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ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
LTD. .THE MACM1LLAN COMPANY NKVV YORK PAII. LONDON LIMITKU HOMBAY CALCUTTA MELUCK'KNK THE MACMILLAN CO.AS  BOSTON CHICAGO SAN FRANCISCO MACMILLAN & CO. OF TORONTO CANADA.
NEW 1 ORK CUT THE MACMILLAN COMPANY 1917 All rights reserved .ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA BY ARTHUR SCJBULIi/TZE. HIH SCHOOL OF COMMERCE. FORMERLY ASSISTANT PROFESSOR OF MATHEMATICS.D. PH. NKW YORK ITNIVEKSITT HEAD OF THK MATHEMATICAL DKI'A KTM EN T.
August. 1917. 1910. July. Norwood.S. Berwick & Smith Co.' February. 1916. May. January.COPYRIGHT. IQJS January. September.. . Reprinted 1913. May. 8. September. 1911. . Mass. U. BY THE MACMILLAN COMPANY. J. 1915. Cushlng Co. 1910 . 1910. Published Set up and electrotyped.A. .
etc. All unnecessary methods and "cases" are omitted.. omissions serve not only practical but distinctly pedagogic " cases " ends. The entire study of algebra becomes a mechanical application of memorized rules. Until recently the tendency was to multiply as far as possible." this book. manufactured for this purpose. shortcuts that solve only examples real value. Such a large number of methods. are omitted. owing has certain distinctive features. Typical in this respect is the treatment of factoring in many textbooks In this book all methods which are of and which are applied in advanced work are given. but "cases" that are taught only on account of tradition. " While in many respects similar to the author's to its peculiar aim. and ingenuity while the cultivation of the student's reasoning power is neglected. Elementary Algebra. All parts of the theory whicJi are beyond the comprehension of the student or wliicli are logically unsound are omitted. giving to the student complete familiarity with all the essentials of the subject. not only taxes a student's memory unduly but in variably leads to mechanical modes of study. All practical teachers know how few students understand and appreciate the more difficult parts of the theory. chief : among These which are the following 1. specially 2. however.PREFACE IN this book the attempt while still is made to shorten the usual course in algebra. in order to make every example a social case of a memorized method. and conse .
there has been placed at the end of the book a collection of exercises which contains an abundance of more difficult work. TJie exercises are slightly simpler than in the larger look.g. all proofs for the sign age of the product of of the binomial 3. however. enable students who can devote only a minimum This arrangement will of time to algebra to study those subjects which are of such importance for further work. etc. For the more ambitious student. The presenwill be found to be tation of problems as given in Chapter V quite a departure from the customary way of treating the subject. " The book is designed to meet the requirements for admis sion to our best universities and colleges. The best way to introduce a beginner to a new topic is to offer Lim a large number of simple exercises. hence either book 4. all elementary proofs theorem for fractional exponents. a great deal of the theory offered in the avertextbook is logically unsound .vi PREFACE quently hardly ever emphasize the theoretical aspect of alge bra. are placed early in the course. the following may be quoted from the author's "Elementary Algebra": which "Particular care has been bestowed upon those chapters in the customary courses offer the greatest difficulties to the beginner. Moreover. in particular the requirements of the College Entrance Examination Board. as quadratic equations and graphs. and it is hoped that this treatment will materially diminish the difficulty of this topic for young students. may be used to supplement the other. This made it necessary to introduce the theory of proportions . two negative numbers. e. Topics of practical importance. differ With very few from those exceptions all the exer cises in this book in the "Elementary Alge bra". especially problems and factoring. In regard to some other features of the book.
based upon statistical abstracts. Moreover. are frequently arranged in sets that are algebraically uniform. an innovation which seems to mark a distinct gain from the pedagogical point of view. and they usually involve difficult numerical calculations.PREFACE vii and graphical methods into the first year's work. in " geometry . and of the hoped that some modes of representation given will be considered im provements upon the prevailing methods. viz. But on the other hand very few of such applied examples are genuine applications of algebra. but the true study of algebra has not been sacrificed in order to make an impressive display of sham life applications. while in the usual course proportions are studied a long time after their principal application. elementary way. " Graphical methods have not only a great practical value. physics. is based principally upon the alge . such examples. The entire work in graphical methods has been so arranged that teachers who wish a shorter course may omit these chapters. of the Mississippi or the height of Mt. McKinley than one that gives him the number of Henry's marbles. the student will be able to utilize this knowledge where it is most needed. By studying proportions during the first year's work.' This topic has been preit is sented in a simple. and commercial are numerous. and hence the student is more easily led to do the work by rote than when the arrangement braic aspect of the problem. nobody would find the length Etna by such a method. to solve a It is undoubtedly more interesting for a student problem that results in the height of Mt." Applications taken from geometry. but they unquestionably furnish a very good antidote against 'the tendency of school algebra to degenerate into a mechanical application of memorized rules.
pupil's knowlso small that an extensive use of The average Hence the field of suitable for secondary school tations. desires to acknowledge his indebtedness to Mr. is such problems involves as a rule the teaching of physics by the teacher of algebra. ARTHUR SCHULTZE.viii PREFACE problems relating to physics often offer It is true that a field for genuine applications of algebra. Manguse for the careful reading of the proofs and many valuable suggestions. edge of physics. genuine applications of elementary algebra work seems to have certain limi but within these limits the author has attempted to give as many The author for simple applied examples as possible. William P. April. however. . 1910. NEW YORK.
.... ..... II 6 7 10 CHAPTER Addition of Monomials Addition of Polynomials Subtraction ADDITION.. III 22 27 Signs of Aggregation Exercises in Algebraic Expression 29 CHAPTER MULTIPLICATION Multiplication of Algebraic Multiplication of . and Hoots Algebraic Expressions and Numerical Substitutions ..CONTENTS CHAPTER INTRODUCTION Algebraic Solution of Problems Negative Numbers I PAGB 1 1 3 Numbers represented by Letters Factors. 34 35 36 Multiplication of Polynomials Special Cases in Multiplication 39 CHAPTER IV DIVISION Division of Monomials 46 46 47 Division of a Polynomial by a Monomial Division of a Polynomial by a Polynomial Special Cases in Division ix 48 61 .. SUBTRACTION. Numbers Monomial Monomials 31 31 Multiplication of a Polynomial by a ......... AND PARENTHESES 15 15 10 ..... Powers..
/^ . . Type IV.... Type III. . Complex Fractions 105 CHAPTER IX FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS Fractional Equations Literal Equations . Type II.63 55 67 to Simple Equations 63 CHAPTER VI FACTORING 76 I. The Square of a Binomial x 2 Ixy The Difference of Two Squares Grouping Terms of Factoring .. 108 108 112 Problems leading to Fractional and Literal Equations . Quadratic Trinomials of the Quadratic Trinomials of the 78 . Type Polynomials... Type VI.. 80 83 84 86 87 Summary CHAPTER Common Factor Lowest Common Multiple Highest VII ....114 ...X CONTENTS CHAPTER V PAGE LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS Solution of Linear Equations Symbolical Expressions Problems leading . All of whose Terms contain a mon Factor Com77 . HIGHEST COMMON FACTOR AND LOWEST COMMON MULTIPLE 89 89 91 CHAPTER VIII 93 93 97 FRACTIONS Reduction of Fractions Addition and Subtraction of Fractions Multiplication of Fractions Division of Fractions 102 104 * . Type V... . . Form x'2 f px f q Form px 2 f qx + r f . * .
CHAPTER XIV 169 .. 1*78 178 181 189 191 Form 193 .. CHAPTER XI CHAPTER X PAGE 120 120 121 Proportion SIMULTANEOUS EQUATIONS OF THE FIRST DEGREE Elimination by Addition or Subtraction Elimination by Substitution Literal Simultaneous Equations Simultaneous Equations involving More than ... 171 CHAPTER XV QUADRATIC EQUATIONS INVOLVING ONB UNKNOWN QUANTITY Pure Quadratic Equations Complete Quadratic Equations Problems involving Quadratics Equations in the Quadratic Character of the Roots . 148 164 Graphic Solution of Equations involving One Unknown Quantity Graphic Solution of Equations involving Two Unknown Quantities 168 160 CHAPTER INVOLUTION Involution of Monomials XIII 165 165 166 Involution of Binomials EVOLUTION ..CONTENTS XI RATIO AND PROPORTION Ratio . Evolution of Polynomials and Arithmetical Numbers . Two Unknown 129 130 133 138 Quantities Problems leading to Simultaneous Equations .. 140 143 CHAPTER XII GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS AND EQUATIONS Representation of Functions of One Variable ....... Evolution of Monomials 170 . ... ......
xii
CONTENTS
CHAPTER XVI
PAGK 195
THE THEORT OP EXPONENTS
Fractional and Negative Exponents Use of Negative and Fractional Exponents
....
195
200
CHAPTER XVII
RADICALS
Transformation of Radicals Addition and Subtraction of Radicals
Multiplication of Radicals Division of Radicals
205
206 210
.212
Involution and Evolution of Radicals
.....
214
218
Square Roots of Quadratic Surds Radical Equations
219
221
CHAPTER
THE FACTOR THEOREM
XVIII
227
CHAPTER XIX
SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS
I.
......
.
.
.
.
232
232
II.
Equations solved by finding x +/ and x / One Equation Linear, the Other Quadratic
.
.
234
III.
Homogeneous Equations
Special Devices
236
237
IV.
Interpretation of Negative Results
and the Forms
i
,
.
.
241
Problems
243
CHAPTER XX
PROGRESSIONS
Arithmetic Progression Geometric Progression
Infinite
.
246
24(j
251
Geometric Progression
263
CHAPTER XXI
BINOMIAL THEOREM
.
.
.
.
.
.
..
.
.
255
BEVIEW EXERCISE
.
268
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
CHAPTER
I
INTRODUCTION
1.
Algebra
it
may
arithmetic,
treats of
be called an extension of arithmetic. Like numbers, but these numbers are freletters,
quently denoted by problem.
as illustrated in
the following
ALGEBRAIC SOLUTION OF PROBLEMS
2.
Problem.
'
The sum
x
is five
times the smaller.
Let
two numbers is 42, and the greater Find the numbers. the smaller number.
of
Then
and
Therefore,
5 x = the greater number, 6x the sum of the two numbers. 6x
= 42,
and
3.
x = 7, the smaller number, 5 x = 35, the greater number.
A problem
An
is
a question proposed for solution.
4.
equation is a statement expressing the equality of
two
quantities; as,
5.
6 a?
= 42.
In algebra, problems are frequently solved by denoting numbers by letters and by expressing the problem in the form of an equation.
6.
Unknown numbers
;
are usually represented
as, x, y,
z,
by the
last
letters of the alphabet
but sometimes other letters
are employed. B
1
2
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
EXERCISE
The sum
1
Solve algebraically the following problems
1.
:
of two
times the smaller.
2.
numbers is 40, and the greater Find the numbers.
is
four
twice as
and a carriage for $ 480, receiving for the horse as for the carriage. much did he receive for the carriage ?
sold a horse
A man
A
much
How
3.
and
B own
a house worth $ 14,100, and
capital as B.
A
has
in
vested twice as
invested ?
4.
much
How much
is
has each
The population
of
South America
9 times that of
Australia, and both continents together have 50,000,000 inFind the population of each. habitants.
and fall of the tides in Seattle is twice that in and their sum is 18 feet. Find the rise and fall Philadelphia,
5.
The
rise
of the tides in Philadelphia.
6.
6 times as
7.
Divide $ 240 among A, B, and C so that A may receive much as C. and B 8 times as much as C.
A pole 56 feet high was broken so that the part broken was 6 times the length of the part left standing. .Find the length of the two parts.
off
8.
The sum
If
two
of the sides of a triangle equals 40 inches. sides of the triangle are equal, and each is twice the A remaining side, how long is each side ?
A
9.
The sum
triangle is are equal,
of the three angles of any 180. If 2 angles of a triangle and the remaining angle is 4
times their sum,
there in each ?
how many
degrees are
is
G 10. The number of negroes in Africa 10 times the number of Indians in America, and the sum of both is 165,000,000. How many are there of each ?
B
INTRODUCTION
11.
3
twice as
12.
Divide $280 among A, B, and C, so that much as A, and C twice as much as B.
B may
receive
twice as
13.
Divide $90 among A, B, and C, so that B may receive much as A, and C as much as A and B together.
A
is
which
14.
line 20 inches long is divided into two parts, one of long are the parts ? equal to 5 times the other.
How
travels twice as fast as B, and the tances traveled by the two is 57 miles.
A
sum
of the dis
How many
miles did
each travel ?
15.
4
A, B, C, and
does
A
take, if
B
D buy $ 2100 worth of goods. How much buys twice as much as A, C three times as
much
much
as B,
and
D
six times as
NEGATIVE NUMBE
EXERCISE
1.
2
Subtract 9 from 16.
2.
3.
Can 9 be subtracted from 7 ?
In arithmetic
why
cannot 9 be subtracted from 7 ?
"*
\
4.
The temperature
is
What
5.
noon is 16 ami at 4 P.M. it is 9 the temperature at 4 P.M.? State this as an
at
at
of subtraction.
The temperature
4 P.M.
is
7, and
at 10 P.M.
it is
10
less.
6.
What is the temperature at 10 P.M. ? Do you know of any other way of
below zero) ? What then is 7 10?
(3
expressing the last
answer
7.
8.
Can you think
of
any other
practical examples
which
require the subtraction of a greater
number from a smaller
one?
7.
Many
greater
number from a smaller
practical examples require the subtraction of a one, and in order to express in
a convenient form the results of these, and similar examples,
4
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
it becomes necessary to enlarge our concept of number, so as to include numbers less than zero.
8. Negative numbers are numbers smaller than zero; they are denoted by a prefixed minus sign as 5 (read " minus 5 "). Numbers greater than zero, for the sake of distinction, are fre;
quently called positive numbers, and are written either with a prefixed plus sign, or without any prefixed sign as f 5 or 5.
;
The
fact that a
thermometer falling 10 from 7 indicates 3
be expressed 7 10
below zero
may now
= 3.
is
loss of $ 60,
Instead of saying a gain of $ 30, and a loss of $ 90 we may write
equal to a
$30
9.
$90 = $60.
number
is
The
absolute value of a
the number taken
without regard to its sign. 5 is The absolute value of
10.
6,
of f 3 is 3.
It is convenient for
many
discussions to represent the
positive
a line
numbers by a succession of equal distances laid off on from a point 0, and the negative numbers by a similar
series in the opposite direction.
,
I
I
lit
4
to
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
6
5
3
2
1
+\
4,
+2
+
3
+4
45
+6
y
Thus, in the annexed diagram, the line from
the line from
4 represents
etc.
to 4 6 represents 4 5,
resented by a motion of "three tion of 8 by a similar motion toward the
The addition of 3 is repspaces toward the right, and the subtracleft.
Thus, 5 added to
1
equals 4, 5 subtracted from
1 equals
6, etc.
EXERCISE
1.
3
If in financial transactions
we
indicate a man's income
by
a positive sign, what does a negative sign indicate ?
2. State in what manner the positive and negative signs may be used to indicate north and south latitude, east and west
longitude, motion upstream
and downstream.
INTRODUCTION
3.
5
If north latitude
is
indicated by a positive sign, by what
is
south latitude represented ?
4.
If south latitude
is
indicated by a positive sign, by what
?
is
north latitude represented
5.
the meaning of the year 6 yards per second ? erly motion of
is 6.
What
20 A.D. ?
Of an
east
A
his total gain or loss ?
7.
merchant gains $ 200, and loses $ 350.  350. (b) Find 200
(a)
What
is
higher, is 8
 +7? 8. A vessel
(6)
If the temperature at 4 A.M. is 8 and at 9 A.M. it is 7 what is the temperature at 9 A.M. ? What, therefore,
starts
sails
38 due south,
(a)
from a point in 25 north latitude, and Find the latitude at the end of the
journey.
9.
Find 25 38.
A
22
sails
vessel starts from a point in 15 south latitude, and due south, (a) Find the latitude at the end of the
(b)
journey,
10.
Subtract 22 from
15.
18.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
From 30 subtract 40. From 4 subtract 7. From 7 subtract 9. From 19 subtract 34. From subtract 14. From 12 subtract 20. 2 subtract 5. From 1 subtract 1. From
19. 20.
21.
22.
23.
24. 25.
To 6 2 To To 1 From 1 To  8 To 7 From
add add add
12.
1.
2.
subtract 2.
add add
9. 4.
1 subtract 2.
Add
1 and 2.
26.
the one of
Solve examples 1625 by using a diagram similar to 10, and considering additions and subtractions as
motions.
27.
(a) 28.
Which is the greater number lor 1? (b) 2 or 4?
:
By how much
is
7 greater than
12 ?
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
29.
Determine from the following table the range of tempera:
ture in each locality
NUMBERS REPRESENTED BY LETTERS
11. For many purposes of arithmetic it is advantageous to express numbers by letters. One advantage was shown in 2 others will appear in later chapters ( 30).
;
EXERCISE
1.
4
is
If the letter
t
means 1000, what
the value of
5t?
a=
2.
3.
What is the value of 3 6, if b = 3 ? if b = 4 ? What is the value of a + &, if a = 5, and 6 = 7?
if
6,
and
b
=
4?
is
4.
5.
What
If a
the value of 17
c,
if c
= 5?
ifc
= 2?
marbles,
many
6.
boy has 9c? marbles and wins 4c marbles has. he ?
Is the last
how
7.
How
8.
9.
merchant had 20 much has he left ?
A
answer correct for any value of d ? m dollars and lost 11 m
dollars.
What
is
the
sum
of 8 &
and G
b ?
Find the numerical value
If c represents a certain
of the last
answer
if b
= 15.
10.
number, what represents 9 times
that
number ?
INTRODUCTION
11.
1
From 26 w
subtract 19 m.
12.
if
What is the numerical
From 22m
if
value of the last answer
if
m = 2?
m = 2?
13.
subtract
1
25m, and
find the numerical value
of the answer
14.
m=
2.
Add
13 p, 3p, 6p, and subtract 24 p from the sum.
15.
16. 19.
From
10 q subtract 20
q.
17.
18.
Add lOgand +20 q. From 22# subtract 0.
7 a=
From subtract 26 Add  6 x and 8 x.
x.
20.
From
Wp subtract 10^).
is
What sign, therefore, 140. 21. If a = 20, then understood between 7 and a in the expression 7 a ?
FACTORS, POWERS, AND ROOTS
12.
The
and equality have the same meaning
in arithmetic.
13.
signs of addition, subtraction, multiplication, division, in algebra as they have
If there is no sign between
two
is
letters, or
a letter and a
number, a sign of multiplication
6
is
understood.
written win.
x a
is
generally written 6 a
;
m
x n
Between two
(either
figures,
x
or
)
however, a sign of multiplication has to be employed as, 4x7, or 4 7.
;
4x7 cannot be
14.
written 47, for 47
means 40
f 7.
A product is
=
the result obtained by multiplying together
two or more
Since 24
Similarly,
quantities, each of which is a factor of the product. 3 x 8, or 12 x 2, each of these numbers is a factor of 24.
7, a, 6,
and
c are factors of 7 abc.
15.
A
power
is
thus,
aaaaa
6 aaaaaa, or a ,
is the product of two or more equal factors called the " 5th power of a," and written a5 " the 6th is power of a," or a 6th.
;
;
The second power is also called the square, and the third 2 power the cube; thus, 12 (read "12 square") equals 144.
8
16.
ELEMENTS OF ALQEBEA
The
base of a
power
is
the
number which
is
repeated
as a factor.
The base
of a 3
is a.
17. An exponent is the number which indicates how many times a base is to be used as a factor. It is placed a little above and to the right of the base.
The exponent
of
m
6
is
6
;
n
is
the exponent of an
.
EXERCISE
1.
5
find the numerical value of the square of 7, the cube of 6, the fourth power of 3, and the fifth power of 2. Find the numerical values of the following powers :
2.
3.
Write and
72
.
6.
42
.
10.
11.
.
8
(i)
.
14.
15.
2
.
25 1
.
2*.
7.
8. 9.
2*.
O
9
.
.0001 2
.
4. 5.
52
83
.
10 6
I 30
.
12.
(4)
(1.5)
16.
.
l.l 1
.
.
13.
2
17.
22
+3
2
.
If
a=3, 6=2, c=l, and
18. 19.
3
ci
.
d=^
22.
a*.
find the numerical values of:
24.
2
.
20.
21.
c
10
.
3
(2 c)
ab.
.
26. 27.
2
at).
b2
.
d\
23.
(6cf)
25.
(4 bdf.
28.
If
29.
30.
= 8, what is the value of a? If m = what is the value of m ? = 64, what is the value of a ? If 4
a3
2
jJg,
In a product any factor product of the other factors.
18.
is
called the coefficient of the
In 12 win 8/), 12
19.
is
the coefficient of
is
mw 8p,
12
m is the coefficient of n*p.
A
17
numerical coefficient
a coefficient expressed entirely
in figures.
In
aryx,
17
is
the numerical coefficient.
is
When
stood ; thus a
a product contains no numerical coefficient, 1 1 a, a Bb 1 a*b.
under
=
=
INTRODUCTION
9
20. When several powers are multiplied, the beginner should remember that every exponent refers only to the number near which it is placed.
3 9
2
means 3
3
aa, while (3
2
)
=3ax
3 a.
= 9 abyyy. 2* xyW = 22.2.2. xyyyzz.
afty
1 abc*
7 abccc.
EXERCISES
If
a
= 4, b = 1, c = 2, and x = ^, find the
numerical values of
:
21. root is one of the equal factors of a power. According to the number of equal factors, it is called a square root, a cube root, a fourth root, etc.
3
is
A
6
is is
the square root of 9, for 32 = 9. the cube root of 125, for 6 8 = 125. the
fifth
a
root of a 5 the nth root of a".
,
The nth
Va,
is
fifth root of a,
indicated by the symbol >/""; thus Va is the is the cube root of 27, \/a, or more simply the square root of a.
root
is
A/27
Using
this
(Va)
22.
n
= a.
The
symbol we
may
is
express the definition of root by
the
index of a root
number which
indicates
what
root is to be taken.
sign. In v/a, 7
23.
It is written in the opening of the radical
is
the index of the root.
The
[ ]
;
signs of aggregation are
:
the parenthesis,
.
( )
;
the
bracket,
the brace,
j
j
;
and the vinculum,
or 9 Vx. 3. 2. 4(a 6(6 + &). a polynomial of two terms. 10 x 4"+T indicates that (a b) is sometimes read "quantity a b. [6c] 3 . as in arithmetic. 8. find the numerical value of: Vff. e. 11. Each 10 is of the forms 10 to be multiplied x (4 f 1). expression containing more than one and a 4 term. A binomial is 62 . 27. 15. V2a. A trinomial a polynomial of three terms. is 28. Val \fi?. A monomial or term f an expression whose parts are not as 3 cue2. to indicate that the expres* sions included are to be treated as a whole. c = 1. a2 + and   \/a are binomials. v'Ta. b = 3. !^f\/03 3 ft." EXERCISE If a 1. 14. separated by a sign (6 + c + d} is o c ^and (6 + a monomial. V^a6. x 9. since the parts are a . d 7. 0. 5Vl6c. V36". ALGP:BRAIC EXPRESSIONS 24. 13. V3 . (cfd) 4. A polynomial is an y. 17. 2 . + M f c 4 f d 4 are polynomials. + 1]. 6. 6. 10.10 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA They are used. 10 x [4 by 4 + 1 or by 5. \/c. AND NUMERICAL sym SUBSTITUTIONS An algebraic expression is a collection of algebraic bols representing 25. 4V3~6c.g. aVc^. are trinomials. some number is . c f d). 26. 7 = 2. 12. 16. + c). 9. 6 a26 7 Vac ~* 2 f 9.
16. and division are to be performed in the order in which they are written all from left to right. __ E. b = 3. EXERCISE 8*  .810 + 150 = . x=^. * For additional examples see page 268. 3a + 56 a 2 .390. 5. 52 .INTRODUCTION 29. 6a2 +4a62 ~6c' 27 c 3 +12a(i *15.19 a 2 bcd = 6 5 32 . l 13. i. c = 2. 3. 6. 5c +d 2 . 8. find the numerical value of: 9. . 14. 5c6 2 +6ac3 a 3 17c3 hl2o.9 aWc + f a b . 4. (a (a f b) 7. 3 2 If 1. 2 of 6 ab If a = 5.30 = 270 . .9 5 32 2 + ^ 5 8 3 .4 6^9 ad. Ex. . 5. a2 f + (a + 6)c 6+ a (2 2 c 2 .e. 3 4 . . 12.9 a& 2 c + f a 6 .g.5 ax 50 a6cd. subtraction.. Find the value of 4 28 +5 32  *^. d = 0. 5 means 3 4 20 or 23. = 32 + 4527 = 50. 2 ).9. 5a2 2 a2 46cf2^^ + 3 a& +. a 2 6. 2. 4 .2 + I126. 11 if it In a polynomial each term is treated as were con tained in a parenthesis. 10. ' f & f c 3 8 d s . 1. 2 3a& 2 + 3a2 6a&c2 . 2. a=4.99. c=l. Otherwise operations of addition. d=Q.19 = 6. a2 11. each term has to be computed before the different terms are added and subtracted. multiplication. 6. Ex. 5=3. 4a6fVaV2^. + 26+3 c.19 a 6cd 3 2 3 find the numerical value 6 aft 2 .
23. 24. = 3. 34. Six times the square of a minus three times the cube of Eight x cube minus four x square plus y square. 6 = 5. 6 = 3. Six times a plus 4 times 32. 1014 The representation of numbers by letters makes it posvery briefly and accurately some of the principles of arithmetic. : 6. a =3. 29. 6 = 6. 27. geometry. 6 = 1. 37. 28. 6 = 7. and other sciences. 30. 25. then 8 = \ V(a + 6 + c) (a 4. . a a=3. 30. w cube plus three times the quantity a minus plus 6 multiplied 6. if : a = 2. 6.c) (a . a. a = 3. of this exercise? What kind of expressions are Exs. 6 = 5. a = 4. 6=2. 35. and If the three sides of a triangle contain respectively c feet (or other units of length). a =4. The quantity a 6 2 by the quantity a minus 36. 26 of the exercise. sible to state Ex. and the area of the is triangle S square feet (or squares of other units selected). Read the expressions of Exs. 6 = 4. Six 2 . Express in algebraic symbols 31. 6 = 6. 26. physics.12 17 & * ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 18 ' 8 Find the numerical value of 8 a3 21. 6. 33. 38. a = 2. 12 cr6 f 6 a6 2 6s. a = 3.6 f c) (6 a + c). 6 = 2.6 . 22. a = 4. Twice a3 diminished by 5 times the square root of the quantity a minus 6 square.
g. c.INTRODUCTION E. A carrier pigeon in 10 minutes. An electric car in 40 seconds.) Assuming g .16 centimeters per second. if v = 50 meters per second 5000 feet per minute. and c 13 and 15 = = = . 14. 13. = (a) How far does a body fall from a state of rest in 2 seconds ? (b) * stone dropped from the top of a tree reached the ground in 2J. count the resistance of the atmosphere. if v : a. (b) 5. d. 2. the three sides of a triangle are respectively 13. (c) 4. 9 distance s passed over by a body moving with the uniform velocity v in the time t is represented by the formula The Find the distance passed over by A snail in 100 seconds. b 14. 15 therefore feet. 4.16 1 = 84. A train in 4 hours. then a 13. . the area of the triangle equals feet.e. 12. i. if v = 30 miles per hour. How far does a body fall from a state of rest in T ^7 of a (c) A second ? 3. and 13 inches. 84 square EXERCISE 1. b. S =  V(13hl4fl5)(13H1415)(T314i15)(1413f15) = V421214.seconds. and 15 feet. A body falling from a state of rest passes in t seconds 2 over a space S (This formula does not take into ac^gt 32 feet. Find the height of the tree. and 5 feet. By using the formula find the area of a triangle whose sides are respectively (a) 3. if v .
diameter of a sphere equals d feet. 32 F. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA If the radius of a circle etc. 6 Find the volume of a sphere whose diameter equals: (b) 3 feet.). and the value given above is only an surface $= 2 approximation. Find the area of a circle whose radius is It (b) (a) 10 meters. the 3. meters. (c) 10 feet.14 4. on $ 500 for 2 years at 4 %.14d (square units). the area etc. of this formula : The The interest on interest $800 for 4 years at ty%. (c) 5 F. denotes the number of degrees of temperature indi8. fo If i represents the simple interest of i p dollars at r in n years. then =p n * r %> or Find by means (a) (b) 6. If the (b) 1 inch. the equivalent reading C on the Centigrade scale may be found by the formula F C y = f(F32). If cated on the Fahrenheit scale. : 8000 miles. If the diameter of a sphere equals d units of length. ~ 7n cubic feet. then the volume V= (a) 10 feet. 5. 2 inches. (c) 8000 miles. (c) 5 miles.14 is frequently denoted by the Greek letter TT.). to Centigrade readings: (b) Change the following readings (a) 122 F. is H 2 units of length (inches. square units (square inches. $ = 3. .14 square meters. This number cannot be expressed exactly. (The number 3.) Find the surface of a sphere whose diameter equals (a) 7.
the fact that a loss of loss of + $2. or positive and negative numbers. Since similar operations with different units always produce analogous results. In algebra. While in arithmetic the word sum refers only to the result obtained by adding positive numbers. Thus a gain of $ 2 is considered the sum of a gain of $ 6 and a loss of $ 4.CHAPTER II ADDITION. AND PARENTHESES ADDITION OF MONOMIALS 31. In arithmetic we add a gain of $ 6 and a gain of $ 4.$6) + ( $4) = ( $10). we define the sum of two numbers in such a way that these results become general. of $6 and a gain $4 equals a $2 may be represented thus In a corresponding manner we have for a loss of $6 and a of loss $4 (. . Or in the symbols of algebra $4) = Similarly. however. in algebra this word includes also the results obtained by adding negative. but we cannot add a gain of $0 and a loss of $4. we call the aggregate value of a gain of 6 and a loss of 4 the sum of the two. or that and (+6) + (+4) = + 16 10. SUBTRACTION.
3. (always) prefix the sign of the greater. (17) 15 + (14).16 32. 18. 4 is 3 J. (_ In Exs. 5. subtract their absolute values and . d = 0. 24. lf(2). add their absolute values if they have opposite signs. of: 20. + (9). ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA These considerations lead to the following principle : If two numbers have the same sign. The average of two numbers is average of three numbers average of n numbers is the is one half their sum. find the numerical values of a + b f cjc?. 23. d = 5. '. = 5. and the sum of the numbers divided by n. is 2. if : a a = 2. . 22. 10. of 2. the average of 4 and 8 The average The average of 2.  0. 6 6 = 3. 5. 12. c = = 5. EXERCISE Find the sum of: 10 Find the values 17. Thus. 4. 33. 2326. + 12. 19. the one third their sum. is 0. c = 4. 21.
. 7 a. \\ Add 2 a. 36. 31. and 3 a. 32. 42. $500 loss. AND PARENTHESES d = l. 40. 5 a2 & 6 ax^y and 7 ax'2 y. 5 and 12. 39. : 48. 72. What number must be added to 9 to give 12? What number must be added to 12 to give 9 ? What number must be added to 3 to give 6 ? C* What number must be added to 3 to give 6? **j Add 2 yards. 10. and 3 F. . 7 a. Similar or like terms are terms which have the same literal factors. 7 yards. 11 (Centigrade). 33. $3000 gain.7. which are not similar. 2. $7000 gain. sets of numbers: 13. and 4. 27. 74. 60. . 6. = 13. .5. and 3 a... 29. ' 1? a 26. = 23. c=14. 4. 12.3. 10. if his yearly gain or loss during 6 years was $ 5000 gain. & 28. 55. are similar terms. . Find the average of the following temperatures 27 F. or 16 Va + b and 2Vo"+~&. 66. . 0.ADDITION. or and . & = 15. 30. 2. 13. SUBTRACTION. 09. Find the average gain per year of a merchant.13. Find the average temperature of New York by taking the average of the following monthly averages 30. 32. 38. 43. . and 8 F. 35. ^ ' 37. 10. ' Find the average of the following 34. and $4500 gain.4. }/ Add 2 a.5. 4 F. 41. 6. . d= 3. Dissimilar or unlike terms are terms 4 a2 6c and o 4 a2 6c2 are dissimilar terms. 6. 34. 3 and 25. affected by the same exponents. 1. 37. and 3 yards. $1000 loss.7. : Find the average temperature of Irkutsk by taking the average of the following monthly temperatures 12. : and 1. : 34. c = 0. . = 22. 25. 3.
b a f ( 6).13 rap 25 rap 2. 5 a2 . ab 7 c 2 dn 6. 3a . or a 6.sign. sum of two such terms can only be them with the f. b wider sense than in arithmetic. : 2 a2. 2 . 14 . 10. and 4 ac2 is a 2 a&  4 ac2.18 35. 12Vmfn. in algebra it may be considered b. + 6 af . The sum x 2 and f x2 . . 2 a&. 11 2 a +3a 4o 2. 11. 12(af b) 12. 9(af6). 1 \ f 7 a 2 frc Find the sum of 9. The indicated by connecting and a 2 and a is is f a2 . EXERCISE Add: 1. The sum The sum of a of a Dissimilar terms cannot be united into a single term. f 4 a2. 5Vm + w. In algebra the word sum is used in a 36. While in arithmetic a denotes a difference only. Algebraic sum. 7 rap2. 12 13 b sx xY xY 7 #y 7. 13. Vm f. either the difference of a and b or the sum of a and The sum of a. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA The sum of 3 of two similar terms x2 is is another similar term. 2(af &). 12 2 wp2 .ii. 5l 3(af6).
without finding the value of each term 34. 2a 4a4 + 6a 7a 9a2a + 8. +m """ 20. "Vx + y Vaj + y 2 2 Vi + + 2 Va. 2 7 1 26. ra 19. i xyz co* mn mri Simplify the following by uniting like terms: 29. is . 32. 4x9' 10x38 ADDITION OF POLYNOMIALS Polynomials are added by uniting their like terms. n x* 2 22. c 2 ^24. Simplify : AND PARENTHESES 19 15. 33. a a8 ZL **. and to add each column. 2 2 2 31.ADDITION. 17. 37. + / + 3 Va. 17c + 15c8 + 18c + 22c3 +c3 3 3 . m n ^ 2 Add: 18. 3a76 + 5a + 2a3610a+116. 5x173 + 6x1733x1737x173. + y. 35. xyz + xyz 12 xyz + 13 xyz + 15 xyz. It convenient to arrange the expressions so that like terms may be in the same vertical column. 2/ : Add. 30. 21. l^S 25. 1 27. SUBTRACTION. 6 23. 36.
f 5 c f But 7 = 10 . a 4. .8 abc . . 3 a f 4 1) 4. and J 2 s.2 a 26 To check c assign numerical values to then . of that letter. f 110WS: 26 aft. 5 . 3a 2? . . 2 . and 2 . Numerical substitution offers a convenient method for the addition of checking the sum of an addition. 2c.2z and 0^9 z * For additional examples see page 259. V3. 2 Thus.10 6c 6 c 2 and 7 a&c 4. 6 a7 4 5 x"2 + 7 x* 4 5 7a &+4a fi 5 4 is 6c 8 arranged according to ascending powers 4 7 a&<d? + 9 6 5 4 e 7 is arranged ac aW a. 2 025.4 6c + c 2 we proceed as . to add 26 ab .c= 2.g. = . 2z2 4?/ 2 f2z 2 5 3ar 22/2 4 4 3 /. 46 4z 7 c. the following polynomials : 2a 3646 t c. While the check is almost certain an absolute test e.3 + 8 + 5 = 1 0. e.g. 5. 7 4. 4 = 7.20 c 5 ab 4. 3.12 a& 4. It is not also a406 4c would In various operations with polynomials containing terms with different powers of the same letter. it is convenient to arrange the terms according to ascending or descending powers 39. s.20 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA .3 a f 4 the sum a = 1. 4 2. the erroneous answer equal 7. x of x.7 2 . 2 Sum.2 6 + 4 c = 1 +4 a. NOTE. 4a46 12 q 5 2 a. to show any error.o c and 4. 9 q 4. 6=2.15 6c. ft any convenient and c.41 = 3.8 & c~15&c 12a&4l5a&c 20c2 flO&c . therefore the answer is correct.6a& 7 6ca a5c + 4 be 6c 4 26 ca c' 9a& 38. c = 1. cording to descending powers of EXERCISE 12 Add 1.15 abc .3 s.
3 ?/ 3 ? 2 j and a 2 4.a.5 c ll& 7c 6 4.Ga 43x45.4 Va . 6 # 4 5 z 4 2 7. 16e + 17/90. 2 ?ft ?/z.9(a + &) .8 m 2m 12. . 2 and 9m 48m 4. 11.12. 4 3 .VS 4 2 Vc. 4 Vc. 2 3(c f a). and 5 Vb 18. 19. </ AND PARENTHESES 2i 14d15e + 2/. e a4 /. a 4 a . a2 a. 2 a. d and / 3 ? 12.a 3a 9 y\ 3 afy .a.7m .5 cr& + 7 6 9. . and v 15. 4 8 3 4 4 . and 1 4 a .15 5.7v/if. 2(6 + c) + (c f a).a . 4.12 6 ~5 a . . ^2 1 e.3 mn 2 2 n8 . and . 6a 5a &47a& 4& and 7. and and 13. .3 ay 6 afy + 6 ay/ 4 10 and . 2 ?/. . 6 # 2 2 2 2 2 2 . 4 ajy 17. xy3xz + yz. 7(a + 5) 4 2 and 6 4 a.3 5 Va 2 2 3 3 2 . + 50 + 62 .2n 2 2 3 rz . a 4 a . 8 2 2 3 s 2 3 .and 6. . 56 w.Va 4 2 V& 4 6 Vc.(b + c) 1. v/20. 2xy + 4:XZ}5yz. a + 1> 8 2 2 . ?/ . a) y ^/. 4 o^?/ 4 y\ and a.5a^6 f 6) . 7 4 5 x*y 2 y?y* 3 xf. m 4 6. 4 + 6)  5 (a + 6) + 3. a2 2 14. 3 2 2 3 9 . a 4ar ! byb 8 c^c 8 . 18/+6y + d. 3 2 tf 2 l 2 ^_. a. 7ar + 3B 5. + a + 1. and 12a 4 15& 20c . . SUBTRACTION.7^ 2iB 8 + 2y + 2 8 8 .12(a 4.1. 4(a .4:xy xz 6yz. d.10 Vc.1 a 4 1 0. . in 8 3 m n 4. a4 6(a a a2 f a f 1.6.a 4 a 4 1. w* 4 3 m n 4 3 m?i 4 2w . . and 8 3 . 4 3 3 ^* f h <l.2 #?/ 4 5 a + 4 aft . 2 2 and .6) + 14(a 4 6) 4 10. 8. 2 2 .ADDITION. . 10a +lOa 6ll& 10. 16.
11 xy + 12. what to obtain the same result ? total of the units f 1. and e + 6y . a s f3o $ xy and 5+a\ ^ "27. + n*. What is therefore the remainder when 3 is taken 5? Instead of subtracting in the preceding example. s . 1. 5 3 f 4 ?n 4 2m+2m e. 1. 2 a3 a 4 3 af^. What away is the value of the sum if two neg ative units are taken ? If three negative units are taken away 4. 13 1. many negative units re main ? from 2. and 25. and 6 + 9 x + 12 26. c 3 3 3 2 3 . f 1. 2fa 3 4 a +7a. SM/Z + 2 a:?/ f x y bxyz~lx. f 1. 4^ + 3t*n l2aj 2 a. If from the five negative units three negative units are taken.9aj 2. is 2. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 4 w + 3 m + 2 m.m 4m ?/?/ d. 1. 45a6 2 . 1.ra + m. + 1.22 21. 8 . . 1. 2 8 n + <w 2 . T8a.4 2tn* Sic 2 . does he thereby become richer or poorer ? . If you diminish a person's debts. 6 f c 2 23. a 6 2 c. how 1.3 taken from 2 ? 5. f number may be added 3. and 2 24.3^* 2n 2 . 22. .. 8 f3f a n2<w +n . m 3 3 5y 3 8 . and 3^2 SUBTRACTION EXERCISE 1. What is therefore the remainder is when 2 is taken from 2? When . 12 xyz. 16m 7/12my d+e a 6. 1.5< 3 2 s 4^4. 1/ . . What other operations produce the subtraction of a negative number? same result as the 6.17 + 4 ?nfy . The sum and ? 1. +d a. 5 } and 3 m 3 7 m.
In subtraction. From 5 subtract to The number which added Hence. the algebraic sum and one of the two numbers is The algebraic sum is given. may be stated number added to 3 will give 5? To subtract from a the number b means to find the number which added to b gives a. NOTE. Therefore any example in subtraction different . and their algebraic sum is required. Or in symbols. two numbers are given. called the minvend. 41. In addition. a. 6 (3) = 8. The results of the preceding examples could be obtained by the following Principle.2. To subtract. From 5 subtract + 3. 7. and the required number the difference. from What 3. 1. SUBTRACTION. From 5 subtract to . ab = x.ADDITION. ( 6) ( = . The student should perform mentally the operation of chang8 2 6 from 6 a 2 fc. 3 gives 5 is evidently 8. State the other practical examples which show that the number is equal to the addition of a 40. ing the sign of the subtrahend thus to subtract 6 a 2 6 and 8 a 2 6 and find the sum of change mentally the sign of . AND PARENTHESES 23 subtraction of a negative positive number. Ex.3. may be stated in a : 5 take form e. 2. This gives by the same method. 3. the other number is required. if x Ex.g. change the sign of the subtrahend and add. Ex. 5 is 2. the given number the subtrahend. 3 gives 3) The number which added Hence. . +b 3. Subtraction is the inverse of addition.
Check. From _6ar3 3z + 7 2 6ar3 3o2 +7 2 or3 .5 x + 8. If x = l = 2 t . To subtract polynomials of the subtrahend and add.3 x* .f 8 . Ex.24 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA we change the subtract 2 x sign of each term 42.3 r*5o.
51. 2 + 4 a& 3 f 6 4 . 47. 42. 41. f 12 b f From 10 a 12 & f 6 subtract 5 c. 52. 96 subtract 10 b 2 From From 1 f & take 1 f b f & s . From 6(af.4 a^ 4.5 #?/ 2 and check the answer. 55. From 5 a 2 2 ab ?/' subtract 2 a 2 + 2ab . 49. AND PARENTHESES from 14 a 25 Subtract the sum of 2 m and 7 m c 10m.a From 3 or 2 a:// + 2 subtract 2 1. From From $ a 3 7 x 2 ?/ 5 a/ + ?/ subtract f ar f 7 a 2 ?/ . From From x2 the sum sum 7. ?/ 3 #?/ 2 y2 .5(6 + c) 4(c + a) subtract 7(af&) REVIEW EXERCISES 1. 44. From a3 subtract 2 a3 f. + a the 2 a. 2y 2 . and 3 7/ . 54.4 a*& + 6 a & . . 53. SUBTRACTION. take 2 8 o# + qt c mt subtract a2 f mn f wp f. 4v From 6 subtract lt2af3& + 4<7. +3x f & f 12 take 3 f ar f 4 x + 11.b h c and a & f c subtract a _ 6 _ 2 c. 6 4 a. c f d. From a3 From 6a 1 subtract f a + b 3 1.w>t. From 2 a take a & j. 46. 2. of a 4. 43. 6 6 2 2 ?/ . 50.6)f. of x2 4x f 12 and 3 a2 3 # 3 sub From a3 + 2 a2 4 a subtract the sum of a 3 } a2 2a and a 2 + 4. 56. From 5a(>& + 7c From 2 x2 8 a?y + 2 From mn f ??/> 8d 11 cf 17 d.& 4 subtract a 2 2 4 +4 8 6 6 a& 59. tract 4 x 3. 58. 57.7 a . f 2 aa 7a 2 ?/ 2 subtract a3 take 11 a 2 :c + 2 a . 48. From 16 + a3 subtract 8 2 a + a2 f a3 From a 4 . 45.a 2 j.2. check the answer.c.ADDITION.
+a add the difference duce 13. 4 6 2 c add the To the 3 sum a3 4 a2 3 between 5 a 12. + 2. 2 m 21. Subtract the difference of a and a Subtract the sum + f and + 6 + c from a + b + c a +2 y from 2 2 2 ar* 2 */ 10. 9. Subtract the sum s of 6 m +5 m +6m 8 4m* 5 m +4m 2 from 2 ra + 7 m. 6. 16. a 2y + z. 6 17.26 4. What must be added to b 4^ + 4^ + 2 z. a + 6. to produce find : 0? = x +g c =x 18. of # 2 8. 20. What expression must 8a3 2a7? What What be added to 7 a 3 +4a 2 to pro expression must be added to 3a + 56 cto pro duce 14. n years hence ? A c How old will he be 10 years hence ? a +b is 2 a years old. 19. + 6 + c. A is n years old. ~2a6 + 2c? expression must be subtracted from 2 a to produce a+6? v . 10 a + 5 b sum of9ci66 + c and 11. a a + c. To the sum of 2a + 66 + 4c and a 2 c. subtract # + 1. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA From the difference between a? a? 3 j +5 a: 2 + 58+1 + cc and 4 a? 2 +4x 5. sum of Subtract the x2 + 2 and 6 a iE 3 2 from x3 + a^ 4 6. +4 and 4 a +1 +a 2 and a2 a.15. years ago ? How old was he a b years ago? . Subtract the sum of 5 a2 + 2 7 and 2a2 + 3a and from 2 a2 + 2 a 7.
b c = a a & f f. Simplify 4 a f + 5&)[6& +(25. . A moved w may be resign of aggregation preceded by the sign inserted provided the sign of evei'y term inclosed is E. AND PARENTHESES 27 SIGNS OF AGGREGATION 43.a^6)]  } .c. we may begin either at the innermost or outermost. The beginner will find it most convenient at every step to remove only those parentheses which contain (7 a no others. the sign is understood. changed. 66 2&a + 6 4a Answer.g. Hence the it is sign may obvious that parentheses preceded by the f or be removed or inserted according to the fol: lowing principles 44.& c additions and sub + d) = a + b c + d. 46. may be written as follows: a f ( 4. 45.2 b . tractions By using the signs of aggregation.c. & f c. SUBTRACTION. 4a{(7a + 6&)[6&f(2&. If we wish to remove several signs of aggregation. If there is no sign before the first term within a paren* f thesis. 6 o+( a + c) = a =a 6 c) ( 4. II. (b c) a =a 6 4 c. I.6 b f (. Ex. A sign of aggregation preceded by the sign f may be removed or inserted without changing the sign of any term. a+(bc) = a +b . one occurring within the other.a f = 4a sss 7a 12 06 6.a~^~6)]} = 4 a {7 a 6 b [.ADDITION.
. 6. ? 11. 21. find the numerical value of { 1422 . a(3b a3 3 2 2 2c). 2a 2 + 5a(7f 2a )f (55a). 6) 2. Ex. : x + (2yz). 2.+ 6)f (a2 b). 19. 18.(a + 6). Signs of aggregation 1.) 5 . 5. 8. 3 3 f 7. a a c) + [3 a {3c (c 26 a)} 6a].28 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 15* Simplify the following expressions 1. 7 6)+ {a [a: 22. 16. By removing parentheses.1422) J ] . a f (a a . 15. m f ft) a.y (60. In the following expression inclose the second and third.)]. a (a + 6). 271 + (814 . 2m 4af 2 2 2 10. 13. 2a (4a 26 +c ). (m a2 f. a (a + 26 c ). 4. may be inserted according to 43. last three Inclose in a parenthesis preceded by the sign terms of the See page 260. 14. [36+ (a 2c]. the fourth and fifth terms respectively in parentheses.[271 47. + (2a 6 + c ). 17. 3. 9.7i h jp) (m ?*. 2 2 2 a(. m+n + [# (6 (m (r + M> + w n p) ___ ( m~n\p.: Ex. 2 2a.
' NOTE.2 tf . first. 3. . The product of the sum and the difference of m and n. In each of the following expressions inclose the last three in a parenthesis preceded by the minus sign : 27i2 3^ 2 + 4r/. 5 a2 2. 3. 8. The The difference of the cubes of m and n. 9. 4 xy 7 x* 49 x + 2. 6. EXERCISES IN" ALGEBRAIC EXPRESSION 17 : EXERCISE Write the following expressions I. 4.4 y* .7fa. 7. The sum of tKe squares of a and b. 6 diminished . The sum of the fourth powers of a of and 6. m and n. Nine times the square of the sum of a and by the product of a and b. 5. 5^2 _ r . z + d. The product The product m and n. Three times the product of the squares of The cube of the product of m and n. of the cubes of m and n. 7. The difference of a and 6. 2. a\l> > c + d. y f 8 . II. The square of the difference of a and b. p + q + rs. 12.1. The sum^)f m and n. m x 2 4. difference of the cubes of n and m. SUBTRACTION. and the subtrahend the second. 10. )X 6.ADDITION. 13. EXERCISE AND PARENTHESES 16 29 In each of the following expressions inclose the last three terms in a parenthesis : 1. 2mn + 2q3t. terms 5. The minuend is always the of the two numbers mentioned.
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA The sum x.30 14. The sum The of a and b multiplied b is equal to the difference of by the difference of a and a 2 and b 2 . The difference of the squares of two numbers divided by the difference of the numbers is equal to the sum of the two numbers. and c divided by the ference of a and Write algebraically the following statements: V 17. a plus the prod uct of a and s plus the square of 19.) . x cube minus quantity 2 x2 minus 6 x plus The sum of the cubes of a. d. (Let a and b represent the numbers. 16. 6. dif of the squares of a and b increased by the square root of 15. b. 18. 6 is equal to the square of b. difference of the cubes of a and b divided by the difference of a and 6.
5. By what sign is an upward pull at A represented ? What is the sign of a 3 Ib. If the two loads balance. 4. If the two loads what What. A A A 1. force is produced therefore. weights. what force is produced by the Ib. is 5 x ( 3) ? 7. 2. If the two loads balance.CHAPTER III MULTIPLICATION MULTIPLICATION OF ALGEBRAIC NUMBERS EXERCISE 18 In the annexed diagram of a balance. what force 31 is produced by tak( ing away 5 weights from B ? What therefore is 5) x( 3) ? . what force is produced by the addition of 5 weights at B ? What. weight at B ? If the addition of five 3 plication example. 3. therefore. and forces produced at by 3 Ib. is by taking away 5 weights from A? 5 X 3? 6. two loads balance. weight at A ? What is the sign of a 3 Ib. let us consider the and JB. applied at let us indicate a downward pull at by a positive sign. weights at A ? Express this as a multibalance.
such as given in the preceding exercise. 4 x(8) = ~(4)(4)(4)=:12. . 4 multi44444 12. 4x(3)=12. and we may choose any definition that does not lead to contradictions. examples were generally method of the preceding what would be the values of ( 5x4.9) x 11.4)(. 5x(4). x 11. Multiplication by a positive integer is a repeated addition. In multiplying integers we have therefore four cases trated illus by the following examples : 4x3 = 412. Practical examples^ it however. (. times is just as meaningless as to fire a gun tion 7 Consequently we have to define the meaning of a multiplicaif the multiplier is negative. a result that would not be obtained by other assumptions. thus. make venient to accept the following definition : con 49. becomes meaningless if definition. or plied by 3.32 8. 48. 9 x ( 11). (5)X4. however. ( 9) x ( 11) ? State a rule by which the sign of the product of two fac tors can be obtained. To take a number 7 times.4) x braic laws for negative ~ 3> = (. This definition has the additional advantage of leading to algenumbers which are identical with those for positive numbers. NOTE.4)(4) = + 12. Thus. the multiplier is a negative number. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA If the signs obtained by the true. or 4x3 = = (_4) X The preceding 3=(4)+(4)+(4)=12. 4 multiplied by 3. ( (. Multiplication by a negative integer is a repeated sub traction. 9 9.
find the numeri values of: 21.4. 23. (2) 8 (. 2. (4)X(15). If a cal = 4a6c. c = 25. Ua b 28. 19. Formulate a law of signs for a product containing an odd number of negative factors. 26. 3 aW. 16.7. (. 20. of Signs: TJie positive. (10) 4 . +5. 29. Formulate a law of signs for a product containing an even number of negative factors. Law Thus. 2a6 c .2f 18. 14. 10. . etc. _3. 11. 1. and obtain thus product of two numbers with like signs in signs is negative. EXERCISE 19 : Find the values of the following products 1. tors is no misunderstanding possible. 30. (c#) . 17. (2)x9. (4)'. the parenthesis frequently omitted. . 9. 8. 15. 8 4 .3) (1) 7 2 . 5x3. 13. 5. . X(5). 4 . about fac (2)X If 6. . 2a 2 6c.3. _2. 22. 6 2. and y = 4. 1. 6. x= 0. is 6x7. 4a f26 2 2a + 3&2 6c* . 27. 3. 4 a2 .a)( =+ a&. 3 a2?/2 .(a&c) 2 2 . 12. 7.MULTIPLICATION 50. 24. 4. 6. 33 We shall and negative integers the assume that the law illustrated for positive is true for all numbers. z s 11 aWcx. 32. NOTE. . 8 31. x. 3.(4J).2. (7) X (12). the product of two numbers with unlike &) (a)(+6) = a&. _2^ 3.2 f+x 2 . b = 3.
. 50(112. a 2 2 . By 3 definition. (a6) (a5) 9.(12) . 5 . 200. 6. 11. =2 a *.(7).34 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA of 8 Find the numerical value 33. 16. . Ex. : 3a7abc.<?. . 5(711.  and 2 25 8 . a= 1. 2.257). 3. B.3). 12 U U .m a 3  4 . 1.. 36. a 5 (a) (^ + 14 8 2/) (a? + 4 2/) (aj . 5.6 if 35. if =2 a a to  2 2 x2 2 2. known as of Multiplication : The Exponent Law The exponent of is the product of several powers of the same base the exponents equal to the 8 (ft sum oj Ex. a = 3. 3. .35). of the factors.2). . 100.1 2 a 6 f 6 aW . a 23 =2 Hence 2 x 2 general. 4. 3 2 .e. 2(7. i. 78 . or 2 . &*) c d*. 3 3 4 . Or in m and n are two positive to factors) f n) factors. 14. 2 2 2 . 2 3 .7 &*# =(6  7) (a 2 a8 ) . m*.12 Perform the operation indicated 12.2 2 23 + 5 . 10. 34.7. am Xa n = (a =aa is m (a a to n factors) (m X fl w = fl /w +w .503). 6 aWc x . 4. fl*" integers. a8 a=2. Ex. 7. 5 = 2. In multiplying a product of several factors by a number. 4 x (2 25) =8 25. . 9 . 6 = . This 52. & = 3. 4.  2 2. 2 2 3 6 . 2(14. 2. 5 3 5 3 2 . MULTIPLICATION OF MONOMIALS 51. 2 x (2* 5 7 2 )= 26 5 7 2 . 6" 127 U . 13. EXERCISE 20 : Express each of the following products as a power 1. a = 2. 53. = 2. 17. IB. only one of the factors is multiplied by the number.(2. 6 = 1. 127  127 9 7 . + 2/).
28. /). multiply each by the monomial. 5 aft 3 ( ftc ( 2 2ac).M UL TIPLICA TION 18.4 (2 a 2 ft 3) 2 3 . (.2 3 aft ). 21. 20. 17(10041042). (. If results ft. . 4 aft 5 aft 2 . 31. but we shall assume it for any number. Similarly the for quadruple of a 4 2 b would be 4 a f 8 54.5 xy 19 aW lla ( 3 3 tfy 2z*. 23. To multiply a polynomial by a monomial. _4aft. 2 32. 6(10420430).6 a2 62c f 8 a2 6.f 2). 3.A). . 6 e/ a ( ( 2 a2 ) 3 . called the distributive law. 35. 5 2 aft (6 e 8 C a 2ftc). 26. 4 9 afy 2 a3 ?/ ).4a#. MULTIPLICATION OF A POLYNOMIAL BY A MONOMIAL we had to multiply 2 yards and 3 inches by 3. 6. 22. 7. tet^m f c) = ab +ac. ) 2 33. 12( + 1 4 i). 34. . 25.3 win ) .7pqt. by first multiplying. 11(3.6. 27. . 2(645410). ax /) 2 4 1 (. Thus we have in general a(b 56. . = (a + 26)+(a + 2 ft) f (a 4 2 ft) + (a + 2 ft) 55. EXERCISE 21 Find the numerical values of the following expressions. 29. 3(124342). and then adding : 1. c(4a ftc ). 24. 2. . 23(10004100420). the would obviously be 6 yards and 9 inches.7 w'W (8 n^W). 7p*q r*.3 a2 6(6 a*bc + 2 be  1) = 18 a 4 6 2 c . 5. 2(5fl5f25). is evidently correct for any positive integral multiplier. 2 19 ' mV 2 ft 5  2 ran4 30. 35 4 7(6. This principle. 19. 4.
22. Find the factors of 6 Find the factors of 2 or* f 3 x* f arty 3 a4 . 5 aW( 3 2 2 aW + 3 a 2 2 ?/ 6 c 2 .^ c + 2 . 6 (6 2 +6 +6 10. f7a. 7 a 6 c(. 20.5 x 7).asa product. : expression must 24. . 29.3 aftc). 2 4 %Pq\ 14. be multiplied to give 4o.2 mn(9 mV . .6) (x f y z) = x(a = (ax b) + y(a b) z(a (az b) bx) f (ay by) bz) by az + bz. Express 3a^ Find the factors of 3x + 3 y + 3z.36 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA : Express as a sum of several powers 8. Find the factors of 5 a 6 . . 2 m(mhn \p). 7 3 (7 3 f7 +7 10 ). . Thus to multiply a write (a + y z) and apply the distributive z. 3 ). Find the factors of 6 ary . Any it closing x +y (a polynomial may be written as a monomial by inb by within a parenthesis. 30. 4 13 (4 9 4 5 4).5 w*V f 7 wn).3 x2y 2 + 3 xy. 21. 17. 9. 19. ofy 2 4 +8 2 4 a. By what 25.6 a6). 5 x\5 pqr + 5 pr 5 x2 . 12. 2 27. 28. MULTIPLICATION OF POLYNOMIALS 57.60 a& 10 aft. 23. 26. ~2mn(m +n p ). 5(5 + 52 + 2 2 5 7 ). Perform the multiplications indicated: 13.we b) (x law. 5). 2 2 16. 11.
Multiply 2 a . a2 + a8 + 3 .3 ab 2 2 a2 10 ab  13 ab + 15 6 2 + 15 6 2 Product.M UL TIP LICA TION 37 58. as illustrated in the following example : Ex.3 a 2 + a8 a a = = I 1 =2 f 2 a 4.a . Since all powers of 1 are 1. If the polynomials to be multiplied contain several powers of the same letter. Since errors. this method tests only the values of the coefficients and not the values of the exponents. are far more likely to occur in the coefficients than anywhere else. however. 59.4.3 a 3 2 by 2 a : a2 + l. multiply each term of one by each term of the other and add the partial products thus formed.3 a 2 + a8 . To multiply two polynomials.2 a2 6 a8 2 a* *  2" a2 7 60.3 b by a 5 b.1. 2a3b a66 2 a . If Arranging according to ascending powers 2 a .a6 4 a 8 + 5 a* . the student should apply this test to every example. Check. Ex. . Multiply 2 + a a. 2. The most convenient way of adding the partial products is to place similar terms in columns.a6 =2 by numerical Examples in multiplication can be checked substitution. the work becomes simpler and more symmetrical by arranging these expressions according to either ascending or descending powers. 1 being the most convenient value to be substituted for all letters.
32. + & + 1f a^faj 1). 8. 31. 4. a 5c)(2a6c). OQ OO. (ajf6y)(aj 23. 2 (a al)(2a?fl). 5. l)(raf 2). 3n)(7m f6<7)(5^) + 8n). 12. 7y). 20. (2 x* x 2 . I (mfn)(m4. 2  37. 9. ^ 2 . 17. 6 2 (6a&c5) 3a6f2)(2a6~l). 2. 2 . 36. 3<7).38 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 22* Perform the following multiplications and check the results 1. 25. 15. 41. 36) I) 14. 16. (8r7*)(6r39.n)(m 8 n)(m n).2). 6.1 .4) (mnp 4.4) (x + 1). 2 . (2s 3y)(3a? + 2y). 11.2 ^/ ' 2 mnp f. (llr + l)(12r (rcya (2m (a (4 a 2 . 12)(a?^2l). (13 A. 35. 2 (m?n?p (x (a //)4 lA/ //j. 40. 18. (6p (2 f 21. 1). 3. (6i7n)(llJn). 28. . (6a~7) 2 . (a 2a + 2)(a3). (4af 76)(2tt (4ra fra (5c2d)(2c3d). 36). * For additional examples see page 261. 10. (2w 19. (4a 2 33.2m)(l m). 22. 24. 7. (a&c 2 + 7)(2a&c3). . 30. 29. 4 2). (a^26) . 2) (3 A: 1). QQ O7. 26. (9m2n)(4m + 7tt). 13. (6xy + 2z)(2xy 27.
99 (a + 2 6) (a 6). 14. (a 9) (a + 9). 7. plus the sum of the two unequal terms multiplied by the common term. 75 ab f 54 ft .n)(wf w). in of the two unequal terms.e. + 9)(m+9). (wi 2^*12)(ajy 6. 11. (J 23.4). The product of two binomials which have a common term equal to the square of the common term. 9. X 102. 2 a? 29.e. ft 16.2 6) (a f 6). (a 102 x 103. (1001) (100 (1000 + 2). plus the product 62. 18. + 60)(f2). = + EXERCISE Multiply by inspection 1. 10. (100 +2) (100 + 3). (*. (6 12) (6 f. (ra. ( 2 Hence the product equals 25 a'2 54 ft 2 . (ofy* f 3) (tfy* (a5 2 ). 25 a 2 . (a3)(a + 2). . 25. 39 The product of two binomials which have a common term. (10+ (1000 (2. 17. 6 ft) (5 a 9 ft) is equal to the square of the common term. (p12)(p + ll). 28. (5 a plus the sum of the unequal terms multiplied by the common terms. i. : 23 2. 21. plus the product of the two unequal terms. 1005x1004. + 3) (a 7). 19. (a (a (a. 26. 3. . (!)(* 5).MUL TIPLICA TION SPECIAL CASES IN MULTIPLICATION 61. _3)(a _4). 2) (1000 + 3). 27.13). 6. + 2) (a f 3).!!)( (a + 21). 15. 2 6) (a 3 6). i. 3 (a 7) 3 (a 8). 13. 24.25)(y+4). 20. 2 5 b z) (a2 f 4 (a 2 4. Find two binomials whose product equals 3x + 2. 1) (10 + 2). 22. 16 ft) (5 a) 75 ab. 8. + 5) (1000 + 4). . 12.
4. 2 (a (*5) 2 . : ar'Sz + a 2 G. . Ex. plus sum of two numbers the square II. (II) is only a The student should note that the second type special case of the first (I). 9. (ain general language : Expressed is equal to tlie square I. i. n2 10ii+16. (a26) 2 . 3.e. 8j/ 2 + 49 y4 first . III. 32. <J>7) J .e. oft x 3 y'2 plus the square of the Hence the required square equals 16 xP f. + 3) 2 . + 6) (a + 2) a) 2 .15. square of the difference of two numbers is equal to the square of the Jirst. of the second. plus the square of the second. (x+3i/) 2 . 7. 35. (4 x3 + 7 2 i/ 2 is )' equal to the square of the first. 34. and the second. . w 2 ro . p 2 p. 33. Some special cases of the preceding type of examples : deserve special mention II. of the following expres Find two binomial factors sions 30. 63. 37. 8. i. III. 31.66 s. 49 y*. (a2) (p a . minus twice the product of the first and the 71ie second. + 6 a + 8. 16 y* t plus twice the product of the i. EXERCISE Multiply by inspection 1.15. 7 a + 10.40 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA of each. plus twice the product of the first and the second.30. : 24 (a 2.e. . 77ie square of the of the first. 2 5. is The product of the sum and to the difference the difference of two numbers equal of their squares. m2_ 3m _ 4 2 36. second. a2 2 w + 2 w . 6.
2 2 5c ) 2 2 19. 2 + 11 2 (5 r 2 2 2/ ) 2  Z ) 2 2 (5 r f 2 2 . 16aW25. 32. m 2 16. 7)(a 2 2 f 7). two binomials whose corresponding terms are similar.998 39. (20 f 1) . 4 53. 998x1002. . 35. 21. 62 25n 2 . we have 3x 5x + 2y 4y 2xySy* . 33. 46. 11. 25 a 9. 22 2 . . : Extract the square roots of the following expressions 43. + 5). The product of 57. 2 (2a6c) (2a# (4 a 6 2 2 . 2 9a 496 2 56. + 1) (100 + 2) 2 . I) 2 . n*6n+9. 2 . 2 2 (5 (a r*2t ) 2 5 (cd 5)(c d 2 . (3p 9) (6a 2 2 2 . 7& ) 25. 104 2 37.ll^X^+lly (100 30. 45. a2 9. 41 16. . 28. (^. (2x3yy. 54. 23. 2 (4a36) 2 13. a 2 8a6+166 2 . 55. 41. 38. : factors of each of the following expres y?f. 40. 48. + 3z) 2 2 . 14. By actual multiplication. 991 2 2 . (a 3) 2 2 2 . ( 27. G> +5g)*. 52. x*+2xy+y\ a 2 2a6 + & 2 m 2 2mhl. 2 . n 2 f4n+4.MULTIPLICATION 10. 12. 9 a2 . 51. 2 . 2 J ). + 5)(5+a). 42. . 18. 103 36. (m 27i )(m + 2n 2 5 ). (1000 2 . 29. 24. 22. (100 + 2) (100 2). ). (6afy 2 5) (a. a 2 + 10 ab f 25 b\ Pind two binomial sions 50. 15. 99x101. 44. 49. 34. 2 2 .30 ab + 25 6 64. 2 11 # ) 2 20. (m f 2 tt n)(ra w ) 26  (^ (2m + 3)(2m3). 47. 31. 17.
2 2 + 2) (10 43). (4s + y)(32y). . (5a64)(5a&3). 65. (100 + 3)(100 + 4). plus the product of the EXERCISE Multiply by inspection 1. 11. ((5a? (10 12. (5a4)(4al). 14. 5. that the square of each term is while the product of the terms may have plus always positive. The square 2 (a 4. the product of two binomials whose corresponding terms are similar is equal to the product of the first two terms. or The student should note minus signs. 7. 3. The middle term or Wxy12xy Hence in general. 2 (2m3)(3m + 2). 2 (2x y (6 2 2 + z )(ary + 2z ). 7%e square of a polynomial is equal to the sum of the squares of each term increased by twice the product of each term with each that follows it.f 2 a& f 2 ac + 2 &c. (2a3)(a + 2).42 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA of the result is obtained product of 5 x follows: by adding the These products are frequently called the cross products. plus the last terms. (3m + 2)(ml). 2 10. : 25 2. 8. ) (2 of a polynomial. (x i 5 2 ft x 2 3 6 s). 13. sum of the cross products. 9. and are represented as 2 y and 4y 3 x. 4.& + c) = a + tf + c . 2 2 2 2 (2a 6 7)(a & + 5). 6.
3) . 4(aj2)h3(7).8 x + 15] . (mf n)(m+2)3m(n + m). 8. 3. 12.(m 2 6. of z : 10. 8.X2 + 2 x . Check.29. Find the square root 11. 8 2(m 3(6 3 n) 2 3(m + n)H. : 43 26 (mf n+p) 2 2 . 7. = 10 x . (u4& + 3c'.[a? . In simplifying a polynomial the student should remem.3) (x .r _ 2 . 66. + 6)( . and check the answers !. a. 6~2(a + 7). 4y sf n) 2 . Ex. ber that a parenthesis is understood about each term.4) . If x = 1. (2a36 + 5c) (3 (. 13. (a (. 3.(x .39.3)(z. 5. 2 m 2 + n2 2 "f jp f 2 mn 2 ?wp 2 np. n). after multiplying the factors of a term.i2&c) 2 . Simplify (x + 6) (a . 4(* + 2)5(3).(>. 2 2. EXERCISE 27 : Simplify the following expressions. .24] .4) .y? + 8 . (a2)(a3)~(al)(a4). 5. = . 6(a 2.M UL TIPLICA TION EXERCISE Find by inspection 1. 4. 7. 6. 2)6. 4.1 5 = 10 . 9. (  2 4) =  20 a. the beginner should inclose the product in a parenthesis. s? + y + z + 2xy + 2yz + 2 xz.24 . + 6 )2(6 + &)~(&4& ).39. Hence.5) = (7 .5). (xy+z)*. + 65) .(= [ Xa + 2 .
44
9.
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
10. 11. 12.
13.
4(m + 2)
(a?
+ 5(w
3)
5)(oj2)
(a;
(n f 5) (w
 2) + (n  7) (n + 4)  2 (n*  2)
14.
15.
6(p+2)7(p9)2(i> + l)(pl).
16.
17.
x 2 y)(3 x f 2 y)  (4  y) (a3 (a f 6)  4 (a + &) (a f 2 6) + (a (5
2
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
2
(a
faf
1)
(
a  1)
 (a + 1) (a  1).
8
CHAPTER
DIVISION
IV
is the process of finding one of two factors and the other factor are given. The dividend is the product of the two factors, the divisor the given factor, and the quotient is the required factor.
67.
Division
if
their product
is
Thus
by
f
to divide
12.
12
by
+
3,
we must find
is
the
;
number which
3 gives
But
this
number
4
hence
_
multiplied
12 r +3
=4.
68.
Since
f
a

f b
fa
_a
and
it
f
a
= f ab = ab b = ab b = ab,
b
f
follows that
4a
=+b
ab
a
ab
a
69.
Hence the law
:
of signs
is
the same in division as in
multiplication
70.
Like signs produce plus, unlike signs minus.
Law
of
,
a8 5 a5
=a
3
for a 3
It follows from the definition that Exponents. X a5 a8
=
.
Or
in general, if
greater than
m n, a
f
and n are positive integers, and m ~ n an = a m a" = a'"", for a
<
m
m
is
45
46
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
71. TJie exponent of a quotient of two powers with equal bases equals the exponent of the dividend diminished by the exponent
of the divisor.
DIVISION OF MONOMIALS
7 3 72. To divide 10x y z by number which multiplied by number is evidently
2x y
6
2
,
we have
z
to
find
the
2x*y
gives 10 x^ifz.
This
Therefore,
the quotient
*
,
=  5 a*yz.
is
Hence,
sign,
of two monomials of their
part
coefficients,
is the
a monomial whose
coefficient is the quotient
preceded by the proper
literal
and whose
literal
found
in accordance with the
quotient of their law of exponents.
parts
73. In dividing a product of several factors by a number, only one of these factors is divided by that number. Thus (8 12 20)?4 equals 2 12 20, or 8 3 20 or 8 12 5.


.

.

.
EXERCISE
Perform the divisions indicated
'
:
28
'
2
.
76H15.
39* 3.
2
15
3"
7
7'
3.
4*
'
4.
5.
j2
12
.
4
2
9
5 11
68
3 19 j3
5
10.
(3
38

2 4 )^(3 4 .2 2).
56
'
11.
3
(2
.3*.5 7 )f(
2
'
12
'
2V
14
36 a
'
13
''
yfflg
35
5.25
12 a
2abc
15
42^
'
56aW
'
UafiV
DIVISION
lg
47
^1^. 16 w
7
20>
7i
9
_Z^L4L.
22.
10 iy.
132 a V* 14 1
*
01
240m
120m
40
6c
fl
/5i.
3J)
c
23.
2 (15 25. a ) = 5.
25. 26.
(18
(
.
5
.
2a )f9a.
2
24.
(7 26 a
2
)
f
13.
DIVISION OF POLYNOMIALS BY MONOMIALS
To divide ax} fr.ef ex by x we must find an expression which multiplied by x gives the product ax + bx J ex.
74.
But
TT
x(a
aa?
Hence
+ b e) ax + bx + ex. + bx f ex = a 4 b +
\.
,
.
c.
a?
To divide a polynomial by a monomial, cfc'wde each term of the dividend by the monomial and add the partial quotients thus
formed.
3 xyz
EXERCISE
Perform the operations indicated
1.
:
29
2.
5.
fl
o.
(5*
_5* + 52)
5.
52
.
3.
97
.
(2
(G^G^G^iG
(11 2
4.
(8 3
+
11 3
+ 11
5)* 11.
18 aft 27 oc
Q y.
9a
4
25 2 )^2
<?
2
.
+8 5 + 8
7) *8.
5a5 +4as 2a
2
a
14gV+21gy
Itf
15 a*b

12
aW + 9 a
2
2
3a
48
,
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
22
4,
m n  33 m n
4
s
2
f
55
mV
 39 afyV + 26 arVz 3
 49 aW + 28 a W  14 g 6 c
4 4
15. 16.
2 (115 afy f 161 afy
 69
4
2
a;
4
?/
3
 23 ofy
3
4
)
5
23 x2y.
(52
afyV  39
4
?/
oryz
 65 zyz  26 tf#z)
5
13 xyz.
f
,
17.
(85 tf
 68 x + 51 afy  34 xy* f 1 7
a;/)
 17
as.
DIVISION OF A POLYNOMIAL BY A POLYNOMIAL
75.
Let
it
be required to divide 25 a
 12 f 6 a  20 a
3
2
by
2 a 2 f 3 a, divide
4
a, or, arranging according to
2
descending powers of
6a3 20a
f
25a12
2 by 2a 
The term containing the highest power of a in the dividend (i.e. a 8 ) is evidently the product of the terms containing respectively the highest power of a in the divisor and in the quotient.
Hence the term containing the highest power
of a in the quotient is
If
the product of 3 a and 2
2
4 a
+
3, i.e.
6 a3
12 a 2
f
9 a, be sub
8 a 2 f 16 a tracted from the dividend, the remainder is 12. This remainder obviously must be the product of the divisor and the rest of the quotient. To obtain the other terms of the quotient we have
therefore to divide the remainder,
8 a2
f
16 a
12,
2 by 2 a
4 a
+
3.
consequently repeat the process. By dividing the highest term in the new dividend 8 a 2 by the highest term in the divisor 2 a 2 we obtain
,
We
4,
the next highest term in the quotient. 4 by the divisor 2 a2 4 a Multiplying
I
+ 3, we
obtain the product
8 a2
16 a
12,
which subtracted from the preceding dividend leaves
the required quotient.
no remainder. Hence 3 a
4
is
DIVISION
The work
is
49
:
usually arranged as follows
 20 * 2 + 3 0a 12 a 2 +
a3
25 a
{)

12
I
2 a2 8 a

4 a 4
a
_
12
+3
I

8 a? 4 16
a
76. The method which was applied in the preceding example may be stated as follows 1. Arrange dividend and divisor according to ascending or
:
descending powers of a common letter. 2. Divide the first term of the dividend by the first term of the divisor, and write the result for the first term of the quotient.
3.
Multiply this term of the quotient by the whole divisor, and
subtract the result
4.
from
it
the dividend.
the same order as the given new dividend, and proceed as before.
Arrange
the
remainder in
as a
expression, consider
5.
until the highest poiver
Continue the process until a remainder zero is obtained, or of the letter according to which the dividend
is less
was arranged
the divisor.
than the highest poiver of the same
letter in
77.
Checks.
Numerical substitution constitutes a very con
venient, but not absolutely reliable check. An absolute check consists in multiplying quotient and divisor. The result must equal the dividend if the division
was
exact, or the dividend diminished by the remainder division was not exact.
if
the
Ex.
1.
Divide 8 a3
f
8 a
 4 + 6 a  11 a
4
2
by 3 a
,
 2.
^ _ _
,
Arranging according to descending powers,
6 a4 6 a4
,
,
+ 8 a8 4 a3
12 a 8
11
a2 a2
f
8a
4
I
3 a
2 a8
2
f
=
a _+ 2
.
7rl,
4 a2
=
7
+
11

3 a2
3
a'
2
+ +
8 a 2 a
4 + 6a  4
50
Ex.
2.
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
Divide a4
 46 6a6
4
3
f
9
2
6
2
2 l by 26 3a& + a
.
Arranging according to descending powers of
a,
we have
a<a4
6 a36
fr
f
f
9 a2 6 2
2 a2 6 2
2
2
46*
I
a2
a*

8 ab 3 ab
 3 a8


+ 2 6^  2 62
46*
 3 a^ + 9a 2 6  6 ab 8
+ 6 a& a  4 6 4  2 a^a + 6 aft  4
Check.
ft*
The numerical
it
substitution a
=
1,
&
=
1,
cannot be used in this
either to use
example since
larger
renders the divisor zero.
Hence we have
a
number
for a, or multiply.
2  8 ab + 2 & 2 ) ( a _ 3 ab  2 6 2 ) (a = [(a2  3 aft) + 2 62 ] [(a2  3 a&)  2 62 ] = (a 2 3 aft) 2 4 6* = a2  6 8 6 + 9 a2 6 2  4 5*.
EXERCISE
30 *
:
Perform the operations indicated and check the answers
2. 3.
(jf_2y15)i<y6).
2 (15 a
2
4.
5.
6.
 46 a# f 16 ) _ 26 mn 4 5 n ) (5 m
2
i/
5
(5
a5 w).
2
*
(m
7.
(6^53^ + 40)^(6^5).
(56
2 a; f
8.
19 x
15) (8
3).
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
2 (25 a
 36
2
ft
)
j
(5
a
f
6
6)
* See page 263.
19. (8xy + lo22x' y)+(2x y3). . a I. . 16. v/17.2).81 c8 f ' ISVftQc 8 64 ' a2 166 2 ' a? 10 1 .l. SPECIAL CASES IN DIVISION 78. Division of the difference of two squares.11 a + 9 a . (a f b) (a V) Since =a a 2 b 2 .DIVISION 14. . (81 m + 1 . 20. the difference of the squares of two numbers is divisible of the two numbers. c + 3* ' v7 169 a<6 2 ' . 18.18 m 2 ) f (1 G m f 9 m 2 ). b f b by the difference or by the sum Ex. (a? s 8) 4 *( 2). 51 15. + 23a& + 20)*(2a& + 6). (aj 3aj2)^(oj2).e.2) (3 a . EXERCISE Write by inspection the quotient 31 of : 2 x 1 c 2 6 ' 3 ^. (3 a 13 m + 47 m + 35 w (1 (5 m f (6a 2 & 2 2 2 3 2 f 2 3 f ) 5 1) .
14. 12. 16. 15. 1. : the following w a 4 !. . 121a a 16 100 11. aW 12 a. 10. 4 b. 36 a4 ?/ 4 . 100ry. 9& 2 . 16 . f 13.000. r/ 1.52 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA of Find exact binomial divisors of each expressions 9. .49.0001.
hence it is an equation of condition. the first member is 2 x + 4. An identity is an equation of the letters involved.CHAPTER V LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS 79. ond member or right side is that part which follows the sign of equality. (a + ft) (a b) and b. . in Thus x 12 satisfies the equation x + 1 13. A set of numbers which when substituted for the letters an equation produce equal values of the two members. ber equation is employed to discover an unknown num(frequently denoted by x. Thus. which is true for all values a2 6 2 no matter what values we assign to a Thus. =11. . The first member or left side of an equation is that part The secof the equation which precedes the sign of equality. . y y or z) from its relation to 63 An known numbers. The sign of identity sometimes used is = thus we may write . An equation of condition is an equation which is true only for certain values of the letters involved. An equation of condition is usually called an equation. (rt+6)(aft) = 2  b' 2 . the 80. second member is x + 4 x 9. y = 7 satisfy the equation x y = 13. 83. in the equation 2 x 0. is said to satisfy an equation. x 20. 81.r f9 = 20 is true only when a. 82.
2. the divisor equals zero. 85. NOTE. Consider the equation b Subtracting a from both members. .b. the sums are equal. E. A 2 a. A numerical equation is one in which all . To solve an equation to find its roots. 9 is a root of the equation 2 y +2= is 20. x I. 4. one member to another by changing x + a=. 2 = 6#f7.54 84. A term may be transposed from its sign. 90. The process of solving equations depends upon the : lowing principles.2. Transposition of terms. If equals be subtracted from equals. the remainders are equal. the products are equal. 3. expressed in arithmetical numbers literal is as (7 equation is one in which at least one of the known quantities as x f a letters 88. If equals be multiplied by equals. but 4 does not equal 5. Like powers or like roots of equals are equal. 5.g. an^ unknown quantity which satisfies the equation is a root of the equation. the quotients are equal. A linear equation or which when reduced first to its simplest an equation of the first degree is one form contains only the as 9ie power of the unknown quantity. the known quan x) (x f 4) tities are = . . = bx expressed by a letter or a combination of c. (Axiom 2) the term a has been transposed from the left to thQ right member by changing its sign. a. fol A linear equation is also called a simple equation. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA If value of the an equation contains only one unknown quantity. 86. If equals be divided by equals. If equals be added to equals.e. 89. 87. Axiom 4 is not true if 0x4 = 0x5. called axioms 1.
To solve a simple equation. 3 y . f If y 20 . and divide both members by the coefficient of the quantity. x = 3. may be changed Consider the equation Multiplying each member by x\1.9 y + y2 = 22 . b c.8. Dividing by Check. 2(11 . transpose the unknown terms to the first member. if 55 x members. (Axiom 4) When x = 3. if a x = b. b Adding a to both + a. Solve the equation (4 Simplifying. Subtracting 4 x from each term. (Axiom 1) The result is first member to the same as the right we had transposed a from the member and changed its sign. Uniting similar terms. 6a5 = 185 = 13. The sign of every term of an equation without destroying the equality. Transposing. Hence the answer. The first member. . 91.2. Uniting.y) = C4 + })(5f The second member. x = (Axiom 3) 92. The second member. Check.3 y) + y 2 = 2(11 + i)^ V= 2) 1 4 = 26 i +  = 26 f f = 26$ JI . = 2 (11 3 y) + #*. Unite similar terms. is correct.6 y f y\ . 2 x = 6. 4fl = 12fl = 13 3. Qx 6# = 4x + l + 6. a? Adding 5 to each term. x = 93.9 y + 6 y = 20 f 22. Solve the equation Qx 5 = 4 f 1.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS Similarly. The first member. SOLUTION OF LINEAR EQUATIONS 1. and the known terms to the second. y) (5 y) unknown Ex. Ex. a= a 6fc. (4y)(6. Dividing both members by 2.2 y= f . 4x 1 + 6.
9 9a? = 7 13. Transposing. Solve the following equations by transposing. 4y 10. 2. 11 ?/ a? 18. = 5a?+18. aj * See page 264. 20. 13a? 3a?. 3)= 9(3 7 a. J. Instead of dividing by \ botli members of the equation \ x would be simpler to multiply both members by 0. 22. = 3. + 16 = 16 + 17. a. 3. 21. 3 7 a. {(x (x The The member right member left . 7 (6 x 16). BXEECISB 32* Solve the following equations by using the axioms only 1.69. 87 9(5 x 3) 6(3 a? = 63. 12. 17 9 x + 41 = 12 8 17. 7a? 5. =2 = 3. and check the answers 9. 14. \x x 2^xfl. a? a?.. 50. 16. = 7. x = 18. 13 y 99 = 7 y. 14y = 59(24y + 21).7. . it NOTE. 7. x x 1 .17 + 4y = 36. 8. Dividing by Cfcecfc. 11. 24. 4a + 5 = 29. Uniting. a. 15. . f Simplifying. 3. 247y = 68lly. 17 7 a..56 Ex. v23. + 7(3 + 1) =63. 19. a?. 6. 3 = 17 3 a? a?. 4. = 2 ?/. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Solve the equation  (x 4) = \ (x + 3). + 24) = 6 (10 x + 13). 32 = 264. : 5# = 15+2a. 17 + 5a. + 22. etc.4) = + 3) = \ x 14 x 21 = 7. If x = 18. = 60 7 = 16 + 5 : Xx 7 = 14.7a: = 394a.
. 42.3) + 14. . 39.1 0) = 0. 41. 7(7 x y 26. + 7) (. . 40. + 1) 8(75 a?) +24 = 12 (4 . 31. a? 43. Hence if one part the other part 70 x.5) = (a.3) . Evidently 45. + 4).14 = 0.1) (u . 27. WJienever the student is unable to express a statement in algebraic symbols. 7) (a. . SYMBOLICAL EXPRESSIONS 94. 38.1) (a (a? + 3) = .5) + 199.4) + 4 w . 5) (as (a. 57 734* = 13*~2(5*12). and apply the method thus found to the algebraic problem. he should formulate a similar question stated in arithmetical numbers only. or 70 a?.2) (M .(14 x + 1) + 7) = 285 + 21 a* (z + 2) (a5) :=2. 34.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS 25. he should first attack a similar problem stated in arithmetical numbers is only.4) (x + I) + (x + 2) = (x 2(* + l) (2J3)( + 2) = 12. : One part is of 70 is 25 . a? 28.7) (7 x + 4) .g.  +6= aj (4 t t t 1 (5 x (a? 2 2 2 2 2 2 (a? . 30. . this question. 33. 25.(2 + 6) (4 . 36. .7. Suppose one part of 70 to be a?.32. 35. . . . and let it be required to If the student finds it difficult to answer find the other part. (6 u =5 44.12) (2 + 5) .5(2 u . is the other part. e. 29.5)5(7a>8)=4(123a5) + l. 2 2 * Jaj. (aj 37. (a. 6(6a. find the other part.3) + .
smaller one 16. 11. EXERCISE 1. 6. 15. 7. 33 2. find the cost of one yard. one yard will cost 100 dollars. 9. x f y yards cost $ 100 . By how much does a exceed 10 ? By how much does 9 exceed x ? What number exceeds a by 4 ? What number exceeds m by n ? What is the 5th part of n ? What is the nth part of x ? By how much does 10 exceed the third part of a? By how much does the fourth part of x exceed b ? By how much does the double of b exceed one half Two numbers differ by 7. 3. one part equals is 10. is a? 2 is c?. 6. Hence 6 a must be added to a to give 5. a. and the smaller one parts. is d. so that one part Divide a into two parts. 1. is b. 4. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA What must be added to a to produce a sum b ? : Consider the arithmetical question duce the sum of 12 ? What must be added to 7 to pro The answer is 5. or 12 7. Divide a into two parts. 5. greater one is g. If 7 2. so that one part The difference between is s. $> 100 yards cost one hundred dollars. Divide 100 into two 12. The difference between two numbers Find the smaller one. Ex. one yard will cost  Hence if x f y yards cost $ 100. two numbers and the and the 2 Find the greater one. Find the greater one.58 Ex. 17. What number divided by 3 will give the quotient a? ? What is the dividend if the divisor is 7 and the quotient ? . 10. so that of c ? is p. 13. 14.
How many cents are in d dollars ? in x dimes ? A has a dollars. b dimes. 26. A man had a dollars. and c cents. How many cents has he ? 27. What What What What is the cost of 10 apples at x cents each ? is is is x apples cost 20 cents ? the price of 12 apples if x apples cost 20 cents ? the price of 3 apples if x apples cost n cents ? the cost of 1 apple if . and B's age is y years. ?/ 31. 24. 22. A feet wide. smallest of three consecutive numbers Find the other two. 33. 28. y years How old was he 5 years ago ? How old will he be 10 years hence ? 23. 19. Find the sum of their ages 5 years ago. Find the area of the Find the area of the feet floor of a room that is and 3 30.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS 18. Find 35. 59 What must The be subtracted from 2 b to give a? is a. amount each will then have. 34. Find 21. numbers is x. 32. How many years A older than is B? old. and spent 5 cents. find the of their ages 6 years hence. A room is x feet long and y feet wide. 20. A dollars. and 4 floor of a room that is 3 feet shorter wider than the one mentioned in Ex. If B gave A 6 25. feet wider than the one mentioned in Ex. rectangular field is x feet long and the length of a fence surrounding the field. The greatest of three consecutive the other two. How many cents had he left ? 28. find the has ra dollars. square feet are there in the area of the floor ? How many 2 feet longer 29. sum If A's age is x years. and B has n dollars. 28. is A A is # years old. and B is y years old.
49. The two digits of a number are x and y. A was 20 years old. and "by as much as" Hence we have means equals (=) 95. of m. a. A cistern can be filled in alone fills it by two pipes. he walk each hour ? 39. If a man walks 3 miles per hour. Find x % % of 1000. ." we have to consider that in this by statement "exceeds" means minus ( ). What fraction of the cistern will be filled by one pipe in one minute ? 42. If a man walks ? r miles per hour. How many x years ago miles does a train move in t hours at the rate of x miles per hour ? 41. b To express in algebraic symbols the sentence: " a exceeds much as b exceeds 9. The first pipe x minutes. 48. how many how many miles will he walk in n hours 38. What fraction of the cistern will be second by the two pipes together ? 44. miles does will If a man walks r miles per hour. and the second pipe alone fills it in filled y minutes. m is the denominator. c a b =  9. Find a 47. per Find 5 Find 6 45. % % % of 100 of x. How old is he now ? by a pipe in x minutes.50. how many miles he walk in n hours ? 37. . If a man walks n miles in 4 hours. Find a. The numerator If of a fraction exceeds the denominator by 3. Find the number. 46. of 4. find the fraction.60 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA wil\ 36. A cistern is filled 43. as a exceeds b by as much as c exceeds 9. in how many hours he walk n miles ? 40.
The excess of a over b is c. The double as 7. Four times the difference of a and b exceeds c by as d exceeds 9. 4. third of x equals difference of x The and y increased by 7 equals a. 2. of a increased much 8. 8 b ) + 80 = a .LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS Similarly. equal to the sum and the difference of a and b sum of the squares of a and gives the Twenty subtracted from 2 a a. 6. 80. thus: a b = c may be expressed as follows difference between a : The and b is c. 5. by one third of b equals 100. The product of the is diminished by 90 b divided by 7. a exceeds b by c. EXERCISE The The double The sum One 34 : Express the following sentences as equations 1. a is greater than b by b is smaller than a by c. of x increased by 10 equals x. etc. of a and 10 equals 2 c. c. 80. In many word There are usually several different ways of expressing a symbolical statement in words. double of a is 10. c. the difference of the squares of a 61 and b increased } a2 i<5  b' 2 ' by 80 equals the excess of a over 80 Or. same result as 7 subtracted from . = 2 2 a3 (a  80. cases it is possible to translate a sentence word by in algebraic symbols in other cases the sentence has to be changed to obtain the symbols. 9. 3.
express in algebraic 3x : 10. A is 4 years older than Five years ago A was x years old. a. symbols B. the first sum equals 6 % of the third sura. 50 is x % of 15. B's. a third sum of 2 x + 1 dollars. and (a) (6) A If has $ 5 more than B.000. is If A's age is 2 x. . 14. Express as : equations of the (a) 5 (b) (c) % a% of the second (d) x c of / a % of 4 sum equals $ 90. express in algebraic symbols : 700. they have equal of A's. In 3 years A will be twice as old as B.. as 17 is is above a. 11. In 10 years the sum of A's. B. a. (d) In 10 years A will be n years old. >. 18. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Nine is as much below a 13. first 00 x % of the equals one tenth of the third sum. m is x % of n. amounts. (a) (b) (c) A is twice as old as B. B's age 20. A If and B B together have $ 200 less than C. 12. the first sum exceeds b % of the second sum by first (e) % of the first plus 5 % of the second plus 6 % of the third sum equals $8000. and C's ages will be 100.*(/) (g) (Ji) Three years ago the sum of A's and B's ages was 50. sum equals $20. and C have respectively 2 a. 3 1200 dollars. A gains $20 and B loses $40. (c) If each man gains $500. a second sum.62 10. x 4 If A. 6 % of m. (e) In 3 years A will be as old as B is now. B's. of 30 dollars. the sum and C's money (d) (e) will be $ 12. 5x A sum of money consists of x dollars. #is5%of450. 17. 16. and C's age 4 a. they have equal amounts. x is 100 x% is of 700. pays to C $100.
etc. the . but 30 =3 x years. verbal statement (1) (1) In 15 years A will may be expressed in symbols (2). x = 20. equation is the sentence written in alyebraic shorthand. exceeds 40 by as much as 40 exceeds the no. Ex. NOTE. number by x (or another letter) and express the yiven sentence as an equation. be three times as old as he was 5 years ago. by 20 40 exceeds 20 by 20. 3z40:r:40z. Let x The (2) = A's present age. A will Check. In order to solve them. be 30 . The student should note that x stands for the number of and similarly in other examples for number of dollars. Three times a certain number exceeds 40 by as Find the number. Find A's present age. = x x 3x 40 3x 40 Or. x+16 = 3(35). Simplifying. The equation can frequently be written by translating the sentence word by word into algebraic symbols in fact. denote the unknown 96. Write the sentence in algebraic symbols. x= 15. In 15 years A will be three times as old as he was 5 years ago. Three times a certain no. 1. In 15 years 10. 23 =30.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS 63 PROBLEMS LEADING TO SIMPLE EQUATIONS The simplest kind of problems contain only one unknown number. 3 x + 16 = x x (x  p) Or. x + 15 = 3 x 3x 16 15. The solution of the equation (jives the value of the unknown number. much as 40 exceeds the number. Transposing. . 3 x or 60 exceeds 40 + x = 40 + 40. Let x = the number. the required . number. 2. Uniting. 4 x = 80. 6 years ago he was 10 . 15. number of yards. Transposing. Ex. Dividing. Check. Uniting.
Dividing. EXERCISE 1. Six years hence a 12 years ago.2. 47 diminished by three times a certain number equals 2. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 56 is what per cent of 120 ? = number of per cent. 120. A number added number. 3. % of 120. . A train moving at uniform rate runs in 5 hours 90 miles more than in 2 hours. then the problem expressed in symbols W or. 300 56. Find the number. How old is man will be he now ? twice as old as he was 9. 5. 11. Find the number. Let x 3. 13. How many miles per hour does it run ? . What number 7 % of 350? Ten times the width of the Brooklyn Bridge exceeds 800 ft. Find the number whose double increased by 14 equals Find the number whose double exceeds 40 by 10. 4. Forty years hence his present age. Find the number whose double exceeds 30 by as much as 24 exceeds the number.64 Ex. by as much as 135 ft. A will be three times as old as toda3r . twice the number plus 7. exceeds the width of the bridge. Uldbe 66  x x 5(5 is = *. How long is the Suez Canal? 10. 14 50 is is 4 what per cent of 500 ? % of what number? is 12. Four times the length of the Suez Canal exceeds 180 miles by twice the length of the canal. Find the width of the Brooklyn Bridge. Hence 40 = 46f. 35 What number added to twice itself gives a sum of 39? 44. to 42 gives a sum equal to 7 times the original 6. 14. Find 8.
written in algebraic symbols. In 1800 the population of Maine equaled that of Vermont. five If A gives B $200. numbers (usually the smaller one) by and use one of the given verbal statements to express the other unknown number in terms of x. How many dol A has A to $40. 65 A and B $200. During the following 90 years. Vermont's population increased by 180. F 8. The other verbal statement.000. B How will loses $100. and as 15. . The sum of the two numbers is 14. and Maine had then twice as many inhabitants as Vermont.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS 15. One number exceeds another by : and their sum is Find the numbers. then dollars has each ? many have equal amounts of money. If the first farm contained twice as many acres as A man number of acres. is the equation. Ex. B will have lars has A now? 17. 14. One number exceeds the other one by II. while in the more complex probWe denote one of the unknown x. how many acres did he wish to buy ? 19. Maine's population increased by 510. 97. Find the population of Maine in 1800. Ill the simpler examples these two lems they are only implied. and another which lacked 25 acres of the required number. If a problem contains two unknown quantities. make A's money equal to 4 times B's money wishes to purchase a farm containing a certain He found one farm which contained 30 acres too many. which gives the value of 8. 1.000. A and B have equal amounts of money. The problem consists of two statements I. times as much as A. x. If A gains A have three times as much 16. How many dollars must ? B give to 18. the second one. two verbal statements must be given. statements are given directly. and B has $00.
66 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Either statement may be used to express one unknown number in terms of the other. 26 = B's number of marbles after the exchange. unknown quantity in Then. terms of the other. < Transposing. Statement x in = the larger number. 2. I. + a f f 8 = 14. which leads ot Ex. Dividing. To express statement II in algebraic symbols. x = 8. Let x 3x express one many as A. Let x 14 I the smaller number. A has three times as many marbles as B. the sum of the two numbers is 14. Another method for solving this problem is to express one unknown quantity in terms of the other by means of statement II viz. Uniting. and Let x = the Then x +. = 3. . = 14. The two statements I. Then. expressed symbols is (14 x) course to the same answer as the first method. x x =14 8. 8 the greater number. the greater number. although in general the simpler one should be selected. = A's number of marbles. . = B's number of marbles. A gives B 25 marbles. A will lose. If A gives are : A If II. . 8 = 11. / . 2x a? x j = 6. in algebraic i symbols produces #4a. B will have twice as many as A. o\ (o?f 8) Simplifying. 25 marbles to B. to Use the simpler statement. consider that by the exchange Hence. 26 = A's number of marbles after the exchange.= The second statement written the equation ^ smaller number. the smaller number. x 3x 4 and B will gain. has three times as many marbles as B. B will have twice as viz. If we select the first one.
but 40 = 2 x 20. Dividing. 6 half dollars = 260 cents. Dividing.550 f 310. greater is ..LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS Therefore. 50. etc.. Uniting.10.240. 50 x Transposing. cents. 40 x . Check. The numbers which appear in the equation should always be expressed in the same denomination. * 98. The number of coins II. is 70. A's number of marbles.5 x . 2.10. How many are there of each ? The two statements are I.25 = 20. Simplifying. x x + = 2(3 x = 6x 25 25). Never add the number number of yards to their Ex. we express the statement II in algebraic symbols. 3 x = 45. . Eleven coins. and the Find the numbers. 6 times the smaller. 45 . 60. Selecting the cent as the denomination (in order to avoid fractions). of dollars to the number of cents. Find the numbers. 3. x = the number of half dollars. 6 dimes = 60 = 310. * ' . dollars and dimes is $3. w'3. x from I. x = 6. their sum + + 10 x 10 x is EXERCISE 36 is five v v. the number of half dollars. 1. 67 x f 25 25 Transposing. . Find the numbers.10. (Statement II) Qx . The value of the half : is 11. the price. The sum of two numbers is 42. differ differ and the greater and their sum times Two numbers by 60. 50(11 660 50 x )+ 10 x = 310. Two numbers the smaller.75. x = 15. B's number of marbles. then. by 44.$3. Simplifying. Let 11 = the number of dimes. Uniting. the number of dimes. have a value of $3. 15 + 25 = 40. Check.. 11 x = 5. consisting of half dollars and dimes.
and the greater increased by five times the smaller equals 22. 9. McKinley. 3 shall be equal to the other increased by 10. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA One number is six times another number. Find their ages. Mount Everest is 9000 feet higher than Mt. would contain three times as pints does each contain ? much 13. 6. How many inches are in each part ? 15. the number. How many hours does the day last ? . and in Mexico ? A cubic foot of aluminum. as the larger one. tnree times the smaller by 65. find the weight of a cubic Divide 20 into two parts. it If the smaller one contained 11 pints more. and twice the altitude of Mt. Everest by 11. McKinley exceeds the altitude of Mt. What is the altitude of each mountain 12. and B's age is as below 30 as A's age is above 40. Find Find two consecutive numbers whose sum equals 157. How many 14 years older than B. How many volcanoes are in the 8. Twice 14. one of which increased by 9. and twice the greater exceeds Find the numbers..68 4. What are their ages ? is A A much line 60 inches long is divided into two parts. the larger part exceeds five times the smaller part by 15 inches. United States. 2 cubic feet of iron weigh 1600 foot of each substance. the night in Copenhagen lasts 10 hours longer than the day. On December 21. 7. and in 5 years A's age will be three times B's. Two numbers The number differ by 39. 5. cubic foot of iron weighs three times as much as a If 4 cubic feet of aluminum and Ibs.000 feet. ? Two vessels contain together 9 pints. 11. of volcanoes in Mexico exceeds the number of volcanoes in the United States by 2. A's age is four times B's. and four times the former equals five times the latter.
they would have 3. B. has. = number of dollars B had after giving $5. try to obtain it by a series of successive steps. number had. bers is denoted by x. original amount. has. then three times the money by I. or 66 exceeds 58 by 8. and the other of x problem contains three unknown quantities. are : C's The three statements A. let us consider the words ** if A and B each gave $ 5 to C. 5 5 Expressing in symbols Three times the sum of A's and B's money exceeds C's money by A's 3 x ( x _5 + 3z5) (904z) = x. x = 8. B. and C together have $80. first According to 3 x number number and according to 80 4 x = the express statement III by algebraical symbols. If A and B each gave $5 to C. and C together have $80. 19. times as much as A." To x 8x 90 = number of dollars A had after giving $5. then three times the sum of A's and B's money would exceed C's money by as much as A had originally. 69 If a verbal statements must be given. II. number of dollars of dollars B C had. If 4x = 24. the the number of dollars of dollars of dollars A B C has. III. Tf it should be difficult to express the selected verbal state ment directly in algebraical symbols. 1. 8(8 + 19) to C. If A and B each gave $5 to C. . Let x II. = 48. A and B each gave $ 5 respectively. number of dollars A had.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS 99. The third verbal statement produces the equation. B has three times as much as A. I. 4 x = number of dollars C had after receiving $10. three One of the unknown num two are expressed in terms by means of two of the verbal statements. The solution gives : 3x 80 Check. Ex. and 68. sum of A's and B's money would exceed much as A had originally. and B has three as A.
and 28 sheep would cost 6 x 90 f 9 + 316 420 = 1185. sheep. 2. x Transposing. each horse costing $ 90. 28 2 (9 5). 37 Find three numbers such that the second is twice the first. three statements are : IT. x f 4 = 9. according to III. first the third exceeds the second by and third is 20.140 + (50 x x 120 = 185. 185 a = 925. Find three numbers such that the second is twice the 2. 90 x f 35 x + GO x = 140 20 + 1185. III. according to II. cows. The number of sheep is equal to twice tho number of horses and x 4 the cows together. and. number of sheep. 9 5 = 4 . 2 (2 x f 4) or 4 x Therefore. + 8 90 x and. number of horses.70 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA man spent $1185 in buying horses. + 35 (x +4) f 15(4zf 8) = 1185. 85 (x 15 (4 x I + 4) + 8) = the number of sheep. the third five times the first. number of cows. and the difference between the third and the second is 15 2. first. The total cost equals $1185. x = 5. each cow $ 35. 28 x 15 or 450 5 horses. = the number of dollars spent for horses. A and the number of sheep was twice as large as the number How many animals of each kind did he buy ? of horses and cows together. Dividing. 1 1 Check. and the sum of the . Let then. x j = the number of horses. x 35 f + = + EXERCISE 1. and each sheep $ 15. 9 cows. number of cows. + 35 x 4. Uniting. The number of cows exceeds the number of horses by 4. The I. The number of cows exceeded the number of horses by 4. 90 may be written. 4 x f 8 = 28. and Ex. = the number of dollars spent for cows. = the number of dollars spent for sheep Hence statement 90 x Simplifying.
13.000 more than Philadelphia (Census 1905). what are the three angles ? 10. and 2 more men than women. v  Divide 25 into three parts such that the second part first. first. first. Find three consecutive numbers whose sum equals 63. what is the population of each city ? 8. If the second angle of a triangle is 20 larger than the and the third is 20 more than the sum of the second and first. and the third exceeds the is second by 5.000 more inhabitants than Philaand Berlin has 1. 9. If the population of New York is twice that of Berlin. is five numbers such that the sum of the first two times the first. increased by three times the second side. and children together was 37. New York delphia. The gold. twice as old as B. 7. v . and of the three sides of a triangle is 28 inches. the first Find three consecutive numbers such that the sum of and twice the last equals 22. "Find three is 4. The three angles of any triangle are together equal to 180.  4. In a room there were three times as many children as If the number of women. how many children were present ? x 11.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS 3. and the third part exceeds the second by 10. what is the length of each? has 3. the third 2.000. women.000. and is 5 years younger than sum of B's and C's ages was 25 years. men. and the sum of the first and third is 36. A is Five years ago the What are their ages ? C. and the pig iron produced in one year (1906) in the United States represented together a value . the second one is one inch longer than the first. the copper. twice the 6. If twice The sum the third side. 71 the Find three numbers such that the second is 4 less than the third is three times the second. equals 49 inches. A 12.
of 3 or 4 different kinds. we obtain 3 a. and distance. Find the value of each.000. = 5. Hence Simplifying. 3z + 4a:8 = 27. statement "A and B walk from two towns 27 miles apart until they meet " means the sum of the distances walked by A and B equals 27 miles. then x 2 = number of hours B walks. has each state ? If the example contains Arrangement of Problems. i. start at the same hour from two towns 27 miles walks at the rate of 4 miles per hour. or time. The copper had twice the value of the gold.72 of ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA $ 750.g. number of miles A x x walks. California has twice as many electoral votes as Colorado. Dividing. 8 x = 15. 14. it is frequently advantageous to arrange the quantities in a systematic manner.000. = 35. width. speed. B many miles does A walk ? Explanation. After how many hours will they meet and how E. number of hours. such as length. 3x + 4 (x 2) = 27. and 4 (x But the 2) for the last column. and A walks at the rate of 3 miles per hour without stopping. Since in uniform motion the distance is always the product of rate and time. and quantities area. 7 Uniting. First fill in all the numbers given directly. of arid the value of the iron was $300. together. and Massachusetts has one more than California and Colorado If the three states together have 31 electoral votes.000 more than that the copper. Let x = number of hours A walks.000. how many 100. but stops 2 hours on the way.e. . A and B apart. 3 and 4.
l. What brings the same is the capital? in Therefore Simplify. and the width decreased by 10 yards. 70x10 Ex.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS Ex. . original field has Check. Cancel 2 # 2 (a 10) = 2s 100. A sum invested larger at at 5 % terest as a sum $200 4%. Check. the second 100. Find the dimensions of the field. 2 a = 40. the area would be 100 square yards less. x . + 8.053.x + 00) 2 x2 Simplify. x + 200).04 8. $ 800 = required sum.04 = $ 40.06 = $ 40. x ." gives (2. fid 1 The field is 40 yards long and 20 yards wide. + 10 x 300 = 2 z2 100. were increased by 30 yards. Multiplying. $ 1000 x . or 700.05 x x . If the length The length " The area would be decreased by 100 square yards. 2   and transpose. But 700 certain = 800 2. The an area 40 x 20 =800. Transposing and uniting. z = 20. $ 800 = 800. .01 = = . 10 x = 200. 73 of a rectangular field is twiee its width.M(x .
Twenty men subscribed equal amounts of to raise a certain money. and how far will each then have traveled ? 9. of coffee for $ 1. A If its length rectangular field is 2 yards longer than it is wide. sions of the field. Find the dimen A certain sum invested at 5 % %. but four men failed to pay their shares. how much did each cost per yard ? 6. A sum ? invested at 4 %. If the silk cost three times as For a part he 7. but as two of them were unable to pay their share. invested at 5 %.74 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 38 rectangular field is 10 yards and another 12 yards wide. A man bought 6 Ibs. After how many hours will B overtake A. 1. and in order to raise the required sum each of the remaining men had to pay one dollar more. mobile. A sets out later two hours B . Find the share of each. sum $ 50 larger invested at 4 brings the same interest Find the first sum. as a 4. paid 24 ^ per pound and for the rest he paid 35 ^ per pound. the area would remain the same.55. What are the two sums 5. 3. How much did each man subscribe ? sum walking at the rate of 3 miles per hour. The second is 5 yards longer than the first. and a second sum. and its width decreased by 2 yards. How many pounds of each kind did he buy ? 8. 2. and the sum Find the length of their areas is equal to 390 square yards. were increased by 3 yards. each of the others had to pay $ 100 more. and the cost of silk of the auto and 30 yards of cloth cost together much per yard as the cloth. A of each. twice as large. and follows on horseback traveling at the rate of 5 miles per hour. Ten yards $ 42. together bring $ 78 interest. Six persons bought an automobile.
walking at the same time in the same If A walks at the rate of 2 far miles per hour. but A has a start of 2 miles.will they be 36 miles apart ? 11. and from the same point. A sets out two hours later B starts New York to Albany is 142 miles.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS v 75 10. and another train starts at the same time from New York traveling at the rate of 41 miles an hour. A and B set out direction. how must B walk before he overtakes A ? walking at the rate of 3 miles per hour. traveling by coach in the opposite direction at the rate of 6 miles per hour. After how many hours. Albany and travels toward New York at the rate of 30 miles per hour without stopping. and B at the rate of 3 miles per hour. The distance from If a train starts at . how many miles from New York will they meet? X 12.
6. if it is integral to all letters contained in it. 76 . a2 to 6. The prime factors of 10 a*b are 2. \ V& is a rational with respect to and irrational with respect 102. 104. + 62 is integral with respect to a. consider 105. a factor of a 2 A factor is said to be prime. it contains no indicated root of this letter . a. stage of the work. if it contains no other factors (except itself and unity) otherwise . if. which multiplied together are considered factors. at this 6 2 . An expression is integral with respect to a letter. if this letter does not occur in any denominator. as. 5.CHAPTER VI FACTORING 101. An after simplifying. f db 6 to b. if it does contain some indicated root of . a. this letter. it is composite. we shall not. expression is rational with respect to a letter. but fractional with respect 103. The factors of an algebraic expression are the quantities will give the expression. irrational. An expression is integral and rational with respect and rational. J Although Va' In the present chapter only integral and rational expressions b~ X V <2 Ir a2 b' 2 2 ?> . vV . a + 2 ab + 4 c2 .
Factor G ofy 2 . TYPE I. 1.) Ex.g. 8) (s1). It (a. 55. ?/. . The factors of a monomial can be obtained by inspection 2 The prime 108. E.9 x2 y 8 + 12 3 xy f by 3 xy\ and the quotient But. 77 Factoring is into its factors. it fol lows that every method of multiplication will produce a method of factoring. dividend is 2 x2 4 2 1/ . 109. x. . x. in the form 4) +3. An the process of separating an expression expression is factored if written in the form of a product.62 can be &). factors of 12 &V is are 3. 2.9 x2^ + 12 sy* = 3 Z2/2 (2 #2 . for this result is a sum. 01.9 x if + 12 xy\ 2 The greatest factor common 2 to all terms flcy* is 8 2 xy' . 107.3 6a + 1). Ex.3 sy + 4 y8). Divide 6 a% . 2. it follows that a 2 .FACTORING 106. 2 4 x + 3) is factored if written (x' would not be factored if written x(x and not a product.62 + &)(a 2 . 110. Hence 6 aty 2 = divisor x quotient. Since factoring the inverse of multiplication. or Factoring examples may be checked by multiplication by numerical substitution. 2. Factor 14 a* W 21 a 2 6 4 c2 + 7 a2 6 2 c2 7 a2 6 2 c 2 (2 a 2 . y. since (a + 6) (a 2 IP factored. POLYNOMIALS ALL OF WHOSE TERMS CONTAIN A COMMON FACTOR ( mx + my+ mz~m(x+y + z). or that a = 6) (a = a .
5 x*y 2 17 a? . a a 'Ja . we had to add tain the coefficient of x. 32 a *?/ .g. 5f 2 . 3 3 5 6. f In factoring x2 2x we have to find whose product is g.30 aty. . In multiplying two binomials containing a common 3 and 5 to obterm. 16. 15. 2. QUADRATIC TRINOMIALS OF THE FORM 111. the y factored expression is (x }m)(x + n).5 + 2. in general. 7a & 10. 14a 4 5. 3 2 . TYPE IT.8 c a 15 ofyV .3. e. 18. 13. &{20a 6 4 &3 2 .45 afy . . two numbers m and n whose sum is p and and if such numbers can be found. 2 23. 14. 11. (as 3) and (ccf5). 4 8 . : 6 abx . x2 f2 x = 15 we have. and to multiply 3 and 5 to obtain the term which does not contain x or (x 3)(x f 5) 15.4.51 aW + 68 21. 17. 3.16 a'V f 48 ctfa^ 2 s 4 : + 34 X 8 a*b f 8 6V . 12. 20.51 x4 2 6 xy s . 19.12 cdx.5 + 13 8. 2 Or. 2 2 .6. + llm llm. 34 a^c 8 . 7i 13. to find two numbers whose product is 15 and whose sum is f. q*q*q 2 a.2. a6c. 2 + q. ) 22  2. 2 6. in factoring a trinomial of the form x f/>#f q. 3x*6x*. obviously.4. 15 2 7. Ilro8 9. 8.78 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 39 Resolve into prime factors 1. a(mf7i) + & ( m + 3 (a + 6) 3 /(a + 6). 4 tfy f.3. 4.
4 . 77 as the product of 1 77. .11 a + 30. Ex. can be factored. 11 7. 2 11 a?=(x + 11 a) (a. or 7 11. 3.5) (a 6).6 = 20.5) (a .77 = (a. . m 5m + 6. the two numbers have both the same sign as p. If 30 and whose sum is 11 are 5 a2 11 a = 1. it is advisable to consider the factors of q first. however. 4.4 x .1 1 a tf a 4. We may consider 1. of this type. or 11 and 7 have a sum equal to 4. but only in a limited number of ways as a product of two numbers. 2 6.G) = . Factor a2 . and (a .11 a 2 .11. + 112. EXERCISE Besolve into prime factors : 40 4. or 77 l. 2. 5. the two numbers have opposite signs. tfa2  3. 79 Factor a2 4 x . Hence z6 ? oty+12 if= (x 3 y)(x*4 y ). Factor + 10 ax .30 = (a . Ex..a). is The two numbers whose product and 6. a 2 . Factor x? . Since a number can be represented in an infinite number of ways as the sum of two numbers.11) (a + 7). 11 a2 and whose sum The numbers whose product is and a. Hence fc f 10 ax is 10 a are 11 a  12 /. . the student should first all terms contain a common monomial factor. as p. + 30 = 20. Therefore Check. determine whether In solving any factoring example. but of these only a: Hence 2 . If q is negative.1 afy 8 The two numbers whose product is equal to 12 yp and whose sum equals 3 8 7 y are 4 y* and 3 y*. If q is positive. and the greater one has the same sign Not every trinomial Ex.FACTORING Ex.
18. 32. . + 400 x aft a4 4 a 2 . 15. 26. 2 ?/ 22. 4 3 2 .180 a. 100 xr . By actual trial give the correct we find which of the sum of cross products.70 x y . 6 a 18 a + 12 a 2 2 ?/ . such that The The first last two terms are factors of 6 x 2 two terms are factors of 5. a 2^ 2 a2 + 7ax 18. and 5 x. a? + 5 + 6 a. 35. 2 . ITT. 16. + 2xS. y_ 6y +6y 15?/ 2 ?/ 10. 31. 9. 20.6. 14. 12. QUADRATIC TRINOMIALS OF THE FORM According to 66. 21 a 2 2 . 10 x y 2 200 x2 . a2 . ^ </ 2 2 7p8. 3?/4 + a' 2a&24& n + 60+177> a + 7 a 30. ay 11 ay +24. 19.500 x + 600. . ELEMENTS OF ALGEBEA x*2x8. 2 ?/ 5?/14. ra + 25ra + 100. 25. 27.17 + 30. + 4?/21. . 8. 21. a 7 a 30. in factoring 6 x2 + 5. 11. 17. or .2) = 20 x2 + 7 x . 2 2 a' 34. 17a& + 7(U 9a&226 + 8 a 20. x2 23. factors of 6 x 2 and 5 . 6 8 8 4 2 a. 30. 29.80 7. 36. 16. and the sum of the cross products equals 13 x. 13. (4 x + 3) (5 x 20 x2 is the product of 4 a. 6 is the product of + 3 and 2. x*y ra 2 2 4xy 4 wia 2 2 21y.48 + + 446 200. a 2 +11 a a? 16. + 44. +7 Hence a? is the sum of the 13 x cross products. TYPE 113. 2 ?/ 28. we have to find two bino mials whose corresponding terms are similar. 2 2 . 2 . + 30. 4 2 . 2 . + 5<y 24. 24. 33.
the If p and r are positive.5) (2 x . and that they must be negative. . 9 x 6. Since the first term of the first factor (3 x) contains a 3. If py? \qx\r does not contain any monomial factor. viz. but the opposite sign. X x 18. 64 may be considered the : product of the following combinations of numbers 1 x 54. 3.17 x 2o?l V A 5  13 a combination the correct one. all it is not always necessary to write down combinations. a. or G 114. 3 x and x. then the second terms of have opposite signs. Factor 3 x 2 . we have to reject every combination of factors of 54 whose first factor contains a 3.FACTORING If 81 we consider that the factors of f 5 as must have is : like signs. If the factors a combination should give a sum of cross products.5 . and after a little practice the student possible should be able to find the proper factors of simple trinomials In actual work at the first trial. 27 x 2. .83 x f 54. the signs of the second terms are minus. sible 13 x negative.1). 6 x 9. The and factors of the first term consist of one pair only. all pos combinations are contained in the following 6xl x5 . exchange the signs of the second terms of the factors. 2. 54 x 1. none of the binomial factors can contain a monomial factor. and r is negative. 2 x 27.e5 V A x1 3xl \/ /\ is 3 a. Hence only 1 x 54 and 2 x 27 need be considered. If p is poxiliw. Ex.13 x + 5 = (3 x . the second terms of the factors have same sign as q.31 x Evidently the last 2 V A 6. 18 x 3. which has the same absolute value as the term qx. 11 x 2x. The work may be shortened by the : follow ing considerations 1.
82 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 3xl 3s2 x X 115. 2 2 2 . 16. 4a2 9tt + 2. Therefore 3 z + 64 The type pa. 9. 2. SoJ + llay 15 aj* 40*.260 xy .77 xy + 10 y 23afc + 126 . 15. 3x*Sx + 4. 90 a 8 2 . + 11 or 2 + 12 a. 6. 6n + 5?i4. arranged according to the ascending or the descending powers of some letter. 6n 2 f 13w + 2. 10a2 G a2 2 . 18. 12y 2/6. 12^17^16. f go. 20. Sar' + SaG. since all others (II. h r is 2 the most important of the trinomial types. 7. .163 x 2 . 14 a fa 4.7. 29. 2 fc .83 x . 32.19 a f 6. 2 28. 9 y + 32^16.y + 172/9. 100^200^ + 100^. 12. 24. 2 2 2 23. 14. 34. 2 f3y 4y 40a 90aV + 20aV. 5. 21. 30. the expressions should be it.2) (x . X 27 . 2 26. + 4. 2m t7w + 3. 5m 26m f 5.300 ab 2 f4 250 . 25. 2 ar* 2 i/ .27). 22. 19. 8. 9a.83 x = (3 . . 10. EXERCISE Kesolve into prime factors 1. 13.10 4a? + 14oj + 12. 17. 35.30 y 6 4 . 5 a6 2 2 9 a . 2 31. 3a + 13a. 2 . . 4. 10 a . 2 . 144 x . : 41 2. 3. + 2/3.179.290 xy f 144 y* 4x 8 ofy + 3 y 2 2 4 2 4 f . and the monomial factors should be removed. x54 a.13 xy + 6 y2 12 x 7 ay. 10a?2 2 33.2 a 90 x*y . IV) are special cases of In all examples of this type. 2i/ * 2 2 x 27. 2x* + 9x5. 11.
9. and may be factored according to the method used In most cases.20 xy f 4 y\ .3 y) 2 is 2VWx 2 x V0y2" = 24 xy. 11. however. and factor whenever possible : 1. 8. THE SQUARE OF A BINOMIAL 2 Jr 2 xy +/. form are special cases of the preceding type. To factor a trinomial which maining term. 25 7. EXERCISE 42 per Determine whether or not the following expressions are feet squares. 2 9 10gf25. 24 xy + 9 y' 2 is Evidently 10 & 24 xy a perfect square. 5. A term when two is trinomial belongs to this type. 2 . square. . 2.10 x f 16. 14. it is more convenient for that type. of its terms are perfect squares. 9 +6a6 2 2 f a4 . must have a positive sign. 116.  2 xy + if = (x 2 ?/) . x* . for + 9 y2 = (4 x . a flOa&46 4 wi f 2 2/ 2 . and a perfect square. m + 2mn + n c 2cdd 2 2 . and the remaining equal to twice the product of the square roots of these in order to be a perfect terms. 3. it is a perfect square. x> 2 a 2_4 a & a 2 + 462. Expressions of this to factor them according a2 to 65.26 ab + 9 6 2 . 2 2 . 16 y? The student should note that a term.FACTORING 83 TYPE IV. 9 10a625. i.e. m 14ww + 49n 2 16 a . 13. 10. 4 6 m*ti f 9 n*. 4. . 12. 6. connect the re square roots of the terms which are squares by the sign of the indicate the square of the resulting binomial.
6 m* + 9 m. 149 a 81 8. 3 Make the following expressions perfect squares by supplying the missing terms : 21.6 = (a 4 b) = (a* + b*)(a + b)(ab). According to 65. 26. 19. 36 2 4. 9a2 . : 43 tfy\ a 9. 2. a2 24.64 6 = 16(a . . 3. 1. 25. ). 2 20. 2 .2 ofy + ofy m . 2.4 6 = lG(tt +2Z> )(a 26 ). 48 a +( ). 27. 6 2 . x*Sx + ( 64 a 4 100w +( )+49. 2 . !Gar 9 ( )+25. a4 a2 2 f 6 is .20 ab + 10 b a . 22. u2 6& + 2 ( ). 18. 17. THE DIFFERENCE OF TWO SQUARES JT 2 /.e. 10 a 2 4 2 . TYPE 117. ). .3 * ). prime. . 29. 5. 4 2 23. V. Ex. EXERCISE Resolve into prime factors 1. + GO + 25. a. aV . a. ).84 15. product i. 100a2 68 a2 & 2 121. 4a2 l. 6. ^//c to the Ex. 2 . 16. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 16a 2 24a&4.  + 6a + ( 9a ( ) + 144 a 2 28. 225 ofy . m 4a + 12a + ( 2 4m 2 20 f ( ).9& 2 3<> 4 2 .9 z* = (2 ary + 3 z ) (2 1G a . 9. 3. +( )f816 30. 7. 2 f b 2 2 2 ) (a NOTE.60 a# + 4. difference of the squares of two numbers is equal of the sum and the difference of the two numbers. * 2 . 16&*. 4 3 4 ^ 3 8 10 8 10 ) 4 5 4 5 Ex.
Factor a 2 . 2 . (m f # 2 2 n) 42:) 10. a2 . 4. 2. (2a5&) (5c9ef) 2 3. 14. of polynomials.(I) . 2 2 : (mfn) _p 2 . 2. T. (a x? f 6) 6 2 . (x f 3 9 2/ 2 . 11. Ex. 8.d) 2 . 9.c . Resolve into prime factors and simplify EXERCISE 44 Resolve into prime factors 1.(c 4. Ex. 13.FACTORING 85 118. One or both terms are squares 1. (m7?) y. 2 ?/) 16 2 (y f 2 . a:) 12. (?/ 2 cc (x y)*. (m 3n) 2 ( 2 2 . 5. (2a (2s + 5) (3a4) 2 2 . 16p 2 . 36> . 6.(c + d) 2 = (a + c + cZ) (a . 2 . 25a (&c) (mh2n) 2 2 .
4 6 x f 3 a y 2 4. 8. + 4cy5dx 2 5dy. the expression becomes the difference of two squares.VI.ab + bx.2 ) (3 x . Ex. a3 c 3 10ax5ay6bx + 3by. . + bx + ay + by = x(a + &) + y(a + 6) Ex. : 45 ax + bx + ay+by. a? 11. 4 B.and trinomials. A.r. ive find that the new terms con common factor. polynomials can frequently be transformed into bi.14. raV + nV 3 a 2ic 2 m ?/ 2 n 2an3&n + 2ag3&?. 4:cx . 12. 119. Factor ax ax f bx f ay f by. a5 + ab 6 . 3. GROUPING TERMS By the introduction of parentheses. After grouping tain a the terms. .a a . a 26 2 2 3 . which may be factored according to types I.6z2 + 5 = z2 (. 2. + x + 2x + 2. ma ?*a + m& nb. By grouping. Factor or 5 5 x2 x x f 5. = (3 x + y . Ex. 6.(x  5) EXERCISE Resolve into prime factors 1. x8 . Factor 9 x*y*4:Z 2 f 4 yz.7 c + 2c .y + 2 2). 5. 5) .86 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA TYPE VI.1. 1. 10. 2. 9. 7.
2a3/ 7.12 ax + 9 a2 + 4 &t/ 4 y2 = (4 a 2 . 8ra 2 + 16. a 2 10a6 4 2 + 256 2 x ar 2a. IV. . 8.9 a2 4 v* 2 . : m 2 2 16. : 46 x* 2. although frequently the particular cases II and IV are more convenient.l. First find monomial factors common to all terms.10 xy + 4 y\ 2 . 2. w m 2. = (a + 6)(a6).12 aaj 4 6y. 5. l~a 2a56 2 2 . Binomials are factored by means of the formula a 2 6 2 III. +c+ 2 2 2/ .* */2 ft EXERCISE Kesolve into prime factors 1. 4. 4. 36 9 m . 6 6. $ a8 . 3. II. 6. 2 7.FACTORING Ex.12 z + 9 x2)_ (&2 _ 4 ty + 4 ^2) a. Polynomials are reduced to the preceding cases by grouping terms. + 2xy + y*q*. 4 a2 . 2. SUMMARY OF FACTORING I. Trinomials are factored by the method of cross products.62 + 9 _ 4 _ 12 ax + 4 6y 2 = 4 a 2 .6 ww + n 2 2 < a 2 4a6 + 46 25. . 8. 6a4 + 37a2 + 6.4 f . Arranging the terms. m Gw + 9n * See page 266. 87 f Factor 4 a2  6 2 + 9 tf . 3. 6a4 12a2 + 6. EXERCISE 47 MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES* Resolve into prime factors !.
27. (a. 4 8 tt 2 z .310 x . a3 156. 3 25. 14. a6 36.40. a5 a 1 4 2 39. 24. 2 a 128. 25 a + 25 aft . 4 a.85 xy + 42 y 10 w 43 w 9. 19. 3 a2 23. 3 41. 22. 12. a + a + a + l. 1 ?v _w 8 2 33. + 6 aft + 3 . 256 4 2 2 ?/) . any V 2 ( 51 xyz + 50. 13 c .156. 20 >r + 2 ?<s __ G4. 2 17. or 3 7#2 . ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA x*xif. 42 x . 35. + 14. 28. 6 :J 2 2 ft 2 16. 32 aft + 6 4ft 4 . 4 2 2 ft ft 2a + a*l. 2 3#4 3a2 36. (^ 34. 29. 40. 13.88 10. 80 a 2 ft 38.13 c . 18. 42 s 2 . 48. __ ft)2 n Qy 2 . . 11. 5 a.24. 30. 10 a 2 4a 4 26. 5a' 20. 3 2 . 2 ft . 50^ + 45. 32. 49 a 4 4 42 a + 9 a 20a 90a 50. a.
5. and prefix it as a coefficient to H.  23 3 . The H. F. the algebraic factor of highest degree common expressions to these expressions thus a 6 is the II. C. 121. 5 2 3 . C. F. 3 . C. The student should note H. of (a and (a + fc) (a 4 is (a + 6) 2 . expressions which have no are prime to one another. Thus the H. 5 7 34 2s . EXERCISE Find the H. Two common factor except unity The H. 33 2 7 3 22 3 2 .) of two or more . F. II 2 . + 8 ft) and cfiW is 2 a 2 /) 2 ft) . . and GO aty 8 is 6 aty. 6. The H. C. 89 . of 6 sfyz. If the expressions have numerical coefficients. of a 4 and a 2 b is a2 The H. 5 s 7 2 5. find by arithmetic the greatest common factor of the coefficients. of two or more monomials whose factors . 25 W. are prime can be found by inspection. aW. 24 s . F. of : 48 4. 12 tfifz. C. 2 2 . F. 3. is the lowest that the power of each factor in the power in which that factor occurs in any of the given expressions. The highest is common factor (IT. C. F. 15 aW. C. C. F.CHAPTER VII HIGHEST COMMON FACTOR AND LOWEST COMMON MULTIPLE HIGHEST COMMON FACTOR 120. C. C. F. 54  32 . 2. 122. F. 8 . 13 aty 39 afyV. of a 7 and a e b 7 . of aW. of the algebraic expressions. F.
2 ?/) (x . a2 + 7af!2. 4 ?io. 3). 3^ 2 4 . 0^80:416. a2 ar* 4. 57 a>V. 4 7/i 3 n2 10 4 mV. C. 2 .6. 11. 12 w*nw 8. 2a f5af 2. x2 ^4^ and tf 7 xy + 10 f. 25 m27i. and apply the method of the preceding article. 7/ EXERCISE Find theH. ^707 + 12. 4(m f ?i) 3 3 5(w + w) 5 7(m + n}\m 2 ri). To find the H. ^2 2 . 9. = x 2 y.3 xy + 2 y* = (x . 13. . Ex. 2 . C. 65 zfyV.6 a&. of polynomials. F. Find the H. . 24 a 2 .2 y) (a.5 y).5 x3?/ 2 6. C. 10. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBEA 6 rarcV. y + 3y64. 52 oryz4. 3 . . 6 mx . 4 a3 6 4 8 a663 .y) . 13.y) 123. .8 a + 16.y)\ O+ 0^(0. 6 3 a.7 xy + 10 2 = (x . 4(m+l) 3 . 5 a6 5^ 2 a. . a3 9a. a. 8 a 10 . 2 . 3. 1. 49 C. 30 mu\ 39 afyV. 15 xy^ 2 10 arV . F. 95 2/V. 1. 38 #y. F. a2 . 225 4a 9 . 12. 4a f 4a2 2 2 a 2  . 8 6. 11. a3 16 a. a 3a4. 16. 16 a . 6(m+l) (m+2). x* x2 Hence the H. 9 aj*(a? . 15. 15 3ao. a2 + 2a3. 8. 12. F. of: . (a7 ?/) . 12 . 9.^9. ^f a.y + y42. 75 a&X 15 bed 11 .90 7. 7. ^a + 5^ + 6. aWd. .5 + 6. 2. 14.# 4 afy f 4 . 10. 8.12 as 66 .6 . 2 . 5.?/ . of + 4 if. 8(?/ifl) 14.6 a' + 2 a& + 6 . resolve each polynomial into prime factors. 6 a2 y? .
If the expressions have a numerical coefficient. L. which also signs. M. find by arithmetic their least common multiple and prefix it as a coefficient to the L.6)2. M. 6 c6 is C a*b*c*. each set of expressions has In example ft). C. . a^c8 3 . of 12(a + ft) and (a + &)*(  is 12(a + &)( . Ex. M. M. . 4 a 2 &2 _ Hence. A common remainder.M. 2 multiples of 3 x and 6 y are 30 xz y. C. Obviously the power of each factor in the L. ory is the L. 60 x^y' 2 . C. 128. 1. = (a f last 2 &)' is (a  6) . thus. of tfy and xy*. The L.(a + &) 2 (a have the same absolute value.C. C. M.M. of 3 aW.LOWEST COMMON MULTIPLE 91 LOWEST COMMON MULTIPLE multiple of two or more expressions is an which can be divided by each of them without a expression 124. C. Find the L. of as &2 a2 + 2a&f b\ and 6a. but opposite . two lowest common multiples. C. is equal to the highest power in which it occurs in any of the given expressions. The lowest common multiple (L. 2 The The L. 300 z 2 y.) of two or more expressions is the common multiple of lowest degree. 127. C. M of the algebraic expressions. Common 125. of 4 a 2 6 2 and 4 a 4 4 a 68 2 .C. NOTE. &) 2 M. 126. M. Ex. etc. C. M. M.6 3 ). 2. C. =4 a2 62 (a2 . of several expressions which are not completely factored. L. To find the L. Hence the L. of the general. resolve each expression into prime factors and apply the method for monomials. Find the L. C.
a f 3. 7. x2 5 f 2 3# 5 + 2. 8 d 5 .92 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 50 C. afy. + 2. (a 4)(a2) 12. 6. 2 . a 2 fa6. 13. y*. 24 x. 4 a 5 6cd. 11. M. 3(a + b). a?b. 1. 6 a. or f 3 a 15 #. 3. 18. a 1. 3 f2. 22. 2 7ic+10. 4 a f 2. ic 23. 14. ic 2 ?/. afc'cd 2 . 17. . 15. 3. 21. 2 x \2 y. a. 40 abJ. G a. 3 ab. ax {ay ~ 3 a 3 b. 16. . f b. 4 a . 9. x* ~5a. 2 a . a 2 f 4 a +4.f 6. b 2 . 6 y. 2 a. a { a~b.1. a !. 2 a . a f 2 19. 3(m + n) 4 m 2 . a. a. 2 .1. 3 Z> . 3 . bx a? 8 2 lOajflfi. + 2 7i) . a2 ~ab 1. 2 . + 6. 20. 6b 2 . x2 + 4 a f 4. #. a^1. x 2 5 a. of: 4. 5 a? 5 a? y. 30 a. by. (For additional examples see page 268. 24. a& 4 +& 2 . x2 2 + 5 a + 6. xy\ . 5. 8. 2 a?b\ a + 2ab + b' 2a2b. 2(m 2 . T a 3 a 2 . 2. 2 10. a 2 a3 . 3 6 xif. a2 4. 2 ic 3 4a 8 a. ) . Find the L. 3 (a2)(a3) ( a 3)(a4) 2 2a?b'2ab 2 a. 8 afy. 5 a 2 ^ 2 15 . 20 9 a.
130. common 6 2 divisors of numerator and denomina and z 8 (or divide the terms .CHAPTER VIII FRACTIONS REDUCTION OF FRACTIONS 129. an indicated quotient. only positive integral numerators shall assume that the all arithmetic principles are generally true for algebraic numbers. rni Thus 132. 131. however. TT Hence 24 2 z =  3x . and i x mx = my y terms A 1. Ex. as 8. a?. Thus. All operations with fractions in algebra are identical with the corresponding operations in arithmetic. F. the value of a fraction is not altered by multiplying or dividing both its numerator and its denominator by the same number. and denominators are considered. The dividend a is called the numerator and the The numerator and the denominator are the terms of the fraction. a b = ma mb . etc. but we In arithmetic. successively all 2 j/' . the product of two fractions is the product of their numerators divided by the product of their denominators. fraction is in its lowest when its numerator and its denominator have no common factors.ry ^ by their H. Remove tor. A f fraction is b. If both terms of a fraction are multiplied or divided by the same number) the value of the fraction is not altered. C. thus  is identical with a divisor b the denominator. Reduce ~ to its lowest terms.
6 24 a2 to its lowest terms. 2. Keduce 62 ~ 2 62 a2 to its lowest terms.33 7 a 36 arV 18 x2^' 39 a2 6 8c4 * See page 268. .94 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 133. _Q 2 6 EXERCISE 51* Reduce i to lowest terms 3 : 95 2 *' o 3 * 3T5"** T^ 12a4 " 3 K 6 ' 32 78 ' ' 2.4) Ex. Ex.6 a + 8) 6 d\a* . Never cancel terms of the numerator or the denominator. Keduce a* ~ 6 a' 4 *8a 6a qs _. 3. tf a*  n2 + 8 a 24 a* _ ap 2 . and cancel all factors that are common to both. resolve numerator and denominator into their factors. To reduce a fraction to its lowest terms. cancel factors only.
. 11 ^ Mtr f . 3a ^ ^ "^ 2 9 . x1 15 ' ft< 4 xy //(/ _.7 . . 16. 9x + "a" 10. 23. ^' rt ^  31. 'M 3 ??i 2fi 25. 04 !l 9 or 2 6 it*?/ +y 2 12. LJZJ^JL. g J 21. 12 15 m m 2 2 7 w. _ 3 7i rt< 26. + ' 4 2 ?/ 27. nx 17.n 8 + T> ? wn + n 2 ?i 2 m " *7 . ' ^ . 5^10 y 30. 29. .' 32. * OQ 3 a3 _6a a/i 2 2 5 ?tt +6 ^. """. 19. ~__ 9n _ 22 9. ^" a. ny 4 18. ^+3*. .FRACTIONS 7 95 22 a 2 bc 1 4 ^.10 a + 3 2 14.*. n h ' m11 2 m 3 8.
Ex  Reduce to their lowest common denominator. . and 6rar 3 a? kalr . 2> . ^ to their lowest com The L.C.96 134. M. we may use the same process as in arithmetic for reducing fractions to the lowest common denominator. by the denominator of each fraction. and Tb reduce fractions to their lowest common denominator. of the denominators for the common denominator. and 135. we have M^. 3 a\ and 4 aW is 12 afo 2 x2 . C. Reduce ^.M.r 2 2 . Divide the L. multiply each quotient by the corresponding numerator. + 3). Since a (z 6 + 3)(s3)Ol)' 6a. and the terms of ***. C. we have the quotients (x 1). we may extend this method to integral expressions. .1^22 ' . Ex. . mon T denominator. ELEMENTS OF 'ALGEBRA Reduction of fractions to equal fractions of lowest common Since the terms of a fraction may be multiplied denominator.  by 4 6' .~16 (a + 3) (x.D. take the L. we have (a + 3) (a 8) (!)' NOTE. by any quantity without altering the value of the fraction. =(z (x + 3)(z. 1).3) (!)' = . Multiplying these quotients by the corresponding numerators and writing the results over the common denominator. To reduce to a fraction with the denominator 12 a3 6 2 x2 numerator ^lA^L O r 2 a 3 ' and denominator must be multiplied by Similarly.M.  of //* 2 .C. TheL. and (a 8). multiplying the terms of 22 .3)O  Dividing this by each denominator.by 3 ^ A 2 ' . 1.
18.FRACTIONS EXERCISE 52 97 . fractions having a common denominator are added or subtracted by dividing the sum or the difference of the numerators by the common denominator. If the given fractions have different denominators.. they must be reduced to equal fractions which have the lowest common denominator before they can be added (01 subtracted). 8 i i.T 3y Ga1 ax 9 ' 2a . JL.a+2 ' a 2 3af 2 ADDITION AND SUBTRACTION OF FRACTIONS 136.Reduce the following to their lowest 1. . . 22 a2 5a * . 2aj ~ . 3. . j y 3. o o a.oj o* or / . 5a 3 zl ' _ 2al n. ?y2" m^ S? m 2 7^ m S* **. 2 3 9a ~l' 3al 6 8 a ' 2 a8 * 5 4a 8' ' a jj + 6 a 9 ^ .^1. bxby g ! a 5 ' a f5 a2 25 ?.T n"> ^' 5c 3 26 o atf o> 5 77" ' . a? 1 5 > ^* . 137.. Since {c c = 5L^ c (Art. common denominator 6. . . 5?. 7i 2 ab* ". i. 2. 2 ay IB. 74).
3 ft)(2 a f + : Ga6 + 3 ft). we obtain 2 a the terms of 2(2 a +3 3 ft 6 a f ft _ 2(2 a + ft) 3 ft) (2 a ft) 4(2 a 3 4(2 a ~~ + 3 ft) f (2 a .98 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA  Ex ' Sim C. a2 ab ft2 Hence the a a2 f 2 6 a2 .ft)(a . 4 6 + 2qg+6~agf4a&8 a(aft)(a 2ft) ft 2 a2 a(a + 5 aft .4 aft + ft ft ) a(a  ft)(a 2ft) 2 =a . e.3 .. the student should remember that parentheses are .(a 2 6).. a 3 2a + "~ a2 ft). D.3 ft)(2 a + 3 ft) ft ft) (6 a ft) _ 8 a 2 f 24 aft 20 a 2 f f 18 2 + ft 12 a 2 .7 . and adding. (2 ~ a ft) a(a  + 7 ft)fa ft)(a 2 ft)  ft) a(a 2 ft) NOTE. as 4 aft f. T? Ex. cr \t Simplify _T__ r* + .3 ft 2). (a 3 ft) In simplifying a term preceded by the minus sign. (a ft). write 2 the product in a parenthesis. understood about terms ( 66) hence he should.aft) Ca2 .aft  _ 3 ab + 2 = ( a _ ft)( _ 2 a 2 2 aft :=(. Multiplying the terms of the first fraction by 2(2 a the second by (2 a . 2. (a8ft)(a~ft) 8 2 2ft) 2 =a 4 2 + 2 (2 a 4.g. ^ _ ^ a3b ft).2 = a(a . 4(2 a 3 ft). The L. C. (a . ft) ft ft a(a ~ 3 aft + 2 ft2 a2  2 aft _(a + 2ft)(a2ft) +a (2q + a(a .3 ft). ^ is 2^JT) . ft). 2 ^. D. The results of addition and subtraction should be re duced to their lowest terms. in the beginning.ft) (a ft ft)~. L.20 aft 3ft) f 3 ft 2 4(2a3ft)(2af 4 aft f 21 2 138.2 ' 2 _.
1* 1 + mf 3 1 M. + . 6 c 3a 7. + a "" 2 6 ' . 30 u +? + i _H_ + _*_.5 18 ^4f25. 1 1 f w 16. a2 a + 3* 2 a 7 af1 ' 2) * See page 270. 5a76 4a 106 9. 2L + 2a 1 17. 36 3u 2v v 5 wv 8v 12 uv 13. 18 v 19. 6a116 13 a 15a26 116 e ' 6 2 10. t3 m2* a _2 6 a 4.FRACTIONS EXERCISE 53* Simplify : 99 2a4 5 3. 20. 46 2a 4a 12. 1 f q * 1 m m . A+2_3. a 36 ++. 24. 9m + 7n 3 6m 5n 2x + 3y 3x 15 y x + 2y 45 8. 15. 2. j>0 i> 21. 23. a+6 a 6 2 14.
ic 1 + 1. 43. 3a 9 +. a 4 31. 41.9 79 6 2 i.LOO ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 26  x*3x + 2 x2 5x 27 ' ~. a. a 2 ^> 2 x2 7x+12~x l7x + 4:~ ' } . / IIlNT: Let a 1  39. a 30. x2 Q 3 /Yl Qfi ou L "I "I \_ L I * 7 ITi ~T~ 7 TTo O :_ ' i 37 _ 9 <1  1 i 1 '> a2 . ^2^+6m 3 45 ' 44. x + 3y x3y Gx x2 2x . _ + a? ?/ + y. 1 34. 2 af1 32. 42. a ?^ 40. af 1f /j. ! n. _ ' a +b +a= ( 38. _m & 2 i +m 6 i _w 36 a2+ a ^_2&2 35.9.
101 mixed expression. 2 + 4tf 3 17 . To reduce a fraction to an integral or = + ceo 2 * * (S74) v ' Hence 5a2 15a7 = 5 a2 oa 5a 15a oa 7 5a =a 3 . 1.  . T. . 2 x2 + 2 g 4. .'3) 2 EXERCISE expression 54 to a Keduce each of the following fractions : mixed or integral a a +1 9a2 6a + 2 3a m 2 * 5 m f 6 4 m 7 n 2 + 7n + 14 fi . Reduce .7 5a v Ex.  4 or 3 2a.6 + 4x 4 x2 . .6 x + 10x4 x2 17 Therefore x y 3g .FRACTIONS 139. 2x 4 x3 to a mixed expression.17 (2^ + 2x f 53 (2x.
each numerator and denomi nator has to be factored. (In order to cancel common factors. Common factors in the numerators and the denominators should be canceled before performing the multiplication. we may extend any e. integer. x b c = numerator by To multiply a fraction by an that integer. 2 a Ex. multiply the 142. Simplify 1 J The expreeaion =8 6 . !.g.) Ex. fractions to integral numbers. 2. F J Simplify . Fractions are multiplied by taking the product of tht numerators for the numerator. or.102 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA MULTIPLICATION OF FRACTIONS 140. expressed in symbols: c a _ac b'd~bd' principle proved for b 141. Since  = a. and the product of the denominators for the denominator.
. 5# 56 / c& 4.. 6) 12 ot 2 ab + 2 fc a b* o. 14.6 12 d6 4. 2 f 5 a.FRACTIONS EXERCISE Find the following products ' 103 55 : 2!v! 2 4 5 8 a2 " ' ^ ' 36^ 21m* ' 17 ab ' ' 2 48 as b*' 34 ab 2 14m4 .. _G x 7 a2 5a6 a.20 3a 2 6 ' GoA ai> 56 2c " ar " ' 4 ac2 V V 3m " " +1 " " o?f 2 ~ ' _ 9m JO. 4 8. 53 *38 " ' 4 ' 14 b* ' 10 a 8 ' " 4af86 76 5c 36C2 10 (a 7a216 a2 2 q~. aj 5 1 a? 18. 50 . 5n a2 43a4 a2 3 a 4 a 2 5ah4 <  x2 + x (x 2 I) 17. 2 25n 2 1 3m +&n 15.
To divide an expression by a fraction.104 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA DIVISION OF FRACTIONS 143. The reciprocal of ? Hence the : +* x is 1 + + * = _*_. Integral or mixed divisors should be expressed in fractional form before dividing. The reciprocal of a number is the quotient obtained by dividing 1 by that number. invert the divisor and multiply it by the dividend. Divide Xn?/ . . The The reciprocal of a is a 1 f reciprocal of J is  . To divide an expression by a fraction. 1.y3 + xy* x*y~ f y 8 y f 3 2/ x3 EXERCISE 56* Simplify the following expressions 2 x* '""*'*' : om 2 a2 6 2 r  3 i_L#_i17 ar J 13 a& 2 5 ft2 ' u2 +a . x a + b obtained by inverting reciprocal of a fraction is the fraction. : a 41 ab * See page 272. and the principle of division follows may be expressed as 145. 8 multiply the Ex. 144. expression by the reciprocal of the fraction. * x* f xy 2 by x*y +y x' 2 3 s^jf\ = x' 2 x* .
or both.5 ??i 80 50 .6 s + 064.6 COMPLEX FRACTIONS 146. A complex fraction is a fraction whose numerator or denominator.' ' * ' ^5^+4 . c ab 2 4 &c* & a .&c 2 ~ a 4 a2c 4.FRACTIONS 105 . l. a 6 _6 c c ac a6 2 4. are fractional. Simplify <! c a a2 c 4 L 4.afr 4. t ' a^3^4 ? 4* ' a?~ab > a 2 a 4a 4 4 a: +3 m 12 2 f. mm 5 a a2 6 2 4g2 2a 2 4g20 25 ._ # ~ y ' 45 14 in^o 2 ?/ ^y "xy 15 a2 + (Jf fr a b . a a2 4.10 ?/ _.^c 2 2 .1 5 w + 56 a 2 w a2 2 4. Ex. ga2 4 8 5 a .T ?/ 4 2 a*?/ 15 #4.
& . JL. 9. 7i+~ 7. .y 32 . 6. C.?/ x y _x^_l X ~V x+y . the expression becomes (x EXERCISE Simplify : 57 x 2. c +6. B If the numerator and denominator of the preceding examples multiplied by a&c. . Ex.a ^c c _^ a . i. .16 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA In 147. many examples the easiest mode of simplification ia multiply both the numerator and the denominator of the mplex fraction by the L. of their denominators. a m "" . Simplify x }. x* 4. the answer is directly obtained. M. y X 4* 2 y 3. . n a 8. 2. 10. xy x +y Multiplying the terms of the complex fraction by (x y).
1 + 1+ 1 ti flgfl a?l ic+1 a. o 15. 1 i 1 2 5 . sy 18. i ~T" * ~ 1 y 19 4 ' !^5n a "~ 12.~l (For additional examples see page 273.) .FRACTIONS 107 1 i m 11. 1 +2 1 i " f " ( a + 1 /*_i_i 4 14. m^n* n L a 17. : . 2 & a 20  a46 13.
a. x = 6. 108 . Solve ^2^ = 63 2 x 12 * + **.28 a = 5 x2 .1. 2z2a. 14 z 2 + z 2 + 20 x . . 2x Transposing. Multiplying each term by 6 (Axiom 89). Uniting. these Ex.14 (a.48. Multiplying by (x Simplifying. 4 4)  x. + 1) (a + 3) . M. If x 6. 5 x2 + 20 x + 15 15 .42 + 9. tions.9 x2 + 9. Transposing. Bx 12 Qx.8 x = . Solve 5 I 14 x +1 x +3 I).CHAPTER IX FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS FRACTIONAL EQUATIONS If an equation contains fracbe removed by multiplying each term by the may L. Clearing of fractions. 5(3 85 Check. C. If = 64. !)(&+ 1) (x + 3). of the denominator.28 x + 42 = . each member is reduced to Ex. 148.9(se + !)( 14 x 2 . = 6. 2 3.  2(x 2 + 3) Removing parentheses. 9x x Check. each member is reduced to 1. Uniting.f3# + C:E=6f7212. = 6. 1.l)(z + 3) = . 2. 6 = = 72 72 3 (a.
+1 = 5. o ""~TiT" ' 3 12. '  4 13. 18. a/  5 a/ = 12. 1+5 & ^0 ^ a? = 19 1 11. ^1 = 9.FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS EXERCISE Solve the following equations : 109 58 ^ 4 3 _ +7 a? 32 3 10. 15. = xx a? a? hi x +^ + 3 = 11. +4 14. 1 *> = 2.1 _77 a. . 4 y 2 ^ 16 20 +2 334 y2 y3 == on . a.= 2. . a: 7 a. 3 a? '2 4 "  2 a? "T"" 4 4. ^' 2. 16.
and after simplifying the resulting equation to clear of all denominators.  38 = 40. and" the remaining one a polynomial. . 3 3x2 51 3x*2x 23 x 3x2 22 36. 4a4l4* + l~. . 32 6 . 3x 35.  2  13 _J_ = _J3 . 2 20 x+3 x3 3 o^ 28 . If two or more denominators are monomials. 26 26. J_. . ^^ ' 39 7 ' x.110 ELEMENTS Of ALGEBRA 24. ?_=_. + 26 2^43 1 4^9 1 2a?3 A* 37. 31 31. 33. 2^12 = 2 = 34._ _ .11_4 x 149. y+3~2 29. 27 . it is advisable first to remove the monomial denominators only. . 25.
Transposing and uniting. 60. a.FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS Ex. 5 = 20 g 5 a: ~ Jff 1 . 5x x : = 9.29 50712' 9 18 .. Solve the following equations 41 : 5a. Dividing. each member is reduced to ^.r7 5 +l 6afll~~ 3 6xflO ' 5 2a?~25 15 17a?~9 14 28 6414 . = 9. . Check. If a. 10 x f 6 __ 4a.2 42 9 43. 26 a. the 1 5 L. Solve 111 10 Multiplying each term by tors. 24 a. 5# 10. Transposing and Multiply ing by 6 uniting. C. f 13 8#f 2__ 2x 5 7 15 ~~716* 6a? 44. M.  5 = 20 x 45.2 3 ~  == 7a. 1. of the monomial denomina~ &Q =: n 16 x 2( +3~ x 16 x  2.1.
. Ex. unknown letter is not expressed by or z. =a 2 151. = 6 a2 . fr Reducing lowest terms. Uniting the Dividing. Dividing.& .be.c) (3 a ac 6(rtfc)(ac) 6 a2 6 a& +6 6c = (2a + &)(3ac). ax + bx ax (a f IP Transposing. a. 5> a.112 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA LITERAL EQUATIONS 150. 3(ac) c) Multiplying by 3 (a . Literal equations ( 88) are solved by the same method as numerical equations. = = 6 6c 7 6c.1. Thus. y. + 2 ac 9 a& 3 ab Simplifying. Uniting. find a in terms of b and c.m bx 2 mn) x. b a a a z Clearing of fractions. Ex.2 62 2 ab. 2. = l^ 9 b 4 . and multiplying by a(9 b 4 c 4 c) = 7 &c. f ~ 5c. When the terms containing the unknown quantity cannot be actually added.3 6 2 = a' . to Transposing all terms containing a 6 ab 6 ac one member.m 2* = (a f 6) mnx = (1 4. It frequently occurs that the x. jr. 4 ac 1. If 3ac L= = a ? . ax f x f.2 ac + 3 aft . bx f 6)z = 3 & 2 ab. = 2 f b 2 . l to = !=?_=^6? a f 6. they are united by factoring.
= 5. Ex.= c a Z> . 2 solve for y a. denoting the interest. 17. . Find the formula for: () The (6) (c) principal. . c. IIL n b + &o. = rt. 34. If * 33. + 3a. 3(* 8. r the number of $>. and n the number of years. 15.a. 14. = 8 4 #. t. mx = n. co?. 11. f ^o. 5) is t =^. 13. a. = 6 (m f n) = 2 a + (m?i)a?. = vt. a? x!7  a ITo x T _ ~ 2 8. in terms of other quantities. _ 2. 31. + xx = 1. . If s If 16. 30. p the principal.FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS EXERCISE Solve the following equations : 113 59 *. f P =+!. ^ ax a^ 26.= H. * Solve the same equation for^). If s (wi n) x =px + q. = 3 (6 a). 10. 4. 3(2a + aj) 25 ?+l '~~ a/ 1 = 2L . 9.= n. 1 f. 4. solve for a. i The formula for simple interest ( 30. iw 21. The The i time. . q solve for/. 6. 3. If ^^ = a 1 32. rate. s = Vt solve for v. = 2(3a = aajffta? + 7^ = 0*+^ 4 (a x) 1 a). c 18. m a? x . 29. 12.i l . solve for . a + 26+3aj=2o + 6 + 2a?.
1. hence the question would be formulated After how many minutes has the minute hand moved 15 spaces more than the hour hand ? Let then x x = the required number of minutes after 3 o'clock.. 2 3 .114 35. of minute spaces the hour hand moves Therefore x ~ = the number of minute spaces the minute hand moves more than the hour hand. x Or Uniting.. then = 2 TT#. PROBLEMS LEADING TO FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS 152. 12. Ex. = the number of minute spaces the minute hand moves over. C is the circumference of a circle whose radius R.minutes after x= ^ of 3 o'clock. is 36.20 C. .180. A would do each day ^ and B j. In how many days can both do it working together ? If we denote then / the required number by 1. Find R in terms of C and TT. and 12 = the number over. . ~^ = 15 11 x ' !i^=15. 2. A can do a piece of work in 3 days and B in 2 days. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA (a) Find a formula expressing degrees of Fahrenheit terms of degrees of centigrade (<7) by solving the equation (F) in (ft) Express in degrees Fahrenheit 40 If C. 100 C. Multiplying by Dividing. Ex. = 16^. days by x and the piece of work while in x days they would do respectively ff ~ and and hence the sentence written in algebraic symbols ^. When between 3 and 4 o'clock are the hands of a clock together ? is At 3 o'clock the hour hand 15 minute spaces ahead of the minute : hand.
= 100 + 4 x. 32 x = .FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS A in symbols the following sentence 115 more symmetrical but very similar equation is obtained by writing ** The work done by A in one day plus the work done by B in one day equals the work done by both in one day. Explanation : If x is the rate of the accommodation train." : Let x  = the required number of days. 3." gives the equation /I). Solving. But in uniform motion Time = Distance . 4x = 80. the rate of the express train. hours more than the express train to travel 180 miles. or 1J. The speed of an express train is $ of the speed of an If the accommodation train needs 4 accommodation train. and the statement. what is the rate of the express train ? 180 Therefore. Ex. fx xx* = 152 +4 (1) Hence = 36 = rate of express train. = the x part of the work both do one day. 180 Transposing. the required number of days. then Ox j 5 a Rate Hence the rates can be expressed. in Then Therefore. u The accommodation train needs 4 hours more than the express train. Clearing.
3. A man lost f of his fortune and $500. and 9 feet above water. ceeds the smaller by 4. Find two consecutive numbers such that 9. The sum 10 years hence the son's age will be of the ages of a father and his son is 50. and found that he had \ of his original fortune left. and one half the greater Find the numbers. J of the greater increased by ^ of the smaller equals 6. its Find the number whose fourth part exceeds part by 3. of his present age. is equal 7. and J of the greater Find the numbers. to his daughand the remainder. money and $10. ex What 5. How much money had he at first? 12 left After spending ^ of his ^ of his money and $15. fifth Two numbers differ 2. a man had How much money had he at first? . length in the ground. A man left ^ of his property to his wife. How did the much money man leave ? 11. which was $4000. Find A's 8. Two numbers differ l to s of the smaller. one half of What is the length of the post ? 10 ter. Twenty years ago A's age was  age. by 3. is oO.  Find their present ages.116 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 60 1. and of the father's age. make 21. Find a number whose third and fourth parts added together 2. are the The sum of two numbers numbers ? and one is ^ of the other. to his son. 9 its A post is a fifth of its length in water. by 6.
1. and an ounce of silver fa of an ounce. what is the rate of the express train? 152. 117 The speed of an accommodation train is f of the speed of an express train. At what time between 7 and 8 o'clock are the hands of ? a clock in a straight line and opposite 18. A has invested capital at more 4%. ^ at 5%. ? In how many days can both do working together 23. Ex. In how many days can both do it working together ? ( 152. A can do a piece of work in 4 clays. at 4J % and P> has invested $ 5000 They both derive the same income from their How much money has each invested ? 20. At what time between 4 and ( 5 o'clock are the hands of a clock together? 16. what is the 14. and B In how many days can both do it working together in ? 12 days. and after traveling 150 miles overtakes the accommodation train. ounces of gold and silver are there in a mixed mass weighing 20 ounces in 21. Ex. Ex. A can A can do a piece of work in 2 days. investments. and has he invested if his animal interest therefrom is 19.) 22. If the accommodation train needs 1 hour more than the express train to travel 120 miles.) At what time between 7 and 8 o'clock are the hands of a clock together ? 17. air. How much money $500? 4%. and losing 1* ounces when weighed in water? do a piece of work in 3 days. after rate of the latter ? 15. and it B in 6 days. . 3. A man has invested J of his money at the remainder at 6%.) ( An express train starts from a certain station two hours an accommodation train. 2. and B in 4 days. 152.FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS 13. An ounce of gold when weighed in water loses fa of an How many ounce. If the rate of the express train is f of the rate of the accommodation train.
. 2. Answers to numerical questions of this kind may then be found by numerical substitution. Find three consecutive numbers whose sum equals m. and apply the method of 170. is 42. we obtain the equation m m . and n = 3. . therefore. is A can do a piece of work in m days and B in n days.414.009 918. by taking for these numerical values two general algebraic numbers. e. make it m 6 A can do this work in 6 days Q = 2.118 153. 6 I 3 Solve the following problems 24.= m f n it Therefore both working together can do in mn f n days. n x Solving. . they can both do in 2 days. is 57. 26.= . B in 30.g. Find three consecutive numbers whose sum Find three consecutive numbers whose sum last : The two examples are special cases of the following problem 27. To and find the numerical answer. The problem to be solved. In how in the numerical values of the : many days If can both do we let x = the it working together ? required number of days. B in 5. m and n. B in 12. 3. Find the numbers if m = 24 30. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA The last three questions and their solutions differ only two given numbers.e. 25. Then ft i. : In how many days if can A and it B working together do a piece of work each alone can do (a) (6) (c) in the following number ofdavs: (d) A in 5. Hence. A in 4. A in 6. if B in 3 days. B in 16. Ex. A in 6. it is possible to solve all examples of this type by one example.
001. 33. d miles the first traveling at the rate of m. 3J miles per hour. the area would be increased by 19 square feet. 2 miles per hour. 2 miles per hour. (d) 1. squares 29. the Two men start at the same time from two towns. The one: 31. the rate of the first. squares 30. if m and n are. A cistern can be filled (c) 6 and 3 hours. 119 Find two consecutive numbers the difference of whose is 11.721. solve the following ones Find two consecutive numbers the difference of whose squares : find the smaller number. Find the side of the square. After how many hours do they meet. by two pipes in m and n minutes In how many minutes can it be filled by the respectively. respectively (a) 60 miles. 4J miles per hour. 34. Two men start at the first miles apart. After how many hours do they rate of n miles per hour.FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS 28. and how many miles does each travel ? 32. If each side of a square were increased by 1 foot. and the rate of the second are. the second at the apart. 3 miles per hour. and the second 5 miles per hour. (b) 149. two pipes together ? Find the numerical answer. and how many miles does each travel ? Solve the problem if the distance. 5 miles per hour. (c) 16. Find two consecutive numbers the difference of whose is 21. : (c) 64 miles. (a) 20 and 5 minutes. is (a) 51. 88 one traveling 3 miles per hour. is ?n . (b) 35 miles. (b) 8 and 56 minutes. meet. respectively.000. . same hour from two towns. last three examples are special cases of the following The difference of the squares of two consecutive numbers By using the result of this problem.
all principles relating to fractions if its may be af)plied to ratios. 6 12 = . etc. The ratio  is the inverse of the ratio . instead of writing 6 times as large as ?>." we may write a : b = 6. the symbol being a sign of division.g. 1. Simplify the ratio 21 3.or a * b The ratio is also frequently (In most European countries this symbol is employed as the usual sign of division. the denominator The the 157.) The ratio of 12 3 equals 4. b is the consequent. E. the antecedent. the second term the consequent. b. Ex. a ratio is not changed etc. .CHAPTER X RATIO AND PROPORTION 11ATTO 154.5. The ratio of first dividing the two numbers number by the and : is the quotient obtained by second. " a Thus. b is a Since a ratio a fraction. 158. b. In the ratio a : ft. antecedent. term of a ratio a the is is the antecedent. : A somewhat shorter way would be to multiply each term by 120 6. The first 156. : : 155. terms are multiplied or divided by the same number. is numerator of any fraction consequent. A ratio is used to compare the magnitude of two is numbers. Thus the written a : ratio of a b is .
AND PROPORTION ratio 5 5 : 121 first Transform the 3J so that the term will 33 : *~5 ~ 3 '4* 5 EXERCISE Find the value of the following 1. 159. two  ratios. a and d are the extremes. Simplify the following ratios 7. proportional between a and c. 3:4. J:l. and the last term the third proportional to the first and second 161. 6. : 1. 61 : ratios 72:18. either mean the mean proportional between the first and the last terms. : ay .RATIO Ex. : ratios so that the antecedents equal 16:64. 7:4 T T 4 . 27 06: 18 a6. The last first three. The last term d is the fourth proportional to a. In the proportion a b : = b : c. terms. equal 2. 3:1}. 9. extremes. 8^ hours. 7f:6J. 4. 62:16. and c is the third proportional to a and . 11. b. 18. $24: $8. 17. A proportion is a statement expressing the equality of proportions. 5 f hours : 2. 10. 3. and c. 16a2 :24a&. b and c the means. 4:5f : 5. 12. the second and fourth terms of a proportion are the and third terms are the means. : is If the means of a proportion are equal. 16 x*y 64 x*y : 24 48 xif. b is the mean b. 16. 3 8. term is the fourth proportional to the : In the proportion a b = c c?. Transform the following unity 15. 1. = or:6=c:(Z are The first 160.
!. then 8 men can do it in 3 days. and the time necessary to do it. of a proportion. briefly. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Quantities of one kind are said to be directly proper tional to quantities of another kind. If (Converse of nq. Hence the number of men required to do some work. Instead of u If 4 or 4 ccm. of iron weigh 45 grams.30 grams. Hence the weight of a mass of iron is proportional to its volume. or 8 equals the inverse ratio of 4 3.) mn = pq. If 6 men can do a piece of work in 4 days. i.__(163. if the ratio of any two of the first kind. 163. ad = be. 2 165.) b = Vac. and we divide both members by we have ?^~ E. 163. = 30 grams 45 grams. is equal to the ratio of the corresponding two of the other kind. 3 4. 164. 6 ccm. If the product of two numbers is equal to the product of two other numbers^ either pair may be made the means. " we " NOTE. t/ie product of the means b is equal to the Let a : =c : d.'* Quantities of one kind are said to be inversely proportional to quantities of another kind. q~~ n . then G ccm. a b : bettveen two numbers is equal to the square root Let the proportion be Then Hence 6 =b = ac. The mean proportional of their product. pro portional. Clearing of fractions. if the ratio of any two of the first kind is equal \o the inverse ratio of the corresponding two of the other kind. : c. are : : : inversely proportional.122 162. In any proportion product of the extremes. and the other pair the extremes. ccm.e. of iron weigh . : : directly proportional may say.
ad = be. d d. hence the proportion true.) Any is of these propositions may be proved by example : a method which illustrated by the following To prove This is b if d true ad  Or if But Hence ^ =^' o = be = be. if 6 : 7.) a b b=c b = c)d:c d.) II. Or IV. ad ( 163. 2.) (Called Alternation. a+b a (Composition and : : : Division. a III. If 6 : a a : 6 =c : : d. 166. then =d c. (163. (Composition.) a + b:a = c + d:c. is 4$ = 35. .PATIO Ex. I. These transformations are used to simplify proportions.) = f f = 3 J. Change the proportion 4 5 = x 6 so that x becomes the : : last term. V. 12x Hence a? = 42. a:c=b:d. AND PROPORTION x = 12 : 123 Find x. bd bd. 1. I. (Frequently called Inversion. is Ex. + b:b = c + d:d. (Division. = 35 . By inversion 5 : 4 =6 : x.) d 167. Determine whether the following proportion 8:6 = and 5 x 7 7 : true rn 8 x t: 4.
1 : 3 3 Divide the antecedents by : = = 5 1 : jr. To simplify the proportion 8 Apply division.e. = 2:x. mx tin Apply composition and division. 8. EXERCISE 5^:8 = 2:3. Or III. the consequents by 7. 5. Apply composition. 10. = 12 5ft. x = 2. 13 = 5f llf : : n 2. and determine whether they are true or not : 6. 6 =4 : x. .124 IT. 120:42 2 2 7.!=!*. IV. E.g. = 20:7. 3. = 180:125. i. To simplify m 3n ? = + *. = 2:3. 11 : 5 : 15:22=101:15. 4. 5 5. V. : 3 = 5 f x : x. 72:50 m n (m n) = (m + rif m 2 : 18:19 6 2 : = 24:25. Simplify the following proportions. A parenthesis is understood about each term of a proportion. . 9. 3n JJ =n x NOTE. = ^2x x Or Dividing the antecedents by m. To simplify the proportion 11 : 5:6 =4 x : x.:J 62 : Determine whether the following proportions are true 1. : x. 8ajy:17 = i^:l^. 2. to simplify 48:21=32:7x. its ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Alternation shows that a proportion is not altered when its consequents are multiplied or divided by antecedents or the same number. 3:3 1:1 divide the antecedents by 16. = 7:2f 3J.
41.8:1. 28. if : 40. a?:15 15. 2. 51. 4 and 16.RATIO AND PROPORTION Determine the value of x 11. 39. f. 2 3 = y #. 16 and 28. 29. 4. 43. 50.6 : : Find the fourth proportional 19. a. = 5 x 12. 13. y : b y : =x 1 =x : a. Find the mean proportional 30. 14. : 125 40:28 = 15:0. 3. 44. 6x = 7y. terra 2:3 = 4. 46. a 2 and ab. : : Transform the following proportions so that only one contains x: 48. 35. 2 a and 18 a.:ff. 7iy = 2:x. and 2/. = 3 43 + x. 03:a?=135:20. rap. 27. 42. ratio of y. 3t. 3. rag. 2= 5 x x. : .x: 6:5 a : x. = 15o. 21.j>. 12. 9 x = 2 y. 6. to : a and 1. 6 x = y. 1. 21 : 4z = 72 : 96. = 2 + x: x. Find the 37. 38. 34. ra 2 . 14 and 21. Find the third proportional 24. 16 n* x = 28 w 70 ra.. b. form two proportions commencing with x : = xy. (a : : 45. 22. 16. : a2 . ra. 31. 22: 3 19 2 : : 49. 8 a 2 and 2 b 2 Form two x 10 If ab proportions commencing with 5 from the equation 6 36. to: = 35:*. 112:42 = 10:a. : 53. 5= 18 a? : a?. 33. . x:5 = y:2. mx = ny. 18. to : 9 and 12. 25. 20. 5. 26. 4 a*:15ab = 2a:x. 1 and a.  32. 23. = l^:18. 47. 2. + fyx = cy. x m = y n. ra + landra 1. 52. w. 17.
the squares of their radii (e) 55. (d) The sum of money producing $60 interest at 5%. (c) The volume of a body of gas (V) is circles are to each inversely propor tional to the pressure (P). 1 (6) The circumferences (C and C ) of two other as their radii (R and A"). (d) The areas (A and A') of two circles are to each other as (R and R'). the area of the larger? the same. The number of men (m) is inversely proportional to the number of days (d) required to do a certain piece of work. State whether the quantities mentioned below are directly or inversely proportional (a) The number of yards of a certain kind of silk. What will be the volume if the pressure is 12 pounds per square inch ? . what 58. and the time. and the speed of the train. and the time necessary for it. 56. A line 7^.126 54. and the area of the rectangle. under a pressure of 15 pounds per square inch has a volume of gas is A 16 cubic feet. (b) The time a The length train needs to travel 10 miles. A line 11 inches long on a certain 22 miles. 57. (e) The distance traveled by a train moving at a uniform rate. and the area of the smaller is 8 square inches. and the : total cost. othei (a) Triangles as their basis (b and b').inches long represents map corresponds to how many miles ? The their radii. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBEA State the following propositions as proportions : T (7 and T) of equal altitudes are to each. (c) of a rectangle of constant width. areas of circles are proportional to the squares of If the radii of two circles are to each other as circle is 4 : 7. the volume of a The temperature remaining body of gas inversely proportional to the pressure.
18 x = 108. Let A B AC=1x. 2 x Or = 4. What is the greatest distance a person can see from an elevation of 5 miles ? From h miles the Metropolitan Tower (700 feet high) ? feet high) ? From Mount McKinley (20. Therefore 7 = 14 = AC. as 11 Let then : 1. 127 The number is of miles one can see from an elevation of very nearly the mean proportional between h and the diameter of the earth (8000 miles). is A line AB. = the second number. 11 x = 66 is the first number. x=2.000 168. so that Find^K7and BO. Then Hence BG = 5 x. x = 6. Hence or Therefore Hence and = the first number. When a problem requires the finding of two numbers which are to each other as m n. produced to a point C. 2. AB = 2 x.RATIO AND PROPORTION 69. Divide 108 into two parts which are to each other 7. 4 inches long. 11 x x 7 Ex. it is advisable to represent these unknown numbers by mx and nx. 11 x f 7 x = 108. 4 ' r i 1 (AC): (BO) =7: 5. 7 x = 42 is the second number. . : Ex.
: 4. : Divide a in the ratio 3 Divide : 7. and the longest is divided in the ratio of the other two. Divide 20 in the ratio 1 m. Divide 44 in the ratio 2 Divide 45 in the ratio 3 : 9. of water? Divide 10 in the ratio a b. Water consists of one part of hydrogen and 8 parts of If the total surface of the earth oxygen. How many 7. what are its parts ? (For additional examples see page 279. find the number of square miles of land and of water. consists of 9 parts of copper and one part of ounces of each are there in 22 ounces of gun metal ? Air is a mixture composed mainly of oxygen and nitrowhose volumes are to each other as 21 79. 11. and c inches. The three sides of a triangle are respectively a. What are the parts ? 5. 12. 9. How many gen. 14. 3.128 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 63 1. cubic feet of oxygen are there in a room whose volume is 4500 : cubic feet? 8.000 square miles. 2. How many ounces of copper and zinc are in 10 ounces of brass ? 6. A line 24 inches long is divided in the ratio 3 5.) . : 197. How The long are the parts ? 15. How many grams of hydrogen are contained in 100 : grams 10.000. If c is divided in the ratio of the other two. : Divide 39 in the ratio 1 : 5. 7. 13. 12. m in the ratio x: y % three sides of a triangle are 11. Gunmetal tin. and 15 inches. 6. Brass is an alloy consisting of two parts of copper and one part of zinc. The total area of land is to the total area of is water as 7 18.
Hence 2s 5 o = 10 _ ^ (4) = 3.L x If If = 0. the equation is satisfied by an infinite number of sets Such an equation is called indeterminate. such as + = 10. From (3) it follows y 10 x and since by the same values of x and to be satisfied y. etc. if there is different relation between x and * given another equation. If satisfied degree containing two or more by any number of values of 2oj3y = 6. expressing a y. 2 y = . =. However. if .e. y (3) these unknown numbers can be found. is x = 7. Hence. values of x and y. the equations have the two values of y must be equal..CHAPTER XI SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS 169. a? (1) then I. y = 5 /0 \ (2) of values.y=. there is only one solution. The root of (4) if K 129 . An equation of the first unknown numbers can be the unknown quantities. which substituted in (2) gives y both equations are to be satisfied by the same Therefore. y = 1. x = 1.
Independent equations are equations representing different relations between the unknown quantities such equations . ELIMINATION BY ADDITION OR SUBTRACTION 175. E. Any set of values satisfying 5 x + 6 y = 60 will also satisfy the equation 3 x f. viz. Therefore. 21 y . same relation. A system of two simultaneous equations containing two quantities is solved by combining them so as to obtain unknown one equation containing only one 173. cannot be reduced to the same form.3 y = 80. Substitution. ~ 50. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA A system of simultaneous equations is tions that can be satisfied a group of equa by the same values of the unknown numbers. The process of combining several equations so as make one unknown quantity disappear is called elimination. x H 2y satisfied 6 and 7 x 3y = by the values x = I. unknown quantity. for they cannot be satisfied by any value of x and y. 26 y = 60. The first set of equations is also called consistent.X. of elimination most frequently used II. 3.24. are simultaneous equations. and 3 x + 3 y =. the last set inconsistent.26. 6x . y = 2. y I 171. Solve y=6x 6x f Multiply (1) by 2. to The two methods I. 174. 172. for they express the x f y 10. (3) (4) Multiply (2) by  Subtract (4) from (3).130 170. By By Addition or Subtraction. 4y . = . 30 can be reduced to the same form f 5 y Hence they are not independent. for they are 2 y = 6 are But 2 x 2. 6 and 4 x y not simultaneous.
2 = 6. eliminate the letter have the lowest common multiple. + 2.2 = 9 + 4 = 13. preferably 3x Therefore + 4 = 13 x = 3. 64 x = 040. subtract the equations. 3y = 3. 10 . 25 x . Multiply (1) by Multiply (2) by 5. add the equations. x = 10.15 y 39 x + 15 y Add (3) and (4).3 y = 47.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS the simpler one (1).14 =8. y = 2. = 235. Transposing. by addition or subtraction : numbers as (3) (4) (6) 176. x = 10. 131 Substitute this value of y in either of the given equations. whose coefficients In general. 3. 3. Therefore Check. 8 2. Check. 10 + 5 1 = 135. Hence to eliminate Multiplyy if necessaryy the equations by such will make the coefficients of one unknown quantity equal. are like. Therefore Substitute (6) in (1). coefficients If the signs of these if unlike. 60 .3 1 = 47. 5 13 . 37. = 406. y = 1. EXERCISE answers: 64 Solve the following systems of equations and check the ' .
f 3X 7x 14. _. + 3?/ { 3 x f 2 y = 39. I ~ y~~> 22. v ^ = ll. 19< I a. . = 41.ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 5. ] ^ . I .3. * + 3 y = 50. x 11. I oj 5y = 17. I i 3 a.3. i 3. 9 1 r 20. O t K 8.v 23.5 y = 2. 13 61 l7a.4. = 24. f 3# ?/ = 0.1ft is 1 fl<>* r A + 22/ = 40.9 *. [2o.f2/ ' = 50. ' 12. J I y = 1U. ' 94 ^4 ' 15 ' ^  25 * 60. = 6. 13. 7 ' 1fi fl . + 2/ 17.
EXERCISE Solve by substitution : 65 f5aj l3a. = 4#8. = 2y + 10. tity in the Substitute this value for one unknown quan other equation. . This value substituted in either (1) or (2) gives x 178. 21 y 24 Therefore y = 26.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS ELIMINATION BY SUBSTITUTION 177. = 2. Hence to eliminate by substitution : Find in one equation the value of an unknown quantity in terms of the other. x ) ^"" 13. and solve the resulting equation. (1) (2) Transposing 2. I3ar + 2y and dividing by . = 13. = 60. 3. 8. Substituting this value in (2) 3 7 ( ?/ t " 8 +2y= + 4 y 25 y Clearing of fractions. 133 Solve 7 y in (1) (27.
6)7(y7)==18. 3 (1) Ex. 3. From 9 = 36. simplified before elimination is possible. it is advantageous to do so in most cases. 4* + 3y = 19. and check the answers: + 5(y + 5) = 64. 7 y = 6. \ \6(a. Solve 2 7 (2) Multiplying (1) by 12 and (2) by 14. 7x_2y=3. 2 y = . . f8(z8)9(y9) = 26. (3) (4) (6) (6) Multiplying (6) by 2 and (6) by Sx + 6y = Adding and 3S. Whenever one unknown quantity can be removed without clearing of fractions.3. however. Substituting in (6) . + 212y4 = 14. the equation must be cleared of fractions and . (4). 29 x = 29. (8) 1 +8 2 _ 7 EXERCISE 66 Solve by any method. (4t(x\) ' ""^IT 3. 21z6y=9. 43 + 8f3y + 7z From (3). x = l. (7) (7) (8) .134 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 179.
J 9. a. 4~2v 3a?2^4 3 1 18. . ff "*" _13 ~ 4 2' 15. 135 "25 ' 6 ' tsjj ' r4(5. 4 11. +y 2 . a.f2 2. 12. = 3. .1) = 121. 4(5 x l2(315 8 8. 16.1) + 5(6 y . yM a. 14.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS 3x 4. 2 4^ ~ 3 = 13. . 10 2a?5 17. 10.
180.and x y .Q ^ 4 21. In many equations it is advantageous at first not to consider x and y as unknown quantities. 3x\" 1 23 24. l_3 4' 2/41 2 a.#. <X + 20. . but some expressions involving x. f y . ?~y . {. and y. 22. e. * ((* (( .136 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 4_1 2' 19.
33 = 11 x. 15 y + 8 x . y. x 2x(2). Clearing of fractions. etc. (2) (3) a. (4) + (G). 1. by the regular Clearing (1) and (2) of fractions. Therefore y=4. .SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS x Ex. y 4. of this type. EXERCISE Solve : 67 2' 1. however. 2* * x 2. (4) (6) (6) (7) 2x(5).3 xy. Substituting x = 3 in (1). y 1. x 3. 137 Solve y y (1) . Dividing by 11 3 = #.4 x = 4 xy. . can also be solved Examples method.
= o 6. 6. Solve (1) (2) (1) (2) (8) x x (4). LITERAL SIMULTANEOUS EQUATIONS 181.138 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 4 6 K . = en. 4 13. 6w3 + bny = 6p. Ex. x y 5. x 8. . 21 9 . bmx = en anx anx + bny (3) (4) ftp. 10 " 12 25 U y 6.= 5. x y 331 9. y MOi y a. n. 253 7. 1.
Uniting. ax + by = 2 a&. w. d. fax f = l. f 6^ [ nx f my == m. From the same equations find s in terms of a. ny = fy/ I sc 1.y = = 9a + 46. (1) (2) (7) an bm (6) (7) x w. 6. . amx + bmy amx f any = any (an cm. W . f 5. . Dividing.W. bmy bm}y ap cm.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS Uniting. x 12. s in 11. 14. . . x f my = 1. apan cm. and I. x a. and I if 13. a Find a and terms of n. d.cm y= EXERCISE 68 bm f 6y = c. ap. From and L the same simultaneous equations find d in terms of a. 139 (an bm)x = en bp.
182. four equations containing four unknown quantireduced to three equations containing three unknown quantities. eliminating one and is the unknown quant iff/ from any pair of equasame unknown quantity froni another pair.3 = 8. 3. 3y = Hence Check. etc. To solve equations containing By tions. l.12 y + 6 z = . 6. . y =* 2. 4. = 3. = 30. ties are Similarly.8 = 1.140 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA SIMULTANEOUS EQUATIONS INVOLVING MORE THAS TWO UNKNOWN QUANTITIES three unknown quantities three simultaneous independent equations must be given. by 3.25. Multiplying (1) by Multiplying (2) by 4.1+4.lf> z . Multiplying (2) + = 20 12 2 10 (4) Multiplying (3) Adding.3=4. (6) + 3 Therefore Substituting the values of x and z 2 x = (7) in (1). 3.13. 8 x .16. the to the solution problem reduced of two simultaneous equations containing two unknown quantities. 20. (1) (2) (3) Eliminate y. Solve the following system of equations: = 8. 1.2 + 4. (4) (5). 4. 1. (8) 2.2 + 3. x + 12 y .15z=12 Adding. f 3y 12 =s 8.by 2.9z =11 x (6) Eliminating x from (4) and (5). 17 x 100 z Therefore Substitute this value in (4). Ex. 8B12y + 17 x 16z z = 32 Oa + 12?/.
49. k 2/ f 2 x a. == 6. y f ?/ M 2? = 4. ~6?/ 5. 8. x 13. 7. 14. f 2 i/ f z = 14. 4 = 42. 10. + 2 y f 2 = 35. 12. a? 11. 2z = 40. 2 4. 2 .SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS EXERCISE 10 x 69 141 1. a? + 709 = 26. + y f z = 15. 15 2 = 45.
.42 = 2. = 8*. x _2 3 ' 0742! J 18.. ^ = 2. 1510 4 17.6 2. .2 a. 22. 19. 84 21. 32. 16.142 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 15. ?/ 3x = 0. 23. . ? = llz. 60. (3 _. 27.3 y + . =s 20. = 5. 4.
= l. Let x y z = the the digit in the hundreds' place. unknown quantity by every verbal statement as an equation. and if 396 be added to the number. # 4. and Then 100 + 10 y +z the digit in the units' place. ( 99. . 1 digit in the tens place. either directly or implied. 1 = 2. z + x = 2 n. Check. The three statements of the problem can now be readily expressed in . M=i. (1) 100s + lOy + z + 396 = 100* + 10y + x. The digit in the tens' place is  of the sum of the other two digits. y 31. Find the number.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS 143 x 29. Problems involving several unknown quantities must contain. 2 = 1(1+6). + z = 2p. y * z 30.2/ 2/ PROBLEMS LEADING TO SIMULTANEOUS EQUATIONS 183.) it is advisable to represent a different letter. Ex. 2 = 6. the number. 1. The sum of three digits of a number is 8. and to express In complex examples. +2+ 6 = 8. . = 2 m. Obviously of the other . symbols: x + y +z 8.y 125 (3) The solution of these equations gives x Hence the required number is 125. Simple examples of this kind can usually be solved by equations involving only one unknown every quantity. + 396 = 521. the first and the last digits will be interchanged. x : z =1 : 2. however. to express it is difficult two of the required digits in terms hence we employ 3 letters for the three unknown quantities. as many verbal statements as there are unknown quantities.
. Since the three men traveled the same distance. C. Find the fraction. From (3) Hence xy Check. 2. = the fraction. xy a: 2y 4y 2. the fraction Let and then y is reduced to nurn orator. we obtain. 5_ _4_ A. 3 xand y I 1 (2) 5. (3) C4) = 24 miles. By expressing the two statements in symbols. 6 x 4 = 24. 4 x = 24.144 Ex. and C travel from the same place in the same B starts 2 hours after A and travels one mile per hour faster than A. 3+1 5+1 4_2. the distance traveled by A. the fraction is reduced to  and if both numerator and denominator of the reciprocal of the fraction be dimin ished by one. B. 2. x y = the = the x denominator . 3. who travels 2 miles an hour faster than B. direction. + I 2 (1) and These equations give x Check. Or (4)2x(3). ELEMENTS OF ALGE13KA If both numerator and denominator of a fraction be . x 3 = 24. increased by one. starts 2 hours after B and overtakes A at the same How many miles has A then traveled? instant as B. Ex. 8 = xy + x xy = xy f 3 x 2 y = 2. = Hence the fraction is f. x 3x4y = 12. y = 3. = 8. (1) (2) 12.
If the numerator of a fraction be trebled. number by the first 3. the last two digits are interchanged. to L <> Find the If the numerator and the denominator of a fraction be If 1 be subtracted from increased by 3. Half the sum of two numbers equals 4. fraction is reduced to \. both terms. and the numerator increased by 4. If 27 is 10.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS EXERCISE 70 145 1. Five times a certain number exceeds three times another 11. The sum 18 is is and if added of the digits of a number of two figures is 6. if its numerator and its denominator are increased by 1. the fraction equals . Find the numbers. 7. Find the numbers. Find the number. the digits will be interchanged. it is reduced to J. 5. 1. and the second one increased by 5 equals twice number. The sum of the first sum of the three digits of a number is 9. the value of the fraction is fa. and the fourth 3. A fraction is reduced to J. added to the numerator of a fraction. ? What 9. and twice the numerator What is the fracincreased by the denominator equals 15. and the second increased by 2 equals three times the first. If 9 be added to the number. 2. and its denomi nator diminished by one. Find the number. part of their difference equals 4. 6. Find the fraction. its value added to the denominator. the fraction is reduced fraction. . 183. If 4 be Tf 3 be is J. Four times a certain number increased by three times another number equals 33. Find the numbers.) added to a number of two digits. If the denominator be doubled. and the two digits exceeds the third digit by 3. to the number the digits will be interchanged. tion ? 8. the Find the fraction.}. and four times the first digit exceeds the second digit by 3. the number (See Ex.
If the sum of how old is each now ? at invested $ 5000. and money and 17. now. 12. the rate of interest? 18. much money is invested at A sum of money at simple interest amounted in 6 years to $8000. Ten years ago the sum of their ages was 90. and the 5% investment brings $15 more interest than the 4 % investment. . Two cubic centimeters of gold and three cubic centimeters of silver weigh together 69 J. Find the rates of interest.grams. 19. and partly at 4 %. Find their present ages. What was the amount of each investment ? 15. the annual interest would be $ 195. A man invested $750. and in 5 years to $1125. and B's age is \ the sum of A's and C's ages. 5 %. respectively ? 16. What was the amount of each investment ? A man % 5%.146 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 11. and The 6 investment brings $ 70 more interest than the 5 % % 4% investments together. How 6 %.000 is partly invested at 6%. 13. Three cubic centimeters of gold and two cubic centimeters of silver weigh together 78 grains. If the rates of interwere exchanged. Find the weight of one cubic centimeter of gold and one cubic centimeter of silver. and 4 %. a part at 6 and the remainder bringing a total yearly interest of $260. Ten years ago A was B was as as old as B is old as will be 5 years hence . the rate of interest ? What was the sum of A sum of money at simple interest amounted in 2 years to $090. Twice A's age exceeds the sum of B's and C's ages by 30. What was the sum and rates est The sums of $1500 and $2000 are invested at different and their annual interest is $ 190. A sum of $10. and 5 years ago their ages is 55. 14. partly at 5 %. in 8 years to $8500. bringing a total yearly interest of $530. partly at 5% and partly at 4%.
andCL4 = 8. and F. points. How many did he sell of each if the total number of animals was 24? 21. but if A would double his pace. BC = 7 inches. and CE If AB = G inches. E. . . and angle BCA = 70. and angle e angle/. and e. 1 NOTE. The number of sheep was twice the number of horses and cows together. and F. and CF? is a circle inscribed in the 7<7. BD = HE. three AD = AF. and sheep. 25. for $ 740. triangle Tf AD. A r ^ A circle is inscribed in triangle sides in D. If one angle exceeds the sum of the other two by 20. and GE = CF. respectively. the length of NOTE. $ 50 for each cow. then AD = AF.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS 147 20. c. Find their rates of walking. If angle ABC = GO angle BAG = 50. cows. The sum of the 3 angles of a triangle is 180. On /). In the annexed diagram angle a = angle b. angle c = angle d. what are the angles of the triangle ? 22. ED = BE. A farmer sold a number of horses. what is that = OF. he would walk it in two hours less than than to travel B B. and AC = 5 inches. Find the parts of the ABC touching the three sides if AB = 9. the three sides of a triangle E. and their difference by GO . and $15 for each sheep. are taken so ABC. receiving $ 100 for each horse. An C touch ing the sides in D. 23. BC=7. 24. and F '(see diagram). is the center of the circum scribed circle. It takes A two hours longer 24 miles. B find angles a. BE.
and PJ/_L XX'. The abscissa is usually denoted by line XX' is called the jraxis. 186. It' Location of a point. and PN _L YY'. (2. PM. hence The coordinates lying in opposite directions are negative. YY' theyaxis. 3). Thus the points A. ?/. 2). and ordinates abore the xaxis are considered positive . the ordinate by ?/. (7.. B. PN are given. two fixed straight lines XX' and YY' meet in at right angles. and whose ordinate is usually denoted by (X ?/). or its equal OM. the ordinate of point P. jr. PN. * This chapter may be omitted on a 148 reading. and point the origin. is The point whose abscissa is a. first 3). (3. is the abscissa.CHAPTER XII* GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS AND EQUATIONS 184. and respectively represented Dare and by (3 7 4). The of Coordinates. then the position of point is determined if the lengths of P P3f and 185. lines PM the and P^V are coordinates called point P. . and r or its equal OA is . (2. Abscissas measured to the riyht of the origin.
1). 3). (4.) EXERCISE 1. (0. Plot the points: (4. 11. (1. 2). 4) and (4.1). 3). 0). 0). Graphs. 0). (0. 12. Graphic constructions are greatly facilitated by the use of crosssection paper. the quadrilateral whose vertices are respectively (4. (See diagram on page 151. 2). 4). (4. Draw the triangle whose vertices are respectively (l. Plot the points: (4. Plot the points (6. whose coordinates are given NOTE. (4. i. (3.4). 4) from the origin ? 7. 2. (2. 2J). 4. (4.2). and measure their distance.(!. the mutual dependence of the two quantities may be represented either by a table or by a diagram. 6. 3).3). . What are the coordinates of the origin ? If 187. two variable quantities are so related that changes of the one bring about definite changes of the other. Plot the points : (0. (4.GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS The is 149 process of locating a point called plotting the point. 8. 1). 6. Where do Where do Where do all points lie whose ordinates tfqual 4? 9. 71 2). !). 0). 3. which of its coordinates known ? 13. (5. =3? is If a point lies in the avaxis. paper ruled with two sets of equidistant and parallel linos intersecting at right angles. . What is the locus of (a?. What Draw is the distance of the point (3.e. all all points points lie lie whose abscissas equal zero ? whose ordinates equal zero? y) if y 10. (4. 4).and(l.
ure the ordinate of F. 188. By representing of points. and the amount of gas subjected to pressures from pound The same data. A. Thus the first table produces 12 points. B. but it indicates in a given space a great many more facts than a table.150 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA tables represent the average temperature Thus the following of New volumes 1 Y'ork City of a certain to 8 pounds. from January 1 to December 1. ABCN y the socalled graph of To 15 find from the diagram the temperature on June to be 15 . however. 10 . we obtain an uninterrupted sequence etc. representation does not allow the same accuracy of results as a numerical table. ically each representing a temperature at a certain date. and the corresponding number in the adjacent column the ordinate of a point. D. A graphic and it impresses upon the eye all the peculiarities of the changes better and quicker than any numerical compilations. may be represented graphby making each number in one column the abscissa. may be found on Jan. Thus the average temperature on May on April 20. 1. C. in like manner the average temperatures for every value of the time. . or the curved line the temperature. 15.. we meas1 .
uses them. physician. the merchant. The engineer. concise representation of a number of numerical data is required. the matics. and to deduce general laws therefrom. the rise and fall of wages.GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS 151 i55$5St5SS 3{utts33<0za3 Graphs are possibly the most widely used devices of applied matheThe scientist uses them to compile the data found from experiments. etc. . Whenever a clear. (c) January 15. as the prices and production of commodities. (b) July 15. EXERCISE From the diagram questions 1. the graph is applied. : 72 find approximate answers to the following Determine the average temperature of New York City on (a) May 1. Daily papers represent ecpnoniical facts graphically. (d) November 20.
At what date is the average temperature highest the highest average temperature? ? What What is 4. (freezing point) ? 7. When What is the temperature equal to the yearly average of the average temperature from Sept.. How much warmer 1 ? on the average is it on July 1 than on May 17. (1) 10 C. 1 ? does the temperature increase from 11. is ture we would denote the time during which the temperaabove the yearly average of 11 as the warm season. During what month does the temperature decrease most rapidly ? 13.. on 1 to the average. (d) 9 0. From what date to what date does the temperature increase (on the average)? 8. When the average temperature below C. (c) the average temperature oi 1 C. At what date is the average temperature lowest? the lowest average temperature ? 5. 15. ?  3. from what date to what date would it extend ? If . ELEMENTS OF ALGEKRA At what date (a) G or dates is New York is C. Which month is is the coldest of the year? Which month the hottest of the year? 16. How much. is 10. 1? 11 0.152 2. During what months above 18 C.. During what month does the temperature change least? 14. June July During what month does the temperature increase most ? rapidly 12. ? 9.? is is the average temperature of New York 6. 1 to Oct.
20. Hour Temperature . Construct a diagram containing the graphs of the mean temperatures of the following three cities (in degrees Fahren heit) : 21. From the table on page 150 draw a graph representing the volumes of a certain body of gas under varying pressures. Draw . 19.GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS 18. 153 1? When is the average temperature the same as on April Use the graphs of the following examples for the solution of concrete numerical examples. transformation of meters into yards. One meter equals 1. Draw a graph for the 23. a temperature chart of a patient. Represent graphically the populations : (in hundred thou sands) of the following states 22. in a similar manner as the temperature graph was applied in examples 118.09 yards. NOTE.
amount to $8. 26..) T circumferences of 25. function If the value of a quantity changes. etc. 2 x f 7 gradually from 1 to 2. from R Represent graphically the = to R = 8 inches. if he sells 0. +7 If will respec assume the values 7. 2 is called x 2 xy + 7 is a function of x. the value of a of this quantity will change. 190. to 27. 3. Represent graphically the cost of butter from 5 pounds if 1 pound cost $. (Assume ir~ all circles >2 2 . then C irJl. the daily average expenses for rent. etc. 2 . 2 8 y' + 3 y is a function of x and y. Show graphically the cost of the REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS OF ONE VARIABLE 189.154 24. A 10 wheels a day. if x assumes successively the tively values 1. 4. and $..) On the same diagram represent the selling price of the books. e. books from for printing. 2.50. Represent graphically the distances traveled by a train in 3 hours at a rate of 20 miles per hour. to 20 Represent graphically the weight of iron from cubic centimeters. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA If C 2 is the circumference of a circle whose radius is J2. represent his daily gain (or loss). x 7 to 9. x* x 19. gas. if each copy sells for $1. The initial cost of cost of manufacturing a certain book consists of the $800 for making the plates. 29. 3.5 grams. An expression involving one or several letters a function of these letters. If dealer in bicycles gains $2 on every wheel he sells. binding.g..50.inch. .50 per copy (Let 100 copies = about \. x increases will change gradually from 13. 9. 1 to 1200 copies. if 1 cubic centimeter of iron weighs 7. 28.
1). (2.2 x may 4 from x = 4. 9). as 1. for x=l. is supposed to change. E. To obtain the values of the functions for the various values of the following arrangement be found convenient : . to x = 4. hence various values of x The values of a function for the be given in the form of a numerical table. (1. 2. . 9). Thus the table on page 1G4 gives the values of the functions x 2 x3 and Vsr. etc. Graph of a function. is A constant a quantity whose value does not change in the same discussion. construct '. 3 50.1). a*. may. If a more exact diagram is required. 4). values of x2 nates are the corresponding i. to con struct the graph x of x 2 construct a series of 3 points whose abscissas rep2 resent X) and whose ordi1 tions . however. while 7 is a constant. it is In the example of the preceding article. 3 (0. be also represented by a graph.g.0). Ex. 4).e. plot points which lie between those constructed above. (1^. and join the points in order. Draw the graph of x2 f. J). 2). x a variable. 1 the points (3. Q.GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS 191. 2 (1. and (3. ( 2. 155 A variable is a quantity whose value changes in the same discussion. The values of func192. may .
4). 4). Thus in the above example. and joining in order produces the graph ABC. as y. etc. 7 . 1).. 5). 194. Ex. (To avoid very large ordinatcs.20). the scale unit of the ordinatcs is taken smaller than that of the x. = 4. (2. (3. 2 4 and if y = x f. straight line produces the required graph.. If If Locating ing by a 3) and (4. r */ +* 01 . A Y' function of the first degree is an integral rational function involving only the power of the variable. y = 6. if /* 4 > 1i > > ?/ = 193. Thus 4x + 7.. the function is frequently represented by a single letter. . hence two points are sufficient for the construction of these graphs. 2. 4J. = 0. rf 71 . (4. It can be proved that the graph is a straight of a function of the first degree line.) For brevity. Draw y z x the graph of = 2x3..2 x . or ax + b f c are funclirst tions of the first degree..156 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Locating the points( 4. j/=3. and join(0.
5)2. (a) (6) (c) (d) (e) The values of y. (/) Vl2^ (0) V5. 1J. The roots of the equation 2 {2x a*2 = l. The values of a*. a.or. (C ) (2. 1 8 10.2 4 # + 2 equals 2. xl.GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS EXERCISE 73 157 Draw 1. xz + x. (</) The roots of the equation x2 4 x f 2 = 2. . a?. 2 4 x f 2 = 0. 2 or 2 20. 23x. 2J. 5. the function. 22. 21. (d) (^) 1 to and from 2 . 1J. 6. 4a? I. Draw the graph of : from #= 4 to 05 = 4. 2. ?/ a. the diagram find (a) (e) (3. 2J. 2 a. x+1. 15. . The smallest value of the function. (7i) (c) 23. l. Jar . 1J. (/) The roots of the equation x The roots of the equation a2 4 x f 2 = 1. a ar. a? 2 4. Draw the graph ofy=2j2# and from the diagram determine : #2 from # = 2 to a?=4. 18. The value of x that produces the smallest value it* of the function. if a. 1. 16. 4 a. a* 13. 2x + 3x a?.8)'. 2 a. (ft) (_ 1. and (a) (6) (c) (d) The values of the function if x = \.e. 2 2. The values of a?. 8. 3 a 8. i. a? 1. 3. if y = 2. (If) Va25. = 4.5)2. The roots of the equation 2 f 2 a a*2 = 0. from x VlO'S". 11. 12. J. 2. + 4. fa 17. = The values of a*. 14. if the function equals zero. y = 2x = 4. The values of x that make 2 4 a? + 2 = 0. 2 2 a. 19. 9. a? the graphs of the following functions: + 2. if"a. 7. 6 fa. 3. Draw the graph of or from the diagram determine: 4 a? +2 a.
. If two variables x and y are inversely proportional. that graph with the o>axis. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Degrees of the Fahrenheit (F. 9 F. we have to measure the abscissas of the intersection of the 195. 25. y= formula graphically.158 24.e.24 or x = P and Q.24.where x c is a constant.) scale are expressed in degrees of the Centigrade (C. then y = . C. the abscissas of 3. If two variables x and y are directly proportional. it is evidently possible Thus to find to find graphically the real roots of an equation. that the graph of two variables that are directly proportional is a straight line passing through the origin (assume for c 27.. Represent 26. what values of x make the function x2 + 2x 4 = (see 192). 1 C. i. A body moving with a uniform t velocity of 3 yards per second moves in this seconds a distance d =3 1.. GRAPHIC SOLUTION OF EQUATIONS INVOLVING ONE UNKNOWN QUANTITY Since we can graphically determine the values of x make a function of x equal to zero.) scale by the formula (a) Draw the graph of C = f (F32) from to (b) 4 F F=l. to Fahrenheit readings : Change 10 C. 14 F. From grade equal to (c) the diagram find the number of degrees of centi1 F. . then cXj where c is a constant.. Show any convenient number). if c Draw the locus of this equation = 12. Therefore x = 1.. 32 F.
13. the points may be found otherwise by inspection. 197. z 2 4x 6 a2 6. 7. and determine the abscis 1 sas of the points of intersection with the graph. a: (a) (6) (c) 6a.f 9 = 0. 4. crosssection paper is used. 11.GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS 196. . 8. 10. = 0. de = termine the points where If the function is 1. 6.7 2 a 5 = 0. a2 2a. An equation of the the form ax2 bx c 0. (0. (a) (6) 9. (a) x2 = 0. tion x 2 159 To +2x solve the equa4 1. Such equations in general have two roots. and c represent \3 2 1 1/2 known quantities. is called a quadratic equation. 0. 12. 14. Y' EXERCISE 4x_ 7 74 : Solve graphically the following equations 1. 6. 3. 2 and 1. draw through 1) a line parallel to the #axis. + + = where a. or 5 2. viz.
Hence if if x x  2. Thus If in points without solving the equation for the preceding example: 3x s . T . Ex. 3x _ 4 . (f . Represent graphically Solving for y ='"JJ y. Graph of equations involving two unknown quantities. NOTE.1. if y = is 0. and join the required graph. == 2. produces the 7* required locus.2. Ex. first degree. we can construct the graph or locus of any Since we can = equation involving two to the above form. 1) and 0). X'2 Locating the points (2. solve for ?/.160 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA GRAPHIC SOLUTION OF EQUATIONS INVOLVING TWO UNKNOWN QUANTITIES 198. If x = 0. fc = 3.e. 4) and them by straight line AB (3. Hence we may join (0. Hence. Draw the locus of 4 x + 3 y = 12. 199. 4) and (2. ?/. locate points (0. unknown quantities. i. represent graphically equations of the form y function of x ( 1D2). If the given equation is of the we can usually locate two y. Equations of the first degree are called linear equations. y = l. ?/ =4 AB.2 y ~ 2. because their graphs are straight lines. = 0. y= A and construct x (  graphically. 2). and joining by a straight line. that can be reduced Thus to represent x   L^ \ x =2  graphically. 0). . y y 2.
201. AB but only one point in AB also satisfies (2). The coordinates of every point of the graph satisfy the given equation. the point of intersection of the coordinate of P. AB y = . and CD.GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS 161 200. 202. linear equations have only one pair of roots. To find the roots of the system. we obtain the roots. Since two straight lines which are not coincident nor simultaneous Ex. (2) . Solve graphically the equations : (1) \xy\. By the method of the preceding article construct the graphs AB and and CD of (1) (2) respectively. 203.15. The roots of two simultaneous equations are represented by the coordinates of the point (or points) at which their graphs intersect.57. parallel have only one point of intersection. The every coordinates of point in satisfy the equation (1). Graphical solution of a linear system. P. 3. equation x= By measuring 3. and every set of real values of x and y satisfying the given equation is represented by a point in the locus. viz.1=0.
0).y~ Therefore. etc.162 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA graph. 2. Since the two  we obtain DE. (4. 4.  4. 0. (1) (2) cannot be satisfied by the same values of x and y. Inconsistent equations.0. 3). if x equals respectively 0. ..e. we of the + y* = 25. 4. 5. obtain the graph (a circle) AB C joining. (2. there are two pairs of By measuring the coordinates of : P and Q we find 204. V25 5. i. Solving (1) for y. 1. 3x 2 y = 6. (1) (2) C. construct CD the locus of (2) of intersection. 4. Using the method of the preceding para. 2 equation x 3). 4. 3. parallel graphs indicate inconsistent equations. In general. Locating two points of equation (2). they are inconsistent. Solve graphically the : fol lowing system = = 25.5. and . AB the locus of (1).5. (4. e. P graphs meet in two and $. There can be no point of and hence no roots. y equals 3. 5. x2 . the point we obtain Ex. 4. 0) and (0. 0. and + 3). the graph of points roots. and joining by a straight line. which consist of a pair of parallel lines. Locating the points (5. 4.g. 2. This is clearly shown by the graphs of (1) arid (2). = 0. 1. 4. 3. 4. 3. intersection. Measuring the coordinates of P. The equations 2 4 = 0.9.
the graphs of the following systems. \ 2x + 3^ . '163 Dependent equations. Draw system. and. state reasons. a. 6. 17. y=x + 5. and solve each If there are no solutions. 10. 19. 2x 3?/=6.. EXERCISE 75 Construct the loci of the following equations: 1. 7. 8. y 2 4. x~y=0. idengraphs indicate dependent equations. 20. 16 22. 16 23. a+r/=6. 4. 5. 3. 1 6* + 7 y = 3. if possible. . vice versa.GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS 205. 9. 2. y = 4. y= a2 2x y6. as 2^3 and 3x f ==l 2y =6 tical have identical graphs.
28. 29 .y).14 y = . 25.8. 3 31. AND SQUARE HOOTS . TABLE OF SQUARES. 30. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA "~ U # .164 24. CUBES. 26. 4 a = 3(6 . Show that the same values of x and y cannot satisfy the : three equations x f 5y = 5.
a2 6 6 = ?> 2+2 5 5 + 2 = a. a = a3 .a2 . fa. involution repeated multiplication. powers of a positive quantity are positive. According to 1. ( 3 2 6 3 )* = ( 3 a2 6 8 ) . ( 2 aft ) 9 is negative. INVOLUTION OF MONOMIALS 208.faa a a a Obviously 1. All even powers of a negative quantity arc positive. 52. All odd powers of a negative quantity are negative. 3 f a = f a = +. = a2 5 =6 (5 )* n m n (a ) = a (a 2 3 ) a2 b5 . a special kind of product. Law of Signs. 2. ( a) is positive. on to in factors 4. . To find (#(**&)" is a problem of involution. 8. = 6+ 5 + +fi = fi 62. Involution is the operation of raising a quantity to a Since a power effected positive integral power.CHAPTER XIII INVOLUTION 206. ( 3 a268 ) ( a 8 = _ (2m ) (8 ____ 16 *)"" 27 n 165 . ^4/? it According to 50. follows that 3. 2. etc. is may be by 207.
2.6 (a 8 8 . (277171 )*. The square of a binomial was discussed in 63. V 3xy )' INVOLUTION OF BINOMIALS 209. \ 3 J '  MW 10. the required power. 24. amVy) 3 .166 To find To To power. (a ) 2 5 . . a product to a given power. 6. (^^) 2 . 16. raise ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA the exponent of the power of a power. The & cube of a binomial (a 3 3 _j_ we obtain by multiplying (a 2 2 + 6) 1 by + and = a + 3a 6 + 3a6 + * 6) . ' 27 ' / _4_ _4_V ' 11. 3 2 2 8 . 76 : (>y. multiply tht raise each of its factors to given exponents.3 a 6 f 3 a6 . raise its terms to the required EXERCISE Perform the operations indicated 1.6) = a . 2 11 (afc ) . 5. 4. raise a fraction to a power. 4 /2mV. ^/2?n?A 4 ' 30. 210. V V/ 13. 15. (a ) 2 4  3. (2ar).
are obtained by multiplication. 3 3 + 3(2aO*(Sy) + 3(2aj)(3y)> + 36 z2y + 54 xy* + 27 y3 . examination of these results shows that : The number of terms is 1 greater than the exponent of the binomial.y . 5. 7.y) = (3 y?y . 2 a8 3a2 + 3al. pansions. + 4aj) 3 . (3 x . (aj7) . Ex. 12. 1. (m2) 8 (w+w) 3 8 10. and decreases in each succeeding term by L . . The higher powers of binomials. 18. nent of the binomial.6 2 8 ft) . (3 (l I) 2 8 . + a 2 a. 1 f 3 2 3 . 8 (a??/) 3 . 8. (6m+2w) (3 8 . 6. (3a (a (4 62 l) 3 . 15. etc. +5a) 22.27 ay + 9 x y2n 2 EXERCISE 77 Perform the operations indicated: 1. An 1.  lx  (7 a (1 I) 3 17. (5 (1 a) 3 . as follows : + 6) = o + 3 d'b + 3 a6 + + 6) = a + 4 a?b + 6 a & + 4 a6 + b (a = a + 5 a 6 + 10 a*b + 10 a 6 f 5 aM + 6 (a + 6) 8 8 2 (a b*.3 y. 4 4 2 2 3 4 . 211. 2 . 167 Find the cube of 2 x f. 9.INVOLUTION Ex.) 14. (a + &)8 . (3af26) 8 . 3. = s= (2s) 8 a. 3 8 . frequently called ex. 2.3(3 a*)a(y = 27 a . 86 3 w + 3 w + ra8 126 + G6l. TJie exponent of a in the first term is the same as the expo2. 13. + 3a 6 + 3a& f& ^Sx^ + S^ ^ 3 2 2 3 . 16. 2. 4. a. 3 . Find the cube 2 6 n of 3 x* . (afl) . : a 20. . 23. or*  Find the cube root of 19. 21. 5 5 4 2 2 3 s .
(l 8 . (1 + 4 ?/) . 24. of the second term equals the exponent of the binomial 6. (2w 2 2 fl) 4 . 17.a) 3 19. (2 a 4 . since the even powers of signs of the last answer arc alternately plus y are positive. 15. 14.168 3. The minus. ( &) 5 .4(2^(3 ^'+(3 y . (w 4 ?i) 4 . . (af 5) . Ex.81 y 2 8 9 8 4 ) . 10. and the powers negative. and the result divided by 1 plus the exponent of b. (tff1) (cfd) . 6. . 12 EXERCISE Expand: 1. (m fl) 2 20. is the coefficient of the next term. .216 a^ 4. (mJ) 4 11.2. 5. . 1. (2a5c) (1 f 2 4 a:) 4 . 13. (m 5 I) 2 22. (lfa 6 2 ) 5. 8. TJie coefficient of any term of the power multiplied by the exponent of a. . 23. (p + q) 4 * 7. (a~^) 5 . . (2 4. . (?>i?i f c)*. 25. 5. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA T7ie exponent ofb is 1 in the second term of the result.4(2 * )'(3 *f) f 6(2 ^) (3 y ) 8 . Ex. 3. 10 x*y* + 2 5 xy* + y5 . 2. (m 2 + n) 8 . Expand (a??/) x5 5 x4 y + 10 x'2 (and odd + 212. (?/i~w) : 16. Expand (x = ic 5 f 5 x*y + 10 ^V + 5 . and increases by 1 in each succeeding term. 4. 21. 4 (1for) 5 . (mnp 5 I) 5 . (3a f5) 5) 4. * 2 4 ) 16 ic 8 .96 ^y f 216 o?y . 3. The The coefficient coefficient of the first term is 1. Ex. 78 s . 4 . 18. (la&) 4 12. Expand <? 2 (2 #  3 y3 ) 4 2 . mn 5 2 5 ) . 9.
tity . 27 =y means r' = 27. and all other numbers are. V9 = + 3. Since even powers can never be negative. 109 . Every odd root of a quantity has same sign as and 2 the quantity. quantity may the be either 2wsitive or negative. for distinction. or y ~ 3. for (f 3) 2 ( 3) equal 0. called real numbers. It follows from the law of signs in evolution that : Any even root of a positive. (_3) = 27. which can be simplified no further. Thus V^I is an imaginary number. it is evidently impossible to express an even root of a negative quantity by Such roots are called imaginary the usual system of numbers. or x &4 . 215. and ( v/o* = a. etc. 1. or 3 for (usually written 3) . 2. = x means = 6. \/a = x means x n = y ?> a. a) 4 = a4 . Evolution it is is the operation of finding a root of a quan the inverse of involution.CHAPTER XIV EVOLUTION 213. V \/P 214. 4 4 . \/"^27=3. numbers. for (+ a) = a \/32 = 2.
divide the exponent by the A root of a product equals the product of the roots of the factors. VT8226 = V25 2 729 .170 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EVOLUTION OF MONOMIALS The following examples root : are solved by the definition of a . 3 33 53 . 6.(. we have (Vl472) 2 Ex. 7 .201) = 2. V25 9 16. 5. 2. 14 63 25 = V2 3* = 2 32 6 . 6 7 = 030. v^SjW 3 = 2 a ^/gL^g = * c* A 82 &c*.lL. 2 . To extract the root of a power. V?. .9 = 136. v/^i2 = a*. Ex. 4 v. 3/0** = am . 10.4. V36 9 4. = 199 + (_ 198) . 3i . 8. roots of the numerator \/18 . \/2 4 9 . 7 . . 2. for (a")" a = a mn 3. Ex. 7. 7. fy 5 3 . = V26TIT81 = 53. for (a 3 )* = a 12 . V5 v/2 7 2. 3.1. 8. Find (x/19472) Since by definition ( v^)" = a. Ex 5 a" . = 19472. 62 = V2* . extract the and denominator. Ex.for(*Siy = 3 3 6 c* \ c*J 2 2 b' ?*243 ft^c20 216. EXERCISE 1. Ex. v/2^. .200 .  100 a 2 . 79 2 v/2 5 . for (2 a 2 6c4 ) 8 = Ex. To extract a root of a fraction. 6.125. index. Ex. 9. Ex.64 5 4 . 82 . 9.
1. 3. 31.) 4 3 EXERCISE 80 : Extract the square roots of the following expressions 1.3 y2) ( vV . 2 . 45 V5184.4/. A trinomial is a perfect square if one of its terms is equal to twice the product of the square roots of the other terms. V8.EVOLUTION 171 28.3 . Hence _ 6 ary f 9 y = (s .) by inspection. ( VH) + (Vl9) 2 2 . 29. Find the square root of a2 . (V2441) ~(V2401) 36. ( VI5) x ( VT7) 2 2 2 2 x ( V3) 35. Ex. \/d \Vab r + b\ 9. V9216.6 tfif + 9 y = O . In such a case the square root can be found ( 116. ^40^4.(V200) f ( VI5) 2 . a f2 l 2 + l. 116.98. 2yh2/ 4  9^ + 60^ + 2 2/ . V20 . 30. 2 . 2.3.6 ofy 2 f 9 y4 . 32. .75. (Vl24) { 2 EVOLUTION OF POLYNOMIALS AND ARITHMETICAL NUMBERS 217./). 5. 6. 34. a* 4 8 2 . 33. 2 f ( V240) 3 .
a2 + & + c + 2 a& . 2 . the that 2 ab f b 2 = we have then to consider sum of trial divisor 2 a. 2 49a 8 16 a 4 9. a\b is the root if In most cases.e. 14. 12. multiplied by b must give the last two terms of the as follows square. it is not known whether the given expression is a perfect square.2 &c. 10. 2 2 218. let us consider the relation of a f. 15.2 ac . #2 a2  16. a f. mV14m??2)f 49.> 13. The term a' first 2 . term a of the root is the square root of the first The second term of the root can be obtained a.172 7. 11. + 6 + 4a&. 8 . the given expression is a perfect square. In order to find a general method for extracting the square root of a polynomial.2 ab + b .b 2 2 to its square. second term 2ab by the double of by dividing the the socalled trial divisor. The work may be arranged 2 : a 2 + 2 ab + W \a + b . however. and b.72 aW + 81 & 4 . i. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBEA 4a2 44a?> + 121V2 4a s . 2ab . and b (2 a f b). .
. 6 a. 8 a 2  12 a +4 a f 2. We find the first two terms of the root by the method used in Ex.24 a + 4 12 a + 25 a8 s . we obtain the next term of the root 3 y 3 which has to be added to 2 the trial divisor. 1. 8 a 2 Second complete divisor.24 afy* f 9 tf. 8 a 2 2. the first term of the answer. 219. 2 Subtracting the square of 4x' from the trinomial gives the remainder '24 x'2 + y. First complete divisor. 10 a 4 8 a. 1. by division we term of the root.  24 a 3 + 25 a 2  12 a +4 Square of 4 a First remainder. the required root (4 a'2 8a + 2}. Arranging according to descending powers of 10 a 4 a.EVOLUTION Ex. 173 x* Extract the square root of 1G 16x4 10 x* __ . Multiply the complete divisor Sx' 3y 3 by Sy 8 and subtract the product from the remainder. Second trial divisor. . The square . 8 a 2 . \ 24 a 3 4f a2 10 a 2 Second remainder. 4 x2 3 ?/ 8 is the required square foot. and so forth. . of x. 24# 2 y 3 by the trial divisor Dividing the first term of the remainder. */'' . Arrange the expression according to descending powers root of 10 x 4 is 4 # 2 the lirst term of the root. is As there is no remainder. 8 /. and consider Hence the their sum one term. First trial divisor. double of this term find the next is the new trial divisor. Extract the square root of 16 a 4 . . By doubling 4x'2 we obtain 8x2 the trial divisor. 2. The process of the preceding article can be extended to polynomials of more than three terms. Ex. Explanation. As there is no remainder. .
17.20 o 4.162 a2 60 a10 4.4 x 4. 16x6 4. 2 x2 3 2x.a 6 x*y 2 .54 a 40 a 6 4 9 a4 . 6 11. 5 4 16 4 iK . l 4.42 a f 49 a 6 16 a4  24 a3 4 J 2 3 3 4 4 .174 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 81 : Extract the square roots of the following expressions 2. 3 a2 a4 4 2a + a4 2 or 41 3 2 a3 + 1. 6. 16.24 or .37 a ^ . 729 4.73a4 440^436^460^. 20. 16 _^ + 2 JX XT 4a. 36a 460a 473a 440a 416a 3 2 13. 412 a& f 37 a' 6 .10 x2 4. 36it.42 a*& 4. a? 2 .16. 436^?/469a. 25 x 4 f 40 afy 446 x 2 if 4 24 a^ 8 4 9 4 i/ . 12. 18. 19. 1 4. 14. + 81 a 454 a + 81.V430^425^ 4m 4. > 7. 25 m 20 w + 34 m . 4 4?/ 42x 4 3 j/ 2xif 6 a5 4. 5. 6 6 2 49 a 4 .12 m 4.25.2^43^42^ 46 5 4 a. 9.6 . 24.12 a6 2 2 3 4 4 64 . 4 .73 a8 . 2 4.9. 10. x 6 4 4 0^4.20 J or 2 16 x 4. . 8.12m 5 4. 13#4 413ar 44a.25 x 4 4. 3.14^44 ic 4^ 3 12^. 4 36 a 2 12 4 4 16 a4 4 46 a 4 4 44 a 8 f 25 a h 12 a 4 4 25 a6 4.9m 4 20m3 30m 4. 15.40 a 22 .
beginning at the and each group contains two digits (except the last. and the complete divisor 168. the consists of group is the first digit in the root. As 8 x 168 = 1344.1344. Hence if we divide the digits of the number into groups. of 1. a 2 = 6400. Ex. = 80. and the first remainder is. the first of which is 4. the first of which is 9 the square root of 21'06'81 has three digits. Hence the root is 80 plus an unknown number. Find the square root of 7744.176.000 is 100. and the square root of the greatest square in units. Ex. 7744 80 6400 1 +8 160 + 8 = 168 1344 1344 Since a 2 a Explanation. the first of which is 8.EVOLUTION 220. The is trial divisor = 160. etc. which may contain one or two). the preceding explanation it follows that the root has two digits. Find the square root of 524.. first .000.000 is 1000. then the number of groups is equal to the number of digits in the square root. of 10. square root of arithmetical numbers can be found to the one used for algebraic Since the square root of 100 is 10. From A will show the comparison of the algebraical and arithmetical method given below identity of the methods. and we may apply the method used in algebraic process. the square root of 7744 equals 88. Thus the square root of 96'04' two digits. 1.000. 2. 175 The by a method very similar expressions. a f>2'41 '70 6 c [700 + 20 + 4 = 724 2 a a2 = +6= 41) 00 00 1400 + 20 = 1420 4 341 76 28400 = 1444 57 76 6776 . two figures. Therefore 6 = 8. of a number between 100 and 10. etc. the integral part of the square root of a number less than 100 has one figure.
and if the righthand group contains only one digit. The groups of 16724. Find the square root of 6/. Roots of common fractions are extracted either by divid ing the root of the numerator by the root of the denominator. or by transforming the common fraction into a decimal.1 are Ex. in . we must Thus the groups 1'67'24. annex a cipher.7 to three decimal places.688 4 45 2 70 2 25 508 4064 6168 41)600 41344 2256 222. places.70 6.0961 are '.10.1T6 221. EXERCISE Extract the square roots of : 82 . ELEMENTS OF ALGEKRA In marking off groups in a number which has decimal begin at the decimal point.GO'61. 12. 3.
= 3. . 37. T\. 13. 36.) 40. JT . Find the side of a square whose area equals 96 square yards.01. feet.58 square 38. 30. 35. 1. Find the mean proportional between 2 and . Find the side of a square whose area equals 50. 5. feet. 32. 39. 1.53. 34. 33.1410. whose area equals 48.EVOLUTION Find 177 to three decimal places the square roots of the follow ing numbers: 29. 31.22. TT Find the radius of a (Area of a circle circle 1 equals irR . J.4 square when R = radius and 11.
+ bx f c r= is a complete quadratic ax 2 = m is a pure quadratic equation. 225. Transposing. or incomplete. 2 ic = a. = 4. A pure. = 7^ + 5. x = + 2 or x =2. ax 2 + bx + c = Q. complete. 2)* + 5 = 33. 224. Dividing. x 2 7. x f 12 = the absolute term PUKE QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 227. is 12. Solve 13 x2 19 etc. or affected. absolute term of an equation is the terra which / does not contain any In 4 x 2 unknown quantities. A pure quadratic is solved by reducing it to the form and extracting the square root of both members.g. or equation of the second degree. is frequently written x 13( 2)2 = 7(  19 = 33 . is A quadratic equation. quadratic equation contains only the square of the axt unknown quantity. This answer Check.CHAPTER XV QUADRATIC EQUATIONS INVOLVING ONE UNKNOWN QUANTITY 223. 2. Ex. The 7 equation.. quadratic equation is one which contains both the square and the first power of the unknown A quantity. . an integral rational equation that contains the square of 4x the unknown number. but no higher power e. 1. 178 . Extracting the square root of each member. 6#2 = x* 24. 226. 6 y2 = 17.
16^393 = 7. or Therefore. ' =: y? b* b . EXERCISE Solve the following equations 1. (a? 9. 8. 3. s3 ? + oj x +3 = 4. o. Solve 179 . 10. 0^ + 1 = 1. + 4 ax = ax + 4 a 2 + x2 f 2 x2 = 8 a 2 4 a2 x2 = x = V 4 a2 x= x = . . 4. . Dividing by Extracting the square root. 6(2)=10(ajl). 2 2 a. 5.25.2. 2 4fc 5' 18. : 83 2. ax Transposing and combining. 2. 15^5 = 6. 7. 4 ax. 7 = 162.=g x2 4 a2 Clearing of fractions.QUADRATIC EQUATIONS Ex. 19 + 9 = 5500.
If 22 = ~^. opposite the right angle is called the hypotenuse (c in the diagram). 2 . Find the numbers. 84 is Find a positive number which equal to its reciprocal ( 144). 228. EXERCISE 1. its area contains =a 2 f b2 . If a 2 4. then Since such a triangle tangle. 9 & { c# a x +a and c. Three numbers are to each other as 1 Find the numbers. .180 on __!_:L ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA a. 2.b 2 If s If =c . A number multiplied by ratio of its fifth part equals 45. 28. : 6. If G=m m g . The sides of two square fields are as 7 2. solve for v. is 5(5. If s = 4 Trr ' 2 . 108. 2 : 3. and they con tain together 30G square feet. = a 2 2 (' 2 solve for solve for = Trr . r. Find is the number. 3.) of their squares 5. 2 . is one of _____ b The side right angle. 25. and their product : 150. Find the side of each field. and the first exceeds the second by 405 square yards. may be considered one half of a rec square units. 24. A right triangle is a triangle. 22 a. 26. and the sum The sides of two square fields are as 3 : 5. 29. solve for r. solve for d. Find the side of each field. If 2 f 2 b* = 4w 2 f c sol ve for m. 27. and the two other sides respectively c 2 contains c a and b units. If the hypotenuse whose angles a units of length. The two numbers (See is 2 : 3. 2a f 1 23. 4. . ' 4. find a in terms of 6 .
QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 7. the formula = Trr whose radius equals r is found by Find the radius of circle whose area S equals (a) 154 square inches. radii are as 3 14. The following ex ample illustrates the method or of solving a complete quadratic equation by completing the square. the radius of a sphere whose surface equals If the radius of a sphere is r.) COMPLETE QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 229. The hypotenuse of a right triangle is to one side as 13:12. of a right triangle Find these sides. and the third side is 15 inches. 7r (Assume and their = 2 7 2 . . and the other two sides are as 3 4. we have of or m = . The area $ /S of a circle 2 . 8. To find this term. x* 7 x= 10. sides. 9. Find the radii. 24. The area : sides are as 3 4. Find these 10. (b) 100 feet? = . Method of completing the square.) 13. .2 7 . J = 12. 181 The hypotenuse of a right triangle : is 35 inches. 4. add () Hence 2 . its surface (Assume ir = 2 . passes in t seconds 2 over a space s yt Assuming g 32 feet. is and the other two sides are equal.7 x f 10 = 0. (b) 44 square feet. Find the unknown sides and the area. Find the sides. A body falling from a state of rest. 2m. . Two circles together contain : 3850 square feet. in how many seconds will a body fall (a) G4 feet. Solve Transposing. let us compare x 2 The left the perfect square x2 2 mx f m to 2 . and the two smaller 11. make x2 Evidently 7 takes the place 7x a complete square to to which corresponds m 2 . The hypotenuse of a right triangle is 2. member can be made a complete square by adding 7 x with another term. 8 = 4 wr2 Find 440 square yards.
Transposing. 7 5 + 10 = 0.2. adding member).2 a2 .1. = .  x Q) 2 to each Completing the square (i.182 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 2 Adding ( J) to each member. 15 x 2 Dividing by 9. 2  .a. 2 ax f 2 o) s a . 62 x 5 = f. or x = 2. Extract the square root and solve the equation of the first degree thus formed. = 6. a Clearing of fractions. Extracting square roots. Ex. Hence Therefore Check.. . Therefore.x(l = . J. 230. Transposing. Hence to solve a complete quadratic : Reduce the equation to the form x*\px==q. 22 7 2 + 10 =0. (*~8) a = at . Or (*i) x Extracting square roots. Ex. = \ # = ff. = x\ = 2. a. Simplifying.e.  \. Uniting. 80^69^2 = 9 x2 sc Transposing. Complete the square by adding the square of one half the coefficient of x. or J. x x2 x x2 + 2 a2 x f a = 2 ax. 2 a* a.
x .4 ~ a2 Transposing.QUADRATIC EQUATIONS Completing the square. Extracting square root. 183 Simplifying. x = l+ * a = 1 +2 <* V IT * Therefore * Vl < EXERCISE 85 .1+2?= "*"   Vl .
\bx\. 231. Solving this equation we obtain by the method of the preceding 2a The roots of substituting the values of a. any quadratic equation may be obtained by 6. x la 48.184 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 45 46. article. o^ or } 3 ax == 4 a9 7 wr . .c = 0. 2 Every quadratic equation can be reduced to the general form. =0. =8 r/io?. = 12. 2x 3 4. and c in the general answer. 49. Solution by formula. ao.
1. 12. 6^+5^ 56. ?i 2 . c p. 20. 3. 2or } 5o. 2 . 2# 11 + 15 = 0. 17. 11. 20 x Hence Therefore a = 5. 6m = 7 m + 12 = 64 7 x2 2 2 a. 6 Ex. 2. 9. 6. 21.  . 19. Reducing to general form. 7^ + 9 x 90. 6. 4.4 4 5 . Hence Therefore =p 1 t b = (p 2 + 1).15 x9 25x* = 21 . c = 5. 6 . 14.QUADRATIC EQUATIONS Ex. 7. 26. 8. 2. Solve 2 j>o? p*x x px* a 2 p. : 86 + 2 = 0. 2 o. 3 x 11 + 10 = 0.  P + VQ^+T? ^4^ EXERCISE Solve by the above formula 1. a. 10. V^tT)* . = 64120?. b =  + 20 == = 0.25 x. 15. 185 Solve 5 x2 = 26 x5. 18. = 12 . 5 x2 Transposing. 2 a? = 44 x . 16. 13. 2 a. 6 10 2024 =6or 10 l. TIO..
186 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA to Find the roots of the following equations places : two decimal 22. 1. 3x?+x = 7. Factoring.5 Solving (1) and (2). factors Now. Therefore the equation will be satisfied 5x _.4) = . 27 x== 42a. x2 = 1 . }.2. = 0.5) =0. the prodif x has (1) (2) such a value that either or a?. a? 28  7al=7s be required to solve the 232. Clearing for fractions. =7 x se 2 2 + 16 x. Hence the equation has three + 3) (x 2xf3=0. member can be Ex. 0. Eesolving into factors. or # 5 is zero. we x obtain the roots =^ or x = 5. any degree. = 0.x. transposing terms to one member. Solve a*= 7a? + 15x 2 2* . 23. Evidently this method can be applied to equations of if one member of the equation is zero and the other factored. 26. 5 = 0. orz roots. 5) = 0. 233. = 0. x(x <2 . Bx 1 1. 2S3x 1 2 . Transposing. ar>8o. 24. 25. a=:i^^. Let it e(l uation: 5^ + 5=26*. (5 a? !)(. = 14. 2a^7x sc(2 16rc Therefore a = 0. Solution by factoring. and 6. if either of the uct is zero. . all or.
Or Hence the 234. Ex. } 2 2 (5 . a?. 5 = 0. 4)(z3) = 0.g. 3^ 25^ + 28 = 0. the resulting expression equation contains fewer roots than the original one. is 5) = 0. E. Therefore x =3 = 2. In order If both to obtain all roots of the original equation. 3. 8. evidently (x Or 4)(x . : 87 = 0. + 8=s: 7. 187 Solve x? 3x x*(x 2 4x + 12 = 0. 2.:=0.= 24. + 9 f 20 x = 0. 3. 2.3)(x + 3 3. + 10 a = 24. 0^ + 21 = 10 10. 3) Factoring. 6. a?10a=:24. + 100. + 6)=0. 14.(. 3 or 2 a. EXERCISE Solve by factoring 6 2. 3) = 0. 4. (*2)(x + 2)(a3)=0. 2o3 f9a. The equation I. 5. such a common divisor must be made equal to zero. members of an equation are divided by an involving the unknown quantity. (aj4)(a. 9. aj( 15. 16. 0^ ar> 11. O roots are 2. x2 f 2 x . 0(02) = 7(02). 3^ = 0(1106). a* 10a=24.6)) = 0.e.QUADRATIC EQUATIONS Ex.24 = 0. 4or + 18a f 8a. 7. let it be required to solve If or x we divide both = 2. 13. ar'Sa^ 12. 12. Form an equation whose roots are 4 and 6. members by x But evidently the value x 3 3. for a: . we 9 obtain x 4.  3) 2 4 (x = 0.3 =5 or = 2 3 obtained from the 5 (x or x equation x (x = is also a root. 3# y 5 = 0. and the equation thus formed be solved.
20. w(w x2 2 w)=6tt. 50. uz + u 21. a 2 =(x a)b. '3a!J  . (a + 1) (a. or 3 a 2 2 a? 26.3) = (s + l) (3 a). + 2)= (y( j_ ? (+ 3)(a?+2). 23. 25. 22. f ELEMENTS OF ALGEKRA tt(3tt + 7tt)=6tt.188 17. 19. 18. (2a? 3) (a 24. 2. 27. ara + ft + c*.
3. and whose sum is is 36. two numbers is 4.1. 56.9.2. 55. : 3. Find two numbers whose difference is 40. 2. 8. 2. 2.3. 2. EXERCISE 1. 1. Twentynine times a number exceeds the square of the 190. . 4. and the difference Find the numbers. Find the numbers. 57. 5. Problems involving quadratics have lems of this type have only one solution. 3. 7.0. and consequently many prob 235. 52. What are the numbers of ? is The product two consecutive numbers 210. The sum of the squares of two consecutive numbers 85. Divide CO into two parts whose product is 875. 189 the equations whose roots are 53. feet. 5. number by 10. and whose product 9. The difference of . 88 its reciprocal A number increased by three times equals 6J. G. 2. its sides of a rectangle differ by 9 inches. and equals 190 square inches. area A a perimeter of 380 rectangular field has an area of 8400 square feet and Find the dimensions of the field. Find a number which exceeds its square by is .3. 1. 6. Find the sides. Find the number.QUADRATIC EQUATIONS Form 51. 54. PROBLEMS INVOLVING QUADRATICS in general two answers.0. 0. of their reciprocals is 4. is Find two numbers whose product 288. 2. 58. Find the number. but frequently the conditions of the problem exclude negative or fractional answers. The 11.3.
ply between the same two ports. If a train had traveled 10 miles an hour faster. What did he pay for each apple ? A man bought a certain number of horses for $1200. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA The length 1 B AB of a rectangle. and gained as many per Find the cost of the horse. c equals 221 Find AB and AD. he would have received two horses more for the same money. If he each horse ? . dollars. A man A man sold a as the watch cost dollars. he had paid 2 ^ more for each apple. of a rectangle is to the length of the recthe area of the figure is 96 square inches. a distance One steamer travels half a mile faster than the two hours less on the journey. watch for $ 24. 19. it would have needed two hours less to travel 120 miles.190 12. Two steamers and is of 420 miles. Two vessels. 15. 14. one of which sails two miles per hour faster than the other. and the line BD joining two opposite vertices (called "diagonal") feet. other. exceeds its widtK AD by 119 feet. as the 16. and lost as many per cent Find the cost of the watch. ABCD. and Find the sides of the rectangle. The diagonal : tangle as 5 4. 17. had paid $ 20 less for each horse.10. At what rates do the steamers travel ? 18. he would have received 12 apples less for the same money. A man cent as the horse cost dollars. watch cost sold a watch for $ 21. sold a horse for $144. Find the rate of the train. and the slower reaches its destination one day before the other. vessel sail ? How many miles per hour did the faster If 20. . A man bought a certain number of apples for $ 2. and lost as many per cent Find the cost of the watch. 13. start together on voyages of 1152 and 720 miles respectively. What did he pay for 21.
23 inches long.I) 4(aj*l) 2 = 9. contains B 78 square inches. how wide is the walk ? 23. so that the rectangle. and the area of the path the radius of the basin. =9 Therefore x = \/8 = 2. as 0. By formula. a point taken. 27. The number of eggs which can be bought for $ 1 is equal to the number of cents which 4 eggs cost. (tf. . is surrounded by a walk of uniform width. of the area of the basin. Equations in the quadratic form can be solved by the methods used for quadratics. and working together. Ex. In how many days can B do the work ? = 26. Find the side of an equilateral triangle whose altitude equals 3 inches. A needs 8 days more than B to do a certain piece of work. B AB AB 2 191 grass plot. If the area of the walk is equal to the area of the plot. Find and CB.QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 22. is On the prolongation of a line AC. 24. How many eggs can be bought for $ 1 ? 236. EQUATIONS IN THE QUADRATIC FORM An equation is said to be in the quadratic form if it contains only two unknown terms.) 25. 237. A rectangular A circular basin is surrounded is  by a path 5 feet wide. Find TT r (Area of a circle . constructed with and CB as sides. 30 feet long and 20 feet wide. Solve ^9^ + 8 = ** 0. the two men can do it in 3 days. ^3^ = 7. and the unknown factor of one of these terms is the square of the unknown factor of the other. 1. or x = \/l = 1.
2. >. T 17. EXERCISE Solve the following equations 1. 2 16 a^40 11. Let x + 15 = J < Then or or rf 15 = 0. Solving. 4 2 4 37aj 2 = 9. Ex. 16. 2 h9:=0.)+72=0. a? 15 1=2*. ^^ ~ 28 (a? ^ 2:=Q> . 4 a. a. 4. stitute ELEMENTS OF ALGEBEA In more complex examples it is advantageous to sub a letter for an expression involving a?.T 2 2 .192 238. 9. 4 : 89 10a. 2 (^Z)  "3 14. = 1. 436 3. 4 8 = 2 a* 2. a 21or=100. 8. 19. 12. a4 5o. y8)=0. 3 a4 44s + 121=0. = 13. 7. Hence Le. 4 6. (a: +aj) 18(x2 +a. aV+9o 4 =0. 6.2 =4. or y = 8. 18. 10.
Ex. If b Ifb* 2 If b Iflr 4 ac is is is 4c 4 ac a positive or equal to zero. Relations between roots and coefficients. Since ( 12) 2 4 4 9 = 0. kac 4 ac is 'not a perfect square. c the roots are real. The discriminant =(. the roots are equal.12 x + 9 = 0. the roots are rational. the roots are unequal. negative. the roots are irrational. rational. 241.bx 4. are denoted __ Tl If the roots of the equation ax2 4.QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 193 CHARACTER OF THE ROOTS 239. 1.bx 4 by ' i\ and r2 then . 2 4 ac 2a Hence / 1 4r2 = a Or . Determine the character of the roots of the equation 4 x2 . the roots are real. the roots are imaginary. Hence the roots are real. Determine the character of the roots of the equation 3 a 2 .2) 2 4 3 (. and equal.f> = 0.Vfr 2 4 ac T* b Vi . is 4ac not zero. Ifb 2 Jfb 2 is zero.c 4 ac is called the discriminant of = 0. a perfect square. 240. it 2a follows 2 : 2. The quadratic equation oa/* 2 f bx f c = has two roots.2 z . ( 2a Hence 1.5) = 04. and unequal. The expression b 2 the equation ay? 4. 2. b 4. rational. . Ex. 3.
18. 9x2 ~ the In each of the following equations determine by inspection sum and the product of the roots: 13. = 0.19 # 20.. f 2 E. 14. lla. 24. Sa^ + 2 Ooj 2 Solve the following equations and check the answers by forming the sum and the product of the roots 19. 60 2 = 0. = 5x. 5aj 9. x2 !i>x + 2 z2 2 16. 23. 12~x = x 2 . = 0. tfmx+p^Q. ar + ^ + 2^2 = 0.194 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 2 a? these results If the given equation is written in the form may be expressed as follows : x +a += a 0. 15. = 0. 4.2 + 4a: + 240 = 0. 12. 3a. 22. 2a 4z5 = 0. their product isf. n a?3 ' ~ == l 5. 10 x = 25 x + 1. + 2a15 = 0. 2 7. The sum of the roots equal is to the coefficient of x with the sign changed. x2 7 10. (b) The product of the roots equal to theubsolute term. 21. or + 10 + 4520 = 0. 5a 26a? + 5 = 0. 2x* + 6x + 3 = 0. 17. 9a3 = 0. 2 : 3. EXERCISE 89 a Determine without solution the character of the roots of the following equations 1. 5oj aj + l = 0. o. 2. + 18 2 8. = Q. + 2a. the sain of the roots of 4 x 5 x 3 =: is j. + 12 2  . 6. 2 a. x2 4 x 0^ or j + 205 = 0.g. If the (a) coefficient ofx 2 in a quadratic equation is is unity. ^12. : a 2 .
~ a m f. very important that all exponents should be governed by the same laws. we may choose for such symbols any definition that is con venient for other work.a" = a m n mn . Then the law of involution. we let these quantities be what they must be if the exponent law of multiplication is generally true. The first of these laws is nition of power. no Fractional and negative exponents. instead of giving a formal definition of fractional and negative exponents. a m a" = a m+t1 .* III. 244. (ab) . must be *The symbol smaller than. however. and . > m therefore. It is. hence." means "is greater than" 195 similarly means "is . II. = a"" < . for all values 1 of m and n.CHAPTER XVI THE THEORY OF EXPONENTS 242. (a ) s=a m = aw bm a . such as 2*. m IV. the direct consequence of the defiand third are consequences FRACTIONAL AND NEGATIVE EXPONENTS 243. 4~ 3 have meaning according to the original definition of power. We assume. The following four fundamental laws for positive integral exponents have been developed in preceding chapters : I. while the second of the first. (a m ) w . that a an = a m+n . provided w > n.
etc. e. a\ 26.196 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA true for positive integral values of n. Hence Or Therefore Similarly. 29. (bed)*. 31. 245. = a. at. '&M A 27. Let x is The operation which makes the fractional exponent disappear evidently the raising of both members to the third power. disappear. 23. Write the following expressions as radicals : 22. laws. 0?=^. 4~ . 24. 25. a*. ^=(a^) 3* 3 . we try to discover the let the meaning of In every case we unknown quantity and apply to both members of the equation that operation which makes the negative. a?*. m$. 28. ml. as. since the raising to a positive integral power is only a repeated multiplication. n 2 a. .g.  we find a? Hence we define a* to be the qth root of of. Assuming these two 8*. To find the meaning of a fractional exponent. or zero exponent equal x. fractional. 30. (xy$. 3*. a .
43. = 2. 37. Vo5 .g. 27* = 3. 40. a* * = 3. however. : 2' 4* = 4. a. = 49. 44. 45. If. Solve the following equations 39. 246. 35.\/n.g. 41. is The operation which makes the zero exponent disappear 2 evidently a multiplication by any power of a. 64* + 9* + 16* + (32)*. the base is zero. 50. 5 a* = 10. v/o&cT 34. To find the meaning of zero exponent. \/xy \/m. is Therefore the zero power of any number NOTE. : 4* + 9* + 16* + 25* + 36*. 3* = 27. 48. a * a2 Or a=l. 46. = 2. : 197 33. 38. ty?. 5L is indeterminate Indeterminate. \fi?. v'mT 36. hence is . equal to unity. e.THE THEORY OF EXPONENTS Express with fractional exponents 32. Let a = a. a . e. 49. 42. 7z* Find the values of 47.
cr n.g. or the exponent. consider the following equations. a8 a 2 = 1 1 . 248. Factors may be transferred from the numerator to the denominator of a fraction. in which obtained from the preceding one by dividing both members by a. an x = a. Or a"# = l. by changing the sign of NOTE. . a a a = = a a a a1 1 a. e. Multiplying both members by a". Let x= or". each is The fact that a if = we It loses its singularity 1 sometimes appears peculiar to beginners. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA To find the meaning of a negative exponent. vice versa. etc.2 = a2 .198 247.
6 or 2 ^^ ^. 2 . 40. 27. 66 45. f (2w)~i 1 . 3 a. rfS. 36. 2 . 39. : mi m~^. 37. 1 L ?>i""i 3 cci . : or 5 .THE THEORY OF EXPONENTS EXERCISE Find the values of: 91 199 Express with positive exponents 21. 7~ l a 2b 2 . 44. ^?2 y' 34. 2m~i 43. a. ^L. . 3 a? * 42. ""^T"*' Write without denominators 29."* 38. : * 31 l> ' <W* arV 8 30. Write with radical signs and positive exponents 35. 25. c 32. * 24. a^ 41. 22. m . .
001. 17' 2 51. = ^. of: 3ll4~* 60. = l. 48.26)* 1 (I) 2 .9*. 10* 5* = . Examples relating to roots can be reduced to examples con taining fractional exponents. (81)* + (3f)*(5 TV)*3249 + 16 * . = .200 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA : Solve the equations 46.1. It can be demonstrated that the last three laws for any exponents are consequences of the first law. 250. It then follows that: Fractional and negative exponents may be treated by the same methods as positive integral exponents. + A_. (. and we shall hence assume that all four laws are generally true. 58. 49.343)* + (. 61. = 5. 53. 47.81 f (a . 57. z* = 1. 54.6). . 10* Find the values 56. (a*&~*)* + (aVM = a*&~* + V ' = '*&* Ex 2 . 2 =f 3* = f x~ l 50. 5  75 USE OF NEGATIVE AND FRACTIONAL EXPONENTS 249. 59. + 1~* f 21 . 55. 52.(. 1. ar = i.008)* + A. Ex. z 5or*=10.
EXERCISE Simplify : 92 2. . a. 4 5. 7*. 6 *. 72 . 27  28. / 7fv 7.$*.4 a8 . 7~ 6 . S'sS8.6 *' 6 *25.5a. 79 .. 3sVS.4 2 a? 2 ar 1 . 23. 12.7W. 95 ^9i 5**. 16. 8 ' 9.5. 10. OA 20. 17. etc. 3 a.THE THEORY OF EXPONENTS 251. .^/5^5.7i. 26. 6.&. 7. &. 4 x^. 3. NOTE. 7~ 5 27  .7*.$". remove the fractional exponents.3 aj" a. . 18. 14an (4**(Va) 4 . #* a. Perform the operation indicated. ' 11. Remove the negative exponents. 25 26  2~ 8 2~ 9 22. are performed. 6a.&. (d) If required. 16. Negative exponents should not be removed until all operations of multiplication^ division. 13. 14. V5. 201 Expressions containing radicals should be simplified as : follows (a) (6) (c) Write all radical signs as fractional exponents. __ 29 /m '=V a9 ia.4 .
If powers of a?. we wish to arrange terms according to descending we have to remember that. 2. V ra 4/ 3 \/m 33. powers of x arranged are : Ex. The 252. lix = 2xl =+1 Ex. 1.2 d . 1 Multiply 3 or +x 5 by 2 x x. Divide by ^ 2a 3 qfo 4. 40. 1. the term which does not contain x may be considered as a term containing #.202 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 32. 6 35. Arrange in descending powers of Check. 34.
THE THEORY OF EXPONENTS
EXERCISE
93
203
Perform the operations indicated:
2.
3.
4. 5. 6.
(7r8Vr + r>)(9 Vr7). 2  1 ). (a + a f 1) (a~ + a
2 2 2
7.
8. 9.
10.
11.
(4
a 3
 24 a  9  3 a~ )
1
2
r
1
(a"
 3).
12.
13.
14.
+ + 47i) + 35V5?)*(5Vp + l). VS" ^ ( Vo Vft) H (a~ f 7 a ^a~ + 1C a*b~  33 a 6~ + 14 a(3 a _&)*. (^? + ^/^ + */fr^ 15. 16. (a6 + 2V6c c)^(Va+V6 Vc). 17. y^TTOa; f 13  12 * + 4 aF*.
(13Vp
5
l
(Va^f aV^&Va
l
3
)
3
2
2
^>~
3
2
1
1
)
(
1
18. 19.
Vor
2
2 x h or
2
2 or
1
f
3.
V25 #
 2()"ar r+ 34  12 x f 9 x*.
20.
^^
l
21. 22.
23. 24.
25.
+2
a?
8
(l+4^flO^ + 20oTf 25^T f24\/i?f 16
(1+V2)V2. (2+V2)(V22). (5+V3)(52V3).
26. 27.
)*.
(13VS)(2 + V5).
(VU  V2)(Vn~3V2)
204
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
:
Find by inspection
28.
29.
(x*
+ 3)(tf*f 2).
35.
36.
8 (a;*
yi)
.
a*
+ 3l5.
V2
(5*2*
2
.
30.
31.
32.
38. 39.
(3^
(#* ^
(fl
2*)
f
.
33. 34.
5) (x*
5).
40.
(m
n)
f
(m*
11
f
n 5 ).
CHAPTER XVII
RADICALS
253.
A
radical is the root of
a quantity, indicated by a
radical sign.
254.
The
radical is rational, if the root can be extracted
exactly; irrational, if the root cannot be exactly obtained. Irrational quantities are frequently called surds.
^9
4^
\/2,
(*
+ V) *
are radicals.
= 2, V(a + 6) 2 are rational.
V4af
b are irrational.
255.
root.
The
order of a surd
is
indicated by the index of the
va
\/2
/
.
is
is is
of the second order, or quadratic. of the third order, or cubic. of the fourth order, or biquadratic.
Vc
256. A mixed surd is the product of a rational factor and a surd factor; as 3Va, a;V3. The rational factor of a mixed surd is called the coefficient of the surd.
An
257.
factor.
entire surd is
one whose coefficient
is
unity; as
Va,
Similar surds are surds
3v/2 and 6
which contain the same irrational
are similar.
av^
3V2 and
3 V8 are dissimilar.
206
206
258.
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
Conventional restriction of the signs of roots.
All even roots
e.g.
may
be positive or negative,
VI = + 2
or
2.
Hence
6. which results in four values, viz. 14, 6, To avoid 14, or this ambiguity, it is customary in elementary algebra to restrict
the sign of a root to the prefixed sign.
Thus
5 V4 4 2 V4
= 7 VI = 14.
If the object of an example, however, is merely an evolution, the complete answer is usually given thus
;
=
(oj 2).
259.
Since radicals can be written as powers with fractional
exponents, all examines relating to radicals
may
be solved by the
methods employed for fractional exponents.
Thus, to find the nth root of a product ab we have
T
1
1
(a6)"==a"6"
I.e.
(242).
to extract the root of a product, multiply the roots of the
factors.
TRANSFORMATION OF RADICALS
260.
Simplification of surds.
A radical is simplified when the
expression under the radical sign is integral, and contains no factor whose power is equal to the index.
Ex.
1.
Simplify
= \/25~a~ Vb = 6 a*VS.
4
Ex.
2.
Simplify
v/16.
J/lB^^.
4/2
= 2^.
RADICALS
.
207
261 When the quantity under the radical sign is a fraction, we multiply both numerator and denominator by such a quantity as will make the denominator a perfect power of the same
degree as the surd.
Ex.
3.
Simplify V.
Ex.
4.
Simplify
EXERCISE
94
208
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
/s
37.
39.
j
*x+y
38.
n
\ 2m
262.
An
same manner
imaginary surd can be simplified in precisely the as a real surd thus,
;
42.
V16a
:
,
2
.
44.
2\
Simplify and find to three decimal places the numerical
values of
47.
48.
VJ.*
49.
50.
Vf.
VJ.
VA
263.
Reduction of a surd to an entire surd.
Ex.
Express 4 a V& as an entire surd.
EXERCISE
Express as entire surds
1.
:
95
4V5.
3.
2\/lL
5.
6.
7.
2.
3V7.
4.
3^5.
a VS.
8.
* See table of square roots on page 164.
RADICALS
264. Transformation of surds to surds of different order.
209
Ex.
1.
Transform \/uW into a surd of the 20th order.
Ex.
2.
Transform
\/2,
V3, and
\/5 into surds of the
same
lowest order.
V2 = 2* = a* = '#64. ^ = 8* = 3A= ^gi. ^5 = 6* = 6* =^125.
1
Ex.
3.
Reduce the order of the surd tyaP.
Exponent and index bear the same relation as numerator and denominator of a fraction ; and hence both may be multiplied by
same number, or both divided by the same number, without changing the value of the radical.
the
EXERCISE
Reduce
1.
96
:
to surds of the 6th order
2.
Va?.
fymn.
3.
\/ v
4.
v'c?.
5.
\
z
\
^3
6.
mn.
Reduce
7.
8.
to surds of the 12th order
9.
:
V2~a.
\/a4 6 2c.
\/3ax.
11.
12.
\/oP6.
13.
14.
a.
^v/mV
10.
\/5a5V.
Express as surds of lowest order with integral exponents and indices
:
15.
v/o
5
.
16.
\/oW.
17.
v/IaT .
2
18.
\/
20.
A/^
22.
VSlmV.
24.
reduce them to their simplest add them like similar add their coefficients) . Arrange 35. A/3. 36. 4^/4. ^126. V3.2 V50 = V2 + 9 V2 . Ex. To add or form. </3.2 V50. I VJ + 3VT8 . 3  s/ / 3ft 2  3 ^y Ex. terms their If the resulting surds are similar.e. ^2. Simplify V + 3 VlS. ^2. 34. ^4. V2. 26.2. 37. ^30. 5V2. v/3. 2\ 3*. v^S. A/2. 30. ^3. \/7. in order of magnitude : \/7. ^5.3\ . ^7. </20.210 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA : Express as surds of the same lowest order 25. 32. 31. subtract surds. 27. V2. + . \/5. Ex. V3. if dissimilar. 40. ^/IT. V5. ^6. 3. 3: \/=^8 v~ 8ft 2 s/a. 33. ^4. Simplify/a35 ~ o . ADDITION AND SUBTRACTION OF RADICALS 265. connect them by proper 1. VS. s!/3. ^2. 38. 29. 28. (i.10 V2 =  V2. v/4. </2. 39. Simplify V~ . signs. V2. v/3.
VJ+V8V1 + V50. 14. + 3V835V2. 10. V18+V32VT28+V2. 13.3V20 + 6V5. V45c3 3 abv'ab V80~c~3 f V5a c + c 2 + 3 aVo^ 3 Va^ . 4. 9. 6. 11. . 8. V175V28+V634V7. 3. 12. 4V805V45.J a6 V4 aft. 8VT8J2V32 7. 2V87Vl8f5V72V50. VT2 + 2V27 + 3V759V48.RADICALS EXERCISE 97 : 211 Simplify the following expressions 2. 6.
1. .212 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA .fab V \~\ jab FW MULTIPLICATION QEJRABIQALS 266. 26^ . 23. Multiply V2 by 3\/l. Ex. 3. 98 ab ^" fab 1 " .2 VS by 3 Vf + 10 VB. 2. . for a~\/x b~\/y ab^/xy. 6*. y* = Ex. Dissimilar surds are reduced to surds of the same order. 5 4/6072 = 16^6272. and then multiplied.100 = f 44 VS6 6 + 44\/36.2v/6 + IPV6 105. Ex. Multiply 5 V7 8\/7 6\/7. Multiply 3\/25^ by 5\/50Y 3v / 2 . the Surds of the same order are multiplied by multiplying product of the coefficients by the product of the irrational factors.6V35 106 460V35100 .
21. 8. + VB)(2V5). (5V58V2)(5V5 + 8V2). (3 20. 37. aVa. 6. 39.VSS. v/18 v"3. (V6 + 1) 1 . V2 V50. \/3 \^). V5 Va VaV?/ V Vr 16. (2V3) 8 . 41. 28 . (V2+V3+V4)V3. 6 V4 5. 12. (VmVn)(Vm+Vn> 33. (Va Va 36. 18. 10. V20 V30. Vll. a?.^/2. V42. 40 10 30. 15. 2. 25. 19. 213 98 11. 34. VlO V15. 14. V3 Vl2. (VmVn) (V3V2) 8 . (6V23V3)(6V23V3). fWa 17. . V3 V6. 9. 38. 7. 4. VTO. 3. v/4. 2 . 6. (5V22V3CVS)V3. 40. V2aV8^. 13. ( Vm \ 1 Vm) (Vmf 1 6(Vaf Va { Vm).RADICALS EXERCISE 1. 27.
Va v/a. 46. Monomial surdn of the same order may be divided by multiplying the quotient of the coefficients by the quotient of the surd factors. (3V52V3)(2V3V3). a VS f a?Vy = \/  x*y this Since surds of different orders can be reduced to surds of the same order. (3V32Vo)(2V3+V5). 44. Ex. (5V2+V10)(2V51). it more convenient to multiply dividend and divisor by a factor which makes the divisor rational.214 42. 268. 53. all monomial surds may be divided by method. . is 1 2. E. 48.y. V3 . v/a  DIVISION OF RADICALS 267. Ex. ELEMENTS OF ALGEHRA (3V55V3) S . 60. (2 45. 52. the quotient of the surds is If. 43. 49.V5) ( V3 + 2 VS). a fraction. (5V72V2)(2VT7V2). (V50f 3Vl2)4V2== however. 47. 51.
Evidently. e. however. called rationalizing the the following examples : 215 divisor.73205 we simplify JLV^l V3 *> ^> division Either quotient equals .. Divide VII by v7. the by 3 is much easier to perform than the division by 1.g. is illustrated by Ex. 3. /~ } Ex. VTL_Vll ' ~~" \/7_V77 . To show that expressions with rational denominators are simpler than those with irrational denominators. 4\/3~a' 36 Ex.by the usual arithmetical method. . . metical problems afford the best illustrations. we have to multiply In order to make the divisor (V?) rational. 1. Divide 12 V5 + 4V5 by V.RADICALS This method. The 2. . arithTo find. is Since \/8 12 Vil = 2 V*2. the rationalizing factor x ' g \/2. we have V3 But if 1. Hence in arithmetical work it is always best to rationalize the denominators before dividing.73205. Divide 4 v^a by is rationalizing factor evidently \/Tb hence.57735. + 4\/5 _ 12v 3 + 4\/5 V8 V8 V2 V2 269. by V7.
23 .. The product of two conjugate binomial surds is rational . 14. if 4=V50 Two binomial quadratic surds are said to be conjugate. ^/H . find to four decimal places the numerical values of: 19. 7. V8 JL. V5 = 2. 272. they differ only in the sign which connects their terms. 271. . Vll 212*. 20. V3 = 1. V48 25. 21.216 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 99 Simplify : 1. . V8?^ V7 xy T 13 11 n V7 ~ VH 5 2.2361. V5 270. and Given V2 = 1.4142. Va + Vb and Va Vb are conjugate surds. i. A.7320. Vn V7 ' * 8. V2 22 . To rationalize the denominator of a fraction whose denom inator is a binomial quadratic surd. V8 12. V3 24 . VffV?. A. multiply numerator and denominator by the conjugate surd of the denominator. 2V5 ' 2 V3 o vfi* ' ^ Va 12.
= 18. 3. . Ex.1 xVtf a.vffi^T _ . V2+2 _ V2+2 2\/2+l_6 + 6\/2.2. s Simplify a. 217 Simplify 2V3V2 ' V3V2 ~ = 4 + V5. . Ex. Find the numerical value of : V2 + 2 2V21 e .07105 = 7 7 2V21 2V21 2V2 + 1 EXERCISE Eationalize the denominators of : 100 .RADICALS Ex. 1.Vs2 . V82 2V3 1fVS .
V3 + 1 1+V5 _ 3V5 ' V5+2 31. four places of decimals 23 . INVOLUTION AND EVOLUTION OF RADICALS 273.5 3 = 125. 6V7. V21 = 25 . = V3 = 1. find to _!_. V5V7 18> ^SVg. Vo1 26. 19.4142. : and V5 = 2. J?_. v 2V3 28.2361.7320. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 13 ~3 V51 14 A 16. V32* to 1 Find the third proportional + V2 and 3 f 2V2. Given V2 1. By the use of fractional exponents . . 24. V52 17 1Va? Vg+v/2 5V77V5 ' V3V2 15. 27. it can easily be shown that VcT = ( V) w Hence 3 V25~ = ( V25) 3 . 2V5V18 mVm Va 22.218 6 .W3.
\/125" . we must find 8 and whose product is 15. 2. 8. . 1.RADICALS 219 274. 9. : 101 (3Vmw) 2 . 3. 5. 4. introduce fractional exponents : Ex. SQUARE ROOTS OF QUADRATIC SURDS 275. Simplify Ex. on the other hand. ( V5 + V3) = 5 + 2 V5~^3 + 3 2 = 8 + 2 VIS. viz. 11. V255 . it to this form. According to G3. V643 . the If. we had to find problem would be quite simple if presented in the form v52V3 5 + 3. To reduce is two numbers whose sum 5 and 3. In other examples of involution and evolution. To find the square root of a binomial square by inspection. 3 (V2~u)  7. 2 12. \/l6*. 2. v8f 2\/15. Find the square of EXERCISE Simplify 1.
These Ex. 2. is 11. 3. is Find two numbers whose sum numbers are 10 and 2. 12 and whose product is 20. The Hence ^11 . Find V4 + VJ8. 2 \/18. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA l.A/2. ^TT. EXERCISE 102 : Extract the square roots of the following binomials . +2 Ex.6 A/2 = Vll Find two numbers whose sum numbers are 9 and 2.6\/2 = ^9 .2 A/2 = V9A/2 = 3 . and whose product is 18.6 V2. Find Vl2 4. coefficient of the Irrational Write the binomial so that the term is 2. Find Vll .2 \/20.220 Ex.
x2 = x f 2. they are transto formed into rational equations. are radical equations. Transposing and uniting. first involution. The value x =2 reduces each . 19. V48 23. Before performing the involution. * 4 * 2 V6 VT 4. Ex. 5. = xa + 4 x f 4. V4 + V12 RADICAL EQUATIONS 276. A radical equation is an equation involving an irrational root of an unknown number. i.e. examples to simplify the equation as it is necessary in most as possible. (2x xrf 1.. +=.1. a. Dividing by Check. 277. Solve vVf!2a = 2.V48 4 20. . by raising both members equal powers. If all radicals do not disappear through the the process must be repeated. 4x x = 2. VT . 4. 8.RADICALS Simplify the following expressions 18. r 22. Radical equations are rationalized. \/x Vx = + 3 = 7. member to 2. much and to transpose the terms so that one radical stands alone in one member. Transposing Vsc2 + f 12 12 Squaring both members. : 221 Vl32V22.
a socalled extraneous root. The results of the solution of radical equations must be substituted in the (jlren equation to determine ivhether the roots are true roots or extraneous roots. Squaring both members. . Ex.222 Ex. Factoring. one root. V4afT~l. 2 Vx^ Dividing by 2. 24 \/4 # Transpose V4 x Squaring both members. Therefore Check. the first member = V2. tion which has two roots. Squaring both members. 2. Therefore CftecAr. Transposing and uniting. f 25 = 12. 5. 5 and The squaring of both members of the given equation introSince duced the new root 1. Dividing by 24. tion usually introduces a new Squaring both members of an equaThus x 2 = 3 has only root. member =\/2 + jV2=v^. . V24~+~l = 0. . Extraneous roots. x + 1 + 2 Vx'2 + 1 x + (. they may be extraneous roots. x = J. an equaSquaring both members we obtain or 1. or = VzMx2 7 x f f 7 x + 9. 3. Transposing. viz. = 9 x2 18 x + 8x 2 25xf3 = 0. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBltA Solve V4 x + 1 f V4 f 1 . = 12 = 144 24\/4# + 1 = 120. a. 4#f 4 = 9. radical equations require for their solution the squaring of both members.3. 278. Vitf 4x f 25 f 25 4x f 1 25. \/4 jc~+~l = 5.1) = 0. Solve Vx f Squaring both members. (x 3) (8 x x = 3. at . the roots found are not necessarily roots of the given equation 279. viz. It = 3 x . f V/2TT25 = 5 + x 7 = 12. Transposing and uniting.
2 r. 4 VxT~0 = \/8 x f 1. both members reduce to 5. Hence x = the only root. Factoring. . and to 5. ViTie 4 z2 . x root of the preceding equation. = } would be a VaT+T Ex. equation it is an extraneous root. 2 z 2 4 6 x 4 3 = 144 . \ does not satisfy the given. Transposing. viz. is x V. tlie Jeft both members reduce member = 12T V2. or x *j. If If x 3 = 3.3) (2 x . * Exclude all solutions which do not satisfy the equation or which make the given radicals imaginary.48 x + 2 x2 53 f 141 = 0. 4. Solve the following equations : = G.12 . for it satisfies the equation . 2 Clearing of fractions. = 3. the right member = V2. Therefore. NOTE. (x x = 3. Check. Solve Vz+T + V2aT+3 = + "b"x f A5_ 15. If the signs of the roots were not restricted. . V2x' 8 42x43 Transposing. . 223 x = 3. + 6~ieT~3 .RADICALS Hence x If a.47) = 0. Squaring. Hence there is only one root.
radical equations may be solved by the method of 238.33 af* + 32=0. Factoring. Many 1.224 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 280. Therefore . Ex. Solve af*.
Ex. it will be found that 9 and 1 satisfy the equation.RADICALS Raising both members to the  power.8 x + 40 = 36. Substituting. 2. while 6 and 3 are extraneous roots. make the given radicals * Exclude extraneous roots and roots which imaginaries. 2Va. 2_8z 440 = 49.i~24 = 0. = 7. y then x2 . = 0. = 26. 3 6. But as the square root is restricted to cannot be equal to a negative quantity. 45 14VJB = . 225 x = 32~* or 1"* = ^ or 1.f40= 5. This can be seen without substituting.8 x 2 Hence y' 2y = 35. some of the roots be extraneous. Let 8 x f 40 . x + Vx a? = 6.35 = 0. Solve x* 8x x* Adding 40 to both members. 2. x =6 or 3. + 40 = Vz2 $x + 40 = y. 412a* = 16. 4. 5. Q . or y or Therefore 2 y = 5. EXERCISE 104* its Solve the following equations: 1. Vi 2 8a. x Since both =9 or 1. members of the equation were squared. for 6 and 3 are the roots of the may 2 equation Vx' 8x it positive values.8 z40 = 7. o. _ 2 y . . 3.*2a. + 40 = 6.
a. 15. 12. 20. ar fll x 3x 12 V5l? +1 1^7^30 = 1 ^ + G V2^"^I + 2 = 4. 19. 4 V SB* 4 a. or 2 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 8a f 40 2 V* 2 8. +x . +3= 6. 2.226 11. 17.f 18 = 24. a^x2 5 2 13. 2 7a?HV^ 3 7a. 18. 16. 6 Va?~3o~ = y? 3 x f .a 440 = 35. 14.
3 x~ + 4 x + 8 is divided by x remainder (which does not contain a?).2 + 4. Ex.<fo f e is divided by x Let then 2 4 8 ca: f (to + e (x = w. then or* 2 and there is a 3 x2 f. by dividing 3 x* f. however. assign any value whatsoever and would always obtain the same answer for R." transposing. Let then find the remainder obtained z = 3. " Or. a? R = x* . even if Q is unknown. E = ax + &z + m) Q. R = am* + 6m3 + cm2 + tZw + e.CHAPTER XVIII THE FACTOR THEOREM 281. does not contain a?.3 x + 4 + 8 As 72 (a? . 1. then (x 2)Q 0. we make a? what the value of Q. = 2.4 a. If x* . we can find the value of R by making x = 2. if Q was known. 227 . could. to x we # = 2 3. substituting Q " and ani^ ^ 2 respectively for Quotient " and Remainder. ax4 4. Hence.2) Q . ^ = 381+2. no matter If. f 8 = (a? 2) x Quotient f Remainder.2 x 5 by x 3. Without actual division.360 = 244. Without actual division.bx? + ex2 4.2 + 80 = 12. find the remainder when m. 3 2 Ex. 2.
4x411)^0 + 4 ( 3) . + 7 = 632.3)f 11 =. } 2 by a1. the divisor is a factor of the dividend. hence (x divided by x 4.8'= 0. 5. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA The Remainder Theorem. The Factor Theorem. fora?.g. If the remainder is zero. 2 j 7. + 3x3 2x* 32x12 by a?3. x m is factor of the expression. ing x becomes zero x8 3 x2 2 4 when 2 x If a rational integral expression involvm is a is written in place of x. x* s 2 4.8.4(. a f b 7 by a ^14y ~132/  283. the remainder equals 8 2 x . x5 a^ 7 b 5 by x 6. a100 50 a47 4 48 a2 b. + ^by x + b.949. 43 3 E.g. 3 x2 4) is a factor of x    00 *. Only factors of the absolute term need be substituted . 8. x is divided by x The remainder 6 sion involving If an integral rational expresm. 3. if 8 42  .228 282. The remainder obtained by dividing (x + 4)4 _ (3 + 2) ( X  1) +7 by x  1 is 6* 3 . x*x + 4x Tx + 2\)y x + 2. 5 (4x . of the division 3) is m in place of x. the remainder is obtained by substituting in the given expression E. + 6. EXERCISE Without actual division dividing : 105 find the remainder obtained by 2.
49 = 0. 11.TEE FACTOR THEOREM Ex. is a factor. Factor a? 15.13m + 30 10. 1. Therefore x ( 1).1. 2 2. 20. 8. a. 5 Solve the following equations by factoring 15. a 2a + 4. m f m n 14.12. i. 8. or 5 4 + 3^ . or x 4. 7 46 = 0. 9. a 8a f 19 a 12. 3.7 x + 15 = 0. ^ + 7y + 2y40 = 0. Let x = 1 then 7 x + 7 a. f 15 does not vanish. + 15. Let x = . f 5. show that divisible 4x 2 j +3x 2 a? 2 2 as 5 is or 2 by is a. f 3. factors of the absolute term. p 5^ + 8p 4. 5. 8 }3 3 2 3 s 2 3 4 8 2 2 4 s 3 t . 23. a^8^ + 19a. & p*. 2o? m 6ra fllm 6. Resolve into factors 4. we obtain 7  7 x2 + x + 16 = (x + l)(x 2  8 a. 21. 106 division. 1. then x8 7 x'2 4. 24. f 16) EXERCISE Without actual 1. 3 2 : 7. x8 By dividing by x a?8 f 1. x 4o8 + 2a^ + 4a?~3 =0 4^ or* f 9 or* 2 a? aj? a? a? 2 4 3 .9^ + 23^15.r6 = 0. + ttt15 = 0. a? 19. a 5x 6. 2m 5m .1. 1ft : ar*f 6aj 2 o?5ar 3 l + lla. 15. 18. The 5. a + 32. 2. + 27 + 27. ^10^429^20=0. oj 5x2 f3a. are f 1.7 + 16 .7 f 5a 18 divisible by x 2. 25. 229 1. 4m p~m p + 16m^ 12. 6.e. x* 34 ar 5 225 is divisible by x 5.12 = 0. 7 2 a? 2 f 7a?f 15. . m 4 n4 25 mV + 19 ran 13. 17. _ .
If n is a Theorem that 1. Factor consider m m 6 n9 . 286.  y 5 = (x  can readily be seen that #n f either x + y or x y. if n is even. 2. By we obtain the other factors. 2. actual division n. is odd. 1.230 285.y n is divisible by x f ?/. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA positive integer. if w is odd. The difference of two even powers should always be considered as a difference of two squares. xn y n y n y n = 0. Ex. It y is not divisible by 287. if n For ( y) n f y n = 0. 2 8 (3 a ) +8= + 288. it follows from the Factoi xn y n is always divisible by x y. : importance. Factor 27 a* f 27 a 6 8." . x* f/ = (x +/)O . and have for any positive integral value of If n is odd. Two special cases of the preceding propositions are of viz.xy +/). 2 Ex. We may 6 n 6 either a difference of two squares or a dif * The symbol means " and so forth to. xn f. For substituting y for x. ar +p= z6 e.g.
since it more directly to the prime factors. x3 8=0. 26.i mn f w 2). preferable. 3. as 27=0. a.THE FACTOR THEOREM ference of two cubes. however. y 3 +8=0. Hence = (m Ex. 27. Factor a 12 EXERCISE Resolve into prime factors : 107 Solve the following equations: 25. 28. leads 231 is The first method. f n)(m 2 mn f w 2 )(wi .= .
1. ==5 > 1^ = 4. the third one can be found by means of the relation (ojjy) 2 4 xy Ex. Hence " /  X y = =} 4. however. of quadratics.CHAPTER XIX SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 289. (4) Hence.y4 is of the fifth degree. & + 2 xy + = 25. (5) Combining (5) with (1). The degree of an equation involving several unknown quantities is equal to the greatest sum of the exponents of the unknown quantities contained in any term. xy x*y f y = 4 is of the second degree. 4 xy = 16. + 6 a?V . to equations of the fourth few cases. *The graphic solution of simultaneous quadratic equations has been treated in Chapter XII. xywe have 3. * A I. 232 . 290. EQUATIONS SOLVED BY FINDING x +y AND xy 291. in general. = 6. Squaring Solve (1). Simultaneous quadratic equations involving two un known quantities lead. If two of the quantities x f y. can be solved by the methods degree. x y. xy are given. 2 2/ (1) (2) (3) (2) x 4.
1. x and xy are not given. b=3. F* Lx ' 2 (1) ' (2) (3) (4) 2 + 3 = 293. 108 2. ' 10. EXERCISE Solve: 1. ^. The arranged in pairs.g. the answers of the last example are : r*=2. 12. r (" 1 = 876. 233 y. 3. I I x + y=7.SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 292. but can be found. roots of simultaneous quadratic equations must be e. = . In many cases two of the quantities x f y. " "' "' { r 8.
^ f or* f 4 xy = 28.  42 y + Transposing.i/ = r 13. aj = 2. 2 (1) From (1) we have. or y = 1 . .o 18.?/ i = 6. 3. A system of simultaneous equations. I* Jj ^ [. Factoring.4 [ ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA x 4. 6 "I 14.~ y = 5. ' ' . Ex. la. Solve 2 x + 3y = 7. ( \ ~^V\ + 2 / 2y 2 ?/' . 19. EXERCISE Solve : 109 47/ = 0. 4 y = 20. x " (3) 49 etc. 7 . 9 y2 17 y 2 + ) 8 (y  40 y (17 y 1 Hence Substituting in (3). Substituting in (2) Simplifying. THE OTHER QUADRATIC 294. r^ 2 as ] f. one linear and ne quadratic.  f J. . + 29 = 0. can be solved by eliminating one of the unknown uantities by means of substitution. =^ 18* ONE EQUATION LINEAR.20) = 0.a. 5. or JJ..  . I x+y = a.
HOMOGENEOUS EQUATIONS homogeneous equation is an equation all of whose terms are of the same degree with respect to the unknown 295. If of the preceding type. 3 y2 Substituting in (1). x2y. 235  > ' 1 lla 8 12~ 10 13. y* + 2y = 3. 4 f + 2 y = 3. (1) (2) 7 xy + G if = 0. 8 V~80 Hence y =1 y . = 1 3 3. ' x*. quantities. 9. one equation of two simultaneous quadratics is homogeneous.SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS y 7. the example can always be reduced to an example 296. 4^ 3 x 2 y 3 y3 A and # 2 2 xy 5 y2 are homogeneous equations. 3y) : Factor (2). 1. ':il e :) .3 2x 2 Ex. III. 10. (x to solve the 2t/)(2 x = ( Hence we have two systems (3) (1) From (3). Solve .
j Substituting y in (2). (1) (2) x x 5. (3) (4) Subtracting. (1) Eliminate 2 and 6 by subtraction. = 0. 15 x2 . 11 a2 Factoring. 2 . the problem can be reduced to the preceding case by eliminating the absolute term. Solve 2. = Ex. y = 110 f 10^370^ + 7^ = 16^7^ . (rc2/)(llx5y) 16 xy f 5 y 2 (3) Hence solve : (2) From (3). 2. } VI09. If both equations are homogeneous with exception oi the absolute terra.2 ^ EXERCISE Solve: 6ar 7aK/427/2 ==0.236 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 297. = 0.20 xy + 15 y 2 = 2 x 5. 109 a.
" IV.y = 7. ' ^ 15. SPECIAL DEVICES Many examples belonging to the preceding types. and others not belonging to them. Equations of higher degree can sometimes be reduced to equations of the second degree by dividing member by member. 298. which in most cases must be left to the ingenuity of the student.xy 4. E.SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 237 m U.!. y? a? f . (4) (3).175 ay = 12. 2 (3) (4) Squaring (2). 2 xy + y2 = 10. can be solved by special devices. Some of the more frequently used devices are the following: 299.6. Bxy9. f 1 150 a?. ' <"" =m _ 14 ' &.3^42^=43. Division of one equation by the other. . 150 */2 .125 ay = . A. Solve * + '* { Dividing (1) by (2).
y . Vx y 4 or V^^y = 3 x 4 or But the negative roots being extraneous. * ' 300. f^ + 3 7/ = 133. we obtain by squaring. we have from (1). In more complex examples letter for advisable to substitute another such expressions. = 189. x 2 . from (2). y = 3. at first it is unknown quantities. Therefore x = 16. xy. = 12 J.238 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 111 Solve * : fajy=152. quadratics can be solved by ?/.. considering not x or but expressions involving x and as the as x . B. Solve Ex. 2. i" <Vx f ' unknown 6. x +y y etc. Some simultaneous ?/. (1 > (2) 1. i ^ *>. jc~ y = 9. Considering V# + y and y as quantities and solving.
2. Solve (1) (2) Let Then r __ 17^ + 40. [2x + : y= 17. The solution produces the roots EXERCISE Solve : 112 5. Hence = V or = 4. M6. 4. 36* 2. 6. 239 Ex. 7. F+y+ .SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS . . Hence we have 7 x 4 to solve the two systems U) : x ! + */ = 17. I e.
2 or 5 CCT/ + 3 f + 3 . 19 ' 26. f 18. .240 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Solve by any method : far' 9 + a^lSG. ( xy (7 m 2 n*. .21 ^ = 15. ' ** 5x+ 7y = 13 ' ' 1 f. + o5)(6hy) = 80. 27. = y 1 y* . * . x 1 20' = 41 400' =34. ' x2 1 6 xy = 15. = 198. 16. 25.4 y = 47 a.
^ oo . INTERPRETATION OF NEGATIVE RESULTS AND THE FORMS OF 5 . . or ~ indeterminate. 30. 3 a2 38. 25 34. etc 302. etc. oo 301. . hence may be any finite number.  But this equation is satisfied by any is value of a?. 33. 32. ~\ OK OO. Q 7. = 48201. finite  =x y if = x. as a .of  According to the definition of division. 31. Interpretation . 7' j/ 39. 203): ix y Solve graphically (see 40. . .SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS i 241 y . y % 9 f*K 36. The results of problems and other examples appear sometimes in forms which require a special interpretation.
. Interpretation of QO The fraction if x x inis infinitely large. cancel. 306. TO^UU" sufficiently small.i solving a problem the result or oo indicates that the all problem has no solution. Hence such an equation identity. (1) is an identity. i. x f 2. By making x any * assigned zero. is satisfied by any number. equation. without exception. of the second exceeds the product of the first Find three consecutive numbers such that the square and third by 1. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Interpretation of ? e. as + l. Hence any number will satisfy equation the given problem is indeterminate.can be If It is made larger than number. and . great. . + I) 2 x2 ' f 2x + 1 x(x + 2)= .e. I.g. creases. (1) = 0. 1. Let 2. (a: Then Simplifying. customary to represent this result by the equation ~ The symbol 304. and becomes infinitely small.increases if x de x creases. however x approaches the value be comes infinitely large. The solution x = indicates that the problem is indeter If all terms of an minate. Or. ToU" ^100 a. be the numbers. The ~~f fraction . oo is = QQ.000 a. the answer is indeterminate. while the remaining terms do not cancelj the root is infinity.242 303. i. = 10. the If in an equation terms containing unknown quantity cancel. 1.e. it is an Ex. or that x may equal any finite number.x'2 2 x = 1.decreases X if called infinity. or infinitesimal) This result is usually written : 305. (1).
and a. 4 3 x x5 a2 . Solve (aj + 1) : (x + 2) = ( + 3) 114 : (a? + 4). Solve . third and sixth parts. z = 1 Substituting. EXERCISE 1.2 y = 4. no numbers can satisfy the given system.SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS Ex. Solve x a. . and the sum of Find the numbers. y finite QO. EXERCISE PROBLEMS 1. 3. The sum of two numbers Find the numbers. (2).e. Hence /. is their 2. 2.8 x + 15 6. two numbers is 76. The sum is of squares 2890. Solve  9 7. Find three consecutive numbers such that the square of 2. Solve ~o 3 x v ~K 6 x r x 6 4. 42 and' their product is 377. 243 Solve the system : (1) (2) From Or. = oo. * 6. 113 is One half of a certain number equal to the sum of its Find the number. the second exceeds the product of the first and third by 2. 1=0.
9. 148 feet of fence are required. rectangle is 360 square Find the lengths of the sides. The hypotenuse is the other two sides 7. is the breadth diminished by 20 inches.) The area of a right triangle is 210 square feet. Find the sides of the rectangle. of a rectangular field feet. p. the area becomes f% of the original area. the The mean proportional between two numbers sum of their squares is 328. Two cubes together contain 30 cubic inches.) 53 yards. and the diago(Ex. of a right triangle is 73. 103. and the edge of one exceeds the edge of the other by 2 centimeters. 13. Find the sides. 146 yards. 190. and is The area of a rectangle remains unaltered if its length increased by 20 inches while its breadth is diminished by 10 inches. 12. 8. is is 17 and the sum 4. 14. But if the length is increased by 10 inches and 12. is 6. . 255 and the sum of 5. Find the edges. To inclose a rectangular field 1225 square feet in area. 6. The area of a nal 41 feet. and the edge of one. Find the edge of each cube. Find the other two sides. Find the numbers. and the sum of ( 228. equals 4 inches. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA The difference between is of their squares 325. Find the dimensions of the field. 10. The volumes of two cubes differ by 98 cubic centimeters. and the hypotenuse is 37. The sum of the areas of two squares is 208 square feet. Find the side of each square. Find two numbers whose product whose squares is 514. increased by the edge of the other.quals 20 feet. two numbers Find the numbers. and the side of one increased by the side of the other e. and its The diagonal is is perimeter 11. Find these sides.244 3.
the quotient is 2. Find the radii.) (Area of circle and = 1 16. Find the number. by the product of 27 be added to the number. differ by 8 inches. their areas are together equal to the area of a circle whose radius is 37 inches. is 20 inches. (Surface of sphere If a number of two digits be divided its digits. and if the digits will be interchanged. and the equal to the surface of a sphere Find the radii. The radii of two spheres is difference of their surfaces whose radius = 47T#2. 245 The sum of the radii of two circles is equal to 47 inches. .) 17.SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 15. irR *.
to A series is a succession of numbers formed according some fixed law.) is a series. . 3.. P.11 246 (I) Thus the 12th term of the 3 or 42. to produce the 4th term.. 10. 3 d must be added to a. 309. a f d. The terms ARITHMETIC PROGRESSION 308. The common differences are respectively 4. a 3d. a 11. progression. The first is an ascending. 15 is 9 f. Since d is a f 3 d. The common Thus each difference is the number which added an A.. P. series 9.. except the first. to each term produces the next term. a + 2 d. of a series are its successive numbers.. : 7. 2 d must be added to a. 19.. To find the nth term / of an A. the second a descending.. to produce the nth term.. of the following series is 3. (n 1) d must be added to a. added to each term to obtain the next one. a.1) d. a + d. . is derived from the preceding by the addition of a constant number. 17. An arithmetic progression (A. 11. and d. . . 16.. 4. f . each term of which. Hence / = a + (n . + 2 d.CHAPTER XX PROGRESSIONS 307. The progression is a. to produce the 3d term. the first term a and the common difference d being given.7. P.. 12.
99) = 2600.16. 2 sum of the first 60 I (II) to find the ' ' odd numbers. 9. 8. = 99. 2 EXERCISE 1. series . 1. 5.. . 3. 5. Find the 5th term of the 4.. 3. . 5. the term a. if a = 5. P.. 1J. 24. series 2. 3. 247 first To find the sum s 19 of the first n terms of an A. = 2... 6. = a + (a Reversing the order.PROGRESSIONS 310. 3. 21..3 a = l.. (d) 1J.. 7. 6. 7. . Find the nth term of the series 2. Find the 12th term of the 4. . 8. 6 we have Hence . the last term and the common difference d being given. Find the 7th term of the Find the 21st term series .. 115.. P.. 2. 7. 6.. ? (a) 1. of the series 10. 4. 5. 1. 10. a = 2.' cZ == .. first 2 Write down the (a) (6) (c) 6 terms of an A. 19. . d = 3.. = I + 49 = *({ + . d . Adding. 5.8.. 3. . Or Hence Thus from (I) = (+/). 9. Find the 10th term of the series 17. 4^. 8.. 2. . 2J. 2*=(a + Z) + (a + l) + (a + l) 2s = n * . P.. Find the 101th term of the series 1..4. Which (6) (c) of the following series are in A. (a + + (a + l) l)..
12. 3. and a yearly increase of $ 120. to 16 terms. to 10 terms. . 4. to 20 terms. 15. 1.5 H + if f to 10 terms. '. striking hours only. > 2f 2. 6. rf.. In most problems relating to A. . to 8 terms. 1J. 2J. 7. 11. 29. . 20. 1+2+3+4H Find the sum of the first n odd numbers. 31. 7. Jive quantities are involved. 18. 17. 11. . 23. (x +"l) 4. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA last term and the sum of the following series : . 16. 8. to 20 terms.7 f to 12 terms. to 15 terms. 11. . 11. 21. . hence if any three of them are given. Sum the following series 14. 15. Q^) How many times in 12 hours ? (&fi) does a clock. 22. . P. (i) (ii) . 33. the other two may be found by the solution of the simultaneous equations .1 f 3. to 20 terms. and for each than for the preceding one. 1. 12. 2. \n. strike for the first yard. 1. 7. + 3. + 2f3 + 4 H hlOO. 16. .(# 1 2) f (x f 3) H to a terms. $1 For boring a well 60 yards deep a contractor receives yard thereafter 10^ more How much does he receive all together ? ^S5 A bookkeeper accepts a position at a yearly salary of $ 1000. 15. : 3. 13.248 Find the 10. 19. How much does he receive (a) in the 21st year (6) during the first 21 years ? j 311. to 7 terms.
12. 204 = ^ (98 . x=  4 the arithmetical mean between two numbers is equal to half their sum. 89. 6 n2 ..1) . P. The first term of an A. l)e?. is Thus x the arithmetic mean between a and a=b x. 78 n Substituting in (1). . = a + (w. 3 n2 52 n + 204 = 0. 67. and b form an A. 2. 144. or if x Solving.1).~n~\ 408 6). = 144. The series is. the and the sum of all terms 1014. 111. a = 12. s 24ft last term 144. But evidently n cannot be fractional. Ex.6. = 1014. 204 = ^ (a + 49). Solving. a = 49 6(71 . I Substituting in (I) and (II). the second one mean between the other two. From (1). .PROGRESSIONS Ex. I. or 144 = 12 + 12 d=ll. = n(104 . 6. Substituting in (2). 45. 2 (2) From Hence (2). 56. hence n = 6.6 n). Findn. = 13. 122. P. if a. if s = 204. Find the series. is 12. n d. n = 6. 34. #. J = 49. d = 6. = 1014. P. 100. 312. 1.e. 23. (1) 1014 = ^(12 + 144).104 w + 408 = 0. 133. 78. 49 (1) (2) Substituting.. When is called the arithmetic three numbers are in A. or 11 J.
Given a = 4. has the series 82. T? ^. and s. Find d. Find d. How much . How many terms How many terms Given d = 3. = 16. Find w. 10. I Find I in terms of a. = 17. man saved each month $2 more than in the pre 18. 8. 14. f J 1 1 / . Find a Given a = 7. = 1870. produced. n = 17. 78. = 52. Given a = 1.3. s = 70. Find n. I. m and n 2. d = 5. 13. of 5 terms 6. 11. 16. 12. 74. n = 20. 4. a+ and b a b 5. s == 440. = ^ 3 = 1. P. Given a = . a x f b and a b. = 83. y and #f5y. Find a and Given s = 44. f? . Between 10 and 6 insert 7 arithmetic means . .250 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 116 : Find the arithmetic means between 1. ceding one. 17. and all his savings in 5 years amounted to $ 6540. n = 16. 3. n. 6? 9. How much did he save the first month? 19. Given a = . n = 13. 7. Find d and Given a = 1700. n has the series ^ j . n = 4. Between 4 and 8 insert 3 terms (arithmetic is means) so that an A. 15. = 45. A $300 is divided among 6 persons in such a way that each person receives $ 10 did each receive ? more than the preceding one. Find?.
The progression is a. 2 arn (2) Subtracting (1) from (2). the following form 8 nf + q(lr") 1 r . the first = a + ar for ar f ar Multiplying by r. P. is 16(f) 4 . P. 4 (1) .PROGRESSIONS 251 GEOMETRIC PROGRESSION 313. . and To find the nth term / of a G.) is a series each term of which. s(r 1) 8 = ar" 7* JL a. 2 a. or 81 315. (I) of the series 16. 36.. +1. The 314. P. 24. fl lg[(i) l] == 32(W  1) = 332 J. g== it is convenient to write formula' (II) in *. A geometric progression first. E. r n~ l .... 36. 36. . rs = s 2 . I. 24. the first term a and the ratios r being given. of a G. . 12. <zr . except the multiplying derived from the preceding one by by a constant number.. ratios are respectively 3.. is it (G.. 2. or.. ar. NOTE. Therefore Thus the sum = ^ZlD. . . ar8 r. To find the sum s of the first n terms term a and the ratio r being given. 4.. a?*2 To obtain the nth term a must evidently be multiplied by . If n is less : than unity. called the ratio.g. Hence Thus the 6th term l = ar n~l . 4.arn ~ l . .. 108. (II) of the 8 =s first 6 terms of the series 16.
676 t Substituting in = r6 = 64. 36. Find the 5th term of a G. volved . 9. whose and whose second term is 8. 288. r^2. is 16.5.5.. 10. l. Find the 6th term of the series J. Hence the or series is 0. P. 72. whose . 0. 72. Ex.54. . f. is 3. fa. first 5. (d) 5.l.. . whose and whose common ratio is 4. series 6. ? (c) 2. 9. .6. 2 term 3. \ t series .. P. i 288. EXERCISE 1. Jive quantities are in.. Write down the first 6 terms of a G. 117 Which (a) of the following series are in G. P. P. 8. . Find the 7th term of the Find the 6th term of the Find the 9th term of the ^. Hence n = 7. 144. P.. 6.288. 7. .*.. 36. To insert 5 geometric means between 9 and 576.. 144. 25. + 5. . series Find the llth term of the Find the 7th term of the ratio is ^. . 3.._!=!>.. Write down the first 5 terms of a G. first term is 125 and whose common . or 7. a = I. first term 4. 80.72. series 5. 18.. . (b) 1.4. Evidently the total number of terms is 5 + 2. hence. 144. I = 670. . .. +f%9 % .18.252 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 316. 9. 576.. In most problems relating to G. ... .18. . if any three of them are given. the other two be found by the solution of the simultaneous equations : may (I) /=<!/'. f. 4. (it. series . And the required means are 18. 36. fa. 1. . 4. 20. 676.
. s = 310. to 5 terms. be written If the value of r of a G. and hence ~ r . . Given r = n Z 5. >"> . Consequently the sum of an infinite decreasing series is By n less r^Ex. the value The formula for the sum may if n increases* = _ fl flf made taking n sufficiently large. 81. J. J. . r . J. 22. 23. . Find the sum to infinity of the series 1. 36. 1. to 7 .. 1. a^.i a9 . 27.. of r n decreases.. to G terms. 243. Therefore 8^ = 1 i =1 1 '. J. P. 72. = 3. Z s. is less than unity. 13. a. Find the geometric mean between 7. 24. INFINITE GP:OMETRIC PROGRESSION 317. 12. 81. to 6 terms. 16 . 21. == 160. to 8 terms.PROGRESSIONS Find the sum of the following 11. 42. 54. 20. n = 5. to 6 terms. Find a and 4. to 7 terms. 48. + 4 . . 126. n = 5. Prove that the geometric mean between a and b equals Vo6. 15. .. Find a and Given r = 3. . 25S series : 32. M. 12 terms. s = 605. 2. may be than any assignable number. 14. = 3.. 4.J and 270. 19. to 6 terms.. I. Find a and Given r = Given r = 2. Find a and n = 4. 14.nV> i*> !718.
. 100. 66 Therefore ....072 + .. I.. . P. i i J.1. 12.37272 . . 250. 14. 5. Given an infinite series of squares.3727272 . 1. 3.27777 . .= _4Z* . . . 10. Find the value 9. = ..99 .00072 f . is 9.. 1.Ql. r = j.555.)7?7272 .191919.272727. 8.. (6) the sum of the perimeters. and the first term is Find 17. . . 1 r = . The sum Find the of an infinite G. . i. P. . ..... . If a = 40. The terms afteAhe first form an infinite G.. the diagonal of each equal to the side of the preceding one.. Hence . of: 11.01 ^ . 8. 5.. 13. 12.072.. 1. 9. 118 : infinity of the following series 3. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Find the value of ... of an infinite G. = a . The sum r. . = . If the side of the first square is 2 inches..72. .. is 16.. first and the common term.717171. 2. what is (a) the sum of the areas. 2.. of all squares ? ..... ratio 15. 65 = 1L 110 EXERCISE Find the sum to 1.= ..3121212. 4.. . is J. . .3 + . =A+ 10 i.254 Ex. 1. . 4. 9. P. 40.. = 990 .. 6. 6. 16.. 16. Find the sum to infinity.. 7.
13. Find the 5th term of Find the 3d term of + b) . (s + i). 21. 16. (a 100 . 10. (a2) 6. /2a+Y\ 8. Find the middle term of (x + y) 4 Find the middle term of (a b)\ .b) w (a (a f (1 . coefficient of . (xy) : 6 . 25. .a2) 25 Find the 5th term of f Vx + ^r 18. . (a + b) . (\ 9 . 15. Find the middle term of f f x }\8 : ) 27. a6 8 16 in . 4 (1+V#) + (1 Va) 4 .6) . . 7 . Find the middle term of (m ri) 16 Find the 99th term of (a + b) m im Find the 1000th term of . a4 b 12 in (a f 6)16 Find the coefficient of a5 b 15 in (a . 17. (z2 ^ Simplify 9. + a) Find the 4th term of 7 (a f 2 b) . 22. 26. l 2. 11. 2 2 24. : (1 + xy. 28. 4. 12. Find the 4th term of (w Find the 5th term of 12 ri) 11 .6) 20 . .b ). Find the 3d term of fa f V ^Y Va/  19. 4 7. Find the Find the u 13 coefficient of a?b in (a f 5) . 20. 14. 29.BINOMIAL THEOREM EXERCISE 119 257 Expand the following 3. Find the 6th term of (x . Find the coefficient of a?V" in (a Find the coefficient of 23. 5.
24 4. 3. 2. 3. ft 4 ) 5. 4. 2. 1. 5J lj 2j 3} 8 4j y 8 . 1. 3. 4. i (aft)(ac) a 6 (ft. 2. 1. 6. 4. 2. + 2. aft 3 + 4. 2. 4. (ft c)(c 4 ) 3. a ft c = = 2. 6. 2. 4. 3. 2.a(a 4. 3. if = = 2. 4. 1.  a)(a 1. 4 ft  c) 2. 5.  8 ^ 2. 1. 3.  2. 6. 6. 3. 3. 1. (ca)(cft)' 4. 4 2. + c(a  c). 4 (2 a  13 a a b + a ft 31 a 2 ft 2  38 3. a8 + ~T 3 2 ft' a2 + + 3T r C + + c2 + 2 . 3. 1. 4. 2 . 2 (2 a  3 aft f 4 2 ft ). 6. + 1. 7. 2. 2. 5. 5. 2. 3. 5. 5. 2.258 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA REVIEW EXERCISE Find the numerical values 1. c if 7 . ^+^ 3.c )(fta) 1. 3. y 3. 3. 4. 3. 1. *=M  M 3J f 2 2 ] 2 ] 2 1 3 1 3 1 M. 1. 1. 1. . 2. 5. 1. + 2. l. 2.] a 2^ aft + r 3 a l} 2 be 4. 3. 2. 2. 3. 2. if a ft c = = = 4. 2. 4. 2J 4J 16 x* 32 afy 24 afya 1. 2. (c 3. 2. 5. 2. 2. c = = = 2. 5. if x^l. = 2. of : 27 x* ~ 27 xy or f 9 xy~ 1 # 8 . 1. 2. 3. 3. 4. 5. 4 *2  4 xy  4 ^+ a: ?/ 2 ?/ + 2 3. 3. 2. 2. 1. 2. 1. 3.f ac 1. if y=2j 2. 3. 1. if = = = 2. . 4.  2. 4. 2. 3. 1. 3. ft) . 1. 5. 2. 3. 3. 2. 1.
8. 29. Add the following expressions and check the answers : 10. + 3 y 2* . 8 . xy 2 12 xy* + G y4 4 xy*  zy + 12 xy*  4 y4 . + 4. 3. 4.c' 2 4 / .2.4. 7.3 xyz. 4 x 4 . .  2 x 2// + 3 2 x?/  7 y3 .' 4 x2 2  5 z3 8 . x 2 +  2 ax* f a zx + 2 ?/ a8 . 5.8 y y 5 4 * 8y. 16.3 a?y .2 a?y + 3 aty . 15. 2. or . 9. (5.4 xyz + 4 xy'2 .r 6 x  4 xy . 9. 40. 2 2 x2 + and 9 2:2 y' xy.259 x c) . 7 xy 3 . + x/y 2 + + y'2z + 2 3 x 10 y'2 + 5 z2 . 7y 4 .5 xy 3 + + 4 . 4a + 9 a2  3 a5 . . 4 a 5 9 4 2 */. a 4 + 11 a . + 8 x4 *y . c = 3.4 x'2 f 12 x and 5 2 + 7 x8 . 2.2 z8 4 x.a8 . 12.10. if a 6 = = c = 3. 2 a3 7 y4 3 // f ax'2 . 6. 21. 10. c)(x a} . 24. 26. 6 a4 4 a8 .7 y 2* 4. x3 f 3 ax'2 . = 2.8 + 2 // . a /> 3. 10 z 8 12  6 2 8. .  a) (c 2.x 5 4 . 17. 1 + 3 x + 2 x 8 . 15. + 4 ?y . 2. and 3 y 8 f 12 z 8 . 5.4 yz\ 7xy* + z 3. x3 2 a2 . by The and c is represented radius r of a circle inscribed in a triangle whose sides are by the formula Find r.11 z 3 4 4 ?p 2 . 11 x 8 + 14 x^ij . a: .7 + . x = 4.7 ys. f 8. . b(x (b 1. 4 y 13. 2 x 8. ' b) + 3. 20. 25.a 5 a . 5.2 x2 .a 4 . 41.x 2 + 4 2 ~ 10 z 2 + z 2 + 11 yz + 8 2:2 .11 x 5 12 z 7/ 3 ary.2.a) . x 3 x' 14. 2  + 12 a 8 . + 1.8 3 + 7 x4 . a. 5. ~c)(b.2 x?/. 1. 4.5. 6 y4 y 4 + 3 z8 . 2 .1. 4. + 2. 18. 2. a. x C 4 4x y + . 11 z 4 x4 12 17. 4 z . 3. c(x (c g)(x 6) = 1. r> . 21. x 3 11. 1.\ yz + xz.
(5 c . 4vTT~y 3.(4 * . and 7 x a 2x 2 ax'2 4. 3 4 5 10 2  7 12 . and a ft 4 ft 3 c take  6 a.3 .6 x ] .1).3.2 a .5 10 b 3 \ G 11 = ft x4y42. / x5 2x 4 # 3 y5 G x a 4 3 5 x*.{2 x 2 . Take the sum of 3 x 4. 6 VI ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 4X5V14. .c 3 a.x 2 4. take the sum of G x 5 .1 and x 8 G 11 4 3 x2 +  from G x2 4 x. x8 x2 2 a'2x. 4 3 From 44 the 3 // and G x 4y 2 x2 2 .6T .. 7 x x the ft 4 x2 11 x. .2 .3 x . 542 x 2 and . and . Add 9 Ifcc 2 7 12 . 2 x2 + 2 y5 24. find (a) a (ft) (c) a 4(</) 4. and 2 Vl 4*/ 2VT+7 .c 4 3 a.(5 y .x2 .?> x 4 20. 29.n/ 4 4 12 x 5 4 4 x?y 4 2 x6 f 4 x 4 ?/ x// 5 ?/ .x . 2 xy 4 the ^V 4 G x5 From take 4 sum sum 2 c of .a ft. Take the sum 4x 4. 2 x 32. (*) a  c.{G * 2 .(x* . [4 I 2a47c(7ft44c)[6a3ft4 2~c44c{2a(ft2T2)}].(4 x 2 .2 .2 3 ax 2 . Simplify 31.4.x 4. Take the sum of G a8 4 4 4 a 2x 4 . 4 2 x2 23. a  ft + c. .[4 x 4.4 x from the sum of 9 x 2. 3 x2 133ft[l7a5ft^[7fl3ft{4fl~4ft(2a3ft)}]]. the From sum of 2 1 sum 2 c of ft 4.2 _[5ft{^ 2 8 4 x* . 0" 30.2) . 35.c. 33. (/) a +  ft 4 6 +  rf. 5 10 4 G 11 4. c 4. 5 4 7 12 .[4 z 8 .1)}] .27~~7)}]. From of 2 the 4. ft 25. 34.x . 4 3 5 y/ .5. of 2 x 8 4 4 x2 4 9 and 4 x . sum of . f ft. .7.[3 if  (3 _^ ft 6 ft f c)}] a: .#48.(x 4. 4 4 4.260 19. 7 12 . and 4 4 2 xs 4 and 5 x 3 y 5 . and a 2 ft 4 ft 3 c take sum  2 c 4 2 a and 2 a 5 x c. . Find what expression added the ft to 3 x 2 2 x 4 3 will give 27.2 x 8y2 44 .4 x 8 from ax 2 4 6 x8 4 21. 36.(7 x 4.5 . 3 ft.4) . : a x .8 3 4.4 Vl 4. = x y ft z.3 x 3 from G a 8 2 a 2x  4 x8 22. 5 10 + 7 . and d= c c 4 x4#4z </. x'2 . 2 c  2 a  and 2 a 3 x2 28. ft. 3 x Subtract the difference of x 8 4 . of a.(a .4\/i + x 3Vl 4. c 4ft. 4 .3 .] 26.4 ft) 4. c =x y }~ z. . 4 2 x8 x 4 4.c.
+ *+!){> + 2).a~^~c)K].2x + 3). (4 + 3a 2 .(5 y .(4 d .[3 y [2 ft 2 z + {4 (3 a ar 40.b (c .ary + 2) (^ 4 ?/ *V + *)(! + ar)(l + ^ 2 )(1 + **). 46.4 a 2 + a 4 ). (. (ar + 7)(ar + 5)(a: + 3).[2 . a .3~ft f 2 c + 4 ^ .2 zz . 2 53.(6 . 59. (a 2 + 2 + 9 .(2 .{2 a (ft . 48. 3 x 42. a {. 50.(2 x2 . .6 x + 5 x'2) (2 .2 2 . (r (1 (a. 2 52.96 [17 a. (a 2 + 2 + c 2 .r 2:c+ l)(ar.& + {.[7 a 36 {4 a 46 (2 a 3 ft)}]].3 c)]. 65. . 57. . (4 z 2 + 9 2 + ^ 2 . (x.{3 c .[0 a 5a + 2 c + 4 c . 2 ft 41. (1 55.{2 a . (5 a 39. )(lz a ). 68. 56.ac . + 4x + 5)(j.5 )}] + {4 c .c 2 .e '/)}] (2a + 2b . 2 : 7e)a}].3c). 5a(7ft+4c) + [6 a. 2 a) (2: + 7/ a)(x 2 2 66.* 2 + (x + x + l)(a: (z 1). + 2)  (4 x 2  2 x 7)}].6 xy .2 2 + 1)(7. .1). 7 a 2 261 {5 2 a2 2 a + (2 a 2 i j 38.12). 49. 67.REVIEW EXERCISE 37. (a 2 + 2 + c 2 + aft + ac .[4 x  5 . 64.c). 51. 'J 44. 62.3 yz)(2 a (* 2 ft ft ft ft ft ft ?/ ft ft ft ?/ a: 61. (x .3 a + 3 + aft)(a + 3). 54.3)(*5)(* 7). 63.ab . 60. (x 2 + 4 y 2 + 3 z 2 ) (. 45. +  ^+ y)(x 2 ) (x + a 2 )(a: 4 + a 4 ). .JT^T+1)} + (2 .(2 a + 5 a .6c) (a + f c).rf)} + a [.4 a .0)} .(7 a.2)(1 .3).7).6)}].5)} + (3 a 2 .Z . . 4 + 2 2 + 1). (1 ar+a. .56.3 z 2 ). (.2a . (a:2)(r4)(a:9).(7 i + 4 r:) . (/> 4 . 43.3T~2~s)} + 5 2].2 <?)} 13 ft ft _[&{2c(3d + Perform the operations indicated 47.3 *). . (2 x 2 3 ar+ 1)(3 z 2 x+ 1).be) (a 58. .(2 a 2 .  2 a  {3 2x a . 2 2 x + !)(* . 13 a .2c(V/ .r 2 + !>ar + 3)(^ 2 . 2 f [3 c 7 a .
5 .y)\x y). 94.2ft) 8 ( + 2 ft).262 69.2 (y 4. (p 2 .v) 4.am&t 4 A 2 *).c) rr identities. 90.c) j.ac b + n~ + /? 2c n ft n an b c)(a"* ?n + + c).c) . 89. 83.{3 a .ft) 4 . ft 78. b 4. ft ft ft a}. 91. 86. 1).(4 . p(p + ?) + 4 A) (a .r 2 . 79.c . ft /. 73. 82.2y)(. 93.<f(p .y). + (rtP+i 4 2 6)(a^+ . Prove the following 8 4. 70.9y2).x + y + z).(c 4.3 (ft .2 (a .(/>  3 v)^(. .z) . O (x (a 2 + 4 y y) 2 a J 4 .(ft 4. by multiplying out each 4 side of the equality.n pc). 4 4 . 2 + a 2 ). . (.> 2 2 + 2 3 9).y'*4y 2m )OK y I)(a m ).a) (a? 4(c 4 y) (y c)(ar 2 ft + 8 a). 4 (a + ft)(a 2 81. 88. 2 (x 2 .3y) a (* 2 4. (a) (a (ft) a8 4 ft 8 4.z)(x y + z)(.y + z)(x + y .(^ 4 y 2 )  4 ^/(.c c 2 4 2 am 20 (??2 + : n 6 f p ) (w .a) 2 . 74. ft 8 ft) 4 ft 8 4. 77.ft) + 4(2 .c) .c .c) 4) (ft 4. a(2 + 4 3ft) 2 (2a 4 4 8 ^) .c)].(x 42 y) O 2 4 y) (^ 44 y ).(a 2) (s 4 ft. f 72.2 ft}) f (3 a . (a 2 ft 2n 4. 75. (a (2 b)*(a 4. 87. 4.:y)( a. 1).c) 2 . 84.q).(a? 4 y)*(x  y).3 a .c 8 4 3(6 c)(c 4 a)(n + 2 ft). xy y 2 ).(a 48 8 8 4. 85.a) (2 + 7(7> ~ 'y) 2 4.r3y)4l)y( a :y)^2y)418 // (2ry)46 8 // .c)} .b 4. a (a 2 2a + + " 4 l)(u 2a n f (:r a. ft 95. .m np c . 71.O (a 4(a 4. 8 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA (a 2  z 3) (a 8 2 a + z 3 )(a 6 2 + a: 6 ) (a 12 a (a  + l)(a 2 f 2a + l)(a + + ( a: 12 ). 3[a{2 a (a 4ft 4 2 2 ^>) c) 44 a2 a8 4 2 4. (x 4 2 y) (2 ^ 3 y)2(/ y) (^ 3 V)  . ar .6*y .z\x 4. 76. 92. (x (x ( + *) . _ ft) (a: + a)(x + b) + (bc)(x + ft) (a: 4. ft" l Simplify 80.
1).y 2 ) 4 a 2// 2 /> 8 a. 4 (6 x 4 23 x s 33 z 43 42 a.9 x 2 .&).(y 2 ~ (a 2 ) 5 y 6 a  12).3 a"+ 4.y 4 ) . (20 x*  4 72 x 2  35 4.21 x*if) (4 ^ 2 . 116. 110. (a 8  8 68 8 4. [10( 4.2 xy 8 .(2 a 2 .*) (x 8 . 1O4.27 x* . 4 (a 8 44 16 a 2 4 4 256) s ~4 2 (a 4 4a ^ 4 16).c 4 6 afo) f + ^ 4 ). 113. 106.b) 98.xy 4. (x* 4 9 ax 8 44 12 .2 y 2 ) 3 xy (25 .2y 2 4. 99 100. 2 (a+ . 123. (. Cr (z 27y l9a:y) (a:3yy 6 ) r 2 (a: 4 xy 4 y 2 ).v/ ~ // = a: . .y 4 . 124.) . (a 8 ^4 + 8 & 8) (  2 2 119.r 4 4.&) 8  5(a n 4 2 6) ] 5(a 4 &) 6 (a 4.(x 2 .6 ) (a** (a (x 10 3 J 1 a  1).2 2% 4. (4 4 3 a  4  5 a 3 . . 109.6 y 4 4. a*. 122.a". (2< 107. ( y 8_o7)^^2 + 3 y + 0). 117.5 a 21 (10 a 4 5 a*) Qafl^ = 5 a*.16 a 6 4. (80 a 112. 105.(7 xi/ .35 x 2 2 ) . 118. 120. 20) * (3 a* 4 4 a? + 5). 10).(a 1 2 8 . 3*. 121. (8 x* 115.'30) ~ (4 ^  5 x 4 10).40 />) .5 xy).5 b*). 26 (a 4 c). 103. 108.y 2 4. O3a n O2a 4~ i O4a 2a T (3' 3m n ~*~ 3 3n 3") 3".4 aft . 114. r . 25 4 . 1). 102. 2 4 41 x 4a. (2 y 44 2 y 2 4 02 y 23 a 4 3 16 y a 50 4 48) 2 111.REVIEW EXERCISE Simplify : 263 96.
2) = 3 . 127. 2(3 x + 4) 8 [2 (a: . 1 o + 5 + 1=15.2) + 2(ar + 4).r>) .3).5) = 12(4 x .9) + 3.3 x). . 149.2(4 . 129.22. y (* l x.l)(ar + 2) (a: (ar (2ar 2 4} = 2(3 x .3 a:).x+ + x a ) ~ (x a + + x).4(0 x . By what expression must 3 a 2 ab + & 2 ? be divided to give the quotient 3 a 2  2 6 2  8 ttfc 8 + 2187? . .(x + 3) ] .1) .7(4 * .3(2 z . 3) a: a: a: +?+4= o 13. remainder when a 4 3 a b B + 12 a 2 6'2  b* is divided By what expression must a: f 3 be multiplied to give 4 x*7 8 a*b + 4 a 131.(1 . 148. 143.5{.2) (a: + 3). By what expression must x* + G x2  4 a: 1 be divided to give x2 + 5 # 9 as quotient. 3(2 x 134. (1 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA + a8 3  G ax z8  8 z 8) 5 (1  a  2 x). 135. . . 139. . 5(2 x .n .  9)  7(0 x a?  32) + 5 = 4x  3(2 j  3).2 7^~5] + 1).8 6 .18 *&) (1 . with 8 as remainder? Solve the following equations and check the answers: 133.3 a (1 + * l l 1 3 f 2 &). 126. (4 x .4) . .3 a#z) (ar + y + s).19) + 5 = 4 .3) = 12 . 128.9) 4. 1) = 2(* . 142. 10(2 x 141.(x f 9). . 42(3ar 145.r + 7[or .12 M 132.(x . o o 140.a:)]}. 2 4(ar . 5 146. 10(2 x 5 x + 3(7 x . 138. x 147.(j a? 144.7) = (7 x  1 1) (3 x . 1) .2(5 . 137. 3) = x\x .3) (3 x 4.2(10 x .(9 x + 10) (a:  3) .(3 a? 2 [2 x + (x 4.2(j: .2 {3 8)} ^ 5(13 4(j = 5{2 x .4) .1) (a? .5).7) = 4 .264 125.3). What is the 2 by a*ab + 26 ? 130.3(* + 4) + 9} . 136. 7(2 x .G) . (*+ + . (5a: 150.27 a 3" .
There are 63 sheep in three flocks. (7 14 . 157.2) a + 7(x .l)(z . how wide is the picture ? surrounded 108 square is 172.? .3) (a: .a:) + 229.2) (7 *) + (*.3)(* (ar 2 7)  113.r + 3) . (x (x a.5) = (3 . 158.76. 166.7) (1 x . 155. sheep are there in eacli flock Y The second of the three angles of a triangle is 180. are the three angles? is A picture which is 3 inches longer than wide by a frame 2 inches wide.3) (3 . .1) (s + 3). (2 . + 4) (2 x + 5). If the area of the frame inches.2 x) (4 . and if 15 were taken from the third and added to the first. a: ar a. and the third twice as many as the first. transformed into F.j Write down four consecutive numbers of which y is the greatest.25) 2 .(5 x . A man is 30 years old how old will he be in x years? 168.4) (a . .6 x) (3 . Find five consecutive numbers whose sum equals 100.19) + 42. The second contains 3 first. + 5) = (9 . The formula which transforms Fahrenheit (F.7) (a. =  (F 32).T)O .9) + (a. these two angles would be equal. sheep more than the 169. 164.8) = (2 x 4.5 x) = 45 x .2) (j? + 1) + (x . (a . . (a.REVIEW EXERCISE 151.3) (j. 2 4 . = 2 C.2 x) = (1 . 165. ^ + ?=13 + 2o 10 o .3) = (3 x .29) 2 = 1. + 10) (ar .5)(. The sum What 171. = 15. 5(ar x . (3 O + .5(x . will produce F. 159. 162.z) (4 . 154.2).5*) + 47.(* + 2)(7 z + 1) = (* . . + 5) 2 (4a:) 2 =r21a:. (b) At what temperature do the Centigrade scale and the Fahrenheit scale indicate equal numbers? (c) How many degrees C.1) O + 4) = (2 * . By how much does 15 exceed a ? How much must be added to k to make 23? 167. find the value of F. 156. 265 152.3) (3 . angle of a triangle is twice as large as the first.2(x ~ 1) + 12 = 0.24. + 2) + (5 . How many 170. 161. (a) If C.17) 2 + (4 x .) readings of a thermometer into Centigrade readings is C. 160. f^ + ^sO.14) (a: + 3). 163.. . 153.
A the boy is as old as his father and 3 years sum of the ages of the three is 57 years. 187. 3 gives the same result as the numbet multiplied by Find the number. The length is of a floor exceeds its width by 2 feet. 3 gives the 174. power one of the two Find the power of each. A house has 3 rows of windows. sister . number divided by 3. 6 in each row the lowest row has 2 panes of glass in each window more than the middle row. The age of the elder of it three years ago of each. 15 m. side were one foot longer. 4 a 2 yy 42. and the father's present age is twice what the son will be 8 years hence. 2 2 + a _ no. z 2 92. was three times that of the younger. . two boys is twice that of the younger. A boy is father. 189. Find the age 5 years older than his sister 183. 190. 181. . 179. z 2 + x . 176. 10x 2 192. if each increased 2 feet. ll?/102.56. 178. and the middle row has 4 panes in each window more than the upper row there are in all 168 panes of glass. father. 7/ 191. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA A A number increased by 3. + a. is What are their ages ? Two engines are together more than the of 80 horse 16 horse power other.36. younger than his Find the age of the father. Four years ago a father was three times as old as his son is now.266 173. 188. + 11 ~ 6. An The two express train runs 7 miles an hour faster than an ordinary trains run a certain distance in 4 h. and  as old as his Find the age of the Resolve into prime factors : 184. aW + llab2&. x* 185. train. 13 a + 3. dimension 182. the ana of the floor will be increased 48 square feet. respectively. Find the number. What is the distance? if square grass plot would contain 73 square feet more Find the side of the plot. Find the dimensions of the floor. 180. 186. How many are there in each window ? . 12 m. and 5 h. +x 2. the sum of the ages of all three is 51. same result as the number diminished by 175. . A each 177.
3 c/> + 6 cq. 2 2 y f 1. 239. 2 a: 2 + 4y2) 2 + 240. a: 231. 3y 248. . 217.20 z 8 a: 220. + 30 x. 3y 2 + ary .12 * .a 2/A 214 12 x*y .y) y) 6 a 2 + 5 a .28. 202. 4 f yx* + z*x + z*y.21 a:  54. a: 236.19 a . 16x 4 81. 212. 11 2 + 10 20 x 4 . 227. 60 a 2  a: // 205.3 xy. 2 x 2 . 195.6. 2  5 xy 13 y a. 221. 2 a 8 . 218. 2 + x 2 ) 2 . x*y 223. a+a* + o a +l. 9a4a6 (a 2 + b .19 z 4 204. 203. 2a te 3% ly 247. 8 a. ifWy+b. + 8. 244. 5 x 2. 213. .10 y a x* .c) 2 .10. a: . 8 a: ar.x + 1. 5 ?/ + 1 1 a*b . a. 2 200. 246.(a + z2 ) 2 (a 2 3 (x (r + y + a.REVIEW EXERCISE 193. z 2 2. a: 4  a: 2 a: V 2 .3 xf + 3 * 2y . 224.22 z + 48. a 2 . 2 afy 13 28 a: ary + 66 y. a.8 6 2. # 2  29 y + 120. 4 m +^.10 xy. 245.6 y2 + 4. 208. 211. + 2 . . y 2 194.64. 2 . a. 12 x +4. 222. .xm y + xym  + (a c)  (c rf) 242. 6 197. 15 x 2 + 26 x a . . + 198. a a: a: 237. (a + .6 2 ?/ . + G *2#2 + 9 x*y\ 6 x* + 5 a:y . *2 234. 206. 207. 201. 230. 209. 267 199.c) 2  (a . x 219.77 y + 150. x 5 . a^a 226. 3 ap 2 . 233.r?/f y 2 9. 23 12. + 3a 196. 14x 2 25ary + Gy 2 3 x* x 2 . 215.14 2 . 2 a 2 . 7a 228. . 210. 24 2 + 2 . . xm+l 243.(b + rf) 2 . 4a 2& 2 241.1.6 aq . wiy + la mx + aw.6s. 232. (13z 2 5# 2) 2 2 2 (a 6 (12 c 2 ) 2. a. 238. x* + 8 2 + 15. 3 x 2 . 235. 229. 216. z + 5x 2 . 3 x V . 7x 2 225.
260. of: 253.91. 3 #2 255. a: .G7 x f 33. 257. 2 + 7 r f 2. G(x+  l)'\ 9(x 2  1).36. 28 2 f 71 x . 265.9.23 + 12.15. 269.&z. 254.9 xy + 14 y 2 ar ar a: .8.1 9 . C. _ 40 y 2 272 f f 2 !8a: .11 a 2 . a 4. 259.9 x .2 z .73 xy .ry 21.2 aft*. x 2 + 5 f . x 2 f 9j: + 20.15 + 30. of: 266. 251.7 f 5.12.77 + 77 ' 2?5 5 ' 2 5 a: 2 7 .r + a# + az f 2 6z fry 4. a 3 a 2 2 . 1 x ar Find the L. 6. x* .4.80. : x2 4 a: ~ + a. * 2 . x 2 4.2/ 2 .C. + 3 x + 2. 10 a.48 afy 2 .16 x .11 x f 28.r . F.3 abc . + 8.18 xy + 5.4 ab + 1. x*y* 4. + 20 x 4. 3 ay 4. z 2 268. * 2 . x* . 3 a% 2 . I Find the II. 10 x 2 . 22x2 a. 261. . 252. Reduce to lowest terms 271.14 bx a%% 8 . x 2 + 4 + 3. 2 .ry . 264. 2 x2 .M. 8 xf < 3 xy + a. 18 x 2 . 2 2 + 39 xy 4. 7 ax 250. 270. 2 a.x . 15 # 2 z/ /. 5 x 2 256. 2 z 2 f 13 x + 1 5.2 ax 2 + 2 for 2 . a. * a .(55. 8 2 + 10 x .a 2 />c 2 f 3. ft a. x 2 .10 a 4. + 8 x + 5.268 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 249. x 2 + 2 x .10. 7 12 2 2 .120.6 by.3.18 ry + 32 y 2 2 .13. * 2 . z 2 267. 2 8 . ^27/7 + 12 2?6 28 x 2 12 Jr 2__7^/_ J/ 2 + 3 .9 x + 14. a? a: a: // 262. 258. 30 ^ . x 2 263.5 ab f 2.3 x .17 x + 6 * 14 273 P a 5y>+4.23 x f 20.a + 2 4. + 23 x f 20.
2* + 3 x* 280..  9 ' 2Q4 4 *2 ' 8x+8 ' 278.2c a: 282.n 2 )P * 287 " 281 2 q^( 2  a: 2 ) m 288 ' . _ "* m ~n w 4 + 2 7w% 2 f sa .rL. + ac . 289 ' . z2 (a 2 + c)a.ar 1 279. a. y)' z2 283 t 290 ' x'2 2 y* + z2 + 2 0:2 291 *2 + y 2 + 0. 9 286 1 1 + 2* 3 x f *2 ar + a . 285 z4 n* + a..2 22 + 2 2 yz 4 2 zx 2 + ary _ _ 22 _ 292 ^  ?/.!/.REVIEW EXERCISE 277 8 agg 269  6 a. *2 " 2 + Oge.J' 4 2 2 w mp .(y 2 z) * t (j. 8 . m 4. fr 293 ' y <? 294 2 2 2 + 2 cV + 2 a 2^ 2  4  ft* ~ c4 295 296 ' 297 ' .
x 7. (a 1 1 + a b c) (a + ^ ct) (a + a c)(a f e) 304. 6) _ ~ i 305. a? __ + *_ + + la?la? * a l 303. x x ~~ +^ i ^ ~ ''^ . _L + 12 x 1 + 35 1 307.270 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA : Find the value of 298 23. * 19 23 19(23 23. x + 3 ^ "" 310 x a: 2 a: 2 2 a:  17 a:2 ar3 x 2 5a:i6" . ^. (a: 1 + l)(ar + 2) (x + l)(ar + 2)(* + 3) 302. ^_2*(m 308. ^n m+n "*" + n) 2 g 309. 4 3 301. Lnl + ar 2 a. 2 + 7 _ 44 3. + 19) 2Lz + 3 x " 2 99 ' i x +4 *3 a +7 300. X2 (ca)(ai) 1 x2 4 (a +9 i_ 20 a . a (: a) (x 2. O(ca) 306.
.*) + * 2) 321  c) 2 .ft) 2 322. nl g(jL+ 2 ) ^^^_ 318. } .+ a 10 z 2 2 *2 9*+ 20 *2  8* + 15 315.BE VIEW EXERCISE 311. ( ftc g~ft ( 6_ c) 2_ (a. (1 . (a? 4 2) 317. a: 1 313._ '(a6)*(a:r)a 323. i 271 + b a2 + ft 2 312. _ x8 .2 1 f 1 + : *2 1  2 x' 316. 2ft 2 a8 3 314. 1 _.(a . Dx x(l *) * 8(1*) 4(1 +*) 2 8(1 + 4(1 . . 1a: + y a. . 2 + y 2 319. 1 x2 + + a.
y 2 x (a?4y) 3(2 x  ' _ ^/ 3 y) 2 8 330 .y20  2y + 4 2 .2 +lOar 2 a.5 a . * 3a. ' a: 2 2 5 sy a: f zy + 4 y* . 20 44 333.19 xy + 6 y 2 8 x* a: ?/ ' ~" 6 y 333.7 acy + 12 y2 + 5 a:y + y 2 .a: ' 2 + 0^ + ^2^7 a. 4 y2 2 5 x8 2 z6 3 y 10 a: 2 + 8 2 . .B ~ 1037  329 4 a.2 y2 ' 334 *2 ' + 2 y 8 a. 250 5 10 2 325. 2 ^ "" 1B x + 40 y *2 + 5 x  3.9 *// + 27 .7 xy + 12 x .272 Simplify: ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA ~ 324./  3 y  6 ( 331 g gy ' f a 3y ~ 6 q  9 G 2 y/ + 5 ?/ 6 G fl y~4y+ 15 ^e  10 6y 332 3 a: +lly10 4 xy 8 2  a. 2 ?/ 4g~0yg 10 o# 2 ~ x 6 a* x' 2 24 y 2 1 . . z2  4 x  ^ "" 12 *.V  + y  x 3y a .ll.. a: 2 x* . 2 a2  2 a  ' 03 i^+^T 42 ^2 _ l5rt~+~54* 327 8 ' ^ .15 33 .28 8 2  11 2 + J?_ x fl^^ffjje _ 2 12 a 4 a + a  4 6~7** 27^12^7 .6* t 328.. 2 lOx 5x.4 x?/ 2 ^_ G x 2 + 13 gy_+ . 2 x* 8 x2 4 r8 i + 2 a.
7 ( ?f!?. ( 342.13 13 s 11 Find the numerical values of 351. aj 339. if a = 3. (aWi + iJ.REVIEW EXERCISE 336. (ar \ 346.) 2 . 344. a: 349 _ o. xi 347. ' ~ ~ x2 + 8 + 76 2" 350. (af2/. Simplify : 353 ^3 * 2 L pE+1 a /2x~l V 5a:~2 10 4 354.1V. : 1+ i. f V. \x yj 340. ?_2 ^ . 278 C  ~ a c* \ c* ~ b a2 q2 h c 5 5 ~ a c b q  q c 6 * \ : f 1 \  { 337. (a \ + lV. a>74 . \5yl 341.r 5 2 . + ni + .y. 348. 338. +^ a: y x .+ r . w \. 5 343. + l + IV. 352.. ' 2 "l 5 . fl. 1 345. ** i.
1+2 362. i+5 1+1 9 x2 f 363. W?* (* + 1 + 2x) \3a _ 1 + 2x \3a 1 365. + x x a . (~ 364. ar xy + yl x* 358.274 355 f 5 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA U<>3) 356 fl V ___ _/ 2(*l)J + ya xl x 1* YTx 2 110*W*1 1** JUal + xy 357. a2 4 . (a a b yx c yabc 361. I  I f 366. _ + l a 359. y360.
b c 368. \b* + c* b + b b*c*)^ c ^\ b (b* f c*) } c 4 c a b . . 6 a c b a b b 1 ' ~ _^ . 370 ' 1 (/')(&o) 1 a 372. (1 +ab)(l+bc) 369. 2  m 373 "1*7 374. a + .REVIEW EXERCISE 2 275 f 367.
2(3 x (x + 4) + 10) + 1 (x + 7) = 0. 4(* . 20 iLf5 + !*=! = 2 J. 1 + 16ar_63 24 g 2T~~~ia 7 12f a 8 a' 389 5  14(arl) 18 105 390. # k 1 _j j a: 2 a: 3 383. + 6)+  (* + J = _j_ j(* v/ O + 5)10 ^\:) / 380. """ 2J 7 ' + 2 28 ear7 + i3JTo^ . .276 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 375. 5 3 vC 7 a: 385 10 17 387 * L*J> _ 14 1 7ar = (5 ar 10ar + 15 . 8  376.^^ + x f o 51) +2J = 0. <3 378. + 1) 45 O 377. 3 Solve the equations : or a: 2 (a. J !__7. 5*8.*2 = 15. 379. . ^ . __4 2x 3_ = !. r 1  3(* + 1)} ! ' . a: r ~ 2 + 5"^  10 xf x  382. 5 {2 x 381.
75 x f .2 a:  1.  J).1 .  8 9* x ~r. 40. 3* 177. "i 2 37370 ^ x i x x + 1 a?  R  7 ~r * 1 a. 400. y ~ rt ^= & ~ 402.5 x =r f . a: a)(a:  &)(>: + 2a +2&) = (a: + 2 a) 408.REVIEW EXERCISE 391.* 2 + *2 " 2 ~ ^ H.. 397. (8 x  3) (x 2  1) = (4 x a: 1) (4 x  5). 277 x 4 _x 5 _ _ a: ar. ^ (a . . . u '2 a. _____ . JLg:== 7wa: c c } q. f 1 1 + a 403. b 404. 396.  ft) = 2(ar  ) (a.6  . n a 4O5 b b x f (a:  a) + a(a.25. m x 398. 399. 401. 6 7 7 ^ 2 1(5 a.. c .5 ^ ~ a: a.8 = . (x ~ a)(x f 6) f c = ^ (z a: + 2 a)(a: a: 5 i).25 x + . a.6~a: 7 _ x 8~a. l)(x  a) (a:  3) 42 3(4 *  2)(ar + 1).5 1 f 1 x  2 = x . + 4 a.147.
a)(x b b) (x b ~ ) 412. 420. Tn 6 hours . f a x f x f c 1 1 ab b x 415. In a if and 422. the order of the digits will be inverted.(c rt a)(x  b) = 0. A man drives to a certain place at the rate of 8 miles an Returning by a road 3 miles longer at the rate of 9 miles an hour. (x f ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA a)(z  b) = a 2 alb = a (x f b)(x 2 . Find the number. hour.c) . and was out 5 hours. down again How person walks up a hill at the rate of 2 miles an hour. a x a x b b x c b _a b f x 414. How long is each road ? 423. 2 a x c x 6 f c a + a + a + 6 f walks 2 miles more than B walks in 7 hours more than A walks in 5 hours. x 1 a x x1 ab 1 1 a x a c + b c x a b b ~ c x b 416 417.(5 I2x ~r l a) . (x . mx ~ nx (a ~ mx nx c d d c)(:r lfi:r a b)(x . 18 be subtracted from the number. and at the rate of 3^ miles an hour. Find the number of miles an hour that A and B each walk.  a) 2 6 2a. 421. a x ) ~ a 2 b 2 ar a IJ a. 411. far did he walk all together ? A . A in 9 hours B walks 11 miles number of two digits the first digit is twice the second. 4x a a 2 c 6 Qx 3 x c 419. 418 ~jo.278 410. he takes 7 minutes longer than in going.
find the angles of the triangle. When will the second steamer overtake the first? 425. 428. a  t>. + 4ft):(Oo + 86)= (a26):(3o46). z 2 y. Find the ratio x 5x : = 7y . If a b : =5 n : 7. angle of a triangle is to another as 4 5 and the third angle to the sum of the first two. 279 A in 2 lowed steamer which goes at the rate of 264 miles a day is foldays by another which goes 286 miles a day. Find the length of the parts. Find the mean proportional to 429. 431. 8 8 5 ~ a*b + a*b* . Which ratio is greater. d. 2 2 8 2 . Find the fourth proportional 426. if . a + 5.6 8 ). find : a : c. 433. z2  y\ x* xy + y*. : i. and : b : c = 14 : 15. wi* + y= ny. . 5 7 or 151 208? 437. b. of the sixth and ninth parts of the less.& 5 ) (a 8 . .46 2): (15a 2 . : m n(n x) =p : m n(p : x). a. a8 f 2 ab f 6 2.31 afc + UV ) = (15 a 2 + 31 ab + H 6) (25 a2 .49 63). . 438. (a + 6 ) (a + ft) = (a (3a 2 2 : : fc : : : .a 2^ 8 + aft* . The sum of the three angles of any triangle is 180. 3 and 1J. Solve 436. A line 10 inches long divided in the ratio m:n.2 (a + &*) (a h & ) = (a ) (a 6). ax is \ by  ex + dy. y. 435. x 427.REVIEW EXERCISE 424. Which of the following proportions are true? (9 c. 432. Prove that the number of miles one can see from an elevation of h feet is very nearly equal to ^  miles. 430. Find two consecutive numbers such that the sum of the fifth and eleventh parts of the greater may exceed by 1 the sum. : If is one equal 434.iand 22 22 I a .
59 = 3 z. /) ar a. of two spheres are to each other as the cubos of a sphere 2 inches in diameter weighs 1:2 ounces. 451. 448. c. a: a: + 5y). 443. . what is the weight of a sphere of the same material having a diameter of 3 inches ? 440. 458. 2 (3 a + 2 ab  8 ft) : 2 (5 a f 4 ai  12 ft 2 ) = a? : (5 a  6 ft). Solve the following systems: 441. 42 = 15y + 137. 16. 7 a: . 5z4:# = 3. ft. 452. + 5y = 59. ?/ 447. . 7jr9y = 17. 446.7 y = 25. x + 5 y = 49 3 x . 444.(or l(*2y)=0. a. Find the value of a. 453. 455. 7 442. 5#+ 10 = 27 a.4 12 . 1(3  a. 5x+4y=lQ. 28 = 5 a .11 7.11 y = 95. 56 + 10y = 7a.35. 3 a. 3 ..rf2# = l. . 5j + 7 7 = = 2. 459. = 25. 454.55 y = . . ox f &// = 2 + y) = a + 8a + 21+3ft = 0. x + 17 # 53.89 = q.3 y = 3 5 f 7 . if 2 ft : 439. 457. 4 = 5 y + 29. a: 2y= = 1 . 456. 7a?y = 3. 445. />(. 9/> = 2 . . The volumes If their diameters. 8 x + y = 19. 450. 33 x + 35 y = 4 55 * .*. ft. 20y + 21 18a = 50 + 25y.280 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA x. 15ar = 20 + 8y. 449. 5 2 = 7 . 8 . ax + ly = 2 a*x + & 2# = a + b. 9ar7# = 71. 21 7 = 27 + Op. 29(a + &) : x = 551 (a 3  ) 19(a  &).
475.?/ + 1 . _ & +y 3 dx+frj c\ . ax by = c \ 472. car = 4 rf cte  ey =/. 8 461. 465. (or . i 47O _ 3~12 } 4* 471.7. 4 g ~ 2 7g + 3 .REVIEW EXERCISE 460.c=563y.+ =2. 3 a? _ y 7 a? 3 y _ 1 12 15 ~~10 4 __ 10 "10 463.2y) (2 = 2J. ' a: + 2 g + 3 y _ 467. 468. + eyn.  = 2. ^ + i^ = 7. 473.. 3 x 28i + 7 ~~~^ = 5. ax cx by = m. _ 469. i = 5. x y 474.
Find the number. 479. and 5 times the less exceeds the greater by 3. 483. and in 18 months to $2180. least The sum of three numbers is is 21. Find the numbers. What is that fraction which becomes f when its numerator is doubled and its denominator is increased by 1. Find their ages. If 31 years were added to the age of a father it would be also if one year were taken from the son's age . by 4. If 1 be added to the numerator of a fraction it if 1 be added to the denominator it becomes equal becomes equal to ^. A spends \ of his. had each at first? B B then has J as much spends } of his money and as A. half the The greatest exceeds the sum of the greatest and 480. 485. How much money less 484. Find the fraction. also a third of the greater exceeds half the less by 2. fraction becomes equal to . There are two numbers the half of the greater of which exceeds the less by 2. age. years. and the other number least. Find the numbers. 481. latter would then be twice the son's A and B together have $6000. and becomes when its denominator is doubled and its numerator increased by 4 ? j 478. and in 20 months to $275. and a fifth part of one brother's age that of the other.282 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 476. Find the principal and the rate of interest. thrice that of his son and added to the father's. 477. In a certain proper fraction the difference between the nu merator and the denominator is 12. to . A sum of money at simple interest amounts in 8 months to $260. A number consists of two digits 4. the Find their ages. A sum of money at simple interest amounted in 10 months to $2100. Of the ages of two brothers one exceeds half the other by 4 is equal to an eighth of 482. Find the sum and the rate of interest. whose difference is 4. and if each be increased by 5 the Find the fraction. Find two numbers such that twice the greater exceeds the by 30. 487. if the sum of the digits be multiplied by the digits will be inverted. 486. .
z = 12. .? + 2y = 8. 2y + 3a = ll. x s + y z = 18J . f + 3 y 62 4 y 4a. = 20. 5 + a. * + 425  = . Find two numbers whose sum equals is s and whose difference equals d. 2 a. 5^ 9z = 10.z = 20. + # +z= 35. 3 a: + 5=84. x y f z = 13. 494. 2a:f 7. The sum of two numbers squares is b. : Solve the following systems 491. = 15. = 209. 4 497. a: f z = 79./ 504. 496./ f z =a. 4 506. . a. 2 ar + 3 y 2 z = 8 . 3ar 503. . y Solve : x +z= 5. a: + ?/ 2z = 15. + y 5 y = 101 . 3 x 500. and the difference of their Find the numbers. *i. 7 + 2 z . 1+1 = 6.REVIEW EXERCISE 488. \ . z y x 25 . 492. 7. 2 e. a number . 490. 30 2^ 3^ = ' ' 4r=9. 2y + 2z = a: 2. a. . . 2/>3r = 4. a: 499. ifi = x a. 493. 489. x f y f z 29 . 498. ~ 507. 7 4#+ 3z = 35. 4z+3z = 20. a: + // = 11. 8.5#+2z = $x a: G. 2 2 = 41. of two the sum of the digits also if number. 495. There is 283 digits which is equal to seven times the digits be transposed the new number Find the will exceed 10 times the difference of the digits by 6. z y ifi = z x 502. 1.
+ : = 1472. ra? + y 2 + 524 x \ +y + = + t jx [y + 9 = 3af& + r. 523. !f == 2800.284 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 516. ll" . z z =3a&c. + + 3579 2+?. 517. 36 + c. i=a + 6 c.
(a) How many pounds of tin and lead are in a mixture weighing 120 pounds in air. 90. In circle A ABC. . Find the numbers. and 23 pounds of lead lose 2 pounds. What are their rates of travel? . In how many days can each alone do the same work? 526. Tu what time will it be filled if all run M N N t together? 529. BC = 5. AC in /). When weighed in water. if L and Af in 20 minutes. 532. . A boy is a years old his mother was I years old when he was born. An (escribed) and the prolongations of BA and BC in Find AD. 527. if the number be increased by Find the number. his father is half as old again as his mother was c years ago. M. B and C and C and A in 4 days. Two persons start to travel from two stations 24 miles apart. AB=6. in 28 minutes. A can do a piece of work in 12 days B and C together can do the same piece of work in 4 days A and C can do it in half the time in which B alone can do it. and third equals \\ the sum third equals \. N. and losing 14 pounds when weighed in water? (b) How many pounds of tin and lead are in an alloy weighing 220 pounds in air and 201 pounds in water ? in 3 days. it is filled in 35 minutes. and one overtakes the other in 6 hours. How long will B and C take to do . it separately ? 531. A vessel can be filled by three pipes. E 533. Tf and run together. touches and F respectively. CD. 530. and CA=7. they would have met in 2 hours. and BE. sum of the reciprocals of of the reciprocals of the first of the reciprocals of the second and the sum 528. 37 pounds of tin lose 5 pounds. and B together can do a piece of work in 2 days. A number of three digits whose first and last digits are the same has 7 for the sum of its digits.REVIEW EXERCISE 285 525. the first and second digits will change places. if and L. If they had walked toward each other. Throe numbers are such that the A the first and second equals . L. Find the present ages of his father and mother.
FRANCE.286 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA : 534. 545. Draw the graphs of the following functions : 538. One dollar equals 4. The roots of the equation 2 + 2 x x z = 1. i. 548. the function. 2  x  x2 .10 marks. the time of whose swing a graph for the formula from / =0 537. 3 x 539.  3 x. if x = f 1. 550. a. 2 541. of Draw a graph for the trans The number in of workmen Draw required to finish a certain piece the graph work D days it is from D 1 to D= 12. x 8 549. from x = 2 to x = 4.  3 x. 546. 540. b.  7. AND BRITISH ISLES 535. x 2 + x.3 Draw down the time of swing for a pendulum of length 8 feet. d. c. 2 x + 5. Represent the following table graphically TABLE OF POPULATION (IN MILLIONS) OF UNITED STATES. . then / = 3 and write = 3. + 3. . The values of y.e. 2. 542. Draw the graph of y 2 and from the diagram determine : + 2 x x*. to do the work? pendulum. 543. x*. z 2  x x  5. 536. GERMANY. x *x + x + 1. The value of x that produces the greatest value of y. e. x*  2 x. 547. x 2 544. If to feet is the length of a seconds. The values of x if y = 2. 2. formation of dollars into marks. The greatest value of the function. How is t / long will I take 11 men 2 t' .
15.) How In far does a how many body fall in 2^ seconds? seconds does a body fall 25 meters? Solve graphically the following equations : x*"2x7 = Q.r a: a: x a. 2 8 . z 2 . r?.4 x 2 + 4 . + 5 . 566. ' = 8.13 = 0. if y =m has three real roots. j.1 = 0.5 x . If y +5 10. z 4 . i. a. Solve 552. 562.17 = 0. J.4 = 0. graphically from t = (Assume g = 10 scale unit of the t equal to 10 times the scale ^ 2 . 572. a? 4 x . = 5. . 18 x  4 = 0.3 = 0. 3 x* . c.11 x* + + 2 8 569. 565. 2 a. and make the unit of the b. 553. 555. h.0. Represent meters. 556.= 0. Find the value of m that will make two roots equal if y = m. x 2 ~ 2 . // Solve y Solve y = 5. 2 ~0a: + 9 = 0. 568. a. 3 x .r 1 561. 564.9 = 0. . 287 by a falling body is The formula 2 ] f/f for the distance traveled a.= 0.' 2* + Z  4 = 0. Find the greatest value which ?/ may assume for a negative x.4 . + 10 x . a.11 = 0. 2. g.15 = 0. x* .REVIEW EXERCISE 551.10 x 2 + 8 = 0. x 5 . 558. e.  2 1 a: a.3 . \ to t = 5. 2 554.3 x . Which negative value of x produces the greatest value of y ? : Solve graphically 570 ' 571. 3 .7 = . a: 559.6 + 3 . 563. 2 567. Solve// = 0.G . c. 2 x 2 560. .r . x 4 . Determine the number of real roots of the equation y Determine the limits between which m must lie. 3 + 3 z .3 x . 557. f.
f ?>) 3 591.48 a*h + 6 a: ?/ 10 6. 2  100 aW + 100 aW.%) 4 (aa. 579. [ y =10.2 6a: + 30 &c a. a:. x + z2) 8 .frf : 583. + + 4 . 600. a: . a. . 64 a 12 603.288 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 4. {f_7l j? 2* + ''. a 612. 592. j^f = 3. 4 a. (aiy. (# 2) . a 2a. f ^s_ 14 a 4/. + jf:ji f590> (2 (3 (1 Perform the operations indicated 584. 4 .2 2 + y. (a. 2  2 aa: 2 . 5 a*.4 8 f 4 4 + i 2 ) 2 f (a 1 . 593.a:) 6 (1 2 2 (2 + 3 x + 4 ) f (2 3 x + f. 48 xf + a: 4  04 aty 6 a: // 16 2 605. + + 4 x) (l 2 ^) . fMV  586 ' ^ (a + 6)T ' 587. 595. 4 (1a:) 3. 585 594. : y* or 25.4. 608.4 + 4 a 8^6 + 9 a a^e _ 6 aW + 8 9(5 a: 7 // fe . xY. x [ ?/ 577. a: f 2 2 aAa: + 2 ?/ .128 a*^ + 04 aty 10 3 5 zy . 596.2 & 2 ) (4 a: ?/ 14 a: 1 2 2 ?y 4 a: 10 2 + x^f . 588. + .5 xy = 0. 3 (f. (1 + x a. 599.x + 2 )'2 601. (1 (1 (1 . + %) (a* + *) 5 . 6 + 1) . 598. 604. (a  8 ft) .o 2 [ ?/ > 3'  578. + ^) + (air%)8. 582.(1 . 9  4 fSb 607. 2 2 a:' ) + x' )'2 . a 8 606. 1 .4 x*y* + 3 4 6 . = 2 \*> + a: [ ^ = 4' = 581. 589. 2 611. 3 .  128 a 10 6 30 3 a: + 2 ?/ ' 100 a 8 /. 2 (2 a ft 6 + + 4 a 6& 2 + x f 13 2 . <r)3  2 3 a:) . 2 943 ++ ~bx. 597. a: f ~+ x [ 10 ^i  1 V 6x + 4 + 610. 2 + f 9 6 + 25 c 2 10 ac  a6. Extract the square roots of the following expressions: 602. jj+. . 609.
15174441. 643. 628. a 642. 4J. GGff. 625 : 621. 651. VOIOOD + V582T09. and the Earth's period equals 3G5J Solve the following equations : 640. Find the eighth root 617. 9g. 639. 2 + 21Ga. 624. 620. If the distances of Earth and Jupiter from the sun are at 1 days. V950484 . 32 631. 623. 8*' + 24* = 32. (x 9 x 646. x2 + 9x _ 5x _ 22 66 ? * + 9 .2410. : 5.30. 650. 2 + 189 z = 900. + 2 21 x = 100. According to Kepler's law. 7) 2. 638.191209. 40. 614. a 8 of:  8 tvb + 28 a 6 //2  50 a c ft 8 + 70 a 4 ft 4  50 a 8 ft 6 + 28 a 2ft 618. 647t x 2 648 649. 210. 3a. 2.2.12 a?y + y*. 622. + 54 'x*y* . f 4 aft 8 + 4 ft . = 0. the cubes of the distances of the planets from the sun have the same ratio as the squares of their periods of revolution about the sun. = . 371240. ft . 4 289 of : 4 4 a*b + a2 2 /.\/4090. f (x + 5) 2 = (x + . 10 a 4 32 fe 2 + 81.REVIEW EXERCISE Find the fourth root 613. Find to three decimal places the square numbers : roots of the following 627. 633.*. 615. 629. *+* = 156. 634.8 aft 6 + 8 21G. 49042009. 636.448 z + 1120 a: 4  1792 x* + 1792 2 . 626. = 70. 645. 44352. Find the square root of 619. 10:r 4 + 9G* 3 + HI x s  108 afy 616. x 2 641. /. 49. x 2 . 494210400001. 632.871844. 21. a 8 10 a* 8 aft 7 + ft 8 . = 87. x 2 f x ~  16 = 0.150. V 635.V250 . + 24 a 2 4 . 9a. 644. find Jupiter's period. 035. 0090. 637.49.53 x ~ . 942841. 4370404. 2 2) 2 +x = 14. + 112 a 8 .1024 x + a: 256. 25023844. 630.
290 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA """ ar a x b ab .
= 0.2V3:r 2 V5 a: f + fa + 1 = 0. (x 2 +3a:) 2 2a. 7^^ ^3" ^^ ^T 704. 2 702. a.2 a(l + & )z fa 2 (1 ax + to f ru: 2 . 694.a a )jr .bx . 696.ax . 4 a: + 4 ^^ 6a:x2 8 701. ex abc= fx 0. 699. 2 2 . 2 2 697. 692. ax 2 698. 695. .REVIEW EXERCISE ~ 291 X+ x 1> a +c ~ a i~ i c ~ b  ~ " x 690. 1 + V* 2bx + a 2 + 2 ax .c = 0. 708. 2 ft 2 2 fi 2 = 0. 693. + ~T~ * a + b x = rj* 2 4(5 4 x + + Ox + 4 691. . 2(4 :r 7r\O /'r'S = a: 0. 1 __ : )'*' _i. 706. 707. 2 (:r + :r)O 2 + :cf 1) = 42. 2 ' 3 2 a:)  28 + 21 + 5 '^ = 0.
Find the price of an apple.25 might have bought five more for the same money. 724. 12 4*+  8. What two numbers are those whose sum is 47 and product A man bought a certain number of pounds of tea and 10 pounds more of coffee. If a pound of tea cost 30 J* more than a pound of coffee. 723. needs 15 days longer to build a wall than B. Find four consecutive integers whose product is 7920.292 709. in value. A equals CO feet. 727.l + 8 8 + ft)' (J)* (3)* + (a + 64 + i. How shares did he buy ? if 726. 716. The area the price of 100 apples by $1. What number exceeds its reciprocal by {$. 721. . Find two numbers whose 719. 717. he many 312? he had waited a few days until each share had fallen $6. The difference of the cubes of two consecutive numbers is find them. 217 . **13a: 2 710. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA +36 = 0. sum is a and whose product equals J. of a rectangle is 221 square feet and its perimeter Find the dimensions of the rectangle.40 a 2* 2 + 9 a 4 = 0. 2n n 2 2 f2aar + a 5 = 0. 729. Find the altitude of an equilateral triangle whose side equals a. 3or i 16 . 16 x* . In how many days can A build the wall? 718. ___ _ 2* 5 3*27 715. 722. if 1 more for 30/ would diminish 720. Find two consecutive numbers whose product equals 600. A man bought a certain number of shares in a company for $375. what is the price of the coffee per pound ? : Find the numerical value of 728. 714 2 *2 ' + 25 4 16  25 a2 711. 725. a: 713. paying $ 12 for the tea and $9 for the coffee.44#2 + 121 = 0. and working together they can build it in 18 days.
1 + x. 1 + l)(>r 2  i + 1). (4 a: 2  12 x* 28 x + 9 x*  42 x* + 49)*. (^ (a* (a^ ary* + x^y f y*) * + * (x*  y*). 32.2 d*m* + 4 d)(w* + 2 rfM + . (4 x~* + l 3 ar 2 + 2 2 ) a. . 42. 52. (x* 2 a M+ f a8) (x*  2 aM" a). 46.aM ?n^n^ f ft*c*)(a* + 6* + c*). 48 ^i? x T ^ ^2? x sT~ x .aft* 1 + a 2*. +w 5 n* +w n 3 + n )(m* 3 n^). n. f + M 6* f 6) (a* U*") 4 a*6^ (<i* &*). +   c* + 2 + ^ + cbf 44. 36.2)(x2 4. + &2)( a 2_ 1 j2).X .1 f ^ 2). 37.l). + a^ 1 + a 26" 2 )(l . + a*x* x*)(a* /^ (a* (rrr + c^ s M ' + x*). 35. 33.2 ).REVIEW EXERCISE implify : 30. 34. .)(ai + &. (v/x). 31. (64 x~ + 27 y r (4 x~^ + 3 y"*). 40.1 + c. 39. 41. (x* (i* (a2 (a(1 1 4 d*).2? 50. 293 (y* (a* + f y* + y*+l)(y*. 43.1 f c" ). 38. 1 6.
~ r* x . 758. 761. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 755. 4\/50 4 SVlOOO. + V22 + + 12 V2b8  760. 2V2 2V3 . vff + V^~ 4^ 2^/2 776. 759. 757._ 1 4j "r O/lf * ^ ^ II r* 4"*" 1 A "1 1.294 753. 768. \/G86 v/lGv/128. 754. [1r^ T 1 i . 2^3(^2^21 + 4^3^:0. JU..1+J 756.
12VIT. y/a + Va Va x x + x 781. 7 + 3 V5 ( 7 7  3 V'5 ( 2 4 73V5 + 3V5 + V3 + V3 4  5 . 92VI5. 7512V21. 103 788. 3J . 786.VlO. 13 799. 14 791.4 V(j. . f x Va z Va f x + Va a. . Find the square roots of the following binomial surds: 784. 806. 783. a 9442V5. + 2V21. . c 792. x 782. 16 + 2V55. 789. 87 ac + 6t  12 ^ + 2 Vab Simplify 801. .2V3* ^ 807. 793.IIEVIEW EXERCISE y/a 295 f 780. Va 809. 790. 794. 787. 3812VIO. 10 785.2 V30.
831. 9 7 3 + V3a:+ = 0. \/12 a.  5 + V3 f 12 817.\/2y  810. 819. \/2(r+ /3 a: 1) + v/2 x + a: 15 = 13. V2a: Va: + 3 + ar 2 Vx f 1 834. 829. = 1. 2\/^"+~5 + 3Vor7 = V25 . 833. 818.28 = 4 V2 ar 14. 811. 3 x + 2 . 836. 820. f 2 VaT+1 1 a: 832. x/aT+l .V2 ar 10.V? = 813. V3 f 1 V4a. (x a: 2 ) 4 . + Vx . Find the sum and difference of (ar + V2yx 2)* and 1. V14 a. VaT+lJ f ^l . 830. /9ar a: = 17.79.4 = 0. Va: .Vc^lJ . 814. Va: + 28 f + V9 x . 812.13 = 0. + ViTli + V7 . + 103Var.f 5 = V5x + 4. 816.1 V* + 60 = 2 Vx~K5 + V5. 815.296 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA .g.
a: : Resolve into prime factors 843. a: 2 + 4\/3^~. 6. 27 862. y 4. + .a. 8^27^.10 x f 1 = 10 x + L * 2 . 864.3 Va: 2 .3 a:. 851. 4 a. + 1. x 11 a^ J 13 854. 8 8  13 a. 863. x 8 2 857. a: . x 4 + f 2 a. 2 f 2 18a: f + 16. 8 4a: 8 a. a. 845. +3 4 +  4. 8 + 4 4 ar 2 2 a. a. 840. x 6 x4 f + + a: x f 1. a 8 869. z*y 8 l64a. V4 x 2 . 5 x* f 297 9) 11 x . x* 8 ^ 8 2 a#* a. 4 x* 847. a*" & 6n . 855. a 18 4. 275 8 l. a* * 1 + a8 8 a. 853. 5 a 4 7 a8 . 4 x 8 858. .1000 6. 871. 16 859.3 x . 27 y 8. 8 a.12. 852.10 = 118.ab9 ft*. 839. 64. 8 . 876. + 512 y8 874. f 12. 64 a 866.x*y + 3x f 2. 4 a: 2 842. 870.7x + 3 = 3ar(a. 8a: 2 4 f 8 a: + 2 19a. a. 8 + a: 5 8 a. . 40 x 2 7 f 49. a. + 216 rt aty a 10 .KEVIEW EXERCISE 838. 875. a l0m . .3 . 2 a: 64 y*. 8 860. 8 8 848.1.28 a 4 xy 8 80. 4o. 846. 8 2a. a. 856. a 872. 9.12\/(ar44)(5z~ = 36. . a 8 850. 861. 6 2 f 3 6 s. 844. . 865.  3x a. 868. f b**. a 8 873. a: 849. 2 x 3. a. 19 x 14. 2 f" + a/ 15.1)+ + Vo: 2 + 3 x f 5 = 7 . f 841. 729 867.
901. a# f + xy = 126. . y y 2 y 2 1121. 5x 3 exactly divisible 879. z 2 898. 4 2 2 + afy 2 + f ary + y = 37. 5. that 1001 79 of 1 is divisible by 1000.Vi' + 1 1_3. 2 .15. . . 2 2 = 16 y. 886. xy + y = 32.sy = 198. y 2 2 8f.xy + y 2 = 19.y = 2 ay + a a# = 2 aa: + 6 a. 894. x a: lI = xz . 2 + ary = 8 y + 6. +y f y = 7. 883. ar(ar + y ) 2 2 2 2 xy . f ?/ a: a: . 2 + 2 f = 17. 899. x 882. 2 = 2 + 5.298 877. + 2y=\2.5 xy + 4 f = 13. 8 8 + y y 9 9 a: = = 37 a: 152. a: 1 1 _ 5 892. 2 3 2 z3 xy + y = 7. 878. M1 891 1 . 890. . What must be the value of m and n to make 8 + mx 2 + nx f 42 exactly divisible by 2 2 and by a. For what value m is 2 #3 mx* by x  880. 2 + 3 y 2 = 43.1 = 2 a#.18. a. y = 28. 887. y*+ xy . 2 + xy = 28. xy(a:y + 1) = 6.35. . a: 884. y(a:2 + y 2 ) = 25 x. a:y . a. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Show Show 3 ? that 99 + 1 is divisible by 100. xy 2 a: a: ?/ a. + ary + 2 = 37. a: 2 897. 2 . x 8 3 = 13:3. 2 f ary = 8 + 3. a. 2 + xy = 10. 885. 1 x 893. 2 + y 2 . 3 x 2 .y 2 = 2 y + 2.y 2) = 20. 895. a: + y 2 = 34. 896. a: a. x*xy. . 889. = ? + p"iaL+L=13. y 2 4. : x 3? Solve the following systems 881. f a: a: 4 ?y = 481. a: 888.y 2 + V(j. 900.
921.y) (a? . (0 Vx f 10 f v^+T4 = 12. 2 924.#y + 2 = 27. a. xa 903. . 7 y . y 2 + 3 ary = 2. a: a. x 4 299 xy z 904. 911.y2 = 22. + a. (a. + y)(a. 2 * 2 ~ g. y 3 2 2 922. + y = 9.V + y 2 = + xy + y a = (a? .x) = 21. a:y xy 929. (* 918. y 2 + xy = b 2 925. y 49(x 2 2 = 6 2 (x 2 + y 2). 2 2 2 916. + y 8 = 189.2 y) = 49 2 919. 3 y 8 ) =1216.y)^ 03 926 12 +y +y 927. 907. y + a:y = 180. ^ 2 + 2 a:y = a a 2 3 a: a: a. x + y 2 = aar. + 2 ary = 39. or or a? a: a: .23 = 200. ^ 2 . 910. y x 2 = by. (!) * . 914. y .16 y 3 8 = . (3 x . ary y = 8. + 2 a:y + = 243. 7 + 4 y f 6 ary = 0. 908. 906. 920.3)2 = 34. x f 2 a:y = 32.r a. 905. 3 y 2 + xy = 1. 923. 2 5 xy = 11. * + y = 444. xy + 2 y 2 = 65. L/ay = a: + 5? + g = ^ + g. (o. 3 :r(3 . a: y zx 12.y = a(ar + y).y). 23 x 2 . ny ft ma: = * a 2 m*. = 8. a o o 2 j + a:y = 2. 917. x + y}(x + y) = 273.3) 2 f (y . . 2 915. y # 2 2 f f y = 84. + ?/) . 2 + y = 2 a 4. xy + x= 15. + 2 y) (2 + ?/) = 20. 909. 2 y 2 f ay/ = 16.6. x 2 ry + y = 3. xy 2 2 x 2y 2 = 0. f y 2 x 2 y = 1. 9 f 8 y f 7 ay/ = 0. yz = 24. 912. ?/ ^: ^f!i^2. # + xy + y = 7. . Vary + y = 6. 2 913. a: * a: a: ar 928.y) = 33. 4 (a. x* + ary f y 2 = 9. *y .3(* + y) = 6. 2 2 f 4 a: ar// or f a.REVIEW EXERCISE 902.y) (3 y . + ary = a*.
942. and the Find the sides of the and its is squares. is 3 . + z) =108. If each side was increased by 2 feet. Find the side of each two circles is IT square. In the first heat B reaches the winning post 2 minutes before A. diagonal 940. 931. Find the sides of the rectangle. The diagonal of a rectangle equals 17 feet. 944. 152. two numbers Find the numbers. y(x + y + 2) = 133. + z)=18. 935. is 3. feet. find the radii of the two circles. Tf there had been 20 less rows. A plantation in rows consists of 10. How many rows are there? 941. and B diminishes his as arrives at the winning post 2 minutes before B. and 10 feet broader. the difference of their The is difference of their cubes 270. much and A then Find at what increases his speed 2 miles per hour. Find the numbers. feet. a second rec8 feet shorter. two squares is 23 feet. Assuming = y. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA (*+s)(* + y)=10. and the difference of 936. The sum of the perimeters of sum of the areas of the squares is 16^f feet. The perimeter of a rectangle is 92 Find the area of the rectangle. A and B run a race round a twomile course. The difference of two numbers cubes is 513.000 trees. (y + *) = . (3 + *)(ar + y + z) = 96. and the sum of their cubes is tangle certain rectangle contains 300 square feet.300 930.102. 34 939. rate each man ran in the first heat. *(* + #) =24. 937. the The sum of the perimeters of sum of their areas equals 617 square feet. and the sum of their areas 78$.square inches. two squares equals 140 feet. = ar(a? f y + 2) + a)(* + y 933. In the second heat A . is 20. the area of the new rectangle would equal 170 square feet. there would have been 25 more trees in a row. 943. Find the length and breadth of the first rectangle. . A is 938. 2240. z(* + y + 2) = 76. s(y 932. y( 934. and also contains 300 square feet. The sum of two numbers Find the numbers. (y (* + y)(y +*)= 50. The sum of the circumferences of 44 inches.
if its length is decreased 10 feet and its breadth increased 10 feet. If the breadth of the rectangle be decreased by 1 inch and its is length increased by 2 inches. The sum of the contents of two cubic blocks the of the heights of the blocks is 11 feet. . Find its length and breadth. The diagonal of a rectangular is 476 yards. distance between P and Q. overtook miles. the area lengths of the sides of the rectangle. whose 946. Find the number. sum Find an edge of 954. each block. The area of a certain rectangle is 2400 square feet. Find two numbers each of which is the square of the other. . that B A 955. A and B. the digits are reversed. What is its area? field is 182 yards. triangle is 6. set out from two places. Two starts travelers. When from P A was found that they had together traveled 80 had passed through Q 4 hours before. and its perim 948. unaltered. Find the number. and the other 9 days longer to perform the work than if both worked together. . A certain number exceeds the product of its two digits by 52 and exceeds twice the sum of its digits by 53. is 407 cubic feet. at the same time A it starts and B from Q with the design to pass through Q. 951. The square described on the hypotenuse of a right triangle is 180 square inches. was 9 hours' journey distant from P. A rectangular lawn whose length is 30 yards and breadth 20 yards is surrounded by a path of uniform width.REVIEW EXERCISE 301 945. at Find the his rate of traveling. 950. and travels in the same direction as A. the difference in the lengths of the legs of the Find the legs of the triangle. and that B. P and Q. 952. A number consists of three digits whose sum is 14. 953. 949. The area of a certain rectangle is equal to the area of a square side is 3 inches longer than one of the sides of the rectangle. the square of the middle digit is equal to the product of the extreme digits. Two men can perform a piece of work in a certain time one takes 4 days longer. Find the width of the path if its area is 216 square yards. Find the eter 947. and if 594 be added to the number. its area will be increased 100 square feet. Find in what time both will do it.
. ^1 + Vj 1 2  ..4142 . P. J. Sum Sum to infinity. 3 + 5 7 + . 4 4 to 7 terms . 3 .. + (iiven a +  4 d . \ .to infinity. 961. fourth of the unity.. Evaluate (a) . (x + O 2 4 y 2 ) + O 8 + y*) + y) + x(x 2 4 y 2} 4.3151515. s  88. are 29 and 53. . 12434+ j I 967. 4. 957. 972. 975. How many Sum Sum terms of the series 1 + 3 + 5 + amount to 123. (to 2 n terms). '. Find an A.v 973. are 1 and sum of 20 terms. 18th terms of an A. to 7 terms. to infinity. Find n f (ft) .>/) to infinity. 964.. = 4. difference. 1 to n terms. the terms being in A.. 969. !Ll^ + n .. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Sum to 32 terras. ^ 1 .302 956.V2 . 5.  2.. Sura to 24 terms. such that the sum of the 1 terms is one sum of the following five terms. .141414. 974. 9th and llth terms of an A..x*(x 3 f 8) + y) + (2x + f) + (3 x + y 8 ) 4.. Find n.. *" 968. 958.321? 965. (x 4 to n terms. 971. P. P. Find the sum of 4. x(x to 8 terms. 36 963.. 970. ^ Vfirst five 959. to n terms.454. and 976.. . the first term being Find the sums of the 960. f + 1 . n to n terms.. Sum to 20 terms. 5.1 4 f j$V . 1G series . Find the difference between the sums of the series 5 n + !Lni n " 4 4.. first ? n+l(n + l) The 10th and The term and the T + ( + +!) V (to J' infinity). : + f 24 21 24 4f 32 36 1G 10. . 16 962. Find the Find the common 977. P... Sum Sum Sum to 10 terms.. 966.
What 2 a value must a have so that the sum of + av/2 + a + V2 + . 985. : + 9   V2 + . The sum 982. then this sum multiplied by (Euclid.001 4. v/2 1 + + + 1 4 + + 3>/2 to oo + + . Insert 22 arithmetic means between 8 and 54. 980.. and so on. The term. 1. is 225.+ lY L V. "(. 5 11. Find the value of the infinite product 4 v'i v7! v^5 . to oo.2 . who rewarded the inventor by promising to place 1 grain of wheat on Sessa for the the 1st square of a chessboard. Find n. 992. 986. Find four perfect numbers.01 3. 0.3 ' Find the 8th 983. If of 2 of integers + 2 1 + 2'2 by which is it is the sum of the series 2 n is prime.. all A perfect number is a number which equals the sum divisible. to 105? 981. and the sum of the first nine terms is equal to the square of the sum of the first two. of n terms of an A. 2 grains on the 2d. Find the number of grains which Sessa should have received. Find the sum of the series 988. 989. How many sum terms of 18 + 17 + 10 + amount . Find four numbers in A. and of the second and third 03.001 + . named Sheran. P.1 + 2. 990.. . Insert 8 arithmetic means between 1 and .. such that the product of the and fourth may be 55. P. and the common difference. Find the first term. The Arabian Araphad reports that chess was invented by amusement of an Indian rajah.REVIEW EXERCISE 978. 4 grains on the 3d. doubling the number for each successive square on the board.) the last term the series a perfect number.. 987... 303 979.. first 984. P. of n terms of 7 + 9 + 11+ is is 40. to infinity may be 8? .04 + . The 21st term of an A. to n terms.
Find (a) the sum of all circumferences. after how strokes would the density of the air be xJn ^ ^ ne original density ? a circle is inscribed. third circle touches the second circle and the to infinity. P. at the same time. of squares of four numbers in G. in this square a circle. In a circle whose radius is 1 a square is inscribed. AB = 1004. ABC A A n same sides. and the fifth term is 8 times the second . P. P. in this circle a square. and G. The side of an equilateral triangle equals 2. The other travels 8 miles the first day and After how increases this pace by \ mile a day each succeeding day. areas of all triangles. the sides of a third triangle equal the altitudes of the second. P. The sides of a second equilateral triangle equal the altitudes of the first. Insert 4 geometric means between 243 and 32. Two travelers start on the same road. is 4. Each stroke of the piston of an air air contained in the receiver. find the series. c. 995. In an equilateral triangle second circle touches the first circle and the sides AB and AC. 512 996. are 28 and find the numbers. 999. inches. 998. 997. The sum and product of three numbers in G. . P. (6) after n What strokes? many 1002. Insert 3 geometric means between 2 and 162. 1003. ft. many days will the latter overtake the former? . are 45 and 765 find the numbers. are unequal. 1000. 994. Under the conditions of the preceding example. One of them travels uniformly 10 miles a day.304 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 993. and so forth to Find (a) the sum of all perimeters. and if so forth What is the sum of the areas of all circles. (6) the sum of the infinity. If a. (I) the sum of the perimeters of all squares. prove that they cannot be in A. pump removes J of the of air is fractions of the original amount contained in the receiver. (a) after 5 strokes. and so forth to infinity. The sum and sum . 1001. The fifth term of a G.
1012.l) w f . Find the middle term of (a$ bfy. coefficient of x 9 in (5 a 8 7 . x) 18 . Find the middle term of (a + b) 1016. Find the two middle terms of (a *2 x) 9 . Find the coefficient a: X  \88 1 in 1019. 1008. 1009. Find the two middle terms of 1013. Find the two middle terms of ( ( 9 . Write down (x the first four terms in the expansion of + 2 #). Write down the 1 5a  6 V . Write down the expansion of (3 1007.iV 2i/ 5 . a: 8 7. 1011. 1006.REVIEW EXEHCISE 1005.o/) 14 . Expand  2 a. Find the 9th term of (2 al 1010. + lQ . Find the fifth term of (1  a:) 1015. . . Write down the (a first 305 three and the last three terms of  *)". Find the middle term of ( .ft) 19 . Find the middle term of 1020. (1 1018. 1014. 2 ) 5. Find the eleventh term of /4 x >> . ) 1021. (12 #) 7 .
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232 169 807 . .. 123 ..181 105 " Complex fraction " Evolution Composition . .. lowest ratio " '* . 97.. . t 53 120 . 19. ...] Abscissa Absolute term . . ...130 .. 246 91 " multiple.. 129. 232 mean progression . Discriminant Discussion of problems Arrangement of expressions Average . sum Consequent Consistent equations 210 27 10 18 . . .. Checks Coefficient 20.... . .. . 249 246 20 10 23 193 . 54.. . .193 11 .. . 9.. .. . 49 Clearing equations of fractions 108 8 ' graphic solution.. ... .INDEX [NUMBERS REFER TO PAGES.210 130 " Addition value 4 15..Base of a power Binomial " theorem 54 8 45 130 10 255 9 Elimination Equations ' 63 consistent fractional .. 129 54... numerical .108 160 " . ... . . 112 54 54 251 . . . Aggregation. .. linear literal Common ** * difference .. simple simultaneous . . Brace Bracket Character of roots . .. graphic tion of representa .. 160 in quadratic form 191 .178 Completing the square . 9 ** . 37. .... Constant Coordinates Cross product 155 148 41 " Alternation 123 Antecedent Arithmetic *' 120 Degree of an equation Difference . 158. signs of Algebraic expression .. . quadratic .241 45 45 Dividend Division Divisor Axiom . ... 148 178 Conditional equations Conjugate surds . 8 . .
109 102 . 114. ... 45. directly. 83 10 19 Polynomial Polynomials. Integral expression Interpretation of solutions Progressions.. C Factoring 222 Literal equations . . 63.108 Minuend .. .. 84. G. .105 Monomials 03 Multiple. Like terms Linear equation . Fourth proportional Fractional equations u Fractions. 243 7 . . Graphic solution of simple equations Graph of a function Grouping terms Highest . . arithmetic 346 120 338 341 53 70. P .. common factor Homogeneous equations Identities . 17 65. 130 9 Power Prime factors Problem.. . 112 . 120 Member. numbers . . . 143. . Geometric progression . . L. 120 Lowest common multiple 70 . 189.. 205 . Mean " 81) proportional Mean.. . arithmetic . . law of Extraneous roots . Known numbers . 246 251 121 Inversion Involution Irrational Proportion 105 Proportional. 42 7 Independent equations Index .. 89 235 Parenthesis Perfect square 53 .. addition of " square of . INDEX 8 . 23 10 91 102. . . 9. exponent . 241 123 geometric . 178 45 221 205 Law of exponents .251 Graphic solution of simultane. 195 33.. Negative exponents 11 ..154 Order of operations " of surds . 184 54. . . Mathematical induction . first and second . Product '* 76 Infinite. 195 4 13 ous equations 100 158 .. . .C Multiplication . . 212 . 180. Insertion of parentheses . 253 28 70 1. . Imaginary numbers . Inconsistent equations . . 227 geometric . 205 148 148 27 86 Ordinate Origin . . 91 . 227 . . .808 Exponent Exponents.31. . inversely 122 numbers . 34.. . . 1 Quadratic equations Quotient Radical equations Radicals . . 45 Laws of signs . 195 Extreme Factor " theorem " II. 45..
. . Sum. algebraic Surds ... . 232 Vinculum Zero exponent 40 42 197 Printed in the United States of America.. .INDEX Ratio national Rationalizing denominators 76. 255 120 54 10 sum and product of . . 9. binomial Third proportional Transposition .... 193 Rule of signs Series Signs of aggregation Similar and dissimilar terms Similar surds 33... . 27 17 Unknown numbers . 23 18 228 27 9 205 10 Term " absolute 54 193 178 Theorem. 1 Simple equations Simultaneous equations Square of binomial 205 Value. 4 155 9 " of . ... polynomial .. 129. 309 171 133 120 Square root Substitution 205 Real numbers Reciprocal 215 Subtraction 169 Subtrahend 104 22 Remainder theorem Removal of parenthesis Root Roots of an equation " character of " ... absolute 54 Variable .... 45 Trinomial 240 ... ... ....
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ANSWERS TO SCHULTZE'S ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA COMPILED BY THE AUTHOR WITH THE ASSISTANCK OP WILLIAM P. MANGUSE STrtn gork THE MACMILLAN COMPANY 1918 All rights reserved .
BY THE MACMILLAN COMPANY. 1910. NorfoooS J. U. Published September. 8. Mass.. 1910. Gushing Co. 1913. . August. Norwood.COPYRIGHT. December.S. Set up and electrotypcd. Berwick <fe Smith Co.A. Reprinted April. 1917. 1916.
12. 89. 3.3. 19. 12. c. 3 m. T .21 24. 17. 4.000 Indians. x. C $1(50. Page?. 2. 15. 9. 1. 14. 4.00000001.2. 7.12. 30. South America 46. Page 13. i . 10. B $20. 13 V.000. 18. 6. 8. 3.. 7. 72 = = 216. 6* 16. 6 yd. . 11. 16. B $4700. 3. 6.  1. 16. 4. $100. 4. 8. 15. 3. 16 in. 37 S.000. 10. B $80. (a) (/>) 1. 28. Page 4. 9 = 4. A 15. 12. 5. 64. 9. 17. 21. 3. Yes. 256. 13. 5. 5. 3. 12. 3* 7. 18.C. 16.$9400. 8. 1. 2. 32.000. 1. 37. 24. 2. 9. 5000. 7. }. 10. 20 B. 29. 20 jo. 21. 27. Ot 15. 9. 25. 3. 9 14. 2. = 5 81. 7. Australia ft. 13. 126. ^. 36. 5. 1.  2 p. C $ 16. 14.000. 20 \. 10. 6. 28. 24. 7. 3. is $10. 10. 32. 73.. 2.8. 512. 7. 29. Seattle 12 Philadel 9. 1. 16. 6. 17. 13. 16f 2. loss.ANSWERS Page phia 8 in. 27. 19. 1. 1. 8. 115. 128.. 18. 32. 2. 14. 1. 3 below 0. 3. 9. 5.000. 3. 3. _ 32. A . 19. 16. 18. 13. 48 ft. 16 in.. 6. 3. 6. A 38 mi. 26. Page 1. $ 1 50 10. 6. 12.  1. Page Page Ilis expenditures. B $ 128. 2. 25. 25. 22.. 2. 12.. 10g. 2 5. 5. 8. 19 4. . . 3. per sec. 6. 1. 3.. 150. 1. 11. 11. 20. 16. 7.  13. 20. 5. 5. 2. 23. x. 2. A Bl 7. A $90. westerly motion. 15. 15. 10. 27. 14. 144. 9. 7m. B 10 mi. $160.000. 2. 24. 6. 1. 17. 16. in 12. 10. 14. 210.000. 106. 0. 8. 12. 49. 9 16  larger than 7. 0. 9. 85. 2  Page 8. 1. 4. 1. sign. 6. 4. 18. 17. 3. 2 ~ 15. 8.1. 4. Not 5. 12. 14 11. 13 d. 2.150.. arithmetic. 49. in. 6. 12. Page 8. C $60. 14. 576. 32. V 23. 16. 9. 20. 3. 14. b. 8 13. 15. 12.  22 20. 13. 1 16. 7. 21. + 1. ft. 3.. 18. 25. 11. 6. 10. 1. $40. 30?. .000. 1. 2. . 9 m. 20. 11. 7. 8 ft. Multiplication. 22. 14.000 negroes. 192. 9. in. 16. 13 S. sign. 59. 2. 26z.
7. 22. 21^. 26. in.rty8. 2.'J. 1. 9. 3. 2x' 2 5 . r:A 29. 1. in. a3 a2 4 a 4 1. 237.<>Gq. 19. 0. 58. 12yd. 9. 11. +/2(/. r+l. 42. 15a. 92. 43w//2 17. 21. 17. 13. 13. . 7. (a) 200. 20(. 16. (r) 2000 m. ^. r/ \(\xyz. It. in. ft)  3 /A  8x :i (/* 4 ft)(X 36 2 "'* ~ 5V (a ft). 4.6) 38. 1. c.  12. ft. 13. 13. 8. (59.  1. 15. (<7) (a) 314 sq. 18. 3. 39. 1. Page 18.. 3rf 27. . Polynomial. a2 4 15^44. 0. ft. 6. 5. Page 23. \'\ 4. 33. 50. (a) <> sq. ft. (a 4 4. 9. 11. 15. 4 9/^/rl 2. I. 20. 5. ft f 19. 7. 10. 0.. 21 a 3 4 10. 27. 2.  xV 3 y.9?/2 8.. 12.x. 4. 9. 18. 27. 3. 0. 25.r f 15. 32 2 ftc. 18.  11.. 19. 04. 2. 5. 1. yyz+xyz*. 36.ft. 314 sq. 1.000 sq. 14. 2. 2V^4^/ 8 x* 6. 25.  3. :J!>r'. 6. 8. 173. = ()501. 8. (a) 50. .3 * 10 r5 <3 . (a} 100 1(5 cm. 3 y v> <Mft 3* 2. (ft) $40. arty 1 20. 32.  2 4 13 ft 2 . i:5. 30. Va'+Y2 8^2 . 18. 31. 0. 17. (r) 2G7. 24. 14. 21.1. 27. 14. 36. 12. . 30. (b) 135 mi. $80.900. a ft c. 23. 2. (V) (rf) (ft) 50. 38 ab. ft n. 4. :. 5. 15. 8. 28. 3(c4a). 27. 57. 104. 34. Binomial. 19. 12. 240. 14. 22( 19. 2oVmf?i. 12. 3. 31. 1. 22. 5.32 c2 > ft 3 . 12 a. 35. 6<t.a . II. 7. 18. Monomial. Page 31. $3000 Page 6.ft) 4. 13. 17. 5.14 sq. (ft) 12. 8. 7 7. a 32. t. <i~ 26. _ 4 . ^).r 2 . 29. ??i??. 26. #1111.'JO ft. 14. 15. 16. 5x+3. 16.  0.q 4. 10. .ab. 20. 16. f  5e 35. 35. 13. m 24..~4. 0. 15. y. 4<> 2 ?t Vc. rt. 31. Polynomial. 3. (r) 78. v'ft a4 4 a a 41.5f> sq. 27. = 81. 37. 28. 8. + 5. 23.  40.000 . 14... 0. mi. 35. 51 f. 8. 22. 1. 10. 20. vi 14. 13 cu. (ft) Page 2. 4. 2. . $r*y 4 3x?/ 4 m* run  . 3. 12. ]*. 14:). 14. + ft).. 17. ft.. 49. 00 24 04 ft. 22. 4. 5. 11. 3. 11.94(>. Page 21. x^ 20. sq. ft. 1.4 ft. 17. (a) r>23ifcu. (r) 2. Pagel4r. 7. //'. 25. 3a. 16. o^ft. 4. 29.r~ f 34. in. 30. Trino inial. 3. 21. 28. 4 y/ . 0. w. (c) 8. . + v> 2 .. 38. (ft) 7. 3 a* + 2 at*. ft' 3 . 34. 2ftx. 12. 0. 24. 9. 3.GOG.ii ANSWERS Page 11.. 8. 5. (c) S(i. m + 3(a. 3 . 32. 33. .. 0* Page 3 w" 0..5 (ft) sq. WIN + wiw. Page 7. 15. . (ft) mi.4  2ft 2 33. 6. jrif 4 9. 41. 27.
14. 50. 2. 14.a f 54. 40.3x 2 2 tf. 2. 25 47. 2 6. + 8. . 1 4. 0. r.. 3. . 32.a'2 . + a 2 f 2 a 4.11. 26. 25.'U4j>. 6. s_r>a5. 13. + 6. 7  # + 12. n*. 36. 2m.(a f 6) + 4(1 + c) . ?> 22. 10 x. ii\ 22. 7.  G J8 r  4 a <?. . 2m(4? 2 4ir#(2. 7 a5 1 . 18. 8. 31. 4.4 d. 4. a a. 20.r' 2 z2 2 4 a 1. a + (ftc4df). 37. 22. 28. a4 4 4. ^ <. G. a 3 . 12. /> Zmn + qt G/ 4 .5 4 2 3 ?/ . 4wipg>' 27. 26. 6. ar. a). 2// 16. 2.  a: 2. \ :{ 2 a 48. !  </ . 29. 10. w* ( . ( 7. 3 nv> w 3 a 24 npy . 3 m.5. 25.  12. 814.2 a.  1. 24. + 2y. _ Page 30. 4. 2x 4 a 13. 12. 4 21. a + a.  23. . 9. 2 a f 6 414. 5. 1. 26. ?>4tl 53. x3 . 2 . 17.3 6. a2 24.  4 b 17 y*. 11. 3 a . '  . . 2 + a4l). a 52. f ft 9. 31. 55..AXSH'EJtS Page 23. 4r 2 .4. a 3a 4 2 &.Oa: + 10. c2 . _2?> 2 + 3 x 9. 43. 11. a f 2 f 2 9. 0. 3. 19.r 2. a 10w.2 a2 2m 2 4. 24 b 46. 2 a 37. a 6 2 . 51. (yz~d}. 6. 58. 1. :5 41. 8a*b8<tb'\ a + /> fc + 4 r. _5a<>&43c.1. a 4 + ft. 8 . (w4w)(ww). 14.a~. 1. . 2m + 2w. 21. &.  b. a2 9. 2a: 2 4x.r 2 + 4?/ 4l).x f 1 2 . 33. Page 7.2 ft 2 r2 10. . . 2 y' 4 . 8. c. 25. . a  ISjfat. 4. 2 . + c 4 d x + 6 e. 10 m. (mn} 11.2 . .abc. ?/. Page 28. 5x 2 rt ft. ri\ 18. 38. lOrt 15w4. 1. 34. a  49. ti. ' 12 m?/'2 27. 10. 2. . 7  a + 2 + c. 30. a 3& . 3 a3 & 41. 2 4 5 2 a3 1. 16. 19. + 4 c. 3 Ji 8 . 5.r. (5x47 3. 18.c. 2 2 2 6. 3. 2 17. G a bd. 12. 2 3x f z. 2. 19.aft. 2.a*.(7x2 Ox2). f 2 ?/  2. m*  n*. 59. a2 4 2 ft 4 Ve. 13. 5. 15. .6 x + 0) 16. 2 4. 2. 2. 4. 17. .2 57. 2. a' 4ab + ?/. c. 34 39.7. 2. 36. 5. 20. 7. a. 3m2 n 9 (a + $) 2 . 4.4c 3 8 8 J. 20. 22. 35. (2n' 43p 47 ).ws 2 ft) . 5 2 Page 29. 56.  b* 4 r 1 . x a8 1.h. w 17. 8 b. ?/i 13. 6. 7. 364c. 21.1 . 24. 15. x  + 3z. 10. 15. j)(g1. . 8 8 . M + 10. 0. 2a.5 z?/ + 3 y . 8 + 2 a . 2 3.  17.(2 x2 . 2 2. .2. 1 + 45. Exercise 16. 7. t). ft Exercise 17. 8. 18.8(c + a). 21. 1. 4ft ~.a . 11. Page 8.  14 afy . 12. . ab a. 42. 24. 16. Page 44. 1. 14. mn. 32 w 2 w. + 4 m4 4 8 7?i 8  G m.l.4x.
26. 3 ?i w 1(5 pag'V 2 W 2 . . 30. 13. ! 2. 28. Page 3. 3(*+0 + 2). 33. 13. 26. 28. 30. 14. + 7. 161b. . ll 2 i. 27. 7. m.25 x* + 25 x + 20 . .>(/ r .14 ?/i r?/6j/ 5.7(50. s 9 ww.57 p6 3 2 4 25. 2 2 +2621ft 2 .25 + 14. 29. 29. 12. 30. x2 xy42^. n (a6) 125. 52 + 6s 12. 1. 24. Ox a 5 . 8. 90. . f 26. 11. 22. ^^ = 20. 343. . a: . 3 a 3 . 30 ? 49 p*qh*t. 4. 8. 216. 2 8 xy f 4 a. 6". 34.:>/ . 7G . 6. 14f 5. 32.8 12.35 a*b*c8 f 14 a?/e . 4. 26. 2 * 80 .64 190 p6. 22. 6 . 3 a 2 46. 108. 13. 3. fa 2. 35. 2z 8 s 2 3zl.. 29. 34. 15 q\ 6. 25 4 4. 12. 25. 4 a8 . a: 3a: 2 (2a:f iHa.14 w 2 2 . 38 a*b 6 : 24. 27. 30 n?b*c*. 5aft(a 126 2). 2 ).6 wiw 24 n 2 36 + 65 ww . . 2 + aft 4 ft 2. 2 ll9HH 2) + . 108. 8. 2 n8 29 a + 30. 13. 210. 30.21 a 3 c2 21. 24. 21 a'&c. 4aWy. 9 13.r% 2 2 ry.3 a 2 6 + 3 aft 2 . ft 17. 20. 770. 14.14 xyz + 14 a:y0. 12 ^.36 35. 33. 23. 22.20 xyz . 8. 4 fc. 4. 120. 30. 6. 10. //.44 aWc 16 abxy. 4200. 7. ?> 4 . 25. . 14 m 2 . 360. 25. Page 5. 2 ). 23. 4. ?/ .000. 161b. 4 jcy*z*>. 18.16 x2/ 5 4. 2 a*62 c2 + 11 a&c .32 y s s G . 60. 23. + 58 .. 33. 12 x2 2 . 29. 4 a2 . 24. 216. 14. 18a% y.18 w w + 10 WI M . 2. 12. 2*8f x2 6x4. 17. 14. 0. 18. 9z 8 16z2 9z + 10. 6. 2 wiw 8 + 2 wiwp 2 2 x*y* 15. 10. 4 m3 + 9m2 + m. 04. 1. etc.r + 7 1S + 2 mp. 32. 28. 18. 1.. 23. 15. 15 lb. 15. 15. 18. 36. . 21. 3. iSx8 . 15. 9. (x f ?/)  a 12 10.14 . 42.12. 19.6) =a2 31. 25. 40 r 2 . +. 102. 5. Page 7.14 a 2 _6g8 + 9 2_i2g + 8. 2 2 2 . 16. 16.2. 3. . 64. a. 17. 76 8 a' 1 . . 8. 9. 1.iv ANSWERS + &)(. 16. ISartyW e*f*tj. 2. 20. 21. 17.(3x2_4^+7). 84. 27. a 8 . 3300. 38wiw. 1904. 2''.16 a 2 + 32 a . 15. 24. a. 3. (+3)x6=+16. 28.8 4a12 a2 ftf 5aft2 f 6 6. 9. 9 w 2 + 13 n . 4.32. 16. 27. 10c 2 19rd+0c? a I' . 16. 20. 37. 19. 4 7> 4 :j !} . 20. 42. 20 aW. 16 lb.15. a. 24. Page 35. 20.22 ac + 30 c2 + 43 2 2 8. .12. . Page 36. 1400. 1. 19.19p" + 19^ 10 . 13. 2. 16 51. 11. 7 + r/m 4^4^414.11 xyz . 30. 2 . 11. 5. 2. 127"'. 2 a2 (y 2 . 83 In + 1 n*. ci 5 . 21. 10. 11. 1. +15.1. 4.6 2 . 18> ^* = a . . 60.10 3 30 a a 4 c f 15 aWc . 18. 8 . 27. 2 w +2 2 .21. 22. 6.. 7. Page 38. 17. 31.69 rt + 21 132 + r . 2 7t A.28 p'^/. 18. 7. r' 2 a: j/ (? ft . 31. 1. 20. a + ft. 30 j9 jt?g j .19 + 2. . 34. 10. 66 8W 34. + O4 66 . 66 39 k* . a*b*c. 19. 0.
4 m'2 40 (i V2 c 2 + 25 r 4 22. 1. 4. .ab .. 57. 30 x + 19 x3 .606. ) 4' 6/ 49. 990.009. 14. (w4)(w + l). x*2^f I. 9990. 31.^V"' . 6. . 41. 29.^ + a? + 1. + 2 fz& + 2 i> + p + 9.020. 10. 41. 40. 1. . ( 5) O5)(w + 3). 166. 24. a2 ' + 48Z100. 10. 25 a 2 6 2 .49. x 48. a + 25. m 3 j) 3 . . 19. 8. n2 a4 6. 28. + 4 t*. V + o ft . Page 39. 35. 10. 2 fr . (r ?/) (x 6 (b + 5 ?i)(& 50. 29. 1).000. y. 7.8. x* . 2. 33. a + 56. 4. (a (3 54.10 35.098. (46c + 5) (4 abc 43.20. 2 (6 a + 3) (3a66)(3a6&).14 jp + 49./ . 14. 2 12. a' . 9999. 2.35 ab 9. r. 10. 55.4 n. 53. +4 34. x 4 ?/4 + ab . p 2 . x4 28. + a2 12 ab 2 8 0.x2 + 6 x2y 2 . 4 2 //. 18.m 30 6 4 1. 2 j3 Z .009. +  m' 1. 26. 5. 2xV+6x2y2^2 +22. 7. 36. (n 2 5.x2y22. fo*. 4 + 25 q*.. 33. 2 a 2 + a . . 11. 2 +10s281. 4 x2 13. 25 25. 10 a' 2 .^. 8)(?i (x2)(x3). 24.84 a' 9. + 7 6)(3a~76>. 2 62 V2 132.+ l5J x// + 9 2 2 4 ^ 4 ()Or 2 20. 39.996. ?/H)0. 1. 34. 2 4 2 2 64 .ANSWERS 28. 2 a' y' .2 x + 2 x.2 6 + 13. 27. Page 12. a4 4 ?/ . ab . (w+4)(m4). 2). 31. 12 x2 .3. 14.r* 2 30. 7> .r . 2 . 10. . 9801. 2 6' . . 37. (a + 4) (a + 2).4 12. 2 a' + 2 ?/ 5 + a 3. . n + 2. 19. 23. 8. 9.994.6 y4 10. 36. a3 0. 11. 10 p 2 g ?> 2 ?/ + 49 & 4 2 16. 45.004. 25. + 3)(3). 10. 1. 44. .001.ri 17. lflrt 2 8 + l. 1. w'n 2 //^ + 25. 22 x 2 ?/ 2 y + 121 x4 29.5 ~ 81. (m + 6)(m3). . x4 4 121 4 ?/ .10 x + 25. 34. G a6 2. x 2 f xy + 9 41.810. p4 + . . 25 r 4 ?/i 30.25.6 x2 13. 52. 4.00 + 37. + 4 a +4. 8 a W . . 2 m3 + 4m2 . a2 >2 2 2  84 a a + 49. +   5). m 2 . 3. . 4 a&c + c2 30 x 4 ?/ 23.  12 xy +9 2 >2 ?/ 2.000. 20a 2 21a + 4. 8 38. 24 ab + 9 & 2 . 40. . 32. r*d< x/2 ?/'2 18. x2 GiC+5. 35. 4 . 7 . a 2 .5 ?i m #2 4 ?7i%'2 4 . ft' 11. 30.16 a3 f 50. 10. 999. 42. s rc 47.4 a&+ 4 &*. 6 2 + 6lf>0. . 27.008.2. a + 25. ^' J  7 f 12. 36 a 4 . 4 21. + 12. 998. 5. 2 4 a + 4.1. m'2 +18?rt 2 ' + 81. 484. 9. 36. + 2 9. 7.712.201.404.2 y*. 4x21. 38. 2 a4 6 4 +8 a2 6 2 2x4 +7x 2 6 2 15 6 4 36.6 xy . ^/> 8 4 . (p 2. 32. 3wi2 m Page 42. 2 1: 21.54 p 2 + 81. 31.500. I/). 8. 33. ^V^4 . 4 . 2 0)(p + 5). ' 46.p132. 21 2 . 40.6. 6.020. ab. 1. . Om2 4 6m 6. 39. ~ 6 20 . 15. 26. 30 /><. 56. 16. 10. 10. 10. 10. (x  2) (x Page (rt2). 15. 10 a 4 ?. 17.15. 441. 2 (5 a 3). 2 .r . 37. 9 4 /> . 3. + 10 + 121 y*. + <z 22 2 4 20 rt2 32. 51. . 6 x6 + 13 x3 .<* &2 + 106 + tt + .
2 . 8. /r . 4. 1. 9w 2 + 0m+ 1. 2 2 + 2 a. a2 x 8 4 ft 8 . 14. 5. 5. 4 n2 4 +p ft 2 42 2 aft 2 mn + 2 mp 4 10 a ft \ x* 4 4 2 z2 + 2 jrz a2 2 2 f 25  2 np. 4.000. 2 ft 2 ?nc w . i 2 tji. 2. 3 a.3^V. 5 a  (5 ft. 5. 4 x y 2 7 x + 5. 19.rw. l 4 .8 yn . 12. 1. + 3. i 9. 14.8. m L 4. 4.2 2 2 8 . 10 ft. 4.c ft*/ 1  ft' ?/ .2 ac . . Page 22. Exercise 2 a:// 26. 5.24 . 1000 1000 . a 2 ft 4 9 c3 . .29.9 4.2 .  .27 x 2 4.3 3. 10. 4 x. ??. 17. 12.2 <</. . 2 ?/' . Page 11. Exercise 27.3 a 41. 3 5 a4  4 a2 4. ?/2.  10. 8. .lit x + 4. 6x 3. . 8. 3 aft 20. 2 ?/ ft Page 2.1. 5 aft 4 ft 2 4 8. c 12. '. ft. 14. 2 .> 10. .5 n*. ft ? ft' ft ft. 5. . 16.y3. 4 ac. 6. 4xy + 13 <) . . 9.7.30 ftc.6 :rs 4.11 _ 5x _ _ o 18./ 4.23. 10. 6. 23. 1. 16.3 ry. .2 ar.4. 13. 18. 3. 21. z. Page 13. 1.2 wZ 4. 3. 2. . 13.7 arty 4 4 x 2 //V2  3 Z2 3 1. 6 x 2 t/ 2 4 . a 8 4. 1. 4 c m . 11. 8 x . 8 r<ft 4 2 . 75 a 2 29.8 <r 2 2 ?/' . 7a3ft.10 xy*. 2 1. w . 9 5 4a' 2 ft 6. a 2 44 a2 ft' 4 ft 2 2 4. .8. r ft. Page 48. aft 4 tt ac 2 ftc. . Page 7. 5.+ 77 15. . 49. m'2 3. 15.  3 c.x^. 12. a 4 4 ft.3 5. . 9. 1. 4 pq. 7. a 10. 19. 12.15.5 mp. w 2 . 8.2. 5 4 a Oft. 4. :r !>. G. 46. a r'43 ll'a^S 15.r" 20 S? . r/2 4. 2 a 3 ft. a. 26.  5 z* . 4ft. *3 y 4 . 2 m2 4 2 w2 7. 13.34. 4 a 2 4.r?/ j/. 14. 7a 2 ftc 4 4c42a. 135.12 aft 4 20 ac . 8 ?/ . 3.r'^ 15.1. 50. a 2 . 3. Page 51. // 19.r' ~ 16.2 2 . +w .1. 13.2 1 //. 14.1. 8 x5 ? + 4 1. 4. 125. 4.  12 y 25.25. 10. 5^418(7.15 21. 2. 3 l48m47?n 2 20. y 7. 9.9 d. 5. 3*y2 w + 1. 2 ^r ???' 2 .3 w 4*7 m 2 3 mn .2 . 5. 2.10 2 + z 2 410. f>r* 4. 7 r . 2 ?/ 4.1*5 2 r 2 . 13. 12.VI ANSWERS 43. ft* ft / . 8. 9.r ?/ ??i ?).2 . 20. as _ 10 16. x4. 2 4 2 x 4. 2 4 3 9. c3. 4 d 2 4. 17.5 a .8 y. 11 4. r 7. 6 <z 2 4 ft 3 . 14 r 2 . 4 a* 4 9 11. 24. ti'jry1 7.1. 47. x' u' 2 2 z~ 4. 8. 4x43?/. 3. 20 15.3 x 2 2 4.2 aft 4.1.w.yar 4 */ ?/ Page 50. 18. 2 12. x 4. + c 2 4 aft2 ac + 4 ftc. . abc 7. + 16 r 4 + 12 a'2 //2 . 2 ? 14 . aftc 52. 01. 8 ?/ . 22.n. 2.25 c .2 ftc . 6.rw f 8 . yfl. 4. x 2 + 2r f J. + 4. 1. 6. 15. 2 4.r . 2. 21. sr 11. _ 2 a . r//. 3. aft.21 2 2 f + .r?/. .  11. 13. 6. 17. aft 12. ft 17. 9. + x?/ 2 1. j) . 11. 5. Osy. 16. 44. 1/*.1. a 2 410 + 9 r 8 + w2l ftc.
40. 45. ft. </ 20. 5. (c) (2zf 600) (3 =4.  9 = 17 a.(3x+ = rraxlO. ? 43. 2. 8 n  10 yr. f 6)(o 62. 7x 2 Page 21. sq. 2. 36. 44. b. 16. 13.  6 10. r>?imi. 00. 5.. ] 2 ri 42. 8. 17. . 26. 18. 29. 33. / + y + a// 12 yr. 4. 20.000. 28. 10 a. 7. 20. ^ 12 sq. 7. 15. 17. 23. 7. 13. (>.100. 7. "mi. 7.. . 1. m +~m 3. 10. 21 2. 2x + 35. <>. 12.200) f(^ + (e) 200.. b. + 4x 3y 34. 3. ft. 10 >_&. . 47. 3x2. 2.rr2. 6. 39. ) 2^ x 20 =a 7. X 60. x = m. 100 d ct. 19. f (I.r ct. lOx 10 + w. 4. 4^ = 100. 22. 100= ^. 50= L 100 15. (c) 2x.  2\. Page 40. x 2y 10 act. 13. 14. 3. y 50.r1. + 3x + 2y + 32. xy ft. (2 a. 3. 22.6 = *. (A) 3 x f (4 x . 34. 2. 5. y ?>i x + 26. 0. 17. 10. 32. s.  />) a = all. 31.  1$. '^ . # + 20yr. 4. lO.7). 60 25 1. 1&. f = eZ 2 x. x 49. 90 7 2 + 10 = c. }f. 1. 5. % 4. d. 11. = 5 ?i x 460. + (d) 2 x + (3 sc 700) = (x f 1200)  x. 5. 6. 20. 37. 2. 36. 4. 16. 41. x y $ 6 yr. 2b. fix. 5. (a) ' 12. 2. 43. 10. !). rn mi. 1. 4 f 39. 42. iL*. 9. + 3 = 2(3* . vil 56. m+ 11. ct. 1. 2=10. 19. d + !. 11. 12. 4(a ft) c = 8. 35. 100 2. ct. 38. n M. 10. 44. " lir.p+7. 9. y 100 a 24.ab a. 10) (6) 2 zf 20 3^740. 3 9. Jj12. x 48. 30. 46. 7. 2 ct. 27. 25. Page 61. y 2z p= 3 (a c.ANSWERS Page 9.10) 100. 25. I. 15. 10 x sq. 24. . Page 31. x. m=  100 2x=2(3x~10). Page 13. 4. 100 14. 1. I. y yr. Page 6. 10) + = (a) 2 x . 23. .x700. 18. 16. ft. l. 30. 37. (d) 2a + 10 = n. . + f + b 2. 6. r tx mi. 59. 'nj 100 a 28. 11. 6.(3x  700) = 5. v (6) 2x. 3x  1700) = 12. 800 = x + 1300. 58. ct. (> 27. 38. 10 yr. 7. (</) 2a. a 8. x + 1=a. a 10.. ( a f 4. . + 10 b + c ct. 2b 22. 33. 0. 8. 14. (c) 2a? + 3 (/) (2fl58)h(8aria)=60. 57. 29. 6. 41.
. 1. 7. Page Page 4. 10. 78. (6) (6 a 30) =20. 30. 12. 11 in. (y + 8)(y2). 200. (*4)( + 11. 3. Page 7. by 12 yd.000 N. 20 yr. 10.3. 2 3 6 7. 10.. 11 w(w' + wi .16. 180. 12. 1. 6. 20. 23. 1. 8 2 19. 14. 82 mi. 300. 1313.000 Phil. 15. 8. 1250. 15. 9 in. 15.0. 15 mi. 1. 30. 17 7>c(2 a'^c2 . 7.10.3aftc + 4). 9. 11. 25. a 12. 45 in. 4.7. 12 mi. 1.000. ( + 4)(*2). 12. 14.y"). 2. 55.13. 13. 6. 20 yd. 10. Y.3). 3x (3r. (a 4) (a. 6. w (/) 64. 70. 3. (a + 4)(a + 8).. 5$ hr. 1 lb. 14. 52. 6. 200.000.210^..5. (a + 5)(a + 6). (m + n)(a + 6). 250. 10. Page 7... 72. 13. 3 (a +&)(*. . 100 1. 7 hr.1). (y8)(y + 2). k ' _ ft v J (d) 100 100 ' V ' ' 100 100 100 =^8000. 7. 5 lb. (c) ^ v ' . 50. 13 a 8 4 * 5 (53 xyz + x y'W). 21. 29. Page Page 4. 2.. 5. 18. 2. 30 mi. ^ .. 40 yr. 6. . 11. 5. 14. 8(a6 2 +6c2 c2 a2 ).0. 18.000 Berlin. 6. 2. 4. 74. 22. Oaj(o62cd). (y 13. 78. 6 aty (3 + 4 6) 2. 9. 7a*fe(2a & l). 67.000. 5. 10 yr.. 10 yd. 4. 6rt 2 11. (y7)(y + 2). 14. (p + 7)(3a5&).6). 12. 85 ft. 11. 9. 4pt. 30 yr. 8 in. 8. 1200. 14.. 10 Cal.000 ft. 19.30) + (2s + 1) v v ' ' 5 18. 8. 24J. 3.. 8.000 copper. (yll)(y4). 3.000. Pace 65. 2 2 ?/ 21. 2). 5pt. 16. (ro3)(w2).79.2. 150. 6. MOO HXT 100 100 ^~ (5z30) =900. 480. 20 yr. 9. .11.411. 1200. 17..000 ft. 17z8 (l3z + 2x'). + 7)(y3).. 05. 17. 10. 13. 2. (a + 6) (a + 3). (e) i* + A. Ib. 3. 5.5p + 7 g ). 25 yr. 80 A. 11 pV (2 p8 . 75.000 pig iron.000 gold. 71. 6. = _?_(2ar + 1). (z5)(z2).  PageSO. 15 in.22.5. 20. (a5)(a4). 70^.21. 160 lb.. 2. 7. 8. 90. 10 yr.000. 4. 68. 100. 3. 1. 4. 25. 8 12.000. 13. '2 > 10aVy(2a 2 ay43y 2 ). 7. 18. . 5. 42yr. 5 Col.. 8. Page 5. 15. 8. 13.vili ANSWERS (a) V J^. 2. 90 mi. ?(g ? g+ 1). 2$. 8. ? 2  = SJL+J10 13. 12. 1. 9. 9. 4.(5z . 12. 2 2 2 5. 3 hr. 10. ~=90.2).. (2a63?2_4 a /^) 16. Page Page 480 12. $40.000. Page 79. a a (a 8 a+l). 3.24. 11. 9. 10 Mass. 15 yd. 15. 7. 28yr. 20.8. 600. z?/(4^ + 5xy .3.
25. . 3)(3a. Yes. 19. x(x +y)(x y). 3. 3(x + 2)(zl). 26. Yes. 16. 27. 16.3). 21. . 4. 30. 36. (* + y)(zy). 4. 9.11 ft)(a6). . 32. 1.2 by2 6. 8. 17.1). Yes. (a + 8)(a3). 28. (a 4 10) (a 4 + 3). 17. . (2o + l)(2l). No. 20.1). 1. (10 aft + c 2 (10 aft . (9y4)(y + 4). 10(a + ft)(aft). Yes. + 5) a. 10(a . 4 (a . 2(9a:8y)(8a:0y). 6. No. + 0(90 Page 85. (10a + ft)(10aft). a. (y8) 2 2 . 216 aft. 25. 14. + 2y). 3a.  x (5 a. Page 84. . (a 6 6) (a 4. 2 No 4. 13. 26. 7 6) (a 10 6). 200 (x + l)(x + 1). 15. 2. 40 x. 22. a(2u.6) 2 2 . x (z + 2)(x + 3). 2 3 by2 Yes. (ft + ll)(aftll). 14. (az + 9)(ox2). 8. (4al)(a2). 24 9. 10. 10 y2 (\) x + l)(x~ 3). 16. ix 18. (m7n) (a. 100 (a. 7. 1. (2 a? 4. 23. 13x7. (a a: 19. (6 a. (5 a 2) (2 a 3). (x + y4 )(x . (3*2)(. (g . (0 (l+7a)(l7a). (w* (3a26). (7 ay + 8) (7 ay 2 2 13. 3. + 9^)(oxy . 30. (7 a + 4) (2 a . No.5y)(3a. 10(2 30.y (6x + 4)(5x4). 12. 10.2). 24. 21. 22. y) (a. 32. 29. No.   .3)(z2). (ay8)(ay3). 9ft w(?3) 140 w 2 27. 20. 11. + 3?i) 2 (5x2y) 2 . (w ~ n (x . 26. 10. 28. 21. 24. 35.2 y). Oa 2 (a2)(al). 34. f 2). 18.4p). (a*& + 9) (aft + 3) (aft 3). + 4) (a. (4y3)(3y + 2). 20.y) 2 aft. 34. a . 33. 22. (5x .. 9. . (2yl)(y + 9). (3 n + 4) (2 (3x+l)(x + 4). (13a +10)(13a 10). 9. . 9. (n2 + 12)(n 2 + 5). . (2w+l)(ro + 3). 2). 6. (15ay2) 2 . (2 *+!)(* 9). 12. 2 17. (l + x )(l + x )(l + x)(lx). 2 y(ll x 2 + 1)(11 x2 . 25. 18. (m + n +p)(m + wp). (w + 20)(w + 5). 33. 12.6) 2 1. Yes. 25. 2 y' (2y3)(2yl).2). 100(x. 7. 2(2s + 3)(a: + 2).y4 ). 10x2 (y9)(y + 2).11 6) (a 4. Yes. (3#y)(+4y). 29. (5a +l)(5a l). Yes. 26. Yes. + 3)(c44). . 23. . y(x.r2). x\x 24. 8. Page 82. 15. 10. (<7 20. 17. (:52y)(2a!3y). Yes. 5. 8) (a.1). (a (p8)0> + l). 9. (0 + 6)(66). 14.9*). 35. 10 a 2 (4 . 10(3 5 6) 2 . 21. a 2 (w7)(w + 3). (y + 4)(yl).4 6). ( 2 4 19. 11. .1). (5wl)(m5). 23. 27. 2. + y + .3 y 2 )(2 a: 2 f y'2 )2 3 Yes. 2 2 15. (4 13. (5a4ft)(2 a~3 ft). . 31. 103x97.c 2 ). (6n + l)(+2).* (2 y + 3)(y. + 8)(g3). (15z2y)(x5y).2 ft). (a2 + 10) (a2 2). 25. a*(5a f l)(flr . (3a. y) 2 29. 7. (4a.+4 y)(3x4 y). No. (m + n + 4p)(w + . 28. Page 83.4. Yes. (a. 11. (m + w) 2 5. (15a + 46*)(16a46). Yes. (5xy ) 3 ft 8 B 2 (12+ y 2 )(12y 2 ). + 2 )(a + ft)(aft).7)(2z f 1). 31. + 3). 3. 13x(a + ft)(aft).8). 24. 5. Yes. 27.ANSWERS 16. (2xl)(x + f>). (a 3 + 10)(a. 2.w*)(l 2 n 2 ).7) (a. 23. . 22. (4 18. 19.
2 a 2 13x 3 y. 4. 3x(x?/) 4. 13. 5. + 2 //). 7. Page 90. 3. 14. (m  I)' 6. ?i(w 4y) . a(a 2 + !)(+ !)( . 4. a (a + 2 6).^ 48. 4. 450. 6.>*)(:> 4 lj 4.3.1) 3. 11. (> 1. ANSWERS r)(4x (4x 4.'J)(' . 38. 2. 35.X 5. 24.42 x 4. Page 89. 42). 16. ( (<> r4y3 . 14. a 2_rt4l)(a rt 1). 4 a8 . 8.?>) H. (x//. 15. 2 y) ^ . 14.36).1). 8.5 <:  9 </) (2 a 12. Gp). Page 87. 5. (x. 2 8(w . 17. 4. (^ + ?>_8).& (a 5 & 4#  2 y) (a 1. 20. + 3. 6. 2 2 3 .5 m2 x2. ^ . ?>). 4& 2 )(tt4/>)('e 62 2 2 4l)(a' & &) 5). a8 .y)(fi a . 2. (r420(4 10. Exercise 47. 4). 2 (a 4. 6 f c). (a />. y )(. 11.  (w' 4. 3(47>44)(^4'> 22/)((3x).  WIM.b. x 4. 2 2 (3a 4// )(x4>/). 27. 7.))(x  ^OC 1 1). (5 al) 3) (f> a/> 15 ?>). 7. 12.y (m + 2 u + (\p)(m + \ . . (^ 7.?/).8). (a 4.  (m3n + a + b)(m 3nab). (xf!/)' 3 4 w)(m. 10(8x' 4l) 4. 28. 4. a 4. .&). 2(5 a  ft) (a 3 ?>). y(2x?/).e 4. 1. ( 4 1 ) (2 m .3)(x 4.4.n). (. (5 26. 19 13> (7rt3)(7a~3). 2. (a + (2a3fc)0*+ tf)Or 41) (^42). 9. 5. 15 M. 32. 13 x 8 2 .'})(c .1). (w * .2)(x 1. (!__/>). a 2 (a9). 11. 10(2 (3 4. . 41. (5^4. 5  (2 2 .l)( a 25.7)(^ {I 12. 13. 9. 5. ( rt 23. . (5 31.) j). (2 a ~ f> b 4. n  r)(5a 10. . 8 4 15 ?>)(a 34. 8. 4 a s &8 . 11. Page 12. K + l) a (a 5 />z 9. Page 92. 2. 17(x43//)(x2y). 80a6 4 40 aV>*>c >d\ !)&(<* 4. 12. 8). 6. 8. 13( 33. 2 2 10. 14. 8.9). 40. Page 86. 6. 30.7s) (2 a. 12. y). y6. 10. a x 3 10.r(3x' 2 4 (14.?50)(xt/z. 2 21. (a &4.w )(l 4 w 2 )(l 3 + ( y) r)(x ( . O + ?/4<?)O ?> 4 q). (5a+l)(9a). b) (r 4. 16.4). 4 3.2). 3(.0+ 12).4.'/)('< 4. . x . 36. 4  9. 2 5 a 2 6c 2 3. 6. ( a ^)(^3.!) (x42)(x2). (c. ofc)( fid).. ( y). fi(c426). 42a 3 x.4). x  1). 2(m4l)' . 3 x4 . 2 k (wi 4.//)(5y x(x4ti<0. 37. Exercise 46. ( { &).3. 7. 18.y. r x 2 */3 .&). 19. ah}.i4l)(x4l)(x~l). 4 6. 7. (w4w) 2 1.  29.8) ( (16.^ c)((> 4 3 (3 w 2 w 4 m  ). l. 2. 2 1. (* _ 2 )(a 4. 3p (^9)(j) 4).a + (< (3 7>)(3  a l fo). c 5 b 5 + 9 iZ) .2). x(x f y)(jr .2 y). a 41. 8x. 6. 4. 2 . (2x7)(x 2 2). 5 x8 3. (a 9. 2 + . (Ox  7 ?/)(7 x4 y/).y '2 2). 4. (f> + fo 7. (14.^46) a?/ 2 /> + o) (ff n 2 T>). 15.8) n 43*). 8. 4. 24x sy s 9. 8. (7/1 2) (m 41). 22. a + a b. a 4.4)(?  5 (6a 4l)(a +)2( 2x2/)(x2?/).y). 1(V/ 88. 39. 12 m 2 (m n) 2 . x43. 13. 7. (16 4  2(5 n .
+5 1. x 24. + &) 2 ( . + &)(&) ( .  1). (a2y2 (a3) 2 (a4) 2 14. // m+1 !+*?. 2(2al) + l). x 22. 30(3 2 (a 15. +8b a 4 3 / ^. x 12. 6a2&(rt6). 1). (a2)(a + 2)2.ANSWERS 10. 11. + y) (a: y). 18. w 2 ^ (!L 5 +2 3 i + 63 3^1 rr Pace 991 20 .6). b ! 21. a 23. 13. ?_!&. a 10 25.
6a5f^. 11. 7. w1 + ac w 4 7. 6. 1. ^i 2n a 22 9x * T 94 4<i ^ 33 9 ^ 37 (a 2 b)' (a + ft) a 42. 3a 2 2) ' i (x ' t+3) 5x (wi8)(w go a 3ffl + 13 + *2)(x + 3)' 19 ' rtv+Ji:'. a 5.Xll ANSWERS 21 2 . 6. 4. 2 a. w + _ i + _J? a w+4+ ? 3 8.80 MP 2 30 ?/ r + t S ^ 2ft "' 180 wv 15. ^~ 29. + 2H 1 ^. 0. . _*^p5_^^_. i^. 26. Page 101. + lH + .2g ftc 46 ?t ~ 30 y .  **/* + 84 _. 6. xy 43. + ^8 1 a 2 1 ~ 41. 4 L 8 2 . ^iie^+JoJ^^ilOa bc 9 11 92 aft  1>*  10 12 + qc + ab ' 238 . i.50 ~ 1/2 . 4c 10. 28. 30. Page 100. rt 3a2 + ~3a a 3. 2x1 + 5x 12 + ^. c 8. a 2 ft 2 + 21 ft' 1 4m m2 26 9 fi 7 . ab121 12 ft 2 8 a 2 196 a2 8.y~ z ' ] 5 x2 y + :j y. A^. ' 2 7.. r > 'a2 f an f ft' ' 2(czft) (x 2.
2 re +3y mn 10 lo. 10. 34.^_. n . I) 2 3z 1. (y + (z 12. 11. 5. 21. 26. 27. 6. 4. 16. 2 47. x\. ft 2 f 1 + a + 1 Page 109. 13. 1. 37. a 17. 9. n m a + 13. 7. ^i 11. 17. 21. 39. ac mp lf> n 12. J. w^x 2 b Page 105. 9. Page 106. 4. 1. 8. 1. 46. 4. 32. 14.^U\WF### X<6. 1^)2 ' 2 1) 2 13. A. J. 21. j L . a2 2. 24. 3. 44.L+ft. 7. 29. 1. 4. . 14. 4. 23. b a f +c 14. 40. 1. 5. . 5. (a + y) 2 Page 104. 3. 11. 3. 31.ft .  V o 4. 3. . 8j_m 7 3. 5 be _J_. f 7. Page 113. 6. . 42. 5. an 18. x 05m ' 5. 0. x 1. pf n 6 1. 9. 43. 4.  10 X + u. 8. ft. 6.y 7. ?+_!?>. 1. 12. 41. 0. m 9. c 8. ^_. 18. n 16. 2ft a i m x. 7. Page 110. 11. b 2. (>. 36. a. 17. xiii in <l ~ 2b 18. 6. 6 . 38. 1. 6. 45. 12. 11. ' 6. 11. ?. 12 28. 14. +3 ( + 15. Of. 2) 19. J. 15. 3. flf. 20. y(x + x ?/). 15. 30. 4. 1. 1. 33. Page 111. 10. 5 6 Q 5 a 12. 1. 7. 4a3ft. f Page 107. 35. 16. 3. 25. 15. 19. + f. 3 7 i o. ! 4 20.
21. . (d) 4 da. 4~r~ n . 4. 38ft min. 40 yrs. 1. 6. 19. (ft) 28. n 32. 8. Page 121.. IV s. 7. 32. 1. 36. 24 mi. 14.} da. 14... 3. ft. (a) 4 min. 20. 5. :2. 9. ^?i min. 7. 5. 30 mi. 212. 1:4. Yes. 11. r/ i  PM xx HXH />/ Page 114. 3. 7T 2 Page 116. 1. 19. 1 : 12. $40. $0. 17. $00. ANSWERS 16. 10^ oz.. 8. 7} 18./hr. ~m . 7. 21ft min. Yes. 3 da. (c) 8300. 14. 5 25. 8. nm. 4. 10. 13. 4. #V ~~ 34. 20. 26. 300. 10. No. Page 117. 33. 12. 9$. 2:1. .  + . min. 1 da. (a) 12 hr. 9. Page 118. 17. 1: ~. 2. No.. 7 . 6.. 10. . [>> ^ a . '"I 22. a 4 ft. 4.10. 35. 5. w 44. . 3 : 19 = 4 : 25.002. Yes. ^m . 30ft.138.x + y. $45. Yes. Page 125. (ft) (r) 8 hr. 30. 15. 1:1 = 1:1. Yes. a 4 ft 3 T 29 30 ' 5T (a) ^ 10 (ft) 31. 16. _JL. 15. . 9J oz... 27. 17. 10.003. 74. after 20. 13. 500.139. 7. 7. 16. 18. jj./hr. 300.9. 5.0 & . 12. . 9ft. 11. 10 yrs. 2. 0. 3. 13. silver. f . () 2. 10. 81. 12. 28. 21. 1:1 = 1:1. gold.  C . 6. 4x'2 :3?/ 2 1 . 75 . after 18. 40 mi.  29. 1^'.. 1. b 25 ' mft 26 ' w 27 ^ ' ~i~ ^ . 10. 1:1 = 1:1. 15. 15. 10. (a) 25. 00. 19. w 18.004.0.000. 9. after $12. dn ~ mi. 40wn.15. " 0. 19. 55 mi.000. Page 124. 24. 24. 13. 30 yrs.XIV '/ . 14.2. 1:3. 11. 15.000. ^p^ r ~ 7. * 7:9. 5 2.137. = A's. 4fl M_. 275:108. (ft) 5 hr. 33. 3. 16. 2 20.000. (ft) 104. 15. 1:1=1:1. xy. 2x:3y. 3:2. 3. 7. 9. J ^'. w 21. min. Yes. 5ft 30mi. $30. 8. 26 mi. (d) 500. 20. 18. Page 119. 22. 4. .2. 23< &n b ' . J. (c) 2 hr. (a) 30. 8301 hr.001. Yes. 34.. 15. 3. (ft) 5 da.000 1 = 23. 11 hrs. 10. 17. 26 30. 31. f. 18. P+ ^ 33.000 If da. 300. 10. (r) 3^ da. 8.11. Yes.
y . 10.3.1. 41. 11. 9  15. ini. . w 8. 16. 21. . OJ. Page 5. 7. J pq. 10. 13.000 sq. 13J. 6.5. 9. s<i. : : T 1' : /> : . 5. 11. 1. 4. 5. 1. x:y a: b.1.3.4. l. 4. 1(5. 28. 7. 2. 47. 3. a f 2 2 = 5 x. 11 5 . 12. (a) Directly.5.5." ^ 2.) 31. () Directly. 21. 27. 2. 41. 59. + 7>i//  ft 1 .. 9. 3. 11. 174+ Page 128.5. 26. 8. 1. 4.5. 4. 4.1.  19. x y y . : . 1 rt * vm^1. 2. 6. 14. 2 n . 38. 2. 3.6.5. 5.r.2 oz. 9.C ?/ a . 5.3. 13. 36. 22. 2. $. 17. 3. Page 9. 127. 5.7.1. 23.12. land. 20. 44. "lO. 7. 10. 11.15 x.^ 0?j ' gms. 16. +m ' 12 3_a ' 7^ 10 ' 1 . b x 37. 2. OJ. \. 8. 5. 3. 2."2:1.2. 5 2. 14. J. 8. 30. 5:3 = 4: x.. a +b 1. 24. Inversely. 1 1 : : : : : : (I. 36. 3.12. 7. 2. 2. 9. y 1. 8. water. Page 135. 17. 19. 8. (</) ft. i. 12. 7. 2. 30. 29. 43. 8. 5. = R~ R>'\ V V = P> P. 24. 57. 7. 6. 3  24.  ?.22. 19. 54. 138. 9.]. : : : ?/ : tf : ?/ : : : : : : : : : sr. Page 132. 2.x a. 20.3. in n. . 6. 2.J 3. 32+ mi.5. I. 11. 19 OJ. 1. 2. y a y = 7 0. 49. 9. y :y =. 3. 58. 1. : XV 27. t 5.3. *. 23. 7. 39. (b) C C' = fi JR'.3. copper. 31. 1. \\./':</ c a f :y=2:9. 25. 53. . 3. + m* <7^' 10 7)C 14. 25. 945 11 10 . jc:y = n:m. J. 2. 20 cu. 3}. (<l) A A (e) m m = d> (.20. 52. 48.3.15. 17. 7. . 14.5. 15. lo mi. 2.J.4. x y = 1 = 3 2.1. 18. 3. 7.2.  28. 8.a. 16. 15> 9. a~.3. 50. : : .8 oz. 40.160. 13. (I. 5:0 = 10:12.17. ~ 1. . 7. 2.840. 141. tin. 4. 6. () 7 Page 126. . 5. 1. ig 6. 24 1 (e) Directly. 15. 2. 32j.2.4. w. 14. 2. ' 55. . 2. : />. a 3.46. 32  <>' 33  4 <^: 34 : : . 7. 4. 4. 10. 1. 3. 7^. 3 2=3 x. Page 134. 35.*. . 56.57.3. 5. /. 3.li. x 42..3. in. 1 18 = 3 51.2 x. 40. 4. 3.5. 1. . mi. 2. mi. 2. 4. 55.2. . 4. Page 136. 12. 9. Page 137.ANSWERS 22. 22. 2.000 sq.3.4. 11 w a 13. 2. = 7 b'. 1. 46. 2. 20 20 J ^. 2.4. 45. 4. 3.' : : : : <>. + W. 7. Page 131. Page 133.7. cu. 9. ft. 25. 7. 7. 4. 5. 19. : 23. 4. 2. x +y x + 74 7 \. 200 mi. 19 3 . 6 10 = 12. . 5.36. 12. 3. J. . . 7. 26. Of. + b 7 . 7. 4. 13.9. 31J. (b) Inversely. 6*.
$250. 2. 17. 3. 8. 4. Jan. 4. 19. 25.$5000. 7. m f 9. 3. 14. 30. 100. 24.. 0. 11. 5. (ft) 23 J. 3. 147.4. m + n p. 5. 6 cows. 9. 4. 2. July. 3. 7. 1.3. 2. 2. 7. afcd ae ftd 8 ft. 2. 23. . 10. 7. 18. 6.4. On the y axis. 5. 2. About 12f. 27. 19 gms. 15. u 2ft. (c) . 2. 8. 1. Apr. . .65. 1 (c) Jan. 10. 30. & part of Feb. 20. 10 sheep. Page 146. 20. Aug. . parallel to the x axis 0. 8. Jan.4. 21. at 15. Page 143. 9.0. 13. Page 142.^. 19. 5. 72.9. ad _(?jrJL.3. 22. 14. $500.2. 3. 423. 11. 4. 5. A's 30 18. 3.  17.n + p. 3. 3. 20. 26. C's 30 yrs. Page 149. July. 2. 4 ' q. 4. 18. 30. 7. ' .1J. 6. & part of Sept. 5. 6. 5. 4. (5. a. 2. 1. m f 8. 2. B's 40 yrs. a =J (n  1) rf. Feb. $ 1000. June. 3. 12. 1. 9. 12. 21. 4. 5. A's 50 13. . 1. 0. May 5. Jan.0. 4./hr. 3. Page 151. 3. 1. 12. 16.3. Jan.$2000. 6. 6. 12. 0. 1. Oct. 7. Nov. 5. 16. 25. . 11. 10. yrs. ^. SL=J o ft r^2. Apr. 23. 18. 4. On the x axis.  11. 7. through point (0. be 10. <*ft/ bd 1. . 10. 20. 9. 2. 15. 2. 3. Page 153. 31... 40. 7. ad AzA. .8. M 2. . 5%. 2 horses. 3. July 20. 8. Apr. 3. 2. 24. (ft) 20.XVI Fagel39. 3). 11. . 7. 4 mi. 6%. 25. 2 a. 10. The ordinate. 16. 1.33. 2. 3. . ft 3. 14. 00. 6. 4.2. 10^ gms. 12. Page 22. 9. 2. 6. 5.1.10. $4000. Nov. m . (a) 12. Page 152. . 1. 18. (a) Apr. 4. 3. 4. On 11. 3. 11. $3000. 1.l.. 1 (d) Apr. be 7. yrs.. 1. 7. C's 10 yrs. (<f) 13. 2t2. ' w_i 7 fr^ m w ' 2 m+w . 17. $6500at3Ji%. 32. 2. 3.& w_ i ae 22 5 L=. 20 & Oct. 2. J. 16. 40. 13. Jan. 3. = ^ a Page 141. 16. 9. 4. A a parallel to the x axis. 2. 6. 13. &..  Zn  "(^ll 14. 16. . 28. Page 145. 24. 25. 26.1. 3.7. & May. ' 6 3 a. 1. Nov. 23f . 15. B's 15 yrs. 4. Nov. 16 to July 20. 17. 29. 20. 4. 90. 20 to Oct. $900 5%. 24. 11.
1. 11. 1. . x*f 4x 8 + 6x2 f4 xf 1. 25. f. 1.2 (ft)  1. * 16. (gr) 21. 64_ a 12 ft 27 ' a 121 81 a 4) ft 44 a 4TO a3 l. (ft) (ft) 2. 3. 5. 10. 27 a6 ft  9a 2 1. (ft) and (d) 2.17 (ft) (c) 2. 22. 2. 27 19. (a) 12. .59.75. 8. 04 x 12 */ 1 '^ 1 2 t  9 11. 11. 2 2 22. 3. 17. 3. 18C. 4. Inconsistent. 2. m. f. 2.83. 14. 1. 44 + 6t/2 m4 4m8 H6m2 4m4l. 20. (ft) (d) 2.. 125 16. 2.. 1. .24. 13. +3 4.  . Page 163. f12 wi 9. 14.  12 ft xW  26 31.25. . . (c) 2. 7. 2. 1. 3. (/) 3. G. 27. .25. 5 and 2.84. ImW.83. 2.4 aft h a 2 ft 2 . 3 . (a) 5. + a 4 ft* . . 15. 1.64. (<?) 2. 10. 19. 13. 1. 24. 81 ".73. 8 1 f f g*. 6. 1.3. 2. f4p 7+6p g f4pg 6.AN WE US 'S xvii Page 157.59 . 3. 5. 3. 2. 3.34F. 13 . 3.4 a^ft 4*/ 3 + t/*.64. 3.7. 3. 13C. 5. 1.3 aft 2 + 8 ft . 18. 1 23.1. 2. 1.25. SlstyW 7. a 29. f 10. 1. xW.. . 2. 27 27 81.75 (ci) 3^. 1 + I5a 3 + 75a6 + 150 126a 9 ft . 19. .5.  1. . Page 159. 24. 3. m + 8 m% f 60 win2 4. _ 9 x ^27 1 .6. . . 10. Indeterminate. . a + ft. 4. 2 l.  1. 9 and Page 166. 27a 3 27 343 a 6 27 2 +9al.87 (0) 3 (c) and and 1 2. . 12. 5.79. xy.5 (ft) 3. 3.25.13. 0. 5. ft 2 4. i/* 25 a8 343x30 ' 1 125 29. 83. 2. 8 a1.3. 14. Page 164.27. (c) 14 F. 2. 2. Page 158. 10 C.67. 1. 3. 125a 28. 32F. jgiooyiio 17. 4}. Indeterminate.79. 1. 2.25. m4 1/ m%+6 w2 n f 2. . 3. 13. . 1. . 4wn8 + n4 5. .24 . 15. 2 a&m Page 167. 1. 1. \ft) 5. 8. . (a) 2. . 4. 8mW. 30. I21a 4 ftc 2 18. 2ft4 Page 168. 14.24. . (ft) 2. 1. 9. 15 . aH64 a2 + 36 aft 2 +8 8 27a135a2 ft4225aft2 125ft8 . 3. ' :=_!. Inconsistent. 3. (/) 3. 4. 21.8 n 27 a 4 ft 4 f 8. () (rt) 3.5. 1. H. (c) 7. . 30. 12. 8.4. 2.75. 4.41 and . xg . a 10 ' a ll V&. 20.73.41 and 23. (e) 3. 6. 2. 2. 3. 5. 5. 11.75. 1^. 4 ) 21. ft . 16.73 ami . (e) 2. 0C. 28. . 26. ." 23. . x3 3x2y + 3x?/2 2 a 3 +3a 2 +3a + m8 6w _ i. 4. . 125 a 8 12. 3. 15. a 6o&i85 c i5o . 1 4. 4.73.. 2. (a) 4. 3. H. 22. 2. 147 a 4 ft 21 a 2 12.1. 9.
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V. ^^7m. (< + ?>).  5.  3. >i 27. 9. 31. 4.}..005. 21. 1. xix 26. . 3. 24. 9. 3. 17. 27. 3. ii :J _7. 1. 2. 7. 2. or 3. 26. ^.1.243. 9. 5. 12. 14. 12. 2] see.i. ft. 2. . 27. 2.  14. 5. 37.. 5083. 7. 13.469. 6. 48. 6yds. 30. 47. 36. J. 33. Page 185. 7. 40. 6. 5. V17. 4 TT M 28. 40. 11. 7. > w ft. Page 181. Page 179. 21yds. 6561. 7 in.236. (afl). 44. 2.6. >TT 26. 41.4.6. 39. 7. 20.  1.916 yds. 5. 4 n.. 3J. ft. 8.. vV'TA 24. v 17. 270 sq.  f. 1. _ iVaft. 28. 39. 4. 8. 9. 8. w. vYb. 5. 15. 15. f f V. 5. 13. 3. 3. V2. f . 32. () 2. 5. f. 6J. (6) Vl4 3. 10. 5. 10. 4.*. 3. 2.ANS WERS 22. {. 4. 17. 35. 7. . 1 f Vl3. 1. f. 11. 4. 16. 7.V 8j. 4 a. m. 15. 10. 1. 4. }. 1 7. 5. 28 in. 2. 9. 36 in. 30. 35. 6V21. 1 38.367. 9 15 ft. 21. * 1. /. 2. 4.. 25 J.4. 12. 6V'2J.522 38. 1. Af^. 6. .?. Page 180. If ^.645. 7 45. 4. 10. 19. V J l. . 22. or 5. 20. JJI. 1.. 5. 8. 10. 7}. 3. Page 177. 32. 7. 6. Page 184.935. 24. 25. 1.Sn. " ^_ 22. 19. 2. i ^.. . 46.13. 5.5.1. 7. 8.  43.798 yds. 12.. 29. 10. 2.  f. 3. 4. 12. 7. 2.6. 2.. 13. 10. 20. 8. 25. 42. 18. 23.6. 6 f !. 16. 11. 3. / 11. 2 sec.5. 18. 34. 14. 3. 3. 16. 7. 1&. 39 in. 15. 14.742 in. 17. Page 183. 3.  2. . ~ V^3. 23. 5. 14. 7563. 21 in. 4. 12.6. ^. 29. a. 31. 15 1 10. 49. 5f.237.4. m. 11. 11. 2. ft. *. 13. . 4. \/3. 1. .. 29. f 3. 3. V35 1. 15. 6. 21. 36. 12. . i. 5. 34. 33. 23. 6. 4. 1. .w 18. 4. 6. 14. ZLlAiK 19. 6. 9. 28. 9. l~8.690. 10. V2. 3. . 16. 16n. f ^ is. 50. 12. 13. a + 61. 5.a. 37.925 ft. 4 W**. 1.18.60. 9. 10. 4J. 21 28 ft.
52. 3. 43. 3. 2 . 35. 2. 10. Page 191. 15. 3.23. Page 190. V7. 0.  9x <). . . 22. 5. 8.3. %. 7.5^.XX Page 186. V^~2. 10 or 19.10. unequal.  1. 17. 1. a.2. 3.12. . 1. unequal. rational. 12. 0. 19.Oa. 4. 8 or 12 mi.5.a. 3. 27.. 14.4.l.2. 16. .74. 4. 2. unequal. 49. 3. 2.2. 25./hr. 20 eggs. ./hr. H. 21. Real. 57. Real.  1. #<7=3.2. Real. 1. 2.  2.1.. 0. 6. 29. 27. 45.  24. in. unequal. . . 7. 15. 44. 3. 3. 9. 2.2. s 11. v^^fcT"^.  6. rational. 1. 0. x2 + B . 15 ft. 53.  i.12 = 0.* 2. i .a. AB = 3. . 2. 9. 4. 22. 8. 5. 25. Page 192. 1. 10 mi. 14.5 x + 6 = 0. V^l.2. 27. 26.4. _ 19. 33. 23. Imaginary. 1. .  5. 6. 8. a8 . . $ 120. 1. 2./hr. 56.17. 1. 1. 4. Real.  Page 194. V ~ 16 4 2. 26. Imaginary. 6. 6. a + 6. 19 in.  1. 46. 3. . 2. = 0.62. 1. 3. . 1 3../hr. 6. 5. 2. unequal. 64. 3. 26. x 14. x* 51.2. 12. 3. 42. 47. i. 1. 20. 0. 10 mi. equal. 3.48. 1.7. 5 ft. 19.6.7. 32. rational. t is. 15.4. 1. 25.48 3. 24. VV11. 70 ft. unequal. 0. 2. 18. + 7 x + 10 = x*x 2 6x = or . 10. 3. 10 in. 1.2 x2 . 1_^L ft 14. '  f 5. f 6 52 a. 3. V2.a 3 a. 3. 23. 3.3. 58. 0. 31.2. 6.2. 2. 5. If. ANSWERS 22. equal. 2.]..6 = 0. . Real. 26. ^l/>> = 85 ft. x*4x=0. . 8. Page 188. 6. 2.3. 4. unequal. 23. 12. 3. 7. 2. 0.37. 30. . 2. 6. 7. 9. 0. 2. 21. 38. 24. 0. 13. 7. 9. 4. (5 10. irrational.70. . 3. Real. . ft. unequal.$40 or $60. 2. f. 5. Imaginary. equal.  2. 25. 12. 34.'. 3. . . 40.. a + 1. 1. 1. rational. 2.  5. + 11 x. Real. 28. 35. 28. 3if. 0.1.7. 11. 6V64. unequal. 39. 37. 55.  1. 3. 20. 16. 0.4. 11. 0. a. 18. 0. Page 187. 1. 16. 2. 7. 7. 50. 1 . 4. 4. 2.. Page 189. $30 or $70. 64c.  1. 10. 48. . 2 V3 in. 6. 4 da. jr . 18.59. V2. Real. AB = 204 ft. 1.23. 2. 120 ft. 8\/2 17. 1. *'' 12. 21. rational. 7. U. 20. 6^2 in. 1. 2. 1). 41. 3. irrational. . 13. $80. 2 4jr + x2 8 3 = 0. r* i. 4. ' 1. V^l.41. Imaginary. f.2. 0. 3. 28. 12. 6. 36. 0. 24.4. . orf. 4.  13.0*8. 2.1. 2 ft. 20 nii.02.
2. 2. v'frc 18. 21. 1. 0. 53.  5. 4. 2. 16. 2V a. 1. 31. 4. 9. v. 8. 2. 29. 3.ANtiWEUS rational. 25. 14. \a\ \/^. 14. 15. 25. 4. 8. 18. y . (m 26. 33. 5. 8. 3. 39. 1. Page 199. 10. x/25. . 48. 33. 19. 15." 17. 5. 27. 44. 3. a 18 . Page 200. . 8. 37. 20. 18. \/. 14. 1V1. 3. 29. 49. Page 197. 5. . wA 46. *V. 8. 20. 1. 3. 'J. 3.  f . 17. 49. 15. 2. 35. 60. 16. \. 4. ? . 41. 52. 5. 55. 20. 9. 4. 7. 9. 56. x. vV. ar 1 . 22. 24. J. 3. 2. _! V3. \. l  5 12. v/3. 50. p. . $7. . 3. 8.  48. 16. 30 a. 13. 243. 1. vm. 45. 0.  J j. aW\ 40. ^Sf 3 38. 32.. 43. 6  AAf. 6. 11. 4. 49. 23. \ . 2. 7 . 3. 30. 18. Vr. 7.1 5 15. &. v^T4 m. n\/* Page202. J 3. 30. 1. \/3. 8. I. 24. 5\/5. z + 22. fx'^z'l 23. 42. 5. 1. ). 11. y. 84.17. 12. 125. 1. 12*2 61. 28. 29. 10. Page 196. 38. 1. r. \/r\ 11. 17. ) 2 >J i 10. 36. xxi 15. 3. . 1 39. 10. 17. 46. . 58. 7V7.32. 14. 2. 13. 31. 21. 10. 3. Page 201. 16. J. 59. 22. . 2 L ( V. 51. 21.  f. J. : .6. 2. 6. J. JV37. m'. 19. 47. 9. i. 33. 57. 19. Jb \. a. 13. V^ 34. 4. 50. 9.2. 54. 2. 32. 3. 5. 49. 27. ifa.//^. 1. 23. 1. 0. 8. 40. x$. 7. .^7. jV 10. 28. 20. 47. 3 4 11. ^49. . v'frW. 12. r*. m.  a'2 . 26. 2. 24. 13. 1. 9. 19. 25. 4.
12 *^ + x 7/> x  a** + or " 2 + 1. x 7  34. 38. 37. 34 r 6. 10. 13. 33. 3^2. 23.rV:r. 2. 18. m* n*. 41. 30. x%  3 ^+ 1. 37. a 4 +* + !. 101 1. 2. 40. 3 4\/2.. . Page 208. 24. . k/2. a2 4.r. . 51. 3. 8a6V5. 20&V6. a^ + 2^+1. (Va (5xJ Vft+Vc). 25. . v'TM.Vxy 35. 2. Page 207. 6. 8. + 2 V22. 7. 2. 30. 20. 8. 4. ftV 46. 5 ( . 31. Page 203. 32. l 5. 62V(J. (o* 2. 36. 1) 3V3.  a Vft 2 121 b. 1 2 or 1 ?. 43. 48. Va a + 2 a^b* 14. 49. 4 or + 3 9 <r + 12. + 2 ar 1 ). 3V5. 3 a~ 3 (x (. 9. 1+2 v/i + 3\/!^ + 4 x. / V3. 3V^T.2 18. JIV6. 3. 17. 26. 5 22. r c . 7. V. 34. 19. + 2 Vzy + y 1. 8V/) 15. 2. 2 a?>V2 a. x y. 2>X2. x.XXii ANSWERS 1. ^7 \AOx. a 3. + 2). 28. 13. . 31. y.f. 12. 13 a. r 17  Page 204. 32. 9 . ). yV35. 2v (T 2aVf. 21.707. 50. 21. + Vic + 25. 2 '"V5. x + 5 x3 + 0. 45. 17. 15. 9. 5. 28. (x' (l 1+x). V80.577. 29. 11V3. 10.r^ 5 a~ 2 ft~ 1 + Vft. V. 1. 3 \ 39. 20. 24. (a 27.648. 03r* 7. y (a + ft) V2. v/^r 5  A/^~. V63. 3^ + 2). 135V6. Vz2 ?/ 2 44. . 11. 11. V 5 47. 195V3. 16.632. 2\/7. 26. x^ . 40. Vr 8. 19.2 VlO.692. 2 x* 15. 3. + 1.x^y* + y%.'\ 14. abVab. 3 42. x 25. 27. ^88". 4aV^J 16. 29.  2 3:r. ?tV?w. + + ft. 39. + .yl : . 2. 5. Va 2 "ft. ^: V2c. 10. 6. . 4. T.).3 + 40 3 . 13 35. 9. 22. V2 + 4 V22. 3 x^y 33. 2 4 z2 l 3. . 16. v^.
5V2. '. 43.30 2. Page 214. . 6V2. 48. b. 10. . vT). v^a. v/l2. 31. v^f. . ^9. v/lO. 8. 2 28. 3 V2. 9. ^\/3. 1. 12. 4. 5. ^ 3 b 5 24. 6. 6+2V5. 39. 36. 22. 14. V8. 24. 20. v^30. 8. 3. V2. 6. 18. aVa. 5V2. 2. ^27. 2 V'3. 3. 32. \/2. 32. 46. V2. 23. W). 23. 5. v"5. 5 \/2. 11. 8V2. VT5. 18. "v/wi ??. xx 1. v/9. V3. x/125. D 45. 6aV2\^. 9.T*. 34. 13\/3. 51. 3. V/. . \^r^bVabc. 4 >/3. 2yV2?/. 5v/2. 4\/5. 50. Vdbc. 38. 7\/(l 7VTO.. 13. 6. 2 \/2. a\/5c. 31. 49. 52. 3v^2. : ^32. 9 VlO + 4. 8V73\/IO. 14. 16. ab 4. 21. 0. 22. 6. \V3. 2. v/i). x/3. 18. 3. . 37. V3. \XOfl6Vi5. 28. 1. 44. 21 23. v^4. 2. 0.  3. 3. r)\/(l Vrtr. 12. VJla.J Page 212. 34. 53. v7^. 7. \/128. 10. 26. 30 Vl4. 5. v 25^4714 V2"a. 7. 19. 17. V3"m. 4VO. fl^Vac. 1. rtv/5. m ?i2Vm/t. \/abc*. \^6. 42. x/w^ 8. \/a6c. 10V().ANSWERS _ Page 209. V5. 17. 10. 26. ^v 7 15. 33. Page 211. a^\/a7>.r v/^ v^fr*. Page 213. 13. 2. x/8L v/27. 37. 8  \/15. __ rw 3 \~s~' ] * . 38. 15. \^6. \/8. 27. 6. 14c 4 V5. x/8. 19. 3 Vl5 30. Page 216. 24. 2 1. 4 a*. Vn. % 29. 35. x/8l. 2\/7. 11. 32m27n. 3\/2. . 6 2\/0. 39. Vtf +3+ 33. x/4. 3\/wi. 16. Page 210. . + 20. 11. / \/w/t 4 13. "^8000. 30. 74\/Jl 120 46. 3\/15  6. x/27. 2. 25. 7. 27. w?i. VLV/ ^i?i= a: . 25. v^O. \/04a. 35. v/8. 40. Vat. a2  b. 15. v^lf. V5. 6x2?/. v"3. 3 V15  47. 2 ate. 8v2T 12. + VlO  v y (5. 29. 21. 36. 9. 1V5. 40. 41. 16. 4. 17. 14.
2V3. 24. ~ Vac _c 0. 13. 1. 2. 2. 4. 25. 23. 13. 19. 10.\/TO).6 V3.464.625 10. 1.9. 3. Va. 15. 3. 29. 22. (2Vll). {. (a 1. 17.V3). 6. 6.7071. 20. . 2V2. . 37. V5.1547. 4. 30.81. 17. 3.3. \. 19. 9. 9. xy 2. ^. + 5V2.5. 12. 20. 9. 2.  . ANSWERS 8. Page220. 2!5_. 23. 19. 21. 13. (V21). . 9. j 15. K>/0 + \/2).732. 27. 20. 35. 1. 3. 24.1805. 32. x 20.64. 1. 33.5530. 16. 12. 100. 8. 7. 26. f. 19. m f. 9 mn. V3. 6 V. ' 22 i . 2 . (VaT^v a). 12. 0. \/3). 5. 5. 21. 12. 7. 3V23. 4. 16. 5. (Vf + (4 V2). J. 18.XXIV 7. 16. 9. Page 226. 7 Page221. (2V2). 25. 14. 10. V2. 4. 14. 21. 5 f. 5. 20. 15. 5.  f. 28. 1. 30. fV2. n*. 7. 4. .2. ^(VlO\/2). 7. 4 14. 17.13.^ (\/22 4. V3. ^. 81. (VllV2). 18.. V3 . 10.W + 12 v/7  3 \/15 . (V5f 5. 2. 11. 7. 27. 12. 29. 25. 1. 6 (V2 + 1). 4. 64. 16. 2V3. 10.1. V^TTfc. 25. 4. 18. 11. i^Lzi. 25. 7. 5. 5 + 2 vU 17. 16. 4. (2. 19. Page 28. 4.389. 7 f 5 4. 2. 31. 9. 36. 8. 1. 14. 125. 25. i(Vf Vft). !^ 6 4. 3. 11. 21 ' Vob 26. 8. 11. 23. (3+ v/2). 16. 15. 2ajV2*. (2f V"5). 512. 18.3535.7083. 16. A . (V6 + 2V2). 8.6. . J. 3. Vf6fVtf. 15. 24. 1. 7. 22. 24. V3. (\/3f 1). 8. 224. ^\/2. _^JflJ?.2. 9. Page 225. Page 223. V6c. 25. 8. 5. i^ ~ 1 v ^. 1. Page 219. 10. 4V3 + 6.w 6. 7. 16.0606. 10. * 3. 9. 4. 27. 5 V65. . 4. Page 218. +3 V2). 3(7+3V5). .3.2828. V. 81. 14. ^r. 34. (V51). 5. V35. 8. 11. 15. 2. 23. 22.732. 8 V3V2. 6. 6.  2. 2x^2^.4142. 2. 3. (V8 + V2. 9. (\/5V2). 1. Page217. . 11. 17. 18.  13. 216. 0. 8.601. 4. nVTl. 4. 26. 4. 6. \/57t. 10. p 6 13. . 23. + 6) 2 . 15 f 3 V2L 4. 12.4722. 4. 5. Va. . . j. 1.
. 2. 2. 87 . 13. 22.Y. . 3 . 16. 27(2 a 4fc)( 4 2 2 (a 4 &)(* + 4 & + !&*). (w . 5. 5. 20.l)(m . 2. J Page 235. 4. (rt. 4. o. 1.12. a  .  5. 10. (pl)(p2)(p2). + 6 4 )(a*a' 6 + a 2 6 2 a& 8 H6*). 25. 13. 4. 5. 2. 4.2. 4. (a + l)(a*a 8 + aa + l). 14.  f . =A^Z3. 1. (4 mn . 1. 1. 73. J. 7.^a. (a + 2) (a Page 229. 1. 2. 3. 2. f>. 8.5. 2 . 4 4.l)(a 2 + a f 1). 2 > 1. (wp)(w2p)(wi3p)(w*42p). qpl. J. . 0. . 4.0.4. (xy + 5) (x*y* . 1. 1 . 24. 6 2 2a + 2). (a2)(:iB2 f 2a44). 5. 1 3. 10. 11. 50. 2. 4. . //. 3.3 2. 2. 7. . 1. 3. . 3. (2 a. 4.  4. 5. (63)(6' t 18. (pl)(p3)(p6). 3.3). 3 5. 9. 1.4. 12. 3. 100. . 3.7. (w2)(m3)(2m + 5). 25. 2. 24. 5. 19. 1. 1. 2. 56l). . 1. 3. . P. 3. 13. . 5. 6. 1 . . 30 . 2. 20. y. Page 236. 3 . (a. 2. 28. 3. . 2. 4. 1..22. 10. (a . 7. 12 24 y . 25. 4. 2. (m 4 + l)(ro. (B43). . 7. (1 +a 2 6 2 )(l a 2 6 2 +a 4 6 4 ). 21. 0. 2 6. 1. 2 <? 4a2 . 8.a) (04 + 8 a + a 2 ).  1. 3.10. 4 . 2 V^ . 2. 73.8a 18. 8. 3. 2 .f 2)(sc 2 2 r + 4).  J. 0. 3 9.3. 6. ' J. 23. 3. (la&)(l46 + 2 & 2 ).1. (a+&)( 2 14. 26. 20. 1. 4.2)(* . 0. 15. 16. 3. 3. . 1.  2. 2. 1 . 4. 11. (&y2a#H4). 3. 3.5 xy + 25) 22. 2. 1 (?> x/^3. 19. 11. 18. 4. 21.4). 6. 9. l. 2.nl^EI. 4. 7. 4 20.l)(z 2 + z + 1). J 24. . 6. 15.l)(a3)(a . a .3. 30. a(.1)(4 a + 2 a + 1). (8. XXV 4. 1. 4. 4.l)(a 4 + a + a 2 f a f 1). 11. 2. 5. 1. 13. 8. (+!)( 2) 10. 1. a: :} . 17. Page 234. 2.  1. 5. .3. 14. 3. 0. 3.2 + (row)(w4w)(w a + 6mw f w 2 ). (a 4. 3. 1 . 4. 2. 25.w 4 + 1). & + 6 2 ). a(l+a)(l_afa 2 ). 6. . 3. f .3. 3. . 6. 1 . o& (3m 3 7)(9w 6 +21m*+49). 30. 19. 15. 2. 22. 10. 10. b .r .2. 2. 12. 2. 11. . 8 6 & 0. 3. 0. 2. (2a + l)(4a*2a + l). 8.  3.2 ) ( 10 w 2 n 2 f 4 winy 2 Page 231. 7. 12. . 3 .  3. 3. 17.4. 14. Page 233. 4. 4 1. 9. 2 6. 3.3. 1. 12.  . 1 6. 5. 2. 5. (r.  3. 2 &.+ ^)( 4 a 2 6 2 h6 4 ). 12. 30 30. 18. 10. 6. 5. ( 16.ANSWERS Page 228. 7. 2 . ~ f7. 4 . 13. 11. V3. 2 . . \/0. 4. 7. 5.3. 5. (a.2.  16). 8. 2. (s + l)(x2 :r + 1). t/ 23. 2. (10 #0(100 + 10^ + 4 ). 0.1.2)(m. 0. . 1. 17.
. 15. . 1. ( 3. ri*. 5.18. i. 4 34. 13. c. 17. 10. . jj. 1. 2 16. m27. 0. \. . and _ 4. V7. 5. 30. 2. 9.. 5. 5 . Page 245.  2 . _ 13 (0 6. Page 240. 900. 2 .e. J. in. 2.5. in. in. 7. 2 2. 1. J. 1. 4. 3 2. in. = QO 6. 31. 3. f. 125 125.y. _ 7. 40 in. 3. 8 . i j. 4. 3V5. Page 243. 5. 3. 8. . 6. 4. 2.1. 1. 11. 2. 25. ANSWERS 2. 16. GO . 2.1.136. 15. 14. 12. 8. . 6. 40 25 in. 2. 2 26. }. 1.. 2. V3~. 3. Exercise 113. 2V7. 37.4. 13. 3. 1. 1. 14. 3 4. . 13. m + n. 2 1. j. (a) $3400. 3. 12 1. 18.  1. 1. 4. 29.. . 4. . 2. 23. 2 . 2n. 9. (>. 1 . 5. co . 22..4. i i i . _ 5. 1. 12. 6. 14. 15. 4 6. .3. . 3. 14..0. . 1. 1. 50.1. oo. 31. . 69. (&) 2. 4. 2 ft.020. 15. 512. 7. 20. Page 238. 0. 12. 7. n . 14. 3 . 6. . 16. 6. 3. . 1. 8ft. $VO. 4.  11. .3. 11. 1. 4. 35. 3. . Page 244. 3. 1. 3. 2 Y> V . 7. 2 10. 0. 84. 4. oo . 1. 50. } . (a) 5. 7. 3. 8. 14. 2.. . 5. 8. . 1. 3 cm. 3. 2. 1. 36. 12 d. . 4. 1. 2. 8. 201. 4 8. 3. 5. 78. 1 . 5. 1 .13. . 5. . _ 10. 7. 1. 12 ft. 3. 4. 17. . 11. 1. 45yd. 4. 4. Page 248. 23. Page 247. ^ }. 12. ft. 12. 18.4. 5050. 30 13. ft. 3. +  n. 4. 24. 7f solution. 9. 35^ 5. 14. 55. 3. 15. . 16. x 4. J. 8. 4. 2. 2. 5. 4 . 39. f*. 2. 1J. 12ft. 7 3. 2. 1. in..200. 288. 2. $46.5. 21. 4. 17. Page 239. 12. 8 3. 11. 2. 4. 3. 30. 3. 37. 10. 17. . . 21. 2. 2. \/6. 1. 5.6. . (/>) "_. 8. 35 a. 4. 3. oo . 1. 1. i'ljVU. 32. . 1.3. no co . 1. ' j. Exercise 114. Indeterminate. 512. Page 241. 1. 2.3. ^~2. 48. 40. 1. 9. 4.. 41.0. n. .  . 17. 10. 3 . Indeterminate. 26. .. 19. 3 . 3.3 . 28yd. 8. 18. . 21 30. 1 2. 11. 2. 3. 5 4. m28. 5. 20 7. 5. 33. 3.4.3. 40 1} 9 3 ft. 1. 20. 9. . 3.6. 15. 2>/3. 4. . ft. 5. 1 . 24. 11.3. 2. . 5. f>. 3. 3 3.3. 35 ft. tn 2. 15. 3.xxvi Page 237.2. 5 cm. 10. $. 7. 1. $. 4. 19. 5. J.30. 1. 20 in. 17. 38. 4. . 5. 2 . . 9. '>. 5. 2.. 400. 1 . 22. 37.
32. 4950 M 2 b y *. 04. 15. 4 0. % 4 20 ab* 42 330 x 4 15. 45 Page 257. />*. 10. and 1. 1.5 M ' 41 fc 5 .x' 10 . 100. 500 x3 10 4 4 072 a? 3 . 1. 3. 2. 3. 2. 2.5. 1. 19. 19. 18. 3.5y 4 .4 &z x>&. 35.1.  101. (?>) 4 8(2 V2). 4. 70. 48. 4. \ w 4 . 22. 16. 6. 9. 7. 0. 304. 8. 18. I. 28. 6. 1. 8. 20. 15. 4. 9. 29.419. J 2 //2 25.15 x 4 //'?/ a5 4 J 5 4 Z> 4. 21. a4 4 14. 15.5. 6. 4. . 4. 125. 6. 10.^ x2 ^x w ^2 ? . 7. '23. 55. ^a 8. 2. 8 4x' 2 . 5. 2 1 x 4 6x'2 12. 45. 2. 5.5 J4 10 47 d*b 6 4 4. 6. sq. .8.K 4 4 50 x 5 4 28 x 4 4 ^8 1 g ! . A. 2. 10. 4. 0. 13. 7. 13.10 a 3 ?/2 10 4<J aW 4. 3. 8. 16. .<2 4.192. Jj? 45. c. 13. Page 258.13. 343. 2.504. 8 . f 7 ^ 14 x 84 4 . 5. ' 1. 280 53.12 x*y 16. 23. 8. 125.3 ays. 3. 9. 5. 12. 0. 1. 26.0. 05. a.r^  280 x 4 4i^S + 6. 4.v Page 253. 5 13. 17. 45. 53. 5. Ja. 44. 1. 910. 3. 327.  20 flW. B . 6. 15. :r 4 4 8 x 28 x~ 60 . . .^ ?>i 2412x4.210. 405. w9  8. 12. 4. 7.r x>/ 7 3. 6i. 7. 16. 708. 4. 3.6. 0. 20. 5. . 2. x4 . 2. 410. 3 4 15 a 8 11 4 14 a  1  2 y* . 4. f r6 4  20 rV 42 15 xV 8 . f y 8 + z* . 15. 14.^ 448 x a' 3 /') . Page 259.680. 6. 10. 4. 4. 4. 12. 11. 1820. 343.920. 3. 2. 70. ().470. . 16 11. 6. d.6 . 105.120. 192. 2. 20. in. 7 2 x 4 x8 .870 m*n*. 19. 0.5*7 + ^4 1 12 w 4 10 x' 2 //^. . 5. 2. 22. 12.x^ 4 x8 15 x 4. .700. 220 .r* 4 70 . 1. 8 1.  17. 21. x r 4. 12.4. 8. 1. 18. 3. . 10. 7. 27.7 10. 7 x4 17. xxvii 1. . 1 7 4. 16. JSg. 7. 1 14. . 5. &' 14.170. y ^ 5  ^\ ). G. 4. 1000 aW. 75. 4. 120 aW. <.ANSWERS Page 250. 8. 5. 8. . vy. 1. 8. 50. 128. 27. ~ an . 9.r 4. **+. 0. REVIEW EXERCISE . 10 14. ?/i 6 x llj . 17. r r j. Y11. } $ 50. 12. 81. 3. 2. 0. r 5 4. 3. 9. 11. 7. 17. Page 254. ~v 9. 8. 0. 1.5 x. 2i* 7f. 005. 16.53. x + Vy. 1JH. 5. 43. 16. i 10.2 9. 9.384. 12. 12. 8. 8J. 16.2 45 a 8 /). 4. 6. 3. 11. . . 0. 25. 3. Page 252. 5. 4.130 x30 189 a 4 24. 18. 35. 27. 70. 495. . 27. 1. 04. 10.
2 53.c.3 a 2 '6 w 4.4 x?/2 3 4. . 61. 3 r2 2 ?/ 2  ax . 27. 99. .4 x y 87.3 mn p 2/ x 4 . 2 . a' 111. + 28 x2 13x 3 56. fi :ry 42 4  a 2 4 a 2 ft 2 3 119. 3 a 44. 2 a2 4 aft 5 116. 4 Page 264. ft x6  3 x5 4 9 x4  27 x 3 1.7. x4 f + 23 . 2 .y*. +^ + ft W. 0.x x*  f 2 ax 4. 9x.  e +/. 16t/. .fee 2 4. 38. 46.  4 a3 85. 107. a4 x. a* 4. . fc' 6 p'2 q  54 ? 3 . . 80. . 8x3 8x. df. 36. x 4. 24 a 2 6 3 x3 0. .2. (a + ft)" 98. x 8  a8 . 1 + 4 xy. x . 63. 6a6c. m " + n + P3c . 104. 36 + 9c9 a x3 4 + 8. x 8 + x 4 y* 67. 1 121.3 x?/ 2 1/ 4a 3 a o_a 4 a2 +l. x 3 4. 8 . f5+7. Page 263.15 4 62 x  72. x2 471x4. 4.1.^a . 131.xxviii ANSWERS 19. 3 y2 2z2 ~3xy?/.{ 54. 94. 25. 4 fee 4.ac 44 aft. 15 ab 4 Oac 4 6 be. x 3 41. . 32. 2 2a 2 2 2(a. 5x + 2y~z. 3~ n 4.a" xy 2 2/' 3 . ^ . 76. . 2 30 .a.9 b. 10 a 12 b.6 am b\ 129. 5x 2 2x43. ?/ . 3a'2 Page 261. 243x4729. 91. 4 2 . as 20. 4 65.15 x 6 x4 ?/ Ilx 2 ft a8 4 8 y4 . (d) x  (a) 2 x 2 ?/ 4 ?/ (ft) 2 y 2 y 2 g (c) 3 x +y 11 a: y 4 3 2 . 82.  12 a. 3 c . 105. _55_7c 48. 4 . 0. 2 aft 3 4 3 ft 4 . 4ft y3.7 x   15. 1 a"* 4 an . 2 . 122. a~b 89. 1 .  ft 3  13 a 4 + ll a 2 2. 37. x8 x2 55.2 x 4. x2 3x2/?/ 2 112. 24. . a2 2 aft 2 2. 102. 39.  + 3 x2 . 35. 4 69. 1 x 45.x4 + y'2 z 4. x } 4. 2 2/' . ft2ft 4 4l. a 4 . 8 x* + 27 y 2 x2 2 .5 b + c . 16. x3  15 x 2 48 ?/ . 22.a' 'ft 4. xyxzyz. y 4 z* 0. 2 113. 70. az 4.41. x3  15 x 2 71 x  105. 13 + 2 s. 118.4 ac.2. 120. 4. 4 15 x 5 . x' 79. 14 x . . . 109.5. .36 xfy 2 a 8 ?* 3 4. . 124. 30. 2 x2 4. 110. 3a~2c. x2 a2 1 . 6 a2 97. 6 8 j27 40 ab.x 51.+ 4 2 ft) (a 4.a'2 c. 7 + 3 xf 2. 2 x'V2 90.4. 6y 2 a2 _52 45 = 73(). () 2 x 33. ?> .1.2 x^. x2 + 4 x7 9 y2 x4 4 4. .2 xy + 4 y2 106. + a 4.4. 43. 3 36 b c . 29.1. 64. x' . + z. x2 2 . 2 q. 40.2 c . a J . 31. 2 a. 2 2 9 ^4 2 59. 1x 4 x3 xty6 a 24 3  Page 262. 72. 4 115.9 x . 133.x. 4. 125.  .5 a 2x8 x 3 . 2 2 *  3 2n 101.3 y. ft /> 78.a 2 x 2a . 12 x.rty x2 4 123. 23. /> 4 83.18 x?/0. 81 ?/ 4 108 xy 3 75. + 3 a?. x 8 + x 4 68. 21. . x* .a*ft 2 126. + f 2 2 (/) 2 34. 6 c 47.3 103. .1w 77..c 3 4. r 5 VFTx + vTfy + 1. 88. . 66. 4 ! .18 ?/ 5x4. 3 a 5 a 5.5 3 2 y2 5 a2 4 2 aft 4 ft. 4 4 4 ft*" 3 4 + 2'2 ~+ 2 81 x2 134. Page 260. t 81.c. 100. ft n .3 . . 114.3 a'ft. 3 a . a 3m 4. 26.4. 28.3 x 2 + 3 x .  3 x2 .3 b . 9 2w 128.a6 2 4.1. .3 aftc.ft).6 b.5 3n 4. x 2 . 52.x 2 4.5x4. ?/ 3.4. 49. 50. 10 4. !! 71. 62. 0. 96. 5 42.  + 16 a/> 8  a*2a 2 6 2 +& 4 74. . x2 5r*x ft 5 . .1 4 jry 4 x . x4 3 4 2 x 2 4 0. I 57. &p 84. * 60. x?/ 2 2/V2 4 2 x2z2 4 92.4 x 2 . 2 x2 108.x24 73. a* a 8 a aftc. 12 a/. 130. 127. c3 4 58.2.105.4 2 4 c2 42 . 86. 93. 5 4 4. . 132. . 2 2 x2 ?/ 2 4 63 4 ?/ .
205. 22. 143. (2a + l)(a . 209. 189. (5 x . 212. 2 (4 x .4xl). (y + 1) a(3 + 26)(3a2ft). 241. 147. 40 yr.1). y 245. 201. 235. 169. 153. 214. ft. 137. 10 in.2) (3 x . + 2) + 9a. 24. 240. (c) 160 C. 20. ?. . 2. (5x + 2) (3 x yfory) +4). + y. 162. 10). 160. G7.6) (2 x + 1). a(a. 3. 1. +)(x2 x^+2. . 150. 5. Page 267. (4 x 2 + 9)(2 x 4..y2 ). 168. 138. + 7)(rt4). 3. 174. 202.9)(xf 2). (7 x + y +y+ 2)(x . 247. 10. 2. ? >2 ft ?) ft 242. 180. (3x2?/)(2. (/ 246. 215. 195. y. 20. (233). 226. 6. 10). 15  a. 1. 231. (y _ ft)(y 4.r . 183. 184. 8(ar}(/)27). 18. (JT y 225. 157. 12. 2^.y). 4.r & (a + ary c)(a 1 2 + ) + 3y). (x + 6)(x6). 12 6 panes. 30 yr.2. 167. + 3) (x f f>) . 197. 37 1. 155. 12 yr. y  y 165. 12 yr.  1. 148. 164. 238. 144. 152. (y7)(y + 188. r>x 2 (4x. m. (y 7f))(y 196. + 6 y) (x 2 y) . 156. 159.l)(x8 + x2 . 19. 187. 172. 219. 23 18. k.11) (5x 2)(2x + 3). yr. 3(x . 2. 176.I2y). Page 266. 182.y + 3)(r (. 6).1). 6.l)(y + 1). 1. . 208.y)(jc + 7 y). 75. ( + 2y)(2x3y). as 194. 154. ry(x (a (y + + * 221. 239. (7x2//) 203.ANSWEKti 135. (3a + 4?> + o(5crt). (ab + 8) ( 7). (at (4 a +!)( + 3). 199. 222. 15. 230. 218. 210. 170. 7. (x . 4. 12) (j. 30 + xyr. HI. . (x + l)(xl)(y + l)(yl). Page 265. ( jc // a 2 (a1). 8 204. 136. 163. (a} 59. 244. 142. (6) 40. 12. z(x10)(xl). (2x3y) 3 xy(x.m)(x + a).y)(z . + 3). 217. fc'2a+62c). (y_24)(y5). (a 2 + 2a6.3. 21. 173. 233. 237. 30. 15. (x 227. 193. (ox + /)(5xy)(x+3 y)(x3 y). 171. . 166. x(x f 3)(x+ 2). 2. (32)(2a ftc v?y(x + 223. 218. (y  17)(y + (>). 1.l)(a 2 +3). a 2 (15. 140. 32 h. (r7y)(ai. (2 198. (xyX^+y" )1 243. (r^x + 1). C3 y _l)(.c) + or OB (2 + 4 y) Oe* + 2 s). . 2. (a& 192. p. (7 c 2 ). 224. 206. 1. (.3 y). 207. 36ft. 161.2ac + 229. a + 2x2 ).. 2(x8)(x3). 2 2 (a. 191.6)(4 + 6). 175. 185.6 . (?/+l)(yl). xxix 139. 232.3) (2/3y). 186.2 )(x+y) 228. . 10 ft./_4). + 11) (a 10). x(x + 6) 213. y3. 4 2 ?/(x  ll)fx 3). 181.y) (\r3y).. 2a(42ft)(2fo).2). aft. Or (a + 2)0el). 177.3 y)(a . 220. (x^ + x1) 234. (x  42 yr. 178.c2 )(a 2 2 +2a/) + c 2 ). 1. 1. 179. p.3). 211. 216. a. (x + 2)(x . (3x  . 48 h. + 22).. Iff 145. (8x + 3)(3x4). 146. 2 xy(3 x . 147 mi.r + 4). 1. (a 2 +l)(a*+ 1). 151. 158. 236.1(5) 200. 50.1). 190. 149. 2(d)(rt + + c+c2).2).
43 '^rJ'. 0. (x44)(x3)(?/47)  Page 270. x12. 0. (7 255. 298. (a 4 A)(2 x 5.2* i^^ !^. 3). ^ 299. 307. *. 260. 4 5. (2 (x 4 (x 4 3) (x .  3xyf x// 257. 256. x . a~ ' b*). 303. 266. 2 4 300. ? 1) 302. 279.AN 8l\' Eli S Page 268. 7. x 267. 249. 269.4). 3  262.^ ^^. 4 II 4 )rt 5x42. 264. o. 7^T 2 .   . 301. x ?/ z 1. 251. \')(s x  5) (x 4 2)(x 4 . > 4. Ca&c 1)(M 253. (x 4 (x 4 1) 5) 275. 295. ?^ZLiZ 308. 250. 7 x 265. 4 11) (xJ^l^^J.(x  4) (x4 304. (^4) (x x'2 13) 5x46 . x 283. 263. 305. &).4) 1) (3 x . 306. 261.^^^^^^^^. 268. 2x(x)(x 4 3x44. 2. ^^A^ + w^ n(w4 n) a 309. 2 x  3.  7. x3y 4 1)( 4 2 252. + f. 258. 259. 310.. ^/>J. 3. 254.1. o(x4l). a. *>). 10. 5. 3).
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7. Page 282. 2. 482. (a) 1.2. 3. 423. B $ 2500. 479.m  m+ M in. 495. 0. . 499.. ^.te + . 0. 464. 6. $2000 at 0%. 6 f c a + ? & ~ a 0. 484. Page 278. 17. 2. i a b 451. 32. A $ 3500. 3a 4 5. 7. 0. 452. 441. 501. \. 425. ^V. 5. 4. . 432. 50. 455. 5. 420. 1. 435. 10. fc. 492. 476. 6. 2.3. 40. 413. 4.0. 487. 10.. 7 : . . 412. 410. 429. 503. 10. 440. 494. 6. 4. 9. 10. : />a. 460. ' $260 at 0%.12. 461. 17.4. 84. 0. ISJini. 427. 10. . ISjmi. 2. a 22 . 1$.7. 7.  2.. 430. 1. 1.7. a + + ft c. . . 28 yr. 42. 3. Page 280. !L=4. fj.  505. 8. 439. . 10. 40 oz.  1. * . 90.0. 477. 53 yr. . 10$. Page 281. '.  10. 502.46. m. 498.  2. L2 a  6 . a* 424. ft 5. 8.7. B 4 mi. 3 .  7. <L+ 6 (. ^r?i 434. . 446. 419. i.7. 63. 3.  7. L (c) I.4. 480. (&) 443. 2. 2. 465. 1 a /?$+&?. not true. 426. 497. c. 5.  . 1. 463. + () 433.rz Page 279. *+. 6. & 491. 2 a 2. .55. 0.} ' c^acjd} ^ fcfZ a/ ?>rf + 86 (. />c c(f be. 8. 5. 5.  f>.  453. 10. 486. 485. 12. 2.XXX11 ANSWERS ab. 24 days. 21. 4. 472. 468. 20. .  1.. (d) true. 0. 483. 444. 450.  2. 457. I. 459. 436. 490. 448. 7. 493. 2 438. 454. .5. + b ' + a __ b c ' 2 w f w 417.. 5J. c 6fc 10. 14 miles.}. \ 1. 445. (&) true. 8. 442. 500. 421. 462. 428. .488. 0. . 5.489.vz in. 51. 496. 6. Page283. 2$. 456. .  2f 504. 458. 508. 11. . 481. (c) not true. (a  c).7. 506.2.. 2. b 449. 467. m 1 : wi. 2. 18. 6. 418. 447. . 411. (d  6) f. 22.3. 1. 6.}. 2. 32 yr. 422.1. 478. 20 yr. A 5 mi . 7. 466. 33. . . z8 +?/ 3 431. 507.
528. 5. 573.3.37. 599. 1. 24. 529. 1. 2.3.  (a) (d) 1. _ 4. 1.6.6. 3. 527. 4. If 572.f 1. 577.  2 a*b + 3 a6 3 . 515.21. ft 584.05. (gr) 10 1.10. 1 . 581. 1. 2. (e) 570. 569. 6435.5. ^ ft 4. 509.   (h) 8.3.4. 558.53. 2 1. .6 2.5. (6) .8.1.04.xj/ f xV . 2$. + 26x2 + 10 x4 ). 510. 5. imag. 4.4.2.3. 3. . 5. Page 288. . 3 . 1. . .  2ft da. 3. 2 imag.12. . . 576.  . 1. 0.  4.02. <z ft 1. 2. M ft c 2 ft 3465.  + + c. . 2. 3.7. 5.  imag. . .4. 582. per hr.. 2(4 602.5. Page 285. 1. f. f ? a f ft __ + c C).62. 27 y* f\4 . 525. 1. H.4. 2(6 597. 3.15. 2 a 8 x 8 + 6 ax&fy 2 x + 12 a 2xt2 b*y'2 + 2 6 4 ?/ 4 595. 530. (6) 3. 3. (c) 3. 1.02. _ 3. x8 . + 6 tf f 3 . 591. 574.25m.7. 4. 561.3. .73. 2 .10. 2. 4. xxxin 511. (a) 74 Ib. 1. 8. Page 287.31.54. 8 +3 x f 6 x2 2 a4 & 604. . 4. 4.14. 1J.9. 31. f. 552. (e) (c) 2. 568.1.8.2 xt/ a4 + x3 4 6 x4 3 xG fx.75. + 12 x . 3. tin.20. 560. Roots imaginary.52. 559. 2 10. .  J(a f + 2c).15. a 7 687i 588i tt e a _ _3 7 ir 7 rt e & + 2 1 a 5 ft 2  rt 4^2 + i 3 ^254 590.1.r8 596. 1$.31. . (/)  10 to 8. + 35 86 4 4 &8 3 + 589. . lead. (ft) 4.04. 21*_. 1. _^ 2754x . 3. 583.  2. or 8. . 571. tin.6. 7^ da. 598. 556. 603. ..  1. 579. 2. > ^ . a*8a + 24tf 82a. 8 mi.4. per hour. 562. o> . 526. 578.24.3.ANSWERS Page 284. 553. 2. + 26 + . (ft) Ill Ib.24 sec.  7. 1 . 2 . . S82 c.  (a) 2. 518.15.5 f. 24 da.5+.  ft*. 514. . 4. 536. 1.03. (d) 537. 563.1. 2.5. 3. 1 600. 8 a6 42x + 8x2 + 2x 8 4x4 601. .xV f +6 a2 &2  4 6. .25.8..03. 115 Ib. 6. 4* da.7.16. y% Z * 586. 1 580.3. 516.56 sec. 1.62. lead.78. .33. 14.37.54.6.3. 575.02. 4 mi.30. 513. 232. 4 8 x2 ?/4 605. 551. g(rc+ 6c). 1. 2. 6. 1. f36a28x8 592.4 x + . . . 3.% rr\* 585. 3. (i) 3. 1. 1 1  2 x 7 2 f 3 2 x' 2 + x8 f x4 . y 4. 593. (c) 4.8. . a + ft  a  f c. 564.1. 3 da.75. 512. . a f ft + c. 555. 3f 4f. . 1. 2 2. 532.1. 554. 533.02. 4 0.38.24._ ft 523 a 2 ftc 2 524.4. 3. 1. da.78.0. 566.0. 3. T . 40 Ib.0.  3.00. 1. 0000.83. .  557. 4. i _ 4 sc2 + 6 + 10a:8 + a6) . 4.8 x3^. 7. J7] min.0. l+4x+0x 2 +4x 8 f x4 4 4 594.83.5.55.88. 550. 1.51.21 a2 + 3x + 3x2 rA 86 3 4 ft + 35 4 + 21 2&6 fts + 7 7 rt?> 6 a^ _ 8 +^ 57. 531. 1. a+ Page 286.. 565. 1. 3.35. 2 1.. 567.
5. 14. 3. 0.001. 644. 643. (a3&45rj. 4330 da.3f l 668. ^^ 695. 708. 4 676.  ft. 636. 2 a  6*. 50. . 3 x2 . 625. 628. 4.c ) 697. 2. c. 634. ^. 4. if 4/> 671. 645. 669.14 If 1. . <T! . 672. 630. 210. 651. 9. b 664. 2 a 688. 607. 971. . . 703. 3. . 666.2f Page 290. 4. fe + a. 2.  684. 5. 2. 11. ab. 898. V^~3).25. 701.7/ ~ +w ( 7>) ^~ V3 ^' 3. 679. 1m*. 698. + ~^'2 + a 1. 642. 620. 10. 2f. 656. If 665. 633.f 3 V^3). 692. 662.2f (5 4. 6. 2.  6. 627. 4$. 2f.049. 632. n^l +^. 677 680. fta a/> ^A. 2.  . \+ab 699. 2.. V2. 0. ^ _ \/3 +^~< 2 a a +^ 694. 2.  3. 653. 661. ^ 1. 1 ^  7Q7> b j(_ (_ x/^15). 647.002. 1 V5 1. 5. 0. a 4. 2 + 36 )K3 + ( 687. 0. 1. + 2 A (i f Page 291. 25. 2 a: 4. 2 / 2 4. . 641.  2f r 659.a~ {Z 663. 613. 5002. 8 f 3. .  13.  4. 7. 617. be ac \. 624. 650.43^4. 6 685. . 691. /> 4. 78. y  619. a + b. o. ' 674. J^^. 670.XX XIV 606. 2 x 44 ^/. 637. 7. 12.3. 4 V 0. . V"^TJ. . If b.  4. 009. ANSWERS ( 3 x 2 S 2 . 649. 4. 1 2. . 2&). af6fc __ __ ( a 4. If. ' fe 2 ). a 2. 2. 622.001. 652. 2 ab + a  &. 696.  a2  a (ab). 623. If . i. 678< 682. 13. 702.203. a 673. 8 6 fo . 657. 608. (*_ + a: 611. 8. 1 ~a . 11.b 686. 631. 6. 683. . 706. 654. 9*. . 0. 1$ 639. ft).b. 1. 705.04.. 7003. 638. 3. 1010. 1 704. b .702. K 5 2 V2.0. 1. 0.3. 635. 3 a. 626. la6 2. 648. 621. I}'/. \. 629. Page 289. z  1.y. 616. . If f 667. 2.303. V7. 1. 614. 703. b. / V^+lO^M"^. If 658.3. 655. 5 3. ^. 640. x3 4 3 x x ' 4 X* 609. 618.>A 610. V2. 646. 25. ab 689. 612. 660. l/'3. ix 2 . 2092. a. 700. a 1J.3. 690. a ' 2 + . 3 681.  1. 5. 615.
00. a 2  x2 .8. 25. 59. 751.. ^ ?>. a 2 6^. + 6 2 tf'c. x i f^' . ^^ f ^3 _ r} t 2 i3x 4 rt + + 2u: 8'o'a +a2 3 . 2 V2 . 793. 768. i^. 726.ANSWMHti Page 292. 4 104 v/2.257. r. 32>/2.V2. 717. 738. 733. 30\/10 764. 342V3. 33^2. 3^. 2x3^ a. 718. 740. mn. VV> L4V34. > 748. 5. 8. 732.^. 778.r. a 5 . 753. 24V2.rJ w L 754. fyaw&cu.9. 789. + < 735. 24. 788. 1 [ + '> J. 47. a db Va^T < 45da. T%. 300. 1 I .11.r+y> 759.1 . 15 shares. 727. 777. . . 728. 3V72VO. . 5. iv/Jj. 711. 725. 709. 763. 1. 13ft. 24 4 . 794. 1 747. 758. 776.^ 743. 1. *+V( x 2 "r 2 )' ^ 786. 2\/53V2. 34.9. 729. v/7 / .4 . 8. 1^ _ 760. 750. 736. VT14V5. x\y.. / 787. j 742.V/^ 741. 773. 734. 723. cr*lr*. 714. 721. 796. a:* . 739. Page 293. J(v'lO2V 791. 3V52V3. 3V72V3.12 af V^ 4 744. VIO\/3. 755. 3V7. 782 785. Page 294. . a + 6 +cx* 2 (t' 3 1 a*&M. i 2. 1 752. rt3 2 ^i^.2. 730. .~ . 17ft. 3. 29\/3. a". 713.. 724. 4 x' 5 x 4 3 x~* ( 2 ar 1. 7  3V5. ^ Ti i a*tj~ 4.1 />f f + lr'~ + _L a 4 6.2 4 w" + 4 d" + Hid. ^7xy. 737. "V313. 719. 769.4 . 767.. 722. v'll. 712. 710. 715. 731. 756. 749. 39. 3 VlT 795. 746. 792. 790 2v 3v 2. 3 720.10. ^ . 1. y  1. Hi a. 716.
2) (x 4 2). f. 6 4 V&  e " X/^^+A^ + 2 *a o l V 2 802. 4 885. (  ?>) (a + ^> . n =  29./>") (a'.7). 825. 6 $.5) (x + * 853. (a 4 871. 4. (. 6+V7. _ 3 ^ 860 r + 3) . Page 297.4)(1 f 4 a 4 10a 2 ).  + l(l^). (x*y*ryz + z*).3. . 2. (x 2 f r . 838. 814. x .l)(x + 3)(2x43). 7. 2. 840.f.. . (x + y) (x f y) (x + y) (x . 848. 11. a^*4l)(aa 4 + l). (1 .l)(x . . 17. m = 2. 2 806. 23. ^VG. X4 1). 847. 881.2w .  tt 815. 2 854. b' 2 821. 1C. 842.7. a 42)(x . **. 5). 816. 4. 892. 2 . x.1) (a 8 . (a 1) (x 4.a 4 + 1).1)(0 865. 831.5 b) 4 1). V 3.1. Va. . m 875. 867. (xl)(^~3)(. 830. db 7. %7 ?/ ( 2 >wt 2wt ft ft 4 rc f 1 '* Page 298. f 3 866> (9 + 8 ) 81 ^3 _ 72 xy 4 04 ^). 4. 1. (2x3?/^)(4x2 4Ox^ + 9//%2). 799. 895. 823. (2 a . 6. 11.+ m f ") (a* ). 888. (2 x + 3 y} . J V. 826. . 897.. 1 1. 3.XXXVI 797.3. 804. 2. 3. 880. .a 3 " 4. 1. 4. 8. 3. . 835. 829. (x 845. a2 ^E*!. 4. 820.y) 852.  ' . 4 818. 25. ^. 16xyV2*/^~x2 . 2 . . 851. 2. $. (3 862.  1. 3 . 824. 1. 2. 882. 896. (x . 833. 2 *x 807. (a m . (:r 11. 810. 2. H. 0.1) . + d)*. 827.1)(V 2 . 2 (x 4*4. +j!>. 4. 900. 813.6 xy + 9 )(4 x 2 (9x 4l2x + 10). 5. o 828.l)(x . (2 4. . 48.rae) (4 . ( 4 4. (3 b . 819. 6. 887. 2.4) 860. 834. 14. 6. 0.0.7). (x 4. 3. 3. 3. 4. 836. 801.7 4 1) 846.. 8 09. jV3 f 3. 891. 899. 4.4. 8. 837. 10. 808. 8(?/ + 2x2 ?/ ~ x 4 ). 886.r4). 884.7)(4 x. 883. . 2 2 . a(ry + 864. 849. ( 869. o. 2 m .3)(x + 4). \/5. . Va 803. 7. 876.a 2 2 ). 800. . ^ V}. (x3). 13. (am l)(a m + 1) 4m . (2x (r. 868. 3. 4. $. 2. 7. 4 . a* 4. ((' 1). Hoots are extraneous. 2. 857. ANSWERS 798.om 441) (a 855. 2. 843. 893.2 ax 4. 5. are extraneous. 2 . (a + 2 ?>c)(a 2 2fl?>44 ?/V ). (x42?/)(x2y)(4x . 872. 2 j 889. 2 + 2)^ 3 + (a 4 5 f 8). 3. 832. 890. 3. 863. '0 3 2 an 4 3(> n 6 ). 0. 4.1). Page 296. 2  2. 1. 2/ 856.25 ?>2). 894. 812. ) (a' 874. 5. 19. 844. 6(a6)(o a + + &). 4. 811. 822. 1. 5. 3.4.a 2m W" 4 ^ m f & 2m 870. 858. 5. 817. a(ft)( 873. (x + 0X024.10 ab 4. 20). 0.r?/ 50(i ( 2)(5 04. 859. (x 2 . Hoots . 879. . 898. (4 c 4.r . 17.  839. 4 1)(4 x jc jr ::} ?> ?> . \/2. 7. 841. 1 .l)(x + 2). 861. (x . Va + 6 + Vtt"fc.
J(_ ft. 40 16 in. 4. 66 924. 980. 248. ft. 15 16 ft. 936. 8. 2. i(6 in. 7. ft. 1. 18. 954. 28. 8. V5 T 2 . 10.. 14 . 28. 987. 938. S07. Z ^. 8. a. 4. 940.111. 11. 3. 6 da. V5 fj. 919. 922. 7 or 30. . 944. 7. 4. 4 6 mi. 923. 983.V~~3). 943. 280. . 8. 1 1. 963.0.. 8 . 6. 908. 955. 6. Page 301. 925. 8. ft. '3 3 in. 932. w. 977. 480 8 sq. 2 i ' a V. 939. i>. 920. 904. 5. a + . 73.1.. 984. ^y. 1. 5.2.744.  1 . 496. 935. 3. yd. $(l 4. 2 yd. 960.01. . 6. . 2 1. 958. i1" 913. . T 6. 1. =F J. 2. 2 w 914. 2. i 3. 6. %* . 4. 8128. 12. 4 ./hr. 7 ft. . 56. 12. 0. 2 ft. 1). 333. Page 303.I. 1 2. J. Page 300. 3 . 111. . f ft 4 . 930. 933. Page 302. r ft ' < Page 299. 100 rows. 964. 931. 6. 12. 909.  26j. 956. 4. 4. 0. . 333. tt2 19. 28. 1 . 11. ?/i 6. 6 a 915. 12 in. 1 _2 . 5 .709. .. 906.. 986. . 20 19 ft. .. 916. ft. 1 XXXVll ' a 1. 2. 5. 948. 912.. 927. 2. 903.  1. 2. ft.. 934.. f. 951. 2. . 7. 911. 6. 947. 3. 4 in.. 1 + V953. 11..1. 12 mi.073.. 985. T 6. 961. 3 4 . 942. . w 3. 4. 937. 6 . 0. 982. 981. 918. . ..2. 80.446. 962. 0. 945. 950. 921. T3. 8. 4. 959. 5.651. 11.615. 15 946. 115. dL 4. I) v/Ca^T)^ 2 5. 108. 3. ft. 941. 6 a + 3 2 ft ' 4 3 & 928. 7. 952. J. 6. v/(ai !)(&910. 978. 3.. . . V^3). 3. 60 949. . 10. 2.' ifcVira^ 2 3. . ft. 4. 2. 9 in. 905. 5l4f. 5. 3). i 8.. 6 1 1. 2. Va926. 4. 979. 8. 957. . 8.ANSWERS oJV 41 6 901. 917. ft. 902. 329. Y.760 sq. 3.1 = 9.
988. (a) (6) ^ 1002. 1005. 48. Page 305. 1012. 8.870 a 6 1011. 243 ?/ 810 x 2 + y 1080 x* 4 5 ?/ 720 * 240 r 8 7 ?/ . 1017. 1018. 12. in. 1 8 8 2. 120 a. . 108. 995. 1(5.128 I.xxxviii ANSWERS 989. 1000. . 3003. 9 /> l 6 /> 6 . 24. a a 13  13 ax + 78 a3 4y*> . 192. 990. 1001. 0.  5&7 1021. (J.92.192rt?)r 120 *. ^f (2f3V2). 1010. 1016. 4 and 1020. 78 n+ a' x 2 t  13 . 992.'^^ } ( . (6) 8(1 . 6 70 . . 1014. Page 304. 2(2 v/2). 1013. 1006. 1007. 72. 1003. 9 da. 5 :J2 r 10  14 y + 84 y*  280 + 5(>0  72 C K 4 2 MJiy 8 r? " 8 .378 <W and 92. 32 13 (tx 4V3. 2 .870 z8 . 1008. 162.378 1015.. 1 1004. X. (5. 1019. ~ \. " 1710 rtV and 1710 252 35. 120 i^l^. 994. 12. 997.  W1W JI + 1 / 1 _ _L\ a . 4. + 448 . () 12(2+V3). 993. ^Trsq.18. + v 2). 0.51. r = 2. (a) 2^ + 1 \/2). 991.. 996. 1009. (Z>) 999.
HEW TOSS . The author has emphasized Graphical Methods more than is usual in textbooks of this grade. given. physics. than by the . i2mo.25 lamo. 6466 FIFTH AVBNTC. $1. Half leather. not The Advanced Algebra is an amplification of the Elementary. book is a thoroughly practical and comprehensive textbook. which has been retained to serve as a basis for higher work. which have been omitted from the body of the work Indeterminate Equahave been relegated to the Appendix.D. A examples are taken from geometry. Half leather. and commercial life. very numerous and well graded there is a sufficient number of easy examples of each kind to enable the weakest students to do some work. without the sacrifice of scientific accuracy and thoroughness. $1. All subjects now required for admission by the College Entrance Examination Board have been omitted from the present volume. xiv+563 pages. The introsimpler and more natural than the methods given In Factoring. The more important subjects tions. comparatively few methods are heretofore.10 The treatment of elementary algebra here is simple and practical. especially duction into Problem Work is very much Problems and Factoring. proportions and graphical methods are introduced into the first year's course. but the work in the latter subject has been so arranged that teachers who wish a shorter course may omit it ADVANCED ALGEBRA By ARTHUR SCHULTZE. Ph. so that the Logarithms. and the Summation of Series is here presented in a novel form. etc.ELEMENTARY ALGEBRA By ARTHUR SCHULTZE. Particular care has been bestowed upon those chapters which in the customary courses offer the greatest difficulties to the beginner. great many work. To meet the requirements of the College Entrance Examination Board. but these few are treated so thoroughly and are illustrated by so many varied examples that the student will be much better prepared for further The Exercises are superficial study of a great many cases. save Inequalities. but none of the introduced illustrations is so complex as to require the expenditure of time for the teaching of physics or geometry. xi 4 373 pages. THE MACMILLAN COMPANY PUBLISHERS.
there is a sufficient number of easy examples of each kind to enable the weakest students to do some work.ELEMENTARY ALGEBRA By ARTHUR Sen ULTZE. but these few are treated so thoroughly and are illustrated by so many varied examples that the student will be much better prepared for further work. $1. 6466 7HTH AVENUE. Ph. The author grade. proportions and graphical methods are introduced into the first year's course. and commercial life. but none of the introduced illustrations is so complex as to require the expenditure of time for the teaching of physics or geometry. HEW YOKE . book is a thoroughly practical and comprehensive textbook. etc.D. Logarithms. comparatively few methods are given. All subjects now required for admission by the College Entrance Examination Board have been omitted from the present volume. The introsimpler and more natural than the methods given heretofore. 12010. without Particular care has been the sacrifice of scientific accuracy and thoroughness. but the work in the latter subject has been so arranged that teachers who wish a shorter course may omit it ADVANCED ALGEBRA By ARTHUR SCHULTZE. than by the superficial study of a great many cases. HatF leather. physics. so that the tions. bestowed upon those chapters which in the customary courses offer the greatest difficulties to the beginner. To meet the requirements of the College Entrance Examination Board. The Exercises are very numerous and well graded. In Factoring. especially duction into Problem Work is very much Problems and Factoring. great many A examples are taken from geometry. which has been retained to serve as a basis for higher work. save Inequalities. not The Advanced Algebra is an amplification of the Elementary. The more important subjects which have been omitted from the body of the work Indeterminate Equahave been relegated to the Appendix. xiv+56a pages. has emphasized Graphical Methods more than is usual in textbooks of this and the Summation of Series is here presented in a novel form. xi f 373 pages. THE MACMILLAN COMPANY PUBLISHBSS. $1.25 i2mo. Half leather.10 The treatment of elementary algebra here is simple and practical.
xii + 233 pages.D. Hints as to the manner of completing the work are inserted The Order 5.10 By ARTHUR This key will be helpful to teachers who cannot give sufficient time to the Most solutions are merely outsolution of the exercises in the textbook. The Analysis of Problems and of Theorems is more concrete and practical than in any other distinct pedagogical value. Cloth. guides him in putting forth his efforts to the best advantage. $1. and no attempt has been made to present these solutions in such form that they can be used as models for classroom work. of Propositions has a Propositions easily understood are given first and more difficult ones follow . 6. Ph. under the heading Remarks". wor.r and. at the It same provides a course which stimulates him to do original time. 4. 80 cents This Geometry introduces the student systematically to the solution of geometrical exercises. SCHULTZE. $1. 9. ments from which General Principles may be obtained are inserted in the " Exercises. . lines. xttt PLANE GEOMETRY Separate. THE MACMILLAN COMPANY PUBLISHERS. aoo pages. iamo. Half leather. Attention is invited to the following important features I. 6466 FIFTH AVENUE.. These are introduced from the beginning 3. izmo. textbook in Geometry more direct ositions 7. By ARTHUR SCHULTZE and 370 pages. Proofs that are special cases of general principles obtained from the Exercises are not given in detail. Preliminary Propositions are presented in a simple manner . Algebraic Solution of Geometrical Exercises is treated in the Appendix to the Plane Geometry . i2mo. The Schultze and Sevenoak Geometry is in use in a large number of the leading schools of the country. Difficult Propare made somewhat? easier by applying simple Notation .10 L. more than 1200 in number in 2. 10. KEY TO THE EXERCISES in Schultze and Sevenoak's Plane and Solid Geometry. State: . PLANE AND SOLID GEOMETRY F. 7 he . Pains have been taken to give Excellent Figures throughout the book. The numerous and wellgraded Exercises the complete book. Many proofs are presented in a simpler and manner than in most textbooks in Geometry 8. SEVENOAK. NEW YORK . Cloth.
Students to still learn demon strations instead of learning how demonstrate.The Teaching of Mathematics in Secondary Schools ARTHUR SCHULTZE Formerly Head of the Department of Mathematics in the High School Commerce. and Assistant Professor of Mathematics in New York University of Cloth. THE MACMILLAN COMPANY 6466 Fifth Avenue. . . causes of the inefficiency of mathematical teaching. of these theoretical views.25 The author's long and successful experience as a teacher of mathematics in secondary schools and his careful study of the subject from the pedagogical point of view. . . methods of teaching mathematics the first propositions in geometry the original exercise parallel lines methods of the circle attacking problems impossible constructions applied problems typical parts of algebra. 12mo. . a great deal of mathematical spite teaching is still informational. " is to contribute towards book/ he says in the preface. $1. and not from the information that it imparts. . Most teachers admit that mathematical instruction derives its importance from the mental training that it But in affords." The treatment treated are : is concrete and practical. . 370 pages. New York DALLAS CHICAGO BOSTON SAN FRANCISCO ATLANTA . making mathematical teaching less informational and more disciplinary. . Typical topics the value and the aims of mathematical teach ing . New York City. enable him to " The chief object of the speak with unusual authority.
i2mo.40 is distinguished from a large number of American textbooks in that its main theme is the development of history the nation. Cloth. This book is uptodate not only in its matter and method. The author's aim is to keep constantly before the This book pupil's mind the general movements in American history and their relative value in the development of our nation. supply the student with plenty of historical narrative on which to base the general statements and other classifications made in the text. photographs. which put the main stress upon national development rather than upon military campaigns. diagrams. THE MACMILLAN COMPANY 6466 Fifth Avenue. " This volume etc. An exhaustive system of marginal references. Maps. Topics. $1. Studies and Questions at the end of each chapter take the place of the individual teacher's lesson plans.AMERICAN HISTORY For Use fa Secondary Schools By ROSCOE LEWIS ASHLEY Illustrated. is an excellent example of the newer type of school histories. and a full index are provided. The book deserves the attention of history teachers/' Journal of Pedagogy. but in being fully illustrated with many excellent maps. New York SAN FRANCISCO BOSTON CHICAGO ATLANTA . which have been selected with great care and can be found in the average high school library. All smaller movements and single events are clearly grouped under these general movements. diagrams.
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