \3 2 1 1/2 known quantities. viz. crosssection paper is used. 10. z 2 4x 6 a2 6. 197. An equation of the the form ax2 bx c 0. 4. (a) (6) 9. (a) x2 = 0. . (0. is called a quadratic equation. 8. 6. a2 2a. tion x 2 159 To +2x solve the equa4 1. draw through 1) a line parallel to the #axis. 2 and 1. 14. + + = where a. 3.7 2 a 5 = 0. a: (a) (6) (c) 6a. or 5 2. = 0. the points may be found otherwise by inspection. 12. Such equations in general have two roots. 6. Y' EXERCISE 4x_ 7 74 : Solve graphically the following equations 1.GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS 196.
T . y = l. fc = 3. represent graphically equations of the form y function of x ( 1D2). (f . Thus If in points without solving the equation for the preceding example: 3x s . we can construct the graph or locus of any Since we can = equation involving two to the above form. X'2 Locating the points (2. Ex. If x = 0. 4) and (2. first degree. produces the 7* required locus. 1) and 0). ?/. 0). Represent graphically Solving for y ='"JJ y. = 0.2. because their graphs are straight lines. that can be reduced Thus to represent x   L^ \ x =2  graphically. Ex. Draw the locus of 4 x + 3 y = 12. Hence if if x x  2. 4) and them by straight line AB (3. 3x _ 4 . i. Graph of equations involving two unknown quantities. Hence we may join (0. solve for ?/. locate points (0. y y 2. == 2. Hence. y= A and construct x (  graphically. Equations of the first degree are called linear equations. NOTE.e. 2). if y = is 0. If the given equation is of the we can usually locate two y. 199.1. unknown quantities.160 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA GRAPHIC SOLUTION OF EQUATIONS INVOLVING TWO UNKNOWN QUANTITIES 198. and join the required graph.2 y ~ 2. and joining by a straight line. . ?/ =4 AB.
The roots of two simultaneous equations are represented by the coordinates of the point (or points) at which their graphs intersect.1=0. viz. 203.57. The every coordinates of point in satisfy the equation (1). equation x= By measuring 3. and every set of real values of x and y satisfying the given equation is represented by a point in the locus. and CD. By the method of the preceding article construct the graphs AB and and CD of (1) (2) respectively. the point of intersection of the coordinate of P. we obtain the roots. 201. To find the roots of the system. AB but only one point in AB also satisfies (2). linear equations have only one pair of roots.15. (2) . Since two straight lines which are not coincident nor simultaneous Ex. P. parallel have only one point of intersection.GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS 161 200. 202. 3. The coordinates of every point of the graph satisfy the given equation. Solve graphically the equations : (1) \xy\. Graphical solution of a linear system. AB y = .
0). 4.e. (2. e. i. 2. 2 equation x 3). x2 . (4. (1) (2) cannot be satisfied by the same values of x and y. 4.162 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA graph. Measuring the coordinates of P. construct CD the locus of (2) of intersection. 3.g. 1. = 0. P graphs meet in two and $. (1) (2) C. 0. Since the two  we obtain DE. 4. 3x 2 y = 6. In general.y~ Therefore. This is clearly shown by the graphs of (1) arid (2). 4. 3. 3). Using the method of the preceding para. y equals 3. if x equals respectively 0.0. which consist of a pair of parallel lines. etc. and joining by a straight line. and . we of the + y* = 25.. 0.5. (4. they are inconsistent.  4. 0) and (0. there are two pairs of By measuring the coordinates of : P and Q we find 204. 5. 5. . Locating the points (5.5. 3. the graph of points roots. obtain the graph (a circle) AB C joining. AB the locus of (1). 4. Solve graphically the : fol lowing system = = 25. The equations 2 4 = 0. V25 5. Inconsistent equations. 4. 1. Solving (1) for y. and + 3). Locating two points of equation (2). 2. 4. the point we obtain Ex. parallel graphs indicate inconsistent equations.9. intersection. There can be no point of and hence no roots. 4.
19. 8. 7. '163 Dependent equations. y 2 4. 1 6* + 7 y = 3. vice versa. EXERCISE 75 Construct the loci of the following equations: 1. a. \ 2x + 3^ . 20. 5. idengraphs indicate dependent equations. if possible. as 2^3 and 3x f ==l 2y =6 tical have identical graphs.. 10. state reasons. 9. 6.GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS 205. 2. 17. . x~y=0. and. the graphs of the following systems. Draw system. 3. 4. 16 22. y = 4. y=x + 5. and solve each If there are no solutions. 16 23. y= a2 2x y6. 2x 3?/=6. a+r/=6.
29 . TABLE OF SQUARES. AND SQUARE HOOTS .164 24. 25.14 y = . 28. 30. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA "~ U # . 4 a = 3(6 .8.y). CUBES. 3 31. Show that the same values of x and y cannot satisfy the : three equations x f 5y = 5. 26.
involution repeated multiplication. 2. According to 1. ( 3 a268 ) ( a 8 = _ (2m ) (8 ____ 16 *)"" 27 n 165 . 52. . = a2 5 =6 (5 )* n m n (a ) = a (a 2 3 ) a2 b5 . etc. All odd powers of a negative quantity are negative. is may be by 207. a2 6 6 = ?> 2+2 5 5 + 2 = a. = 6+ 5 + +fi = fi 62.a2 . 3 f a = f a = +. on to in factors 4. 8. a = a3 . ^4/? it According to 50. ( a) is positive. INVOLUTION OF MONOMIALS 208. Involution is the operation of raising a quantity to a Since a power effected positive integral power. ( 3 2 6 3 )* = ( 3 a2 6 8 ) .faa a a a Obviously 1. fa. a special kind of product. All even powers of a negative quantity arc positive. follows that 3. ( 2 aft ) 9 is negative. powers of a positive quantity are positive. Law of Signs.CHAPTER XIII INVOLUTION 206. 2. To find (#(**&)" is a problem of involution.
5.3 a 6 f 3 a6 . 4 /2mV. (a ) 2 5 . raise a fraction to a power. 3 2 2 8 . a product to a given power. 15. multiply tht raise each of its factors to given exponents. raise its terms to the required EXERCISE Perform the operations indicated 1. (277171 )*.6 (a 8 8 . V 3xy )' INVOLUTION OF BINOMIALS 209. 6. ^/2?n?A 4 ' 30. V V/ 13. 16. 2.6) = a . 2 11 (afc ) . The & cube of a binomial (a 3 3 _j_ we obtain by multiplying (a 2 2 + 6) 1 by + and = a + 3a 6 + 3a6 + * 6) . 76 : (>y. 210. The square of a binomial was discussed in 63.166 To find To To power. (2ar). . amVy) 3 . 24. (^^) 2 . ' 27 ' / _4_ _4_V ' 11. (a ) 2 4  3. the required power. raise ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA the exponent of the power of a power. \ 3 J '  MW 10. 4.
3 8 . (3af26) 8 . and decreases in each succeeding term by L . 21. 2. 5. 13. (3a (a (4 62 l) 3 . 167 Find the cube of 2 x f.y . + 3a 6 + 3a& f& ^Sx^ + S^ ^ 3 2 2 3 . The higher powers of binomials.) 14. 12. 3 3 + 3(2aO*(Sy) + 3(2aj)(3y)> + 36 z2y + 54 xy* + 27 y3 . 1. (5 (1 a) 3 .6 2 8 ft) . (3 x .3(3 a*)a(y = 27 a . 2 . (6m+2w) (3 8 . or*  Find the cube root of 19. + 4aj) 3 . (a + &)8 . are obtained by multiplication. pansions. . 9.INVOLUTION Ex. + a 2 a.27 ay + 9 x y2n 2 EXERCISE 77 Perform the operations indicated: 1. 1 f 3 2 3 . 4. (3 (l I) 2 8 . 2 a8 3a2 + 3al. (afl) . : a 20. examination of these results shows that : The number of terms is 1 greater than the exponent of the binomial. +5a) 22. TJie exponent of a in the first term is the same as the expo2.3 y. 7. 23. 211. Ex. (aj7) . 15. 6. = s= (2s) 8 a. frequently called ex. . as follows : + 6) = o + 3 d'b + 3 a6 + + 6) = a + 4 a?b + 6 a & + 4 a6 + b (a = a + 5 a 6 + 10 a*b + 10 a 6 f 5 aM + 6 (a + 6) 8 8 2 (a b*. 86 3 w + 3 w + ra8 126 + G6l. An 1. 2. 3 . 5 5 4 2 2 3 s . (m2) 8 (w+w) 3 8 10. a. 3. nent of the binomial.  lx  (7 a (1 I) 3 17. 8 (a??/) 3 . 18. 16. 8. etc. 4 4 2 2 3 4 .y) = (3 y?y . Find the cube 2 6 n of 3 x* .
4(2^(3 ^'+(3 y . 23. (a~^) 5 . 14. 4. (lfa 6 2 ) 5. (mJ) 4 11. 17.81 y 2 8 9 8 4 ) . Ex. (2a5c) (1 f 2 4 a:) 4 . 5. . (3a f5) 5) 4. Expand (x = ic 5 f 5 x*y + 10 ^V + 5 . (m fl) 2 20. (mnp 5 I) 5 . of the second term equals the exponent of the binomial 6. 9. . 4 . 8. (?>i?i f c)*. Expand <? 2 (2 #  3 y3 ) 4 2 .168 3. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA T7ie exponent ofb is 1 in the second term of the result. 10. The minus. 25. 6. is the coefficient of the next term. Ex. (2w 2 2 fl) 4 . * 2 4 ) 16 ic 8 . . (p + q) 4 * 7. 18. . Ex. 3. mn 5 2 5 ) . 1. The The coefficient coefficient of the first term is 1. 3. 21. (2 a 4 . . 10 x*y* + 2 5 xy* + y5 . and increases by 1 in each succeeding term. ( &) 5 . (la&) 4 12.4(2 * )'(3 *f) f 6(2 ^) (3 y ) 8 . 4 (1for) 5 . Expand (a??/) x5 5 x4 y + 10 x'2 (and odd + 212. and the powers negative. since the even powers of signs of the last answer arc alternately plus y are positive. (w 4 ?i) 4 . (tff1) (cfd) . (1 + 4 ?/) . 15.a) 3 19. .2. 12 EXERCISE Expand: 1. (?/i~w) : 16. TJie coefficient of any term of the power multiplied by the exponent of a. (af 5) . and the result divided by 1 plus the exponent of b. .96 ^y f 216 o?y . 2. (2 4. 24. (l 8 . 13.216 a^ 4. (m 5 I) 2 22. (m 2 + n) 8 . 5. 78 s .
tity . \/a = x means x n = y ?> a. or 3 for (usually written 3) . V9 = + 3. Since even powers can never be negative. which can be simplified no further. quantity may the be either 2wsitive or negative. (_3) = 27. called real numbers. = x means = 6. V \/P 214. for (+ a) = a \/32 = 2. It follows from the law of signs in evolution that : Any even root of a positive. 4 4 . and ( v/o* = a. 1. 2. Every odd root of a quantity has same sign as and 2 the quantity. Evolution it is is the operation of finding a root of a quan the inverse of involution. or x &4 .CHAPTER XIV EVOLUTION 213. Thus V^I is an imaginary number. a) 4 = a4 . and all other numbers are. or y ~ 3. numbers. \/"^27=3. it is evidently impossible to express an even root of a negative quantity by Such roots are called imaginary the usual system of numbers. 109 . for distinction. etc. for (f 3) 2 ( 3) equal 0. 215. 27 =y means r' = 27.
index. roots of the numerator \/18 . 9. To extract the root of a power. we have (Vl472) 2 Ex. extract the and denominator. 4 v. Ex. 2 . V?. 7 .4. fy 5 3 . 8.170 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EVOLUTION OF MONOMIALS The following examples root : are solved by the definition of a . . 3/0** = am .for(*Siy = 3 3 6 c* \ c*J 2 2 b' ?*243 ft^c20 216. 3i . 6.(. = V26TIT81 = 53. Ex. . 79 2 v/2 5 . v/2^. V36 9 4. 7. V5 v/2 7 2. V25 9 16. To extract a root of a fraction.9 = 136.64 5 4 . 3.  100 a 2 . 7 . Ex. . 82 .125. Ex. = 199 + (_ 198) . v/^i2 = a*.1. v^SjW 3 = 2 a ^/gL^g = * c* A 82 &c*. 3 33 53 . \/2 4 9 . EXERCISE 1. 5. 6 7 = 030. divide the exponent by the A root of a product equals the product of the roots of the factors. Ex. Ex. 7. 62 = V2* . 2.201) = 2. 9. 6. = 19472. VT8226 = V25 2 729 . Find (x/19472) Since by definition ( v^)" = a.lL. 10. for (a 3 )* = a 12 .200 . 8. 2. 14 63 25 = V2 3* = 2 32 6 . for (a")" a = a mn 3. for (2 a 2 6c4 ) 8 = Ex. Ex 5 a" .
^40^4. ( VI5) x ( VT7) 2 2 2 2 x ( V3) 35.(V200) f ( VI5) 2 . ( VH) + (Vl9) 2 2 .) by inspection. V8. 32. 116. Find the square root of a2 . A trinomial is a perfect square if one of its terms is equal to twice the product of the square roots of the other terms. (V2441) ~(V2401) 36. \/d \Vab r + b\ 9.98. 31. 33. V20 . 3. 45 V5184. In such a case the square root can be found ( 116.75. 1. 30. 2 .3 y2) ( vV .) 4 3 EXERCISE 80 : Extract the square roots of the following expressions 1.6 ofy 2 f 9 y4 .EVOLUTION 171 28.4/./). Hence _ 6 ary f 9 y = (s . 5.3.3 . 2yh2/ 4  9^ + 60^ + 2 2/ . V9216. a f2 l 2 + l. . 29. Ex. 2 . (Vl24) { 2 EVOLUTION OF POLYNOMIALS AND ARITHMETICAL NUMBERS 217. a* 4 8 2 . 34. 2. 6.6 tfif + 9 y = O . 2 f ( V240) 3 .
8 .2 ab + b .72 aW + 81 & 4 . 11.2 ac . multiplied by b must give the last two terms of the as follows square.172 7. and b. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBEA 4a2 44a?> + 121V2 4a s . and b (2 a f b). let us consider the relation of a f. term a of the root is the square root of the first The second term of the root can be obtained a. the that 2 ab f b 2 = we have then to consider sum of trial divisor 2 a. second term 2ab by the double of by dividing the the socalled trial divisor. #2 a2  16. a f. a2 + & + c + 2 a& . In order to find a general method for extracting the square root of a polynomial. 12. 2ab . 14.b 2 2 to its square.> 13. it is not known whether the given expression is a perfect square. 2 2 218. + 6 + 4a&. The work may be arranged 2 : a 2 + 2 ab + W \a + b . i. 15. mV14m??2)f 49.2 &c.e. 10. . a\b is the root if In most cases. the given expression is a perfect square. The term a' first 2 . 2 . 2 49a 8 16 a 4 9. however.
Explanation. First trial divisor. 1. Second trial divisor. 6 a. . 173 x* Extract the square root of 1G 16x4 10 x* __ . Arrange the expression according to descending powers root of 10 x 4 is 4 # 2 the lirst term of the root. By doubling 4x'2 we obtain 8x2 the trial divisor. First complete divisor. The process of the preceding article can be extended to polynomials of more than three terms.24 a + 4 12 a + 25 a8 s . and so forth. As there is no remainder. We find the first two terms of the root by the method used in Ex. Extract the square root of 16 a 4 . 8 a 2 Second complete divisor. the first term of the answer. of x. is As there is no remainder. Multiply the complete divisor Sx' 3y 3 by Sy 8 and subtract the product from the remainder. 4 x2 3 ?/ 8 is the required square foot.  24 a 3 + 25 a 2  12 a +4 Square of 4 a First remainder. and consider Hence the their sum one term. 8 a 2 .24 afy* f 9 tf. . The square . 2. 8 a 2 2. 219. the required root (4 a'2 8a + 2}. */'' . . 1. 8 a 2  12 a +4 a f 2. 8 /. Arranging according to descending powers of 10 a 4 a. . . Ex. by division we term of the root. 24# 2 y 3 by the trial divisor Dividing the first term of the remainder.EVOLUTION Ex. we obtain the next term of the root 3 y 3 which has to be added to 2 the trial divisor. \ 24 a 3 4f a2 10 a 2 Second remainder. 2 Subtracting the square of 4x' from the trinomial gives the remainder '24 x'2 + y. double of this term find the next is the new trial divisor. 10 a 4 8 a.
16 _^ + 2 JX XT 4a. 20.12 m 4. 3. 18. 25 x 4 f 40 afy 446 x 2 if 4 24 a^ 8 4 9 4 i/ .40 a 22 .73a4 440^436^460^. 24. 16x6 4.4 x 4.2^43^42^ 46 5 4 a. 17. 15. 36a 460a 473a 440a 416a 3 2 13. + 81 a 454 a + 81. 14.16.25. 4 .54 a 40 a 6 4 9 a4 .a 6 x*y 2 . 13#4 413ar 44a. 6 11. l 4.12 a6 2 2 3 4 4 64 .6 . 19. 10. 5.9. > 7. 1 4. 4 36 a 2 12 4 4 16 a4 4 46 a 4 4 44 a 8 f 25 a h 12 a 4 4 25 a6 4.73 a8 .25 x 4 4.174 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 81 : Extract the square roots of the following expressions 2.20 o 4. 4 4?/ 42x 4 3 j/ 2xif 6 a5 4.20 J or 2 16 x 4. 8.37 a ^ . 5 4 16 4 iK . 36it.24 or . 436^?/469a.12m 5 4.14^44 ic 4^ 3 12^. x 6 4 4 0^4. 6 6 2 49 a 4 .42 a f 49 a 6 16 a4  24 a3 4 J 2 3 3 4 4 .9m 4 20m3 30m 4. 2 x2 3 2x. 2 4. . 3 a2 a4 4 2a + a4 2 or 41 3 2 a3 + 1.42 a*& 4. 25 m 20 w + 34 m . 12. 729 4. 412 a& f 37 a' 6 .162 a2 60 a10 4. a? 2 . 6. 16. 9.10 x2 4.V430^425^ 4m 4.
000. = 80. Ex. the preceding explanation it follows that the root has two digits. the consists of group is the first digit in the root. of 10. the first of which is 9 the square root of 21'06'81 has three digits.000 is 100. and the complete divisor 168. 2. the first of which is 8. Ex. From A will show the comparison of the algebraical and arithmetical method given below identity of the methods. of 1. square root of arithmetical numbers can be found to the one used for algebraic Since the square root of 100 is 10. of a number between 100 and 10. which may contain one or two). then the number of groups is equal to the number of digits in the square root. Therefore 6 = 8. As 8 x 168 = 1344. beginning at the and each group contains two digits (except the last. the integral part of the square root of a number less than 100 has one figure. Hence if we divide the digits of the number into groups. The is trial divisor = 160.000 is 1000. Find the square root of 7744. the square root of 7744 equals 88. etc.EVOLUTION 220. first . and we may apply the method used in algebraic process. the first of which is 4. 1.1344. a f>2'41 '70 6 c [700 + 20 + 4 = 724 2 a a2 = +6= 41) 00 00 1400 + 20 = 1420 4 341 76 28400 = 1444 57 76 6776 . Find the square root of 524.000. etc. and the square root of the greatest square in units. 175 The by a method very similar expressions. Hence the root is 80 plus an unknown number. a 2 = 6400. Thus the square root of 96'04' two digits.176. 7744 80 6400 1 +8 160 + 8 = 168 1344 1344 Since a 2 a Explanation.. and the first remainder is. two figures.
70 6.10.1 are Ex.1T6 221. 12. we must Thus the groups 1'67'24. Roots of common fractions are extracted either by divid ing the root of the numerator by the root of the denominator. in . EXERCISE Extract the square roots of : 82 . ELEMENTS OF ALGEKRA In marking off groups in a number which has decimal begin at the decimal point. Find the square root of 6/. or by transforming the common fraction into a decimal. 3.7 to three decimal places. and if the righthand group contains only one digit. The groups of 16724.GO'61. annex a cipher.0961 are '. places.688 4 45 2 70 2 25 508 4064 6168 41)600 41344 2256 222.
39. 31.22. 13.53. 37.58 square 38.4 square when R = radius and 11. 36. T\. 34.01. J. Find the mean proportional between 2 and . whose area equals 48.) 40. JT . TT Find the radius of a (Area of a circle circle 1 equals irR .EVOLUTION Find 177 to three decimal places the square roots of the follow ing numbers: 29. 1. 5. feet. 30. 1. = 3. 35. 32.1410. . Find the side of a square whose area equals 50. 33. Find the side of a square whose area equals 96 square yards. feet.
. 2 ic = a. is 12. quadratic equation is one which contains both the square and the first power of the unknown A quantity. 6 y2 = 17. 1. The 7 equation. ax 2 + bx + c = Q. 2.CHAPTER XV QUADRATIC EQUATIONS INVOLVING ONE UNKNOWN QUANTITY 223. 178 . complete. Extracting the square root of each member. or incomplete. x 2 7. This answer Check. 2)* + 5 = 33. x f 12 = the absolute term PUKE QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 227. absolute term of an equation is the terra which / does not contain any In 4 x 2 unknown quantities. Dividing. Ex. is frequently written x 13( 2)2 = 7(  19 = 33 . 6#2 = x* 24. 224. x = + 2 or x =2.g. = 7^ + 5. or equation of the second degree. 226. Solve 13 x2 19 etc. but no higher power e. 225. . is A quadratic equation. = 4. Transposing. or affected. an integral rational equation that contains the square of 4x the unknown number. + bx f c r= is a complete quadratic ax 2 = m is a pure quadratic equation. quadratic equation contains only the square of the axt unknown quantity. A pure quadratic is solved by reducing it to the form and extracting the square root of both members. A pure.
16^393 = 7. 10. s3 ? + oj x +3 = 4. 2. 15^5 = 6. 4. 2 2 a. . or Therefore. ' =: y? b* b . 7. 8. Dividing by Extracting the square root. Solve 179 . . 6(2)=10(ajl).2. o. EXERCISE Solve the following equations 1. 0^ + 1 = 1. (a? 9. 5. + 4 ax = ax + 4 a 2 + x2 f 2 x2 = 8 a 2 4 a2 x2 = x = V 4 a2 x= x = .25. 4 ax. ax Transposing and combining. : 83 2. 3. 19 + 9 = 5500. 7 = 162.=g x2 4 a2 Clearing of fractions.QUADRATIC EQUATIONS Ex. 2 4fc 5' 18.
If a 2 4. A right triangle is a triangle. Find the side of each field. : 6.b 2 If s If =c . solve for v. 228. r. 84 is Find a positive number which equal to its reciprocal ( 144). A number multiplied by ratio of its fifth part equals 45. 2 : 3. If the hypotenuse whose angles a units of length. 2 . 9 & { c# a x +a and c. 22 a. 3. and they con tain together 30G square feet. 25. 108. then Since such a triangle tangle. If 2 f 2 b* = 4w 2 f c sol ve for m. = a 2 2 (' 2 solve for solve for = Trr . Find the numbers. Find the side of each field. solve for r. and the two other sides respectively c 2 contains c a and b units. 24. and the first exceeds the second by 405 square yards. . is one of _____ b The side right angle. solve for d. 2 . EXERCISE 1. 28. Find is the number. Three numbers are to each other as 1 Find the numbers. If s = 4 Trr ' 2 . may be considered one half of a rec square units. If G=m m g . and the sum The sides of two square fields are as 3 : 5.180 on __!_:L ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA a. 2a f 1 23. ' 4. 26. The two numbers (See is 2 : 3. 2. 29. 27.) of their squares 5. The sides of two square fields are as 7 2. is 5(5. and their product : 150. find a in terms of 6 . opposite the right angle is called the hypotenuse (c in the diagram). If 22 = ~^. . its area contains =a 2 f b2 . 4.
of a right triangle Find these sides. (b) 44 square feet.7 x f 10 = 0. Find the sides. Find these 10.) 13. the radius of a sphere whose surface equals If the radius of a sphere is r. passes in t seconds 2 over a space s yt Assuming g 32 feet.) COMPLETE QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 229. 9. let us compare x 2 The left the perfect square x2 2 mx f m to 2 . its surface (Assume ir = 2 . A body falling from a state of rest. the formula = Trr whose radius equals r is found by Find the radius of circle whose area S equals (a) 154 square inches. Solve Transposing. The following ex ample illustrates the method or of solving a complete quadratic equation by completing the square. . 24. (b) 100 feet? = . make x2 Evidently 7 takes the place 7x a complete square to to which corresponds m 2 . The hypotenuse of a right triangle is 2. J = 12. Two circles together contain : 3850 square feet. radii are as 3 14. 181 The hypotenuse of a right triangle : is 35 inches. we have of or m = . sides. . in how many seconds will a body fall (a) G4 feet. and the other two sides are as 3 4. The hypotenuse of a right triangle is to one side as 13:12. Find the unknown sides and the area. To find this term. 7r (Assume and their = 2 7 2 . add () Hence 2 . 2m. Method of completing the square.2 7 . Find the radii. and the two smaller 11. member can be made a complete square by adding 7 x with another term. x* 7 x= 10. The area $ /S of a circle 2 . and the third side is 15 inches. The area : sides are as 3 4. . is and the other two sides are equal. 8. 4.QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 7. 8 = 4 wr2 Find 440 square yards.
Extract the square root and solve the equation of the first degree thus formed.a. 2 ax f 2 o) s a . Transposing.2. or J. 2 a* a. Hence to solve a complete quadratic : Reduce the equation to the form x*\px==q. or x = 2.  \. Extracting square roots. = \ # = ff. adding member). x x2 x x2 + 2 a2 x f a = 2 ax.  x Q) 2 to each Completing the square (i. Ex. (*~8) a = at .1.2 a2 . Therefore. = 6. a.182 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 2 Adding ( J) to each member. 15 x 2 Dividing by 9.x(l = . Uniting. Ex. a Clearing of fractions. 2  . Simplifying. = x\ = 2. Complete the square by adding the square of one half the coefficient of x. = . Hence Therefore Check. 7 5 + 10 = 0.. 230. 62 x 5 = f. Transposing. J.e. 80^69^2 = 9 x2 sc Transposing. . 22 7 2 + 10 =0. Or (*i) x Extracting square roots.
1+2?= "*"   Vl . x = l+ * a = 1 +2 <* V IT * Therefore * Vl < EXERCISE 85 . 183 Simplifying.4 ~ a2 Transposing. x . Extracting square root.QUADRATIC EQUATIONS Completing the square.
= 12. ao. . 2x 3 4. article.c = 0. and c in the general answer. 49. \bx\.184 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 45 46. Solution by formula. o^ or } 3 ax == 4 a9 7 wr . =8 r/io?. any quadratic equation may be obtained by 6. Solving this equation we obtain by the method of the preceding 2a The roots of substituting the values of a. 231. =0. x la 48. 2 Every quadratic equation can be reduced to the general form.
15 x9 25x* = 21 . 5 x2 Transposing. 185 Solve 5 x2 = 26 x5. b =  + 20 == = 0. 7. 20 x Hence Therefore a = 5. Hence Therefore =p 1 t b = (p 2 + 1). 3. a. 2 a? = 44 x . = 12 . 10. 15.. c = 5. 9. 6. 1. 26. 11. 2or } 5o. 2. TIO. Reducing to general form. 12.25 x.  P + VQ^+T? ^4^ EXERCISE Solve by the above formula 1. c p. 2 a.4 4 5 . ?i 2 . 8. 6 Ex. 3 x 11 + 10 = 0. 18.  . 14. : 86 + 2 = 0. 2. 17. 6 . 6m = 7 m + 12 = 64 7 x2 2 2 a. 13. 7^ + 9 x 90. 21.QUADRATIC EQUATIONS Ex. Solve 2 j>o? p*x x px* a 2 p. 20. = 64120?. 2 o. 6 10 2024 =6or 10 l. 19. V^tT)* . 6. 4. 6^+5^ 56. 2 . 16. 2# 11 + 15 = 0.
23. ar>8o. 24. 0. 1. if either of the uct is zero. 5) = 0. . = 0. member can be Ex. Let it e(l uation: 5^ + 5=26*. Eesolving into factors. Bx 1 1. Evidently this method can be applied to equations of if one member of the equation is zero and the other factored. any degree. = 0. 2a^7x sc(2 16rc Therefore a = 0. Solve a*= 7a? + 15x 2 2* . the prodif x has (1) (2) such a value that either or a?. 233. Clearing for fractions. all or. Therefore the equation will be satisfied 5x _. 3x?+x = 7. factors Now. =7 x se 2 2 + 16 x.5) =0.x. a? 28  7al=7s be required to solve the 232. Transposing. 25. Factoring.186 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA to Find the roots of the following equations places : two decimal 22. 5 = 0. and 6. or # 5 is zero.4) = . a=:i^^. Solution by factoring. x(x <2 . (5 a? !)(. = 14. x2 = 1 . 27 x== 42a. Hence the equation has three + 3) (x 2xf3=0. = 0. we x obtain the roots =^ or x = 5. 26.2. 2S3x 1 2 .5 Solving (1) and (2). transposing terms to one member. orz roots. }.
O roots are 2. for a: . and the equation thus formed be solved. 3# y 5 = 0. members of an equation are divided by an involving the unknown quantity. such a common divisor must be made equal to zero.3)(x + 3 3. a?. 7. 3^ 25^ + 28 = 0. 12. : 87 = 0. 3^ = 0(1106). 3) = 0. 14.3 =5 or = 2 3 obtained from the 5 (x or x equation x (x = is also a root. 2o3 f9a. 8. 2. evidently (x Or 4)(x . EXERCISE Solve by factoring 6 2. members by x But evidently the value x 3 3. Ex. 6. a* 10a=24. + 8=s: 7. 4or + 18a f 8a. (*2)(x + 2)(a3)=0. + 6)=0.= 24. 0(02) = 7(02).24 = 0. 0^ ar> 11. 3 or 2 a.QUADRATIC EQUATIONS Ex. let it be required to solve If or x we divide both = 2. 5 = 0.:=0.(. we 9 obtain x 4. 16. 13. + 100. 0^ + 21 = 10 10.g. Or Hence the 234. 9. 3. Form an equation whose roots are 4 and 6. 187 Solve x? 3x x*(x 2 4x + 12 = 0. The equation I. In order If both to obtain all roots of the original equation.e. } 2 2 (5 . 5. 4. aj( 15. + 9 f 20 x = 0. 4)(z3) = 0. + 10 a = 24. is 5) = 0. (aj4)(a. 3. the resulting expression equation contains fewer roots than the original one. E.6)) = 0. 3) Factoring. x2 f 2 x . Therefore x =3 = 2.  3) 2 4 (x = 0. a?10a=:24. 2. ar'Sa^ 12.
25. 19. a 2 =(x a)b. 18. + 2)= (y( j_ ? (+ 3)(a?+2). ara + ft + c*. (2a? 3) (a 24.188 17. 23.3) = (s + l) (3 a). 50. '3a!J  . 22. 27. uz + u 21. 20. 2. w(w x2 2 w)=6tt. (a + 1) (a. or 3 a 2 2 a? 26. f ELEMENTS OF ALGEKRA tt(3tt + 7tt)=6tt.
9. 2. The sum of the squares of two consecutive numbers 85. 1. What are the numbers of ? is The product two consecutive numbers 210. Problems involving quadratics have lems of this type have only one solution. 5. 6. and whose product 9. Find the number.QUADRATIC EQUATIONS Form 51. 55. 4. Twentynine times a number exceeds the square of the 190.0. 2. 7. two numbers is 4. 52.2.3. number by 10. 58. feet. and the difference Find the numbers. 1. The difference of . Find two numbers whose difference is 40. is Find two numbers whose product 288. The 11. of their reciprocals is 4.3. Divide CO into two parts whose product is 875. EXERCISE 1.3. 2. 0. PROBLEMS INVOLVING QUADRATICS in general two answers. 5. 88 its reciprocal A number increased by three times equals 6J. 2. : 3. area A a perimeter of 380 rectangular field has an area of 8400 square feet and Find the dimensions of the field. its sides of a rectangle differ by 9 inches. 3. 2. Find a number which exceeds its square by is . but frequently the conditions of the problem exclude negative or fractional answers. Find the sides. 8. G. and consequently many prob 235. 2. and equals 190 square inches. Find the numbers. and whose sum is is 36. 3. 56. Find the number. 189 the equations whose roots are 53. 57. .1.0. 54.
If a train had traveled 10 miles an hour faster. he had paid 2 ^ more for each apple. as the 16. A man A man sold a as the watch cost dollars. dollars. and lost as many per cent Find the cost of the watch. 15. watch cost sold a watch for $ 21. other. At what rates do the steamers travel ? 18. 13. . What did he pay for each apple ? A man bought a certain number of horses for $1200. sold a horse for $144. vessel sail ? How many miles per hour did the faster If 20. Two vessels. exceeds its widtK AD by 119 feet. If he each horse ? . he would have received two horses more for the same money. Two steamers and is of 420 miles. one of which sails two miles per hour faster than the other. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA The length 1 B AB of a rectangle. a distance One steamer travels half a mile faster than the two hours less on the journey. and lost as many per cent Find the cost of the watch. had paid $ 20 less for each horse. he would have received 12 apples less for the same money. and Find the sides of the rectangle. and gained as many per Find the cost of the horse. 14.10. What did he pay for 21. watch for $ 24. ply between the same two ports. of a rectangle is to the length of the recthe area of the figure is 96 square inches.190 12. ABCD. The diagonal : tangle as 5 4. c equals 221 Find AB and AD. and the slower reaches its destination one day before the other. Find the rate of the train. A man cent as the horse cost dollars. A man bought a certain number of apples for $ 2. and the line BD joining two opposite vertices (called "diagonal") feet. 17. start together on voyages of 1152 and 720 miles respectively. 19. it would have needed two hours less to travel 120 miles.
237. How many eggs can be bought for $ 1 ? 236. 24. . Ex. In how many days can B do the work ? = 26. 27. A needs 8 days more than B to do a certain piece of work. how wide is the walk ? 23. EQUATIONS IN THE QUADRATIC FORM An equation is said to be in the quadratic form if it contains only two unknown terms. and working together.) 25. Find and CB. is On the prolongation of a line AC. (tf.QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 22. is surrounded by a walk of uniform width. A rectangular A circular basin is surrounded is  by a path 5 feet wide. Solve ^9^ + 8 = ** 0. contains B 78 square inches. ^3^ = 7. so that the rectangle. the two men can do it in 3 days. a point taken. Equations in the quadratic form can be solved by the methods used for quadratics. and the unknown factor of one of these terms is the square of the unknown factor of the other. of the area of the basin. By formula. 1. If the area of the walk is equal to the area of the plot. 23 inches long. constructed with and CB as sides. and the area of the path the radius of the basin. Find the side of an equilateral triangle whose altitude equals 3 inches. as 0. =9 Therefore x = \/8 = 2. B AB AB 2 191 grass plot.I) 4(aj*l) 2 = 9. 30 feet long and 20 feet wide. The number of eggs which can be bought for $ 1 is equal to the number of cents which 4 eggs cost. Find TT r (Area of a circle . or x = \/l = 1.
9. 2 (^Z)  "3 14. 2. y8)=0. 4 6. 19. 436 3. >. 4 a. 3 a4 44s + 121=0. Hence Le. stitute ELEMENTS OF ALGEBEA In more complex examples it is advantageous to sub a letter for an expression involving a?. 16. ^^ ~ 28 (a? ^ 2:=Q> . Let x + 15 = J < Then or or rf 15 = 0. a? 15 1=2*. a 21or=100. 2 h9:=0. 4 : 89 10a.)+72=0. Solving.2 =4. a4 5o. T 17.192 238. EXERCISE Solve the following equations 1. 2 16 a^40 11. = 1. (a: +aj) 18(x2 +a. 8. 7. 18. 10. or y = 8. = 13. 6. 12. 4 2 4 37aj 2 = 9. a. Ex.T 2 2 . 4. 4 8 = 2 a* 2. aV+9o 4 =0.
Ex. and unequal. it 2a follows 2 : 2.Vfr 2 4 ac T* b Vi . Determine the character of the roots of the equation 3 a 2 . Relations between roots and coefficients. the roots are rational. 3. c the roots are real. If b Ifb* 2 If b Iflr 4 ac is is is 4c 4 ac a positive or equal to zero. The quadratic equation oa/* 2 f bx f c = has two roots. 2 4 ac 2a Hence / 1 4r2 = a Or . the roots are real. . b 4. rational. The expression b 2 the equation ay? 4. Since ( 12) 2 4 4 9 = 0. the roots are irrational. Ex. rational.2) 2 4 3 (. Determine the character of the roots of the equation 4 x2 . The discriminant =(. the roots are imaginary.c 4 ac is called the discriminant of = 0. kac 4 ac is 'not a perfect square. 1.2 z . negative. ( 2a Hence 1. 241. the roots are unequal.12 x + 9 = 0.QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 193 CHARACTER OF THE ROOTS 239. and equal. is 4ac not zero. 2. Hence the roots are real. a perfect square. Ifb 2 Jfb 2 is zero. are denoted __ Tl If the roots of the equation ax2 4. 240.bx 4 by ' i\ and r2 then .f> = 0.bx 4. the roots are equal.5) = 04.
15. 6. (b) The product of the roots equal to theubsolute term. 60 2 = 0. 12~x = x 2 . 3a. ^12. 9x2 ~ the In each of the following equations determine by inspection sum and the product of the roots: 13. = 0. + 2a. x2 7 10. 22. x2 4 x 0^ or j + 205 = 0. 2 : 3. 5oj aj + l = 0. = Q. = 0.. = 5x. Sa^ + 2 Ooj 2 Solve the following equations and check the answers by forming the sum and the product of the roots 19. + 18 2 8. = 0. 24. + 2a15 = 0. 21. The sum of the roots equal is to the coefficient of x with the sign changed.194 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 2 a? these results If the given equation is written in the form may be expressed as follows : x +a += a 0. o. : a 2 . the sain of the roots of 4 x 5 x 3 =: is j. 14. 17. 2. + 12 2  . ar + ^ + 2^2 = 0. tfmx+p^Q. 2 7. 2 a. 18. f 2 E. 10 x = 25 x + 1. 2x* + 6x + 3 = 0. EXERCISE 89 a Determine without solution the character of the roots of the following equations 1. their product isf. lla. x2 !i>x + 2 z2 2 16. 5aj 9. or + 10 + 4520 = 0.2 + 4a: + 240 = 0. n a?3 ' ~ == l 5. If the (a) coefficient ofx 2 in a quadratic equation is is unity. 12. 2a 4z5 = 0. 23. 5a 26a? + 5 = 0.19 # 20. 9a3 = 0. 4.g.
that a an = a m+n .a" = a m n mn . (ab) . = a"" < . II. for all values 1 of m and n. a m a" = a m+t1 . we let these quantities be what they must be if the exponent law of multiplication is generally true. The following four fundamental laws for positive integral exponents have been developed in preceding chapters : I. however. such as 2*. while the second of the first. hence.CHAPTER XVI THE THEORY OF EXPONENTS 242. and . Then the law of involution. (a m ) w . the direct consequence of the defiand third are consequences FRACTIONAL AND NEGATIVE EXPONENTS 243. instead of giving a formal definition of fractional and negative exponents. no Fractional and negative exponents. m IV. very important that all exponents should be governed by the same laws. we may choose for such symbols any definition that is con venient for other work. 4~ 3 have meaning according to the original definition of power. must be *The symbol smaller than. provided w > n.* III." means "is greater than" 195 similarly means "is . The first of these laws is nition of power. (a ) s=a m = aw bm a . It is. ~ a m f. > m therefore. We assume. 244.
or zero exponent equal x. n 2 a. a*. fractional. Let x is The operation which makes the fractional exponent disappear evidently the raising of both members to the third power.g. 30. 28. 24. To find the meaning of a fractional exponent. etc. ^=(a^) 3* 3 . we try to discover the let the meaning of In every case we unknown quantity and apply to both members of the equation that operation which makes the negative. (bed)*. 29. 23. Hence Or Therefore Similarly.196 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA true for positive integral values of n. at. 3*. m$. 245. 25. since the raising to a positive integral power is only a repeated multiplication. a?*. 31. e. Assuming these two 8*. 0?=^. Write the following expressions as radicals : 22. 4~ .  we find a? Hence we define a* to be the qth root of of. disappear. a . ml. (xy$. '&M A 27. . a\ 26. as. = a. laws.
37. a * a2 Or a=l. Vo5 . e. is The operation which makes the zero exponent disappear 2 evidently a multiplication by any power of a. : 4* + 9* + 16* + 25* + 36*. \fi?. 45. 38.g. To find the meaning of zero exponent. 42. 5L is indeterminate Indeterminate. = 2. 27* = 3.THE THEORY OF EXPONENTS Express with fractional exponents 32. 7z* Find the values of 47. 35. : 2' 4* = 4. 50. Let a = a. 46. however. 48. 49. 43. Solve the following equations 39.g. 5 a* = 10. v/o&cT 34. a . 41. 3* = 27. 40. \/xy \/m. 246. 64* + 9* + 16* + (32)*. hence is . is Therefore the zero power of any number NOTE. e. ty?. a* * = 3. a. 44.\/n. = 49. v'mT 36. : 197 33. the base is zero. = 2. equal to unity. If.
a a a = = a a a a1 1 a. Let x= or". etc. 248. vice versa. e. Or a"# = l. or the exponent. each is The fact that a if = we It loses its singularity 1 sometimes appears peculiar to beginners. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA To find the meaning of a negative exponent. a8 a 2 = 1 1 .g. by changing the sign of NOTE.2 = a2 .198 247. an x = a. Factors may be transferred from the numerator to the denominator of a fraction. Multiplying both members by a". . in which obtained from the preceding one by dividing both members by a. cr n. consider the following equations.
3 a."* 38. : or 5 . 3 a? * 42. 37. rfS. 44. . ""^T"*' Write without denominators 29. 25. 1 L ?>i""i 3 cci . : * 31 l> ' <W* arV 8 30. 2 . ^?2 y' 34. Write with radical signs and positive exponents 35. * 24. f (2w)~i 1 . . 22. 6 or 2 ^^ ^. 66 45. a. m . 2m~i 43. a^ 41. 40. 39. ^L. c 32.THE THEORY OF EXPONENTS EXERCISE Find the values of: 91 199 Express with positive exponents 21. 27. 7~ l a 2b 2 . 36. : mi m~^. 2 .
47.26)* 1 (I) 2 . (.6). It then follows that: Fractional and negative exponents may be treated by the same methods as positive integral exponents.008)* + A. 59. 55. 2 =f 3* = f x~ l 50. = 5.(.343)* + (. 250. 54. 52.81 f (a . + A_. 5  75 USE OF NEGATIVE AND FRACTIONAL EXPONENTS 249. z* = 1.200 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA : Solve the equations 46. (81)* + (3f)*(5 TV)*3249 + 16 * . 10* 5* = . . of: 3ll4~* 60.001. 58.1. It can be demonstrated that the last three laws for any exponents are consequences of the first law. = . z 5or*=10. 53. ar = i. 1. = l. 57. + 1~* f 21 .9*. and we shall hence assume that all four laws are generally true. 61. = ^. 48. Examples relating to roots can be reduced to examples con taining fractional exponents. 10* Find the values 56. (a*&~*)* + (aVM = a*&~* + V ' = '*&* Ex 2 . 17' 2 51. Ex. 49.
8 ' 9. &. / 7fv 7.7W.4 . 23. ' 11. remove the fractional exponents. NOTE. 79 .5. a. 4 5. are performed. etc. V5.THE THEORY OF EXPONENTS 251.$". . 7. 25 26  2~ 8 2~ 9 22. 6 *.&. 26. 7*. EXERCISE Simplify : 92 2. Perform the operation indicated. OA 20. 6a. 27  28. 6.^/5^5. 13.$*. 7~ 5 27  .7i.3 aj" a.&. 72 . 201 Expressions containing radicals should be simplified as : follows (a) (6) (c) Write all radical signs as fractional exponents. #* a. 14an (4**(Va) 4 . 3 a. (d) If required.6 *' 6 *25. __ 29 /m '=V a9 ia. 12.4 a8 . 3. 17. 3sVS. 7~ 6 . 16. .5a. 4 x^. S'sS8. . 10. Remove the negative exponents. 16.4 2 a? 2 ar 1 . 14.. 18. 95 ^9i 5**. Negative exponents should not be removed until all operations of multiplication^ division.7*.
40. powers of x arranged are : Ex. lix = 2xl =+1 Ex. 1. Divide by ^ 2a 3 qfo 4. If powers of a?. the term which does not contain x may be considered as a term containing #. The 252. 1 Multiply 3 or +x 5 by 2 x x. 34.2 d . V ra 4/ 3 \/m 33. 2. 6 35. Arrange in descending powers of Check.202 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 32. we wish to arrange terms according to descending we have to remember that. 1.
THE THEORY OF EXPONENTS
EXERCISE
93
203
Perform the operations indicated:
2.
3.
4. 5. 6.
(7r8Vr + r>)(9 Vr7). 2  1 ). (a + a f 1) (a~ + a
2 2 2
7.
8. 9.
10.
11.
(4
a 3
 24 a  9  3 a~ )
1
2
r
1
(a"
 3).
12.
13.
14.
+ + 47i) + 35V5?)*(5Vp + l). VS" ^ ( Vo Vft) H (a~ f 7 a ^a~ + 1C a*b~  33 a 6~ + 14 a(3 a _&)*. (^? + ^/^ + */fr^ 15. 16. (a6 + 2V6c c)^(Va+V6 Vc). 17. y^TTOa; f 13  12 * + 4 aF*.
(13Vp
5
l
(Va^f aV^&Va
l
3
)
3
2
2
^>~
3
2
1
1
)
(
1
18. 19.
Vor
2
2 x h or
2
2 or
1
f
3.
V25 #
 2()"ar r+ 34  12 x f 9 x*.
20.
^^
l
21. 22.
23. 24.
25.
+2
a?
8
(l+4^flO^ + 20oTf 25^T f24\/i?f 16
(1+V2)V2. (2+V2)(V22). (5+V3)(52V3).
26. 27.
)*.
(13VS)(2 + V5).
(VU  V2)(Vn~3V2)
204
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
:
Find by inspection
28.
29.
(x*
+ 3)(tf*f 2).
35.
36.
8 (a;*
yi)
.
a*
+ 3l5.
V2
(5*2*
2
.
30.
31.
32.
38. 39.
(3^
(#* ^
(fl
2*)
f
.
33. 34.
5) (x*
5).
40.
(m
n)
f
(m*
11
f
n 5 ).
CHAPTER XVII
RADICALS
253.
A
radical is the root of
a quantity, indicated by a
radical sign.
254.
The
radical is rational, if the root can be extracted
exactly; irrational, if the root cannot be exactly obtained. Irrational quantities are frequently called surds.
^9
4^
\/2,
(*
+ V) *
are radicals.
= 2, V(a + 6) 2 are rational.
V4af
b are irrational.
255.
root.
The
order of a surd
is
indicated by the index of the
va
\/2
/
.
is
is is
of the second order, or quadratic. of the third order, or cubic. of the fourth order, or biquadratic.
Vc
256. A mixed surd is the product of a rational factor and a surd factor; as 3Va, a;V3. The rational factor of a mixed surd is called the coefficient of the surd.
An
257.
factor.
entire surd is
one whose coefficient
is
unity; as
Va,
Similar surds are surds
3v/2 and 6
which contain the same irrational
are similar.
av^
3V2 and
3 V8 are dissimilar.
206
206
258.
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
Conventional restriction of the signs of roots.
All even roots
e.g.
may
be positive or negative,
VI = + 2
or
2.
Hence
6. which results in four values, viz. 14, 6, To avoid 14, or this ambiguity, it is customary in elementary algebra to restrict
the sign of a root to the prefixed sign.
Thus
5 V4 4 2 V4
= 7 VI = 14.
If the object of an example, however, is merely an evolution, the complete answer is usually given thus
;
=
(oj 2).
259.
Since radicals can be written as powers with fractional
exponents, all examines relating to radicals
may
be solved by the
methods employed for fractional exponents.
Thus, to find the nth root of a product ab we have
T
1
1
(a6)"==a"6"
I.e.
(242).
to extract the root of a product, multiply the roots of the
factors.
TRANSFORMATION OF RADICALS
260.
Simplification of surds.
A radical is simplified when the
expression under the radical sign is integral, and contains no factor whose power is equal to the index.
Ex.
1.
Simplify
= \/25~a~ Vb = 6 a*VS.
4
Ex.
2.
Simplify
v/16.
J/lB^^.
4/2
= 2^.
RADICALS
.
207
261 When the quantity under the radical sign is a fraction, we multiply both numerator and denominator by such a quantity as will make the denominator a perfect power of the same
degree as the surd.
Ex.
3.
Simplify V.
Ex.
4.
Simplify
EXERCISE
94
208
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
/s
37.
39.
j
*x+y
38.
n
\ 2m
262.
An
same manner
imaginary surd can be simplified in precisely the as a real surd thus,
;
42.
V16a
:
,
2
.
44.
2\
Simplify and find to three decimal places the numerical
values of
47.
48.
VJ.*
49.
50.
Vf.
VJ.
VA
263.
Reduction of a surd to an entire surd.
Ex.
Express 4 a V& as an entire surd.
EXERCISE
Express as entire surds
1.
:
95
4V5.
3.
2\/lL
5.
6.
7.
2.
3V7.
4.
3^5.
a VS.
8.
* See table of square roots on page 164.
RADICALS
264. Transformation of surds to surds of different order.
209
Ex.
1.
Transform \/uW into a surd of the 20th order.
Ex.
2.
Transform
\/2,
V3, and
\/5 into surds of the
same
lowest order.
V2 = 2* = a* = '#64. ^ = 8* = 3A= ^gi. ^5 = 6* = 6* =^125.
1
Ex.
3.
Reduce the order of the surd tyaP.
Exponent and index bear the same relation as numerator and denominator of a fraction ; and hence both may be multiplied by
same number, or both divided by the same number, without changing the value of the radical.
the
EXERCISE
Reduce
1.
96
:
to surds of the 6th order
2.
Va?.
fymn.
3.
\/ v
4.
v'c?.
5.
\
z
\
^3
6.
mn.
Reduce
7.
8.
to surds of the 12th order
9.
:
V2~a.
\/a4 6 2c.
\/3ax.
11.
12.
\/oP6.
13.
14.
a.
^v/mV
10.
\/5a5V.
Express as surds of lowest order with integral exponents and indices
:
15.
v/o
5
.
16.
\/oW.
17.
v/IaT .
2
18.
\/
20.
A/^
22.
VSlmV.
24.
V3. ^3. V2. connect them by proper 1. ^/IT. A/3. signs. + . subtract surds. 39. 31.2. \/7. Simplify/a35 ~ o . 32. 36. </2. A/2.2 V50 = V2 + 9 V2 . 27. 33. v/4.e.3\ . </3. v^S. 2\ 3*. 30. ^4. 40. Simplify V~ . I VJ + 3VT8 . </20. To add or form. 38. V3. V2. ^30. 28. ^2. Arrange 35. terms their If the resulting surds are similar. 3  s/ / 3ft 2  3 ^y Ex. 37. v/3.210 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA : Express as surds of the same lowest order 25. ^4. \/5. V5. ^126.2 V50. 3. 5V2. s!/3.10 V2 =  V2. ^6. (i. 3: \/=^8 v~ 8ft 2 s/a. v/3. 26. Simplify V + 3 VlS. VS. ^2. Ex. ^5. 34. Ex. ^7. if dissimilar. 29. ^2. in order of magnitude : \/7. reduce them to their simplest add them like similar add their coefficients) . V2. 4^/4. ADDITION AND SUBTRACTION OF RADICALS 265.
6.RADICALS EXERCISE 97 : 211 Simplify the following expressions 2. VT2 + 2V27 + 3V759V48. 13. V175V28+V634V7. + 3V835V2. 10. . 3.3V20 + 6V5. VJ+V8V1 + V50. 11. 14. V45c3 3 abv'ab V80~c~3 f V5a c + c 2 + 3 aVo^ 3 Va^ . 8VT8J2V32 7. 2V87Vl8f5V72V50. V18+V32VT28+V2. 6. 12. 8.J a6 V4 aft. 9. 4. 4V805V45.
Dissimilar surds are reduced to surds of the same order. Multiply 3\/25^ by 5\/50Y 3v / 2 . Multiply V2 by 3\/l. .2v/6 + IPV6 105. 6*. . 23. 26^ .212 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA . 5 4/6072 = 16^6272.fab V \~\ jab FW MULTIPLICATION QEJRABIQALS 266.100 = f 44 VS6 6 + 44\/36.2 VS by 3 Vf + 10 VB.6V35 106 460V35100 . Ex. Ex. and then multiplied. 2. 3. y* = Ex. 1. the Surds of the same order are multiplied by multiplying product of the coefficients by the product of the irrational factors. 98 ab ^" fab 1 " . Multiply 5 V7 8\/7 6\/7. for a~\/x b~\/y ab^/xy.
VTO. 39. V2 V50. V3 Vl2. 12. 38. 15. (Va Va 36. ( Vm \ 1 Vm) (Vmf 1 6(Vaf Va { Vm). (VmVn) (V3V2) 8 . 213 98 11. Vll. (5V22V3CVS)V3. (V6 + 1) 1 . a?. V5 Va VaV?/ V Vr 16. V3 V6. 41. . 3. (5V58V2)(5V5 + 8V2). (VmVn)(Vm+Vn> 33. 21.RADICALS EXERCISE 1. v/18 v"3. 6. 2. 37. 10. 8. 18. 13. 27. 4. 7. 19. (6V23V3)(6V23V3). 9. fWa 17. (3 20. 6 V4 5. 40 10 30. V20 V30. 28 . V2aV8^. (V2+V3+V4)V3. \/3 \^). 2 . VlO V15.^/2. 14. (2V3) 8 . 34. 25. v/4. 6. aVa.VSS. + VB)(2V5). V42. 40.
Ex. V3 . all monomial surds may be divided by method. a fraction. 47.214 42. Monomial surdn of the same order may be divided by multiplying the quotient of the coefficients by the quotient of the surd factors. (5V2+V10)(2V51). 60. (3V32Vo)(2V3+V5). ELEMENTS OF ALGEHRA (3V55V3) S . 49. E. 48. a VS f a?Vy = \/  x*y this Since surds of different orders can be reduced to surds of the same order. (3V52V3)(2V3V3). 43. 51. 268. 52. Va v/a. (V50f 3Vl2)4V2== however.y. 44. 46. v/a  DIVISION OF RADICALS 267. is 1 2. the quotient of the surds is If. Ex. 53. it more convenient to multiply dividend and divisor by a factor which makes the divisor rational. (2 45.V5) ( V3 + 2 VS). . (5V72V2)(2VT7V2).
Divide 12 V5 + 4V5 by V. by V7. we have V3 But if 1.by the usual arithmetical method. . 4\/3~a' 36 Ex. 3. is illustrated by Ex. called rationalizing the the following examples : 215 divisor. metical problems afford the best illustrations. we have to multiply In order to make the divisor (V?) rational.RADICALS This method. e. + 4\/5 _ 12v 3 + 4\/5 V8 V8 V2 V2 269. VTL_Vll ' ~~" \/7_V77 . . however. Hence in arithmetical work it is always best to rationalize the denominators before dividing. To show that expressions with rational denominators are simpler than those with irrational denominators. 1. Evidently.73205 we simplify JLV^l V3 *> ^> division Either quotient equals .g. .. Divide VII by v7. Divide 4 v^a by is rationalizing factor evidently \/Tb hence. the by 3 is much easier to perform than the division by 1. is Since \/8 12 Vil = 2 V*2. the rationalizing factor x ' g \/2.73205. The 2. arithTo find. /~ } Ex.57735.
if 4=V50 Two binomial quadratic surds are said to be conjugate. A. V8?^ V7 xy T 13 11 n V7 ~ VH 5 2. VffV?. V8 JL. V8 12. The product of two conjugate binomial surds is rational .4142. multiply numerator and denominator by the conjugate surd of the denominator. V2 22 . To rationalize the denominator of a fraction whose denom inator is a binomial quadratic surd.216 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 99 Simplify : 1.7320. Vn V7 ' * 8. ^/H . they differ only in the sign which connects their terms. 14. V5 = 2. Vll 212*. 7. Va + Vb and Va Vb are conjugate surds. 272. V48 25. A. and Given V2 = 1. V3 24 . . 20.. 271. .2361. 23 . V3 = 1. find to four decimal places the numerical values of: 19. V5 270. 2V5 ' 2 V3 o vfi* ' ^ Va 12. 21. i.
217 Simplify 2V3V2 ' V3V2 ~ = 4 + V5.= 18. V82 2V3 1fVS . s Simplify a.1 xVtf a.RADICALS Ex. Ex. V2+2 _ V2+2 2\/2+l_6 + 6\/2. 1. 3. Ex.07105 = 7 7 2V21 2V21 2V2 + 1 EXERCISE Eationalize the denominators of : 100 . .Vs2 .2. .vffi^T _ . Find the numerical value of : V2 + 2 2V21 e .
4142.218 6 . v 2V3 28. : and V5 = 2. 24. 2V5V18 mVm Va 22. INVOLUTION AND EVOLUTION OF RADICALS 273. V52 17 1Va? Vg+v/2 5V77V5 ' V3V2 15. By the use of fractional exponents . V21 = 25 . V32* to 1 Find the third proportional + V2 and 3 f 2V2. four places of decimals 23 . Given V2 1.W3. 19. 27.7320. V5V7 18> ^SVg. = V3 = 1. 6V7. J?_. find to _!_. Vo1 26. V3 + 1 1+V5 _ 3V5 ' V5+2 31. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 13 ~3 V51 14 A 16. it can easily be shown that VcT = ( V) w Hence 3 V25~ = ( V25) 3 .2361. .5 3 = 125.
we must find 8 and whose product is 15. To reduce is two numbers whose sum 5 and 3. V643 . v8f 2\/15. In other examples of involution and evolution. 4. . we had to find problem would be quite simple if presented in the form v52V3 5 + 3. : 101 (3Vmw) 2 . 2. 9. V255 . ( V5 + V3) = 5 + 2 V5~^3 + 3 2 = 8 + 2 VIS. 5. \/125" . on the other hand. Simplify Ex. 2. 1. To find the square root of a binomial square by inspection. the If. 2 12. According to G3. Find the square of EXERCISE Simplify 1. SQUARE ROOTS OF QUADRATIC SURDS 275. viz.RADICALS 219 274. 11. 3. introduce fractional exponents : Ex. 3 (V2~u)  7. \/l6*. 8. it to this form.
6\/2 = ^9 . 12 and whose product is 20. coefficient of the Irrational Write the binomial so that the term is 2. Find Vl2 4. 3. and whose product is 18.6 V2. Find V4 + VJ8.2 A/2 = V9A/2 = 3 . Find Vll .A/2. ^TT. 2 \/18. EXERCISE 102 : Extract the square roots of the following binomials . 2.220 Ex. +2 Ex. The Hence ^11 . These Ex.2 \/20. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA l. is Find two numbers whose sum numbers are 10 and 2.6 A/2 = Vll Find two numbers whose sum numbers are 9 and 2. is 11.
examples to simplify the equation as it is necessary in most as possible. Solve vVf!2a = 2. 277. first involution. much and to transpose the terms so that one radical stands alone in one member. i. : 221 Vl32V22.1. Transposing and uniting. Ex. by raising both members equal powers. If all radicals do not disappear through the the process must be repeated. \/x Vx = + 3 = 7.V48 4 20. member to 2. a. x2 = x f 2. V48 23. r 22.. VT . Radical equations are rationalized. they are transto formed into rational equations. 5. 19. +=.RADICALS Simplify the following expressions 18. * 4 * 2 V6 VT 4.e. (2x xrf 1. 4. Transposing Vsc2 + f 12 12 Squaring both members. The value x =2 reduces each . 4x x = 2. Before performing the involution. Dividing by Check. 8. = xa + 4 x f 4. A radical equation is an equation involving an irrational root of an unknown number. are radical equations. . V4 + V12 RADICAL EQUATIONS 276.
\/4 jc~+~l = 5. . Ex. f 25 = 12. Transposing and uniting. 2. x = J. or = VzMx2 7 x f f 7 x + 9. tion usually introduces a new Squaring both members of an equaThus x 2 = 3 has only root. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBltA Solve V4 x + 1 f V4 f 1 . Therefore CftecAr. Transposing.3. Vitf 4x f 25 f 25 4x f 1 25. viz. 24 \/4 # Transpose V4 x Squaring both members. the roots found are not necessarily roots of the given equation 279. radical equations require for their solution the squaring of both members. It = 3 x . Therefore Check. viz. f V/2TT25 = 5 + x 7 = 12. V4afT~l. V24~+~l = 0. (x 3) (8 x x = 3. tion which has two roots. member =\/2 + jV2=v^. The results of the solution of radical equations must be substituted in the (jlren equation to determine ivhether the roots are true roots or extraneous roots.1) = 0. Factoring. 3. Transposing and uniting. a. 4#f 4 = 9. Solve Vx f Squaring both members. = 9 x2 18 x + 8x 2 25xf3 = 0. 5 and The squaring of both members of the given equation introSince duced the new root 1.222 Ex. a socalled extraneous root. 2 Vx^ Dividing by 2. 5. . an equaSquaring both members we obtain or 1. at . = 12 = 144 24\/4# + 1 = 120. 278. the first member = V2. x + 1 + 2 Vx'2 + 1 x + (. Extraneous roots. they may be extraneous roots. one root. Dividing by 24. . Squaring both members. Squaring both members.
Transposing. 4.RADICALS Hence x If a. . NOTE. Hence there is only one root. 223 x = 3. 4 VxT~0 = \/8 x f 1. Hence x = the only root. Check. V2x' 8 42x43 Transposing. Squaring. is x V. .2 r. \ does not satisfy the given. Solve Vz+T + V2aT+3 = + "b"x f A5_ 15. both members reduce to 5. 2 z 2 4 6 x 4 3 = 144 .47) = 0. for it satisfies the equation . x root of the preceding equation. = } would be a VaT+T Ex. or x *j. the right member = V2. + 6~ieT~3 . 2 Clearing of fractions. * Exclude all solutions which do not satisfy the equation or which make the given radicals imaginary.12 . ViTie 4 z2 . and to 5. If the signs of the roots were not restricted.3) (2 x . . tlie Jeft both members reduce member = 12T V2. Solve the following equations : = G. (x x = 3. Therefore. viz. equation it is an extraneous root.48 x + 2 x2 53 f 141 = 0. = 3. If If x 3 = 3. Factoring.
radical equations may be solved by the method of 238.224 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 280. Solve af*. Factoring. Many 1. Ex.33 af* + 32=0. Therefore .
for 6 and 3 are the roots of the may 2 equation Vx' 8x it positive values. But as the square root is restricted to cannot be equal to a negative quantity. Q . 3. 45 14VJB = . x =6 or 3. or y or Therefore 2 y = 5. 4. = 0. _ 2 y .35 = 0. it will be found that 9 and 1 satisfy the equation. o. This can be seen without substituting. x + Vx a? = 6. + 40 = 6. 2. 225 x = 32~* or 1"* = ^ or 1.*2a. x Since both =9 or 1.8 x + 40 = 36. 3 6. Solve x* 8x x* Adding 40 to both members. Let 8 x f 40 . while 6 and 3 are extraneous roots. = 7.i~24 = 0.8 z40 = 7. some of the roots be extraneous. Vi 2 8a. 412a* = 16. 2_8z 440 = 49. .RADICALS Raising both members to the  power. Ex. 2Va. members of the equation were squared. Substituting. = 26.8 x 2 Hence y' 2y = 35. EXERCISE 104* its Solve the following equations: 1. 2. 5. + 40 = Vz2 $x + 40 = y. make the given radicals * Exclude extraneous roots and roots which imaginaries. y then x2 .f40= 5.
4 V SB* 4 a. 12.f 18 = 24. 20. 2 7a?HV^ 3 7a.a 440 = 35. 18. 16.226 11. 17. 15. a^x2 5 2 13. 19. 2. 14. a. or 2 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 8a f 40 2 V* 2 8. +3= 6. +x . ar fll x 3x 12 V5l? +1 1^7^30 = 1 ^ + G V2^"^I + 2 = 4. 6 Va?~3o~ = y? 3 x f .
even if Q is unknown.2 + 80 = 12. f 8 = (a? 2) x Quotient f Remainder. 2. to x we # = 2 3. Hence.2 + 4.360 = 244. " Or. Let then find the remainder obtained z = 3. could.CHAPTER XVIII THE FACTOR THEOREM 281. no matter If.bx? + ex2 4. ax4 4. 1. Ex. Without actual division.4 a. we make a? what the value of Q. find the remainder when m. then or* 2 and there is a 3 x2 f. does not contain a?. a? R = x* . Without actual division. 227 . substituting Q " and ani^ ^ 2 respectively for Quotient " and Remainder.3 x~ + 4 x + 8 is divided by x remainder (which does not contain a?). 3 2 Ex. then (x 2)Q 0. we can find the value of R by making x = 2. if Q was known.<fo f e is divided by x Let then 2 4 8 ca: f (to + e (x = w. ^ = 381+2. however. assign any value whatsoever and would always obtain the same answer for R. = 2. If x* .2) Q . R = am* + 6m3 + cm2 + tZw + e.2 x 5 by x 3." transposing.3 x + 4 + 8 As 72 (a? . by dividing 3 x* f. E = ax + &z + m) Q.
x*x + 4x Tx + 2\)y x + 2. the divisor is a factor of the dividend. 5 (4x . } 2 by a1.4(. the remainder equals 8 2 x . ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA The Remainder Theorem. 5. Only factors of the absolute term need be substituted . x m is factor of the expression. x* s 2 4. 43 3 E. + 6. fora?.3)f 11 =.g. + 3x3 2x* 32x12 by a?3. EXERCISE Without actual division dividing : 105 find the remainder obtained by 2. of the division 3) is m in place of x. 3. ing x becomes zero x8 3 x2 2 4 when 2 x If a rational integral expression involvm is a is written in place of x.4x411)^0 + 4 ( 3) . x5 a^ 7 b 5 by x 6. The remainder obtained by dividing (x + 4)4 _ (3 + 2) ( X  1) +7 by x  1 is 6* 3 . if 8 42  . The Factor Theorem. + 7 = 632. x is divided by x The remainder 6 sion involving If an integral rational expresm. 3 x2 4) is a factor of x    00 *. hence (x divided by x 4. 8.8'= 0. a100 50 a47 4 48 a2 b. If the remainder is zero.g.949. + ^by x + b.228 282. the remainder is obtained by substituting in the given expression E.8. 2 j 7. a f b 7 by a ^14y ~132/  283.
1. & p*. factors of the absolute term.7 + 16 . + 15. i. 6. f 15 does not vanish. a 8a f 19 a 12.TEE FACTOR THEOREM Ex. Factor a? 15.r6 = 0. Let x = . 2 2. 15. 7 46 = 0.7 x + 15 = 0. ^10^429^20=0.12 = 0. 3 2 : 7. are f 1. then x8 7 x'2 4. Resolve into factors 4.13m + 30 10. 5.1. 9. or x 4. is a factor. 8. x8 By dividing by x a?8 f 1. a^8^ + 19a. The 5. f 3. Let x = 1 then 7 x + 7 a. x 4o8 + 2a^ + 4a?~3 =0 4^ or* f 9 or* 2 a? aj? a? a? 2 4 3 . ^ + 7y + 2y40 = 0. m 4 n4 25 mV + 19 ran 13. a. we obtain 7  7 x2 + x + 16 = (x + l)(x 2  8 a. Therefore x ( 1). 229 1. m f m n 14. _ . oj 5x2 f3a. 106 division. 2m 5m . 23. 1ft : ar*f 6aj 2 o?5ar 3 l + lla. a + 32. 1. 3.12. 4m p~m p + 16m^ 12. x* 34 ar 5 225 is divisible by x 5.49 = 0.7 f 5a 18 divisible by x 2. 21. 20. 7 2 a? 2 f 7a?f 15. a 2a + 4. 5 Solve the following equations by factoring 15. 17. 24. 11. 8 }3 3 2 3 s 2 3 4 8 2 2 4 s 3 t . + ttt15 = 0. f 16) EXERCISE Without actual 1.e. or 5 4 + 3^ . . p 5^ + 8p 4.9^ + 23^15. 25. + 27 + 27. 18. f 5. a? 19. 2. 1. 2o? m 6ra fllm 6. 8. show that divisible 4x 2 j +3x 2 a? 2 2 as 5 is or 2 by is a. a 5x 6.
2.g.y n is divisible by x f ?/. 2 Ex. Two special cases of the preceding propositions are of viz. For substituting y for x. It y is not divisible by 287.230 285. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA positive integer. By we obtain the other factors. Factor 27 a* f 27 a 6 8. We may 6 n 6 either a difference of two squares or a dif * The symbol means " and so forth to. 1. 2. : importance.xy +/). it follows from the Factoi xn y n is always divisible by x y. xn f. 2 8 (3 a ) +8= + 288. Factor consider m m 6 n9 . if n For ( y) n f y n = 0. 286. and have for any positive integral value of If n is odd. Ex. actual division n. if w is odd. xn y n y n y n = 0. x* f/ = (x +/)O .  y 5 = (x  can readily be seen that #n f either x + y or x y. is odd. ar +p= z6 e. The difference of two even powers should always be considered as a difference of two squares." . If n is a Theorem that 1. if n is even.
THE FACTOR THEOREM ference of two cubes. 3.= . x3 8=0. 28. y 3 +8=0. as 27=0. since it more directly to the prime factors. leads 231 is The first method. 26. Hence = (m Ex. Factor a 12 EXERCISE Resolve into prime factors : 107 Solve the following equations: 25.i mn f w 2). f n)(m 2 mn f w 2 )(wi . a. 27. however. preferable.
however. Simultaneous quadratic equations involving two un known quantities lead. & + 2 xy + = 25. + 6 a?V . (4) Hence.y4 is of the fifth degree. *The graphic solution of simultaneous quadratic equations has been treated in Chapter XII. Squaring Solve (1). to equations of the fourth few cases. Hence " /  X y = =} 4. ==5 > 1^ = 4. 4 xy = 16. x y. in general. xy are given. the third one can be found by means of the relation (ojjy) 2 4 xy Ex. xywe have 3.CHAPTER XIX SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 289. (5) Combining (5) with (1). 290. * A I. can be solved by the methods degree. xy x*y f y = 4 is of the second degree. 2 2/ (1) (2) (3) (2) x 4. The degree of an equation involving several unknown quantities is equal to the greatest sum of the exponents of the unknown quantities contained in any term.1. = 6. If two of the quantities x f y. 232 . of quadratics. EQUATIONS SOLVED BY FINDING x +y AND xy 291.
233 y. ' 10. but can be found. " "' "' { r 8. roots of simultaneous quadratic equations must be e. The arranged in pairs. 3. 1. ^. r (" 1 = 876. the answers of the last example are : r*=2. 108 2. In many cases two of the quantities x f y. x and xy are not given.SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 292.g. EXERCISE Solve: 1. F* Lx ' 2 (1) ' (2) (3) (4) 2 + 3 = 293. = . 12. b=3. I I x + y=7.
 f J.o 18. .20) = 0. 19. + 29 = 0. I* Jj ^ [. ( \ ~^V\ + 2 / 2y 2 ?/' . 2 (1) From (1) we have. ' ' . =^ 18* ONE EQUATION LINEAR.?/ i = 6. x " (3) 49 etc.. Substituting in (2) Simplifying.i/ = r 13. 9 y2 17 y 2 + ) 8 (y  40 y (17 y 1 Hence Substituting in (3). one linear and ne quadratic. 5. la.4 [ ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA x 4. can be solved by eliminating one of the unknown uantities by means of substitution. EXERCISE Solve : 109 47/ = 0. 4 y = 20. aj = 2. or y = 1 .~ y = 5. Solve 2 x + 3y = 7. THE OTHER QUADRATIC 294. r^ 2 as ] f.  . Ex.  42 y + Transposing. I x+y = a. 3. 7 . or JJ. A system of simultaneous equations. .a. Factoring. 6 "I 14. ^ f or* f 4 xy = 28.
III. 235  > ' 1 lla 8 12~ 10 13. quantities. 1. 8 V~80 Hence y =1 y .3 2x 2 Ex. 4^ 3 x 2 y 3 y3 A and # 2 2 xy 5 y2 are homogeneous equations. HOMOGENEOUS EQUATIONS homogeneous equation is an equation all of whose terms are of the same degree with respect to the unknown 295. 9.SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS y 7. 4 f + 2 y = 3. ':il e :) . = 1 3 3. the example can always be reduced to an example 296. 3 y2 Substituting in (1). one equation of two simultaneous quadratics is homogeneous. ' x*. If of the preceding type. x2y. y* + 2y = 3. Solve . (1) (2) 7 xy + G if = 0. 3y) : Factor (2). (x to solve the 2t/)(2 x = ( Hence we have two systems (3) (1) From (3). 10.
11 a2 Factoring. the problem can be reduced to the preceding case by eliminating the absolute term. } VI09. j Substituting y in (2). = 0. = Ex. Solve 2.236 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 297. (1) Eliminate 2 and 6 by subtraction. 15 x2 . 2 . = 0. (rc2/)(llx5y) 16 xy f 5 y 2 (3) Hence solve : (2) From (3).2 ^ EXERCISE Solve: 6ar 7aK/427/2 ==0. 109 a. 2. y = 110 f 10^370^ + 7^ = 16^7^ . (3) (4) Subtracting.20 xy + 15 y 2 = 2 x 5. (1) (2) x x 5. If both equations are homogeneous with exception oi the absolute terra.
!. ' <"" =m _ 14 ' &.SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 237 m U.6. Bxy9. . f 1 150 a?. " IV.125 ay = . 298. 2 xy + y2 = 10.3^42^=43. y? a? f . Solve * + '* { Dividing (1) by (2). A. Equations of higher degree can sometimes be reduced to equations of the second degree by dividing member by member. can be solved by special devices. 2 (3) (4) Squaring (2). and others not belonging to them. which in most cases must be left to the ingenuity of the student. E. ' ^ 15.xy 4.175 ay = 12.y = 7. (4) (3). Division of one equation by the other. SPECIAL DEVICES Many examples belonging to the preceding types. 150 */2 . Some of the more frequently used devices are the following: 299.
xy.238 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 111 Solve * : fajy=152.. i" <Vx f ' unknown 6. = 12 J. x 2 . Vx y 4 or V^^y = 3 x 4 or But the negative roots being extraneous. x +y y etc. In more complex examples letter for advisable to substitute another such expressions. * ' 300. = 189. from (2). considering not x or but expressions involving x and as the as x . we have from (1). i ^ *>. Some simultaneous ?/. 2. y = 3. f^ + 3 7/ = 133. Therefore x = 16. at first it is unknown quantities. Solve Ex. quadratics can be solved by ?/. B. jc~ y = 9. we obtain by squaring. (1 > (2) 1. y . Considering V# + y and y as quantities and solving.
The solution produces the roots EXERCISE Solve : 112 5. Hence we have 7 x 4 to solve the two systems U) : x ! + */ = 17. 4. . I e. 6. 239 Ex. F+y+ . 36* 2. Hence = V or = 4. 7.SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS . 2. [2x + : y= 17. Solve (1) (2) Let Then r __ 17^ + 40. M6.
f 18. ' ** 5x+ 7y = 13 ' ' 1 f. 2 or 5 CCT/ + 3 f + 3 . ( xy (7 m 2 n*. = 198. + o5)(6hy) = 80. = y 1 y* .4 y = 47 a. . 25. 16. * . 19 ' 26.240 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Solve by any method : far' 9 + a^lSG. 27. ' x2 1 6 xy = 15.21 ^ = 15. . x 1 20' = 41 400' =34.
. = 48201.  But this equation is satisfied by any is value of a?. as a . 31. 203): ix y Solve graphically (see 40. 30. 25 34. Q 7. INTERPRETATION OF NEGATIVE RESULTS AND THE FORMS OF 5 . oo 301.SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS i 241 y . 3 a2 38. 33. The results of problems and other examples appear sometimes in forms which require a special interpretation. etc. y % 9 f*K 36. . hence may be any finite number. Interpretation .of  According to the definition of division. . . finite  =x y if = x. 7' j/ 39. or ~ indeterminate. etc 302. 32. ~\ OK OO. ^ oo .
The solution x = indicates that the problem is indeter If all terms of an minate. 1. be the numbers. + I) 2 x2 ' f 2x + 1 x(x + 2)= . oo is = QQ. TO^UU" sufficiently small. 1. (1) = 0. = 10. the answer is indeterminate. Interpretation of QO The fraction if x x inis infinitely large. creases. x f 2. (a: Then Simplifying. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Interpretation of ? e.can be If It is made larger than number.decreases X if called infinity. The ~~f fraction . i.e. without exception. (1). great.increases if x de x creases. is satisfied by any number.x'2 2 x = 1. Hence such an equation identity.g. (1) is an identity. i. and .e. . equation. ToU" ^100 a. Or. Hence any number will satisfy equation the given problem is indeterminate. or infinitesimal) This result is usually written : 305. cancel. as + l. and becomes infinitely small. while the remaining terms do not cancelj the root is infinity. . I. Let 2.242 303. however x approaches the value be comes infinitely large.000 a. By making x any * assigned zero. of the second exceeds the product of the first Find three consecutive numbers such that the square and third by 1. or that x may equal any finite number. customary to represent this result by the equation ~ The symbol 304. 306.i solving a problem the result or oo indicates that the all problem has no solution. it is an Ex. the If in an equation terms containing unknown quantity cancel.
* 6. Solve . 1=0. and a. and the sum of Find the numbers. 2. z = 1 Substituting. 113 is One half of a certain number equal to the sum of its Find the number. 3. 4 3 x x5 a2 . y finite QO. 243 Solve the system : (1) (2) From Or. EXERCISE PROBLEMS 1. Solve (aj + 1) : (x + 2) = ( + 3) 114 : (a? + 4). Solve x a.2 y = 4. 42 and' their product is 377. third and sixth parts. no numbers can satisfy the given system. The sum is of squares 2890. the second exceeds the product of the first and third by 2.e. is their 2. (2). EXERCISE 1. .8 x + 15 6. Solve  9 7. two numbers is 76.SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS Ex. Find three consecutive numbers such that the square of 2. The sum of two numbers Find the numbers. = oo. Solve ~o 3 x v ~K 6 x r x 6 4. Hence /.
is is 17 and the sum 4.) 53 yards. rectangle is 360 square Find the lengths of the sides. and the edge of one exceeds the edge of the other by 2 centimeters. Find the edges. But if the length is increased by 10 inches and 12. 146 yards. and the edge of one. 148 feet of fence are required.quals 20 feet. and the side of one increased by the side of the other e. 255 and the sum of 5. and the diago(Ex. Find the other two sides. Find two numbers whose product whose squares is 514. The hypotenuse is the other two sides 7. 9.) The area of a right triangle is 210 square feet. 13. and is The area of a rectangle remains unaltered if its length increased by 20 inches while its breadth is diminished by 10 inches. of a right triangle is 73. p. 10. Find the sides of the rectangle. the The mean proportional between two numbers sum of their squares is 328. of a rectangular field feet. equals 4 inches. 6. is 6. 8. 12. Find the numbers. To inclose a rectangular field 1225 square feet in area. 103. Find the dimensions of the field. two numbers Find the numbers. Two cubes together contain 30 cubic inches. is the breadth diminished by 20 inches. Find the side of each square. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA The difference between is of their squares 325. 190. and the hypotenuse is 37. and the sum of ( 228. Find the edge of each cube.244 3. The sum of the areas of two squares is 208 square feet. Find these sides. The area of a nal 41 feet. The volumes of two cubes differ by 98 cubic centimeters. . 14. the area becomes f% of the original area. increased by the edge of the other. Find the sides. and its The diagonal is is perimeter 11.
irR *.) (Area of circle and = 1 16. and the equal to the surface of a sphere Find the radii. and if the digits will be interchanged. by the product of 27 be added to the number. 245 The sum of the radii of two circles is equal to 47 inches.) 17. differ by 8 inches. Find the radii. is 20 inches. (Surface of sphere If a number of two digits be divided its digits. . Find the number. the quotient is 2. The radii of two spheres is difference of their surfaces whose radius = 47T#2.SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 15. their areas are together equal to the area of a circle whose radius is 37 inches.
a + d. : 7.CHAPTER XX PROGRESSIONS 307.. . 3. to produce the nth term.. P. progression. of the following series is 3. 4.. P. a + 2 d.. a f d. 15 is 9 f. 11. The progression is a. to each term produces the next term. To find the nth term / of an A. The common Thus each difference is the number which added an A..) is a series. + 2 d. to produce the 3d term. (n 1) d must be added to a. and d. . of a series are its successive numbers. is derived from the preceding by the addition of a constant number. P. to A series is a succession of numbers formed according some fixed law. 12... An arithmetic progression (A. each term of which. 10. a 11. a. except the first. f . the second a descending. the first term a and the common difference d being given. 3 d must be added to a. 17.1) d. a 3d..11 246 (I) Thus the 12th term of the 3 or 42. . 309. The common differences are respectively 4. series 9. The first is an ascending.. to produce the 4th term. . 16. The terms ARITHMETIC PROGRESSION 308. Since d is a f 3 d. added to each term to obtain the next one. Hence / = a + (n ..7. 19. 2 d must be added to a.
2J. if a = 5. 6. 9.3 a = l.. 1. 6. . 5. 2*=(a + Z) + (a + l) + (a + l) 2s = n * .. 99) = 2600. of the series 10... 8. 115.PROGRESSIONS 310. series 2. . (a + + (a + l) l)... 5. . 8. 2. Adding. . Find the 10th term of the series 17. 9. = I + 49 = *({ + . Find the 7th term of the Find the 21st term series . 24. 3. 21.. P. series . . 247 first To find the sum s 19 of the first n terms of an A. 8.8.4.. 10. the last term and the common difference d being given.. 1... P. . 19.. = a + (a Reversing the order. 6 we have Hence . 3. 3..' cZ == . 7.. d . Which (6) (c) of the following series are in A.. 3.16. ? (a) 1. 5. (d) 1J. . 3. 1J. 2 EXERCISE 1. first 2 Write down the (a) (6) (c) 6 terms of an A. P. 2 sum of the first 60 I (II) to find the ' ' odd numbers. 6. Find the 12th term of the 4. 2. Or Hence Thus from (I) = (+/)... a = 2. 5. 7. Find the 5th term of the 4. 4^. Find the 101th term of the series 1. d = 3.. 4. 5. = 99.. Find the nth term of the series 2. the term a. = 2. 7.
15. 11. 29. striking hours only. 7. In most problems relating to A. . 1J. 18. 21. and for each than for the preceding one.1 f 3. 7. to 8 terms. 8. . 2. and a yearly increase of $ 120. \n. Sum the following series 14. 1. . $1 For boring a well 60 yards deep a contractor receives yard thereafter 10^ more How much does he receive all together ? ^S5 A bookkeeper accepts a position at a yearly salary of $ 1000. 6. strike for the first yard. . 16. . 33. 13. '. to 7 terms. 7. to 20 terms. 11. 16. : 3. 17. (x +"l) 4.(# 1 2) f (x f 3) H to a terms. 1+2+3+4H Find the sum of the first n odd numbers. rf. 2J. to 16 terms. > 2f 2. 1. + 2f3 + 4 H hlOO. 20. How much does he receive (a) in the 21st year (6) during the first 21 years ? j 311.. 4.5 H + if f to 10 terms. 3. to 15 terms. 31. 22. 23. . 1. the other two may be found by the solution of the simultaneous equations .248 Find the 10. 11. 15. . to 10 terms. to 20 terms. Jive quantities are involved. 15. 11. hence if any three of them are given. 19. . ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA last term and the sum of the following series : .7 f to 12 terms. Q^) How many times in 12 hours ? (&fi) does a clock. + 3. P. to 20 terms. (i) (ii) . 12. 12.
2 (2) From Hence (2). n = 6. 45.e.6 n). 12. = 1014. if s = 204. = 1014. Find the series. the and the sum of all terms 1014.104 w + 408 = 0. 89. 100. 122. 2. Findn. 78. Solving. is 12. From (1). 6 n2 . #. or 11 J.. if a.PROGRESSIONS Ex. 1. P. d = 6. . 56. 23. The series is. J = 49.~n~\ 408 6). 34. 312. (1) 1014 = ^(12 + 144). 144. The first term of an A. 133. a = 49 6(71 . .6.. 3 n2 52 n + 204 = 0. l)e?.1). a = 12. = 13. s 24ft last term 144. P. = a + (w. 78 n Substituting in (1).1) . n d. 49 (1) (2) Substituting. I Substituting in (I) and (II). But evidently n cannot be fractional. P. x=  4 the arithmetical mean between two numbers is equal to half their sum. = n(104 . Substituting in (2). 67. and b form an A. = 144. or 144 = 12 + 12 d=ll. 111. or if x Solving. is Thus x the arithmetic mean between a and a=b x. I. Ex. 204 = ^ (98 . 204 = ^ (a + 49). When is called the arithmetic three numbers are in A. 6. the second one mean between the other two. hence n = 6.
Find d and Given a = 1700. 10. d = 5. s == 440. Given a = . f J 1 1 / . Find d. Find a and Given s = 44. Find a Given a = 7. P. n = 20. produced. 4. a x f b and a b. and s. a+ and b a b 5. 15. man saved each month $2 more than in the pre 18. has the series 82. of 5 terms 6. n = 4. A $300 is divided among 6 persons in such a way that each person receives $ 10 did each receive ? more than the preceding one. n = 13. n. and all his savings in 5 years amounted to $ 6540. 6? 9. = ^ 3 = 1. How much did he save the first month? 19. . Find?. = 83. Given a = 4. = 52. 13.3. Given a = 1. 14. T? ^. I Find I in terms of a. f? . 3. Find n. n = 17. y and #f5y. s = 70. Find w. Between 4 and 8 insert 3 terms (arithmetic is means) so that an A. n = 16. 16. 12. 8. = 17. Between 10 and 6 insert 7 arithmetic means . 17. = 45. = 16. ceding one. = 1870. n has the series ^ j . 78. m and n 2. How many terms How many terms Given d = 3. 7. 11. How much . Given a = .250 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 116 : Find the arithmetic means between 1. I. Find d. 74.
the first term a and the ratios r being given. Therefore Thus the sum = ^ZlD. the following form 8 nf + q(lr") 1 r . 2 arn (2) Subtracting (1) from (2). s(r 1) 8 = ar" 7* JL a... . called the ratio. . rs = s 2 . (I) of the series 16. g== it is convenient to write formula' (II) in *. A geometric progression first.PROGRESSIONS 251 GEOMETRIC PROGRESSION 313. . (II) of the 8 =s first 6 terms of the series 16. fl lg[(i) l] == 32(W  1) = 332 J. 24. is it (G. 2. 36. 12. To find the sum s of the first n terms term a and the ratio r being given.. .. P. 2 a. +1. 4. a?*2 To obtain the nth term a must evidently be multiplied by . P. or. E.arn ~ l . I. 108. r n~ l . 36. Hence Thus the 6th term l = ar n~l . If n is less : than unity.) is a series each term of which.. or 81 315. . The 314. 36. NOTE. The progression is a.. ratios are respectively 3. is 16(f) 4 . ar8 r. 4 (1) .. 4. P. 24. <zr . . and To find the nth term / of a G..g.. except the multiplying derived from the preceding one by by a constant number. of a G.. ar. the first = a + ar for ar f ar Multiplying by r.
Hence the or series is 0. Write down the first 6 terms of a G. series 5. whose and whose common ratio is 4. Find the 5th term of a G. . (b) 1.5. f. 9. + 5..l. 20. EXERCISE 1.. or 7.. fa.18. .*. 36. . l. Hence n = 7. P.. . ? (c) 2. Find the 6th term of the series J. 9. 6. P. 0. volved .. 25. 8. 576. (d) 5. 676 t Substituting in = r6 = 64. series 6. r^2. 36. f.. whose . +f%9 % . .. whose and whose second term is 8. 72. 10. i 288. \ t series . 36. 144. .. And the required means are 18. 1. . if any three of them are given. P.. To insert 5 geometric means between 9 and 576. hence._!=!>. 117 Which (a) of the following series are in G.. 18. is 3.. (it. 2 term 3. .252 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 316. . first 5. 144. series . . is 16.. fa. 9. 676. 4. . 144. 80.6. series Find the llth term of the Find the 7th term of the ratio is ^. P..288. first term 4. .. Jive quantities are in. Ex. first term is 125 and whose common . In most problems relating to G. Evidently the total number of terms is 5 + 2.4. 72. 288. I = 670.72.54.18. the other two be found by the solution of the simultaneous equations : may (I) /=<!/'. P. Find the 7th term of the Find the 6th term of the Find the 9th term of the ^. . a = I. 3. 7.5. Write down the first 5 terms of a G. 4. .
to 6 terms. n = 5. a^. 54.i a9 . to 5 terms. J. 72.J and 270. and hence ~ r .. 25S series : 32. == 160. 36. Find a and Given r = 3. 126. . J. Find a and n = 4. 243.. 2.. 15. 12 terms. . be written If the value of r of a G. J. s = 310... s = 605. to 6 terms. to 7 terms. Find a and Given r = Given r = 2. 27. 48. . 1. 81. . the value The formula for the sum may if n increases* = _ fl flf made taking n sufficiently large. 14. = 3. 13. to G terms. Therefore 8^ = 1 i =1 1 '. to 6 terms. Find the geometric mean between 7. M.nV> i*> !718. Find the sum to infinity of the series 1. P. 4. J. 23. 1. to 7 . INFINITE GP:OMETRIC PROGRESSION 317. 12. to 8 terms.. 19. = 3. + 4 . Z s. n = 5. 42. 22. a. Given r = n Z 5. r . 20. Consequently the sum of an infinite decreasing series is By n less r^Ex. 16 . of r n decreases. . I. 14. 24.PROGRESSIONS Find the sum of the following 11. Prove that the geometric mean between a and b equals Vo6. 21. 81. Find a and 4. may be than any assignable number. . >"> . is less than unity..
118 : infinity of the following series 3. P.. 7. 12.. ..3727272 . of all squares ? . ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Find the value of . is J. of: 11. 14. = a . P. Find the sum to infinity. is 16. = . . the diagonal of each equal to the side of the preceding one.)7?7272 ... 250.00072 f . 13. i.27777 . 6. The sum Find the of an infinite G. first and the common term. . ratio 15. 16. 8. .717171. i i J.. 16.. = 990 .37272 . .. is 9... 1.. what is (a) the sum of the areas. Find the value 9...01 ^ . 4. 1. 1 r = .. 66 Therefore . If the side of the first square is 2 inches....555. 3. .072 + . r = j.= ... 12.254 Ex. 40. . .. 1. Given an infinite series of squares. .. 6..072.. . . If a = 40...99 . 4. . 9. 8.272727. and the first term is Find 17. . 5. 65 = 1L 110 EXERCISE Find the sum to 1.= _4Z* . I. The terms afteAhe first form an infinite G. 1. 10.3 + . Hence . The sum r... P. 100. . =A+ 10 i.72.... (6) the sum of the perimeters. .. 9. 2. . . 5.3121212. 2. = .1. of an infinite G.191919.Ql...
10. 26. 15. (a + b) . 25. . 16. 5. . 12.a2) 25 Find the 5th term of f Vx + ^r 18. 17. Find the middle term of (m ri) 16 Find the 99th term of (a + b) m im Find the 1000th term of . (\ 9 .b) w (a (a f (1 . 4 (1+V#) + (1 Va) 4 . : (1 + xy. 2 2 24. (a 100 . Find the 3d term of fa f V ^Y Va/  19. Find the 5th term of Find the 3d term of + b) . . . 4 7. a4 b 12 in (a f 6)16 Find the coefficient of a5 b 15 in (a . (z2 ^ Simplify 9. Find the 6th term of (x . 20.6) 20 . Find the middle term of f f x }\8 : ) 27. 28. (s + i). (a2) 6. (xy) : 6 .b ). 7 .6) . 4. Find the coefficient of a?V" in (a Find the coefficient of 23. /2a+Y\ 8. coefficient of . 11. 29. a6 8 16 in . 14.BINOMIAL THEOREM EXERCISE 119 257 Expand the following 3. l 2. 21. Find the Find the u 13 coefficient of a?b in (a f 5) . Find the middle term of (x + y) 4 Find the middle term of (a b)\ . + a) Find the 4th term of 7 (a f 2 b) . 22. Find the 4th term of (w Find the 5th term of 12 ri) 11 . 13.
1.f ac 1. 4. 1. 2. 2 . 7. 5. 1. 4. 1. 5. 3. *=M  M 3J f 2 2 ] 2 ] 2 1 3 1 3 1 M. 1.  2.  8 ^ 2. 3. 2. 1. 3. 3. 2. 1. 4. 2.258 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA REVIEW EXERCISE Find the numerical values 1. 2. 2. 5. 2. c = = = 2.a(a 4. c if 7 .c )(fta) 1. 3. 3. 4 2. y 3. 1. 5. 5. 2 (2 a  3 aft f 4 2 ft ). 1. 3. 2. 2. if x^l. 5. 2. i (aft)(ac) a 6 (ft. + 1. 2.  2. 1. 1. 2. 2. . if = = = 2. 4. ft 4 ) 5.] a 2^ aft + r 3 a l} 2 be 4. of : 27 x* ~ 27 xy or f 9 xy~ 1 # 8 . 3. 1. + 2. 4. 2. 1. 4 (2 a  13 a a b + a ft 31 a 2 ft 2  38 3. 3. 3. 2J 4J 16 x* 32 afy 24 afya 1. 5. 6. 4 ft  c) 2. 4. 2. 2. 4. 3. (ca)(cft)' 4. ft) . if a ft c = = = 4. 2. 3. 3. if y=2j 2. a8 + ~T 3 2 ft' a2 + + 3T r C + + c2 + 2 . 3. 1. 5J lj 2j 3} 8 4j y 8 . 3. 2. 1. 2. 3. 2. 5. 1. 2. 6. + 2. 3. 3. . 5. 3. 2. 24 4. l. 3. 2. 3. 3. 6. (c 3. 4. 2. = 2.  a)(a 1. 1. 6. a ft c = = 2. + c(a  c). ^+^ 3. 1. 4. 2. 4. if = = 2. aft 3 + 4. (ft c)(c 4 ) 3. 4. 2. 4 *2  4 xy  4 ^+ a: ?/ 2 ?/ + 2 3. 2. 2. 1. 3. 4. 3. 6. 5.
a) .1.8 3 + 7 x4 . 11 x 8 + 14 x^ij . 9. 3. ' b) + 3. 4. by The and c is represented radius r of a circle inscribed in a triangle whose sides are by the formula Find r.2 x2 . 18. 17.r 6 x  4 xy .2 x?/. 4 z . 5.x 5 4 .a 4 . 8 . 2. Add the following expressions and check the answers : 10. 2 a3 7 y4 3 // f ax'2 . 2. f 8.7 + . ~c)(b. x C 4 4x y + .2 a?y + 3 aty .2.10. a. = 2. 15. 6. and 3 y 8 f 12 z 8 . 2  + 12 a 8 .c' 2 4 / . 21. 7 xy 3 . a. if a 6 = = c = 3. c)(x a} . 12. x 3 11. xy 2 12 xy* + G y4 4 xy*  zy + 12 xy*  4 y4 . 10. 1 + 3 x + 2 x 8 . . a 4 + 11 a . 3.  2 x 2// + 3 2 x?/  7 y3 . or . 4. 2. 2 2 x2 + and 9 2:2 y' xy.a8 . 10 z 8 12  6 2 8.11 x 5 12 z 7/ 3 ary.4 yz\ 7xy* + z 3.3 xyz.' 4 x2 2  5 z3 8 . 2 . . 5. 16.  a) (c 2. 24. . 4 y 13.7 ys. c(x (c g)(x 6) = 1. 9. + 3 y 2* . 4 a 5 9 4 2 */. 2. 26. b(x (b 1. x 2 +  2 ax* f a zx + 2 ?/ a8 . 11 z 4 x4 12 17. 29. 8. 2 x 8. 6 y4 y 4 + 3 z8 .4 xyz + 4 xy'2 . 4 x 4 . x 3 x' 14.x 2 + 4 2 ~ 10 z 2 + z 2 + 11 yz + 8 2:2 . 7y 4 .11 z 3 4 4 ?p 2 .a 5 a .8 y y 5 4 * 8y.4. a /> 3.5 xy 3 + + 4 . a: . (5. x3 f 3 ax'2 . 4. 4a + 9 a2  3 a5 . 20. r> .2 z8 4 x. .\ yz + xz.259 x c) . x3 2 a2 .8 + 2 // . c = 3. x = 4. 1. 15. + 4. 1. 25.3 a?y .5. 5. 41. 21. + 8 x4 *y .4 x'2 f 12 x and 5 2 + 7 x8 . + x/y 2 + + y'2z + 2 3 x 10 y'2 + 5 z2 . 5. 6 a4 4 a8 . 7. + 1.2. 40.7 y 2* 4. + 4 ?y . + 2.
Take the sum 4x 4. 3 x Subtract the difference of x 8 4 .#48. 7 12 .1 and x 8 G 11 4 3 x2 +  from G x2 4 x. Simplify 31. 4 2 x8 x 4 4. Take the sum of G a8 4 4 4 a 2x 4 . . take the sum of G x 5 .] 26.2) . 5 10 + 7 . (/) a +  ft 4 6 +  rf.c. From of 2 the 4.x .5 . 542 x 2 and .(x* . and a 2 ft 4 ft 3 c take sum  2 c 4 2 a and 2 a 5 x c.3 x .3. 3 x2 133ft[l7a5ft^[7fl3ft{4fl~4ft(2a3ft)}]]. .4 x from the sum of 9 x 2. 3 4 5 10 2  7 12 . 2 x 32. ft. Find what expression added the ft to 3 x 2 2 x 4 3 will give 27. 2 xy 4 the ^V 4 G x5 From take 4 sum sum 2 c of .(4 * . and .3 .27~~7)}].5.c 3 a. / x5 2x 4 # 3 y5 G x a 4 3 5 x*.4 Vl 4.?> x 4 20. 5 10 4 G 11 4.(a . (*) a  c. and 7 x a 2x 2 ax'2 4.4\/i + x 3Vl 4.2 _[5ft{^ 2 8 4 x* . . and d= c c 4 x4#4z </.{2 x 2 . 6 VI ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 4X5V14.x 4.{G * 2 . Add 9 Ifcc 2 7 12 .4. . a  ft + c.4) . .c 4 3 a.a ft.(7 x 4. the From sum of 2 1 sum 2 c of ft 4.x 2 4. 4 2 x2 23.3 x 3 from G a 8 2 a 2x  4 x8 22.2 3 ax 2 .4 ft) 4.8 3 4. and 2 Vl 4*/ 2VT+7 . and a ft 4 ft 3 c take  6 a.[3 if  (3 _^ ft 6 ft f c)}] a: . 5 4 7 12 . 35. x'2 .(5 y .2 x 8y2 44 . 33. 4vTT~y 3.6 x ] . and 4 4 2 xs 4 and 5 x 3 y 5 .x2 . 36. 29.2 a .1). 34. 3 ft. 4 3 5 y/ . 0" 30.6T . 4 .c. : a x .2 .2 .[4 z 8 . Take the sum of 3 x 4.(5 c . of 2 x 8 4 4 x2 4 9 and 4 x . ft 25. 7 x x the ft 4 x2 11 x. of a.(4 x 2 . = x y ft z. sum of .. 4 3 From 44 the 3 // and G x 4y 2 x2 2 .5 10 b 3 \ G 11 = ft x4y42.3 .4 x 8 from ax 2 4 6 x8 4 21. 4 4 4. f ft. x8 x2 2 a'2x. c 4.1)}] .(x 4.n/ 4 4 12 x 5 4 4 x?y 4 2 x6 f 4 x 4 ?/ x// 5 ?/ .x .260 19. c =x y }~ z. [4 I 2a47c(7ft44c)[6a3ft4 2~c44c{2a(ft2T2)}]. 2 x2 + 2 y5 24.7.[4 x 4. c 4ft. 2 c  2 a  and 2 a 3 x2 28. find (a) a (ft) (c) a 4(</) 4. .
2 <?)} 13 ft ft _[&{2c(3d + Perform the operations indicated 47.  2 a  {3 2x a .{2 a (ft .(2 x2 .5 )}] + {4 c .5)} + (3 a 2 .be) (a 58. . 7 a 2 261 {5 2 a2 2 a + (2 a 2 i j 38.2c(V/ .12).* 2 + (x + x + l)(a: (z 1). (.Z .(2 a + 5 a .0)} .1).3). 51. 2 52.3 yz)(2 a (* 2 ft ft ft ft ft ft ?/ ft ft ft ?/ a: 61.b (c . (x 2 + 4 y 2 + 3 z 2 ) (. a {.JT^T+1)} + (2 .[0 a 5a + 2 c + 4 c . a . + 4x + 5)(j. 50. 2 53. )(lz a ). 48.{3 c .3T~2~s)} + 5 2].(6 . 45. . .3 c)]. .c).56.(7 i + 4 r:) . 56.ab . 64. 57.REVIEW EXERCISE 37.{2 a .r 2:c+ l)(ar.2a .3 a + 3 + aft)(a + 3). 4 + 2 2 + 1).2)(1 . 65.rf)} + a [.7).96 [17 a. (x .a~^~c)K].r 2 + !>ar + 3)(^ 2 .& + {. 3 x 42. 2 2 x + !)(* .3 *). .(7 a. +  ^+ y)(x 2 ) (x + a 2 )(a: 4 + a 4 ).4 a 2 + a 4 ).(5 y . 54. (a 2 + 2 + c 2 . (ar + 7)(ar + 5)(a: + 3). 68. 13 a . (4 + 3a 2 . 67.6)}]. 'J 44. .[2 . 2 ft 41.3~ft f 2 c + 4 ^ . (a 2 + 2 + 9 . 59.e '/)}] (2a + 2b . (x.ac .(2 .2x + 3). . 63. . 5a(7ft+4c) + [6 a. 46. (a 2 + 2 + c 2 + aft + ac .ary + 2) (^ 4 ?/ *V + *)(! + ar)(l + ^ 2 )(1 + **). (. 2 a) (2: + 7/ a)(x 2 2 66. (5 a 39.2 2 + 1)(7.[4 x  5 . (4 z 2 + 9 2 + ^ 2 .(4 d . (/> 4 .(2 a 2 .3)(*5)(* 7).3c).c 2 .4 a . (2 x 2 3 ar+ 1)(3 z 2 x+ 1). 43.2 2 . 2 : 7e)a}]. (a:2)(r4)(a:9).[7 a 36 {4 a 46 (2 a 3 ft)}]].6 xy .6c) (a + f c).2 zz . + 2)  (4 x 2  2 x 7)}].6 x + 5 x'2) (2 . (1 55. . (1 ar+a. 2 f [3 c 7 a .[3 y [2 ft 2 z + {4 (3 a ar 40.3 z 2 ). + *+!){> + 2). 49. 60. (r (1 (a. 62.
c) 2 .(4 . 84.2 ft}) f (3 a . 79. 75. ft 78. + (rtP+i 4 2 6)(a^+ .v) 4. 8 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA (a 2  z 3) (a 8 2 a + z 3 )(a 6 2 + a: 6 ) (a 12 a (a  + l)(a 2 f 2a + l)(a + + ( a: 12 ).ac b + n~ + /? 2c n ft n an b c)(a"* ?n + + c). . (p 2 . 94.am&t 4 A 2 *).2ft) 8 ( + 2 ft).r3y)4l)y( a :y)^2y)418 // (2ry)46 8 // .ft) 4 .9y2).a) 2 . . 85.(x 42 y) O 2 4 y) (^ 44 y ).(/>  3 v)^(. 89.262 69. xy y 2 ).r 2 . 2 + a 2 ). b 4.y'*4y 2m )OK y I)(a m ). 93. p(p + ?) + 4 A) (a . 86.x + y + z). (.(ft 4.c) 4) (ft 4. . 71. 82.z) .c 8 4 3(6 c)(c 4 a)(n + 2 ft). a(2 + 4 3ft) 2 (2a 4 4 8 ^) .6*y . 77. 74. ft 8 ft) 4 ft 8 4.3y) a (* 2 4.c .c)} . 76.(^ 4 y 2 )  4 ^/(. 4.(a 48 8 8 4.a) (2 + 7(7> ~ 'y) 2 4.2y)(. (a 2 ft 2n 4.ft) + 4(2 . 83. 91. ft ft ft a}.z\x 4.c) j.<f(p . 1). ft /. 2 (x 2 .c . ar . 4 (a + ft)(a 2 81.y).y + z)(x + y . (a (2 b)*(a 4.{3 a .m np c . 87.:y)( a.y)\x y).c c 2 4 2 am 20 (??2 + : n 6 f p ) (w .2 (a .O (a 4(a 4.c)]. (x (x ( + *) . 90. 92.n pc).> 2 2 + 2 3 9). by multiplying out each 4 side of the equality. 73. (a) (a (ft) a8 4 ft 8 4.z)(x y + z)(. O (x (a 2 + 4 y y) 2 a J 4 .q). 88. 4 4 .2 (y 4.b 4.c) rr identities. _ ft) (a: + a)(x + b) + (bc)(x + ft) (a: 4. f 72.(c 4.a) (a? 4(c 4 y) (y c)(ar 2 ft + 8 a).(a 2) (s 4 ft. Prove the following 8 4.3 (ft . 70. a (a 2 2a + + " 4 l)(u 2a n f (:r a. (x 4 2 y) (2 ^ 3 y)2(/ y) (^ 3 V)  . ft" l Simplify 80. 3[a{2 a (a 4ft 4 2 2 ^>) c) 44 a2 a8 4 2 4. ft 95.c) . 1).(a? 4 y)*(x  y).3 a .c) .5 .
*) (x 8 . [10( 4. 1O4. . 122. (4 4 3 a  4  5 a 3 . Cr (z 27y l9a:y) (a:3yy 6 ) r 2 (a: 4 xy 4 y 2 ). (a 8 ^4 + 8 & 8) (  2 2 119.r 4 4.&) 8  5(a n 4 2 6) ] 5(a 4 &) 6 (a 4.2 y 2 ) 3 xy (25 . (8 x* 115.40 />) . 2 4 41 x 4a.(x 2 .2y 2 4.1). 2 (a+ . 105. 110.3 a"+ 4. 117.9 x 2 . 4 (6 x 4 23 x s 33 z 43 42 a.(y 2 ~ (a 2 ) 5 y 6 a  12).y 4 ) . 120. 102.2 2% 4. a*. ( y 8_o7)^^2 + 3 y + 0). .35 x 2 2 ) . 4 (a 8 44 16 a 2 4 4 256) s ~4 2 (a 4 4a ^ 4 16). 25 4 . 121. 118.y 2 ) 4 a 2// 2 /> 8 a.5 b*).) . 124. 1).y 2 4. 109. 113.6 ) (a** (a (x 10 3 J 1 a  1). 26 (a 4 c).5 xy). (80 a 112.xy 4.27 x* . 10). 114. 20) * (3 a* 4 4 a? + 5).&). 103.y 4 . O3a n O2a 4~ i O4a 2a T (3' 3m n ~*~ 3 3n 3") 3". (2 y 44 2 y 2 4 02 y 23 a 4 3 16 y a 50 4 48) 2 111. (.16 a 6 4.v/ ~ // = a: .REVIEW EXERCISE Simplify : 263 96.a".2 xy 8 . (a 8  8 68 8 4.4 aft . (2< 107.(7 xi/ . 108. (20 x*  4 72 x 2  35 4. 99 100. 106.c 4 6 afo) f + ^ 4 ).(a 1 2 8 . 3*. r .b) 98.21 x*if) (4 ^ 2 .'30) ~ (4 ^  5 x 4 10). 123.5 a 21 (10 a 4 5 a*) Qafl^ = 5 a*. (x* 4 9 ax 8 44 12 .6 y 4 4. 116.(2 a 2 .
5). 2 4(ar .(j a? 144. (*+ + . with 8 as remainder? Solve the following equations and check the answers: 133. 5 146.3). 128. 142.2(5 . remainder when a 4 3 a b B + 12 a 2 6'2  b* is divided By what expression must a: f 3 be multiplied to give 4 x*7 8 a*b + 4 a 131. By what expression must 3 a 2 ab + & 2 ? be divided to give the quotient 3 a 2  2 6 2  8 ttfc 8 + 2187? . 139.2 7^~5] + 1).3 a:).3(2 z . 1 o + 5 + 1=15.2 {3 8)} ^ 5(13 4(j = 5{2 x . 3(2 x 134.3) = 12 .2(10 x .18 *&) (1 .(1 .3(* + 4) + 9} . 148.19) + 5 = 4 .3).12 M 132.2(j: .2) = 3 .5{. 10(2 x 141. x 147.(x + 3) ] . 149.7(4 * .  9)  7(0 x a?  32) + 5 = 4x  3(2 j  3). y (* l x.264 125. 1) .9) 4. .27 a 3" .2(4 .3 x). .r>) .5) = 12(4 x . 7(2 x . By what expression must x* + G x2  4 a: 1 be divided to give x2 + 5 # 9 as quotient.(3 a? 2 [2 x + (x 4.4(0 x . . 129. (5a: 150.3 a#z) (ar + y + s).8 6 .9) + 3.4) .4) .r + 7[or .(9 x + 10) (a:  3) .G) . (1 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA + a8 3  G ax z8  8 z 8) 5 (1  a  2 x). 1) = 2(* .3 a (1 + * l l 1 3 f 2 &).7) = 4 . 136. 143. 135. 138.3) (3 x 4. 137.(x . . 10(2 x 5 x + 3(7 x . What is the 2 by a*ab + 26 ? 130. 126. 42(3ar 145.1) . .x+ + x a ) ~ (x a + + x).a:)]}.1) (a? .n .2) + 2(ar + 4). . 2(3 x + 4) 8 [2 (a: . (4 x .22. . 3) = x\x .7) = (7 x  1 1) (3 x .l)(ar + 2) (a: (ar (2ar 2 4} = 2(3 x . 5(2 x .2) (a: + 3). 127.(x f 9). o o 140. 3) a: a: a: +?+4= o 13.
5) = (3 .2) (7 *) + (*. and the third twice as many as the first. = 15. The second contains 3 first.8) = (2 x 4.2) (j? + 1) + (x .) readings of a thermometer into Centigrade readings is C.4) (a . sheep are there in eacli flock Y The second of the three angles of a triangle is 180. 265 152.19) + 42. By how much does 15 exceed a ? How much must be added to k to make 23? 167. + 5) = (9 .2 x) = (1 .76. =  (F 32).24.5 x) = 45 x .29) 2 = 1.(5 x .. these two angles would be equal.9) + (a. + 2) + (5 . If the area of the frame inches. 165.3) (3 . . 159. The sum What 171. transformed into F.2(x ~ 1) + 12 = 0.17) 2 + (4 x .T)O . 158. sheep more than the 169. . how wide is the picture ? surrounded 108 square is 172. will produce F. Find five consecutive numbers whose sum equals 100.1) (s + 3). (2 . 162.REVIEW EXERCISE 151. 155. + 4) (2 x + 5). (b) At what temperature do the Centigrade scale and the Fahrenheit scale indicate equal numbers? (c) How many degrees C. = 2 C. angle of a triangle is twice as large as the first.? . 153.2). There are 63 sheep in three flocks. 160. (3 O + . (a) If C.25) 2 .a:) + 229.1) O + 4) = (2 * . 166. (a. A man is 30 years old how old will he be in x years? 168. 2 4 .14) (a: + 3).6 x) (3 .l)(z .3) (3 . ^ + ?=13 + 2o 10 o .(* + 2)(7 z + 1) = (* .3) (j.7) (a. + 10) (ar . 154.5*) + 47. . 5(ar x .5(x . . 161.3) (a: . and if 15 were taken from the third and added to the first. find the value of F. are the three angles? is A picture which is 3 inches longer than wide by a frame 2 inches wide.3) = (3 x . 163.j Write down four consecutive numbers of which y is the greatest. a: ar a. + 5) 2 (4a:) 2 =r21a:. f^ + ^sO.7) (1 x . 164. (7 14 .2 x) (4 .3)(* (ar 2 7)  113. . 157. (x (x a.5)(. How many 170. (a . 156.z) (4 .r + 3) .2) a + 7(x . The formula which transforms Fahrenheit (F.
15 m. The length is of a floor exceeds its width by 2 feet. 3 gives the same result as the numbet multiplied by Find the number. Four years ago a father was three times as old as his son is now. A house has 3 rows of windows. + 11 ~ 6.266 173. An The two express train runs 7 miles an hour faster than an ordinary trains run a certain distance in 4 h. A boy is father. 12 m. and the middle row has 4 panes in each window more than the upper row there are in all 168 panes of glass. Find the number. father. 180. number divided by 3. 10x 2 192. 6 in each row the lowest row has 2 panes of glass in each window more than the middle row. A the boy is as old as his father and 3 years sum of the ages of the three is 57 years. 186. . 181. respectively. 7/ 191. was three times that of the younger. the sum of the ages of all three is 51. 13 a + 3. 179. and 5 h.56. Find the age 5 years older than his sister 183. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA A A number increased by 3. two boys is twice that of the younger. z 2 92. if each increased 2 feet. 189. How many are there in each window ? . dimension 182. side were one foot longer. 4 a 2 yy 42. A each 177. train. aW + llab2&. the ana of the floor will be increased 48 square feet. 176. The age of the elder of it three years ago of each. What is the distance? if square grass plot would contain 73 square feet more Find the side of the plot. same result as the number diminished by 175. and the father's present age is twice what the son will be 8 years hence. 190. is What are their ages ? Two engines are together more than the of 80 horse 16 horse power other. 188. Find the dimensions of the floor. ll?/102. and  as old as his Find the age of the Resolve into prime factors : 184. . 178. power one of the two Find the power of each. younger than his Find the age of the father.36. 3 gives the 174. sister . 2 2 + a _ no. 187. x* 185. +x 2. + a. . z 2 + x .
212. 3y 248.14 2 . a: 236. + 2 . 207. ifWy+b. 218. + G *2#2 + 9 x*y\ 6 x* + 5 a:y . y 2 194. 202. x* + 8 2 + 15.r?/f y 2 9.(b + rf) 2 . 7a 228. 2a te 3% ly 247. 211. a: 231.8 6 2. 2 . 23 12. *2 234. 221. 2 a 2 . a. 15 x 2 + 26 x a . 9a4a6 (a 2 + b . 2 a: 2 + 4y2) 2 + 240. 267 199. 224. 216. 5 x 2. a 2 .3 c/> + 6 cq. 206. 14x 2 25ary + Gy 2 3 x* x 2 . .20 z 8 a: 220. . 233.x + 1. 230. . + 8. a: 4  a: 2 a: V 2 . 60 a 2  a: // 205. 195. 2 a 8 .(a + z2 ) 2 (a 2 3 (x (r + y + a.c) 2  (a .3 xy.c) 2 . x 219. 246.xm y + xym  + (a c)  (c rf) 242. x 5 . a.21 a:  54. 215. a. a+a* + o a +l. 7x 2 225. 24 2 + 2 .6 aq . 209. + 30 x.1. 3y 2 + ary .22 z + 48.6. 2 x 2 . 3 ap 2 . 5 ?/ + 1 1 a*b .10 y a x* .REVIEW EXERCISE 193. (13z 2 5# 2) 2 2 2 (a 6 (12 c 2 ) 2. wiy + la mx + aw. 2 200. 3 x 2 .64.10. 235.a 2/A 214 12 x*y . z + 5x 2 . 2 afy 13 28 a: ary + 66 y. 210. 2  5 xy 13 y a. + 198.12 * . 6 197. a^a 226. (a + . 208. 201. a. 245.19 a . 2 + x 2 ) 2 . 239.28. 4a 2& 2 241. 213.3 xf + 3 * 2y . + 3a 196. 16x 4 81. 217. 222. # 2  29 y + 120.6s. . xm+l 243.y) y) 6 a 2 + 5 a . 4 f yx* + z*x + z*y. .77 y + 150. 232. x*y 223. 238. 244. 11 2 + 10 20 x 4 .6 2 ?/ . 227. . 8 a: ar. 203. 8 a. a a: a: 237.19 z 4 204.6 y2 + 4. a: .10 xy. 2 2 y f 1. 3 x V . 12 x +4. 4 m +^. . z 2 2. 229.
259. Reduce to lowest terms 271.17 x + 6 * 14 273 P a 5y>+4.x .11 a 2 . _ 40 y 2 272 f f 2 !8a: .120. 10 a. x*y* 4.M. x 2 4.C. 3 a% 2 . a 4.23 x f 20. C.9 xy + 14 y 2 ar ar a: .10 a 4. z 2 268. 3 #2 255. 30 ^ . 5 x 2 256. + 8.80. * a .r + a# + az f 2 6z fry 4.48 afy 2 . x 2 263. 264. * 2 . + 23 x f 20. 269.4. .r .11 x f 28.2 z .13.&z.2 ax 2 + 2 for 2 . z 2 267. 258.ry 21. 2 2 + 39 xy 4. + 8 x + 5. * 2 . x* . a.18 ry + 32 y 2 2 .3 x .9 x . 2 z 2 f 13 x + 1 5. + 3 x + 2.6 by.(55. 260.8. x 2 f 9j: + 20.a + 2 4. 7 12 2 2 . 252. 2 x2 .2/ 2 . 3 ay 4. ft a.15 + 30. 6. 7 ax 250. 2 . x* . 8 xf < 3 xy + a. 254.1 9 . 22x2 a. : x2 4 a: ~ + a. 1 x ar Find the L. x 2 . F.a 2 />c 2 f 3. 28 2 f 71 x . 10 x 2 . x 2 + 2 x .16 x . a? a: a: // 262.G7 x f 33.18 xy + 5.9.73 xy .23 + 12. of: 266. a: .268 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 249. 15 # 2 z/ /. G(x+  l)'\ 9(x 2  1). + 20 x 4. 2 8 .5 ab f 2. ^27/7 + 12 2?6 28 x 2 12 Jr 2__7^/_ J/ 2 + 3 . x 2 + 4 + 3.4 ab + 1.7 f 5.14 bx a%% 8 . 8 2 + 10 x . 18 x 2 .3 abc .2 aft*.15. x 2 + 5 f . * 2 . 261. I Find the II.ry . 2 a. 270.9 x + 14.77 + 77 ' 2?5 5 ' 2 5 a: 2 7 .91.10. of: 253. a 3 a 2 2 . 2 + 7 r f 2. 257.12.36. 265.3. 251.
9 286 1 1 + 2* 3 x f *2 ar + a .!/..2 22 + 2 2 yz 4 2 zx 2 + ary _ _ 22 _ 292 ^  ?/. 289 ' .J' 4 2 2 w mp .(y 2 z) * t (j. m 4. y)' z2 283 t 290 ' x'2 2 y* + z2 + 2 0:2 291 *2 + y 2 + 0.2* + 3 x* 280. _ "* m ~n w 4 + 2 7w% 2 f sa .2c a: 282.n 2 )P * 287 " 281 2 q^( 2  a: 2 ) m 288 ' .  9 ' 2Q4 4 *2 ' 8x+8 ' 278.rL.ar 1 279.. 8 . + ac .REVIEW EXERCISE 277 8 agg 269  6 a. a. 285 z4 n* + a. z2 (a 2 + c)a. fr 293 ' y <? 294 2 2 2 + 2 cV + 2 a 2^ 2  4  ft* ~ c4 295 296 ' 297 ' . *2 " 2 + Oge.
a (: a) (x 2. 4 3 301. (a 1 1 + a b c) (a + ^ ct) (a + a c)(a f e) 304. * 19 23 19(23 23. 6) _ ~ i 305. _L + 12 x 1 + 35 1 307. O(ca) 306. X2 (ca)(ai) 1 x2 4 (a +9 i_ 20 a . ^n m+n "*" + n) 2 g 309. + 19) 2Lz + 3 x " 2 99 ' i x +4 *3 a +7 300. x 7.270 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA : Find the value of 298 23. ^_2*(m 308. ^. x + 3 ^ "" 310 x a: 2 a: 2 2 a:  17 a:2 ar3 x 2 5a:i6" . Lnl + ar 2 a. a? __ + *_ + + la?la? * a l 303. (a: 1 + l)(ar + 2) (x + l)(ar + 2)(* + 3) 302. x x ~~ +^ i ^ ~ ''^ . 2 + 7 _ 44 3.
. Dx x(l *) * 8(1*) 4(1 +*) 2 8(1 + 4(1 . 2 + y 2 319.ft) 2 322. 2ft 2 a8 3 314. ( ftc g~ft ( 6_ c) 2_ (a. _ x8 .+ a 10 z 2 2 *2 9*+ 20 *2  8* + 15 315. (a? 4 2) 317. 1a: + y a._ '(a6)*(a:r)a 323.(a . a: 1 313. 1 _. . } . 1 x2 + + a.2 1 f 1 + : *2 1  2 x' 316.*) + * 2) 321  c) 2 .. (1 . nl g(jL+ 2 ) ^^^_ 318.BE VIEW EXERCISE 311. i 271 + b a2 + ft 2 312.
2 a2  2 a  ' 03 i^+^T 42 ^2 _ l5rt~+~54* 327 8 ' ^ . 2 lOx 5x.ll. * 3a.5 a . . a: 2 x* . 20 44 333..272 Simplify: ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA ~ 324.. 4 y2 2 5 x8 2 z6 3 y 10 a: 2 + 8 2 .V  + y  x 3y a .2 y2 ' 334 *2 ' + 2 y 8 a. 2 ^ "" 1B x + 40 y *2 + 5 x  3.19 xy + 6 y 2 8 x* a: ?/ ' ~" 6 y 333. z2  4 x  ^ "" 12 *. 250 5 10 2 325./  3 y  6 ( 331 g gy ' f a 3y ~ 6 q  9 G 2 y/ + 5 ?/ 6 G fl y~4y+ 15 ^e  10 6y 332 3 a: +lly10 4 xy 8 2  a.6* t 328.28 8 2  11 2 + J?_ x fl^^ffjje _ 2 12 a 4 a + a  4 6~7** 27^12^7 .2 +lOar 2 a.7 acy + 12 y2 + 5 a:y + y 2 . . 2 ?/ 4g~0yg 10 o# 2 ~ x 6 a* x' 2 24 y 2 1 .y20  2y + 4 2 .B ~ 1037  329 4 a.7 xy + 12 x .9 *// + 27 .15 33 .y 2 x (a?4y) 3(2 x  ' _ ^/ 3 y) 2 8 330 . ' a: 2 2 5 sy a: f zy + 4 y* .a: ' 2 + 0^ + ^2^7 a. 2 x* 8 x2 4 r8 i + 2 a.4 x?/ 2 ^_ G x 2 + 13 gy_+ .
xi 347. 278 C  ~ a c* \ c* ~ b a2 q2 h c 5 5 ~ a c b q  q c 6 * \ : f 1 \  { 337. + l + IV. aj 339. ** i. f V. + ni + . 7 ( ?f!?. fl. (a \ + lV. if a = 3.) 2 . : 1+ i. a>74 . 352.REVIEW EXERCISE 336.y. 348.r 5 2 .13 13 s 11 Find the numerical values of 351. (ar \ 346. w \. \5yl 341. ( 342. 1 345. 338. ' 2 "l 5 . \x yj 340. 5 343.. (aWi + iJ. 344.1V. ?_2 ^ . Simplify : 353 ^3 * 2 L pE+1 a /2x~l V 5a:~2 10 4 354. ' ~ ~ x2 + 8 + 76 2" 350. +^ a: y x .+ r . (af2/. a: 349 _ o.
W?* (* + 1 + 2x) \3a _ 1 + 2x \3a 1 365. ar xy + yl x* 358. a2 4 . 1+2 362. I  I f 366. y360. i+5 1+1 9 x2 f 363.274 355 f 5 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA U<>3) 356 fl V ___ _/ 2(*l)J + ya xl x 1* YTx 2 110*W*1 1** JUal + xy 357. (a a b yx c yabc 361. (~ 364. _ + l a 359. + x x a .
\b* + c* b + b b*c*)^ c ^\ b (b* f c*) } c 4 c a b . b c 368. . 370 ' 1 (/')(&o) 1 a 372. a + . 2  m 373 "1*7 374. (1 +ab)(l+bc) 369. 6 a c b a b b 1 ' ~ _^ .REVIEW EXERCISE 2 275 f 367.
5 {2 x 381. J !__7. 4(* .276 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 375. 5 3 vC 7 a: 385 10 17 387 * L*J> _ 14 1 7ar = (5 ar 10ar + 15 . __4 2x 3_ = !. . 3 Solve the equations : or a: 2 (a.*2 = 15. 20 iLf5 + !*=! = 2 J. + 6)+  (* + J = _j_ j(* v/ O + 5)10 ^\:) / 380. ^ . # k 1 _j j a: 2 a: 3 383. 5*8.^^ + x f o 51) +2J = 0. """ 2J 7 ' + 2 28 ear7 + i3JTo^ . <3 378. . 2(3 x (x + 4) + 10) + 1 (x + 7) = 0. 1 + 16ar_63 24 g 2T~~~ia 7 12f a 8 a' 389 5  14(arl) 18 105 390. a: r ~ 2 + 5"^  10 xf x  382. r 1  3(* + 1)} ! ' . 379. + 1) 45 O 377. 8  376.
75 x f . 396. + 4 a. (x ~ a)(x f 6) f c = ^ (z a: + 2 a)(a: a: 5 i).1 . ^ (a .REVIEW EXERCISE 391.147.. .5 x =r f . 400. 40.6~a: 7 _ x 8~a. 277 x 4 _x 5 _ _ a: ar. f 1 1 + a 403. 401. l)(x  a) (a:  3) 42 3(4 *  2)(ar + 1).* 2 + *2 " 2 ~ ^ H. .  ft) = 2(ar  ) (a. 397.25 x + . b 404.5 1 f 1 x  2 = x . c .6  . _____ . JLg:== 7wa: c c } q. 3* 177..5 ^ ~ a: a. 399. "i 2 37370 ^ x i x x + 1 a?  R  7 ~r * 1 a.2 a:  1. (8 x  3) (x 2  1) = (4 x a: 1) (4 x  5).8 = . u '2 a. y ~ rt ^= & ~ 402. a. n a 4O5 b b x f (a:  a) + a(a.  J). 6 7 7 ^ 2 1(5 a.25. a: a)(a:  &)(>: + 2a +2&) = (a: + 2 a) 408.  8 9* x ~r. m x 398.
2 a x c x 6 f c a + a + a + 6 f walks 2 miles more than B walks in 7 hours more than A walks in 5 hours. Find the number of miles an hour that A and B each walk. a x ) ~ a 2 b 2 ar a IJ a. (x . and at the rate of 3^ miles an hour. f a x f x f c 1 1 ab b x 415. 411. 18 be subtracted from the number. Tn 6 hours . x 1 a x x1 ab 1 1 a x a c + b c x a b b ~ c x b 416 417.a)(x b b) (x b ~ ) 412. he takes 7 minutes longer than in going. (x f ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA a)(z  b) = a 2 alb = a (x f b)(x 2 . and was out 5 hours. A in 9 hours B walks 11 miles number of two digits the first digit is twice the second.(5 I2x ~r l a) . 420. the order of the digits will be inverted.278 410.  a) 2 6 2a. mx ~ nx (a ~ mx nx c d d c)(:r lfi:r a b)(x . hour. A man drives to a certain place at the rate of 8 miles an Returning by a road 3 miles longer at the rate of 9 miles an hour. Find the number. a x a x b b x c b _a b f x 414. down again How person walks up a hill at the rate of 2 miles an hour. 418 ~jo. How long is each road ? 423. far did he walk all together ? A .c) . In a if and 422.(c rt a)(x  b) = 0. 421. 4x a a 2 c 6 Qx 3 x c 419.
iand 22 22 I a . 2 2 8 2 . z2  y\ x* xy + y*. 430.31 afc + UV ) = (15 a 2 + 31 ab + H 6) (25 a2 . y. and : b : c = 14 : 15. Find the length of the parts. ax is \ by  ex + dy. find : a : c. The sum of the three angles of any triangle is 180.46 2): (15a 2 . Which ratio is greater. a + 5. d. A line 10 inches long divided in the ratio m:n. If a b : =5 n : 7. When will the second steamer overtake the first? 425. .49 63).2 (a + &*) (a h & ) = (a ) (a 6). . + 4ft):(Oo + 86)= (a26):(3o46). 3 and 1J. 432. 431. x 427. : m n(n x) =p : m n(p : x). angle of a triangle is to another as 4 5 and the third angle to the sum of the first two.REVIEW EXERCISE 424. Prove that the number of miles one can see from an elevation of h feet is very nearly equal to ^  miles. if .6 8 ). Find the fourth proportional 426. find the angles of the triangle. : If is one equal 434. 8 8 5 ~ a*b + a*b* . 435. a  t>. z 2 y. 279 A in 2 lowed steamer which goes at the rate of 264 miles a day is foldays by another which goes 286 miles a day. b.& 5 ) (a 8 . Find two consecutive numbers such that the sum of the fifth and eleventh parts of the greater may exceed by 1 the sum. Which of the following proportions are true? (9 c. Find the mean proportional to 429. Solve 436. 433. a8 f 2 ab f 6 2. . wi* + y= ny. 438.a 2^ 8 + aft* . (a + 6 ) (a + ft) = (a (3a 2 2 : : fc : : : . of the sixth and ninth parts of the less. : i. a. Find the ratio x 5x : = 7y . 5 7 or 151 208? 437. 428.
1(3  a. 453. 455. of two spheres are to each other as the cubos of a sphere 2 inches in diameter weighs 1:2 ounces. 452. x + 5 y = 49 3 x .7 y = 25. 454.rf2# = l.11 y = 95. 3 a. 9ar7# = 71. a: a: + 5y). ox f &// = 2 + y) = a + 8a + 21+3ft = 0.. 5x+4y=lQ. a: 2y= = 1 . . if 2 ft : 439. 443.(or l(*2y)=0. 2 (3 a + 2 ab  8 ft) : 2 (5 a f 4 ai  12 ft 2 ) = a? : (5 a  6 ft).11 7. 20y + 21 18a = 50 + 25y. 444. 8 x + y = 19. 16. 457. 29(a + &) : x = 551 (a 3  ) 19(a  &).3 y = 3 5 f 7 . 459. 9/> = 2 .4 12 . what is the weight of a sphere of the same material having a diameter of 3 inches ? 440. 8 . 15ar = 20 + 8y. = 25. x + 17 # 53. 28 = 5 a . Solve the following systems: 441.280 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA x. 445. Find the value of a. 451.35. 5j + 7 7 = = 2. 458. . 56 + 10y = 7a. 448.*. 7 442. 449. 446. 21 7 = 27 + Op.59 = 3 z. 5z4:# = 3. + 5y = 59. . ft. ft. The volumes If their diameters. 7 a: . 42 = 15y + 137. ax + ly = 2 a*x + & 2# = a + b. c. 4 = 5 y + 29. 33 x + 35 y = 4 55 * . 5 2 = 7 . />(. 5#+ 10 = 27 a. 456. /) ar a. 3 . 7jr9y = 17. . ?/ 447. a.55 y = . 7a?y = 3.89 = q. 450. .
468.REVIEW EXERCISE 460.+ =2. ' a: + 2 g + 3 y _ 467. 475.. 3 x 28i + 7 ~~~^ = 5.?/ + 1 .2y) (2 = 2J. 465.  = 2. 8 461. + eyn. car = 4 rf cte  ey =/. 4 g ~ 2 7g + 3 . i 47O _ 3~12 } 4* 471. i = 5.c=563y. ^ + i^ = 7. 473. 3 a? _ y 7 a? 3 y _ 1 12 15 ~~10 4 __ 10 "10 463. _ 469. (or . ax cx by = m. x y 474. ax by = c \ 472. _ & +y 3 dx+frj c\ .7.
years. to . and 5 times the less exceeds the greater by 3. and a fifth part of one brother's age that of the other. if the sum of the digits be multiplied by the digits will be inverted. There are two numbers the half of the greater of which exceeds the less by 2. 486. A sum of money at simple interest amounted in 10 months to $2100. thrice that of his son and added to the father's. 487. age. 483. 477. Find the number. Find their ages. and if each be increased by 5 the Find the fraction. Of the ages of two brothers one exceeds half the other by 4 is equal to an eighth of 482. Find the numbers. also a third of the greater exceeds half the less by 2. and in 20 months to $275. Find the sum and the rate of interest. Find the numbers. In a certain proper fraction the difference between the nu merator and the denominator is 12. whose difference is 4. least The sum of three numbers is is 21. If 1 be added to the numerator of a fraction it if 1 be added to the denominator it becomes equal becomes equal to ^. 481. . the Find their ages. by 4. If 31 years were added to the age of a father it would be also if one year were taken from the son's age . and in 18 months to $2180. 479. had each at first? B B then has J as much spends } of his money and as A. A number consists of two digits 4. latter would then be twice the son's A and B together have $6000. Find the principal and the rate of interest. How much money less 484. fraction becomes equal to . A sum of money at simple interest amounts in 8 months to $260. Find two numbers such that twice the greater exceeds the by 30. and becomes when its denominator is doubled and its numerator increased by 4 ? j 478. half the The greatest exceeds the sum of the greatest and 480. Find the fraction. 485. What is that fraction which becomes f when its numerator is doubled and its denominator is increased by 1. and the other number least.282 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 476. A spends \ of his.
*i.? + 2y = 8. = 20. 496.z = 20. + y 5 y = 101 . 2 ar + 3 y 2 z = 8 . = 209. The sum of two numbers squares is b. ifi = x a. 7. of two the sum of the digits also if number. 494./ 504. 493. f + 3 y 62 4 y 4a. 495.REVIEW EXERCISE 488. 498. = 15. 4z+3z = 20. z y ifi = z x 502. y Solve : x +z= 5. : Solve the following systems 491./ f z =a. 3 a: + 5=84. a: 499. There is 283 digits which is equal to seven times the digits be transposed the new number Find the will exceed 10 times the difference of the digits by 6. a: + // = 11. 489. 490. 3 x 500. 2 a. 8. 7 4#+ 3z = 35. 4 506. x s + y z = 18J . 2y + 3a = ll. 1+1 = 6. x y f z = 13. 2 e. x f y f z 29 . . a. . ~ 507. 1. 2 2 = 41. . 492. 5^ 9z = 10. a number . \ . 3ar 503. Find two numbers whose sum equals is s and whose difference equals d. 2a:f 7.z = 12. 30 2^ 3^ = ' ' 4r=9. z y x 25 . . 4 497. + # +z= 35. 7 + 2 z . * + 425  = . a: + ?/ 2z = 15. .5#+2z = $x a: G. and the difference of their Find the numbers. a: f z = 79. a. 2y + 2z = a: 2. 5 + a. 2/>3r = 4.
523. + : = 1472. 36 + c. z z =3a&c. 517. + + 3579 2+?. i=a + 6 c.284 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 516. ll" . !f == 2800. ra? + y 2 + 524 x \ +y + = + t jx [y + 9 = 3af& + r.
and third equals \\ the sum third equals \. How long will B and C take to do . if and L. and 23 pounds of lead lose 2 pounds. What are their rates of travel? . (a) How many pounds of tin and lead are in a mixture weighing 120 pounds in air. A vessel can be filled by three pipes. An (escribed) and the prolongations of BA and BC in Find AD. CD. and BE. and CA=7. E 533. If they had walked toward each other. Tf and run together. touches and F respectively. if the number be increased by Find the number. A boy is a years old his mother was I years old when he was born. 532. When weighed in water. 37 pounds of tin lose 5 pounds. In circle A ABC. his father is half as old again as his mother was c years ago. N. M. Find the numbers. Throe numbers are such that the A the first and second equals . the first and second digits will change places. it separately ? 531. L. B and C and C and A in 4 days. and losing 14 pounds when weighed in water? (b) How many pounds of tin and lead are in an alloy weighing 220 pounds in air and 201 pounds in water ? in 3 days. Tu what time will it be filled if all run M N N t together? 529. 527. 530. AC in /). and B together can do a piece of work in 2 days.REVIEW EXERCISE 285 525. it is filled in 35 minutes. Two persons start to travel from two stations 24 miles apart. A can do a piece of work in 12 days B and C together can do the same piece of work in 4 days A and C can do it in half the time in which B alone can do it. 90. sum of the reciprocals of of the reciprocals of the first of the reciprocals of the second and the sum 528. if L and Af in 20 minutes. Find the present ages of his father and mother. they would have met in 2 hours. . In how many days can each alone do the same work? 526. . in 28 minutes. AB=6. and one overtakes the other in 6 hours. A number of three digits whose first and last digits are the same has 7 for the sum of its digits. BC = 5.
. 3 x 539. . 550. x*  2 x. The values of x if y = 2. x 2 544. If to feet is the length of a seconds. if x = f 1. c. the time of whose swing a graph for the formula from / =0 537. One dollar equals 4. 542.286 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA : 534. How is t / long will I take 11 men 2 t' . of Draw a graph for the trans The number in of workmen Draw required to finish a certain piece the graph work D days it is from D 1 to D= 12. Represent the following table graphically TABLE OF POPULATION (IN MILLIONS) OF UNITED STATES. Draw the graphs of the following functions : 538.10 marks. 547. The value of x that produces the greatest value of y.  3 x. 536.  3 x. 2 541. + 3. from x = 2 to x = 4. formation of dollars into marks. 548. i.e. 2. d. FRANCE. 2  x  x2 . 2. 545. 543. The roots of the equation 2 + 2 x x z = 1. The greatest value of the function. 540.  7. a. The values of y. x 2 + x. x *x + x + 1.3 Draw down the time of swing for a pendulum of length 8 feet. x 8 549. to do the work? pendulum. then / = 3 and write = 3. b. 546. 2 x + 5. z 2  x x  5. AND BRITISH ISLES 535. GERMANY. x*. Draw the graph of y 2 and from the diagram determine : + 2 x x*. the function. e.
566. 556.10 x 2 + 8 = 0. 568. 15. f.REVIEW EXERCISE 551.5 x .  2 1 a: a. a. z 2 . // Solve y Solve y = 5. 2. 2 ~0a: + 9 = 0. c. 18 x  4 = 0. + 10 x .3 = 0. Which negative value of x produces the greatest value of y ? : Solve graphically 570 ' 571.9 = 0. 2 567. a.17 = 0. 3 . 565.4 . 3 x* . 287 by a falling body is The formula 2 ] f/f for the distance traveled a.3 .6 + 3 .r a: a: x a. c. h. a? 4 x .15 = 0. J. 2 554.r 1 561.3 x . i. Find the greatest value which ?/ may assume for a negative x.4 = 0. x 4 . Determine the number of real roots of the equation y Determine the limits between which m must lie.11 x* + + 2 8 569. g.4 x 2 + 4 . 2 8 . x 2 ~ 2 .' 2* + Z  4 = 0.11 = 0. = 5. Solve// = 0. .13 = 0. x 5 . If y +5 10. 3 + 3 z . 2 x 2 560. x* . + 5 . e. a: 559.G . Represent meters. and make the unit of the b. 564. 557. 563.) How In far does a how many body fall in 2^ seconds? seconds does a body fall 25 meters? Solve graphically the following equations : x*"2x7 = Q.r . 558.= 0. z 4 . graphically from t = (Assume g = 10 scale unit of the t equal to 10 times the scale ^ 2 . 555. 572. 553. \ to t = 5. Solve 552.= 0. if y =m has three real roots. 2 a. j. 3 x . r?. . 562. ' = 8.7 = .1 = 0. a.3 x . . Find the value of m that will make two roots equal if y = m.0.
596.2 & 2 ) (4 a: ?/ 14 a: 1 2 2 ?y 4 a: 10 2 + x^f . 2 (2 a ft 6 + + 4 a 6& 2 + x f 13 2 . (aiy. 2  100 aW + 100 aW. a: f 2 2 aAa: + 2 ?/ . fMV  586 ' ^ (a + 6)T ' 587.2 6a: + 30 &c a. + + 4 x) (l 2 ^) . a: f ~+ x [ 10 ^i  1 V 6x + 4 + 610. j^f = 3. 592. 1 . {f_7l j? 2* + ''. <r)3  2 3 a:) . a: .(1 . 64 a 12 603. (# 2) . + jf:ji f590> (2 (3 (1 Perform the operations indicated 584.x + 2 )'2 601. (1 (1 (1 .4.%) 4 (aa. 585 594.  128 a 10 6 30 3 a: + 2 ?/ ' 100 a 8 /. 9  4 fSb 607.frf : 583. a:. a 2a. . 595. 604. 609. : y* or 25. a 8 606. 4 (1a:) 3. (1 + x a. x [ ?/ 577. 6 + 1) .o 2 [ ?/ > 3'  578.5 xy = 0.4 8 f 4 4 + i 2 ) 2 f (a 1 . jj+. + ^) + (air%)8. f ^s_ 14 a 4/.48 a*h + 6 a: ?/ 10 6.128 a*^ + 04 aty 10 3 5 zy . 608. 2 943 ++ ~bx. 48 xf + a: 4  04 aty 6 a: // 16 2 605. 588.2 2 + y. Extract the square roots of the following expressions: 602.4 + 4 a 8^6 + 9 a a^e _ 6 aW + 8 9(5 a: 7 // fe . 2  2 aa: 2 . = 2 \*> + a: [ ^ = 4' = 581.a:) 6 (1 2 2 (2 + 3 x + 4 ) f (2 3 x + f. 599. + %) (a* + *) 5 . 3 (f. [ y =10. + . 3 . 2 611. 2 2 a:' ) + x' )'2 . f ?>) 3 591.288 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 4. xY. 2 + f 9 6 + 25 c 2 10 ac  a6. 600. 593. a 612.4 x*y* + 3 4 6 . 582. a. . x + z2) 8 . 598. (a. (a  8 ft) . 589. + + 4 . 4 a. 597. 579. 4 . 5 a*.
2. 942841.150. 7) 2. If the distances of Earth and Jupiter from the sun are at 1 days. 644. 636.\/4090. 2 2) 2 +x = 14. f 4 aft 8 + 4 ft . + 2 21 x = 100. VOIOOD + V582T09. Find to three decimal places the square numbers : roots of the following 627. 9g. 10 a 4 32 fe 2 + 81. x2 + 9x _ 5x _ 22 66 ? * + 9 . + 112 a 8 . 647t x 2 648 649. /. 622. 643. V950484 .15174441.2410. find Jupiter's period. According to Kepler's law.1024 x + a: 256. 8*' + 24* = 32.53 x ~ . 40.12 a?y + y*. 2 + 21Ga. = 70.8 aft 6 + 8 21G. = . 614.REVIEW EXERCISE Find the fourth root 613. 615. and the Earth's period equals 3G5J Solve the following equations : 640.49. ft . 4370404. = 87.V250 . 628. 21.191209. + 54 'x*y* . 9a. 651. 637.30. 2. 25023844. 638. (x 9 x 646. : 5. 630. 634. 626. = 0. 2 + 189 z = 900. Find the eighth root 617. 650. 32 631. + 24 a 2 4 . 10:r 4 + 9G* 3 + HI x s  108 afy 616. 633. a 642. 625 : 621. 4J. GGff. *+* = 156. 624. x 2 . 49. 639. 494210400001. Find the square root of 619. 632.871844. x 2 f x ~  16 = 0. f (x + 5) 2 = (x + . 3a. 49042009. a 8 of:  8 tvb + 28 a 6 //2  50 a c ft 8 + 70 a 4 ft 4  50 a 8 ft 6 + 28 a 2ft 618. 035. 210.448 z + 1120 a: 4  1792 x* + 1792 2 .*. 629. 620. 623. the cubes of the distances of the planets from the sun have the same ratio as the squares of their periods of revolution about the sun. 0090. 645. 44352. a 8 10 a* 8 aft 7 + ft 8 . 371240. x 2 641. 4 289 of : 4 4 a*b + a2 2 /. V 635.
290 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA """ ar a x b ab .
7^^ ^3" ^^ ^T 704.a a )jr .2V3:r 2 V5 a: f + fa + 1 = 0.2 a(l + & )z fa 2 (1 ax + to f ru: 2 . 695. 693. 707. 1 + V* 2bx + a 2 + 2 ax . 2 2 . 696. = 0. 4 a: + 4 ^^ 6a:x2 8 701. 2(4 :r 7r\O /'r'S = a: 0. 2 ' 3 2 a:)  28 + 21 + 5 '^ = 0. + ~T~ * a + b x = rj* 2 4(5 4 x + + Ox + 4 691. 694. 1 __ : )'*' _i.bx .ax . 706. 2 (:r + :r)O 2 + :cf 1) = 42. ex abc= fx 0. a. 699. . . ax 2 698. 2 2 697. 692. 2 ft 2 2 fi 2 = 0.c = 0. 708. 2 702. (x 2 +3a:) 2 2a.REVIEW EXERCISE ~ 291 X+ x 1> a +c ~ a i~ i c ~ b  ~ " x 690.
a: 713. sum is a and whose product equals J. What two numbers are those whose sum is 47 and product A man bought a certain number of pounds of tea and 10 pounds more of coffee. A equals CO feet. Find the altitude of an equilateral triangle whose side equals a.292 709. in value. 217 . what is the price of the coffee per pound ? : Find the numerical value of 728. . 725. paying $ 12 for the tea and $9 for the coffee. In how many days can A build the wall? 718. if 1 more for 30/ would diminish 720. If a pound of tea cost 30 J* more than a pound of coffee. ___ _ 2* 5 3*27 715. 727. of a rectangle is 221 square feet and its perimeter Find the dimensions of the rectangle. 3or i 16 .44#2 + 121 = 0. How shares did he buy ? if 726. and working together they can build it in 18 days. 714 2 *2 ' + 25 4 16  25 a2 711. Find the price of an apple. 723. The difference of the cubes of two consecutive numbers is find them. **13a: 2 710. 12 4*+  8. 16 x* . 729. Find two consecutive numbers whose product equals 600. Find four consecutive integers whose product is 7920.25 might have bought five more for the same money. needs 15 days longer to build a wall than B. A man bought a certain number of shares in a company for $375.l + 8 8 + ft)' (J)* (3)* + (a + 64 + i. Find two numbers whose 719. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA +36 = 0. he many 312? he had waited a few days until each share had fallen $6. 721. 717. The area the price of 100 apples by $1. 2n n 2 2 f2aar + a 5 = 0. What number exceeds its reciprocal by {$. 716. 722.40 a 2* 2 + 9 a 4 = 0. 724.
40. +w 5 n* +w n 3 + n )(m* 3 n^). f + M 6* f 6) (a* U*") 4 a*6^ (<i* &*).X . (x* (i* (a2 (a(1 1 4 d*). 41.)(ai + &. 37. 32.1 + x. + &2)( a 2_ 1 j2). + a*x* x*)(a* /^ (a* (rrr + c^ s M ' + x*). 31. . 52.2? 50. 1 + l)(>r 2  i + 1).1 f ^ 2). 36. 1 6. 34. (x* 2 a M+ f a8) (x*  2 aM" a). (^ (a* (a^ ary* + x^y f y*) * + * (x*  y*). n.2 ). 38. (v/x). 39. 48 ^i? x T ^ ^2? x sT~ x . (4 x~* + l 3 ar 2 + 2 2 ) a.l).1 f c" ). 293 (y* (a* + f y* + y*+l)(y*. 35. (64 x~ + 27 y r (4 x~^ + 3 y"*). . 43.aM ?n^n^ f ft*c*)(a* + 6* + c*). 33.1 + c.REVIEW EXERCISE implify : 30.2)(x2 4.2 d*m* + 4 d)(w* + 2 rfM + . + a^ 1 + a 26" 2 )(l . 46. 42. +   c* + 2 + ^ + cbf 44.aft* 1 + a 2*. (4 a: 2  12 x* 28 x + 9 x*  42 x* + 49)*.
vff + V^~ 4^ 2^/2 776. 759.. 761. JU.1+J 756. 754. 768._ 1 4j "r O/lf * ^ ^ II r* 4"*" 1 A "1 1. 758. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 755. 757. 4\/50 4 SVlOOO. + V22 + + 12 V2b8  760. [1r^ T 1 i . ~ r* x . 2^3(^2^21 + 4^3^:0. 2V2 2V3 . \/G86 v/lGv/128.294 753.
Va 809. . x 782. 92VI5. 7 + 3 V5 ( 7 7  3 V'5 ( 2 4 73V5 + 3V5 + V3 + V3 4  5 . 87 ac + 6t  12 ^ + 2 Vab Simplify 801. f x Va z Va f x + Va a.2 V30. 783. 10 785. . 3812VIO. 103 788. 787. 14 791. c 792. 16 + 2V55.IIEVIEW EXERCISE y/a 295 f 780. y/a + Va Va x x + x 781. Find the square roots of the following binomial surds: 784. 790. 3J . 13 799.12VIT. . + 2V21.2V3* ^ 807. a 9442V5. 794.4 V(j. 786. . 7512V21.VlO. 806. 789. 793.
296 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA . 2\/^"+~5 + 3Vor7 = V25 . + ViTli + V7 .28 = 4 V2 ar 14.Vc^lJ . V3 f 1 V4a.V? = 813.g. 830. Va: + 28 f + V9 x . 812. 818. Va: . 836. /9ar a: = 17. x/aT+l . V14 a. 816. + 103Var. VaT+lJ f ^l . \/12 a. 831. 819. f 2 VaT+1 1 a: 832. 815.79. (x a: 2 ) 4 . 3 x + 2 . V2a: Va: + 3 + ar 2 Vx f 1 834. Find the sum and difference of (ar + V2yx 2)* and 1. + Vx .13 = 0. 811. 9 7 3 + V3a:+ = 0. = 1. 814.4 = 0.1 V* + 60 = 2 Vx~K5 + V5.V2 ar 10. \/2(r+ /3 a: 1) + v/2 x + a: 15 = 13.f 5 = V5x + 4. 820. 833. 829.\/2y  810.  5 + V3 f 12 817.
3 . 855. 8 + a: 5 8 a.KEVIEW EXERCISE 838. 2 a: 64 y*. 8 860. 865. x* 8 ^ 8 2 a#* a. 27 y 8. a. 275 8 l. 8 4a: 8 a. 9. 852. 19 x 14. 4 a. a*" & 6n . 876. a* * 1 + a8 8 a. V4 x 2 . a 872.x*y + 3x f 2. 8 8 848. 875.1)+ + Vo: 2 + 3 x f 5 = 7 . 6. x 4 + f 2 a. 863. +3 4 +  4. f 841.3 Va: 2 .7x + 3 = 3ar(a.1. 5 x* f 297 9) 11 x . 27 862. a: : Resolve into prime factors 843.28 a 4 xy 8 80. 839. 8 + 4 4 ar 2 2 a. 851. 8^27^. f 12. a: 2 + 4\/3^~. 8a: 2 4 f 8 a: + 2 19a. . x 8 2 857. a. + 1. 6 2 f 3 6 s. a 8 850. 845. y 4. 861. 2 f 2 18a: f + 16. a. 729 867.12. 2 x 3. + 216 rt aty a 10 . 4o. a. . 2 f" + a/ 15. 840. . a. z*y 8 l64a. . 8 a. 8 2a.ab9 ft*. 4 a: 2 842. a 18 4. 853.1000 6.12\/(ar44)(5z~ = 36. . f b**. 871. a 8 873. a 8 869. 8 .10 = 118. a. 64 a 866.  3x a. 4 x 8 858. 856. 4 x* 847. x 6 x4 f + + a: x f 1. a l0m . 64.3 x .10 x f 1 = 10 x + L * 2 . 16 859. x 11 a^ J 13 854. 868. 8 8  13 a. a: . 870. + . + 512 y8 874. 844. 846. 864.a. a: 849. 40 x 2 7 f 49.3 a:. 5 a 4 7 a8 .
2 3 2 z3 xy + y = 7.15. xy(a:y + 1) = 6. 899. f a: a: 4 ?y = 481. 2 + xy = 10.1 = 2 a#. . 885. +y f y = 7. a: a. + ary + 2 = 37. a: + y 2 = 34.35. 2 2 = 16 y. = ? + p"iaL+L=13. 2 + xy = 28. xy 2 a: a: ?/ a. a. x 8 3 = 13:3. 889. 890. x*xy.298 877. 886. 878. y 2 2 8f. 2 = 2 + 5. 887. a: 2 897. xy + y = 32. x a: lI = xz . 883. + 2y=\2. 894. 3 x 2 . : x 3? Solve the following systems 881. a. 2 + y 2 . 2 f ary = 8 + 3. x 882.y 2) = 20.y = 2 ay + a a# = 2 aa: + 6 a.xy + y 2 = 19. 2 + ary = 8 y + 6.y 2 + V(j. 2 .5 xy + 4 f = 13. 900. 8 8 + y y 9 9 a: = = 37 a: 152. ar(ar + y ) 2 2 2 2 xy . 896. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Show Show 3 ? that 99 + 1 is divisible by 100. . a: 884. For what value m is 2 #3 mx* by x  880. 2 . 901. y(a:2 + y 2 ) = 25 x.sy = 198. . y*+ xy . 4 2 2 + afy 2 + f ary + y = 37. a# f + xy = 126. . a: 888. 1 x 893. y 2 4. y = 28. 5. f ?/ a: a: . 895. a:y . 2 + 2 f = 17. 2 + 3 y 2 = 43. .y 2 = 2 y + 2. y y 2 y 2 1121. z 2 898. 5x 3 exactly divisible 879. .Vi' + 1 1_3. M1 891 1 . What must be the value of m and n to make 8 + mx 2 + nx f 42 exactly divisible by 2 2 and by a.18. a. a: 1 1 _ 5 892. that 1001 79 of 1 is divisible by 1000.
xy + x= 15. ny ft ma: = * a 2 m*. 23 x 2 . (a. + 2 y) (2 + ?/) = 20.16 y 3 8 = . (0 Vx f 10 f v^+T4 = 12. y . 2 915.y) (3 y . (!) * .y) (a? . 914. y 49(x 2 2 = 6 2 (x 2 + y 2). + y 8 = 189.r a. or or a? a: a: . x* + ary f y 2 = 9. (* 918. + y = 9. 917. (3 x . + 2 a:y + = 243. . 923. *y . + ?/) . y 2 + xy = b 2 925.3) 2 f (y . 2 + y = 2 a 4. a: y zx 12.23 = 200. xy + 2 y 2 = 65. 2 2 f 4 a: ar// or f a. ?/ ^: ^f!i^2. 2 y 2 f ay/ = 16.y = a(ar + y). 910. ary y = 8. y # 2 2 f f y = 84. 2 924. .y)^ 03 926 12 +y +y 927.6. 3 :r(3 . * + y = 444. Vary + y = 6. + a. 912. xa 903. yz = 24. y 3 2 2 922. 2 5 xy = 11.REVIEW EXERCISE 902.2 y) = 49 2 919. f y 2 x 2 y = 1. x 4 299 xy z 904. # + xy + y = 7. 7 + 4 y f 6 ary = 0. ^ 2 + 2 a:y = a a 2 3 a: a: a.y) = 33. 909. a o o 2 j + a:y = 2. ^ 2 . 9 f 8 y f 7 ay/ = 0. 3 y 8 ) =1216. = 8. .3)2 = 34. 4 (a.#y + 2 = 27. y 2 + 3 ary = 2. a:y xy 929.y2 = 22. a: a. 905. 2 * 2 ~ g. a.3(* + y) = 6. 3 y 2 + xy = 1. 920. 7 y . x + y}(x + y) = 273. 908. 921. + ary = a*.x) = 21.V + y 2 = + xy + y a = (a? . 911. x + y 2 = aar. x f 2 a:y = 32. 906. (o.y). xy 2 2 x 2y 2 = 0. y + a:y = 180. a: * a: a: ar 928. 2 2 2 916. L/ay = a: + 5? + g = ^ + g. x 2 ry + y = 3. 907. + 2 ary = 39. y x 2 = by. + y)(a. 2 913.
rate each man ran in the first heat. A plantation in rows consists of 10. is 20. Find the length and breadth of the first rectangle. = ar(a? f y + 2) + a)(* + y 933. How many rows are there? 941. is 3 . and the sum of their areas 78$. 152. 944. 931. The diagonal of a rectangle equals 17 feet. and 10 feet broader. s(y 932. and the sum of their cubes is tangle certain rectangle contains 300 square feet. 942. is 3. diagonal 940. and also contains 300 square feet. The sum of the perimeters of sum of the areas of the squares is 16^f feet. The difference of two numbers cubes is 513. The sum of two numbers Find the numbers. a second rec8 feet shorter. In the first heat B reaches the winning post 2 minutes before A.102. feet.square inches. 34 939. and the Find the sides of the and its is squares. 2240.000 trees. *(* + #) =24. (3 + *)(ar + y + z) = 96. much and A then Find at what increases his speed 2 miles per hour. A is 938. Tf there had been 20 less rows. feet. Find the sides of the rectangle. and the difference of 936. The perimeter of a rectangle is 92 Find the area of the rectangle. Assuming = y. z(* + y + 2) = 76. there would have been 25 more trees in a row. two squares is 23 feet. and B diminishes his as arrives at the winning post 2 minutes before B. the The sum of the perimeters of sum of their areas equals 617 square feet.300 930. If each side was increased by 2 feet. Find the numbers. In the second heat A . The sum of the circumferences of 44 inches. Find the side of each two circles is IT square. find the radii of the two circles. + z)=18. . + z) =108. the area of the new rectangle would equal 170 square feet. 935. A and B run a race round a twomile course. (y + *) = . two squares equals 140 feet. (y (* + y)(y +*)= 50. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA (*+s)(* + y)=10. y( 934. the difference of their The is difference of their cubes 270. 937. two numbers Find the numbers. y(x + y + 2) = 133. 943.
and the other 9 days longer to perform the work than if both worked together. The area of a certain rectangle is 2400 square feet. If the breadth of the rectangle be decreased by 1 inch and its is length increased by 2 inches. the square of the middle digit is equal to the product of the extreme digits.REVIEW EXERCISE 301 945. Two men can perform a piece of work in a certain time one takes 4 days longer. the area lengths of the sides of the rectangle. Find the width of the path if its area is 216 square yards. 949. if its length is decreased 10 feet and its breadth increased 10 feet. overtook miles. set out from two places. The diagonal of a rectangular is 476 yards. at Find the his rate of traveling. Find the number. and travels in the same direction as A. unaltered. Two starts travelers. 950. P and Q. sum Find an edge of 954. A number consists of three digits whose sum is 14. 952. that B A 955. . triangle is 6. What is its area? field is 182 yards. its area will be increased 100 square feet. each block. the difference in the lengths of the legs of the Find the legs of the triangle. the digits are reversed. and its perim 948. Find two numbers each of which is the square of the other. was 9 hours' journey distant from P. A and B. distance between P and Q. . is 407 cubic feet. . 953. Find the number. The sum of the contents of two cubic blocks the of the heights of the blocks is 11 feet. When from P A was found that they had together traveled 80 had passed through Q 4 hours before. Find its length and breadth. The square described on the hypotenuse of a right triangle is 180 square inches. A certain number exceeds the product of its two digits by 52 and exceeds twice the sum of its digits by 53. and that B. at the same time A it starts and B from Q with the design to pass through Q. whose 946. and if 594 be added to the number. Find in what time both will do it. The area of a certain rectangle is equal to the area of a square side is 3 inches longer than one of the sides of the rectangle. 951. Find the eter 947. A rectangular lawn whose length is 30 yards and breadth 20 yards is surrounded by a path of uniform width.
4. 974. How many Sum Sum terms of the series 1 + 3 + 5 + amount to 123.4142 . 9th and llth terms of an A. 16 962.141414. difference. 971. !Ll^ + n . ^ Vfirst five 959... 969.. 36 963.>/) to infinity. 1 to n terms. '. f + 1 . Sum to 20 terms. and 976.v 973. the terms being in A. P. first ? n+l(n + l) The 10th and The term and the T + ( + +!) V (to J' infinity). *" 968. fourth of the unity. . to n terms. . 958. 970. P. (x + O 2 4 y 2 ) + O 8 + y*) + y) + x(x 2 4 y 2} 4. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Sum to 32 terras. . Find the Find the common 977. 957.. n to n terms.. are 1 and sum of 20 terms... x(x to 8 terms. ^ 1 . Sum Sum to infinity. 3 . = 4. to 7 terms. (x 4 to n terms.. Find the sum of 4.302 956.. 3 + 5 7 + . Evaluate (a) . 1G series . Find the difference between the sums of the series 5 n + !Lni n " 4 4.454. the first term being Find the sums of the 960. 975. + (iiven a +  4 d . Sura to 24 terms.  2.x*(x 3 f 8) + y) + (2x + f) + (3 x + y 8 ) 4.. ^1 + Vj 1 2  . 964. Find an A. Find n. are 29 and 53... : + f 24 21 24 4f 32 36 1G 10. ..V2 .to infinity.321? 965. 5. 966. s  88. (to 2 n terms). 12434+ j I 967. P. 972...1 4 f j$V .. Sum Sum Sum to 10 terms.3151515.. 5. Find n f (ft) .. such that the sum of the 1 terms is one sum of the following five terms. \ . P. 961. J. to infinity. 18th terms of an A. 4 4 to 7 terms .
of n terms of 7 + 9 + 11+ is is 40. The 21st term of an A. 987. and the common difference.. 1..1 + 2.. 989.04 + .001 + .. to oo. doubling the number for each successive square on the board. v/2 1 + + + 1 4 + + 3>/2 to oo + + .. and of the second and third 03. 990. to n terms. : + 9   V2 + . 980. Find four numbers in A. who rewarded the inventor by promising to place 1 grain of wheat on Sessa for the the 1st square of a chessboard.2 . named Sheran. first 984.3 ' Find the 8th 983. P. 2 grains on the 2d. all A perfect number is a number which equals the sum divisible. The term.+ lY L V. 0. is 225. "(. and the sum of the first nine terms is equal to the square of the sum of the first two. 4 grains on the 3d. 5 11.01 3. What 2 a value must a have so that the sum of + av/2 + a + V2 + . Insert 8 arithmetic means between 1 and .) the last term the series a perfect number. 992.REVIEW EXERCISE 978. P. Find the value of the infinite product 4 v'i v7! v^5 . 303 979. to infinity may be 8? . Find the number of grains which Sessa should have received. of n terms of an A. The sum 982. If of 2 of integers + 2 1 + 2'2 by which is it is the sum of the series 2 n is prime. P. The Arabian Araphad reports that chess was invented by amusement of an Indian rajah. Find the sum of the series 988. . Find the first term. such that the product of the and fourth may be 55.. How many sum terms of 18 + 17 + 10 + amount . and so on.. Find four perfect numbers.001 4. 985. Insert 22 arithmetic means between 8 and 54.. 986. then this sum multiplied by (Euclid. to 105? 981. Find n.
(6) after n What strokes? many 1002. P. pump removes J of the of air is fractions of the original amount contained in the receiver. after how strokes would the density of the air be xJn ^ ^ ne original density ? a circle is inscribed. ABC A A n same sides. and the fifth term is 8 times the second . The sides of a second equilateral triangle equal the altitudes of the first. The fifth term of a G. is 4. and so forth to infinity. P. and if so forth What is the sum of the areas of all circles. third circle touches the second circle and the to infinity. (I) the sum of the perimeters of all squares. Under the conditions of the preceding example. in this square a circle. (6) the sum of the infinity. One of them travels uniformly 10 miles a day. The side of an equilateral triangle equals 2. 997. 512 996. prove that they cannot be in A. 995. many days will the latter overtake the former? . ft. 998. P. find the series. Insert 3 geometric means between 2 and 162. 1003. In an equilateral triangle second circle touches the first circle and the sides AB and AC. in this circle a square. and G. are 45 and 765 find the numbers. (a) after 5 strokes. are 28 and find the numbers. 1000. inches. at the same time. P. 994. If a. c. In a circle whose radius is 1 a square is inscribed. The sum and product of three numbers in G. The sum and sum . and so forth to Find (a) the sum of all perimeters. 999. the sides of a third triangle equal the altitudes of the second. areas of all triangles. Two travelers start on the same road. . Insert 4 geometric means between 243 and 32.304 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 993. Each stroke of the piston of an air air contained in the receiver. 1001. are unequal. The other travels 8 miles the first day and After how increases this pace by \ mile a day each succeeding day. AB = 1004. P. of squares of four numbers in G. Find (a) the sum of all circumferences.
Find the fifth term of (1  a:) 1015. Find the 9th term of (2 al 1010. x) 18 . (1 1018. 2 ) 5.ft) 19 . Find the middle term of ( . . ) 1021.o/) 14 . 1011. Write down the 1 5a  6 V . Find the middle term of 1020. Write down the expansion of (3 1007. Find the two middle terms of ( ( 9 .iV 2i/ 5 . 1014. coefficient of x 9 in (5 a 8 7 . Find the coefficient a: X  \88 1 in 1019.REVIEW EXEHCISE 1005. 1008. Find the two middle terms of (a *2 x) 9 . Find the middle term of (a + b) 1016. Write down (x the first four terms in the expansion of + 2 #). . 1012. 1009. Find the two middle terms of 1013. Write down the (a first 305 three and the last three terms of  *)". Find the eleventh term of /4 x >> . Expand  2 a. (12 #) 7 . 1006.l) w f . Find the middle term of (a$ bfy. + lQ . a: 8 7.
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. numerical .193 11 . 97. Discriminant Discussion of problems Arrangement of expressions Average . .210 130 " Addition value 4 15. . . . 129 54... .241 45 45 Dividend Division Divisor Axiom .. . sum Consequent Consistent equations 210 27 10 18 . 158. 49 Clearing equations of fractions 108 8 ' graphic solution. . 129.Base of a power Binomial " theorem 54 8 45 130 10 255 9 Elimination Equations ' 63 consistent fractional . signs of Algebraic expression .. 232 169 807 . ..108 160 " .. .. 37... .. . 232 mean progression . .. 8 . Aggregation... 249 246 20 10 23 193 . 246 91 " multiple. graphic tion of representa .. t 53 120 . 9.... ... .. .] Abscissa Absolute term . quadratic . 112 54 54 251 . 160 in quadratic form 191 .. .130 ... . ... .. 54. .181 105 " Complex fraction " Evolution Composition .. 123 . . Brace Bracket Character of roots .. 19. ... .. simple simultaneous . Constant Coordinates Cross product 155 148 41 " Alternation 123 Antecedent Arithmetic *' 120 Degree of an equation Difference . .. linear literal Common ** * difference .... lowest ratio " '* .INDEX [NUMBERS REFER TO PAGES. . 148 178 Conditional equations Conjugate surds . . . 9 ** . Checks Coefficient 20... . .178 Completing the square . .
114. . . directly. 9. Like terms Linear equation . 63.. 178 45 221 205 Law of exponents .. . C Factoring 222 Literal equations . inversely 122 numbers . . . Product '* 76 Infinite. 253 28 70 1. 189.C Multiplication . 205 148 148 27 86 Ordinate Origin . 243 7 . Graphic solution of simple equations Graph of a function Grouping terms Highest . Mathematical induction .. 227 geometric . 246 251 121 Inversion Involution Irrational Proportion 105 Proportional. . 83 10 19 Polynomial Polynomials.. Inconsistent equations . 34. .108 Minuend . 195 Extreme Factor " theorem " II. 112 .. .. numbers . exponent .105 Monomials 03 Multiple. . 45 Laws of signs . . . addition of " square of .154 Order of operations " of surds . . Known numbers . . 120 Member. . common factor Homogeneous equations Identities .808 Exponent Exponents. 120 Lowest common multiple 70 . Mean " 81) proportional Mean. Fourth proportional Fractional equations u Fractions. .. 143. 84. 89 235 Parenthesis Perfect square 53 . . 205 . 17 65.. arithmetic . . 45.. Integral expression Interpretation of solutions Progressions.. first and second . 184 54. 23 10 91 102. Insertion of parentheses . 195 33. . . arithmetic 346 120 338 341 53 70. P . 109 102 . 180. 227 . Geometric progression .. L. . G. . 45. . law of Extraneous roots .. . .. Negative exponents 11 . 130 9 Power Prime factors Problem.. 1 Quadratic equations Quotient Radical equations Radicals . . .251 Graphic solution of simultane. 212 . . . 195 4 13 ous equations 100 158 .31. 241 123 geometric . INDEX 8 .. 91 . . 42 7 Independent equations Index .. Imaginary numbers .
. 1 Simple equations Simultaneous equations Square of binomial 205 Value.. 4 155 9 " of . algebraic Surds . .. .. 129.. 193 Rule of signs Series Signs of aggregation Similar and dissimilar terms Similar surds 33. Sum.. 309 171 133 120 Square root Substitution 205 Real numbers Reciprocal 215 Subtraction 169 Subtrahend 104 22 Remainder theorem Removal of parenthesis Root Roots of an equation " character of " . .. . 23 18 228 27 9 205 10 Term " absolute 54 193 178 Theorem. 9... 232 Vinculum Zero exponent 40 42 197 Printed in the United States of America.. 27 17 Unknown numbers ... 45 Trinomial 240 ..... ..INDEX Ratio national Rationalizing denominators 76.. .. polynomial . absolute 54 Variable . binomial Third proportional Transposition .... . . 255 120 54 10 sum and product of ...
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ANSWERS TO SCHULTZE'S ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA COMPILED BY THE AUTHOR WITH THE ASSISTANCK OP WILLIAM P. MANGUSE STrtn gork THE MACMILLAN COMPANY 1918 All rights reserved .
Set up and electrotypcd. Published September. U. 1916. 8. 1910. December.A.. 1910. August. Berwick <fe Smith Co. 1917. Reprinted April.S. Mass.COPYRIGHT. BY THE MACMILLAN COMPANY. Norwood. NorfoooS J. . Gushing Co. 1913.
10. 5. 7. 8. 6. 23. 8 ft. i . 1. 16. 8. 2 ~ 15. C $ 16. Multiplication. 3.000. 12. 8. Not 5. 3. 7. 5. 5. 1. 26. 3. 3* 7. 4. 19 4. 22. 7. 14. (a) (/>) 1. 3 m. 37 S. 0. A 38 mi. $160. 10g. 3. . + 1. 9 = 4. 2 5. 29. 16. _ 32. 1.  1. $ 1 50 10. 1. 3. 20 jo. 3. 3. 27. westerly motion. Page 4. 6. in 12. 16. 64. 18. 210. 1. V 23. 1.000. 20 B. 19.. 7. 73. 20.. Ot 15. 1. 49. 11.2. 13. 2. 12. 36. 150. $40. 16. 12. B 10 mi. 2. 10. 2. 2. 5000.C. 9 14. 11.000. 15. 192. 6. 3. 6 yd. 16. 1. 17. 13 d.  2 p. 20. 20 \. 7.000. 16. 10. 6.  22 20. 9 16  larger than 7. 25. 4. 14. 8.000. Page Page Ilis expenditures. 3. C $1(50. x. 6. 14. 13. 8. 2.. 11. }. 8. 28. . 6. 3. 1. 13. in. 29. 3 below 0. 7.1.8. 144. 8. 15.000. 16. 15. 16 in. . 27. ft. 17. 11. 2. 17. 12. 14. 1. 20..000. 5. 1. 1. . 512. 18. 9. 6. 10.ANSWERS Page phia 8 in. 4. 5. 5. 15. 2. 4. 3. 10. per sec. 5.. 24. 12. 3. 13 S. 8 13. sign. 9. 6. 13. 30?. 7. 14. 2. 18. 10.000 negroes. 14. 128. 21. 16f 2. 9.150. 9. Yes. 59. B $ 128. 18. 16. 3. 9. 32.. C $60. 30.. 3. 25.$9400. Page 8. 24. 12. 2  Page 8. A . 0. 2.  13. 37. A 15. B $20. 10. Australia ft. 106. B $4700. 6* 16. 14 11. Page?. 1. 3. $100. A $90. 10. 18. loss. 4. South America 46. 25. 28. arithmetic. 16 in. 7m. 85. 17.. 11. B $80. 1. 9 m. . 7. 89. 12. = 5 81. 19. 6. 22.00000001. is $10. 9. 26z. 21. 14.000. 25. 256. sign. x. 49. T . 32. 115. 17. c.12. 4. 12. 13 V. 6. 18. 72 = = 216. 3. Page 13. 5. 1 16. 9. A Bl 7. 576. in. 1. 3. 9.3. 27.000 Indians.  1. 20. 6. 126. Seattle 12 Philadel 9. 24. Page 1. 4. 16. 32. 15. 48 ft.. 14. 6. 7. 21. 2. 9.21 24. 32. 2. 12. ^. 13. b. 12. 2. 2. 19. 2.
3rf 27. . a2 4 15^44. 1. . 0. It. :. 13. 7. 22( 19. r+l. 25.r f 15. 27.. 8. 4.. 0. 22. + ft). Polynomial. Binomial. Page 18. 1. ^. (ft) 7. 0. 12. 2. 18. y. o^ft. 8. 14. Page 7. (r) 2000 m. (a) r>23ifcu. (c) S(i. (<7) (a) 314 sq. 3 y v> <Mft 3* 2. 3(c4a). 13. ft' 3 . 19. 26.. 43w//2 17.3 * 10 r5 <3 . 8. 9. 14. 22.32 c2 > ft 3 . r/ \(\xyz.  0. 0* Page 3 w" 0. (a) 50. in. 31.  1. 15. 14.. 50. in. 17. (ft) Page 2. mi.  11. 15a. ft)  3 /A  8x :i (/* 4 ft)(X 36 2 "'* ~ 5V (a ft). 41. ft. 11.6) 38. yyz+xyz*. +/2(/. 3 a* + 2 at*. + 5. 0. 314 sq.. 13. 23. Va'+Y2 8^2 . 9.900.9?/2 8. 17. (ft) $40. 27. 2oVmf?i. Page 21. 7. (ft) mi. II. 4 9/^/rl 2. 3a. 21^. 12. (59. 6. I. 27. 2. ..5 (ft) sq. 12. 0. 0.. 2x' 2 5 .r 2 . 1. 24. ^).. 30. 04.a . 3. 35. 21 a 3 4 10. 26.~4. 21. Monomial. . 3. 3 . 1. 14. a3 a2 4 a 4 1. 10. 18. 27. 29. 15.. 0. 31. :J!>r'. #1111. 7. 11. 6. (r) 2. 32.000 sq. 5. ]*. 16. \'\ 4. 12. 4. (a) 200. 3. 13. 16. 20. r:A 29. 3.<>Gq. 25. 3. 27. 18.14 sq. 21. 8. 13. 9. 2. c. 34. ft f 19. 6<t. 1. 11. 12 a. Pagel4r. 57. 24. 1. 22. 9. 2ftx.  2 4 13 ft 2 .  xV 3 y.4  2ft 2 33. x^ 20. 3. 14..'J. . (a} 100 1(5 cm. 22.r~ f 34. a ft c. 42. 35. 37. 5x+3. 51 f. = 81. (r) 78. 5. 36. 25. t. 30. 7 7. 1. 3. (c) 8. 16. rt. ft. 14.94(>. 240. 0. 35. 8.rty8.ab. Page 23. (V) (rf) (ft) 50. <i~ 26. jrif 4 9.4 ft. (ft) 12. ft. 4. 34.1. f  5e 35. 33. 3. . 31. 49. 15. in. 8. 0. 7. (r) 2G7. 15. 9. Polynomial. $r*y 4 3x?/ 4 m* run  . + v> 2 . in. 12yd.ii ANSWERS Page 11. i:5.. 21. w.  12. 15. 8. 8.'JO ft. 23. 39. 18. 30.q 4.000 . _ 4 . ft n. 13.  3. 20. 5. ??i??. 18. 1. 20(. 7. 12. 16. 4<> 2 ?t Vc. 5.. $80. 2. 17. . 10. ft. //'. = ()501.. 38 ab. sq. 12. v'ft a4 4 a a 41. (b) 135 mi. 4. arty 1 20. 2. 5. 28.  40. 4 y/ . 13 cu. (a 4 4. 36. 5. 16. .5f> sq. Trino inial.ft) 4. 27. 6. 28. 10. 58. 92. 1. a 32. 17. (a) <> sq. vi 14. $3000 Page 6. Page 31.x. m + 3(a. 14. 4. 14:). 11.GOG. 19. 20. ft. 32 2 ftc. 38. 29. 5. 19. 237. 33. . 173. 2. WIN + wiw. 4. 17. 2V^4^/ 8 x* 6. 3.ft. 5. 104. 32. 28. 15. m 24. 00 24 04 ft.
814. 24. w* ( . 1. 1 4.  b* 4 r 1 .a .3x 2 2 tf. 11. a2 9. x a8 1. ^ <. lOrt 15w4. 15.. + 6. 2m. . (w4w)(ww). 2a: 2 4x. ti. 10 m. 2m(4? 2 4ir#(2. M + 10.Oa: + 10.a*. (2n' 43p 47 ). 35.r.2 ft 2 r2 10. 2. \ :{ 2 a 48. 13. f ft 9. 55. 2 . a2 4 2 ft 4 Ve. 8a*b8<tb'\ a + /> fc + 4 r. 42. 25.a f 54. . + a 2 f 2 a 4. a a. 7  a + 2 + c. 59.4 d. . 4. 2. 34.x f 1 2 . 3 Ji 8 . 18.4c 3 8 8 J. (yz~d}. .  G J8 r  4 a <?. . 24. 7. 12. 31. j)(g1.  12. 6. 2 y' 4 . ?>4tl 53. a 10w. 2 .r' 2 z2 2 4 a 1. . Page 7. 4 21. 32 w 2 w. 29. 26. 1 + 45. 25 47. 7. 2 a 37.r 2 + 4?/ 4l).5 4 2 3 ?/ .  4 b 17 y*. a  49. &. Page 44. 5.  a: 2. 32. 20. c2 . 14. 2 2. 34 39. 51.8(c + a). 2 3. . 1. Page 28.a'2 . . s_r>a5. m*  n*. 24. . 17.  1. 0. .(a f 6) + 4(1 + c) . 2 a f 6 414. 8. 28. 30. a2 24. a4 4 4.7. ar. 26. 12.. 14. w 17. 3 m.5 z?/ + 3 y . 3. 22. 4. 6. . 2 3x f z. 7 a5 1 . 4.  14 afy . 7. 36. a + a. 25.5.h.abc. 8 . 10. 7.  23. a + (ftc4df).1 .ws 2 ft) . Page 8. 21. 2. 13.c.(2 x2 . !  </ . 3m2 n 9 (a + $) 2 . 2// 16. 14. _5a<>&43c.AXSH'EJtS Page 23.2 57.4.4x. x3 . 5. 14. /> Zmn + qt G/ 4 . 5. 4wipg>' 27.  17. 1. a 3a 4 2 &. G. 5. _ Page 30. 3 a . 20. 33. mn. 18. 3. 4.2 a2 2m 2 4. 8 8 . 2 + a4l). 31. 10. 3. 11. ab a.aft.3 6. 2 6. 7  # + 12. ( 7.2 . 2x 4 a 13.1. ri\ 18. 20. 6. 25. G a bd. 2. Exercise 16. 4. 8. + 4 m4 4 8 7?i 8  G m. a  ISjfat. ?/i 13. c. 17. a 4 + ft. c. '  . 40.(7x2 Ox2). 16. 2.11. a 3 . 2m + 2w. 26.l. 24 b 46. . a 3& . 2 4 5 2 a3 1. 2a. 2 4. 1. . 5x 2 rt ft. . 10 x.6 x + 0) 16. 9.  b. 3 a3 & 41. ii\ 22. 1. r. a' 4ab + ?/. 21. 15. (5x47 3. 37. n*. 16. 19. x  + 3z. 4ft ~. . 58. 2. 12. a 52. + c 4 d x + 6 e. ?/. ?> 22. (mn} 11. 2 17. f 2 ?/  2. a). + 8.r 2. 8 b. 38. 2. 15. 4.'U4j>. 43. 18. 19. 10.2 a. 36. 6. a f 2 f 2 9. 22. 8. 21. 2.2. 11. + 4 c. 364c. :5 41. t). a. 0. _2?> 2 + 3 x 9. 19. 12.a~. . ' 12 m?/'2 27. 56. 50. 0. ft Exercise 17. 4r 2 . a 6 2 . 2 2 2 6. 2. + 2y. 5 2 Page 29. 8 + 2 a . 2. 1. 3 nv> w 3 a 24 npy .
0. Page 7.:>/ . + 58 . . 17.14 xyz + 14 a:y0. 60. 120. 15.32 y s s G . 8. 18.2. 9. 13.19 + 2. 13. 2 . 28. 18. 21. 40 r 2 . 16 lb. 1. 10.32. 1. 2 7t A.28 p'^/. 7. 4 jcy*z*>. 4aWy. 10. 26. 24. 29. 9 13. 76 8 a' 1 . . 27. ^^ = 20. (+3)x6=+16. 23. 28. 27. 20. ci 5 .r + 7 1S + 2 mp. 13. iSx8 . fa 2. 28. 4 m3 + 9m2 + m. .r% 2 2 ry. 18a% y.64 190 p6. 8. 38wiw. a.10 3 30 a a 4 c f 15 aWc .26. 6. 2 a*62 c2 + 11 a&c . 20. 4200. 20 aW. 24. 127"'. x2 xy42^. + O4 66 . 30. 2''. 2 2 +2621ft 2 .12. . a. 24. 7G . 22. 7. 19. 33. 16. 16. 13.21 a 3 c2 21.25 + 14. 216. 15.>(/ r . 8 . 343.iv ANSWERS + &)(. 37. 14. r' 2 a: j/ (? ft . 30. 24. 15. 17. ?/ . 21. 38 a*b 6 : 24. a. 12 ^. 2. Page 36. 2. 30. 6 . 3. 66 8W 34. 14. etc. 1.14 . 90. 30. 28.16 a 2 + 32 a . 27. 34. 20. 18. 33. 4 fc. 3 a 2 46. 10. 4 a2 . ll 2 i. 9. 2 + aft 4 ft 2. a: 3a: 2 (2a:f iHa. 20. m. 30. 42. .8 4a12 a2 ftf 5aft2 f 6 6.000. Page 3. 18. 23. 22..14 ?/i r?/6j/ 5. 21 a'&c.6 2 . 1. 0. 24. 6. 31. 12. 12 x2 2 . 161b. 16. 12. 216. 2 n8 29 a + 30. 2 ). . 42.. .18 w w + 10 WI M . 25 4 4.20 xyz . 6. 11. 11. 16 51. 8.57 p6 3 2 4 25. 2 2 2 . + 7. ?> 4 . 6". . 20.. . 360.16 x2/ 5 4.25 x* + 25 x + 20 . n (a6) 125.7(50. 19. 36. 15 lb. ISartyW e*f*tj. 15. 3300. 2z 8 s 2 3zl. 1. 25. 1. 16. . 9. .14 w 2 2 . 04.14 a 2 _6g8 + 9 2_i2g + 8. 3 ?i w 1(5 pag'V 2 W 2 . 102. 4. 60. a*b*c. 2. 2 a2 (y 2 . 18.3 a 2 6 + 3 aft 2 . 31. 14 m 2 . Page 35. 25. 2 ). 2 * 80 . 34. . 25. Page 5. 12. 83 In + 1 n*. 30 n?b*c*. 17.19p" + 19^ 10 . 23.. 15 q\ 6. 6. 4. 1904. 3.21. a + ft.(3x2_4^+7).6 wiw 24 n 2 36 + 65 ww . . +. 19.12. 18> ^* = a .35 a*b*c8 f 14 a?/e . 64.69 rt + 21 132 + r . a: . 1400.22 ac + 30 c2 + 43 2 2 8. 35. 29. 30. 23. 3. 7. (x f ?/)  a 12 10.15. 27. 18. //. 66 39 k* . 16.6) =a2 31. 2 8 xy f 4 a. 4. 4 a8 . 4. 27.36 35. 4 7> 4 :j !} . 22. 3. 5. ft 17. 10c 2 19rd+0c? a I' . 26. a 8 . 21. 34. 2 wiw 8 + 2 wiwp 2 2 x*y* 15. 5. 33. 22. 2 w +2 2 . 10. 161b. 29. 14f 5.11 xyz . 9z 8 16z2 9z + 10. s 9 ww. . f 26. 29. 52 + 6s 12. 8. Ox a 5 . 2 ll9HH 2) + . 13. 2*8f x2 6x4.1. 4. 30 ? 49 p*qh*t. 210. ! 2. 108. 770. 25. 7 + r/m 4^4^414. 32. 19. Page 38. 1. 8. 30 j9 jt?g j . 4. 9 w 2 + 13 n . 11. 11. 14. 17. 32. 7. 84. 2.44 aWc 16 abxy. 20. 3(*+0 + 2). 15. 3 a 3 . 5aft(a 126 2).8 12. 108. +15. 14.
4 a&c + c2 30 x 4 ?/ 23. 166.10 x + 25.6. 484. x 4 ?/4 + ab . 2. 8 38. (m + 6)(m3). + a2 12 ab 2 8 0. 4. x4 28. 3wi2 m Page 42.x2 + 6 x2y 2 . . 10. 25 a 2 6 2 .3. 29.54 p 2 + 81. 2 . 18. 39. Page 39. 2 a 2 + a . ( 5) O5)(w + 3). 7> . 1. ~ 6 20 . 33. x*2^f I.ri 17.004.5 ?i m #2 4 ?7i%'2 4 . m'2 +18?rt 2 ' + 81.<* &2 + 106 + tt + . 2). 9999.6 y4 10. ) 4' 6/ 49.996. 2 m3 + 4m2 . 41. 27.2 x + 2 x.001. 31. 4 2 //. (46c + 5) (4 abc 43. ^' J  7 f 12. 8)(?i (x2)(x3). 55. n2 a4 6. 23. 36. 19. 6. 5. 25 r 4 ?/i 30. + 4 a +4. a 2 . ft' 11. 2 1: 21. ^/> 8 4 .000. (w4)(w + l). . 40. 10. a + 25. 33. 10. a + 56. 36. 25 25. + 2 fz& + 2 i> + p + 9.2 6 + 13.ab . y.009. 4 21. a2 ' + 48Z100.2.  12 xy +9 2 >2 ?/ 2./ . 25.994. ^V^4 .^V"' . I/).810.1. m 3 j) 3 . 4 + 25 q*.008. 1.201.14 jp + 49. 10. 2 a' y' . 10..009.404.8. 45.20. 10 a' 2 . s rc 47. 2 4 2 2 64 . 11. lflrt 2 8 + l. 10. x* . 57. . 10 a 4 ?. 2 (5 a 3). + 7 6)(3a~76>..10 35. 9 4 /> .000. 52.712. 10. (n 2 5. 10.84 a' 9. (r ?/) (x 6 (b + 5 ?i)(& 50.p132. w'n 2 //^ + 25. . 2 0)(p + 5). 19. 30. (a (3 54. ab . 2 +10s281. 37. 24. + 2 9. 16. 56.00 + 37. 34. 3. 2. 6. 30 /><.4 a&+ 4 &*. 36. 35.25.606. . . 6 2 + 6lf>0. (w+4)(m4). n + 2. . . . +  m' 1.ANSWERS 28. a + 25. 44. 2 (6 a + 3) (3a66)(3a6&). +4 34. x4 4 121 4 ?/ . 26. + 12. 990. 15. x 2 f xy + 9 41. 7. a4 4 ?/ . 9. + 10 + 121 y*.49. 28. . 8. 1. 4 . 2 6' . 8 a W . (p 2. 9801. r*d< x/2 ?/'2 18. p 2 .6 x2 13. G a6 2. +   5). 29. ab. 4. 3. 30 x + 19 x3 .r . x 48. 1. 2 a4 6 4 +8 a2 6 2 2x4 +7x 2 6 2 15 6 4 36. 36 a 4 . 1. 40. 1). 39. 4x21. 999. 2xV+6x2y2^2 +22. ?/H)0. 21 2 . Page 12. . 2 12.m 30 6 4 1. x2 GiC+5. 14. 441. (x  2) (x Page (rt2). (a + 4) (a + 2). 37. . 31. .5 ~ 81.2 y*. 9. 26. 4 x2 13.4 n. 10 p 2 g ?> 2 ?/ + 49 & 4 2 16. Om2 4 6m 6. . r.15. 1.x2y22. 12 x2 . 20a 2 21a + 4. . 32.r* 2 30. 2 62 V2 132.35 ab 9. 7 . 51.+ l5J x// + 9 2 2 4 ^ 4 ()Or 2 20. 34. 11. 9990. 2 a' + 2 ?/ 5 + a 3.6 xy . 10. 42. fo*.^. 15. 2 4 a + 4. 5. . 6 x6 + 13 x3 . a3 0. 53. 4 m'2 40 (i V2 c 2 + 25 r 4 22.^ + a? + 1.r . 7. 17. V + o ft . 4. 33. 14.500. + 3)(3).020. 35. 27. 41. 14. 22 x 2 ?/ 2 y + 121 x4 29. 2 j3 Z . 4 . + <z 22 2 4 20 rt2 32. 24 ab + 9 & 2 . 2 fr .020.16 a3 f 50. 10. 40. 7. a2 >2 2 2  84 a a + 49. 10. 38. 998. . 31. 8.4 12. ' 46. 24. m 2 . + 4 t*. 2 . p4 + . 8. 32. a' .098.
2 .29. 1.VI ANSWERS 43. 18. 9. G. 10 ft.2 .2 wZ 4. 8.2 2 . 8 ?/ . 6.r?/ j/. 11 4. . 3. aft. 14.6 :rs 4. 2. 12.n. f>r* 4. 4. 12. 17./ 4.15 21.12 aft 4 20 ac . ft 17. . 10. 5. 4. 13. 14. 6. 20 15. 15. 16. c3. + 4. 2 m2 4 2 w2 7. + c 2 4 aft2 ac + 4 ftc. 4 ac.8. 2 ?/ ft Page 2. 5. a 2 410 + 9 r 8 + w2l ftc.2 1 //. 3. 4 n2 4 +p ft 2 42 2 aft 2 mn + 2 mp 4 10 a ft \ x* 4 4 2 z2 + 2 jrz a2 2 2 f 25  2 np. 17. 3. ti'jry1 7. 2. 8. 20. 4 a 2 4.3 3.r ?/ ??i ?). 5 4 a Oft. y 7. . +w . /r . 2 ft 2 ?nc w . . 2 ?/ 4. m'2 3. i 2 tji.27 x 2 4. _ 2 a . r ft. r/2 4. 1. 5. ft.5 n*. z. Osy.7 arty 4 4 x 2 //V2  3 Z2 3 1.2 2 2 8 . ?/2.8 y. as _ 10 16.34. Exercise 27. 12. 8. 4 a* 4 9 11. 9. 6x 3. 4. 7a 2 ftc 4 4c42a.r" 20 S? .y3. 13.1. 3 aft 20. 2 4.3 x 2 2 4. aft 4 tt ac 2 ftc. 125. 4. 3 5 a4  4 a2 4. 2. Page 51. 44. yfl. 22. 8 r<ft 4 2 . abc 7. 2 . 10.3 w 4*7 m 2 3 mn . 9. Page 7. 17. 19. + 16 r 4 + 12 a'2 //2 . 135. l 4 .3 5.1. 8 x5 ? + 4 1. 2 4 2 x 4. x4. . . 5. 2.1.> 10. 2 ?/' . 3. + 3. 8. 5. 1. a 2 ft 4 9 c3 . 5. 13. 5. 5 a  (5 ft. 1. Page 11. + x?/ 2 1.25 c . 8.  10. 2 4 3 9.rw. 21. x' u' 2 2 z~ 4. r//. x 2 + 2r f J. 6 <z 2 4 ft 3 .30 ftc.  12 y 25. w 2 . 7 r .3 ry. *3 y 4 . 01. a 4 4 ft.2 ftc . 4 d 2 4. Page 48. '. 9. . 19.000. 15.2. a r'43 ll'a^S 15. 4 c m . . 47.9 d. j) . 24.2 . 9. Exercise 2 a:// 26.r . ft ? ft' ft ft. 49.8. 13. :r !>. 4.23.1*5 2 r 2 .r' ~ 16. a. 14. 2 12. 9w 2 + 0m+ 1. 3. // 19. 3*y2 w + 1. 12. 2 1. 5.5 mp. 4 x. 2. x 4. 3 a. Page 13. 5^418(7. 6. 4. a 2 . 14 r 2 . . 6 x 2 t/ 2 4 . 4. 2 2 + 2 a. 1. 3 l48m47?n 2 20. 10. 8 x . 4ft. aftc 52. 1. . 11. 6. 1000 1000 .x^. 11.1. 2.15.2 <</.2 ac . 16.+ 77 15. 75 a 2 29. a 2 44 a2 ft' 4 ft 2 2 4. 2 a 3 ft. . 1/*. 9 5 4a' 2 ft 6. 2 ? 14 . ft* ft / .5 a .3^V.24 . c 12.11 _ 5x _ _ o 18. 3. aft 12.25. a2 x 8 4 ft 8 .10 xy*.  11. 46. a 10.1. .r'^ 15. 4 pq.lit x + 4. 13. 7.9 4.w. 4x43?/. . 5.c ft*/ 1  ft' ?/ . m L 4. 8 ?/ . 4 x y 2 7 x + 5. 26.21 2 2 f + . 18. 23.1.1. 14. ??. 7a3ft.r?/. Page 22. i 9. .yar 4 */ ?/ Page 50.  5 z* . sr 11. w . 1. 6. 4xy + 13 <) .8 yn . .7. . r 7. 12.  .2 ar.2 aft 4. a 8 4. 14. 2 ^r ???' 2 .4. 50. 2 .rw f 8 . 5 aft 4 ft 2 4 8.  3 c. 4. 8.8 <r 2 2 ?/' .3 a 41. 13. 21. 16.10 2 + z 2 410.
29. 33. 2x + 35.6 = *. 9. 38. 41. 47. 19. ct. 2. x + 1=a. 7. 17. <>. (c) (2zf 600) (3 =4. 7x 2 Page 21. ( a f 4. b. + 3 = 2(3* . 60 25 1. . ] 2 ri 42. a 8. 22. 10 a.  2\. 59. x 48. 2b. x = m. Page 40. 16. y 2z p= 3 (a c. " lir. 1. 45. 21 2. 37. 57. 4. 27. 1.(3x  700) = 5. 5. 12.100. 10 x sq. 'nj 100 a 28. 8. Page 6. = 5 ?i x 460. ? 43. 25. 12. m +~m 3. I. 10. (c) 2a? + 3 (/) (2fl58)h(8aria)=60. 3x  1700) = 12. 36. x y $ 6 yr. ct. 20. </ 20. 5. 44. Page 13. 2 ct. 3x2. 10) + = (a) 2 x . 17. 2.7). ft.ANSWERS Page 9. 100 14. 18. (> 27. 2. 800 = x + 1300. 40. xy ft. / + y + a// 12 yr. 8 n  10 yr. iL*.r1.. 9. 4. 25. 30.x700. Page 61. 33. 5.  6 10. 14. 19. 42. 0. 5. 15. 4.(3x+ = rraxlO. 5. . 18. 20. + (d) 2 x + (3 sc 700) = (x f 1200)  x. 3. . 28. 2=10. ft. 8. 4 f 39. 7. 6. 13. "mi. 38. 13. 7. f = eZ 2 x. lO. (>. x. 6. 4(a ft) c = 8. ct. }f. 7. 1. 11. 44.000. 13. 4^ = 100. 6. 58. b. y yr. l. 17. 36. 16. 10 yr. . 2. 1.ab a. fix. (</) 2a. ) 2^ x 20 =a 7. 100 d ct. 2.p+7. y ?>i x + 26. 10) (6) 2 zf 20 3^740. y 100 a 24. X 60. ^ 12 sq. x 2y 10 act. 90 7 2 + 10 = c. m=  100 2x=2(3x~10). f 6)(o 62. 100 2. . 46. sq. ft. 39. 43. # + 20yr. 0. 7. 4. y 50. 10. r>?imi. 26. . (d) 2a + 10 = n. 3. 7. s. 50= L 100 15. 11.200) f(^ + (e) 200. (c) 2x. !). 14. + 4x 3y 34. 35. (2 a. 4. 5. vil 56.10) 100. 3 9. 30. 24. rn mi. 20. % 4. 29.. 00. 37.  1$. 23.rr2. 10. d. m+ 11. f (I. 2. 23. x 49. 16. (A) 3 x f (4 x . Page 31.  />) a = all. 1.. a 10. + 3x + 2y + 32. d + !.r ct. n M. 100= ^. '^ . + 10 b + c ct. 32. 31. I. 1&. v (6) 2x. . 10. 11. Jj12. r tx mi. 22.. 6. 15. + f + b 2. 7. 6. (a) ' 12. 41. 2b 22. 3. 34. 10 >_&.  9 = 17 a. lOx 10 + w.
3). Page 7.10. 18. 50. 9. 180. (a + 5)(a + 6).5. 160 lb. 250. 6. Page 7.000 Phil.000 ft. 16. 1.000 copper.1). 4. 10 yr. 17z8 (l3z + 2x'). 1. 5$ hr. (a + 4)(a + 8). 2. ? 2  = SJL+J10 13. 12. 5. 10 yr. 8. (*4)( + 11. 17 7>c(2 a'^c2 . 13. 5 Col. 75. 15 yd. 3 hr. 10. 10 Mass. 90 mi. ( + 4)(*2). 2. 600. 78.11.21. 12 mi. 11 w(w' + wi . 7. 12. 14.000. MOO HXT 100 100 ^~ (5z30) =900. 13. 10. 70. 6.8. 5pt. 3.0. 1. ?(g ? g+ 1)... a a (a 8 a+l). 9 in.  PageSO.. 22. 2. by 12 yd.0..24.79. 9. Ib..210^.000. ^ . 8. 30. (a5)(a4). 6. 9.000. 3. 28yr. 2. 85 ft. (ro3)(w2). 1313. 10.. 13. 7. 14.30) + (2s + 1) v v ' ' 5 18. 17. 8 12.22. 8(a6 2 +6c2 c2 a2 ). 12.. 1 lb. 6. (y7)(y + 2).000 ft. 4. a 12. 9.vili ANSWERS (a) V J^. 480..000 pig iron. 74. 20 yd. 3. '2 > 10aVy(2a 2 ay43y 2 ). k ' _ ft v J (d) 100 100 ' V ' ' 100 100 100 =^8000. 25. 30. 12. 14. 10.411. 200. 3x (3r. 17. (2a63?2_4 a /^) 16. 1200. 15. 30 mi. 29.5. 2 2 ?/ 21. 71. 15 in. 12. 8. Y. 10. 2). 10. (a 4) (a. 1. 8.. 8. 9.3.. 11. (y8)(y + 2). 52.000. 5. . 45 in. 10 yd. 11. 3. 7.000 gold. 70^. 3.(5z . 23. (y 13. 11. (c) ^ v ' .000. Page Page 480 12. Page Page 4. 13. 19. + 7)(y3). 11. 20..000. 5. 100. 11 in. . 90.. 10 Cal. 15. 20. 4. 24J. 8.2. 8 in. 15 mi.2).6). ~=90. 68.5p + 7 g ). .000 Berlin. (z5)(z2). 1250. 8. 80 A. 2 3 6 7. 2 2 2 5. 6. 6. Page 79. z?/(4^ + 5xy . 300. 2.3. 4pt.y"). . 1200.3aftc + 4). 9. Page Page 4. 9. 10. 3. Oaj(o62cd). 55. 20 yr. (a + 6) (a + 3). (yll)(y4). (p + 7)(3a5&). 78. 25. (e) i* + A. 20 yr. 100 1. 7. 3.. 15. 2. 67. 5. 5.13. 200. 14. 7a*fe(2a & l). 8.000 N. 3 (a +&)(*. 18. $40. 13. 15.. 5 lb. 30 yr. 6. (y + 8)(y2). 150. 6rt 2 11. Pace 65.. 42yr. 11 pV (2 p8 . w (/) 64. 82 mi. 15. 20.16. 7. 14. 1. 4. 2$. 4. 21. 1. 14. (6) (6 a 30) =20. 1. (m + n)(a + 6). 6. 05.7. Page 5.000. 8 2 19. 25 yr. 72.. 12. 18. 13 a 8 4 * 5 (53 xyz + x y'W). 6 aty (3 + 4 6) 2. 2. 7. 7 hr. 40 yr. = _?_(2ar + 1). 4.
y) 2 29. (3a. (a 6 6) (a 4. 31. a*(5a f l)(flr . No.11 6) (a 4. 9ft w(?3) 140 w 2 27. Yes.c 2 ). Yes. . 30. 11. 26. 9. (2o + l)(2l). 7.1). (<7 20. 26.7)(2z f 1). 24. (2w+l)(ro + 3). Yes. 33. 216 aft. (3 n + 4) (2 (3x+l)(x + 4). 35. Oa 2 (a2)(al). Yes. 2(2s + 3)(a: + 2). 20. (a. 25. 4. 22. 2.y (6x + 4)(5x4). No. (y8) 2 2 . 21. 10(a . 2. x (z + 2)(x + 3). 32. (3#y)(+4y). (7 a + 4) (2 a . 24. 9.3 y 2 )(2 a: 2 f y'2 )2 3 Yes. (a 4 10) (a 4 + 3). 28. 25.6) 2 2 . 23. Yes. (a a: 19. + 2y).5y)(3a. (3*2)(.2). 9. (2yl)(y + 9). . (5wl)(m5). a(2u. (a 3 + 10)(a. 25. . 17. (a*& + 9) (aft + 3) (aft 3).y4 ).3). Page 84. 9. (4 13. 11. 100(x. 27. . 12. ix 18. (w* (3a26). 3. 2 No 4. x(x +y)(x y). 8. + y + . (6 a. 100 (a. 31. y(x. (4y3)(3y + 2). (2 a? 4. 3. (y + 4)(yl).9*). (0 (l+7a)(l7a).2 by2 6. (n2 + 12)(n 2 + 5). + 3?i) 2 (5x2y) 2 . (az + 9)(ox2). (2xl)(x + f>). 8) (a. 22.11 ft)(a6).4p). 40 x.2 ft). (15ay2) 2 . (m + w) 2 5. (4a. 18. + 8)(g3). 15. Page 83. (m7n) (a. 28.6) 2 1. 9. No.7) (a. (6n + l)(+2). (ft + ll)(aftll). 2. a . 21. 10(a + ft)(aft).3)(z2). + 0(90 Page 85. Yes. 103x97. 2 3 by2 Yes. (5a +l)(5a l). (a (p8)0> + l). 200 (x + l)(x + 1). 25. 3)(3a. 34. (a + 8)(a3). 16. 1. 10x2 (y9)(y + 2). 23. (* + y)(zy). 26. No. .y) 2 aft. (5a4ft)(2 a~3 ft). 11. + 4) (a. 10. 3. (7 ay + 8) (7 ay 2 2 13. 34. 7. 19. 4. 14. (w ~ n (x .1). Yes. . + 2 )(a + ft)(aft). 22. 10(3 5 6) 2 . 27. 22. Yes. (5 a 2) (2 a 3). 17. (x + y4 )(x . Yes. + 5) a. 8. (9y4)(y + 4). 3(x + 2)(zl). 6. ( 2 4 19. 10 a 2 (4 . 2 y(ll x 2 + 1)(11 x2 . (13a +10)(13a 10). 2). (4 18. (0 + 6)(66). Page 82. 13x(a + ft)(aft). f 2). 30. . + 3)(c44). (w + 20)(w + 5). 7. 12. 29. 26. 25. 23. (5xy ) 3 ft 8 B 2 (12+ y 2 )(12y 2 ). Yes. 10 y2 (\) x + l)(x~ 3). 3a. + 9^)(oxy . 12.ANSWERS 16.2). 4 (a . (4al)(a2). .w*)(l 2 n 2 ). x\x 24.1). (a2 + 10) (a2 2). 2(9a:8y)(8a:0y). (10 aft + c 2 (10 aft . 19. 14. . 32. . (:52y)(2a!3y). 18.* (2 y + 3)(y. 20. y) (a.+4 y)(3x4 y). (15a + 46*)(16a46). 1.   .. . (g . a 2 (w7)(w + 3). 7 6) (a 10 6). (l + x )(l + x )(l + x)(lx). 10(2 30. 33.2 y). 2 y' (2y3)(2yl). No. a. 2 17. 10. 5. 24 9. 16. (ay8)(ay3).  x (5 a.4 6). 23. 21. 1. 2 2 15.r2). 14. 15. 6. 20. + 3). 36. 17. .8).4. Yes. 16. 10. Yes. 27. 13x7. (10a + ft)(10aft). (5x . 8. 28. (m + n +p)(m + wp). 35. 24.1). 21. . (15z2y)(x5y). 13. 5. 29. 10. (2 *+!)(* 9). (m + n + 4p)(w + .
?/). 4 6. (5 al) 3) (f> a/> 15 ?>). 6. 4. 2 2 10. a8 . 11.1). Page 12. 17(x43//)(x2y).y)(fi a . ANSWERS r)(4x (4x 4. a 41. 38.2). 2 k (wi 4.7)(^ {I 12.2)(x 1. y )(. l. 3p (^9)(j) 4). 8x. x(x f y)(jr .  (w' 4.'})(c . 2(m4l)' . (5^4. ( 4 1 ) (2 m . (^ + ?>_8). 4. 4 a8 .. (2x7)(x 2 2). 37. 6 f c). 22.l)( a 25.^46) a?/ 2 /> + o) (ff n 2 T>). Page 86. a x 3 10. 8. 19 13> (7rt3)(7a~3).3. 8). (* _ 2 )(a 4. 7. (a 4. (5a+l)(9a).2 y).4).& (a 5 & 4#  2 y) (a 1. Page 87. ( (<> r4y3 . c 5 b 5 + 9 iZ) . 9. 10(8x' 4l) 4. (14. a 4. 2 (a 4. ( { &). ofc)( fid). 4. 3(.0+ 12).y.  29. 14. 4& 2 )(tt4/>)('e 62 2 2 4l)(a' & &) 5). 2. a 2 (a9). 2 5 a 2 6c 2 3. a (a + 2 6).a + (< (3 7>)(3  a l fo). Gp). 11. 24. 42). . 80a6 4 40 aV>*>c >d\ !)&(<* 4. 15. (. 2. (7/1 2) (m 41). (x//.42 x 4. 42a 3 x. 8. 1(V/ 88. 2 y) ^ . 4 a s &8 . 3(47>44)(^4'> 22/)((3x). a + a b. 8 4 15 ?>)(a 34. 35.e 4.4. 30. 6. (16 4  2(5 n . (x. . (!__/>). (5 26. ( rt 23. 5.i4l)(x4l)(x~l). x . 2 21.y (m + 2 u + (\p)(m + \ . 18.>*)(:> 4 lj 4. + 3. 1.1) 3. 16. 5 x8 3. 16. 12.5 <:  9 </) (2 a 12. 7.^ c)((> 4 3 (3 w 2 w 4 m  ).3)(x 4. 4. (Ox  7 ?/)(7 x4 y/). K + l) a (a 5 />z 9. 10(2 (3 4. 2.?>) H.n). 14.//)(5y x(x4ti<0. 13. Exercise 47. ( y).8) ( (16.^ 48. (f> + fo 7. O + ?/4<?)O ?> 4 q). fi(c426). (^ 7. 24x sy s 9. 28. 27. 7. 4. 3 x4 . 2 8(w . 3. (w4w) 2 1.w )(l 4 w 2 )(l 3 + ( y) r)(x ( .4).8) n 43*). 2 1. (2 a ~ f> b 4. Exercise 46.4. Page 92. 36. Page 90.7s) (2 a. n  r)(5a 10. 20.'/)('< 4. 13. (> 1.  WIM. 14. 12 m 2 (m n) 2 . (m  I)' 6. . . 2 a 2 13x 3 y. . 7. 2(5 a  ft) (a 3 ?>).36). 2 2 (3a 4// )(x4>/). 5. (5 31.X 5. 4 3. x 4. 5. 39.&). 2 2 3 . 9. 14. y6. 2 + .4)(?  5 (6a 4l)(a +)2( 2x2/)(x2?/). r x 2 */3 . (xf!/)' 3 4 w)(m. y(2x?/).&). 3x(x?/) 4. 13. 40.  (m3n + a + b)(m 3nab). 8. (a 9.1). + 2 //).b. 19. (a />. 11. a 2_rt4l)(a rt 1). 4  9. a(a 2 + !)(+ !)( .y '2 2). 6.y). 4. Page 89. (c.8). 7. 8. 2 . ^ . (w * . 6. ?i(w 4y) . 32. 4). (a &4. x  1).))(x  ^OC 1 1). 15 M.3.2). 4. b) (r 4.!) (x42)(x2). ?>). 12. . 4. y). 17. 15. 5  (2 2 . 13 x 8 2 . x43.) j). 12. 6. (a + (2a3fc)0*+ tf)Or 41) (^42).r(3x' 2 4 (14. 450. ah}. (r420(4 10. 8.'J)(' . a 4. 10. 11. 6. 7. 2. 13( 33. 5. 8. 2. 41. ( a ^)(^3.9).?50)(xt/z.5 m2 x2. 8.
a 23. w 2 ^ (!L 5 +2 3 i + 63 3^1 rr Pace 991 20 . 1). + &) 2 ( . +8b a 4 3 / ^. 18. 2(2al) + l). x 22. 30(3 2 (a 15. (a2)(a + 2)2. + &)(&) ( . b ! 21. // m+1 !+*?.ANSWERS 10. 6a2&(rt6). x 24. 13.  1). + y) (a: y). x 12. ?_!&. +5 1. 11.6). (a2y2 (a3) 2 (a4) 2 14. a 10 25.
4c 10. 3a 2 2) ' i (x ' t+3) 5x (wi8)(w go a 3ffl + 13 + *2)(x + 3)' 19 ' rtv+Ji:'. 11. xy 43. + ^8 1 a 2 1 ~ 41. w + _ i + _J? a w+4+ ? 3 8. Page 101. w1 + ac w 4 7. i^. Page 100. 6. _*^p5_^^_. 6. ab121 12 ft 2 8 a 2 196 a2 8. 7. 6a5f^. + lH + .50 ~ 1/2 . 2x1 + 5x 12 + ^.  **/* + 84 _.y~ z ' ] 5 x2 y + :j y. 26. ' 2 7. A^. i. . 4.. 1. 2 a.2g ftc 46 ?t ~ 30 y . a 5. 0. c 8. ^iie^+JoJ^^ilOa bc 9 11 92 aft  1>*  10 12 + qc + ab ' 238 . 28. rt 3a2 + ~3a a 3. + 2H 1 ^. 4 L 8 2 . 6. 30. ^i 2n a 22 9x * T 94 4<i ^ 33 9 ^ 37 (a 2 b)' (a + ft) a 42. r > 'a2 f an f ft' ' 2(czft) (x 2.80 MP 2 30 ?/ r + t S ^ 2ft "' 180 wv 15.Xll ANSWERS 21 2 . a 2 ft 2 + 21 ft' 1 4m m2 26 9 fi 7 . ^~ 29.
46. 10. 7. 2 47. 3. 6. Of. n m a + 13. Page 106. 2ft a i m x. Page 111.  10 X + u. 1. 1. j L . 6. 11. 14. 36. 10. 1. 15. ?. 5. n . 20. 9. 7.^U\WF### X<6. 15. 11. 5. +3 ( + 15. J. 9. 43. 21. 4. J. 2) 19. x\. 1. 17. 3. x 1. y(x + x ?/). 1. 12 28. ^_. 12. 16. 24. 14. 17. 25. a. 4. c 8. 29. ! 4 20. f Page 107. 0. 45. 5. x 05m ' 5. (y + (z 12. xiii in <l ~ 2b 18. ac mp lf> n 12. ?+_!?>.y 7. 4. 7. 16. 5 be _J_. 13. I) 2 3z 1. 6. 3. 38. Page 110. 33. (a + y) 2 Page 104. ' 6. m 9. 3 7 i o. 4. 8. . 8. 5 6 Q 5 a 12. b a f +c 14. 4. 42. 27. 35. 39. 37. n 16. J. 11. ft. + f. . 9. 11. 21. 26. 6. . 32. 6. 6 . a2 2. 1. 19. 2 re +3y mn 10 lo. 12. ^i 11. 4a3ft. 7. 40. Page 113. f 7. 3. . 21. 1^)2 ' 2 1) 2 13. 1. 1. 14. 15.ft . 8j_m 7 3. pf n 6 1. 23. 18. 4. 44. 1. b 2. w^x 2 b Page 105.L+ft. an 18. a 17. flf. 11. 31. 4. ft 2 f 1 + a + 1 Page 109. 1.^_.  V o 4. 3. A. 34. 0. 3. 41. (>. 5. 30.
10. 6. 8. $40. 1: ~. 40wn. Page 121.. 81. 21. 7. = A's. 1:1 = 1:1. 7. jj. 3.137. 5. (ft) 5 da. a 4 ft. b 25 ' mft 26 ' w 27 ^ ' ~i~ ^ .002. " 0. 1^'. f . 10. 300. 10. 12. 14. 9. (a) 30. 1. $30. 9.000. IV s. 21. 30. 30 yrs. . . 7 .  29.10. 26 mi. No. 13. 00.  + .000 If da. after $12.2. 19. Page 124. a 4 ft 3 T 29 30 ' 5T (a) ^ 10 (ft) 31. 74. 1:4. 30 mi. .. (c) 2 hr. 300. 5. No.. Yes. 9ft.15. 1. 1:1 = 1:1. 5ft 30mi. 26. 24. (ft) (r) 8 hr. Yes. 13. 3 da. 3. Yes. 40 mi. 1:1 = 1:1. 11 hrs. 20. gold. 31. 10. (ft) 5 hr.000. (ft) 28. 15. 2. 10. 5. 20. 16. ^p^ r ~ 7. f. 14.. 19. 3 : 19 = 4 : 25. 7. 9J oz. Yes. ^?i min. (c) 8300. 13.XIV '/ .001. (a) 12 hr. 22. 3. 10^ oz. r/ i  PM xx HXH />/ Page 114.. ANSWERS 16. () 2. $00. 11. 4. 21ft min.. 16. 32.139. * 7:9. 1. 19. 1:1=1:1.003. 8301 hr. J. (r) 3^ da. 2. min. 33. 24 mi. 18. 17. 4fl M_. ~m . min. 15. Page 118. 15.. Page 117. 7. 15. 4. '"I 22.000. J ^'. Yes. 17.11.0. 15. 9$. . 15..0 & .004. 7. 28.138. 3. _JL. after 20. 38ft min.  C . (a) 4 min.} da. 7. 15. 11. 23< &n b ' . Page 119. 5 25. 10. 4. 9. 5. silver. 16. (ft) 104. 26 30. 7} 18.9. 12. 212. 7T 2 Page 116. . 17. 6. 1 da. [>> ^ a . 10. (d) 500. 6. 33. 10 yrs. P+ ^ 33.. 8. (a) 25. 8. 13. 10. 55 mi. 4. . 3.000 1 = 23. 1 : 12./hr. Yes. nm. Yes. 30ft. Page 125. $45. 0. 14. 12. 4~r~ n . w 21. 9. 18./hr. 275:108. 2x:3y. . 1:3. dn ~ mi. Yes. 5 2.2. n 32. 18. 3:2. 34. 24. 300. $0. 75 . w 18. 2 20.000. 10. after 18. 8. 11. 8. ft. 2:1. xy. 40 yrs. ^m . 500.x + y. 3. (d) 4 da.. :2. 19. 4. 4x'2 :3?/ 2 1 . 14. 35. 20. 1. #V ~~ 34. 36. w 44. 17. 27.
36.3. .5. 9. : . 5 2. + b 7 . . Page 9.3. 2. Page 135. 1. 5. i.160. .9. 11. 3.].5. 7. 17. 11 5 . 7.12. 1. 3.x a. (I. 2. 57. 7. 20 20 J ^. 29. 1. 31J. Page 137.*. a +b 1. in.a.6.4. 13J."2:1. 2. 2. 16. (b) C C' = fi JR'. 2. 7^.3. 2.5. 8. 39. OJ. 46.57.7. (a) Directly. 28. () Directly. : />. + m* <7^' 10 7)C 14. Inversely. 4. 6. 9. 10. 41. (b) Inversely. 56.3. 2. 3. 4. 2. 945 11 10 . 2. 4.22.J 3. 5.^ 0?j ' gms. x:y a: b. 12.000 sq.J. /. 3. mi. 47. J pq. 3. 25. 41. 5. 55. 3. 48. y 1. . 8. 7. 4. 8. 32+ mi. 2. 31. 3.li. Page 131. 20. 14. 6. 14. 7. ini. 8. 2. lo mi. 8. y . 2 n . : : : ?/ : tf : ?/ : : : : : : : : : sr. 59. 10. : 23. 4. s<i. 5. 10. 11. 2. 2. 1 18 = 3 51. 6 10 = 12. 20 cu. 16. 26. ~ 1. 5. 7. 16. 1. 1 1 : : : : : : (I. 5. 3.12. x y y . 4. a 3. 15.4. 32  <>' 33  4 <^: 34 : : . 9. 9. 19.5. 12. 3 2=3 x. 24. 13.3. \. (<l) A A (e) m m = d> (. 3}. cu. 3. 12.2. 32j. \\. 20. 15> 9.  28.7. 2. 200 mi.2. 7.20. 18. 45.. 52.) 31. 21. 19. 2. 2.' : : : : <>. 38.1. 9. 5:0 = 10:12. 5. 6.4.3. 1. 7. 22. 26.5. 2. 4.  19. 7. 7. J.r. 2. 13. 17.5. 44. . 2. OJ. ft. 43. jc:y = n:m. 30. 40. 7. (</) ft.C ?/ a . y :y =. 50. 14. 4. 35.3. 1. 6. . 11. : : . 7. . 23. 17. copper. 4. 3  24. 5.15.5. 30.8 oz. 1(5. 12. 13. 11 w a 13. l.1.. 24 1 (e) Directly.  ?. 3.5. 5. = R~ R>'\ V V = P> P. : : T 1' : /> : . : XV 27. 6*. 15.5. 2. t 5. 3. 9. in n.3. 54. 10. 24. 22. I. + W.3. 6./':</ c a f :y=2:9. Page 136.15 x. Page 132.36. 4. x +y x + 74 7 \. 2. 8. 40. = 7 b'. 11. 7. 4. "lO. . 4. 138.46.3. 25. 4. 14. J. Page 133." ^ 2. a f 2 2 = 5 x. 174+ Page 128. 127.ANSWERS 22. ig 6.3. 7. x y = 1 = 3 2. 53.4.1. 3.000 sq.840. 9.2 oz. 58. 1 rt * vm^1. +m ' 12 3_a ' 7^ 10 ' 1 . 1. w 8. 1. y a y = 7 0. 25. mi. 5:3 = 4: x. . 7.1. Page 134. 19. 1. 19 OJ. 2. . 2. J.4. 27. tin. 21. ' 55. 8. Of.2 x. () 7 Page 126. 9. 19 3 . 3. 2. $. 13. water. 5.2. 23. Page 5. . . 2. 3. a~. 4. 5. *. b x 37. land. 11. 36. 1. 9  15.1. x 42.17. . 7. . w. 4.2. 141. 49. + 7>i//  ft 1 . 2..
15. 20 to Oct. 2. $6500at3Ji%. 3. (c) . 2. Jan. 1 (c) Jan. 6. 12. 2. 30. . 0.0. (ft) 23 J. 6%. afcd ae ftd 8 ft. 11. 4. 16. Nov. 1. 3. 3. C's 10 yrs. 9. 11. 12. ad AzA. 27. 25.& w_ i ae 22 5 L=. J.. 4. 2. 2t2. 6 cows. 10 sheep. 2. 19. . 3.1. a =J (n  1) rf. July. 2 a.33.. yrs. 5. 3. 10. Nov. May 5. 2. Page 22. . 24. July. 3. 2. 7. 13. 4. 1. $250.1J. 3). 24. & May. 10. 6. 6. 1. 3. 3. 25.  17. 5.8. 1. Apr. 14. 21. June. 13. Page 152. 3. . 5.$5000. & part of Feb.l. 5. 1 (d) Apr. 10. 7.. 10. 5. 32. 0. 4. Nov. 28. 29. ^. 20. Page 151. 18. 5. July 20. 31. 5%. 17. 24.10. .3. 9.3. 16. (<f) 13. (a) 12. A's 30 18.4. . 2. 13. M 2. m + n p. B's 40 yrs. 40. 1. Jan. 4. On the x axis. 4. 23f . Page 146.0. 11. 4. 7. Apr. 5. Jan. 20. be 10. 15.1. ad _(?jrJL. . 3.  Zn  "(^ll 14. . 11. 00. 26. 3. 14. 1. ' 6 3 a. 4. 2. 16./hr. through point (0.. 3. 100. 16 to July 20. 7.3. A's 50 13. 2. Feb. 18. 23. a. 2. 2. 24. m . 1. 10. 10^ gms. The ordinate. 17. 4. (5. 3. 12. 11. 11. (a) Apr. 14. 0. 2 horses. 25. 4. 6. 1. yrs. 6. 8. 17. A a parallel to the x axis. Page 143. 2. Page 145. 3. be 7. <*ft/ bd 1. Apr. 1. 16. 12. 3. 3. 90. 5. Jan. 4. 2. 30. 30. 8.4. . 8. 9. 22. 19 gms. 16. 7.^. . 423. m f 8. 7. On 11. 20. &.7. Oct. 4. 7. 4 ' q. 19. $500. Aug.. C's 30 yrs. Page 153. 18. 5. u 2ft. 4. Jan. 3. On the y axis.XVI Fagel39. . m f 9. 26. 20. SL=J o ft r^2. 21. 16. 40. & part of Sept. $ 1000.  11. 12. ft 3. 18. 25. Page 142. $4000..2. $3000. = ^ a Page 141. 1.$2000. .9. 2. 4. 147. 7. 4. 2.4. Page 149. 3. ' . at 15. 3. ' w_i 7 fr^ m w ' 2 m+w . 3.n + p. $900 5%. 4 mi. 9. (ft) 20. 8. 6. parallel to the x axis 0. 20 & Oct. 7.2. 9. 2. 7. 2. 9. 20. 1. 72.65. 15. About 12f. 23. 1. Nov. 6. 6. . 5. B's 15 yrs.
9. (ft) (d) 2. ' :=_!. 1. 27. . (a) 12. x3 3x2y + 3x?/2 2 a 3 +3a 2 +3a + m8 6w _ i.25. . m + 8 m% f 60 win2 4.1. (a) 2. 1. f4p 7+6p g f4pg 6. 7. 24. 2 a&m Page 167. 3. 1. (ft) 2.4 aft h a 2 ft 2 .41 and 23. .13.7. . 8 1 f f g*. aH64 a2 + 36 aft 2 +8 8 27a135a2 ft4225aft2 125ft8 . . (c) 2.27. 83. 11. () (rt) 3. a + ft. 5. . 10. 12. I21a 4 ftc 2 18.75 (ci) 3^. 19. . 1 4. 4. \ft) 5. (ft) and (d) 2. 8 a1. 1. 3. 1. 1 23.17 (ft) (c) 2. ft . f 10. 8. 22. 2.24 . . 04 x 12 */ 1 '^ 1 2 t  9 11. 6.75. 2. 15. Indeterminate.. 24. 9 and Page 166. 2. x*f 4x 8 + 6x2 f4 xf 1. . 3. 13. 8. 8mW.34F. 4.79. 1. 5.  1. .  1.5.41 and . 3. 3. 16. . . 5. 18.24.73. 3. . (e) 3. 3. 3. 14. 30. .25. 3. 10 C. 2.5 (ft) 3. . 1. xg . 5. 13C.. 2. 11. (e) 2. 2.64. 14. (/) 3. . Indeterminate.1. 9. 2.5. 5. 2. 64_ a 12 ft 27 ' a 121 81 a 4) ft 44 a 4TO a3 l. f12 wi 9. 1. 22.8 n 27 a 4 ft 4 f 8.2 (ft)  1. 13. 4. 3. Inconsistent.83. 3.87 (0) 3 (c) and and 1 2. 2.83. 4. . 125 16. f. 3. G.24. 3. . 12. . 27 27 81. 1. 3. 1 + I5a 3 + 75a6 + 150 126a 9 ft . 3. . 15 . m. (c) 7. 5. 4. 2. Page 163. (ft) (ft) 2.AN WE US 'S xvii Page 157. 2. a 10 ' a ll V&. +3 4. 1. 19.4 a^ft 4*/ 3 + t/*.59 . 3. (a) 5. 0. i/* 25 a8 343x30 ' 1 125 29. 27a 3 27 343 a 6 27 2 +9al. 147 a 4 ft 21 a 2 12.73 ami . 4 ) 21.59. 10. 2. . 1^. 14. (/) 3. 4wn8 + n4 5. 18C. 13.25. (a) 4. 10. 2. 11. a 29. . 4.25. 21." 23. 1. a 6o&i85 c i5o . 15.75. .75. 15. 1. 1. 8. 3. 26. ImW. 25. . 27 19.  12 ft xW  26 31. 2. 20. Page 159. 20. 2.84.25.3. 2 2 22. jgiooyiio 17. 13 . 4}. 5 and 2. 27 a6 ft  9a 2 1. 28. 14.73. 1.6. Inconsistent. xy. (c) 14 F.3 aft 2 + 8 ft .64. 1. 3. 3 . Page 164. 17.3. 30. 32F. 81 ". ft 2 4. 3. H. 1. _ 9 x ^27 1 . H. 2 l. (<?) 2. 2ft4 Page 168.. 5..  . f. 2. . xW. 0C. + a 4 ft* . 2. m4 1/ m%+6 w2 n f 2. 44 + 6t/2 m4 4m8 H6m2 4m4l. 1. 2. 2. Page 158.4. 6. 125a 28. . 1. 125 a 8 12. * 16. 1.79.67. SlstyW 7. (gr) 21.73. 4.
32 r^ 10 + 80 w 8 + 80 wt c + 40 m 4 + 10 m'2 + 21. 15. 20. 18. 12. 420. 13. 8 4 se 1 1 :J . ( Page 174. 2. AN S WE no . . . 32.  x. 3. Page 170. a. 5. ?7i 1 1 3 1.+ 50 m*w* + 70 w 4 4 + f>6 ?n *w 6 +28 >/* + 8 mn + w 8 17.GO a c + 23. ro 12 + 4 m+ w + 4 w + l. 8. 14. 6. 22. 5. 101. Zll. 24. (x + y\ 90. 2. 64. 10. 4. (l + x + . 7. 247. 3M. 76. 10*. 9. . 14. 14. fr ft i/ /> ^  23 .5 a 4 + 10 a9 . (ly). I 8x2). 4. 84. 6. 9. 9. 2. 9. GOO 2 c 2 .1000 ac 3 + (J25 c 4 24. rt .f 1 m 9 16. 1. (6a + 4a + 3a + 2). 17. 32+ 80 a +80 a* +40 a 3 + 10 a 4 fa 5 14.2). 3. l lV (l+? + & + x J x V s 24. ??i ?i . 5. (48 + 6. 1 w + 5 m' G 7 w. ( x + 2 x 2z + 4). 2 12. ? . 5 5 8. 25 19. 30. Page 172.x ). 2(> + ( 2 7>). 12. 14. + i)). a 2 .5). 2 4 8 2 . m* m*>n + 16 w 4 2 +5 c*d+ 10 c 3 tf2 + 10 c 2 d+6 c<74 + d5 20 in s + 15 w 2 w 4 G mw 6 + w 6 11. 2 2 7. 8. 90. 19. 13. ^i. 36. (a + 2 +l). 4. 2 ?>i?< >2 10. 71. f 21 rt'6 + 7 f 6 13. a: l . 309. 8. + 29. 18. w w + 5 W w c + 10 19.94. c 10 6 :l 20. 3 2 8 3 12. 763. 31. 7. 17. 3. (ab + c). 98.1. .5. 8. 4. 81 + 540 + 1360 a 4 + 1500 a 2 + 025. 15. 2 2 4. 3 w 2 H2 + 3 4 n 4 . 10. 15. . 33. 8 /.i c 6 15. 1. 978.a b 22. 10. 15.  +X '. + + ?V 22. 23. m 13. 20. 11. 34.r 2 + S:r2/2 ). 1247. w 8 + 8 in n + 28 5 5 4 4 3 8 2 w c + 10 w 2 2 c 3 + 5 mwc 4 + r5 18. . ). 40. 25. (a 2.^).r 2 + 6jt). 5. 16. 180 . 9. 19. (rt' (2 a (7 4 10. + y). fe *?>' ?> fi . 17. 6. 5. 6. ? : 1 . 237. 28. 9. +35. . (a + y+l). (:' + (2a3a: 2 + a. 30. (7 (2 2 3 2 16. 1. 6 (\x 3. 18. + (win . 1. 16 6 w . + 4 x2 + Ox4 +4^ + x8 10. 300. 27. 20. 8. 12. 6.7 /)). 16.3 ab + 2 2 ). (6 a + 5 a + 4 a ). Page 171. /> 4 ). Page 176. (23 alt + 7 (4rt +3 (5m 2 Cm + 3). (4a2 9& 2 13.1. 3 6 23. 3 2 ^. a ).83. a. 20. 2 49 . a 7 + 7 b + 21 + 36 4 & 8 + 35a 3 & 4 6 6 7 . 26. 3. 11. (3a. 100 *6 + GOO x 1000 2 + G25. + l). 1 1 ?>). + Z). 1 + 8 z + 24 2 + 32 r + 10 x 4 25. 7. 2. 11. 35. (Gn + 5 a + 4 a). r> 4 : 1 . +(^ 2 3^ + 2).037. 57.y2 ). 1 + 5 a?b* + 10 a 4 b* + 10 a& + 5 a/> + a 10 10 i c5 . (2 a + ft). j/^/t^/' wi n 4 p*+ 10 w 8 w y 10 wi 2 w 27> 2 +6 w/ip. 21.+3^ + 4. 2. 11.10 a~ + 5 a . . 90.XV111 7. . 10 x G a 4 . 99. wi 8 + 3m 2 . 72. 00. +3 + 5 4. . 16. (27 + 3 a xy 8 21. 21. 2038. (1 (x2y). 70. (Gx + (i + 2a. (x' l). 0. 119.6. (5^ + 4x?/ + 3?/ ).
. 3. 1. Page 181. ~ V^3. Page 179. 10.6. 44. 3. 5. 3. 1. 6561. (afl). 28. 9. 40. / 11. 12.  14. 1 7. 2. 7. 1. 32. J. Page 183. 2. f . 31. 4. () 2. 12. 21. Page 184. 36 in. 4. 10. f f V. 19. 13. 8. 34. 6V'2J. 1. 36. V2. 11. 37. 4. . a. 1 f Vl3. \/3. 10. 3. f 3. xix 26. . 7.}. 7. 16.  2. 23. ii :J _7. 11.w 18.ANS WERS 22. 6.. l~8. 4. 3. Page 180. 50. 9. Page 177.522 38. ZLlAiK 19. . 26. 4. 15. JJI. 48. * 1. {. 7563. 6J. 2. 1&. 1 38.  f. 5. 12. 16. /.925 ft. 12.. V J l. ft.005. 3J. f. 21 in. (6) Vl4 3.  3. >i 27. 27. 9. 14. 7. . 7. 4. 4 a. 30.13. 3.Sn. vYb.4. 2. Af^.798 yds. 8. . 16. a + 61. 19. 3. 28. 5. 6yds. 21. 2. 5. 8. 270 sq. ^.4. 4.236. 6 f !.  43. or 3. ^. 2.. 25.6. 49. 12.367. 5. f. . 2] see. 5. 12. 13. .V 8j. 29. 29. 11. 10. i ^. 5f. 3. 17.1. ft. > w ft. 12.. 47.5. 5. 1. 35. ft. 21 28 ft. . 15.?. 14. 7. 10. 27. 5. 9 15 ft. 5083.645. 33. 23. 14. 3. 10. w. 7. 18. 10. *. 1..5..  f. 25. 5. 8. If ^. 1. 3.237. 4 n. 20. 31. 35.. V35 1. 14. 7}. Page 185. 46. 4J. 2. 4 W**. 18.. 4. 39. 9. V2. 37. 9. 20. 3. 1.a. 15. 1. 7. 2. 11. 2. 39 in. 5. }. 2. 17. 40. 16. 7. 1.  5. 4. 13.i. 1. 21. . >TT 26.6. 7 45. " ^_ 22. 28 in. 32.742 in. V17. or 5. 24. 6. 29.60. _ iVaft. V. 9. 8.  1. 4. 4. 8. 34. 16n. 36. 5. 10. 14. 11. . 6. 42.4. 2.6. 13. 5. 4. 33. 4. 7. 9.916 yds.935. i. 6. 6. 6V21.243. . 22. 24. 6. ^^7m. 6. 39. 6. 3. 23.469. 12. 15 1 10. f ^ is. 7.. vV'TA 24. 4 TT M 28. (< + ?>).*. 25 J.6. 30. 2 sec. 15. 15. 21yds. 20. 13. 5. m. m.18. 7 in. 10. 17.. 5. 9.690. 2. 2. 3. 41. 3. v 17.1.
3. 39.. 0.23. Page 187. 3. 10. 0. equal. x*4x=0. . 3.  1. 6. (5 10. equal.10. 16.  1.  1. 3. 19 in. a. 10. 32. 2. rational. . 43. 0. 3. 0. 27. 20. 10 or 19. 64c. 16. 20 eggs. ft. 5. 10 mi. 2. 1.a. 5 ft. 3. 27. 7. 52. 44. 0. AB = 3. 7. 0. 56. 0. Real. 3. 12.2. 25.  24. 9. Real./hr. 13. 4. x* 51.. 7. unequal.  1.12. 21.  5. V^~2. 11. 0. r* i. 3.'. 6. 2. Page 190.4.12 = 0. unequal. . If. 14. irrational. 5. 15. Imaginary. 70 ft. i. 18. jr . 3. 57. 13. 41. . V7. 1. 28.  9x <).  6. 3. 20. f. 0. x2 + B . 26.  Page 194. 2. 2.l. Page 188.  1. 12. 48. 10 in. 7. 27. 6. V2. 19. Real.70. 12. 1..5 x + 6 = 0. 3.]. $ 120.6. 53.7. 1.02. 2. + 7 x + 10 = x*x 2 6x = or . 2. 6.4. 37.1. a + 6.59. 2 ft.4./hr. %. 25.XX Page 186. 33. 58. . H. 26. 3.a. 55. 35. 8. 2. $30 or $70. rational.41. 18. 1. s 11. 24. 20. 3. AB = 204 ft. 34. 7.23. 1. 15.2. = 0. a + 1. 1. Page 189. 46. 2 4jr + x2 8 3 = 0.37. 1. a8 . 1 . 3. U.1. 7. . 3if.2.2. 42.4. 2./hr. 3. Page 191. . a. i .Oa. x 14. 9. 3. #<7=3. 0. 0. . 1). Page 192. 5. 1. 4. unequal. 4.6 = 0. 1. 23. 0.2. unequal. ./hr. 6. 1.* 2.2. . 3. 6^2 in. 8. 3.0*8. ' 1. 0. 2 V3 in. Real. 1 3. 24. 8\/2 17. .2. 11. V^l. 26.5. 45. unequal. Real. 3.7. VV11. '  f 5. 18. Real. 2. 8. 1_^L ft 14. 15. 6V64. t is.a 3 a. 4. 4.2. 4. 4 da.1. 21. 6. Real. 10. 23. 2. 25. rational. 17. 1. 9.3.2. orf. f 6 52 a. unequal. 5. 29. 6. 3. 0. 47. 8. 36. 2. . 26. 28. 24. 2. 20 nii. 4. rational.  2. 1. 2. 23. . 6.48. V ~ 16 4 2. 0. 19. 38. *'' 12. 2. 2. 15 ft. f. 2. 35. 14.. unequal.$40 or $60. Imaginary. ANSWERS 22. 1. unequal.  2. .4. + 11 x. V^l. 4. . 6. 5. 2. 16. 6. . 2.74. 9.3.62. 25. 12. 31. 7. 2 . . 3. 2. 21. _ 19. 3. 4.2 x2 . irrational. 4. 1.. rational. 2. 50. 30. 64.48 3.  i. 7. Imaginary. 28. 22. 1. 1. 120 ft.7. 1.  5. Real.17. equal. . ^l/>> = 85 ft.3. unequal. Imaginary. V2. 1.5^. . in. 2. . 2.2. 22. 3.  13. $80. 49. 10 mi. . 8 or 12 mi. 1. 40. 12. 0. . v^^fcT"^..
^Sf 3 38. 49. 3. \ . fx'^z'l 23. 15. 16. 6. 25. 46. 9. 19. 6. . r*. 24. 1. 60. 7. 9. 58. J. I.1 5 15. 8. 14. 2. . 31. 29. 30 a.  J j. 12. . 28. 29. 49.  a'2 . 16. 23. 30. .  5. Page 200. 47. 1. xxi 15. 2. 3. 1. \/.32. 33. 1. 2. 13. J 3. 32. 48. 5. 9. \. ).2. v^T4 m. 33. ^49. 29. 8. x. \/r\ 11. 8. 4. 27. 9. 12. 20. i. 1V1. 4. 54. 3. 3 4 11. 0. 41. 20. 9. Page 199. 25. 7V7. 84. 23. *V. 3. 1. V^ 34. 56. 19. ? . 14. 10. r. 2. 2V a. 21. J. 19. 1. jV 10. x/25. 18. 18. a 18 . 39. Page 197. 24. 8. 2. aW\ 40. 3. 4. 36. 4. 11. 1.//^. $7. Vr. 4. 50. 243. Page 196. 8. 10. y. &. 1. 52. 22. 5. 22. 5. x$. 4. 2.  48. vm. 0. 17. z + 22. 21. (m 26. 5. 8. 24. 15. 7. 51. Page 201. 2. 17. J. 1. . 50. 'J. 9. 35. \/3. 0. 5\/5. vV. 13. 20. . 49. \a\ \/^. . 1. 40.6. 17. 31.  f. Jb \. 43. _! V3. 38. 5. J. 44. 12*2 61. v. 27. .  f . 1 39. 28. . 14. 2 L ( V. 1. 19. JV37. 3. 3. 8. 3. m." 17. 37. 2. : . p. 53. 3. 3. 10. 1. 45. a. 7 . 49. m'. 15. 6  AAf. 20. v'frc 18. y .. l  5 12.17.^7. 10. 2. 33. 13. 4. 2. 8. 13. ifa. 16. wA 46. n\/* Page202. 30. ar 1 . 7. 47. ) 2 >J i 10. 32. . 125. 26. 55. 18. 16. 59. 25. 4. 14. 21. 3.ANtiWEUS rational. v'frW. v/3. 42. 11. \. 57. 3. 2. 5.
2 a?>V2 a. 4.r^ 5 a~ 2 ft~ 1 + Vft. x 7  34. a2 4. ^7 \AOx. 15. 48. .2 VlO. 27. 16. 3^ + 2). 2 '"V5. ^88".632. 19.692. 32. 38. 34 r 6. .12 *^ + x 7/> x  a** + or " 2 + 1. a 4 +* + !. 2. 7. 8. 28. 9. V2 + 4 V22. 30. 50.x^y* + y%. 3 x^y 33. 9 . 4 or + 3 9 <r + 12. T. + + ft..Vxy 35. 03r* 7. x y. 26. 8a6V5. 2. 45. ). m* n*. . 16. 28. x 25. 17. + Vic + 25. 2v (T 2aVf. v'TM. 3. 3 4\/2. 13 a. v^. 31. 10.577. .XXii ANSWERS 1. V 5 47. 1. 21. 20&V6. 11V3. 13. 2.yl : . . v/^r 5  A/^~. 11. (o* 2. 2. 36. 3.). ?tV?w.'\ 14. / V3. 30. 4aV^J 16. 2 4 z2 l 3. + . 40. 31. 2 x* 15. 3 a~ 3 (x (. . 29. V. 6. 5 ( . V63. 10. a^ + 2^+1. (a 27. Page 208.f. 1+2 v/i + 3\/!^ + 4 x. 22. Page 207. 26. abVab. + 2). 23. (Va (5xJ Vft+Vc). x%  3 ^+ 1. 41. 21. 3 42. 101 1. . 13. Vr 8. 3V^T. r c . y. 12. 2>X2. 20. Vz2 ?/ 2 44. + 2 V22. 135V6. V. x. 25. l 5.  a Vft 2 121 b. V80. JIV6. 18. 5. a 3. 6. 2\/7. r 17  Page 204. 4. 8. 5 22. 10. 40. 62V(J.  2 3:r.707. + 2 Vzy + y 1. Page 203. 9. k/2. 2. 49. (x' (l 1+x). + 2 ar 1 ). 3V5. 37. ^: V2c.r. + 1. 24. 11.648. 9. 51.2 18. . 34. 20. ftV 46. 195V3. y (a + ft) V2.3 + 40 3 . 33. 17. x + 5 x3 + 0. 5.rV:r. 7. 8V/) 15. 1) 3V3. 43. 32. yV35. 19. 29. x^ . 3^2. 3. 24. 2. 39. 13 35. 3 \ 39. 37. Va 2 "ft. 1 2 or 1 ?. Va a + 2 a^b* 14.
Page 210. 11. 3 V15  47. 25. x/8l. 7. . 8  \/15.r v/^ v^fr*. 6. v/9. \/2. 6. 13\/3. 8. 3\/15  6. 22. aVa. v/lO. "^8000. vT). 14.  3. 36. 1. 38. 51. 37. 18. D 45. 5. 38. 52. Vtf +3+ 33. 5V2. v^O. + VlO  v y (5. ^9. 6. 9. __ rw 3 \~s~' ] * . + 20. 53. 44. ^27. w?i. b. 3v^2. v/l2. 18. 48. 20. 25. x/w^ 8. v/i). 16. \/04a. 5 \/2. 24. 26.ANSWERS _ Page 209. 14. 10. . 3. v^a. 1V5. % 29. 12. \XOfl6Vi5. 21. 7\/(l 7VTO. 2 V'3. \/a6c. 3. Page 211. W). 0. \/128. fl^Vac. V/. 17. 31. v/8. 43. 6.. Page 214. 2. 10. v"3. . 5V2. Page 216. 5. 15. ^ 3 b 5 24. 3 Vl5 30. a2  b. 33. 9. 2 ate. 2 28. \^r^bVabc. 6V2. Vat. 9. ^\/3. 12. V3. 2. \^6. ab 4. 16. x/8. 5v/2. VLV/ ^i?i= a: . VT5. x/27.30 2. v^4.T*. 2\/7. 32. 2yV2?/. 3 V2. 6+2V5. 39. Vn. 49. 23. 4\/5. 7. V8. V5. 6x2?/. 32m27n. 17. 35.J Page 212. 8V2. 2. rtv/5. V3"m. \^6. 4. 27. 3\/wi. 15. . \V3. 36. 19. Page 213. 32. 74\/Jl 120 46. 46. V2. 8V73\/IO. xx 1. 3\/2. Vdbc. 13. 21. ^v 7 15. 9 VlO + 4. v^f. 30. / \/w/t 4 13. a^\/a7>. 50. 26. V3. 6. 28. V2. V5. a\/5c. x/8L v/27. 23. 19. 37. 1. r)\/(l Vrtr. 7. 4 >/3. 2 \/2. 16. v7^. VJla. 39. 4. m ?i2Vm/t. 4 a*. 31. x/125. 42. 30 Vl4. 1. 29. 21 23. 41. v^lf. \/abc*. 10V(). 18. 35. 5. 2 1. 13. v"5. 4VO. 11. 17. v 25^4714 V2"a. 22. 34. 11. 14. 14c 4 V5. 6 2\/0. 3. 10. 3. '. 6aV2\^. 27. x/4. 3. 40. 2. \/8. . 24. 2. 34. 8v2T 12. v^30. . 40. 8. x/3. : ^32. "v/wi ??. . 0.
12. 23. 16. +3 V2). 17. 81. 2.2. 3. 10. nVTl. 2!5_. 26. 4. . 4. 16. 23. 64. 25.625 10. 11. 1. 25. 0. J. 4V3 + 6. 8. . 2V3. 5. 4. 19. j. (2. (VllV2). 23. ^r. V3. 8 V3V2. Page 218. 4 14. 13.V3).^ (\/22 4. 10. V35. Page 226. 9. Vf6fVtf. \/57t. 16. . 14.81. 20. 2.W + 12 v/7  3 \/15 . ~ Vac _c 0. 15. 36. (V5f 5. 4. xy 2. 5 + 2 vU 17.9. 9 mn. 3. 1.1.7083. 16. 3. K>/0 + \/2). m f. j 15.3535.4722. i(Vf Vft). 19. 21. 1. 24. 10. 25. {. 5 f. 6. 2. (3+ v/2). 5 V65. 3. 12. 37. 33. . . 7 Page221. 24. Page 223. (\/3f 1).13. 20. V3. . 7. 4. 20. x 20.601. 34. 1. . !^ 6 4.0606. 28. 512. 5.1805. 2 . 16. Page220. 15. 16. V6c.6. 3V23. 17. Va.7071.\/TO). 14. 4. 10. 216. 17. 11. 4. J.732. 8. 2V2. 6 V. 8. ^. 2V3. 2ajV2*. V. 4. 35. 9. f. 7. 18.5. 7. 12. Va. 4.. 8. 5. 100. 22. 2. (V51). ^\/2. 5. 32. 14. 4. 22.389. 23.64. ANSWERS 8.732. \/3). 0. 18. 18. ^. 19. 9. 25. V2. V3 . 2.4142. (2f V"5). . 15. 15. (VaT^v a). 19. 3(7+3V5). 7 f 5 4. 20. ' 22 i . 9. . 30. 9. 6. 224. 5. 12. V5. 2.2. + 6) 2 .2828. 4. 2. 18. V3.1547. 14. n*. 21 ' Vob 26. ^(VlO\/2). 81. i^ ~ 1 v ^. (V21).5530. fV2. 5. 4. . 7. 3. 3. 6. 23. 8.  . 19. 27. 13. 2x^2^. . 4.  2. 17. 22. 1. 12. 6. 6. 1. 8. Page217. 29. 21. 1. 24.3. \.  f. 27. 12. 16. (Vf + (4 V2). 10. (2V2). A . 125.3. 7. (a 1. 5. 1. 4. 8. 9. 24. (V8 + V2. V^TTfc. 6 (V2 + 1). 16. 1. 4.XXIV 7. * 3. 13. _^JflJ?. 8. (V6 + 2V2). Page 28. 10. 29. 30.6 V3. 1. 3. 1. 25. 18.w 6. 31. 11. 11. 10. 7. 9. 9.  13. (\/5V2). 25. 27. 5. Page 219.464. 9. 11. 15. 5. Page 225. 15 f 3 V2L 4. 7. i^Lzi. 7. (2Vll). 11. 21. + 5V2. 25. 26. p 6 13.
a(. 17. 6. J 24. 11.4. & + 6 2 ). 3. 25. 19.5 xy + 25) 22. 4. 87 . 2 . 24. 3.Y. 2.a) (04 + 8 a + a 2 ). . t/ 23. 4. .8a 18. .  3. 1. 1 . 13. 9.. .  4. 2 6. 2. 4. 2. (63)(6' t 18. 4. 2. 25. (a+&)( 2 14. 2. 11. 4. (a + 2) (a Page 229. 12. 7. 1 . 21.  1. 2. 19. . .2 ) ( 10 w 2 n 2 f 4 winy 2 Page 231. 1.  3. 4. 3.  16). 3. 20. 2.  J. 3.3. 10. + 6 4 )(a*a' 6 + a 2 6 2 a& 8 H6*). 1. 2 6. 2. 1. 14. a  . . 3. 0. 28. (wp)(w2p)(wi3p)(w*42p). (la&)(l46 + 2 & 2 ). 6. 2 <? 4a2 . 17. 2. P. f>. 3. 3. 0. 10. 0. 3. V3. 5. 4 . 4 20. 2.0. 2. 3. 25.f 2)(sc 2 2 r + 4). 3. 21.w 4 + 1).  f . 11. 6. 5. 5. . 1 . (w2)(m3)(2m + 5). 18. 5. 6 2 2a + 2).nl^EI. . 7. b . 73. 2. . 1. 9. 1. 25. 0. 3. 8 6 & 0. a . 3. 1. 11. 3. . 1. 2. 1 .l)(z 2 + z + 1). (rt.12. 5. 22. 1. 4. 2. . 3. ' J. 3 5. 1. 7. 26. 10. 100. 16. 30 . 73. 15. 15. 6. 3. 6. 2. 16. 1. 2.3. 17. 27(2 a 4fc)( 4 2 2 (a 4 &)(* + 4 & + !&*). 8. 0. 4. 3.  3. 1. ( 16. 9. 22. 2. 1 . Page 236. 2. J. 13. 4. 4. 1.2)(m.l)(a 4 + a + a 2 f a f 1). (B43). 3 . 20.+ ^)( 4 a 2 6 2 h6 4 ). 30. 3. (m 4 + l)(ro. 1. 19.5.l)(a3)(a .3.4. 5.l)(a 2 + a f 1). . 8. 2.2 + (row)(w4w)(w a + 6mw f w 2 ). J Page 235. (r. 5. . 4. (2 a. 10. (pl)(p3)(p6). 20. qpl. ~ f7. .1. 12. 12 24 y . 8. 1 6. l. (a2)(:iB2 f 2a44). 0. 2. 11.2. 4.3 2. (a + l)(a*a 8 + aa + l). 18. o. 2 . . . 8. 1 (?> x/^3.3.3. (s + l)(x2 :r + 1). 5. . 2. 8.  5.r . (a . 10. .1)(4 a + 2 a + 1). //. o& (3m 3 7)(9w 6 +21m*+49). 5. . 4 . 0. (8. 7. 2. 6. f . (w . (&y2a#H4). 2 . y. =A^Z3. 5. 12. 5. 3. 2. 0. 13. 12. 14. 4. 2. \/0. (2a + l)(4a*2a + l). 3 9. 4. 3 . 10. 1. Page 234. 11. 2. Page 233. 4 1.3.2. (pl)(p2)(p2). 4. 15. 7. 3. 1. 5. (a 4.7. (xy + 5) (x*y* . 2 .22. . J. 3. (4 mn . 1. 2 > 1. 7. 3.ANSWERS Page 228. 6. 2. (10 #0(100 + 10^ + 4 ). 7. 5.1.^a.2. (a.4. 3. 14. 4. (+!)( 2) 10. 56l). 2 &. (a. 1. XXV 4.l)(m . 5.10. 30.  . 13. 23.3). a: :} . 4. . 1 3. 24. 13. 2 V^ . 4. 4. 12.2)(* .  1. 3. 1.4). 8. 4 4. a(l+a)(l_afa 2 ). .  2. (1 +a 2 6 2 )(l a 2 6 2 +a 4 6 4 ). 1. 2. 30 30. 7. 3 . 3. 50. 2.
(a) $3400. 20.6. 7 3. 21. \. 12. Page 244. 9. i.. 2 . 1. 10. 20 in. 5.1. } . 3. m + n.6.3.  2 .3..y. m27. 17. 40 25 in. $46. 1 . 12. 84. 4. 16. 1. 2.. ft. 1. 0. J. 4. 4 8. 4. J.e. 1. 4. . 5. 4. . ^ }. 3. f*. i i i . Page 240. 4. ^~2. 8. 23. 1.3. Indeterminate. 2. 2. . ' j. 8. . 3 . 3 2. 2. 8ft.. 512. 2. Page 239. 15. 12. 6. 1. 512. 3. 1 2. 4. 33. i j. 29. 3. 4. 40 1} 9 3 ft.4. ft. . 21 30. 9. 1. 2 16. '>. (&) 2. 13. 37. 17. 17. 6. 9. 5 4. 1. Page 248. x 4.. 12. Exercise 114. 3. 5. 1. 3. 7. 2. 5. 30. 3. 0. 7. j. 16. Exercise 113. 55. 12 1. 2. 8. 2 . in. 3. 8. 4. 78. }. . 11. 1. 37. 1. . $VO. Page 238. . 14. . 14. 4. 15. . 4 6. 36. 1. 17. 3. 1 . 1. 13. 35 a. . . 14. J. 1.  1. 1. \/6. 4. 3. 4.  . 25. 16. 2 26. = QO 6. 18. 15. 7. 10. 5. 0. 1. tn 2. . _ 10. 4. 31. 39. 12 ft. 8. 1. 8 3.5.4. 8 . 19.1. $. 3. 6. 35. 2>/3. in.0. 3. 2V7. 1. (/>) "_. 2. 2. 2 2.  11. 35^ 5. 20. 3V5. 7. +  n. 1 . . 30. 14. .020. 40. 1. 3.3. 1. 3. 7. 5. 69. . 900. 4. 12ft. 5. ( 3. . n. . 1J. 11. 30 13. 288. 2. 4. 10. 8. . Page 243. 5.xxvi Page 237. 9. 2n.. 23. ri*. 1. 1 . . ft. 45yd.0. 1. 6. (a) 5. 3 3. 17. . 24. oo . 17. c.3. oo . 15. 4. . 1. 3. 12 d. 2 . 2. 3.18. 2. 5 .13. $. 21. 18. 5.3 . 2. 26. 7. 8. 400. 1 . ANSWERS 2. in. 11. 41. J. 31. 3. 14. 1. 3. _ 13 (0 6. 1.1. 4. 2. 2.. 7. 18. in. 5 cm. 2. 12. 22. . 13. . 1. Page 247. 3 cm.. 5. 1. . 3 4.5. 2. . 4 . co . 4. 2. 5. 10. no co . 4. 24. . 35 ft. 4 34. . 5.. 201. in. 2 1. 6. 5. 11. 1. 125 125. 3. Page 245. 3. 2. 14.2. GO . 3. 3. 3 . 50. 9.30. _ 7. 3.4. 5050. 50. 4. and _ 4. 4. 28yd.200.136. oo. 2. 38. 3. n . f>. 2. 15.4. . V3~. V7. 3. 2 ft.. 2. 40 in.3. 32. 11. 4. 8. f. 9. 3. Page 241. 11. 5. 5. . jj. 15. . 37. . 20 7. 14. 5. 19. . 5. 3 . 5. (>. _ 5.3. 7f solution. 1. 1. 12. 22. 15. 2 10. 1. 2. . i'ljVU. m28. 1. 2 Y> V . Indeterminate. . 48. .
1. 2. 27. 1. d. 29. x4 . 8.5. 5. JSg. c. ~v 9.^ 448 x a' 3 /') . a4 4 14.2 9. 2. 4. in.53. 26. . . 2. 6. Page 252. 11. 005. 50. 100. 8. 25. 0. 1 7 4. 21. 70. . 6. 35. 16. 12. 23. 10. 8. 2.1.  17.5*7 + ^4 1 12 w 4 10 x' 2 //^.192.6 . 1.700. 3. 6. 5. &' 14. 45. 125. 4. . 1. 15. 4.r x>/ 7 3. 1. 2.470. . 4. 1. 6. 3. 3. 3. 1000 aW. xxvii 1.5 x. 2i* 7f. 3. Jj? 45. 70. 8.  101.<2 4. (). 3.210.504. 343. 7. :r 4 4 8 x 28 x~ 60 . 12.r 4.920. 22. . 4. 27.K 4 4 50 x 5 4 28 x 4 4 ^8 1 g ! . 708. 53. r 5 4. 1JH. 16 11. 3. ^a 8. 81. 4. 15. 11. 18. . 4 0. 2. 0.13. 55. 5. 20. 5.x^ 4 x8 15 x 4.419. A. y ^ 5  ^\ ). 6. f 7 ^ 14 x 84 4 . 18.^ x2 ^x w ^2 ? . 4. vy. 8J. 27.4. 8. 280 53. . 13. 13. . 19.120. **+.ANSWERS Page 250.680. 128. 5. 0. 15. 12. 15. 28. % 4 20 ab* 42 330 x 4 15. (?>) 4 8(2 V2). and 1. 4. 44. 12.2 45 a 8 /). Y11. 7 2 x 4 x8 . 4. 11. a. 48. I. 9. 5. 16.15 x 4 //'?/ a5 4 J 5 4 Z> 4. 327. '23. 6. 05. 27. 5. 4. 220 . Page 258. 35.6. 105. 32. . r r j. 405. 3. 20. 4. 910. 20.130 x30 189 a 4 24. 410. 2. 9. ~ an . 4. 8. 16. 1 14. 7. 75. Ja. 8.12 x*y 16. 13. 70. 10. 2. 343. 21.0. 7. 5.^ ?>i 2412x4. 5. ?/i 6 x llj . 6.r* 4 70 . .8. 12. 19. . . 5. 3. 16. . 12. 1.5. f r6 4  20 rV 42 15 xV 8 .  20 flW. 0. 3. sq.x' 10 . 8 4x' 2 . 120 aW. 3 4 15 a 8 11 4 14 a  1  2 y* . 0. 8 1.10 a 3 ?/2 10 4<J aW 4. 0. 1. J 2 //2 25. 10 14. 1. 3. . 1. w9  8. 125. 7. 3. 45. 6. 18. 7 x4 17. 0.384. 2. 1820. 4. 2. 7. 22. 0. 8. 17. G. 5. 4. 4. Page 259. 6.3 ays. 9. 5 13. 10. 10.5 J4 10 47 d*b 6 4 4. 304. .170. \ w 4 . 192. 45 Page 257. 43. Page 254.v Page 253. 4. 04. 4950 M 2 b y *. } $ 50. 16. 15. 18. B . 16.7 10. 4. 17. 7. 04. 12. 12. f y 8 + z* . 2. />*.4 &z x>&. 10. 9. 8. 2 1 x 4 6x'2 12. <. 9. 9. 6i.r^  280 x 4 4i^S + 6. 1. 7.5 M ' 41 fc 5 . 8 . 2. 8. 16. ' 1. REVIEW EXERCISE .870 m*n*. 14. 10. 0. i 10. 495. 7. 17. x r 4. 19. 3.5y 4 . x + Vy. 2. 500 x3 10 4 4 072 a? 3 .
1 .5 3n 4.1. 16. f5+7. 4 15 x 5 . 122. 2 53. 86. xyxzyz. ft /> 78. x2 a2 1 . .3 mn p 2/ x 4 .1.c. . 2 .5 a 2x8 x 3 . .18 x?/0.a6 2 4. . 15 ab 4 Oac 4 6 be.3 aftc. a' 111. 35. 4 65.  ft 3  13 a 4 + ll a 2 2. . 5x 2 2x43. 2 2 9 ^4 2 59.x 51.  3 x2 .4.ft). 2 aft 3 4 3 ft 4 . 2 2 x2 ?/ 2 4 63 4 ?/ .c 3 4. . a 3m 4.a.4 x?/2 3 4. 1 + 4 xy.4.15 x 6 x4 ?/ Ilx 2 ft a8 4 8 y4 . 28. . a4 x. ?/ . 21. + f 2 2 (/) 2 34.{ 54. x 8  a8 . 243x4729.15 4 62 x  72. ft n .5 b + c . x' .5x4. 114.+ 4 2 ft) (a 4. 2 a. 4 .x24 73. 39. 94. 8 x* + 27 y 2 x2 2 . x2 471x4. . 36 + 9c9 a x3 4 + 8. ft2ft 4 4l. !! 71. 2 113. . . . 12 x. 132.6 b.  + 3 x2 . 3 36 b c . 3 a 44. &p 84.a'2 c. 4 2 . 1x 4 x3 xty6 a 24 3  Page 262. . 38.  4 a3 85. 104. 36. ^ . 30. 3 r2 2 ?/ 2  ax . x2 3x2/?/ 2 112. . a* 4. ?> .a" xy 2 2/' 3 .18 ?/ 5x4. df.5. x2 + 4 x7 9 y2 x4 4 4. + 3 a?.  e +/.3 . 0. _55_7c 48. 66.x x*  f 2 ax 4. . 9x. 5 42.2 x 4.3 x 2 + 3 x . r 5 VFTx + vTfy + 1. 4 69. 23. 29.c. 6a6c. 6 a2 97.2 x^. 4 fee 4. y 4 z* 0. x 3 4. 63.1 4 jry 4 x . 130. 26.4 ac. x* . . fi :ry 42 4  a 2 4 a 2 ft 2 3 119. + 28 x2 13x 3 56. 50. () 2 x 33.9 b. t 81. 37. 5 4 4.1w 77. as 20. 2 x'V2 90. 1 121.a*ft 2 126. ft x6  3 x5 4 9 x4  27 x 3 1.3 a 2 '6 w 4.105. Page 263. az 4. 127.3 a'ft. 61. x 2 . x 8 + x 4 68. 31. . 118. 100. 62. 2 a2 4 aft 5 116.rty x2 4 123. .4. 82. 2 2 *  3 2n 101. 93.3 y.3 b . 8 .5 3 2 y2 5 a2 4 2 aft 4 ft. x' 79. 12 a/. x 4. + z. 40. 64. fc' 6 p'2 q  54 ? 3 .7 x   15. 2 . 3 a 5 a 5. 3a'2 Page 261. 3 y2 2z2 ~3xy?/. x2 2 .7. 81 ?/ 4 108 xy 3 75. 6 c 47. 4. 102. 96. ?/ 3. x3  15 x 2 48 ?/ . 14 x .4 x y 87. 3~ n 4. 2 x2 108. 3a~2c. 46. 110. 88. 131. 99. 22.x 2 4.6 am b\ 129. + a 4. 7 + 3 xf 2. 4ft y3.  + 16 a/> 8  a*2a 2 6 2 +& 4 74. 6 8 j27 40 ab. +^ + ft W. 1 a"* 4 an .fee 2 4. 2 30 .1. 107.2. x4 3 4 2 x 2 4 0. 120. 2 x2 4. 4. 24 a 2 6 3 x3 0. .36 xfy 2 a 8 ?* 3 4. 4 ! .. 3 c .a 2 x 2a . . . 13 + 2 s. . 2 2a 2 2 2(a.4. 3 a .  12 a. 2 . 4 115. 0. x 3 41. 124. x4 f + 23 . 125. 8x3 8x. 32.4 2 4 c2 42 . (a + ft)" 98. (d) x  (a) 2 x 2 ?/ 4 ?/ (ft) 2 y 2 y 2 g (c) 3 x +y 11 a: y 4 3 2 . a* a 8 a aftc.1. x . 109.2. x3  15 x 2 71 x  105. 27.a' 'ft 4. 49. 6y 2 a2 _52 45 = 73(). 80.x4 + y'2 z 4. x8 x2 55.2 xy + 4 y2 106.  . I 57. . 2 q. a 4 . /> 4 83.2 c .xxviii ANSWERS 19. 52.41. m " + n + P3c . 4 4 4 ft*" 3 4 + 2'2 ~+ 2 81 x2 134. 25. 10 a 12 b. 9 2w 128.^a . 70. 2 2/' . 24. 1 x 45. 4. . x?/ 2 2/V2 4 2 x2z2 4 92.9 x . 133. 105. x2 5r*x ft 5 .4 x 2 .ac 44 aft.y*. 10 4.2. a~b 89. a J .3 x?/ 2 1/ 4a 3 a o_a 4 a2 +l. 91. 43.3 103. x } 4. a2 2 aft 2 2. 76. 5x + 2y~z. x 8 + x 4 y* 67. 4 Page 264. Page 260. . 72. 0. 16t/. c3 4 58.x. * 60.
x(x f 3)(x+ 2). . 171. (2 198. 1. as 194. (y_24)(y5).2 )(x+y) 228.  1. 3. Page 266. 201. 185. (8x + 3)(3x4). m. 32 h. 218. k. 138. 6. (x 227. 176./_4). 238.r + 4). 40 yr.y). a. 182.6)(4 + 6). (at (4 a +!)( + 3). 214. 144. a(a. 2(x8)(x3). 12. + 22). 12) (j. (x  42 yr. 3. + 7)(rt4). (y _ ft)(y 4. 211. 172. 178. 22. 184. 2a(42ft)(2fo). (x + l)(xl)(y + l)(yl). 50. +)(x2 x^+2. 240. ft. ( jc // a 2 (a1). 30 + xyr.1(5) 200. (3x2?/)(2. a + 2x2 ). 2. 170. 1. 217. 183. Page 267. 173. 10. 2 2 (a. ry(x (a (y + + * 221. 24. 147 mi. 8 204. 23 18. p. 156. 205.2). 160.y)(z . 231. 219. 143. 10 ft. G7. z(x10)(xl). 12 yr.I2y). 2. (JT y 225. (a 2 + 2a6. 157. 48 h. 202. 153. (2x3y) 3 xy(x. 193.9)(xf 2). yr. 244. (7x2//) 203. (a} 59. 36ft. a 2 (15.y2 ).c2 )(a 2 2 +2a/) + c 2 ). 148. (/ 246. + 3).ANSWEKti 135. 181. . (4 x 2 + 9)(2 x 4. 224. . 150. xxix 139. Iff 145.6) (2 x + 1). (2a + l)(a . y3. 12 yr. 216.11) (5x 2)(2x + 3). 166. HI. 168. p.. 154. 12 6 panes. (y 7f))(y 196. + 11) (a 10). 161. 199. 140. 15. (x + 6)(x6). 186. 212. 163. (ab + 8) ( 7). 2 (4 x . . 147. 20. ? >2 ft ?) ft 242. 237. 206.l)(x8 + x2 . (y + 1) a(3 + 26)(3a2ft). 2^. 136. (c) 160 C. (x^ + x1) 234. (3a + 4?> + o(5crt). x(x + 6) 213. (233)..3 y)(a . r>x 2 (4x. (32)(2a ftc v?y(x + 223. 10). 10 in. (?/+l)(yl). 21. (r^x + 1).r .1). 3(x . 179. 137. 2.y + 3)(r (. (r7y)(ai.6 . 37 1. 209. 164. 222. 1. (y7)(y + 188. 247. 15. 180. 30 yr. . 18.2). 30. 158.l)(y + 1). (3x  . 151. Page 265. (a 2 +l)(a*+ 1).y) (\r3y). 152. . 20. + 3) (x f f>) . 5. 155. 235.2ac + 229.2. 169. y.3) (2/3y). 207. 174. 1. 1. 218.3 y). 177. 208. 233.m)(x + a). 6. 19. 1. 226. 1. 197. (a& 192. 162. 167. 8(ar}(/)27). y  y 165. 146. 241. 2 xy(3 x . 215. (6) 40. (xyX^+y" )1 243.y)(jc + 7 y). (7 x + y +y+ 2)(x . + y. ( + 2y)(2x3y). 12. 210. 2. 10).4xl). 232. 4.. (x . 7.2) (3 x . 4 2 ?/(x  ll)fx 3). 149. (ox + /)(5xy)(x+3 y)(x3 y). 187. aft.1). 236.3). y 245. + 6 y) (x 2 y) . + 2) + 9a. 4. 6). (x + 2)(x . 175. 191. 195. 239. 2(d)(rt + + c+c2).r & (a + ary c)(a 1 2 + ) + 3y).3. 159. 189. 220. (7 c 2 ). Or (a + 2)0el). 75.l)(a 2 +3). 15  a. (.1). 142. (5 x . 1. .c) + or OB (2 + 4 y) Oe* + 2 s). 2. 230.. (y  17)(y + (>). C3 y _l)(. (5x + 2) (3 x yfory) +4). 190. fc'2a+62c). ?.
 3xyf x// 257. x12. 258.^^^^^^^^. 303. 251. 264. 3  262..(x  4) (x4 304. 261. o(x4l). ? 1) 302. 0. 3.^ ^^. &). 3). a~ ' b*). + f. 249. 43 '^rJ'. 4 11) (xJ^l^^J. 279. 7 x 265. 306.AN 8l\' Eli S Page 268. *. > 4. 2 4 300. 305. a.4). 5. x 283. Ca&c 1)(M 253. o. x ?/ z 1. 256. 310. x 267. \')(s x  5) (x 4 2)(x 4 . 2x(x)(x 4 3x44.2* i^^ !^. (2 (x 4 (x 4 3) (x . 4 5. 298. (x 4 (x 4 1) 5) 275.  7. (^4) (x x'2 13) 5x46 . (a 4 A)(2 x 5. 7^T 2 . (7 255. 2.4) 1) (3 x . 268. 10. 250. ^ 299. 4 II 4 )rt 5x42. 259. 254. ^^A^ + w^ n(w4 n) a 309. 266. x . ?^ZLiZ 308.1. 260. 301. x3y 4 1)( 4 2 252. ^/>J. 0. 295. 307. (x44)(x3)(?/47)  Page 270. 7. *>). 269. 263. 2 x  3. 3).   .
0. * 357. 7.(5 a . A^izA??r+J!j/?_ *x 330. T\. . 2 ). 396.  1 356. + x 362. l . 399.1 ')_ x'2 + 4x + 381. 375. 401. A^L5L. 388. _*L'L+. ?/ + 3 332. 1.. 405. 324. 398. 397.  1. 377. (a + b + c\ . 383. a +6. 4 rw. 390. xa' 2 '2 7/ + 4 f Page 273. 370. " 4 378. ab.3.vin a /r " 337. ^"" 4 s . 13 391. 2. L . 387. 364. 0. 326.XXXI Page 272. 1. ^ 3 // . 395. 365. 366. f. 406. 27 ^" li'oy 3 r J // J 341. 339.1. 3. ?>*. 407. 3. 2. a + b + 6). 6 ?/+:>. 2(q. + 335. S. 408. 380. 3. 1. 4 A. . . 12. x 54 359. + 4 & 4 \ b. ?=. l'j. T+^. a) A^_. 20.!. 385. 9^. 355. If. 4. j 328.)Cr4)__ . 336. <L 409. 1. 2 327. 360. 333. 6a. 2 r36 384. 400. . 2 ab  a Page 276. 386. 393. **" ~ 2 3 > + 8 x* f 2 y 4 1 ^ 350. a 2 . 329. y 4 I 340.H ' 2wi ^' /' . 4. 376. 0. 11. 334. m. 379. .".J . . Page 277. 389. 1. 394. 382. 361. 7/i ^ _ . 0. Page 274. 404. 1 i 2 ^.7. 2 ?/ 363.. 325. 343 00 351. c 402. 5 ^^K^+M^ AC^Ln?). ^_:r f> 331. 392. 2(a i 403.
2.  1. ISJini. 10. (a) 1. 5J.55.4. 7 : . 8. 458. 20. 495. Page 282.7. . 90.m  m+ M in. 12. 446. 6. .}. 20 yr. 462. 8. 2. + b ' + a __ b c ' 2 w f w 417.vz in. a* 424. 477. 5. 444. 5. 10.  505. + () 433. 4. 503. 493. L (c) I. 502.3. 481. 480. A $ 3500.46. Page 280. 476. 428. 494.  2. 467. 84. B $ 2500. 418. 6. 410. . z8 +?/ 3 431. .7. 0. 507. 3. 3. 7. .  453.4. 5. 463. 2. 7. 7. I.. 448. ISjmi.1.489. . . 492. $2000 at 0%. 465.2. 486. 2. 32 yr. 10.  2.7. 9.  2f 504. 479. 51. 17.  7.  7. 412. 1$. & 491. L2 a  6 . fj.3. 484.  1. 5. ^r?i 434. 2. ft 5.7. 435. 2. 411. *+. 6. \.  2. a 22 . ' $260 at 0%. 6. 482.0.rz Page 279. . 506. . Page 278. 419. i. * . b 449. 7. i a b 451. 1 a /?$+&?. 1. B 4 mi. 5.. c 6fc 10. 24 days. ^. 0. 50. 22. (&) 443. m 1 : wi. . 40 oz. (c) not true. 63. 42. 7.} ' c^acjd} ^ fcfZ a/ ?>rf + 86 (. 32. Page283. .5. 483. . '. 3. 478. (&) true. 421. 420. 8. . 457. 490. . 2. 450. <L+ 6 (. 432. . 508.  10. 4. 413. 3a 4 5.7. 455. 6 f c a + ? & ~ a 0. 430. 472. 439. c. . ^V. 11.. 10$. 468. 487. 464.  . fc. />c c(f be. 461. 2. : />a. 1. 2 438. \ 1.488. 423. 10. not true. a + + ft c. 8. 459..0.XXX11 ANSWERS ab. 21. 2 a 2. 500. !L=4. (d  6) f. 53 yr. 0.}. 14 miles. 3 . 485. 425. 466. 2. 33. 498. 454. 5. m. 1. 10. 6. 28 yr. 6. 1. 0.. .  f>. 440.te + .12. (d) true. 429. (a  c). 0. . 10. 427. 6. 445. 422. 2. 447. 452. 460. 10.. 426. . 17. 18. 456. 441. 496. 1. 4. 499. 442. 497. 0. 0. 2$. Page 281.2. 501. 40. 4. 436. A 5 mi .
 imag.5. 1. 2. 5. y% Z * 586. 2 2. (e) 570.7. 6.54. 0. . Page 285..55.78. 1. 8. (c) 4. 3f 4f. + 6 tf f 3 . .2 xt/ a4 + x3 4 6 x4 3 xG fx. 533.5+. 3.  2 a*b + 3 a6 3 . 559. S82 c. M ft c 2 ft 3465. 6. or 8. 603. 1.8..3. 4.xj/ f xV . 578. (e) (c) 2. 1. f ? a f ft __ + c C).3.88. 27 y* f\4 .1. 5. 1. 2. . 530. 2 1. 566. 1. 8 +3 x f 6 x2 2 a4 & 604. (a) 74 Ib.6. 4. 558. 4. .15.83. 528.8. 0000. 2. 509. 4. Page 287. 575.78. > ^ . 599. 1 580. 4. per hour.4. . . 516. 4 0. 532.3. 7^ da.02. 2$. (/)  10 to 8.75.  2. 1. lead.1. 581.0. 1. + 12 x . 525.5. 1. 1 . 2(6 597. a 7 687i 588i tt e a _ _3 7 ir 7 rt e & + 2 1 a 5 ft 2  rt 4^2 + i 3 ^254 590. 3.  J(a f + 2c). . 518.03. o> . lead. 556.xV f +6 a2 &2  4 6.1. + 35 86 4 4 &8 3 + 589.7. 2 . 554. a f ft + c. 2 . 1. 561. 4* da. 553. a*8a + 24tf 82a.3. 2 1.3.62. 567.9. (6) . a+ Page 286.75.24. 1.31. 31.4.0.31. (6) 3.8. 1J. x8 .03. 3.52.25m.7.24.  4. 531. 2. 5.21. 3. 3 da.56 sec. Page 288. 598. . f36a28x8 592. 552.02. 3. 1 1  2 x 7 2 f 3 2 x' 2 + x8 f x4 . 4.3.02. 2 10. 551. 536. 2 imag.5 f. 4 8 x2 ?/4 605. 1$. f. (ft) 4._ ft 523 a 2 ftc 2 524. _ 4.14. 2. 1. If 572.37. 573. . <z ft 1. 1. (i) 3. . 14. . 2. ^ ft 4.ANSWERS Page 284. .  7.  ft*.3.37. g(rc+ 6c).0. 3. 569.4.6. 2.6.05.53. 576. 550. 562. 3.  3.. (d) 537. 1. .20.4. . . 4. 568. 8 mi.16. J7] min. 3. . 1. 1. 3.3.00. 574. 571. a + ft  a  f c.  + + c.  (a) (d) 1.62. 577.4 x + . imag.  557. da.. tin.54. 1. .35. T . 513. 1.1.1. . 115 Ib. 560.10.8 x3^. 3. 232. (ft) Ill Ib.21 a2 + 3x + 3x2 rA 86 3 4 ft + 35 4 + 21 2&6 fts + 7 7 rt?> 6 a^ _ 8 +^ 57. xxxin 511.  . 563. H.33. Roots imaginary. 5. _^ 2754x . . 510. 3 .10.15.4. per hr.73. 6435.5.5. 2 a 8 x 8 + 6 ax&fy 2 x + 12 a 2xt2 b*y'2 + 2 6 4 ?/ 4 595. 1. .f 1. f.6 2. i _ 4 sc2 + 6 + 10a:8 + a6) . 3. 21*_. + 26 + .15.04. 24 da. l+4x+0x 2 +4x 8 f x4 4 4 594. 1.25. 593. 591.  2ft da. 2. 4. .2. .1. 582. 4. 564. 4 mi. 24.0. 526. . 1. 565. 3.  1.r8 596.12. .04. 527. 1. 555. . y 4. 512. 529. + 26x2 + 10 x4 ). 3. 8 a6 42x + 8x2 + 2x 8 4x4 601. (gr) 10 1.51.% rr\* 585. 2. 7.5.   (h) 8. 579.38.30. . 3.6.83.24 sec. 1 600. 583.02. ft 584.8.. 2(4 602. 1 . tin. . .4. _ 3. 515.  (a) 2. 40 Ib. (c) 3. 514.
5 3. 3 a. 0. 649. 2. + 2 A (i f Page 291. 703. 701. 630. 607. ix 2 . 4. 9. 635. 5002. J^^. 2 / 2 4. 633. 2.  ft. 1. 657. . a + b. a 4. 1$ 639. 626. 25.14 If 1. 4. 2092. Page 289. If f 667. V^~3). 706. 683. V2. fta a/> ^A. 669. . 690. 708. <T! . 670. 8 f 3. . ab 689. I}'/. 651.b. 653.002.3. 2 x 44 ^/. 14. 648. . / V^+lO^M"^. 705. a 673.049. 612. 617. 7. 009. 78.c ) 697.f 3 V^3). 650. 625. b . 5. 654. 678< 682.43^4. 615. 2.702. ' 674. if 4/> 671. 3.3. z  1. 2 ab + a  &. 3 x2 . . 6.b 686.25. a 1J. b 664.3f l 668. 647. V"^TJ. i. 11.  2f r 659.04. 642. ' fe 2 ).  3. 641. 971. 661. ft). 50. 2f. c.y. 666. af6fc __ __ ( a 4. 646. 702. 1. 3. 1010. 2 a  6*. 6. 2&). 2 a 688. 1m*. 623. 25. 898. ANSWERS ( 3 x 2 S 2 . 2. V7.  4. 636. 632. 634. 0. a ' 2 + . 7. . 2f. 4 V 0. 2. \+ab 699.  . .>A 610. 638. . 1 2. x3 4 3 x x ' 4 X* 609. 4. K 5 2 V2. 640. 608. ^. ^ 1.  6. 624. 9*.  684. 629. la6 2. 621. 656. 644. If 665. 12. 210. 616. \. ^ _ \/3 +^~< 2 a a +^ 694. . 679. 703. 3 681. 618. 1 ^  7Q7> b j(_ (_ x/^15). 2. 0. ab. 1. 622. a 2.203.  1. If 658. . l/'3. 613. 677 680. 631. (*_ + a: 611. 2.001. 2. 0. . n^l +^. 2. 8. 0.a~ {Z 663. b.  13. 628. 691..3.7/ ~ +w ( 7>) ^~ V3 ^' 3. 643. If b. 2 a: 4. 3. 1 704. 672.001.3. 627.. 620. V2. 11. 2 + 36 )K3 + ( 687. 696. y  619. fe + a. 655. 8 6 fo . 637.2f (5 4. 698. 7003. 1 ~a . . 4 676.0. (a3&45rj. 0. 4$.2f Page 290. If. o. . 614. 692. 5. 5. 645. 652.XX XIV 606.  a2  a (ab). 700. 660. 1. a.  4. 4330 da. If . . 1 V5 1.303. 662. ^^ 695. 4. 6 685. ^. 10. /> 4. 5. be ac \. 13. + ~^'2 + a 1.
756. v'll. r. 738. 758. rt3 2 ^i^. 717. 3.1 />f f + lr'~ + _L a 4 6. 1 [ + '> J. 300. 718. + < 735. 778. 715. 3V72VO. .10.^. 24 4 . fyaw&cu. 713. 737. a + 6 +cx* 2 (t' 3 1 a*&M. > 748. 25. 731. . 3V7. 734. 342V3.9. 17ft.4 . 746. 769. 789. 755. 782 785. 34. 740. 30\/10 764.rJ w L 754. 729. a 2 6^. 739. 710. 727. 794. a 5 . 3V72V3. 767. 726. 4 x' 5 x 4 3 x~* ( 2 ar 1.11. . 39. 2\/53V2. 716. 719. 725. mn. 33^2. 3 720. 709. 3^. a db Va^T < 45da. 32>/2.r. 733. ^ . VV> L4V34. 773. y  1. 721. Page 294. VT14V5. 724. 1^ _ 760. "V313. 790 2v 3v 2.V/^ 741.~ . 793. 2x3^ a.1 . 788. .4 . 751.r+y> 759. 1. 776. 7  3V5. 59.2. 24. 712. 5.12 af V^ 4 744.8. *+V( x 2 "r 2 )' ^ 786. v/7 / .257. 2 V2 . i^. 1 747. 749. 29\/3.^ 743. 47. 3 VlT 795. Page 293. J(v'lO2V 791. 730. 777. 1 752. + 6 2 tf'c. 8. 1 I . 714. 8... ^ Ti i a*tj~ 4. cr*lr*. 1. 732. 792.9. i 2. . 728. ^ ?>.ANSWMHti Page 292. 4 104 v/2. a:* .. 24V2. iv/Jj. 00.V2. a". 753. 736. x\y. T%. 1. Hi a. 723. 768. 13ft. 3V52V3. 750. 5. 796.. j 742. ^^ f ^3 _ r} t 2 i3x 4 rt + + 2u: 8'o'a +a2 3 . / 787. a 2  x2 . 15 shares. 763. 722. VIO\/3. 711. x i f^' . ^7xy.2 4 w" + 4 d" + Hid.
1. 4. 817. 816. 19. 883.3)(x + 4).rae) (4 . a(ry + 864. 48. . \/5. 4.a 2 2 ). 25. \/2. 5.a 4 + 1). (:r 11. 2 j 889. 2 806. a2 ^E*!. 4 . 2 . 10. 898. $. 20).4) 860.XXXVI 797. 2/ 856. 880. 1 . V 3. 0. x . . 2. 3. (x . 867. 887. 823. 800. 3 . (x42?/)(x2y)(4x . . 840. o. J V. . 834. (x3). 1. 814. 6. 819. 5).1).  tt 815. (  ?>) (a + ^> . +j!>. ) (a' 874.10 ab 4. 2 (x 4*4. 830. 861. $. (4 c 4. 7. 2  2. 894.  1.r?/ 50(i ( 2)(5 04. 8. . 1 1. 8(?/ + 2x2 ?/ ~ x 4 ). . 876. . 892.y) 852. Page 297. (x + 0X024. 2. (a 4 871. 1. . 822. 825. 6. 6(a6)(o a + + &). db 7. 829. 844. 810. 5. 827. 890. 6. 893. f 3 866> (9 + 8 ) 81 ^3 _ 72 xy 4 04 ^). 0. 886.4)(1 f 4 a 4 10a 2 ). (1 . 2 *x 807. 813. Va. 16xyV2*/^~x2 . 5. 7. 897. 11. 4 1)(4 x jc jr ::} ?> ?> .6 xy + 9 )(4 x 2 (9x 4l2x + 10).1) (a 8 .1)(V 2 . 2. 835. 831. 849. (x . (2 4.7). (. (a 1) (x 4. 1.5 b) 4 1).7). 23.f.om 441) (a 855. 832. 2. 4. n =  29. 3.5) (x + * 853.. a(ft)( 873. Page 296. 7. 0. . 899. 833. 4. 2 . (x 845. 3. 848. 868. (x*y*ryz + z*). 17. 3.r4). ( 869. Va 803. ^ V}. (x 2 . (am l)(a m + 1) 4m . (2x (r. x. 808.r . 4.0. 8 09. 847.7)(4 x. 2. (2x3?/^)(4x2 4Ox^ + 9//%2). 4. %7 ?/ ( 2 >wt 2wt ft ft 4 rc f 1 '* Page 298.2w . ^. 858. 851.4. (x 2 f r . . 900. 4. 842. 3.. 836. 8. ANSWERS 798. 17. 2. 2. (x 4. 6 4 V&  e " X/^^+A^ + 2 *a o l V 2 802. 2. 2 2 . 882. 14. 872. Va + 6 + Vtt"fc. 4. 812. 826. 895.l)(x . 3.7 4 1) 846. **. 4. 4. 888. 3. 799. '0 3 2 an 4 3(> n 6 ). b' 2 821.25 ?>2). 859. + d)*.2) (x 4 2).a 2m W" 4 ^ m f & 2m 870. 801.l)(x . . 2 854. 843. 857. 6+V7. m 875. (3 862.a 3 " 4. (2 a . 811. 3. a 42)(x . 5.l)(x + 3)(2x43). _ 3 ^ 860 r + 3) . ^VG. (2 x + 3 y} . 5. are extraneous. 4.+ m f ") (a* ).1. 884.. 881. .3. a* 4. 824. 2 . 1./>") (a'. X4 1). (xl)(^~3)(. 0.l)(x + 2).1)(0 865. 879.  ' . 4 818. o 828. ((' 1).7.2 ax 4. (3 b . 804.3.  839.  + l(l^). 2. ( 4 4. 863. 891. 2 + 2)^ 3 + (a 4 5 f 8). 7. Hoots . f. (a + 2 ?>c)(a 2 2fl?>44 ?/V ). 1C. 6 $. m = 2.1) . 896. Hoots are extraneous. . H. a^*4l)(aa 4 + l). 4 885. 837. 13. jV3 f 3. 3. 3. 838.4. 2 m . 841. 2. (a m . 11. 820. (x + y) (x f y) (x + y) (x .
956.0. 945. 2. 3 4 . 950. 7 or 30.2. 954. 1 XXXVll ' a 1. 480 8 sq. 4. 9 in. 4. . 3. 2. 5l4f.744. 2. 4.615. . 8. 943. 1 . 7. i1" 913. 8. 952. 947. 2. 1. 917. 12 in. 8. 962. 6 a + 3 2 ft ' 4 3 & 928. V^3). 6 da. ^y. 905. Page 302. i 3. 940.  1.. 2. f ft 4 . '3 3 in. 4. 982. a + . 1 + V953. 115. 3 . . %* . 2. 7. 2 yd. 7 ft. 902. 912. ft. 3).. 6 1 1. 960. 11. T3. 7. .709. 12. 925. 6.2. 948. 28. 20 19 ft. 919. yd. 6. w 3. 6./hr. 2 1. 1 2. . . $(l 4. i>. 15 946. . w. J. 932. 955. 3.I. . 916. I) v/Ca^T)^ 2 5. i 8.073.760 sq. 2. 4..V~~3). 977. 10. Z ^. . 5 . 920. 1. . . 4 in. ft. 4 6 mi. ?/i 6. 941. 66 924.. 3. 1. Page 301. 11. 978. J. 6. 3. 1 _2 . 248. 6. 60 949. f. 923.. 3. 0. 14 . 2 i ' a V. V5 fj. 2. 3. ft. 986. 961. Va926.  1 . 7. 959. 6 . 980. =F J. 333. i(6 in. 329.651. 936. S07.. 8. ft. 100 rows. 935. . 918.01. 12 mi.1. 8. 6. 8128. 911. 10. .446.. tt2 19.1 = 9. V5 T 2 . ft. 0. 333. 28.. 111. Page 303. 2. 2. 4. r ft ' < Page 299.' ifcVira^ 2 3.. 496. . 1 1. 937. 906. 964. 28. 904. 987. 0. 8. 2 ft. 5. 108. 5. 18. v/(ai !)(&910. a. 80. 921. 11. 903. 73. . dL 4. 4. 12.1. 5.ANSWERS oJV 41 6 901. . J(_ ft. 957. 944.. 0. 4. 4. Page 300. 2 w 914.. 8. 922. 4 . 280. 6 a 915.. 983. 984. 15 16 ft. 927. 931.. T 6. 909. 1). 8. 8 . 5. 963. 11. 56. 938. 6.. 40 16 in. 958. 981.  26j. 12. 934. 951. 939. . 5. 985. 942. . T 6.111. 908. Y. ft. 933. 4. .. 3. ft. 930. ft. 979. .
(5. 1014.128 I. 12. 997. (6) 8(1 . Page 305.  W1W JI + 1 / 1 _ _L\ a . 2(2 v/2). Page 304.  5&7 1021. 1003. 1018. (a) (6) ^ 1002. 1(5. 1005. 6 70 . 243 ?/ 810 x 2 + y 1080 x* 4 5 ?/ 720 * 240 r 8 7 ?/ .378 1015. 990. 48. 993. " 1710 rtV and 1710 252 35.51. 72. 120 i^l^. 1016.. 78 n+ a' x 2 t  13 .. 1009.378 <W and 92. 9 da.xxxviii ANSWERS 989. 1007. 1001. () 12(2+V3). 0.870 z8 . 12. . r = 2. X. in. 995. 1000. 108. + v 2). 1 8 8 2. 0. ^Trsq. 120 a. a a 13  13 ax + 78 a3 4y*> .192rt?)r 120 *. 24. ~ \.18. 2 . 162. (J. (a) 2^ + 1 \/2). 4. 192. 1008. 8.92. 1 1004. 1012. 996. (Z>) 999. 32 13 (tx 4V3. 3003. 1013. + 448 . .'^^ } ( . . 1017. ^f (2f3V2). 1006. 9 /> l 6 /> 6 . 5 :J2 r 10  14 y + 84 y*  280 + 5(>0  72 C K 4 2 MJiy 8 r? " 8 . 1019.870 a 6 1011. 994. 991. 1010. 4 and 1020. 988. 992.
The introsimpler and more natural than the methods given In Factoring. save Inequalities. without the sacrifice of scientific accuracy and thoroughness. and commercial life. than by the . $1. All subjects now required for admission by the College Entrance Examination Board have been omitted from the present volume. but the work in the latter subject has been so arranged that teachers who wish a shorter course may omit it ADVANCED ALGEBRA By ARTHUR SCHULTZE. A examples are taken from geometry. The more important subjects tions.25 lamo. given. great many work. not The Advanced Algebra is an amplification of the Elementary. Half leather. 6466 FIFTH AVBNTC. HEW TOSS . Particular care has been bestowed upon those chapters which in the customary courses offer the greatest difficulties to the beginner. which have been omitted from the body of the work Indeterminate Equahave been relegated to the Appendix. especially duction into Problem Work is very much Problems and Factoring.ELEMENTARY ALGEBRA By ARTHUR SCHULTZE. but these few are treated so thoroughly and are illustrated by so many varied examples that the student will be much better prepared for further The Exercises are superficial study of a great many cases. xiv+563 pages. and the Summation of Series is here presented in a novel form. physics. The author has emphasized Graphical Methods more than is usual in textbooks of this grade. very numerous and well graded there is a sufficient number of easy examples of each kind to enable the weakest students to do some work. THE MACMILLAN COMPANY PUBLISHERS. so that the Logarithms. etc. comparatively few methods are heretofore. which has been retained to serve as a basis for higher work. xi 4 373 pages. To meet the requirements of the College Entrance Examination Board. Half leather.D. but none of the introduced illustrations is so complex as to require the expenditure of time for the teaching of physics or geometry. Ph. $1. proportions and graphical methods are introduced into the first year's course.10 The treatment of elementary algebra here is simple and practical. book is a thoroughly practical and comprehensive textbook. i2mo.
physics. The more important subjects which have been omitted from the body of the work Indeterminate Equahave been relegated to the Appendix. The Exercises are very numerous and well graded. than by the superficial study of a great many cases.10 The treatment of elementary algebra here is simple and practical. Half leather. great many A examples are taken from geometry. not The Advanced Algebra is an amplification of the Elementary. especially duction into Problem Work is very much Problems and Factoring. but the work in the latter subject has been so arranged that teachers who wish a shorter course may omit it ADVANCED ALGEBRA By ARTHUR SCHULTZE. THE MACMILLAN COMPANY PUBLISHBSS. 12010.25 i2mo. without Particular care has been the sacrifice of scientific accuracy and thoroughness. there is a sufficient number of easy examples of each kind to enable the weakest students to do some work. but none of the introduced illustrations is so complex as to require the expenditure of time for the teaching of physics or geometry. Logarithms.ELEMENTARY ALGEBRA By ARTHUR Sen ULTZE. book is a thoroughly practical and comprehensive textbook. has emphasized Graphical Methods more than is usual in textbooks of this and the Summation of Series is here presented in a novel form.D. and commercial life. HEW YOKE . All subjects now required for admission by the College Entrance Examination Board have been omitted from the present volume. Ph. xiv+56a pages. To meet the requirements of the College Entrance Examination Board. etc. The author grade. xi f 373 pages. $1. proportions and graphical methods are introduced into the first year's course. The introsimpler and more natural than the methods given heretofore. In Factoring. bestowed upon those chapters which in the customary courses offer the greatest difficulties to the beginner. 6466 7HTH AVENUE. HatF leather. so that the tions. but these few are treated so thoroughly and are illustrated by so many varied examples that the student will be much better prepared for further work. comparatively few methods are given. $1. save Inequalities. which has been retained to serve as a basis for higher work.
lines. at the It same provides a course which stimulates him to do original time. 9. Preliminary Propositions are presented in a simple manner . 4. Hints as to the manner of completing the work are inserted The Order 5. guides him in putting forth his efforts to the best advantage. and no attempt has been made to present these solutions in such form that they can be used as models for classroom work. The numerous and wellgraded Exercises the complete book. 80 cents This Geometry introduces the student systematically to the solution of geometrical exercises. Ph. KEY TO THE EXERCISES in Schultze and Sevenoak's Plane and Solid Geometry. under the heading Remarks". SEVENOAK. ments from which General Principles may be obtained are inserted in the " Exercises. These are introduced from the beginning 3. .. of Propositions has a Propositions easily understood are given first and more difficult ones follow . $1. 6466 FIFTH AVENUE. Pains have been taken to give Excellent Figures throughout the book. i2mo. Half leather. Cloth. xttt PLANE GEOMETRY Separate. PLANE AND SOLID GEOMETRY F. The Analysis of Problems and of Theorems is more concrete and practical than in any other distinct pedagogical value. Difficult Propare made somewhat? easier by applying simple Notation . Many proofs are presented in a simpler and manner than in most textbooks in Geometry 8. $1. wor. SCHULTZE. Cloth. izmo. Attention is invited to the following important features I. iamo.10 L.r and. xii + 233 pages.10 By ARTHUR This key will be helpful to teachers who cannot give sufficient time to the Most solutions are merely outsolution of the exercises in the textbook. 10.D. NEW YORK . textbook in Geometry more direct ositions 7. The Schultze and Sevenoak Geometry is in use in a large number of the leading schools of the country. THE MACMILLAN COMPANY PUBLISHERS. aoo pages. 7 he . Proofs that are special cases of general principles obtained from the Exercises are not given in detail. By ARTHUR SCHULTZE and 370 pages. 6. State: . Algebraic Solution of Geometrical Exercises is treated in the Appendix to the Plane Geometry . more than 1200 in number in 2.
enable him to " The chief object of the speak with unusual authority. . 12mo. and not from the information that it imparts." The treatment treated are : is concrete and practical. . . .25 The author's long and successful experience as a teacher of mathematics in secondary schools and his careful study of the subject from the pedagogical point of view. New York City. 370 pages. of these theoretical views. making mathematical teaching less informational and more disciplinary. $1. and Assistant Professor of Mathematics in New York University of Cloth. . " is to contribute towards book/ he says in the preface. THE MACMILLAN COMPANY 6466 Fifth Avenue. .The Teaching of Mathematics in Secondary Schools ARTHUR SCHULTZE Formerly Head of the Department of Mathematics in the High School Commerce. causes of the inefficiency of mathematical teaching. Typical topics the value and the aims of mathematical teach ing . Students to still learn demon strations instead of learning how demonstrate. . a great deal of mathematical spite teaching is still informational. Most teachers admit that mathematical instruction derives its importance from the mental training that it But in affords. methods of teaching mathematics the first propositions in geometry the original exercise parallel lines methods of the circle attacking problems impossible constructions applied problems typical parts of algebra. . New York DALLAS CHICAGO BOSTON SAN FRANCISCO ATLANTA .
i2mo. The book deserves the attention of history teachers/' Journal of Pedagogy. diagrams. Maps. An exhaustive system of marginal references. Topics. supply the student with plenty of historical narrative on which to base the general statements and other classifications made in the text. " This volume etc.40 is distinguished from a large number of American textbooks in that its main theme is the development of history the nation. diagrams. $1. which have been selected with great care and can be found in the average high school library. which put the main stress upon national development rather than upon military campaigns. New York SAN FRANCISCO BOSTON CHICAGO ATLANTA . This book is uptodate not only in its matter and method. Cloth. The author's aim is to keep constantly before the This book pupil's mind the general movements in American history and their relative value in the development of our nation. and a full index are provided. THE MACMILLAN COMPANY 6466 Fifth Avenue. is an excellent example of the newer type of school histories. but in being fully illustrated with many excellent maps. photographs.AMERICAN HISTORY For Use fa Secondary Schools By ROSCOE LEWIS ASHLEY Illustrated. Studies and Questions at the end of each chapter take the place of the individual teacher's lesson plans. All smaller movements and single events are clearly grouped under these general movements.