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ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
LTD. OF TORONTO CANADA.THE MACM1LLAN COMPANY NKVV YORK PAII. LONDON LIMITKU HOMBAY CALCUTTA MELUCK'KNK THE MACMILLAN CO. .AS  BOSTON CHICAGO SAN FRANCISCO MACMILLAN & CO.
NKW YORK ITNIVEKSITT HEAD OF THK MATHEMATICAL DKI'A KTM EN T. NEW 1 ORK CUT THE MACMILLAN COMPANY 1917 All rights reserved .D. FORMERLY ASSISTANT PROFESSOR OF MATHEMATICS. HIH SCHOOL OF COMMERCE. PH.ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA BY ARTHUR SCJBULIi/TZE.
August. 1910 . 1917. . July. 1915. J. May. . Reprinted 1913. 1910. Mass..S. September. 1910. 1911. BY THE MACMILLAN COMPANY. January. Cushlng Co. Berwick & Smith Co. Published Set up and electrotyped.COPYRIGHT.' February.A. 1916. . IQJS January. May. Norwood. 8. September. U.
. All unnecessary methods and "cases" are omitted. The entire study of algebra becomes a mechanical application of memorized rules. manufactured for this purpose. but "cases" that are taught only on account of tradition." this book. All practical teachers know how few students understand and appreciate the more difficult parts of the theory. Until recently the tendency was to multiply as far as possible.PREFACE IN this book the attempt while still is made to shorten the usual course in algebra. and conse . chief : among These which are the following 1. giving to the student complete familiarity with all the essentials of the subject. All parts of the theory whicJi are beyond the comprehension of the student or wliicli are logically unsound are omitted. not only taxes a student's memory unduly but in variably leads to mechanical modes of study. " While in many respects similar to the author's to its peculiar aim. however. in order to make every example a social case of a memorized method. and ingenuity while the cultivation of the student's reasoning power is neglected. omissions serve not only practical but distinctly pedagogic " cases " ends. etc. owing has certain distinctive features. Typical in this respect is the treatment of factoring in many textbooks In this book all methods which are of and which are applied in advanced work are given. Such a large number of methods. shortcuts that solve only examples real value. Elementary Algebra. are omitted. specially 2.
especially problems and factoring. two negative numbers. The best way to introduce a beginner to a new topic is to offer Lim a large number of simple exercises. This made it necessary to introduce the theory of proportions . etc. enable students who can devote only a minimum This arrangement will of time to algebra to study those subjects which are of such importance for further work. " The book is designed to meet the requirements for admis sion to our best universities and colleges. are placed early in the course. in particular the requirements of the College Entrance Examination Board. all elementary proofs theorem for fractional exponents. as quadratic equations and graphs. e. Moreover.g. In regard to some other features of the book. TJie exercises are slightly simpler than in the larger look. Topics of practical importance. differ With very few from those exceptions all the exer cises in this book in the "Elementary Alge bra". For the more ambitious student. there has been placed at the end of the book a collection of exercises which contains an abundance of more difficult work. and it is hoped that this treatment will materially diminish the difficulty of this topic for young students.vi PREFACE quently hardly ever emphasize the theoretical aspect of alge bra. may be used to supplement the other. The presenwill be found to be tation of problems as given in Chapter V quite a departure from the customary way of treating the subject. hence either book 4. the following may be quoted from the author's "Elementary Algebra": which "Particular care has been bestowed upon those chapters in the customary courses offer the greatest difficulties to the beginner. however. a great deal of the theory offered in the avertextbook is logically unsound . all proofs for the sign age of the product of of the binomial 3.
such examples. McKinley than one that gives him the number of Henry's marbles. elementary way. viz." Applications taken from geometry. an innovation which seems to mark a distinct gain from the pedagogical point of view. but they unquestionably furnish a very good antidote against 'the tendency of school algebra to degenerate into a mechanical application of memorized rules. is based principally upon the alge . are frequently arranged in sets that are algebraically uniform. By studying proportions during the first year's work. and they usually involve difficult numerical calculations. the student will be able to utilize this knowledge where it is most needed. in " geometry . while in the usual course proportions are studied a long time after their principal application. Moreover. physics. and hence the student is more easily led to do the work by rote than when the arrangement braic aspect of the problem. based upon statistical abstracts. nobody would find the length Etna by such a method.' This topic has been preit is sented in a simple. " Graphical methods have not only a great practical value. and commercial are numerous. The entire work in graphical methods has been so arranged that teachers who wish a shorter course may omit these chapters. of the Mississippi or the height of Mt. But on the other hand very few of such applied examples are genuine applications of algebra. to solve a It is undoubtedly more interesting for a student problem that results in the height of Mt.PREFACE vii and graphical methods into the first year's work. and of the hoped that some modes of representation given will be considered im provements upon the prevailing methods. but the true study of algebra has not been sacrificed in order to make an impressive display of sham life applications.
. ARTHUR SCHULTZE. April. genuine applications of elementary algebra work seems to have certain limi but within these limits the author has attempted to give as many The author for simple applied examples as possible. desires to acknowledge his indebtedness to Mr. NEW YORK. 1910. pupil's knowlso small that an extensive use of The average Hence the field of suitable for secondary school tations. is such problems involves as a rule the teaching of physics by the teacher of algebra. however. Manguse for the careful reading of the proofs and many valuable suggestions.viii PREFACE problems relating to physics often offer It is true that a field for genuine applications of algebra. edge of physics. William P.
SUBTRACTION....CONTENTS CHAPTER INTRODUCTION Algebraic Solution of Problems Negative Numbers I PAGB 1 1 3 Numbers represented by Letters Factors. AND PARENTHESES 15 15 10 .... Powers... and Hoots Algebraic Expressions and Numerical Substitutions ... III 22 27 Signs of Aggregation Exercises in Algebraic Expression 29 CHAPTER MULTIPLICATION Multiplication of Algebraic Multiplication of .. .. 34 35 36 Multiplication of Polynomials Special Cases in Multiplication 39 CHAPTER IV DIVISION Division of Monomials 46 46 47 Division of a Polynomial by a Monomial Division of a Polynomial by a Polynomial Special Cases in Division ix 48 61 ... II 6 7 10 CHAPTER Addition of Monomials Addition of Polynomials Subtraction ADDITION. ...... Numbers Monomial Monomials 31 31 Multiplication of a Polynomial by a .....
Type III.. Type IV. Type V. Complex Fractions 105 CHAPTER IX FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS Fractional Equations Literal Equations .. All of whose Terms contain a mon Factor Com77 . Type Polynomials.. . Type VI.. .. * .. Type II.114 .. The Square of a Binomial x 2 Ixy The Difference of Two Squares Grouping Terms of Factoring .X CONTENTS CHAPTER V PAGE LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS Solution of Linear Equations Symbolical Expressions Problems leading . Quadratic Trinomials of the Quadratic Trinomials of the 78 .. 108 108 112 Problems leading to Fractional and Literal Equations ....63 55 67 to Simple Equations 63 CHAPTER VI FACTORING 76 I. /^ .. HIGHEST COMMON FACTOR AND LOWEST COMMON MULTIPLE 89 89 91 CHAPTER VIII 93 93 97 FRACTIONS Reduction of Fractions Addition and Subtraction of Fractions Multiplication of Fractions Division of Fractions 102 104 * . . .. Form x'2 f px f q Form px 2 f qx + r f .. 80 83 84 86 87 Summary CHAPTER Common Factor Lowest Common Multiple Highest VII .
... Evolution of Monomials 170 . CHAPTER XIV 169 .. Evolution of Polynomials and Arithmetical Numbers ... .. 171 CHAPTER XV QUADRATIC EQUATIONS INVOLVING ONB UNKNOWN QUANTITY Pure Quadratic Equations Complete Quadratic Equations Problems involving Quadratics Equations in the Quadratic Character of the Roots .. 140 143 CHAPTER XII GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS AND EQUATIONS Representation of Functions of One Variable ..CONTENTS XI RATIO AND PROPORTION Ratio ... Two Unknown 129 130 133 138 Quantities Problems leading to Simultaneous Equations ..... CHAPTER XI CHAPTER X PAGE 120 120 121 Proportion SIMULTANEOUS EQUATIONS OF THE FIRST DEGREE Elimination by Addition or Subtraction Elimination by Substitution Literal Simultaneous Equations Simultaneous Equations involving More than .. 1*78 178 181 189 191 Form 193 .. 148 164 Graphic Solution of Equations involving One Unknown Quantity Graphic Solution of Equations involving Two Unknown Quantities 168 160 CHAPTER INVOLUTION Involution of Monomials XIII 165 165 166 Involution of Binomials EVOLUTION . ...
xii
CONTENTS
CHAPTER XVI
PAGK 195
THE THEORT OP EXPONENTS
Fractional and Negative Exponents Use of Negative and Fractional Exponents
....
195
200
CHAPTER XVII
RADICALS
Transformation of Radicals Addition and Subtraction of Radicals
Multiplication of Radicals Division of Radicals
205
206 210
.212
Involution and Evolution of Radicals
.....
214
218
Square Roots of Quadratic Surds Radical Equations
219
221
CHAPTER
THE FACTOR THEOREM
XVIII
227
CHAPTER XIX
SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS
I.
......
.
.
.
.
232
232
II.
Equations solved by finding x +/ and x / One Equation Linear, the Other Quadratic
.
.
234
III.
Homogeneous Equations
Special Devices
236
237
IV.
Interpretation of Negative Results
and the Forms
i
,
.
.
241
Problems
243
CHAPTER XX
PROGRESSIONS
Arithmetic Progression Geometric Progression
Infinite
.
246
24(j
251
Geometric Progression
263
CHAPTER XXI
BINOMIAL THEOREM
.
.
.
.
.
.
..
.
.
255
BEVIEW EXERCISE
.
268
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
CHAPTER
I
INTRODUCTION
1.
Algebra
it
may
arithmetic,
treats of
be called an extension of arithmetic. Like numbers, but these numbers are freletters,
quently denoted by problem.
as illustrated in
the following
ALGEBRAIC SOLUTION OF PROBLEMS
2.
Problem.
'
The sum
x
is five
times the smaller.
Let
two numbers is 42, and the greater Find the numbers. the smaller number.
of
Then
and
Therefore,
5 x = the greater number, 6x the sum of the two numbers. 6x
= 42,
and
3.
x = 7, the smaller number, 5 x = 35, the greater number.
A problem
An
is
a question proposed for solution.
4.
equation is a statement expressing the equality of
two
quantities; as,
5.
6 a?
= 42.
In algebra, problems are frequently solved by denoting numbers by letters and by expressing the problem in the form of an equation.
6.
Unknown numbers
;
are usually represented
as, x, y,
z,
by the
last
letters of the alphabet
but sometimes other letters
are employed. B
1
2
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
EXERCISE
The sum
1
Solve algebraically the following problems
1.
:
of two
times the smaller.
2.
numbers is 40, and the greater Find the numbers.
is
four
twice as
and a carriage for $ 480, receiving for the horse as for the carriage. much did he receive for the carriage ?
sold a horse
A man
A
much
How
3.
and
B own
a house worth $ 14,100, and
capital as B.
A
has
in
vested twice as
invested ?
4.
much
How much
is
has each
The population
of
South America
9 times that of
Australia, and both continents together have 50,000,000 inFind the population of each. habitants.
and fall of the tides in Seattle is twice that in and their sum is 18 feet. Find the rise and fall Philadelphia,
5.
The
rise
of the tides in Philadelphia.
6.
6 times as
7.
Divide $ 240 among A, B, and C so that A may receive much as C. and B 8 times as much as C.
A pole 56 feet high was broken so that the part broken was 6 times the length of the part left standing. .Find the length of the two parts.
off
8.
The sum
If
two
of the sides of a triangle equals 40 inches. sides of the triangle are equal, and each is twice the A remaining side, how long is each side ?
A
9.
The sum
triangle is are equal,
of the three angles of any 180. If 2 angles of a triangle and the remaining angle is 4
times their sum,
there in each ?
how many
degrees are
is
G 10. The number of negroes in Africa 10 times the number of Indians in America, and the sum of both is 165,000,000. How many are there of each ?
B
INTRODUCTION
11.
3
twice as
12.
Divide $280 among A, B, and C, so that much as A, and C twice as much as B.
B may
receive
twice as
13.
Divide $90 among A, B, and C, so that B may receive much as A, and C as much as A and B together.
A
is
which
14.
line 20 inches long is divided into two parts, one of long are the parts ? equal to 5 times the other.
How
travels twice as fast as B, and the tances traveled by the two is 57 miles.
A
sum
of the dis
How many
miles did
each travel ?
15.
4
A, B, C, and
does
A
take, if
B
D buy $ 2100 worth of goods. How much buys twice as much as A, C three times as
much
much
as B,
and
D
six times as
NEGATIVE NUMBE
EXERCISE
1.
2
Subtract 9 from 16.
2.
3.
Can 9 be subtracted from 7 ?
In arithmetic
why
cannot 9 be subtracted from 7 ?
"*
\
4.
The temperature
is
What
5.
noon is 16 ami at 4 P.M. it is 9 the temperature at 4 P.M.? State this as an
at
at
of subtraction.
The temperature
4 P.M.
is
7, and
at 10 P.M.
it is
10
less.
6.
What is the temperature at 10 P.M. ? Do you know of any other way of
below zero) ? What then is 7 10?
(3
expressing the last
answer
7.
8.
Can you think
of
any other
practical examples
which
require the subtraction of a greater
number from a smaller
one?
7.
Many
greater
number from a smaller
practical examples require the subtraction of a one, and in order to express in
a convenient form the results of these, and similar examples,
4
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
it becomes necessary to enlarge our concept of number, so as to include numbers less than zero.
8. Negative numbers are numbers smaller than zero; they are denoted by a prefixed minus sign as 5 (read " minus 5 "). Numbers greater than zero, for the sake of distinction, are fre;
quently called positive numbers, and are written either with a prefixed plus sign, or without any prefixed sign as f 5 or 5.
;
The
fact that a
thermometer falling 10 from 7 indicates 3
be expressed 7 10
below zero
may now
= 3.
is
loss of $ 60,
Instead of saying a gain of $ 30, and a loss of $ 90 we may write
equal to a
$30
9.
$90 = $60.
number
is
The
absolute value of a
the number taken
without regard to its sign. 5 is The absolute value of
10.
6,
of f 3 is 3.
It is convenient for
many
discussions to represent the
positive
a line
numbers by a succession of equal distances laid off on from a point 0, and the negative numbers by a similar
series in the opposite direction.
,
I
I
lit
4
to
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
6
5
3
2
1
+\
4,
+2
+
3
+4
45
+6
y
Thus, in the annexed diagram, the line from
the line from
4 represents
etc.
to 4 6 represents 4 5,
resented by a motion of "three tion of 8 by a similar motion toward the
The addition of 3 is repspaces toward the right, and the subtracleft.
Thus, 5 added to
1
equals 4, 5 subtracted from
1 equals
6, etc.
EXERCISE
1.
3
If in financial transactions
we
indicate a man's income
by
a positive sign, what does a negative sign indicate ?
2. State in what manner the positive and negative signs may be used to indicate north and south latitude, east and west
longitude, motion upstream
and downstream.
INTRODUCTION
3.
5
If north latitude
is
indicated by a positive sign, by what
is
south latitude represented ?
4.
If south latitude
is
indicated by a positive sign, by what
?
is
north latitude represented
5.
the meaning of the year 6 yards per second ? erly motion of
is 6.
What
20 A.D. ?
Of an
east
A
his total gain or loss ?
7.
merchant gains $ 200, and loses $ 350.  350. (b) Find 200
(a)
What
is
higher, is 8
 +7? 8. A vessel
(6)
If the temperature at 4 A.M. is 8 and at 9 A.M. it is 7 what is the temperature at 9 A.M. ? What, therefore,
starts
sails
38 due south,
(a)
from a point in 25 north latitude, and Find the latitude at the end of the
journey.
9.
Find 25 38.
A
22
sails
vessel starts from a point in 15 south latitude, and due south, (a) Find the latitude at the end of the
(b)
journey,
10.
Subtract 22 from
15.
18.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
From 30 subtract 40. From 4 subtract 7. From 7 subtract 9. From 19 subtract 34. From subtract 14. From 12 subtract 20. 2 subtract 5. From 1 subtract 1. From
19. 20.
21.
22.
23.
24. 25.
To 6 2 To To 1 From 1 To  8 To 7 From
add add add
12.
1.
2.
subtract 2.
add add
9. 4.
1 subtract 2.
Add
1 and 2.
26.
the one of
Solve examples 1625 by using a diagram similar to 10, and considering additions and subtractions as
motions.
27.
(a) 28.
Which is the greater number lor 1? (b) 2 or 4?
:
By how much
is
7 greater than
12 ?
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
29.
Determine from the following table the range of tempera:
ture in each locality
NUMBERS REPRESENTED BY LETTERS
11. For many purposes of arithmetic it is advantageous to express numbers by letters. One advantage was shown in 2 others will appear in later chapters ( 30).
;
EXERCISE
1.
4
is
If the letter
t
means 1000, what
the value of
5t?
a=
2.
3.
What is the value of 3 6, if b = 3 ? if b = 4 ? What is the value of a + &, if a = 5, and 6 = 7?
if
6,
and
b
=
4?
is
4.
5.
What
If a
the value of 17
c,
if c
= 5?
ifc
= 2?
marbles,
many
6.
boy has 9c? marbles and wins 4c marbles has. he ?
Is the last
how
7.
How
8.
9.
merchant had 20 much has he left ?
A
answer correct for any value of d ? m dollars and lost 11 m
dollars.
What
is
the
sum
of 8 &
and G
b ?
Find the numerical value
If c represents a certain
of the last
answer
if b
= 15.
10.
number, what represents 9 times
that
number ?
INTRODUCTION
11.
1
From 26 w
subtract 19 m.
12.
if
What is the numerical
From 22m
if
value of the last answer
if
m = 2?
m = 2?
13.
subtract
1
25m, and
find the numerical value
of the answer
14.
m=
2.
Add
13 p, 3p, 6p, and subtract 24 p from the sum.
15.
16. 19.
From
10 q subtract 20
q.
17.
18.
Add lOgand +20 q. From 22# subtract 0.
7 a=
From subtract 26 Add  6 x and 8 x.
x.
20.
From
Wp subtract 10^).
is
What sign, therefore, 140. 21. If a = 20, then understood between 7 and a in the expression 7 a ?
FACTORS, POWERS, AND ROOTS
12.
The
and equality have the same meaning
in arithmetic.
13.
signs of addition, subtraction, multiplication, division, in algebra as they have
If there is no sign between
two
is
letters, or
a letter and a
number, a sign of multiplication
6
is
understood.
written win.
x a
is
generally written 6 a
;
m
x n
Between two
(either
figures,
x
or
)
however, a sign of multiplication has to be employed as, 4x7, or 4 7.
;
4x7 cannot be
14.
written 47, for 47
means 40
f 7.
A product is
=
the result obtained by multiplying together
two or more
Since 24
Similarly,
quantities, each of which is a factor of the product. 3 x 8, or 12 x 2, each of these numbers is a factor of 24.
7, a, 6,
and
c are factors of 7 abc.
15.
A
power
is
thus,
aaaaa
6 aaaaaa, or a ,
is the product of two or more equal factors called the " 5th power of a," and written a5 " the 6th is power of a," or a 6th.
;
;
The second power is also called the square, and the third 2 power the cube; thus, 12 (read "12 square") equals 144.
8
16.
ELEMENTS OF ALQEBEA
The
base of a
power
is
the
number which
is
repeated
as a factor.
The base
of a 3
is a.
17. An exponent is the number which indicates how many times a base is to be used as a factor. It is placed a little above and to the right of the base.
The exponent
of
m
6
is
6
;
n
is
the exponent of an
.
EXERCISE
1.
5
find the numerical value of the square of 7, the cube of 6, the fourth power of 3, and the fifth power of 2. Find the numerical values of the following powers :
2.
3.
Write and
72
.
6.
42
.
10.
11.
.
8
(i)
.
14.
15.
2
.
25 1
.
2*.
7.
8. 9.
2*.
O
9
.
.0001 2
.
4. 5.
52
83
.
10 6
I 30
.
12.
(4)
(1.5)
16.
.
l.l 1
.
.
13.
2
17.
22
+3
2
.
If
a=3, 6=2, c=l, and
18. 19.
3
ci
.
d=^
22.
a*.
find the numerical values of:
24.
2
.
20.
21.
c
10
.
3
(2 c)
ab.
.
26. 27.
2
at).
b2
.
d\
23.
(6cf)
25.
(4 bdf.
28.
If
29.
30.
= 8, what is the value of a? If m = what is the value of m ? = 64, what is the value of a ? If 4
a3
2
jJg,
In a product any factor product of the other factors.
18.
is
called the coefficient of the
In 12 win 8/), 12
19.
is
the coefficient of
is
mw 8p,
12
m is the coefficient of n*p.
A
17
numerical coefficient
a coefficient expressed entirely
in figures.
In
aryx,
17
is
the numerical coefficient.
is
When
stood ; thus a
a product contains no numerical coefficient, 1 1 a, a Bb 1 a*b.
under
=
=
INTRODUCTION
9
20. When several powers are multiplied, the beginner should remember that every exponent refers only to the number near which it is placed.
3 9
2
means 3
3
aa, while (3
2
)
=3ax
3 a.
= 9 abyyy. 2* xyW = 22.2.2. xyyyzz.
afty
1 abc*
7 abccc.
EXERCISES
If
a
= 4, b = 1, c = 2, and x = ^, find the
numerical values of
:
21. root is one of the equal factors of a power. According to the number of equal factors, it is called a square root, a cube root, a fourth root, etc.
3
is
A
6
is is
the square root of 9, for 32 = 9. the cube root of 125, for 6 8 = 125. the
fifth
a
root of a 5 the nth root of a".
,
The nth
Va,
is
fifth root of a,
indicated by the symbol >/""; thus Va is the is the cube root of 27, \/a, or more simply the square root of a.
root
is
A/27
Using
this
(Va)
22.
n
= a.
The
symbol we
may
is
express the definition of root by
the
index of a root
number which
indicates
what
root is to be taken.
sign. In v/a, 7
23.
It is written in the opening of the radical
is
the index of the root.
The
[ ]
;
signs of aggregation are
:
the parenthesis,
.
( )
;
the
bracket,
the brace,
j
j
;
and the vinculum,
expression containing more than one and a 4 term. aVc^. 10. as in arithmetic." EXERCISE If a 1. a2 + and   \/a are binomials. ALGP:BRAIC EXPRESSIONS 24. V^a6. 3. 4(a 6(6 + &). b = 3. 6 a26 7 Vac ~* 2 f 9. x 9. A polynomial is an y. 2 . 4V3~6c. 10 x 4"+T indicates that (a b) is sometimes read "quantity a b. 11. (cfd) 4. to indicate that the expres* sions included are to be treated as a whole. 10 x [4 by 4 + 1 or by 5. 17. 9. 2. since the parts are a . d 7. 14. 26. a polynomial of two terms. V3 . 6. AND NUMERICAL sym SUBSTITUTIONS An algebraic expression is a collection of algebraic bols representing 25. v'Ta. + 1]. V36". 27.g. are trinomials. separated by a sign (6 + c + d} is o c ^and (6 + a monomial. or 9 Vx. 12. e. 7 = 2. A trinomial a polynomial of three terms. 5Vl6c. + c). [6c] 3 .10 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA They are used. some number is . find the numerical value of: Vff. V2a. 0. A binomial is 62 . c f d). is 28. 13. c = 1. 6. + M f c 4 f d 4 are polynomials. !^f\/03 3 ft. \/c. 16. Val \fi?. Each 10 is of the forms 10 to be multiplied x (4 f 1). A monomial or term f an expression whose parts are not as 3 cue2. 8. 15.
2 + I126. b = 3. 2 ). 3 2 If 1. (a (a f b) 7.810 + 150 = . Ex. multiplication. ' f & f c 3 8 d s . 3. 2 3a& 2 + 3a2 6a&c2 . 8. EXERCISE 8*  .19 a 6cd 3 2 3 find the numerical value 6 aft 2 . __ E. Ex. 52 . l 13.9 a& 2 c + f a 6 . a2 11. . 2. 14. 5a2 2 a2 46cf2^^ + 3 a& +.30 = 270 . 5c6 2 +6ac3 a 3 17c3 hl2o. subtraction. 6. Otherwise operations of addition. . . 6. d = 0.5 ax 50 a6cd. 5 means 3 4 20 or 23. c = 2. i. 6a2 +4a62 ~6c' 27 c 3 +12a(i *15. = 32 + 4527 = 50.g. c=l.19 = 6. a2 f + (a + 6)c 6+ a (2 2 c 2 . 5=3.19 a 2 bcd = 6 5 32 . 2.. 4. 4a6fVaV2^. 16. 11 if it In a polynomial each term is treated as were con tained in a parenthesis.390. 5c +d 2 . . 3 4 .INTRODUCTION 29. 5. a 2 6.99. 10. a=4.9 aWc + f a b . 2 of 6 ab If a = 5.9 5 32 2 + ^ 5 8 3 .4 6^9 ad. and division are to be performed in the order in which they are written all from left to right.e. 4 . d=Q. * For additional examples see page 268. Find the value of 4 28 +5 32  *^. x=^. + 26+3 c. 5. find the numerical value of: 9. 12. 3a + 56 a 2 . each term has to be computed before the different terms are added and subtracted. 1.9.
a = 3. 30. 12 cr6 f 6 a6 2 6s. 29. and the area of the is triangle S square feet (or squares of other units selected). a = 4. physics. 6 = 5. The quantity a 6 2 by the quantity a minus 36. 6 = 7. 26 of the exercise. 6 = 5. sible to state Ex. 6.6 f c) (6 a + c). 25. 6 = 2. 38. 26. = 3. a = 4. a a=3. 6. a = 3. a =4. 33. geometry. Six times a plus 4 times 32. 34. a =3. 6 = 6. 6=2. 28. Read the expressions of Exs. 6 = 4. and If the three sides of a triangle contain respectively c feet (or other units of length). and other sciences. 30. a = 2. Six 2 . of this exercise? What kind of expressions are Exs. Express in algebraic symbols 31. 27. 37. if : a = 2. then 8 = \ V(a + 6 + c) (a 4. . a. 6 = 1.6 . w cube plus three times the quantity a minus plus 6 multiplied 6.12 17 & * ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 18 ' 8 Find the numerical value of 8 a3 21. Twice a3 diminished by 5 times the square root of the quantity a minus 6 square. 23. 24. 22. : 6. 35. 1014 The representation of numbers by letters makes it posvery briefly and accurately some of the principles of arithmetic.c) (a . 6 = 6. 6 = 3. Six times the square of a minus three times the cube of Eight x cube minus four x square plus y square.
16 centimeters per second. and 15 feet. count the resistance of the atmosphere. 12. A body falling from a state of rest passes in t seconds 2 over a space S (This formula does not take into ac^gt 32 feet. the three sides of a triangle are respectively 13. i. if v : a. How far does a body fall from a state of rest in T ^7 of a (c) A second ? 3. if v . A train in 4 hours. b. and 13 inches.) Assuming g . 2. b 14. if v = 50 meters per second 5000 feet per minute. (c) 4. and 5 feet. 4. Find the height of the tree.INTRODUCTION E. 15 therefore feet. = (a) How far does a body fall from a state of rest in 2 seconds ? (b) * stone dropped from the top of a tree reached the ground in 2J. 13.e. d. the area of the triangle equals feet. if v = 30 miles per hour. 9 distance s passed over by a body moving with the uniform velocity v in the time t is represented by the formula The Find the distance passed over by A snail in 100 seconds. S =  V(13hl4fl5)(13H1415)(T314i15)(1413f15) = V421214. A carrier pigeon in 10 minutes.seconds. . By using the formula find the area of a triangle whose sides are respectively (a) 3. and c 13 and 15 = = = .g. (b) 5. An electric car in 40 seconds. then a 13. 84 square EXERCISE 1. 14. c.16 1 = 84.
Find the area of a circle whose radius is It (b) (a) 10 meters. : 8000 miles. and the value given above is only an surface $= 2 approximation.14 square meters. If cated on the Fahrenheit scale. 6 Find the volume of a sphere whose diameter equals: (b) 3 feet. This number cannot be expressed exactly. (c) 10 feet. then =p n * r %> or Find by means (a) (b) 6. denotes the number of degrees of temperature indi8. to Centigrade readings: (b) Change the following readings (a) 122 F. (The number 3. fo If i represents the simple interest of i p dollars at r in n years. 2 inches. square units (square inches. then the volume V= (a) 10 feet. If the diameter of a sphere equals d units of length. (c) 5 F. the area etc. meters.14 4. . is H 2 units of length (inches. If the (b) 1 inch.) Find the surface of a sphere whose diameter equals (a) 7. the 3.14 is frequently denoted by the Greek letter TT. of this formula : The The interest on interest $800 for 4 years at ty%. the equivalent reading C on the Centigrade scale may be found by the formula F C y = f(F32). ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA If the radius of a circle etc. (c) 5 miles. 5. on $ 500 for 2 years at 4 %. 32 F.).14d (square units).). ~ 7n cubic feet. $ = 3. diameter of a sphere equals d feet. (c) 8000 miles.
. While in arithmetic the word sum refers only to the result obtained by adding positive numbers. but we cannot add a gain of $0 and a loss of $4. Since similar operations with different units always produce analogous results. In arithmetic we add a gain of $ 6 and a gain of $ 4. in algebra this word includes also the results obtained by adding negative. or positive and negative numbers. however.$6) + ( $4) = ( $10). In algebra. Thus a gain of $ 2 is considered the sum of a gain of $ 6 and a loss of $ 4. the fact that a loss of loss of + $2. or that and (+6) + (+4) = + 16 10. we define the sum of two numbers in such a way that these results become general.CHAPTER II ADDITION. AND PARENTHESES ADDITION OF MONOMIALS 31. of $6 and a gain $4 equals a $2 may be represented thus In a corresponding manner we have for a loss of $6 and a of loss $4 (. we call the aggregate value of a gain of 6 and a loss of 4 the sum of the two. SUBTRACTION. Or in the symbols of algebra $4) = Similarly.
(always) prefix the sign of the greater. the one third their sum. 24. + (9). 21. 18. (17) 15 + (14). 22. 12. = 5. '. The average of two numbers is average of three numbers average of n numbers is the is one half their sum. 5. lf(2). 33. Thus. find the numerical values of a + b f cjc?. of 2. + 12. and the sum of the numbers divided by n. if : a a = 2. is 2. 2326. of: 20. EXERCISE Find the sum of: 10 Find the values 17. subtract their absolute values and . 5. 4. 4 is 3 J.3. c = = 5. the average of 4 and 8 The average The average of 2.16 32. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA These considerations lead to the following principle : If two numbers have the same sign. (_ In Exs. 19. 10. 6 6 = 3. d = 0. d = 5. add their absolute values if they have opposite signs. is 0. .  0. 23. c = 4.
. 60. 12. 10. and 3 yards. are similar terms. affected by the same exponents.ADDITION. $3000 gain. and 4. 5 and 12. and 8 F. 2. 30. . or and . 3. 66. 32. : 34. 4 F. or 16 Va + b and 2Vo"+~&. ^ ' 37. . What number must be added to 9 to give 12? What number must be added to 12 to give 9 ? What number must be added to 3 to give 6 ? C* What number must be added to 3 to give 6? **j Add 2 yards. c = 0. Find the average of the following temperatures 27 F. 11 (Centigrade). 39. 43. \\ Add 2 a. : 48. 3 and 25. 27.3. 5 a2 & 6 ax^y and 7 ax'2 y. 41. 42. 4. and 3 a. 09. Similar or like terms are terms which have the same literal factors. = 23. Find the average temperature of New York by taking the average of the following monthly averages 30. }/ Add 2 a.7. 35. 31. $500 loss. 34. 38. 2..5. & = 15. Dissimilar or unlike terms are terms 4 a2 6c and o 4 a2 6c2 are dissimilar terms. 0. ' Find the average of the following 34.5. and 3 F. 37. ' 1? a 26. 29. : Find the average temperature of Irkutsk by taking the average of the following monthly temperatures 12. 7 yards.. . : and 1. . c=14. . 40. & 28. 13.4. 6. 7 a. SUBTRACTION. 10. which are not similar. and $4500 gain. 74. AND PARENTHESES d = l. 1. 25. = 13.13. if his yearly gain or loss during 6 years was $ 5000 gain. $1000 loss. = 22. Find the average gain per year of a merchant. 10. d= 3. 6. 7 a. $7000 gain.. 32. . 33.7. 55. and 3 a. 36. . 6. 72. sets of numbers: 13.
12 2 wp2 . 11.13 rap 25 rap 2. 5Vm + w. 5 a2 . The sum The sum of a of a Dissimilar terms cannot be united into a single term. 12(af b) 12. 12Vmfn. Vm f. 9(af6).18 35. Algebraic sum. While in arithmetic a denotes a difference only. f 4 a2. The sum x 2 and f x2 . EXERCISE Add: 1. b a f ( 6). b wider sense than in arithmetic. The indicated by connecting and a 2 and a is is f a2 . . or a 6. ab 7 c 2 dn 6. In algebra the word sum is used in a 36. 3a . sum of two such terms can only be them with the f. in algebra it may be considered b. 2(af &). 5l 3(af6). 14 . ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA The sum of 3 of two similar terms x2 is is another similar term. and 4 ac2 is a 2 a&  4 ac2. 7 rap2. 2 . either the difference of a and b or the sum of a and The sum of a. 13. : 2 a2. 11 2 a +3a 4o 2. 1 \ f 7 a 2 frc Find the sum of 9. + 6 af . 10.ii. 2 a&.sign. 12 13 b sx xY xY 7 #y 7.
32. 1 27. is . 36. 17. 2/ : Add. + / + 3 Va. 30. +m """ 20. a a8 ZL **. n x* 2 22. c 2 ^24. ra 19. 2a 4a4 + 6a 7a 9a2a + 8. + y. l^S 25. 2 2 2 31. 5x173 + 6x1733x1737x173. Simplify : AND PARENTHESES 19 15. 17c + 15c8 + 18c + 22c3 +c3 3 3 . i xyz co* mn mri Simplify the following by uniting like terms: 29. 6 23. "Vx + y Vaj + y 2 2 Vi + + 2 Va. m n ^ 2 Add: 18.ADDITION. It convenient to arrange the expressions so that like terms may be in the same vertical column. 3a76 + 5a + 2a3610a+116. xyz + xyz 12 xyz + 13 xyz + 15 xyz. 2 7 1 26. without finding the value of each term 34. 37. 4x9' 10x38 ADDITION OF POLYNOMIALS Polynomials are added by uniting their like terms. 35. and to add each column. SUBTRACTION. 33. 21.
= .3 a f 4 the sum a = 1.20 c 5 ab 4.4 6c + c 2 we proceed as . 9 q 4.8 abc . c = 1. While the check is almost certain an absolute test e. 2 Thus. 2z2 4?/ 2 f2z 2 5 3ar 22/2 4 4 3 /. V3.3 + 8 + 5 = 1 0. 3 a f 4 1) 4. f 5 c f But 7 = 10 . 6=2. e.g. to show any error. .3 s. to add 26 ab . cording to descending powers of EXERCISE 12 Add 1. 2 025. NOTE. of that letter. the erroneous answer equal 7. 2c.41 = 3. . 46 4z 7 c.g. 3. the following polynomials : 2a 3646 t c. 4a46 12 q 5 2 a. 2 Sum.2 a 26 To check c assign numerical values to then .7 2 . x of x.15 abc . 2 . 4 2.o c and 4. Numerical substitution offers a convenient method for the addition of checking the sum of an addition. ft any convenient and c.8 & c~15&c 12a&4l5a&c 20c2 flO&c . it is convenient to arrange the terms according to ascending or descending powers 39. s.15 6c. 5. 7 4. f 110WS: 26 aft. . 5 .2z and 0^9 z * For additional examples see page 259.c= 2.2 6 + 4 c = 1 +4 a.12 a& 4.6a& 7 6ca a5c + 4 be 6c 4 26 ca c' 9a& 38. It is not also a406 4c would In various operations with polynomials containing terms with different powers of the same letter. 6 a7 4 5 x"2 + 7 x* 4 5 7a &+4a fi 5 4 is 6c 8 arranged according to ascending powers 4 7 a&<d? + 9 6 5 4 e 7 is arranged ac aW a. 3a 2? . 4 = 7. therefore the answer is correct. and J 2 s. and 2 .20 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA .10 6c 6 c 2 and 7 a&c 4. a 4.
8 m 2m 12. a4 6(a a a2 f a f 1. 8. </ AND PARENTHESES 2i 14d15e + 2/. a 4ar ! byb 8 c^c 8 .a 3a 9 y\ 3 afy .12 6 ~5 a . 56 w. 6a 5a &47a& 4& and 7. .2n 2 2 3 rz .3 ay 6 afy + 6 ay/ 4 10 and .9(a + &) . 2 ?ft ?/z.12. . . 2 a. e a4 /. 19.4 Va . 2 3(c f a). ?/ . 10a +lOa 6ll& 10. . and and 13. 3 ?/ 3 ? 2 j and a 2 4. d. 4 8 3 4 4 . a2 a. + 50 + 62 .a. xy3xz + yz. . 2 and 9m 48m 4. and 12a 4 15& 20c .15 5. 4 3 3 ^* f h <l.6) + 14(a 4 6) 4 10.a . 4.ADDITION.5 cr& + 7 6 9.2 #?/ 4 5 a + 4 aft . 4 o^?/ 4 y\ and a.and 6. + a + 1. w* 4 3 m n 4 3 m?i 4 2w . and v 15. a2 2 14.3 mn 2 2 n8 . 3 2 2 3 9 . . 4(a . . 16e + 17/90. 3 2 tf 2 l 2 ^_. 6 # 2 2 2 2 2 2 . 4 Vc. 18/+6y + d. a.Ga 43x45.12(a 4. 2(6 + c) + (c f a). and 5 Vb 18.1 a 4 1 0. 7 4 5 x*y 2 y?y* 3 xf. 2 ?/.3 5 Va 2 2 3 3 2 . 7ar + 3B 5. 4 3 .(b + c) 1.7m . and 1 4 a . ^2 1 e. and 8 3 . a) y ^/.5a^6 f 6) .a 4 a 4 1. v/20.a. 2xy + 4:XZ}5yz. a 4 a . 4 ajy 17.VS 4 2 Vc.7^ 2iB 8 + 2y + 2 8 8 . 8 2 2 3 s 2 3 .Va 4 2 V& 4 6 Vc. and . a + 1> 8 2 2 . SUBTRACTION. 4 + 6)  5 (a + 6) + 3. 2 2 . 16.5 c ll& 7c 6 4. a 4 a . d and / 3 ? 12. m 4 6. 6 # 4 5 z 4 2 7. 11. .6. 7(a + 5) 4 2 and 6 4 a.7v/if. in 8 3 m n 4.4:xy xz 6yz.10 Vc. 2 2 and .1. . .
SM/Z + 2 a:?/ f x y bxyz~lx. and 25. 1/ . . 8 . 2 8 n + <w 2 .17 + 4 ?nfy . . and 3^2 SUBTRACTION EXERCISE 1. many negative units re main ? from 2. m 3 3 5y 3 8 . 1. 45a6 2 . 1. and 6 + 9 x + 12 26. .22 21. 16m 7/12my d+e a 6.3^* 2n 2 . +d a.ra + m. + n*. is 2. 5 } and 3 m 3 7 m. What is therefore the remainder when 3 is taken 5? Instead of subtracting in the preceding example. f 1. what to obtain the same result ? total of the units f 1. f number may be added 3. s . 22. T8a. f 1. What other operations produce the subtraction of a negative number? same result as the 6.5< 3 2 s 4^4. + 1. and e + 6y .4 2tn* Sic 2 . 4^ + 3t*n l2aj 2 a. If from the five negative units three negative units are taken. 1. The sum and ? 1. 13 1. 1.9aj 2. What is therefore the remainder is when 2 is taken from 2? When .3 taken from 2 ? 5. 6 f c 2 23. 1.m 4m ?/?/ d. 2 a3 a 4 3 af^. and 2 24. c 3 3 3 2 3 . how 1. 2fa 3 4 a +7a. 12 xyz.. If you diminish a person's debts. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 4 w + 3 m + 2 m. 5 3 f 4 ?n 4 2m+2m e. does he thereby become richer or poorer ? . 8 f3f a n2<w +n .11 xy + 12. a 6 2 c. 1. What away is the value of the sum if two neg ative units are taken ? If three negative units are taken away 4. a s f3o $ xy and 5+a\ ^ "27.
AND PARENTHESES 23 subtraction of a negative positive number. if x Ex. This gives by the same method. Therefore any example in subtraction different . 3. the given number the subtrahend. and the required number the difference. From 5 subtract to The number which added Hence. +b 3. ing the sign of the subtrahend thus to subtract 6 a 2 6 and 8 a 2 6 and find the sum of change mentally the sign of . Subtraction is the inverse of addition. SUBTRACTION. 7. NOTE. 5 is 2.ADDITION. In addition. The results of the preceding examples could be obtained by the following Principle. ab = x. may be stated number added to 3 will give 5? To subtract from a the number b means to find the number which added to b gives a. a.2. From 5 subtract + 3. Ex.g.3. the other number is required. 2. the algebraic sum and one of the two numbers is The algebraic sum is given. 3 gives 3) The number which added Hence. Ex. change the sign of the subtrahend and add. The student should perform mentally the operation of chang8 2 6 from 6 a 2 fc. 41. called the minvend. 1. ( 6) ( = . In subtraction. 3 gives 5 is evidently 8. from What 3. State the other practical examples which show that the number is equal to the addition of a 40. From 5 subtract to . . two numbers are given. Or in symbols. 6 (3) = 8. To subtract. and their algebraic sum is required. may be stated in a : 5 take form e.
From _6ar3 3z + 7 2 6ar3 3o2 +7 2 or3 . Check.f 8 .3 r*5o.24 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA we change the subtract 2 x sign of each term 42. To subtract polynomials of the subtrahend and add.5 x + 8.3 x* . If x = l = 2 t . Ex.
52. 43. From 6(af.5 #?/ 2 and check the answer. 58. From From $ a 3 7 x 2 ?/ 5 a/ + ?/ subtract f ar f 7 a 2 ?/ . 46. 57.7 a . AND PARENTHESES from 14 a 25 Subtract the sum of 2 m and 7 m c 10m. 55.4 a^ 4. 47. +3x f & f 12 take 3 f ar f 4 x + 11.b h c and a & f c subtract a _ 6 _ 2 c. From From x2 the sum sum 7. tract 4 x 3. 50.w>t. From 5a(>& + 7c From 2 x2 8 a?y + 2 From mn f ??/> 8d 11 cf 17 d. of a 4.ADDITION. 56. 2 + 4 a& 3 f 6 4 . f 12 b f From 10 a 12 & f 6 subtract 5 c. and 3 7/ . 54. SUBTRACTION. From a3 From 6a 1 subtract f a + b 3 1.2. ?/ 3 #?/ 2 y2 . From a3 subtract 2 a3 f. f 2 aa 7a 2 ?/ 2 subtract a3 take 11 a 2 :c + 2 a . 44. 6 4 a. 6 6 2 2 ?/ .4 a*& + 6 a & . take 2 8 o# + qt c mt subtract a2 f mn f wp f.& 4 subtract a 2 2 4 +4 8 6 6 a& 59. From 16 + a3 subtract 8 2 a + a2 f a3 From a 4 .a From 3 or 2 a:// + 2 subtract 2 1. . check the answer. of x2 4x f 12 and 3 a2 3 # 3 sub From a3 + 2 a2 4 a subtract the sum of a 3 } a2 2a and a 2 + 4. From 2 a take a & j.c. + a the 2 a. 41. 4v From 6 subtract lt2af3& + 4<7.a 2 j. 42. 48. 2. 51. 96 subtract 10 b 2 From From 1 f & take 1 f b f & s .6)f. 53. 45. 49. From 5 a 2 2 ab ?/' subtract 2 a 2 + 2ab . c f d.5(6 + c) 4(c + a) subtract 7(af&) REVIEW EXERCISES 1. 2y 2 .
15. sum of Subtract the x2 + 2 and 6 a iE 3 2 from x3 + a^ 4 6. + 6 + c.26 4. subtract # + 1. n years hence ? A c How old will he be 10 years hence ? a +b is 2 a years old. 20. a a + c. years ago ? How old was he a b years ago? . 6. a 2y + z. Subtract the sum s of 6 m +5 m +6m 8 4m* 5 m +4m 2 from 2 ra + 7 m. ~2a6 + 2c? expression must be subtracted from 2 a to produce a+6? v . To the sum of 2a + 66 + 4c and a 2 c. Subtract the sum of 5 a2 + 2 7 and 2a2 + 3a and from 2 a2 + 2 a 7. 2 m 21. of # 2 8. 10 a + 5 b sum of9ci66 + c and 11. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA From the difference between a? a? 3 j +5 a: 2 + 58+1 + cc and 4 a? 2 +4x 5. Subtract the difference of a and a Subtract the sum + f and + 6 + c from a + b + c a +2 y from 2 2 2 ar* 2 */ 10. 6 17. to produce find : 0? = x +g c =x 18. +4 and 4 a +1 +a 2 and a2 a. a + 6. + 2. 4 6 2 c add the To the 3 sum a3 4 a2 3 between 5 a 12. +a add the difference duce 13. A is n years old. 16. 9. What must be added to b 4^ + 4^ + 2 z. 19. What expression must 8a3 2a7? What What be added to 7 a 3 +4a 2 to pro expression must be added to 3a + 56 cto pro duce 14.
. we may begin either at the innermost or outermost. may be written as follows: a f ( 4. A sign of aggregation preceded by the sign f may be removed or inserted without changing the sign of any term. II. The beginner will find it most convenient at every step to remove only those parentheses which contain (7 a no others. A moved w may be resign of aggregation preceded by the sign inserted provided the sign of evei'y term inclosed is E. a+(bc) = a +b . one occurring within the other.a f = 4a sss 7a 12 06 6. 4a{(7a + 6&)[6&f(2&. Simplify 4 a f + 5&)[6& +(25.c. Ex. If there is no sign before the first term within a paren* f thesis. & f c. 6 o+( a + c) = a =a 6 c) ( 4. the sign is understood. 45. SUBTRACTION. I.a^6)]  } .6 b f (. AND PARENTHESES 27 SIGNS OF AGGREGATION 43. If we wish to remove several signs of aggregation.ADDITION. changed.b c = a a & f f.c.g. 46. 66 2&a + 6 4a Answer.2 b . tractions By using the signs of aggregation. (b c) a =a 6 4 c.& c additions and sub + d) = a + b c + d. Hence the it is sign may obvious that parentheses preceded by the f or be removed or inserted according to the fol: lowing principles 44.a~^~6)]} = 4 a {7 a 6 b [.
By removing parentheses. the fourth and fifth terms respectively in parentheses. 2 2 2 a(. a (a + 6). Ex.+ 6)f (a2 b). last three Inclose in a parenthesis preceded by the sign terms of the See page 260. + (2a 6 + c ).[271 47. 21. 6) 2. m f ft) a. 18. a a c) + [3 a {3c (c 26 a)} 6a]. [36+ (a 2c].y (60.1422) J ] .) 5 . 13. 17. (m a2 f. 15.28 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 15* Simplify the following expressions 1.: Ex. 19. 16. 2.7i h jp) (m ?*. find the numerical value of { 1422 . 7 6)+ {a [a: 22. ? 11. 2m 4af 2 2 2 10. In the following expression inclose the second and third. 14. 271 + (814 . 9. 8. : x + (2yz). 5. 6. a (a + 26 c ).(a + 6). a f (a a . 3. 2a 2 + 5a(7f 2a )f (55a). 4. m+n + [# (6 (m (r + M> + w n p) ___ ( m~n\p.)]. . a(3b a3 3 2 2 2c). may be inserted according to 43. Signs of aggregation 1. 3 3 f 7. 2a (4a 26 +c ). 2 2a.
difference of the cubes of n and m. 3. z + d. EXERCISE AND PARENTHESES 16 29 In each of the following expressions inclose the last three terms in a parenthesis : 1. The product The product m and n.7fa. 5^2 _ r . 10. 6 diminished . terms 5. m x 2 4. 5. II. 7. 7. of the cubes of m and n.2 tf . m and n. 8. ' NOTE. The sum^)f m and n. 4. The minuend is always the of the two numbers mentioned. Three times the product of the squares of The cube of the product of m and n. 9. and the subtrahend the second. p + q + rs. 4 xy 7 x* 49 x + 2. The difference of a and 6. SUBTRACTION. 2mn + 2q3t. The product of the sum and the difference of m and n. The sum of the fourth powers of a of and 6. The sum of tKe squares of a and b. 3. In each of the following expressions inclose the last three in a parenthesis preceded by the minus sign : 27i2 3^ 2 + 4r/. EXERCISES IN" ALGEBRAIC EXPRESSION 17 : EXERCISE Write the following expressions I. )X 6.ADDITION. 2. a\l> > c + d. 6. The The difference of the cubes of m and n. Nine times the square of the sum of a and by the product of a and b. The square of the difference of a and b. 5 a2 2. 12.1. first.4 y* . . 13. y f 8 .
The sum The of a and b multiplied b is equal to the difference of by the difference of a and a 2 and b 2 .) . 18. dif of the squares of a and b increased by the square root of 15. (Let a and b represent the numbers. 16. a plus the prod uct of a and s plus the square of 19. 6 is equal to the square of b. The difference of the squares of two numbers divided by the difference of the numbers is equal to the sum of the two numbers. difference of the cubes of a and b divided by the difference of a and 6. b. x cube minus quantity 2 x2 minus 6 x plus The sum of the cubes of a.30 14. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA The sum x. 6. and c divided by the ference of a and Write algebraically the following statements: V 17. d.
weight at A ? What is the sign of a 3 Ib. what force is produced by the addition of 5 weights at B ? What. 5. what force 31 is produced by tak( ing away 5 weights from B ? What therefore is 5) x( 3) ? . applied at let us indicate a downward pull at by a positive sign. weight at B ? If the addition of five 3 plication example.CHAPTER III MULTIPLICATION MULTIPLICATION OF ALGEBRAIC NUMBERS EXERCISE 18 In the annexed diagram of a balance. is by taking away 5 weights from A? 5 X 3? 6. what force is produced by the Ib. 3. two loads balance. therefore. If the two loads balance. A A A 1. force is produced therefore. weights. 4. By what sign is an upward pull at A represented ? What is the sign of a 3 Ib. If the two loads balance. and forces produced at by 3 Ib. 2. weights at A ? Express this as a multibalance. is 5 x ( 3) ? 7. let us consider the and JB. If the two loads what What.
or plied by 3. 4x(3)=12. 48. Practical examples^ it however. 4 x(8) = ~(4)(4)(4)=:12.9) x 11.4) x braic laws for negative ~ 3> = (. 9 9. becomes meaningless if definition.4)(. however. the multiplier is a negative number.32 8. 5x(4). (. a result that would not be obtained by other assumptions. 9 x ( 11). Multiplication by a positive integer is a repeated addition. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA If the signs obtained by the true. make venient to accept the following definition : con 49. 4 multiplied by 3. such as given in the preceding exercise. Thus. 4 multi44444 12. This definition has the additional advantage of leading to algenumbers which are identical with those for positive numbers. ( 9) x ( 11) ? State a rule by which the sign of the product of two fac tors can be obtained. or 4x3 = = (_4) X The preceding 3=(4)+(4)+(4)=12. examples were generally method of the preceding what would be the values of ( 5x4. NOTE. Multiplication by a negative integer is a repeated sub traction. ( (. To take a number 7 times. thus. and we may choose any definition that does not lead to contradictions. . times is just as meaningless as to fire a gun tion 7 Consequently we have to define the meaning of a multiplicaif the multiplier is negative.4)(4) = + 12. x 11. (5)X4. In multiplying integers we have therefore four cases trated illus by the following examples : 4x3 = 412.
32. . about fac (2)X If 6.2 f+x 2 .2. 1. _3. (10) 4 . 1. 2. 6.7. 23. 13. (c#) . 5. c = 25. (2) 8 (. 2a 2 6c. (2)x9. 27.a)( =+ a&. .3) (1) 7 2 . 7. 3. 11. EXERCISE 19 : Find the values of the following products 1. 8 31. 22. 6. b = 3. x= 0. (7) X (12). 3 aW.4. 29. 15. _2^ 3. 10. Law Thus. (4)X(15). Formulate a law of signs for a product containing an even number of negative factors. 33 We shall and negative integers the assume that the law illustrated for positive is true for all numbers. and obtain thus product of two numbers with like signs in signs is negative.(4J). If a cal = 4a6c. find the numeri values of: 21. (. . 5x3. the parenthesis frequently omitted.(a&c) 2 2 .3. X(5). and y = 4. Formulate a law of signs for a product containing an odd number of negative factors. is 6x7. 14. 4a f26 2 2a + 3&2 6c* . 2a6 c . 20. of Signs: TJie positive. 8 4 . 6 2. +5.2f 18. x. etc. 3. tors is no misunderstanding possible. 4 a2 . 8. 16. Ua b 28. 19. (4)'.MULTIPLICATION 50. 30. 4 . 9. 4. 26. 3 a2?/2 . 12. . the product of two numbers with unlike &) (a)(+6) = a&. 17. _2. . NOTE. z s 11 aWcx. 24.
14.257). a 5 (a) (^ + 14 8 2/) (a? + 4 2/) (aj . 6. 2 2 2 . : 3a7abc.34 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA of 8 Find the numerical value 33. . 36. 50(112. Or in m and n are two positive to factors) f n) factors.12 Perform the operation indicated 12. 12 U U . (a6) (a5) 9.(7).503). Ex. 100.<?. of the factors.(12) . i. 5 3 5 3 2 . a 23 =2 Hence 2 x 2 general. 6 aWc x . In multiplying a product of several factors by a number. 7.2 2 23 + 5 . 4..6 if 35. 78 . 6 = . 2(14.1 2 a 6 f 6 aW . am Xa n = (a =aa is m (a a to n factors) (m X fl w = fl /w +w . + 2/). 1. 2 x (2* 5 7 2 )= 26 5 7 2 .2). 16. a 2 2 . 10. a = 2. or 2 . 5 . 2. By 3 definition.7 &*# =(6  7) (a 2 a8 ) . & = 3.(2. 3 2 .7. EXERCISE 20 : Express each of the following products as a power 1. 3.35). 34. 11. known as of Multiplication : The Exponent Law The exponent of is the product of several powers of the same base the exponents equal to the 8 (ft sum oj Ex. 3.3). 200. = 2. 9 . =2 a *. 2 3 . 4. 4 x (2 25) =8 25. 2(7.  2 2.  and 2 25 8 ..e. IB. 6" 127 U . 2. . 6 = 1. &*) c d*. MULTIPLICATION OF MONOMIALS 51. a8 a=2. fl*" integers. m*. 13. 5.m a 3  4 . . B. 3 3 4 . 5 = 2. 53. if =2 a a to  2 2 x2 2 2. 4. a = 3. 2 2 3 6 . 127  127 9 7 . . 5(711. This 52. a= 1. . Ex. 17. only one of the factors is multiplied by the number.
but we shall assume it for any number. 2 32. 35 4 7(6. _4aft. 5 2 aft (6 e 8 C a 2ftc). . 6. 27. Thus we have in general a(b 56. 19. 4. by first multiplying.5 xy 19 aW lla ( 3 3 tfy 2z*. is evidently correct for any positive integral multiplier. (. 6(10420430). 17(10041042). 5. MULTIPLICATION OF A POLYNOMIAL BY A MONOMIAL we had to multiply 2 yards and 3 inches by 3. 11(3. = (a + 26)+(a + 2 ft) f (a 4 2 ft) + (a + 2 ft) 55. and then adding : 1.3 win ) . This principle. 7. 12( + 1 4 i). 29.A). 2 19 ' mV 2 ft 5  2 ran4 30. To multiply a polynomial by a monomial. 35. the would obviously be 6 yards and 9 inches. multiply each by the monomial. 7p*q r*. 6 e/ a ( ( 2 a2 ) 3 . ) 2 33. 34. c(4a ftc ).7pqt.3 a2 6(6 a*bc + 2 be  1) = 18 a 4 6 2 c . 23.M UL TIPLICA TION 18. 31.f 2).7 w'W (8 n^W). 3. 25.6 a2 62c f 8 a2 6.6. If results ft. 4 aft 5 aft 2 . 2(645410). ax /) 2 4 1 (. EXERCISE 21 Find the numerical values of the following expressions.4a#. 22. called the distributive law. 21. . 23(10004100420). 24. 26.2 3 aft ).4 (2 a 2 ft 3) 2 3 . 2. . 20. 4 9 afy 2 a3 ?/ ). 2(5fl5f25). . tet^m f c) = ab +ac. /). (. . . Similarly the for quadruple of a 4 2 b would be 4 a f 8 54. 5 aft 3 ( ftc ( 2 2ac). 3(124342). 28.
: expression must 24. .2 mn(9 mV . 2 27. 5).3 x2y 2 + 3 xy. be multiplied to give 4o. 28. 23. By what 25. 4 13 (4 9 4 5 4). . Thus to multiply a write (a + y z) and apply the distributive z.asa product.5 x 7). 2 m(mhn \p). 2 2 16. 12.we b) (x law. 9. 26. MULTIPLICATION OF POLYNOMIALS 57. f7a. 5 x\5 pqr + 5 pr 5 x2 . 5 aW( 3 2 2 aW + 3 a 2 2 ?/ 6 c 2 .^ c + 2 .5 w*V f 7 wn). Express 3a^ Find the factors of 3x + 3 y + 3z.36 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA : Express as a sum of several powers 8. 29. . 17.6) (x f y z) = x(a = (ax b) + y(a b) z(a (az b) bx) f (ay by) bz) by az + bz.6 a6). 3 ).60 a& 10 aft. 2 4 %Pq\ 14. Find the factors of 6 Find the factors of 2 or* f 3 x* f arty 3 a4 . ofy 2 4 +8 2 4 a. ~2mn(m +n p ). Find the factors of 6 ary . 7 3 (7 3 f7 +7 10 ).3 aftc). Find the factors of 5 a 6 . 19. 22. 7 a 6 c(. 5(5 + 52 + 2 2 5 7 ). 11. 30. . 21. Perform the multiplications indicated: 13. 20. Any it closing x +y (a polynomial may be written as a monomial by inb by within a parenthesis. 6 (6 2 +6 +6 10.
Check.3 b by a 5 b. are far more likely to occur in the coefficients than anywhere else. the student should apply this test to every example.3 a 2 + a8 a a = = I 1 =2 f 2 a 4. Multiply 2 + a a. 2. Ex.4.a . If the polynomials to be multiplied contain several powers of the same letter. as illustrated in the following example : Ex. To multiply two polynomials. Since errors. If Arranging according to ascending powers 2 a .1. this method tests only the values of the coefficients and not the values of the exponents. .a6 =2 by numerical Examples in multiplication can be checked substitution.3 ab 2 2 a2 10 ab  13 ab + 15 6 2 + 15 6 2 Product. 1 being the most convenient value to be substituted for all letters. 59. Multiply 2 a .M UL TIP LICA TION 37 58. a2 + a8 + 3 .3 a 3 2 by 2 a : a2 + l. The most convenient way of adding the partial products is to place similar terms in columns.a6 4 a 8 + 5 a* .2 a2 6 a8 2 a* *  2" a2 7 60.3 a 2 + a8 . however. multiply each term of one by each term of the other and add the partial products thus formed. 2a3b a66 2 a . Since all powers of 1 are 1. the work becomes simpler and more symmetrical by arranging these expressions according to either ascending or descending powers.
I (mfn)(m4. (2 x* x 2 .4) (x + 1).38 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 22* Perform the following multiplications and check the results 1. 7y).2m)(l m). (9m2n)(4m + 7tt). 10. 11. 28. 2 (m?n?p (x (a //)4 lA/ //j. (a^26) . 41. * For additional examples see page 261. 3. 36). (13 A. 17.n)(m 8 n)(m n). 1). 2 . + & + 1f a^faj 1). 20. . 2 . 36) I) 14. (8r7*)(6r39.2 ^/ ' 2 mnp f.1 . a 5c)(2a6c). (a&c 2 + 7)(2a&c3).4) (mnp 4. 29. (6p (2 f 21. ^ 2 . 3<7). 6. 35. l)(raf 2). 7. 13. 22. 2. 4. 2) (3 A: 1). 12)(a?^2l). QQ O7. 26.2). 40. 16. 2  37. (2s 3y)(3a? + 2y). 6 2 (6a&c5) 3a6f2)(2a6~l). (2w 19. 8. . 5. OQ OO. 9. 2 (a al)(2a?fl). (6a~7) 2 . (6xy + 2z)(2xy 27. (llr + l)(12r (rcya (2m (a (4 a 2 . (4af 76)(2tt (4ra fra (5c2d)(2c3d). (6i7n)(llJn). (ajf6y)(aj 23. 24. 36. 15. 25. 12. 3n)(7m f6<7)(5^) + 8n). 31. 4 2). (a 2a + 2)(a3). 32. 18. 30. (4a 2 33.
.n)(wf w). (10+ (1000 (2. 75 ab f 54 ft . + 9)(m+9). ft 16. 6 ft) (5 a 9 ft) is equal to the square of the common term. The product of two binomials which have a common term equal to the square of the common term. + 60)(f2). plus the product 62. + 2) (a f 3).4). (J 23. 22. (a 9) (a + 9).MUL TIPLICA TION SPECIAL CASES IN MULTIPLICATION 61. 8. 6.!!)( (a + 21). (6 12) (6 f. (ofy* f 3) (tfy* (a5 2 ).25)(y+4). 17. . 15. . 10. 2 6) (a 3 6). 27. (p12)(p + ll). (5 a plus the sum of the unequal terms multiplied by the common terms. (*. i. 11.13). plus the product of the two unequal terms. 3. 1005x1004. 20. 99 (a + 2 6) (a 6). : 23 2. 13. 2 5 b z) (a2 f 4 (a 2 4. 18. Find two binomials whose product equals 3x + 2. 3 (a 7) 3 (a 8). in of the two unequal terms. ( 2 Hence the product equals 25 a'2 54 ft 2 . 16 ft) (5 a) 75 ab.2 6) (a f 6). (a (a (a. i.e. (!)(* 5). 25 a 2 .e. 7. (ra. 28. 25. 2) (1000 + 3). (1001) (100 (1000 + 2). + 3) (a 7). 19. _3)(a _4). (100 +2) (100 + 3). plus the sum of the two unequal terms multiplied by the common term. 24. 9. 12. (wi 2^*12)(ajy 6. X 102. (a 102 x 103. + 5) (1000 + 4). 21. 14. 26. 2 a? 29. (a3)(a + 2). 39 The product of two binomials which have a common term. = + EXERCISE Multiply by inspection 1. 1) (10 + 2).
(a26) 2 .e. (4 x3 + 7 2 i/ 2 is )' equal to the square of the first. of the second. Ex. 8j/ 2 + 49 y4 first . 7 a + 10. i. . (ain general language : Expressed is equal to tlie square I. . 33. 31. minus twice the product of the first and the 71ie second. of the following expres Find two binomial factors sions 30. 34. 3. 8. 2 5. oft x 3 y'2 plus the square of the Hence the required square equals 16 xP f. + 6) (a + 2) a) 2 . III. (II) is only a The student should note that the second type special case of the first (I). 6. plus sum of two numbers the square II. EXERCISE Multiply by inspection 1. and the second. is The product of the sum and to the difference the difference of two numbers equal of their squares.e. 77ie square of the of the first. 2 (a (*5) 2 .15. III. 16 y* t plus twice the product of the i.15. 9. (a2) (p a . 4. 37. 32. i. second. plus twice the product of the first and the second. + 6 a + 8. w 2 ro . 63. n2 10ii+16. plus the square of the second. <J>7) J . 7.66 s. p 2 p. (x+3i/) 2 . . a2 2 w + 2 w . Some special cases of the preceding type of examples : deserve special mention II.30. square of the difference of two numbers is equal to the square of the Jirst.e. : ar'Sz + a 2 G. 49 y*. 35. m2_ 3m _ 4 2 36.40 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA of each. + 3) 2 . : 24 (a 2.
54. . (100 + 2) (100 2). 2 (2a6c) (2a# (4 a 6 2 2 .ll^X^+lly (100 30. . 17. 2 2 (5 (a r*2t ) 2 5 (cd 5)(c d 2 . (1000 2 . 2 . n*6n+9. 15. + 1) (100 + 2) 2 . 41. (20 f 1) . 25 a 9. By actual multiplication. G> +5g)*. ( 27. 47. m 2 16. 2 9a 496 2 56. The product of 57. 62 25n 2 . + 3z) 2 2 . (2x3yy. 41 16. 32. 24. 29. (m f 2 tt n)(ra w ) 26  (^ (2m + 3)(2m3). 2 11 # ) 2 20. 998x1002. : Extract the square roots of the following expressions 43. 18. 42. 55. . 23. 40. 45. 38. 991 2 2 . 34. (m 27i )(m + 2n 2 5 ). 44. a 2 8a6+166 2 . (^. x*+2xy+y\ a 2 2a6 + & 2 m 2 2mhl. 11. 7& ) 25. 104 2 37. 46. 22 2 . 4 53. 22. (3p 9) (6a 2 2 2 .998 39. 99x101. : factors of each of the following expres y?f. 2 2 . 103 36. 2 . a2 9. 31. we have 3x 5x + 2y 4y 2xySy* . (6afy 2 5) (a. 35. 48. 33. 14. (a 3) 2 2 2 . + 5). 7)(a 2 2 f 7). 21.30 ab + 25 6 64. 2 (4a36) 2 13. 2 + 11 2 (5 r 2 2 2/ ) 2  Z ) 2 2 (5 r f 2 2 . 49. ). 2 J ). .MULTIPLICATION 10. 2 2 5c ) 2 2 19. 16aW25. n 2 f4n+4. + 5)(5+a). 51. I) 2 . two binomials whose corresponding terms are similar. 12. 28. 52. 9 a2 . a 2 + 10 ab f 25 b\ Pind two binomial sions 50. 2 .
2 2 2 2 (2a 6 7)(a & + 5).& + c) = a + tf + c . the product of two binomials whose corresponding terms are similar is equal to the product of the first two terms. 7%e square of a polynomial is equal to the sum of the squares of each term increased by twice the product of each term with each that follows it.42 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA of the result is obtained product of 5 x follows: by adding the These products are frequently called the cross products. 2 2 + 2) (10 43). ) (2 of a polynomial. The middle term or Wxy12xy Hence in general. ((5a? (10 12. (3m + 2)(ml). (100 + 3)(100 + 4). 14. (5a4)(4al). 2 10. (2a3)(a + 2). 9. and are represented as 2 y and 4y 3 x. The square 2 (a 4. 3. : 25 2. 4. 13. 2 (2m3)(3m + 2). 2 (2x y (6 2 2 + z )(ary + 2z ). (5a64)(5a&3). 65. that the square of each term is while the product of the terms may have plus always positive. 11. (4s + y)(32y). . 6. (x i 5 2 ft x 2 3 6 s).f 2 a& f 2 ac + 2 &c. 7. or The student should note minus signs. plus the product of the EXERCISE Multiply by inspection 1. 8. 5. plus the last terms. sum of the cross products.
7. 3.(x . : 43 26 (mf n+p) 2 2 .24] .24 . 2 m 2 + n2 2 "f jp f 2 mn 2 ?wp 2 np. Find the square root 11. (mf n)(m+2)3m(n + m). . 8. 2 2. a. n). 6~2(a + 7). (a (. Check. (a2)(a3)~(al)(a4).(>.29. 7. If x = 1. after multiplying the factors of a term.8 x + 15] .5) = (7 . 5. and check the answers !.r _ 2 . the beginner should inclose the product in a parenthesis. (2a36 + 5c) (3 (.39. 4(* + 2)5(3).39. 6(a 2. 12.4) .[a? . + 6 )2(6 + &)~(&4& ).4) .i2&c) 2 . 4. ber that a parenthesis is understood about each term. 5. Simplify (x + 6) (a . 6.3) (x . 9. 4. 3.3)(z.X2 + 2 x .5). Ex. 66.(m 2 6. 4(aj2)h3(7). 13. of z : 10. = 10 x . 8 2(m 3(6 3 n) 2 3(m + n)H. = .y? + 8 . + 65) . + 6)( . In simplifying a polynomial the student should remem. (  2 4) =  20 a. (u4& + 3c'. Hence. s? + y + z + 2xy + 2yz + 2 xz. 8. 2)6.M UL TIPLICA TION EXERCISE Find by inspection 1.(= [ Xa + 2 . 4y sf n) 2 .3) .1 5 = 10 . EXERCISE 27 : Simplify the following expressions. (xy+z)*.
44
9.
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
10. 11. 12.
13.
4(m + 2)
(a?
+ 5(w
3)
5)(oj2)
(a;
(n f 5) (w
 2) + (n  7) (n + 4)  2 (n*  2)
14.
15.
6(p+2)7(p9)2(i> + l)(pl).
16.
17.
x 2 y)(3 x f 2 y)  (4  y) (a3 (a f 6)  4 (a + &) (a f 2 6) + (a (5
2
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
2
(a
faf
1)
(
a  1)
 (a + 1) (a  1).
8
CHAPTER
DIVISION
IV
is the process of finding one of two factors and the other factor are given. The dividend is the product of the two factors, the divisor the given factor, and the quotient is the required factor.
67.
Division
if
their product
is
Thus
by
f
to divide
12.
12
by
+
3,
we must find
is
the
;
number which
3 gives
But
this
number
4
hence
_
multiplied
12 r +3
=4.
68.
Since
f
a

f b
fa
_a
and
it
f
a
= f ab = ab b = ab b = ab,
b
f
follows that
4a
=+b
ab
a
ab
a
69.
Hence the law
:
of signs
is
the same in division as in
multiplication
70.
Like signs produce plus, unlike signs minus.
Law
of
,
a8 5 a5
=a
3
for a 3
It follows from the definition that Exponents. X a5 a8
=
.
Or
in general, if
greater than
m n, a
f
and n are positive integers, and m ~ n an = a m a" = a'"", for a
<
m
m
is
45
46
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
71. TJie exponent of a quotient of two powers with equal bases equals the exponent of the dividend diminished by the exponent
of the divisor.
DIVISION OF MONOMIALS
7 3 72. To divide 10x y z by number which multiplied by number is evidently
2x y
6
2
,
we have
z
to
find
the
2x*y
gives 10 x^ifz.
This
Therefore,
the quotient
*
,
=  5 a*yz.
is
Hence,
sign,
of two monomials of their
part
coefficients,
is the
a monomial whose
coefficient is the quotient
preceded by the proper
literal
and whose
literal
found
in accordance with the
quotient of their law of exponents.
parts
73. In dividing a product of several factors by a number, only one of these factors is divided by that number. Thus (8 12 20)?4 equals 2 12 20, or 8 3 20 or 8 12 5.


.

.

.
EXERCISE
Perform the divisions indicated
'
:
28
'
2
.
76H15.
39* 3.
2
15
3"
7
7'
3.
4*
'
4.
5.
j2
12
.
4
2
9
5 11
68
3 19 j3
5
10.
(3
38

2 4 )^(3 4 .2 2).
56
'
11.
3
(2
.3*.5 7 )f(
2
'
12
'
2V
14
36 a
'
13
''
yfflg
35
5.25
12 a
2abc
15
42^
'
56aW
'
UafiV
DIVISION
lg
47
^1^. 16 w
7
20>
7i
9
_Z^L4L.
22.
10 iy.
132 a V* 14 1
*
01
240m
120m
40
6c
fl
/5i.
3J)
c
23.
2 (15 25. a ) = 5.
25. 26.
(18
(
.
5
.
2a )f9a.
2
24.
(7 26 a
2
)
f
13.
DIVISION OF POLYNOMIALS BY MONOMIALS
To divide ax} fr.ef ex by x we must find an expression which multiplied by x gives the product ax + bx J ex.
74.
But
TT
x(a
aa?
Hence
+ b e) ax + bx + ex. + bx f ex = a 4 b +
\.
,
.
c.
a?
To divide a polynomial by a monomial, cfc'wde each term of the dividend by the monomial and add the partial quotients thus
formed.
3 xyz
EXERCISE
Perform the operations indicated
1.
:
29
2.
5.
fl
o.
(5*
_5* + 52)
5.
52
.
3.
97
.
(2
(G^G^G^iG
(11 2
4.
(8 3
+
11 3
+ 11
5)* 11.
18 aft 27 oc
Q y.
9a
4
25 2 )^2
<?
2
.
+8 5 + 8
7) *8.
5a5 +4as 2a
2
a
14gV+21gy
Itf
15 a*b

12
aW + 9 a
2
2
3a
48
,
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
22
4,
m n  33 m n
4
s
2
f
55
mV
 39 afyV + 26 arVz 3
 49 aW + 28 a W  14 g 6 c
4 4
15. 16.
2 (115 afy f 161 afy
 69
4
2
a;
4
?/
3
 23 ofy
3
4
)
5
23 x2y.
(52
afyV  39
4
?/
oryz
 65 zyz  26 tf#z)
5
13 xyz.
f
,
17.
(85 tf
 68 x + 51 afy  34 xy* f 1 7
a;/)
 17
as.
DIVISION OF A POLYNOMIAL BY A POLYNOMIAL
75.
Let
it
be required to divide 25 a
 12 f 6 a  20 a
3
2
by
2 a 2 f 3 a, divide
4
a, or, arranging according to
2
descending powers of
6a3 20a
f
25a12
2 by 2a 
The term containing the highest power of a in the dividend (i.e. a 8 ) is evidently the product of the terms containing respectively the highest power of a in the divisor and in the quotient.
Hence the term containing the highest power
of a in the quotient is
If
the product of 3 a and 2
2
4 a
+
3, i.e.
6 a3
12 a 2
f
9 a, be sub
8 a 2 f 16 a tracted from the dividend, the remainder is 12. This remainder obviously must be the product of the divisor and the rest of the quotient. To obtain the other terms of the quotient we have
therefore to divide the remainder,
8 a2
f
16 a
12,
2 by 2 a
4 a
+
3.
consequently repeat the process. By dividing the highest term in the new dividend 8 a 2 by the highest term in the divisor 2 a 2 we obtain
,
We
4,
the next highest term in the quotient. 4 by the divisor 2 a2 4 a Multiplying
I
+ 3, we
obtain the product
8 a2
16 a
12,
which subtracted from the preceding dividend leaves
the required quotient.
no remainder. Hence 3 a
4
is
DIVISION
The work
is
49
:
usually arranged as follows
 20 * 2 + 3 0a 12 a 2 +
a3
25 a
{)

12
I
2 a2 8 a

4 a 4
a
_
12
+3
I

8 a? 4 16
a
76. The method which was applied in the preceding example may be stated as follows 1. Arrange dividend and divisor according to ascending or
:
descending powers of a common letter. 2. Divide the first term of the dividend by the first term of the divisor, and write the result for the first term of the quotient.
3.
Multiply this term of the quotient by the whole divisor, and
subtract the result
4.
from
it
the dividend.
the same order as the given new dividend, and proceed as before.
Arrange
the
remainder in
as a
expression, consider
5.
until the highest poiver
Continue the process until a remainder zero is obtained, or of the letter according to which the dividend
is less
was arranged
the divisor.
than the highest poiver of the same
letter in
77.
Checks.
Numerical substitution constitutes a very con
venient, but not absolutely reliable check. An absolute check consists in multiplying quotient and divisor. The result must equal the dividend if the division
was
exact, or the dividend diminished by the remainder division was not exact.
if
the
Ex.
1.
Divide 8 a3
f
8 a
 4 + 6 a  11 a
4
2
by 3 a
,
 2.
^ _ _
,
Arranging according to descending powers,
6 a4 6 a4
,
,
+ 8 a8 4 a3
12 a 8
11
a2 a2
f
8a
4
I
3 a
2 a8
2
f
=
a _+ 2
.
7rl,
4 a2
=
7
+
11

3 a2
3
a'
2
+ +
8 a 2 a
4 + 6a  4
50
Ex.
2.
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
Divide a4
 46 6a6
4
3
f
9
2
6
2
2 l by 26 3a& + a
.
Arranging according to descending powers of
a,
we have
a<a4
6 a36
fr
f
f
9 a2 6 2
2 a2 6 2
2
2
46*
I
a2
a*

8 ab 3 ab
 3 a8


+ 2 6^  2 62
46*
 3 a^ + 9a 2 6  6 ab 8
+ 6 a& a  4 6 4  2 a^a + 6 aft  4
Check.
ft*
The numerical
it
substitution a
=
1,
&
=
1,
cannot be used in this
either to use
example since
larger
renders the divisor zero.
Hence we have
a
number
for a, or multiply.
2  8 ab + 2 & 2 ) ( a _ 3 ab  2 6 2 ) (a = [(a2  3 aft) + 2 62 ] [(a2  3 a&)  2 62 ] = (a 2 3 aft) 2 4 6* = a2  6 8 6 + 9 a2 6 2  4 5*.
EXERCISE
30 *
:
Perform the operations indicated and check the answers
2. 3.
(jf_2y15)i<y6).
2 (15 a
2
4.
5.
6.
 46 a# f 16 ) _ 26 mn 4 5 n ) (5 m
2
i/
5
(5
a5 w).
2
*
(m
7.
(6^53^ + 40)^(6^5).
(56
2 a; f
8.
19 x
15) (8
3).
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
2 (25 a
 36
2
ft
)
j
(5
a
f
6
6)
* See page 263.
20. (8xy + lo22x' y)+(2x y3). (aj 3aj2)^(oj2). . b f b by the difference or by the sum Ex. . Division of the difference of two squares. 18. (3 a 13 m + 47 m + 35 w (1 (5 m f (6a 2 & 2 2 2 3 2 f 2 3 f ) 5 1) . + 23a& + 20)*(2a& + 6). c + 3* ' v7 169 a<6 2 ' . a I. .e.81 c8 f ' ISVftQc 8 64 ' a2 166 2 ' a? 10 1 .18 m 2 ) f (1 G m f 9 m 2 ). the difference of the squares of two numbers is divisible of the two numbers. SPECIAL CASES IN DIVISION 78. 16.l.2) (3 a . EXERCISE Write by inspection the quotient 31 of : 2 x 1 c 2 6 ' 3 ^.11 a + 9 a . (a? s 8) 4 *( 2). 19.DIVISION 14.2). v/17. 51 15. (a f b) (a V) Since =a a 2 b 2 . (81 m + 1 .
9& 2 . f 13. 14.49. r/ 1.52 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA of Find exact binomial divisors of each expressions 9. 12. 36 a4 ?/ 4 . 1. 15. 16. .000. aW 12 a. 121a a 16 100 11. 4 b. 10. 16 . .0001. : the following w a 4 !. 100ry.
A set of numbers which when substituted for the letters an equation produce equal values of the two members. An identity is an equation of the letters involved. in Thus x 12 satisfies the equation x + 1 13. ber equation is employed to discover an unknown num(frequently denoted by x. (rt+6)(aft) = 2  b' 2 . Thus. The sign of identity sometimes used is = thus we may write . . ond member or right side is that part which follows the sign of equality. =11. which is true for all values a2 6 2 no matter what values we assign to a Thus. in the equation 2 x 0. the 80. x 20. (a + ft) (a b) and b. the first member is 2 x + 4. . second member is x + 4 x 9. . 81.r f9 = 20 is true only when a. is said to satisfy an equation. hence it is an equation of condition. An equation of condition is usually called an equation. y = 7 satisfy the equation x y = 13.CHAPTER V LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS 79. y y or z) from its relation to 63 An known numbers. 82. An equation of condition is an equation which is true only for certain values of the letters involved. The first member or left side of an equation is that part The secof the equation which precedes the sign of equality. 83.
2. x I. A 2 a. A term may be transposed from its sign. = bx expressed by a letter or a combination of c. A numerical equation is one in which all . expressed in arithmetical numbers literal is as (7 equation is one in which at least one of the known quantities as x f a letters 88. If equals be multiplied by equals. 85. called axioms 1. (Axiom 2) the term a has been transposed from the left to thQ right member by changing its sign.2.54 84. 87. the known quan x) (x f 4) tities are = . 3. Transposition of terms. one member to another by changing x + a=. the products are equal. Axiom 4 is not true if 0x4 = 0x5. 5. 89. 2 = 6#f7.b.e. the divisor equals zero. E. an^ unknown quantity which satisfies the equation is a root of the equation. If equals be added to equals. To solve an equation to find its roots. . fol A linear equation is also called a simple equation. 86. A linear equation or which when reduced first to its simplest an equation of the first degree is one form contains only the as 9ie power of the unknown quantity. a. the remainders are equal. NOTE. The process of solving equations depends upon the : lowing principles. the sums are equal. Consider the equation b Subtracting a from both members.g. but 4 does not equal 5. the quotients are equal. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA If value of the an equation contains only one unknown quantity. Like powers or like roots of equals are equal. 9 is a root of the equation 2 y +2= is 20. If equals be subtracted from equals. 90. 4. . If equals be divided by equals.
(4y)(6.2.2 y= f . The first member.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS Similarly. a= a 6fc. Solve the equation (4 Simplifying. and the known terms to the second. Subtracting 4 x from each term. The second member. and divide both members by the coefficient of the quantity. a? Adding 5 to each term. The first member. is correct. Qx 6# = 4x + l + 6. x = 93.y) = C4 + })(5f The second member. Solve the equation Qx 5 = 4 f 1.6 y f y\ . 2(11 . Unite similar terms. x = (Axiom 3) 92. 91. f If y 20 . Dividing by Check. Dividing both members by 2. 4x 1 + 6. .8.9 y + 6 y = 20 f 22. 6a5 = 185 = 13. SOLUTION OF LINEAR EQUATIONS 1. The sign of every term of an equation without destroying the equality.9 y + y2 = 22 . 4fl = 12fl = 13 3. (Axiom 1) The result is first member to the same as the right we had transposed a from the member and changed its sign. (Axiom 4) When x = 3. may be changed Consider the equation Multiplying each member by x\1. b Adding a to both + a. if 55 x members. Hence the answer. y) (5 y) unknown Ex. Uniting similar terms. = 2 (11 3 y) + #*. Ex. x = 3.3 y) + y 2 = 2(11 + i)^ V= 2) 1 4 = 26 i +  = 26 f f = 26$ JI . Check. 3 y . Uniting. if a x = b. Transposing. transpose the unknown terms to the first member. To solve a simple equation. 2 x = 6. b c.
17 + 5a. : 5# = 15+2a. 8. a. {(x (x The The member right member left . 7a? 5. 9 9a? = 7 13.. 22. 21. + 7(3 + 1) =63. 6. = 7. 17 9 x + 41 = 12 8 17. 14y = 59(24y + 21). If x = 18. + 22. 11. 20. f Simplifying. BXEECISB 32* Solve the following equations by using the axioms only 1.4) = + 3) = \ x 14 x 21 = 7.. 13a? 3a?. Uniting.56 Ex. 24.7. x = 18. a? a?. 50. . =2 = 3. + 16 = 16 + 17. 2. aj * See page 264. 3 = 17 3 a? a?. it NOTE. 4a + 5 = 29. \x x 2^xfl. 14. J. and check the answers 9. = 5a?+18. 16. = 60 7 = 16 + 5 : Xx 7 = 14. Dividing by Cfcecfc. 13 y 99 = 7 y. 19. + 24) = 6 (10 x + 13). 3)= 9(3 7 a. x x 1 . 11 ?/ a? 18. 12. 3. Transposing. 7 (6 x 16).17 + 4y = 36.69. = 2 ?/. a. 4y 10. etc.7a: = 394a. 3. v23. 7. 32 = 264. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Solve the equation  (x 4) = \ (x + 3). . Instead of dividing by \ botli members of the equation \ x would be simpler to multiply both members by 0. a?. 247y = 68lly. Solve the following equations by transposing. 87 9(5 x 3) 6(3 a? = 63. 3 7 a. 17 7 a. 4. = 3. 15.
34. + 7) (. a? 28. 38. Suppose one part of 70 to be a?. .5) = (a. is the other part. (6 u =5 44.(2 + 6) (4 .5) + 199. or 70 a?. (aj 37. . find the other part. and apply the method thus found to the algebraic problem. 36.2) (M . . 35.32.(14 x + 1) + 7) = 285 + 21 a* (z + 2) (a5) :=2. 57 734* = 13*~2(5*12).g. e. 40. 25. he should first attack a similar problem stated in arithmetical numbers is only.7. 5) (as (a. . + 4).3) . 27. + 1) 8(75 a?) +24 = 12 (4 .4) (x + I) + (x + 2) = (x 2(* + l) (2J3)( + 2) = 12. 29.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS 25.1) (u . he should formulate a similar question stated in arithmetical numbers only.3) + 14. 42. this question. and let it be required to If the student finds it difficult to answer find the other part. . 31. 7) (a. 7(7 x y 26. 41. . . . 39. (a.  +6= aj (4 t t t 1 (5 x (a? 2 2 2 2 2 2 (a? . 33. . : One part is of 70 is 25 .3) + . 6(6a.1) (a (a? + 3) = . 2 2 * Jaj. WJienever the student is unable to express a statement in algebraic symbols. Evidently 45.7) (7 x + 4) . SYMBOLICAL EXPRESSIONS 94.4) + 4 w .14 = 0.5(2 u .5)5(7a>8)=4(123a5) + l. a? 43.1 0) = 0. 30.12) (2 + 5) . Hence if one part the other part 70 x.
11. 17. Ex. 15. smaller one 16. 4. 1. 3. Divide a into two parts. 9. 5. find the cost of one yard. one yard will cost  Hence if x f y yards cost $ 100. is b. 13. so that one part The difference between is s. greater one is g. one yard will cost 100 dollars. so that one part Divide a into two parts. a. 6. By how much does a exceed 10 ? By how much does 9 exceed x ? What number exceeds a by 4 ? What number exceeds m by n ? What is the 5th part of n ? What is the nth part of x ? By how much does 10 exceed the third part of a? By how much does the fourth part of x exceed b ? By how much does the double of b exceed one half Two numbers differ by 7. two numbers and the and the 2 Find the greater one. Divide 100 into two 12. The difference between two numbers Find the smaller one. 14. 33 2. or 12 7. If 7 2. one part equals is 10. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA What must be added to a to produce a sum b ? : Consider the arithmetical question duce the sum of 12 ? What must be added to 7 to pro The answer is 5. is d. 6. Find the greater one. and the smaller one parts. $> 100 yards cost one hundred dollars. EXERCISE 1. is a? 2 is c?. so that of c ? is p. x f y yards cost $ 100 . Hence 6 a must be added to a to give 5. 7. What number divided by 3 will give the quotient a? ? What is the dividend if the divisor is 7 and the quotient ? . 10.58 Ex.
find the has ra dollars. A room is x feet long and y feet wide. Find 21. 20. Find 35. 34. feet wider than the one mentioned in Ex. 33. numbers is x. A man had a dollars. How many cents had he left ? 28. smallest of three consecutive numbers Find the other two. b dimes. 24. rectangular field is x feet long and the length of a fence surrounding the field. y years How old was he 5 years ago ? How old will he be 10 years hence ? 23. 32. 22. and B's age is y years. and 4 floor of a room that is 3 feet shorter wider than the one mentioned in Ex. 28. find the of their ages 6 years hence. 28. 19. and c cents. How many cents has he ? 27. sum If A's age is x years. A dollars. amount each will then have. square feet are there in the area of the floor ? How many 2 feet longer 29. 59 What must The be subtracted from 2 b to give a? is a. 26. If B gave A 6 25. The greatest of three consecutive the other two. is A A is # years old. How many cents are in d dollars ? in x dimes ? A has a dollars. Find the sum of their ages 5 years ago. Find the area of the Find the area of the feet floor of a room that is and 3 30. A feet wide. and B is y years old. ?/ 31. and spent 5 cents. and B has n dollars. What What What What is the cost of 10 apples at x cents each ? is is is x apples cost 20 cents ? the price of 12 apples if x apples cost 20 cents ? the price of 3 apples if x apples cost n cents ? the cost of 1 apple if .LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS 18. How many years A older than is B? old.
a. How many x years ago miles does a train move in t hours at the rate of x miles per hour ? 41. miles does will If a man walks r miles per hour. and the second pipe alone fills it in filled y minutes.60 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA wil\ 36. . If a man walks 3 miles per hour. A cistern can be filled in alone fills it by two pipes. find the fraction. Find the number. of m. as a exceeds b by as much as c exceeds 9. 49. in how many hours he walk n miles ? 40. and "by as much as" Hence we have means equals (=) 95. A cistern is filled 43. Find a 47. The two digits of a number are x and y. b To express in algebraic symbols the sentence: " a exceeds much as b exceeds 9. how many miles he walk in n hours ? 37. A was 20 years old. per Find 5 Find 6 45. how many how many miles will he walk in n hours 38. How old is he now ? by a pipe in x minutes." we have to consider that in this by statement "exceeds" means minus ( ). . Find a. 48. c a b =  9. 46. If a man walks ? r miles per hour. If a man walks n miles in 4 hours. m is the denominator. % % % of 100 of x. he walk each hour ? 39. What fraction of the cistern will be filled by one pipe in one minute ? 42. of 4. The numerator If of a fraction exceeds the denominator by 3. Find x % % of 1000. What fraction of the cistern will be second by the two pipes together ? 44. The first pipe x minutes.50.
of a and 10 equals 2 c. 3. etc. The product of the is diminished by 90 b divided by 7. 5. same result as 7 subtracted from . 2. 4. 9. third of x equals difference of x The and y increased by 7 equals a. Four times the difference of a and b exceeds c by as d exceeds 9. 80. equal to the sum and the difference of a and b sum of the squares of a and gives the Twenty subtracted from 2 a a. double of a is 10. c. of x increased by 10 equals x. In many word There are usually several different ways of expressing a symbolical statement in words. cases it is possible to translate a sentence word by in algebraic symbols in other cases the sentence has to be changed to obtain the symbols. 6. thus: a b = c may be expressed as follows difference between a : The and b is c. = 2 2 a3 (a  80. a is greater than b by b is smaller than a by c. of a increased much 8. the difference of the squares of a 61 and b increased } a2 i<5  b' 2 ' by 80 equals the excess of a over 80 Or. by one third of b equals 100. c. The excess of a over b is c. a exceeds b by c. 80. 8 b ) + 80 = a .LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS Similarly. EXERCISE The The double The sum One 34 : Express the following sentences as equations 1. The double as 7.
is If A's age is 2 x. (c) If each man gains $500. 17. sum equals $20.*(/) (g) (Ji) Three years ago the sum of A's and B's ages was 50. >. 12. the sum and C's money (d) (e) will be $ 12. 6 % of m. they have equal of A's. 18. A is 4 years older than Five years ago A was x years old. (a) (b) (c) A is twice as old as B. B's age 20. first 00 x % of the equals one tenth of the third sum. symbols B. a. #is5%of450. and (a) (6) A If has $ 5 more than B. . 50 is x % of 15. a third sum of 2 x + 1 dollars.62 10. In 3 years A will be twice as old as B. Express as : equations of the (a) 5 (b) (c) % a% of the second (d) x c of / a % of 4 sum equals $ 90. a second sum.. and C have respectively 2 a. as 17 is is above a. the first sum equals 6 % of the third sura. of 30 dollars. a. 16. A gains $20 and B loses $40. express in algebraic symbols : 700. and C's ages will be 100.000. m is x % of n. B. x 4 If A. and C's age 4 a. 5x A sum of money consists of x dollars. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Nine is as much below a 13. 3 1200 dollars. B's. (e) In 3 years A will be as old as B is now. 11. x is 100 x% is of 700. (d) In 10 years A will be n years old. In 10 years the sum of A's. the first sum exceeds b % of the second sum by first (e) % of the first plus 5 % of the second plus 6 % of the third sum equals $8000. amounts. they have equal amounts. B's. 14. express in algebraic 3x : 10. A If and B B together have $ 200 less than C. pays to C $100.
6 years ago he was 10 . . Ex. Ex. x + 15 = 3 x 3x 16 15. 1. number. Find A's present age. be 30 . 3z40:r:40z. verbal statement (1) (1) In 15 years A will may be expressed in symbols (2). the required . Simplifying. 23 =30. exceeds 40 by as much as 40 exceeds the no. In 15 years A will be three times as old as he was 5 years ago. 15. Uniting. In 15 years 10. Transposing. A will Check. much as 40 exceeds the number. The student should note that x stands for the number of and similarly in other examples for number of dollars. be three times as old as he was 5 years ago. etc. Let x The (2) = A's present age. x = 20. Write the sentence in algebraic symbols. NOTE. 2. denote the unknown 96. In order to solve them. Transposing. number by x (or another letter) and express the yiven sentence as an equation. Dividing. Three times a certain no. equation is the sentence written in alyebraic shorthand. x= 15. by 20 40 exceeds 20 by 20. x+16 = 3(35). The solution of the equation (jives the value of the unknown number. number of yards. 4 x = 80. Uniting. 3 x + 16 = x x (x  p) Or. Let x = the number. the . Check. 3 x or 60 exceeds 40 + x = 40 + 40. The equation can frequently be written by translating the sentence word by word into algebraic symbols in fact. but 30 =3 x years. Three times a certain number exceeds 40 by as Find the number.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS 63 PROBLEMS LEADING TO SIMPLE EQUATIONS The simplest kind of problems contain only one unknown number. = x x 3x 40 3x 40 Or.
then the problem expressed in symbols W or. exceeds the width of the bridge.64 Ex. Uldbe 66  x x 5(5 is = *. Forty years hence his present age. Find the number whose double exceeds 30 by as much as 24 exceeds the number. Find 8. How many miles per hour does it run ? . 300 56. twice the number plus 7. A train moving at uniform rate runs in 5 hours 90 miles more than in 2 hours. 47 diminished by three times a certain number equals 2. 14 50 is is 4 what per cent of 500 ? % of what number? is 12. Find the width of the Brooklyn Bridge. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 56 is what per cent of 120 ? = number of per cent. 14. by as much as 135 ft. . 4. Let x 3. EXERCISE 1. Find the number. A will be three times as old as toda3r . 11. 3. 35 What number added to twice itself gives a sum of 39? 44. Six years hence a 12 years ago. Dividing. to 42 gives a sum equal to 7 times the original 6. Find the number whose double increased by 14 equals Find the number whose double exceeds 40 by 10. Four times the length of the Suez Canal exceeds 180 miles by twice the length of the canal. % of 120. Hence 40 = 46f. 13. How long is the Suez Canal? 10. Find the number. How old is man will be he now ? twice as old as he was 9. 120. 5. What number 7 % of 350? Ten times the width of the Brooklyn Bridge exceeds 800 ft.2. A number added number.
000. The problem consists of two statements I. If A gains A have three times as much 16. 97. In 1800 the population of Maine equaled that of Vermont. 65 A and B $200. Ex. The sum of the two numbers is 14.000. Maine's population increased by 510. two verbal statements must be given. make A's money equal to 4 times B's money wishes to purchase a farm containing a certain He found one farm which contained 30 acres too many. while in the more complex probWe denote one of the unknown x. . Find the population of Maine in 1800. x. five If A gives B $200. During the following 90 years. then dollars has each ? many have equal amounts of money. If the first farm contained twice as many acres as A man number of acres. and Maine had then twice as many inhabitants as Vermont. times as much as A. A and B have equal amounts of money. How many dol A has A to $40. The other verbal statement. 1. F 8. and B has $00. Ill the simpler examples these two lems they are only implied.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS 15. B will have lars has A now? 17. If a problem contains two unknown quantities. and as 15. statements are given directly. the second one. is the equation. B How will loses $100. numbers (usually the smaller one) by and use one of the given verbal statements to express the other unknown number in terms of x. which gives the value of 8. One number exceeds another by : and their sum is Find the numbers. how many acres did he wish to buy ? 19. written in algebraic symbols. How many dollars must ? B give to 18. Vermont's population increased by 180. One number exceeds the other one by II. 14. and another which lacked 25 acres of the required number.
2. . = A's number of marbles. Another method for solving this problem is to express one unknown quantity in terms of the other by means of statement II viz. = B's number of marbles. 25 marbles to B. to Use the simpler statement. If A gives are : A If II.= The second statement written the equation ^ smaller number. The two statements I. Statement x in = the larger number. 8 = 11. Then. I. = 3. in algebraic i symbols produces #4a. + a f f 8 = 14. has three times as many marbles as B. although in general the simpler one should be selected. Dividing. A gives B 25 marbles. x 3x 4 and B will gain. B will have twice as many as A. and Let x = the Then x +. 2x a? x j = 6. x = 8. = 14. 26 = A's number of marbles after the exchange. / . If we select the first one. 8 the greater number. A will lose. B will have twice as viz. Let x 14 I the smaller number. . which leads ot Ex. expressed symbols is (14 x) course to the same answer as the first method. Let x 3x express one many as A. x x =14 8.66 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Either statement may be used to express one unknown number in terms of the other. o\ (o?f 8) Simplifying. < Transposing. the greater number. A has three times as many marbles as B. 26 = B's number of marbles after the exchange. . unknown quantity in Then. the sum of the two numbers is 14. the smaller number. terms of the other. Uniting. consider that by the exchange Hence. To express statement II in algebraic symbols.
Never add the number number of yards to their Ex. A's number of marbles. The numbers which appear in the equation should always be expressed in the same denomination.10. Two numbers the smaller. . How many are there of each ? The two statements are I.10. Find the numbers. dollars and dimes is $3. 6 dimes = 60 = 310.. The value of the half : is 11. the number of dimes. their sum + + 10 x 10 x is EXERCISE 36 is five v v. x = 6. 1. 2. Uniting. the number of half dollars.$3. Simplifying. etc. by 44.. is 70. 3. Uniting. 3 x = 45. * 98. greater is . then. but 40 = 2 x 20. differ differ and the greater and their sum times Two numbers by 60. 15 + 25 = 40. 60.75. * ' .5 x . . x = 15. 45 . 50 x Transposing. Check. w'3.10. 50. x x + = 2(3 x = 6x 25 25). have a value of $3. Simplifying. 67 x f 25 25 Transposing.550 f 310. 6 times the smaller. consisting of half dollars and dimes. The number of coins II. Dividing.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS Therefore.25 = 20. Selecting the cent as the denomination (in order to avoid fractions). we express the statement II in algebraic symbols. of dollars to the number of cents.. (Statement II) Qx . 6 half dollars = 260 cents. Let 11 = the number of dimes. 50(11 660 50 x )+ 10 x = 310. cents. Dividing. Eleven coins.240. Find the numbers. x from I. The sum of two numbers is 42. 40 x . x = the number of half dollars. 11 x = 5. Check. B's number of marbles. the price. and the Find the numbers.
and four times the former equals five times the latter. Mount Everest is 9000 feet higher than Mt. McKinley. How many inches are in each part ? 15. A's age is four times B's. it If the smaller one contained 11 pints more. 6. one of which increased by 9.000 feet. find the weight of a cubic Divide 20 into two parts. and B's age is as below 30 as A's age is above 40.68 4. as the larger one.. and twice the greater exceeds Find the numbers. and the greater increased by five times the smaller equals 22. ? Two vessels contain together 9 pints. Two numbers The number differ by 39. How many volcanoes are in the 8. the larger part exceeds five times the smaller part by 15 inches. of volcanoes in Mexico exceeds the number of volcanoes in the United States by 2. McKinley exceeds the altitude of Mt. Find their ages. How many 14 years older than B. 9. and in 5 years A's age will be three times B's. What is the altitude of each mountain 12. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA One number is six times another number. 3 shall be equal to the other increased by 10. 2 cubic feet of iron weigh 1600 foot of each substance. Everest by 11. and twice the altitude of Mt. 7. tnree times the smaller by 65. What are their ages ? is A A much line 60 inches long is divided into two parts. How many hours does the day last ? . On December 21. Find Find two consecutive numbers whose sum equals 157. the night in Copenhagen lasts 10 hours longer than the day. cubic foot of iron weighs three times as much as a If 4 cubic feet of aluminum and Ibs. and in Mexico ? A cubic foot of aluminum. Twice 14. United States. 11. 5. would contain three times as pints does each contain ? much 13. the number.
I. and the other of x problem contains three unknown quantities. The solution gives : 3x 80 Check. 4 x = number of dollars C had after receiving $10. try to obtain it by a series of successive steps. let us consider the words ** if A and B each gave $ 5 to C. times as much as A. and C together have $80. first According to 3 x number number and according to 80 4 x = the express statement III by algebraical symbols. 5 5 Expressing in symbols Three times the sum of A's and B's money exceeds C's money by A's 3 x ( x _5 + 3z5) (904z) = x. number had. has. x = 8. If A and B each gave $5 to C. B has three times as much as A. 19. and 68. 8(8 + 19) to C. .LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS 99. then three times the sum of A's and B's money would exceed C's money by as much as A had originally. III. they would have 3. bers is denoted by x. or 66 exceeds 58 by 8. If 4x = 24. then three times the money by I. = 48. has. Tf it should be difficult to express the selected verbal state ment directly in algebraical symbols. 1. The third verbal statement produces the equation. B. A and B each gave $ 5 respectively. the the number of dollars of dollars of dollars A B C has." To x 8x 90 = number of dollars A had after giving $5. original amount. number of dollars of dollars B C had. three One of the unknown num two are expressed in terms by means of two of the verbal statements. Ex. and C together have $80. and B has three as A. If A and B each gave $5 to C. B. number of dollars A had. II. 69 If a verbal statements must be given. Let x II. sum of A's and B's money would exceed much as A had originally. = number of dollars B had after giving $5. are : C's The three statements A.
number of cows. and the difference between the third and the second is 15 2. 28 2 (9 5). 28 x 15 or 450 5 horses. according to III. The I. number of sheep. x j = the number of horses. 2 (2 x f 4) or 4 x Therefore. + 35 x 4. = the number of dollars spent for cows. 1 1 Check. + 35 (x +4) f 15(4zf 8) = 1185. Dividing. and. + 8 90 x and. x f 4 = 9. A and the number of sheep was twice as large as the number How many animals of each kind did he buy ? of horses and cows together. 4 x f 8 = 28. = the number of dollars spent for horses.140 + (50 x x 120 = 185. according to II. 90 may be written. = the number of dollars spent for sheep Hence statement 90 x Simplifying. The number of sheep is equal to twice tho number of horses and x 4 the cows together. and the sum of the . The total cost equals $1185. Let then. and Ex. cows. x = 5. 2. III. and each sheep $ 15. 85 (x 15 (4 x I + 4) + 8) = the number of sheep. each horse costing $ 90. The number of cows exceeds the number of horses by 4. first. x 35 f + = + EXERCISE 1. three statements are : IT. x Transposing. 9 cows. 37 Find three numbers such that the second is twice the first. first the third exceeds the second by and third is 20. sheep. 90 x f 35 x + GO x = 140 20 + 1185. number of horses. Uniting. 185 a = 925.70 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA man spent $1185 in buying horses. The number of cows exceeded the number of horses by 4. the third five times the first. 9 5 = 4 . each cow $ 35. Find three numbers such that the second is twice the 2. number of cows. and 28 sheep would cost 6 x 90 f 9 + 316 420 = 1185.
the second one is one inch longer than the first. v .000 more than Philadelphia (Census 1905). the third 2.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS 3.000 more inhabitants than Philaand Berlin has 1. first.000. The gold. 71 the Find three numbers such that the second is 4 less than the third is three times the second. and of the three sides of a triangle is 28 inches. and the third exceeds the is second by 5. 13. increased by three times the second side. Find three consecutive numbers whose sum equals 63. In a room there were three times as many children as If the number of women. New York delphia. If twice The sum the third side. women.  4. twice as old as B.000. the first Find three consecutive numbers such that the sum of and twice the last equals 22. first. "Find three is 4. is five numbers such that the sum of the first two times the first. and 2 more men than women. the copper. what is the length of each? has 3. If the second angle of a triangle is 20 larger than the and the third is 20 more than the sum of the second and first. 7. twice the 6. and is 5 years younger than sum of B's and C's ages was 25 years. how many children were present ? x 11. v  Divide 25 into three parts such that the second part first. A 12. and the sum of the first and third is 36. and the pig iron produced in one year (1906) in the United States represented together a value . 9. and the third part exceeds the second by 10. equals 49 inches. what is the population of each city ? 8. The three angles of any triangle are together equal to 180. If the population of New York is twice that of Berlin. men. what are the three angles ? 10. A is Five years ago the What are their ages ? C. and children together was 37.
California has twice as many electoral votes as Colorado. and distance.000. . Since in uniform motion the distance is always the product of rate and time. or time. i. The copper had twice the value of the gold. together. Let x = number of hours A walks. and quantities area. 14. 8 x = 15. Dividing. 3z + 4a:8 = 27.000.g. and A walks at the rate of 3 miles per hour without stopping. number of miles A x x walks. speed. First fill in all the numbers given directly.000 more than that the copper. but stops 2 hours on the way. width. number of hours.72 of ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA $ 750. start at the same hour from two towns 27 miles walks at the rate of 4 miles per hour. = 5. 7 Uniting. of arid the value of the iron was $300. = 35. 3 and 4. 3x + 4 (x 2) = 27. and Massachusetts has one more than California and Colorado If the three states together have 31 electoral votes. Find the value of each. After how many hours will they meet and how E. such as length. of 3 or 4 different kinds.e. it is frequently advantageous to arrange the quantities in a systematic manner. B many miles does A walk ? Explanation.000. then x 2 = number of hours B walks. we obtain 3 a. Hence Simplifying. A and B apart. how many 100. has each state ? If the example contains Arrangement of Problems. and 4 (x But the 2) for the last column. statement "A and B walk from two towns 27 miles apart until they meet " means the sum of the distances walked by A and B equals 27 miles.
Cancel 2 # 2 (a 10) = 2s 100. the second 100.06 = $ 40. $ 800 = 800. + 10 x 300 = 2 z2 100. fid 1 The field is 40 yards long and 20 yards wide. x + 200). . + 8." gives (2. If the length The length " The area would be decreased by 100 square yards. What brings the same is the capital? in Therefore Simplify.M(x . 2 a = 40. the area would be 100 square yards less.04 = $ 40. A sum invested larger at at 5 % terest as a sum $200 4%. Check. were increased by 30 yards. 10 x = 200. But 700 certain = 800 2.053. l. z = 20. 2   and transpose. $ 1000 x .01 = = . and the width decreased by 10 yards. Multiplying. 70x10 Ex. x . . or 700. Transposing and uniting.04 8. The an area 40 x 20 =800.x + 00) 2 x2 Simplify. $ 800 = required sum. Find the dimensions of the field.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS Ex. 73 of a rectangular field is twiee its width.05 x x . x . original field has Check.
Find the dimen A certain sum invested at 5 % %. mobile. and the sum Find the length of their areas is equal to 390 square yards. A If its length rectangular field is 2 yards longer than it is wide. twice as large. and in order to raise the required sum each of the remaining men had to pay one dollar more. 1. If the silk cost three times as For a part he 7. of coffee for $ 1. Find the share of each. invested at 5 %. Six persons bought an automobile. What are the two sums 5. A sum ? invested at 4 %. 3. but as two of them were unable to pay their share. How many pounds of each kind did he buy ? 8. paid 24 ^ per pound and for the rest he paid 35 ^ per pound. sions of the field. 2. sum $ 50 larger invested at 4 brings the same interest Find the first sum.74 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 38 rectangular field is 10 yards and another 12 yards wide. and how far will each then have traveled ? 9. After how many hours will B overtake A. A of each. Ten yards $ 42. A man bought 6 Ibs. and follows on horseback traveling at the rate of 5 miles per hour. the area would remain the same. and its width decreased by 2 yards. were increased by 3 yards. and a second sum. Twenty men subscribed equal amounts of to raise a certain money. How much did each man subscribe ? sum walking at the rate of 3 miles per hour. and the cost of silk of the auto and 30 yards of cloth cost together much per yard as the cloth. each of the others had to pay $ 100 more. The second is 5 yards longer than the first. but four men failed to pay their shares. A sets out later two hours B . together bring $ 78 interest.55. how much did each cost per yard ? 6. as a 4.
and another train starts at the same time from New York traveling at the rate of 41 miles an hour. how must B walk before he overtakes A ? walking at the rate of 3 miles per hour. walking at the same time in the same If A walks at the rate of 2 far miles per hour. The distance from If a train starts at . A sets out two hours later B starts New York to Albany is 142 miles.will they be 36 miles apart ? 11. traveling by coach in the opposite direction at the rate of 6 miles per hour. A and B set out direction. and B at the rate of 3 miles per hour. After how many hours. Albany and travels toward New York at the rate of 30 miles per hour without stopping. but A has a start of 2 miles. how many miles from New York will they meet? X 12. and from the same point.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS v 75 10.
which multiplied together are considered factors. at this 6 2 . J Although Va' In the present chapter only integral and rational expressions b~ X V <2 Ir a2 b' 2 2 ?> . The factors of an algebraic expression are the quantities will give the expression. The prime factors of 10 a*b are 2. if this letter does not occur in any denominator. a. irrational. consider 105. it contains no indicated root of this letter . if it contains no other factors (except itself and unity) otherwise . 5. 76 . stage of the work. f db 6 to b. this letter. if it is integral to all letters contained in it. a2 to 6. if it does contain some indicated root of . but fractional with respect 103. if.CHAPTER VI FACTORING 101. expression is rational with respect to a letter. An expression is integral and rational with respect and rational. vV . it is composite. a. as. 6. An expression is integral with respect to a letter. + 62 is integral with respect to a. a factor of a 2 A factor is said to be prime. we shall not. 104. \ V& is a rational with respect to and irrational with respect 102. An after simplifying. a + 2 ab + 4 c2 .
107. Ex. Hence 6 aty 2 = divisor x quotient. it fol lows that every method of multiplication will produce a method of factoring. 1. x.) Ex.3 sy + 4 y8). Factor G ofy 2 .62 + &)(a 2 . 2 4 x + 3) is factored if written (x' would not be factored if written x(x and not a product. Factor 14 a* W 21 a 2 6 4 c2 + 7 a2 6 2 c2 7 a2 6 2 c 2 (2 a 2 . it follows that a 2 . E. for this result is a sum. factors of 12 &V is are 3. 109. 2. since (a + 6) (a 2 IP factored.3 6a + 1). 8) (s1). 55. 77 Factoring is into its factors.FACTORING 106. or that a = 6) (a = a . The factors of a monomial can be obtained by inspection 2 The prime 108. 2. in the form 4) +3. dividend is 2 x2 4 2 1/ . x.g.9 x2^ + 12 sy* = 3 Z2/2 (2 #2 . TYPE I. . It (a. Divide 6 a% .9 x if + 12 xy\ 2 The greatest factor common 2 to all terms flcy* is 8 2 xy' . POLYNOMIALS ALL OF WHOSE TERMS CONTAIN A COMMON FACTOR ( mx + my+ mz~m(x+y + z). 01. or Factoring examples may be checked by multiplication by numerical substitution. y. 110. . An the process of separating an expression expression is factored if written in the form of a product.9 x2 y 8 + 12 3 xy f by 3 xy\ and the quotient But. 2. Since factoring the inverse of multiplication.62 can be &). ?/.
7i 13. in general. a6c. .4. 2 + q. Ilro8 9. 12. 7a & 10.5 x*y 2 17 a? . q*q*q 2 a. 14. and to multiply 3 and 5 to obtain the term which does not contain x or (x 3)(x f 5) 15. 16.45 afy . 2 2 . in factoring a trinomial of the form x f/>#f q.g. 3x*6x*. 34 a^c 8 . TYPE IT. we had to add tain the coefficient of x.8 c a 15 ofyV . 3 3 5 6.6. obviously.78 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 39 Resolve into prime factors 1. e. to find two numbers whose product is 15 and whose sum is f. f In factoring x2 2x we have to find whose product is g. 14a 4 5. 15.51 x4 2 6 xy s . 2 23. 2 Or. . 32 a *?/ . QUADRATIC TRINOMIALS OF THE FORM 111. 20. a a 'Ja . 18. 5f 2 . (as 3) and (ccf5).16 a'V f 48 ctfa^ 2 s 4 : + 34 X 8 a*b f 8 6V . : 6 abx . 3 2 . 4.5 + 13 8.30 aty. + llm llm. x2 f2 x = 15 we have. 2 6. two numbers m and n whose sum is p and and if such numbers can be found. 3. In multiplying two binomials containing a common 3 and 5 to obterm. 11.4.3. 4 tfy f. ) 22  2.2. 17. 2. 15 2 7. &{20a 6 4 &3 2 .3. 4 8 . 13.5 + 2. the y factored expression is (x }m)(x + n). 19. 8.12 cdx.51 aW + 68 21. a(mf7i) + & ( m + 3 (a + 6) 3 /(a + 6).
Factor x? . the student should first all terms contain a common monomial factor. 2 6. as p.5) (a 6). Hence fc f 10 ax is 10 a are 11 a  12 /. 2 11 a?=(x + 11 a) (a. determine whether In solving any factoring example. and (a .5) (a . .11 a + 30. 3. Factor + 10 ax . .77 = (a. EXERCISE Besolve into prime factors : 40 4. a 2 . but of these only a: Hence 2 .1 afy 8 The two numbers whose product is equal to 12 yp and whose sum equals 3 8 7 y are 4 y* and 3 y*. We may consider 1. Since a number can be represented in an infinite number of ways as the sum of two numbers. it is advisable to consider the factors of q first. the two numbers have both the same sign as p. but only in a limited number of ways as a product of two numbers.FACTORING Ex. Factor a2 .6 = 20.G) = . Ex. or 11 and 7 have a sum equal to 4. 4. If q is negative. 11 a2 and whose sum The numbers whose product is and a. Ex.11.a). of this type..4 x . + 30 = 20. If 30 and whose sum is 11 are 5 a2 11 a = 1. 5. or 77 l. If q is positive. tfa2  3.4 . 77 as the product of 1 77. 11 7.1 1 a tf a 4. or 7 11. however.11 a 2 .11) (a + 7). is The two numbers whose product and 6. . Hence z6 ? oty+12 if= (x 3 y)(x*4 y ). m 5m + 6. and the greater one has the same sign Not every trinomial Ex. can be factored. 2.30 = (a . + 112. 79 Factor a2 4 x . Therefore Check. the two numbers have opposite signs.
factors of 6 x 2 and 5 . a 2 +11 a a? 16. 27. 12. 14. 6 8 8 4 2 a. ay 11 ay +24. a2 . 4 2 . + 2xS. 30. 36. 16. 2 2 . 2 . a? + 5 + 6 a. (4 x + 3) (5 x 20 x2 is the product of 4 a. + 400 x aft a4 4 a 2 . 3?/4 + a' 2a&24& n + 60+177> a + 7 a 30. 31.500 x + 600. . 4 3 2 .180 a. +7 Hence a? is the sum of the 13 x cross products. 35. 2 . 20. y_ 6y +6y 15?/ 2 ?/ 10. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBEA x*2x8.17 + 30. + 4?/21. 9. 33.70 x y . 29. 26. a 7 a 30. + 44. 32. x2 23. 16. 19. in factoring 6 x2 + 5. x*y ra 2 2 4xy 4 wia 2 2 21y.6. 100 xr . 24. 21 a 2 2 . 15. such that The The first last two terms are factors of 6 x 2 two terms are factors of 5. 17a& + 7(U 9a&226 + 8 a 20. and 5 x.48 + + 446 200. 13. 6 is the product of + 3 and 2. 6 a 18 a + 12 a 2 2 ?/ . 2 . 17. 11. 25. + 30. TYPE 113. QUADRATIC TRINOMIALS OF THE FORM According to 66. 2 ?/ 22. 2 ?/ 28. ra + 25ra + 100.80 7. 18. 10 x y 2 200 x2 . + 5<y 24. 2 ?/ 5?/14. . ITT. By actual trial give the correct we find which of the sum of cross products. we have to find two bino mials whose corresponding terms are similar. .2) = 20 x2 + 7 x . ^ </ 2 2 7p8. a 2^ 2 a2 + 7ax 18. or . and the sum of the cross products equals 13 x. 2 2 a' 34. 8. 21.
exchange the signs of the second terms of the factors.1). If p is poxiliw. we have to reject every combination of factors of 54 whose first factor contains a 3. the signs of the second terms are minus. Factor 3 x 2 . but the opposite sign. Ex. 2. all pos combinations are contained in the following 6xl x5 . 9 x 6.31 x Evidently the last 2 V A 6. Since the first term of the first factor (3 x) contains a 3. If the factors a combination should give a sum of cross products. Hence only 1 x 54 and 2 x 27 need be considered. the second terms of the factors have same sign as q.5 . and that they must be negative. X x 18. . 3 x and x. 27 x 2. the If p and r are positive.13 x + 5 = (3 x . then the second terms of have opposite signs. 64 may be considered the : product of the following combinations of numbers 1 x 54. The and factors of the first term consist of one pair only. sible 13 x negative. The work may be shortened by the : follow ing considerations 1. . or G 114. 11 x 2x. a.17 x 2o?l V A 5  13 a combination the correct one. and r is negative.e5 V A x1 3xl \/ /\ is 3 a. 6 x 9.83 x f 54. none of the binomial factors can contain a monomial factor. 54 x 1. viz. 2 x 27.5) (2 x . which has the same absolute value as the term qx.FACTORING If 81 we consider that the factors of f 5 as must have is : like signs. all it is not always necessary to write down combinations. 18 x 3. and after a little practice the student possible should be able to find the proper factors of simple trinomials In actual work at the first trial. 3. If py? \qx\r does not contain any monomial factor.
2m t7w + 3.10 4a? + 14oj + 12.27). 3a + 13a. 15. 2 . 11. 2 fc . + 2/3. 4. 5m 26m f 5. 144 x . 2 f3y 4y 40a 90aV + 20aV. 12^17^16.13 xy + 6 y2 12 x 7 ay.163 x 2 . : 41 2. 35. 16. 6n 2 f 13w + 2. 13. 25. 3. 32.83 x . 10 a . 6n + 5?i4.290 xy f 144 y* 4x 8 ofy + 3 y 2 2 4 2 4 f .19 a f 6. 14.179. 10. 5.7. 20. + 4. 34. 2x* + 9x5. h r is 2 the most important of the trinomial types. . Sar' + SaG. 2.30 y 6 4 . 7. and the monomial factors should be removed. SoJ + llay 15 aj* 40*. 2 28. 10a?2 2 33. 8. 9.300 ab 2 f4 250 .83 x = (3 .2) (x . Therefore 3 z + 64 The type pa. EXERCISE Kesolve into prime factors 1. x54 a. 24. f go. 2 31. 2 2 2 . . 100^200^ + 100^. 2 ar* 2 i/ . 2 2 2 23. 29. 22. the expressions should be it. 90 a 8 2 . 6. 10a2 G a2 2 . 12. X 27 .260 xy .2 a 90 x*y . 19. 2 . since all others (II. 14 a fa 4. + 11 or 2 + 12 a. IV) are special cases of In all examples of this type. 5 a6 2 2 9 a .77 xy + 10 y 23afc + 126 . arranged according to the ascending or the descending powers of some letter. 21. 2 26. 3x*Sx + 4. 17. 9 y + 32^16. 30. 18. 4a2 9tt + 2. 2i/ * 2 2 x 27. 9a. .y + 172/9. 12y 2/6.82 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 3xl 3s2 x X 115.
14. 116. 2. a flOa&46 4 wi f 2 2/ 2 . 11. x* . of its terms are perfect squares. 16 y? The student should note that a term.  2 xy + if = (x 2 ?/) . must have a positive sign. 2 9 10gf25. 10. 5. i. 4. THE SQUARE OF A BINOMIAL 2 Jr 2 xy +/. connect the re square roots of the terms which are squares by the sign of the indicate the square of the resulting binomial. 9 +6a6 2 2 f a4 . 8. m + 2mn + n c 2cdd 2 2 . 24 xy + 9 y' 2 is Evidently 10 & 24 xy a perfect square. A term when two is trinomial belongs to this type. and a perfect square. 12. .e. 25 7. 9. 9 10a625.26 ab + 9 6 2 . 2 2 . . for + 9 y2 = (4 x . 3. 4 6 m*ti f 9 n*. x> 2 a 2_4 a & a 2 + 462.3 y) 2 is 2VWx 2 x V0y2" = 24 xy. square. however. 6.20 xy f 4 y\ . Expressions of this to factor them according a2 to 65. To factor a trinomial which maining term. 2 . it is more convenient for that type. 13. form are special cases of the preceding type.FACTORING 83 TYPE IV.10 x f 16. and factor whenever possible : 1. and may be factored according to the method used In most cases. EXERCISE 42 per Determine whether or not the following expressions are feet squares. and the remaining equal to twice the product of the square roots of these in order to be a perfect terms. it is a perfect square. m 14ww + 49n 2 16 a .
According to 65. a. a4 a2 2 f 6 is .2 ofy + ofy m . 4 3 4 ^ 3 8 10 8 10 ) 4 5 4 5 Ex. m 4a + 12a + ( 2 4m 2 20 f ( ).60 a# + 4. 2 . a. 27. 4a2 l. 5. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 16a 2 24a&4.20 ab + 10 b a . 2 . +( )f816 30. 149 a 81 8. prime. 2.6 m* + 9 m.3 * ). 100a2 68 a2 & 2 121. 3. ).9 z* = (2 ary + 3 z ) (2 1G a . TYPE 117. ).64 6 = 16(a . 6 2 . 10 a 2 4 2 .9& 2 3<> 4 2 . 36 2 4. product i.84 15. 25. . ). 16&*. EXERCISE Resolve into prime factors 1. 48 a +( ). + GO + 25. 4 2 23. 19. Ex. 2 20. u2 6& + 2 ( ). 3. 9a2 . 2 f b 2 2 2 ) (a NOTE. difference of the squares of two numbers is equal of the sum and the difference of the two numbers. a2 24. ^//c to the Ex.4 6 = lG(tt +2Z> )(a 26 ). 18. THE DIFFERENCE OF TWO SQUARES JT 2 /. 16.e. 2 . 1. 22. aV . 29. 6.  + 6a + ( 9a ( ) + 144 a 2 28. !Gar 9 ( )+25.6 = (a 4 b) = (a* + b*)(a + b)(ab). V. 26. . x*Sx + ( 64 a 4 100w +( )+49. 17. 9. . 3 Make the following expressions perfect squares by supplying the missing terms : 21. * 2 . 2. 7. 225 ofy . : 43 tfy\ a 9.
25a (&c) (mh2n) 2 2 . 2 2 : (mfn) _p 2 . 2 . (2a (2s + 5) (3a4) 2 2 .(c 4. (m f # 2 2 n) 42:) 10. T. (m 3n) 2 ( 2 2 . (?/ 2 cc (x y)*. 2 . 2. Ex.c .d) 2 . of polynomials. (m7?) y. 13. (a x? f 6) 6 2 . 5. 2. (2a5&) (5c9ef) 2 3. 11. 14. 6.(c + d) 2 = (a + c + cZ) (a . One or both terms are squares 1. 36> . Resolve into prime factors and simplify EXERCISE 44 Resolve into prime factors 1. 4. 2 ?/) 16 2 (y f 2 . Factor a 2 . 16p 2 .FACTORING 85 118. (x f 3 9 2/ 2 .(I) . a2 . Ex. 8. a:) 12. 9.
1. 12. . Factor 9 x*y*4:Z 2 f 4 yz. a? 11. Ex. 5) . GROUPING TERMS By the introduction of parentheses.(x  5) EXERCISE Resolve into prime factors 1. polynomials can frequently be transformed into bi.ab + bx.4 6 x f 3 a y 2 4. + x + 2x + 2. 3. 9.86 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA TYPE VI. Ex.2 ) (3 x . 8. 4 B. a3 c 3 10ax5ay6bx + 3by.1. 2. = (3 x + y . 2.VI. 6. 4:cx . Factor or 5 5 x2 x x f 5.r. which may be factored according to types I. raV + nV 3 a 2ic 2 m ?/ 2 n 2an3&n + 2ag3&?. the expression becomes the difference of two squares. . a5 + ab 6 . 119. a 26 2 2 3 . 7. By grouping. + 4cy5dx 2 5dy. x8 .14. + bx + ay + by = x(a + &) + y(a + 6) Ex. Factor ax ax f bx f ay f by. 5.and trinomials. : 45 ax + bx + ay+by. ive find that the new terms con common factor. ma ?*a + m& nb.7 c + 2c .a a . After grouping tain a the terms.y + 2 2). 10.6z2 + 5 = z2 (. A.
Polynomials are reduced to the preceding cases by grouping terms. 2 7. 4. a 2 10a6 4 2 + 256 2 x ar 2a. m Gw + 9n * See page 266. 2. IV. : 46 x* 2. First find monomial factors common to all terms. 4 a2 .12 ax + 9 a2 + 4 &t/ 4 y2 = (4 a 2 . 3. 6. Binomials are factored by means of the formula a 2 6 2 III. $ a8 . + 2xy + y*q*.FACTORING Ex.12 aaj 4 6y. Arranging the terms.l. 8. 87 f Factor 4 a2  6 2 + 9 tf . although frequently the particular cases II and IV are more convenient. w m 2. .10 xy + 4 y\ 2 . 2a3/ 7. 8.12 z + 9 x2)_ (&2 _ 4 ty + 4 ^2) a. 8ra 2 + 16. 5. Trinomials are factored by the method of cross products. 36 9 m . = (a + 6)(a6). l~a 2a56 2 2 .6 ww + n 2 2 < a 2 4a6 + 46 25.* */2 ft EXERCISE Kesolve into prime factors 1. . 6a4 12a2 + 6. 4.4 f . 2. SUMMARY OF FACTORING I.62 + 9 _ 4 _ 12 ax + 4 6y 2 = 4 a 2 . : m 2 2 16. +c+ 2 2 2/ . 3. II.9 a2 4 v* 2 . EXERCISE 47 MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES* Resolve into prime factors !. 6a4 + 37a2 + 6. 6 6.
a + a + a + l. a6 36. 19.40. 24. 3 a2 23. 13. 2 ft . a3 156. 5a' 20.310 x . __ ft)2 n Qy 2 . a5 a 1 4 2 39. 1 ?v _w 8 2 33. . 2 a 128. or 3 7#2 . 4 8 tt 2 z . 48. 13 c . 25 a + 25 aft .85 xy + 42 y 10 w 43 w 9. any V 2 ( 51 xyz + 50. 11. 4 2 2 ft ft 2a + a*l. 50^ + 45. 32. 30. 42 s 2 . 80 a 2 ft 38. 32 aft + 6 4ft 4 . + 14. 3 25. (a.156. a. 5 a. 29. 6 :J 2 2 ft 2 16. 2 17. 35. + 6 aft + 3 . 3 2 . 256 4 2 2 ?/) .13 c . (^ 34. 22. 14. 3 41. 27. 40. 2 3#4 3a2 36. 4 a.88 10. 49 a 4 4 42 a + 9 a 20a 90a 50. 20 >r + 2 ?<s __ G4. 12. 10 a 2 4a 4 26. 18. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA x*xif. 42 x .24. 28.
122.) of two or more . 5 s 7 2 5. C. and GO aty 8 is 6 aty. F. 12 tfifz. 89 . aW. The student should note H.CHAPTER VII HIGHEST COMMON FACTOR AND LOWEST COMMON MULTIPLE HIGHEST COMMON FACTOR 120. If the expressions have numerical coefficients. The H. C. C. 2. C. of a 7 and a e b 7 . F. 5. 3. 2 2 . F. 33 2 7 3 22 3 2 . C. C. 6. 15 aW. 5 2 3 . F. F. of aW. 5 7 34 2s . C. of : 48 4. Two common factor except unity The H. C. 54  32 . The highest is common factor (IT. find by arithmetic the greatest common factor of the coefficients. 25 W. expressions which have no are prime to one another. the algebraic factor of highest degree common expressions to these expressions thus a 6 is the II. are prime can be found by inspection. 8 . .  23 3 . The H. C. and prefix it as a coefficient to H. C. 24 s . F. of a 4 and a 2 b is a2 The H. EXERCISE Find the H. 3 . + 8 ft) and cfiW is 2 a 2 /) 2 ft) . F. Thus the H. of the algebraic expressions. F. of 6 sfyz. 121. of two or more monomials whose factors . F. II 2 . 13 aty 39 afyV. is the lowest that the power of each factor in the power in which that factor occurs in any of the given expressions. of (a and (a + fc) (a 4 is (a + 6) 2 . F.
a 3a4. F. x2 ^4^ and tf 7 xy + 10 f. 52 oryz4. 4a f 4a2 2 2 a 2  . To find the H.y) .6 a&. Find the H. 2 . 2a f5af 2. = x 2 y. of: .3 xy + 2 y* = (x .5 x3?/ 2 6.8 a + 16. 8. ^a + 5^ + 6. 65 zfyV.y)\ O+ 0^(0. C. 1. . 12. 225 4a 9 . 16 a . 38 #y. a3 16 a.5 + 6. 13. 9. 24 a 2 . 10. resolve each polynomial into prime factors. 11. a2 . 4(m f ?i) 3 3 5(w + w) 5 7(m + n}\m 2 ri).2 y) (a. . of polynomials. ^2 2 . of + 4 if. 12 w*nw 8. (a7 ?/) . F.7 xy + 10 2 = (x . . 7/ EXERCISE Find theH. 11.6 . 14. 6 a2 y? . 2. 2 . 3^ 2 4 . 4(m+l) 3 . 13. 6(m+l) (m+2). 3. a3 9a. 15. 5 a6 5^ 2 a. 4 7/i 3 n2 10 4 mV. Ex.y + y42. a2 + 7af!2.?/ .^9. 12. F.12 as 66 . 6 3 a. 2 . . 3). 1.# 4 afy f 4 . 8(?/ifl) 14. .6 a' + 2 a& + 6 . 3 . 57 a>V.y) 123. 15 xy^ 2 10 arV . 30 mu\ 39 afyV. 9. C. 8. 4 ?io. 75 a&X 15 bed 11 . 6 mx . 10. 16. and apply the method of the preceding article. ^707 + 12.6. . 95 2/V. a2 ar* 4. 15 3ao. a2 + 2a3. x* x2 Hence the H. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBEA 6 rarcV. 8 a 10 .90 7. C. 25 m27i. 49 C. 0^80:416. ^f a. 2 . 7. 5. a. y + 3y64. 12 . 8 6. F. aWd. 9 aj*(a? .2 ?/) (x .5 y). 4 a3 6 4 8 a663 .
thus. M. To find the L. 128. 2 multiples of 3 x and 6 y are 30 xz y. M. . 4 a 2 &2 _ Hence. C. Common 125. M. etc. of 4 a 2 6 2 and 4 a 4 4 a 68 2 . M.LOWEST COMMON MULTIPLE 91 LOWEST COMMON MULTIPLE multiple of two or more expressions is an which can be divided by each of them without a expression 124. M. A common remainder. which also signs.) of two or more expressions is the common multiple of lowest degree. of 12(a + ft) and (a + &)*(  is 12(a + &)( .C.M. but opposite .C. L.6 3 ). M. C. C. &) 2 M. Ex. 1. C. Hence the L. of as &2 a2 + 2a&f b\ and 6a. of tfy and xy*. The L. 127. M of the algebraic expressions. If the expressions have a numerical coefficient. C. NOTE. C. C. Find the L. is equal to the highest power in which it occurs in any of the given expressions. each set of expressions has In example ft). = (a f last 2 &)' is (a  6) . ory is the L. 2. 60 x^y' 2 . 2 The The L. 6 c6 is C a*b*c*.6)2. a^c8 3 . M. M. C. of the general. 300 z 2 y. L. resolve each expression into prime factors and apply the method for monomials. of several expressions which are not completely factored. C. 126.(a + &) 2 (a have the same absolute value. two lowest common multiples. . =4 a2 62 (a2 . Find the L. find by arithmetic their least common multiple and prefix it as a coefficient to the L. Obviously the power of each factor in the L. C. of 3 aW.M. Ex. The lowest common multiple (L.
x2 5 f 2 3# 5 + 2. 2. 5 a 2 ^ 2 15 . x 2 5 a. ic 2 ?/.f 6. a. 2 x \2 y. a. 2(m 2 .1. a& 4 +& 2 . 1. 3(m + n) 4 m 2 . a 2 f 4 a +4. Find the L. T a 3 a 2 . afc'cd 2 . 6. a 2 a3 . a2 4. 21. 3(a + b). ax {ay ~ 3 a 3 b. 3 f2. 2 ic 3 4a 8 a. 14. 8 d 5 . a { a~b. 40 abJ. 17. ic 23. . G a. 3 6 xif. 30 a. 15. + 2 7i) . 2 . 4 a . (a 4)(a2) 12. a. 3 Z> . 2 a. a2 ~ab 1. a !. + 2. #. 11. 18. 2 a . 24. 22. afy.92 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 50 C. b 2 . xy\ . 8 afy. x* ~5a. 6b 2 . 3. 2 10. 13. 9. 4 a 5 6cd. M. of: 4. or f 3 a 15 #. a f 2 19. a 1. 2 . 3 .1. 5. 6 a. a?b. 24 x. + 6. 5 a? 5 a? y. f b. 20. a f 3. (For additional examples see page 268. 16. 2 a?b\ a + 2ab + b' 2a2b. 20 9 a. 2 a . 3 ab. x2 + 4 a f 4. 3. 8. by. . 7. a 2 fa6. bx a? 8 2 lOajflfi. a^1. ) . 3 (a2)(a3) ( a 3)(a4) 2 2a?b'2ab 2 a. 4 a f 2. 2 . x2 2 + 5 a + 6. 6 y. y*. 2 7ic+10.
but we In arithmetic. Ex. the product of two fractions is the product of their numerators divided by the product of their denominators. and i x mx = my y terms A 1. etc. C. a b = ma mb . as 8. fraction is in its lowest when its numerator and its denominator have no common factors. an indicated quotient. F. 130. The dividend a is called the numerator and the The numerator and the denominator are the terms of the fraction. a?. Thus. Remove tor. the value of a fraction is not altered by multiplying or dividing both its numerator and its denominator by the same number. If both terms of a fraction are multiplied or divided by the same number) the value of the fraction is not altered.ry ^ by their H. common 6 2 divisors of numerator and denomina and z 8 (or divide the terms . All operations with fractions in algebra are identical with the corresponding operations in arithmetic. and denominators are considered. only positive integral numerators shall assume that the all arithmetic principles are generally true for algebraic numbers. TT Hence 24 2 z =  3x . however. A f fraction is b. successively all 2 j/' . rni Thus 132. 131.CHAPTER VIII FRACTIONS REDUCTION OF FRACTIONS 129. Reduce ~ to its lowest terms. thus  is identical with a divisor b the denominator.
tf a*  n2 + 8 a 24 a* _ ap 2 . To reduce a fraction to its lowest terms.33 7 a 36 arV 18 x2^' 39 a2 6 8c4 * See page 268. 6 24 a2 to its lowest terms. 3. resolve numerator and denominator into their factors. and cancel all factors that are common to both. Keduce a* ~ 6 a' 4 *8a 6a qs _. Keduce 62 ~ 2 62 a2 to its lowest terms. 2. _Q 2 6 EXERCISE 51* Reduce i to lowest terms 3 : 95 2 *' o 3 * 3T5"** T^ 12a4 " 3 K 6 ' 32 78 ' ' 2.94 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 133. Never cancel terms of the numerator or the denominator. Ex.6 a + 8) 6 d\a* . cancel factors only.4) Ex. .
. 04 !l 9 or 2 6 it*?/ +y 2 12. * OQ 3 a3 _6a a/i 2 2 5 ?tt +6 ^. 16. 12 15 m m 2 2 7 w. 29. 3a ^ ^ "^ 2 9 . n h ' m11 2 m 3 8.*. . 19.n 8 + T> ? wn + n 2 ?i 2 m " *7 . nx 17.FRACTIONS 7 95 22 a 2 bc 1 4 ^. . . + ' 4 2 ?/ 27.' 32. x1 15 ' ft< 4 xy //(/ _.7 . ^+3*. 9x + "a" 10. 'M 3 ??i 2fi 25. ^' rt ^  31. LJZJ^JL. 5^10 y 30. 11 ^ Mtr f .10 a + 3 2 14. ~__ 9n _ 22 9. ' ^ . g J 21. """. 23. ^" a. ny 4 18. _ 3 7i rt< 26.
Ex  Reduce to their lowest common denominator.C. . multiplying the terms of 22 .M. ^ to their lowest com The L. multiply each quotient by the corresponding numerator. take the L. ELEMENTS OF 'ALGEBRA Reduction of fractions to equal fractions of lowest common Since the terms of a fraction may be multiplied denominator.  by 4 6' . Since a (z 6 + 3)(s3)Ol)' 6a. Divide the L. C.C.~16 (a + 3) (x. by any quantity without altering the value of the fraction. and Tb reduce fractions to their lowest common denominator.96 134. we have the quotients (x 1). 1. and 135. we have M^. =(z (x + 3)(z. and 6rar 3 a? kalr . we may use the same process as in arithmetic for reducing fractions to the lowest common denominator.r 2 2 . .3)O  Dividing this by each denominator.by 3 ^ A 2 ' . of the denominators for the common denominator. TheL. Ex.M. and (a 8).1^22 ' . 3 a\ and 4 aW is 12 afo 2 x2 .  of //* 2 . To reduce to a fraction with the denominator 12 a3 6 2 x2 numerator ^lA^L O r 2 a 3 ' and denominator must be multiplied by Similarly. C. we may extend this method to integral expressions. Reduce ^. 2> .D. and the terms of ***. M. mon T denominator. . Multiplying these quotients by the corresponding numerators and writing the results over the common denominator. + 3).3) (!)' = . by the denominator of each fraction. we have (a + 3) (a 8) (!)' NOTE. 1).
T 3y Ga1 ax 9 ' 2a . 2 ay IB. 8 i i. i. bxby g ! a 5 ' a f5 a2 25 ?.. fractions having a common denominator are added or subtracted by dividing the sum or the difference of the numerators by the common denominator. 2. 18. 3. . 74). .^1..Reduce the following to their lowest 1. 22 a2 5a * . 2aj ~ . JL.FRACTIONS EXERCISE 52 97 . 2 3 9a ~l' 3al 6 8 a ' 2 a8 * 5 4a 8' ' a jj + 6 a 9 ^ . o o a.oj o* or / . common denominator 6. Since {c c = 5L^ c (Art. j y 3. 5?. . a? 1 5 > ^* . 137. 5a 3 zl ' _ 2al n. If the given fractions have different denominators. they must be reduced to equal fractions which have the lowest common denominator before they can be added (01 subtracted). . 7i 2 ab* ".T n"> ^' 5c 3 26 o atf o> 5 77" ' . . ?y2" m^ S? m 2 7^ m S* **.a+2 ' a 2 3af 2 ADDITION AND SUBTRACTION OF FRACTIONS 136.
(2 ~ a ft) a(a  + 7 ft)fa ft)(a 2 ft)  ft) a(a 2 ft) NOTE. and adding.3 ft)(2 a + 3 ft) ft ft) (6 a ft) _ 8 a 2 f 24 aft 20 a 2 f f 18 2 + ft 12 a 2 . ^ is 2^JT) . 2 ^. (a8ft)(a~ft) 8 2 2ft) 2 =a 4 2 + 2 (2 a 4. ^ _ ^ a3b ft).4 aft + ft ft ) a(a  ft)(a 2ft) 2 =a . 4(2 a 3 ft). cr \t Simplify _T__ r* + .7 .g.3 ft 2). D. a 3 2a + "~ a2 ft).. ft).3 ft)(2 a f + : Ga6 + 3 ft). in the beginning.2 = a(a . we obtain 2 a the terms of 2(2 a +3 3 ft 6 a f ft _ 2(2 a + ft) 3 ft) (2 a ft) 4(2 a 3 4(2 a ~~ + 3 ft) f (2 a .aft  _ 3 ab + 2 = ( a _ ft)( _ 2 a 2 2 aft :=(. write 2 the product in a parenthesis.20 aft 3ft) f 3 ft 2 4(2a3ft)(2af 4 aft f 21 2 138.3 ft). ft) ft ft a(a ~ 3 aft + 2 ft2 a2  2 aft _(a + 2ft)(a2ft) +a (2q + a(a .ft)(a . the student should remember that parentheses are .(a 2 6).aft) Ca2 . C.ft) (a ft ft)~. The results of addition and subtraction should be re duced to their lowest terms. L. as 4 aft f.2 ' 2 _. 4 6 + 2qg+6~agf4a&8 a(aft)(a 2ft) ft 2 a2 a(a + 5 aft . (a ft).. D. 2. T? Ex. a2 ab ft2 Hence the a a2 f 2 6 a2 . (a 3 ft) In simplifying a term preceded by the minus sign.3 . understood about terms ( 66) hence he should. Multiplying the terms of the first fraction by 2(2 a the second by (2 a .98 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA  Ex ' Sim C. The L. e. (a .
5 18 ^4f25. j>0 i> 21. 9m + 7n 3 6m 5n 2x + 3y 3x 15 y x + 2y 45 8. + a "" 2 6 ' . 24. 2L + 2a 1 17. a2 a + 3* 2 a 7 af1 ' 2) * See page 270. 2. 36 3u 2v v 5 wv 8v 12 uv 13. 20.FRACTIONS EXERCISE 53* Simplify : 99 2a4 5 3. a+6 a 6 2 14. 30 u +? + i _H_ + _*_. A+2_3. 6 c 3a 7. 46 2a 4a 12. 5a76 4a 106 9. a 36 ++. + . t3 m2* a _2 6 a 4. 1 f q * 1 m m . 1* 1 + mf 3 1 M. 15. 23. 18 v 19. 6a116 13 a 15a26 116 e ' 6 2 10. 1 1 f w 16.
! n. 41.9 79 6 2 i. x2 Q 3 /Yl Qfi ou L "I "I \_ L I * 7 ITi ~T~ 7 TTo O :_ ' i 37 _ 9 <1  1 i 1 '> a2 .9. a 30. x + 3y x3y Gx x2 2x . _ ' a +b +a= ( 38. ic 1 + 1. _ + a? ?/ + y. a ?^ 40. a 4 31. 3a 9 +. a. a 2 ^> 2 x2 7x+12~x l7x + 4:~ ' } . 42. ^2^+6m 3 45 ' 44. 2 af1 32. 1 34. / IIlNT: Let a 1  39. af 1f /j. _m & 2 i +m 6 i _w 36 a2+ a ^_2&2 35. 43.LOO ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 26  x*3x + 2 x2 5x 27 ' ~.
6 x + 10x4 x2 17 Therefore x y 3g .  4 or 3 2a. Reduce . T. 2x 4 x3 to a mixed expression. .'3) 2 EXERCISE expression 54 to a Keduce each of the following fractions : mixed or integral a a +1 9a2 6a + 2 3a m 2 * 5 m f 6 4 m 7 n 2 + 7n + 14 fi . 2 x2 + 2 g 4.17 (2^ + 2x f 53 (2x.FRACTIONS 139.6 + 4x 4 x2 .  . . 2 + 4tf 3 17 . To reduce a fraction to an integral or = + ceo 2 * * (S74) v ' Hence 5a2 15a7 = 5 a2 oa 5a 15a oa 7 5a =a 3 . 1. . 101 mixed expression.7 5a v Ex.
or. and the product of the denominators for the denominator. Simplify 1 J The expreeaion =8 6 . 2 a Ex. !. Common factors in the numerators and the denominators should be canceled before performing the multiplication. integer. x b c = numerator by To multiply a fraction by an that integer.g. we may extend any e. expressed in symbols: c a _ac b'd~bd' principle proved for b 141. each numerator and denomi nator has to be factored.102 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA MULTIPLICATION OF FRACTIONS 140. multiply the 142. (In order to cancel common factors. fractions to integral numbers. Since  = a.) Ex. 2. Fractions are multiplied by taking the product of tht numerators for the numerator. F J Simplify .
aj 5 1 a? 18. _G x 7 a2 5a6 a. 4 8. 14. 5n a2 43a4 a2 3 a 4 a 2 5ah4 <  x2 + x (x 2 I) 17. 6) 12 ot 2 ab + 2 fc a b* o.. 50 . .FRACTIONS EXERCISE Find the following products ' 103 55 : 2!v! 2 4 5 8 a2 " ' ^ ' 36^ 21m* ' 17 ab ' ' 2 48 as b*' 34 ab 2 14m4 .. 5# 56 / c& 4.6 12 d6 4. 2 f 5 a. 2 25n 2 1 3m +&n 15. 53 *38 " ' 4 ' 14 b* ' 10 a 8 ' " 4af86 76 5c 36C2 10 (a 7a216 a2 2 q~.20 3a 2 6 ' GoA ai> 56 2c " ar " ' 4 ac2 V V 3m " " +1 " " o?f 2 ~ ' _ 9m JO.
The reciprocal of a number is the quotient obtained by dividing 1 by that number. * x* f xy 2 by x*y +y x' 2 3 s^jf\ = x' 2 x* . expression by the reciprocal of the fraction. .104 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA DIVISION OF FRACTIONS 143.y3 + xy* x*y~ f y 8 y f 3 2/ x3 EXERCISE 56* Simplify the following expressions 2 x* '""*'*' : om 2 a2 6 2 r  3 i_L#_i17 ar J 13 a& 2 5 ft2 ' u2 +a . and the principle of division follows may be expressed as 145. To divide an expression by a fraction. The The reciprocal of a is a 1 f reciprocal of J is  . To divide an expression by a fraction. 1. Integral or mixed divisors should be expressed in fractional form before dividing. 8 multiply the Ex. : a 41 ab * See page 272. The reciprocal of ? Hence the : +* x is 1 + + * = _*_. x a + b obtained by inverting reciprocal of a fraction is the fraction. 144. invert the divisor and multiply it by the dividend. Divide Xn?/ .
a a2 4. are fractional. Ex.' ' * ' ^5^+4 .6 s + 064. ga2 4 8 5 a .6 COMPLEX FRACTIONS 146. l.5 ??i 80 50 .1 5 w + 56 a 2 w a2 2 4. or both. mm 5 a a2 6 2 4g2 2a 2 4g20 25 . A complex fraction is a fraction whose numerator or denominator.T ?/ 4 2 a*?/ 15 #4.10 ?/ _.FRACTIONS 105 ._ # ~ y ' 45 14 in^o 2 ?/ ^y "xy 15 a2 + (Jf fr a b .afr 4. a 6 _6 c c ac a6 2 4. c ab 2 4 &c* & a . t ' a^3^4 ? 4* ' a?~ab > a 2 a 4a 4 4 a: +3 m 12 2 f.&c 2 ~ a 4 a2c 4. Simplify <! c a a2 c 4 L 4.^c 2 2 .
of their denominators. c +6. n a 8. x* 4. & .a ^c c _^ a . Ex. 7i+~ 7. xy x +y Multiplying the terms of the complex fraction by (x y). i.y 32 .?/ x y _x^_l X ~V x+y . the expression becomes (x EXERCISE Simplify : 57 x 2. . . M. Simplify x }. 10. . 6. C.16 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA In 147. a m "" . 9. many examples the easiest mode of simplification ia multiply both the numerator and the denominator of the mplex fraction by the L. . 2. y X 4* 2 y 3. JL. B If the numerator and denominator of the preceding examples multiplied by a&c. the answer is directly obtained.
: . 1 +2 1 i " f " ( a + 1 /*_i_i 4 14. m^n* n L a 17. 1 + 1+ 1 ti flgfl a?l ic+1 a. 2 & a 20  a46 13.~l (For additional examples see page 273.FRACTIONS 107 1 i m 11.) . sy 18. i ~T" * ~ 1 y 19 4 ' !^5n a "~ 12. o 15. 1 i 1 2 5 .
8 x = . 2z2a.  2(x 2 + 3) Removing parentheses. 4 4)  x.9(se + !)( 14 x 2 . 148. = 6. Bx 12 Qx. 14 z 2 + z 2 + 20 x .CHAPTER IX FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS FRACTIONAL EQUATIONS If an equation contains fracbe removed by multiplying each term by the may L. Transposing.14 (a.28 x + 42 = . Multiplying by (x Simplifying.1. 2. Clearing of fractions. of the denominator. Uniting. + 1) (a + 3) . 9x x Check. 6 = = 72 72 3 (a.f3# + C:E=6f7212. a. 5 x2 + 20 x + 15 15 . 5(3 85 Check. If x 6.l)(z + 3) = . these Ex. 2 3.28 a = 5 x2 . . x = 6. C. = 6.9 x2 + 9. !)(&+ 1) (x + 3). Solve 5 I 14 x +1 x +3 I). M. tions. Uniting. each member is reduced to 1. Multiplying each term by 6 (Axiom 89). If = 64. Solve ^2^ = 63 2 x 12 * + **. 2x Transposing. 108 .42 + 9.48. 1. each member is reduced to Ex.
= xx a? a? hi x +^ + 3 = 11.1 _77 a. +4 14. 1+5 & ^0 ^ a? = 19 1 11. 15. ^1 = 9. . a/  5 a/ = 12. ^' 2. a: 7 a. 3 a? '2 4 "  2 a? "T"" 4 4.FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS EXERCISE Solve the following equations : 109 58 ^ 4 3 _ +7 a? 32 3 10. '  4 13. 18. 16. a. 4 y 2 ^ 16 20 +2 334 y2 y3 == on . o ""~TiT" ' 3 12.= 2. +1 = 5. . 1 *> = 2.
. it is advisable first to remove the monomial denominators only. . ?_=_. 32 6 .110 ELEMENTS Of ALGEBRA 24. J_. + 26 2^43 1 4^9 1 2a?3 A* 37. .  2  13 _J_ = _J3 . and after simplifying the resulting equation to clear of all denominators. 27 . y+3~2 29. 2^12 = 2 = 34.11_4 x 149.  38 = 40. and" the remaining one a polynomial. ^^ ' 39 7 ' x. 3x 35. 31 31. 3 3x2 51 3x*2x 23 x 3x2 22 36. If two or more denominators are monomials. 2 20 x+3 x3 3 o^ 28 . 33. . 25. 4a4l4* + l~. 26 26._ _ .
1. = 9. 26 a.r7 5 +l 6afll~~ 3 6xflO ' 5 2a?~25 15 17a?~9 14 28 6414 . Transposing and Multiply ing by 6 uniting.  5 = 20 x 45. 10 x f 6 __ 4a. 1. If a.2 3 ~  == 7a..29 50712' 9 18 . each member is reduced to ^. Check. 24 a. M. C. a. of the monomial denomina~ &Q =: n 16 x 2( +3~ x 16 x  2. Transposing and uniting. 60. Solve 111 10 Multiplying each term by tors.FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS Ex. the 1 5 L.2 42 9 43. 5 = 20 g 5 a: ~ Jff 1 . f 13 8#f 2__ 2x 5 7 15 ~~716* 6a? 44. 5x x : = 9. . Solve the following equations 41 : 5a. Dividing. 5# 10.
3 6 2 = a' .& . find a in terms of b and c. Dividing. to Transposing all terms containing a 6 ab 6 ac one member. + 2 ac 9 a& 3 ab Simplifying.be.2 62 2 ab. = 6 a2 . fr Reducing lowest terms.m 2* = (a f 6) mnx = (1 4. 5> a. . y. ax + bx ax (a f IP Transposing.2 ac + 3 aft . If 3ac L= = a ? . and multiplying by a(9 b 4 c 4 c) = 7 &c. = 2 f b 2 .1. a.112 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA LITERAL EQUATIONS 150. bx f 6)z = 3 & 2 ab. Ex. When the terms containing the unknown quantity cannot be actually added.m bx 2 mn) x. =a 2 151.c) (3 a ac 6(rtfc)(ac) 6 a2 6 a& +6 6c = (2a + &)(3ac). Uniting the Dividing. 4 ac 1. unknown letter is not expressed by or z. b a a a z Clearing of fractions. Ex. 3(ac) c) Multiplying by 3 (a . = l^ 9 b 4 . they are united by factoring. jr. 2. = = 6 6c 7 6c. It frequently occurs that the x. Uniting. ax f x f. l to = !=?_=^6? a f 6. Literal equations ( 88) are solved by the same method as numerical equations. Thus. f ~ 5c.
t. _ 2. r the number of $>. denoting the interest. s = Vt solve for v. 2 solve for y a. 3(* 8. = 2(3a = aajffta? + 7^ = 0*+^ 4 (a x) 1 a).= n. If * 33. * Solve the same equation for^). If s If 16. If ^^ = a 1 32. 14. solve for . IIL n b + &o. 4. + 3a. solve for a. and n the number of years. = 3 (6 a). f P =+!. 3(2a + aj) 25 ?+l '~~ a/ 1 = 2L . 13. = 8 4 #. 3. co?.a. 1 f. rate. 34. 5) is t =^. 4. c 18. iw 21. m a? x . The The i time. c. 6. 29. p the principal. a? x!7  a ITo x T _ ~ 2 8. + xx = 1. f ^o. = rt. q solve for/. . mx = n.i l . . 12. 11. = 6 (m f n) = 2 a + (m?i)a?. 10. a.= H. = 5. in terms of other quantities. 31. 17. a + 26+3aj=2o + 6 + 2a?. 30. 9. . 15. Ex.= c a Z> . If s (wi n) x =px + q. Find the formula for: () The (6) (c) principal. . i The formula for simple interest ( 30. = vt. ^ ax a^ 26.FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS EXERCISE Solve the following equations : 113 59 *.
then = 2 TT#. Multiplying by Dividing. PROBLEMS LEADING TO FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS 152. A can do a piece of work in 3 days and B in 2 days. .20 C. . hence the question would be formulated After how many minutes has the minute hand moved 15 spaces more than the hour hand ? Let then x x = the required number of minutes after 3 o'clock. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA (a) Find a formula expressing degrees of Fahrenheit terms of degrees of centigrade (<7) by solving the equation (F) in (ft) Express in degrees Fahrenheit 40 If C.180. days by x and the piece of work while in x days they would do respectively ff ~ and and hence the sentence written in algebraic symbols ^. Ex. and 12 = the number over.. is 36. Ex. A would do each day ^ and B j. = 16^..114 35. x Or Uniting. 12. of minute spaces the hour hand moves Therefore x ~ = the number of minute spaces the minute hand moves more than the hour hand. Find R in terms of C and TT. C is the circumference of a circle whose radius R. 2 3 . In how many days can both do it working together ? If we denote then / the required number by 1. 2. 1.minutes after x= ^ of 3 o'clock. = the number of minute spaces the minute hand moves over. ~^ = 15 11 x ' !i^=15. When between 3 and 4 o'clock are the hands of a clock together ? is At 3 o'clock the hour hand 15 minute spaces ahead of the minute : hand. 100 C.
u The accommodation train needs 4 hours more than the express train. the required number of days. 32 x = . and the statement.FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS A in symbols the following sentence 115 more symmetrical but very similar equation is obtained by writing ** The work done by A in one day plus the work done by B in one day equals the work done by both in one day. = 100 + 4 x. the rate of the express train. what is the rate of the express train ? 180 Therefore. Clearing. hours more than the express train to travel 180 miles. But in uniform motion Time = Distance . or 1J. Solving. Ex. fx xx* = 152 +4 (1) Hence = 36 = rate of express train. Explanation : If x is the rate of the accommodation train. 3. The speed of an express train is $ of the speed of an If the accommodation train needs 4 accommodation train. 180 Transposing. in Then Therefore. = the x part of the work both do one day. 4x = 80." : Let x  = the required number of days." gives the equation /I). then Ox j 5 a Rate Hence the rates can be expressed.
J of the greater increased by ^ of the smaller equals 6. A man left ^ of his property to his wife. ex What 5. which was $4000. and of the father's age. 3. is equal 7.116 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 60 1. Find a number whose third and fourth parts added together 2. to his daughand the remainder. to his son. The sum 10 years hence the son's age will be of the ages of a father and his son is 50. length in the ground. fifth Two numbers differ 2. Two numbers differ l to s of the smaller. and J of the greater Find the numbers. and found that he had \ of his original fortune left. of his present age. a man had How much money had he at first? . ceeds the smaller by 4. How much money had he at first? 12 left After spending ^ of his ^ of his money and $15. A man lost f of his fortune and $500. and one half the greater Find the numbers. one half of What is the length of the post ? 10 ter.  Find their present ages. 9 its A post is a fifth of its length in water. make 21. its Find the number whose fourth part exceeds part by 3. Find two consecutive numbers such that 9. Find A's 8. How did the much money man leave ? 11. is oO. by 3. are the The sum of two numbers numbers ? and one is ^ of the other. by 6. money and $10. and 9 feet above water. Twenty years ago A's age was  age.
and B in 4 days. At what time between 4 and ( 5 o'clock are the hands of a clock together? 16. Ex. ? In how many days can both do working together 23.) ( An express train starts from a certain station two hours an accommodation train. If the rate of the express train is f of the rate of the accommodation train. In how many days can both do it working together ? ( 152. A can do a piece of work in 4 clays. air. and B In how many days can both do it working together in ? 12 days. 3. ounces of gold and silver are there in a mixed mass weighing 20 ounces in 21. what is the rate of the express train? 152.) 22. 2. A man has invested J of his money at the remainder at 6%. If the accommodation train needs 1 hour more than the express train to travel 120 miles. and has he invested if his animal interest therefrom is 19. Ex. 1. and after traveling 150 miles overtakes the accommodation train. 152. after rate of the latter ? 15. At what time between 7 and 8 o'clock are the hands of ? a clock in a straight line and opposite 18. An ounce of gold when weighed in water loses fa of an How many ounce. at 4J % and P> has invested $ 5000 They both derive the same income from their How much money has each invested ? 20. 117 The speed of an accommodation train is f of the speed of an express train. How much money $500? 4%.FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS 13. and losing 1* ounces when weighed in water? do a piece of work in 3 days. what is the 14. investments.) At what time between 7 and 8 o'clock are the hands of a clock together ? 17. ^ at 5%. . A has invested capital at more 4%. Ex. A can A can do a piece of work in 2 days. and an ounce of silver fa of an ounce. and it B in 6 days.
= . is 42. The problem to be solved. and n = 3. is A can do a piece of work in m days and B in n days. 26. Find three consecutive numbers whose sum equals m. B in 16. e.g.414. . by taking for these numerical values two general algebraic numbers. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA The last three questions and their solutions differ only two given numbers. 3. B in 5. . Then ft i. if B in 3 days. n x Solving. Hence. is 57. Find the numbers if m = 24 30.009 918. we obtain the equation m m . and apply the method of 170. A in 6.= m f n it Therefore both working together can do in mn f n days. m and n. they can both do in 2 days.e. it is possible to solve all examples of this type by one example. In how in the numerical values of the : many days If can both do we let x = the it working together ? required number of days. Answers to numerical questions of this kind may then be found by numerical substitution. Find three consecutive numbers whose sum Find three consecutive numbers whose sum last : The two examples are special cases of the following problem 27. therefore. . To and find the numerical answer. A in 6. make it m 6 A can do this work in 6 days Q = 2. : In how many days if can A and it B working together do a piece of work each alone can do (a) (6) (c) in the following number ofdavs: (d) A in 5. A in 4. 6 I 3 Solve the following problems 24. B in 30. Ex. B in 12. 2. 25.118 153.
001. and how many miles does each travel ? 32. (b) 149. Find two consecutive numbers the difference of whose is 21. (d) 1. After how many hours do they rate of n miles per hour. respectively (a) 60 miles. 88 one traveling 3 miles per hour. and the rate of the second are. the second at the apart. the rate of the first. the area would be increased by 19 square feet. Find the side of the square. respectively. . After how many hours do they meet. solve the following ones Find two consecutive numbers the difference of whose squares : find the smaller number. (b) 8 and 56 minutes. 3 miles per hour. A cistern can be filled (c) 6 and 3 hours. 3J miles per hour. same hour from two towns. : (c) 64 miles. 2 miles per hour.721. (b) 35 miles. last three examples are special cases of the following The difference of the squares of two consecutive numbers By using the result of this problem. (a) 20 and 5 minutes.FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS 28. 4J miles per hour. the Two men start at the same time from two towns. squares 30. 33. is (a) 51. is ?n . The one: 31. two pipes together ? Find the numerical answer. squares 29. 5 miles per hour. If each side of a square were increased by 1 foot. by two pipes in m and n minutes In how many minutes can it be filled by the respectively. if m and n are.000. and how many miles does each travel ? Solve the problem if the distance. 34. meet. and the second 5 miles per hour. Two men start at the first miles apart. (c) 16. 119 Find two consecutive numbers the difference of whose is 11. 2 miles per hour. d miles the first traveling at the rate of m.
. : : 155. b. b is the consequent. Ex. 1. E.CHAPTER X RATIO AND PROPORTION 11ATTO 154. : A somewhat shorter way would be to multiply each term by 120 6. is numerator of any fraction consequent. term of a ratio a the is is the antecedent. The ratio  is the inverse of the ratio . the symbol being a sign of division. 6 12 = . the denominator The the 157. the second term the consequent. The first 156.5. Thus the written a : ratio of a b is . b is a Since a ratio a fraction.) The ratio of 12 3 equals 4. etc. b. In the ratio a : ft. all principles relating to fractions if its may be af)plied to ratios.or a * b The ratio is also frequently (In most European countries this symbol is employed as the usual sign of division. instead of writing 6 times as large as ?>. " a Thus. a ratio is not changed etc.g." we may write a : b = 6. the antecedent. The ratio of first dividing the two numbers number by the and : is the quotient obtained by second. terms are multiplied or divided by the same number. 158. antecedent. A ratio is used to compare the magnitude of two is numbers. Simplify the ratio 21 3.
a and d are the extremes. b is the mean b. 1. 12. : is If the means of a proportion are equal. 3 8. 62:16. Transform the following unity 15. = or:6=c:(Z are The first 160. The last term d is the fourth proportional to a.RATIO Ex. 8^ hours. terms. 27 06: 18 a6. 159. term is the fourth proportional to the : In the proportion a b = c c?. 17. the second and fourth terms of a proportion are the and third terms are the means. 16a2 :24a&. 7f:6J. 6. The last first three. extremes. 18. AND PROPORTION ratio 5 5 : 121 first Transform the 3J so that the term will 33 : *~5 ~ 3 '4* 5 EXERCISE Find the value of the following 1. and the last term the third proportional to the first and second 161. Simplify the following ratios 7. 11. two  ratios. 3:4. : ratios so that the antecedents equal 16:64. : 1. either mean the mean proportional between the first and the last terms. and c is the third proportional to a and . 3. proportional between a and c. 5 f hours : 2. 10. 4:5f : 5. 9. b. : ay . 16. 61 : ratios 72:18. $24: $8. b and c the means. In the proportion a b : = b : c. J:l. equal 2. and c. 3:1}. 16 x*y 64 x*y : 24 48 xif. 7:4 T T 4 . 4. A proportion is a statement expressing the equality of proportions.
Instead of u If 4 or 4 ccm. if the ratio of any two of the first kind is equal \o the inverse ratio of the corresponding two of the other kind. and the other pair the extremes. 164. if the ratio of any two of the first kind.__(163. i. Hence the number of men required to do some work. are : : : inversely proportional. Clearing of fractions. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Quantities of one kind are said to be directly proper tional to quantities of another kind. : c. If (Converse of nq. Hence the weight of a mass of iron is proportional to its volume.) mn = pq. 163. then G ccm. a b : bettveen two numbers is equal to the square root Let the proportion be Then Hence 6 =b = ac.30 grams. In any proportion product of the extremes. " we " NOTE.122 162. 6 ccm. : : directly proportional may say. If the product of two numbers is equal to the product of two other numbers^ either pair may be made the means. and we divide both members by we have ?^~ E. 3 4. q~~ n . 2 165. ccm. = 30 grams 45 grams. t/ie product of the means b is equal to the Let a : =c : d. of iron weigh 45 grams.'* Quantities of one kind are said to be inversely proportional to quantities of another kind. or 8 equals the inverse ratio of 4 3. briefly. of iron weigh . 163. then 8 men can do it in 3 days. of a proportion.) b = Vac. ad = be. !. The mean proportional of their product. If 6 men can do a piece of work in 4 days. and the time necessary to do it. is equal to the ratio of the corresponding two of the other kind.e. pro portional.
is 4$ = 35.) Any is of these propositions may be proved by example : a method which illustrated by the following To prove This is b if d true ad  Or if But Hence ^ =^' o = be = be. These transformations are used to simplify proportions. a:c=b:d.) a b b=c b = c)d:c d.) = f f = 3 J. is Ex. if 6 : 7. AND PROPORTION x = 12 : 123 Find x.) II. Or IV. a III. then =d c. d d. (Composition. a+b a (Composition and : : : Division. If 6 : a a : 6 =c : : d. hence the proportion true. Change the proportion 4 5 = x 6 so that x becomes the : : last term. ad ( 163. V. (163.) (Called Alternation. I. 12x Hence a? = 42. By inversion 5 : 4 =6 : x. = 35 .) d 167. .PATIO Ex. 2. I. 166. (Division. 1. + b:b = c + d:d.) a + b:a = c + d:c. bd bd. (Frequently called Inversion. ad = be. Determine whether the following proportion 8:6 = and 5 x 7 7 : true rn 8 x t: 4.
e. 10. 8ajy:17 = i^:l^. 3n JJ =n x NOTE. = 2:3. E. 13 = 5f llf : : n 2. = 12 5ft. : x. 6 =4 : x. = 2:x. 8. To simplify m 3n ? = + *. mx tin Apply composition and division. 120:42 2 2 7. Simplify the following proportions. : 3 = 5 f x : x. EXERCISE 5^:8 = 2:3. 3. .g. Apply composition.:J 62 : Determine whether the following proportions are true 1. To simplify the proportion 8 Apply division. Or III. A parenthesis is understood about each term of a proportion. 11 : 5 : 15:22=101:15.!=!*. 9. = 180:125. 2. to simplify 48:21=32:7x. 3:3 1:1 divide the antecedents by 16. 1 : 3 3 Divide the antecedents by : = = 5 1 : jr. 5 5. To simplify the proportion 11 : 5:6 =4 x : x. i. 72:50 m n (m n) = (m + rif m 2 : 18:19 6 2 : = 24:25. = 7:2f 3J. 4. . x = 2. the consequents by 7. 5. its ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Alternation shows that a proportion is not altered when its consequents are multiplied or divided by antecedents or the same number. and determine whether they are true or not : 6. = ^2x x Or Dividing the antecedents by m. V. IV. = 20:7.124 IT.
1 and a. 6. 27. mx = ny.:ff. x:5 = y:2. 6x = 7y. 50. and 2/. 21 : 4z = 72 : 96. 1. ra. 7iy = 2:x. 20. rap. to: = 35:*. 22. a. 23. 21. : 53. 35. 4 and 16. 2 a and 18 a. to : a and 1. 8 a 2 and 2 b 2 Form two x 10 If ab proportions commencing with 5 from the equation 6 36. 26. . 6 x = y.j>. a?:15 15. to : 9 and 12. Find the third proportional 24. 46. 2 3 = y #. 42. if : 40. 52. 41. = 5 x 12. 12. form two proportions commencing with x : = xy. 14 and 21. 5. 29.RATIO AND PROPORTION Determine the value of x 11. 13.. 03:a?=135:20. y : b y : =x 1 =x : a. 51. 3. ratio of y. 28. 39.x: 6:5 a : x. Find the mean proportional 30. : a2 . Find the 37.8:1. = l^:18. ra + landra 1. b. 22: 3 19 2 : : 49. 2. ra 2 . 9 x = 2 y. 14. 16 and 28. 43. 38. 4 a*:15ab = 2a:x. 18. 16. 44. 3. 34. 3t. 5= 18 a? : a?. : . + fyx = cy.6 : : Find the fourth proportional 19. 4. 25. 47. (a : : 45. = 15o. 31. 17. f. : : Transform the following proportions so that only one contains x: 48. 33. = 2 + x: x. rag. 16 n* x = 28 w 70 ra. = 3 43 + x. 2. x m = y n. w. 2= 5 x x. a 2 and ab. : 125 40:28 = 15:0. terra 2:3 = 4.  32. 112:42 = 10:a.
(d) The areas (A and A') of two circles are to each other as (R and R'). under a pressure of 15 pounds per square inch has a volume of gas is A 16 cubic feet. What will be the volume if the pressure is 12 pounds per square inch ? . 56. and the time necessary for it. and the area of the smaller is 8 square inches. the area of the larger? the same. what 58. the squares of their radii (e) 55. (d) The sum of money producing $60 interest at 5%. State whether the quantities mentioned below are directly or inversely proportional (a) The number of yards of a certain kind of silk. 57. (e) The distance traveled by a train moving at a uniform rate. and the area of the rectangle. 1 (6) The circumferences (C and C ) of two other as their radii (R and A"). and the speed of the train. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBEA State the following propositions as proportions : T (7 and T) of equal altitudes are to each. and the time. (c) of a rectangle of constant width.126 54. (c) The volume of a body of gas (V) is circles are to each inversely propor tional to the pressure (P). the volume of a The temperature remaining body of gas inversely proportional to the pressure. A line 7^. A line 11 inches long on a certain 22 miles. The number of men (m) is inversely proportional to the number of days (d) required to do a certain piece of work. (b) The time a The length train needs to travel 10 miles.inches long represents map corresponds to how many miles ? The their radii. othei (a) Triangles as their basis (b and b'). and the : total cost. areas of circles are proportional to the squares of If the radii of two circles are to each other as circle is 4 : 7.
11 x f 7 x = 108. as 11 Let then : 1. When a problem requires the finding of two numbers which are to each other as m n. : Ex. it is advisable to represent these unknown numbers by mx and nx. 18 x = 108. Let A B AC=1x. Hence or Therefore Hence and = the first number. 2 x Or = 4. .RATIO AND PROPORTION 69. Therefore 7 = 14 = AC. x=2. = the second number. 4 inches long. 4 ' r i 1 (AC): (BO) =7: 5. x = 6. is A line AB.000 168. 2. What is the greatest distance a person can see from an elevation of 5 miles ? From h miles the Metropolitan Tower (700 feet high) ? feet high) ? From Mount McKinley (20. so that Find^K7and BO. 127 The number is of miles one can see from an elevation of very nearly the mean proportional between h and the diameter of the earth (8000 miles). 7 x = 42 is the second number. Then Hence BG = 5 x. AB = 2 x. Divide 108 into two parts which are to each other 7. 11 x x 7 Ex. 11 x = 66 is the first number. produced to a point C.
what are its parts ? (For additional examples see page 279. : 4. How many grams of hydrogen are contained in 100 : grams 10. 12. m in the ratio x: y % three sides of a triangle are 11. consists of 9 parts of copper and one part of ounces of each are there in 22 ounces of gun metal ? Air is a mixture composed mainly of oxygen and nitrowhose volumes are to each other as 21 79. find the number of square miles of land and of water. Divide 20 in the ratio 1 m. If c is divided in the ratio of the other two.000. Divide 44 in the ratio 2 Divide 45 in the ratio 3 : 9. How The long are the parts ? 15. How many 7. cubic feet of oxygen are there in a room whose volume is 4500 : cubic feet? 8. How many gen. 14. How many ounces of copper and zinc are in 10 ounces of brass ? 6. : Divide 39 in the ratio 1 : 5. and 15 inches. 7. 13. The three sides of a triangle are respectively a. Brass is an alloy consisting of two parts of copper and one part of zinc. What are the parts ? 5. 11. The total area of land is to the total area of is water as 7 18. and c inches. of water? Divide 10 in the ratio a b. : Divide a in the ratio 3 Divide : 7. Water consists of one part of hydrogen and 8 parts of If the total surface of the earth oxygen. 12. and the longest is divided in the ratio of the other two.000 square miles. A line 24 inches long is divided in the ratio 3 5. 3.128 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 63 1. 9. : 197. 6. Gunmetal tin.) . 2.
If satisfied degree containing two or more by any number of values of 2oj3y = 6. However. 2 y = .. y = 1. etc. expressing a y.y=. The root of (4) if K 129 . values of x and y.e. x = 1. is x = 7. =. if there is different relation between x and * given another equation. the equations have the two values of y must be equal.L x If If = 0. An equation of the first unknown numbers can be the unknown quantities. y (3) these unknown numbers can be found. From (3) it follows y 10 x and since by the same values of x and to be satisfied y.CHAPTER XI SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS 169. which substituted in (2) gives y both equations are to be satisfied by the same Therefore. a? (1) then I. such as + = 10. there is only one solution. y = 5 /0 \ (2) of values. Hence 2s 5 o = 10 _ ^ (4) = 3. if . the equation is satisfied by an infinite number of sets Such an equation is called indeterminate. Hence.
viz. 6 and 4 x y not simultaneous. and 3 x + 3 y =. 3. ~ 50. The process of combining several equations so as make one unknown quantity disappear is called elimination. cannot be reduced to the same form. 4y .26.3 y = 80. 174. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA A system of simultaneous equations is tions that can be satisfied a group of equa by the same values of the unknown numbers. (3) (4) Multiply (2) by  Subtract (4) from (3).130 170. By By Addition or Subtraction. y I 171. 26 y = 60. The first set of equations is also called consistent. same relation. Independent equations are equations representing different relations between the unknown quantities such equations . Solve y=6x 6x f Multiply (1) by 2. for they cannot be satisfied by any value of x and y. Therefore. to The two methods I. for they express the x f y 10. E. 30 can be reduced to the same form f 5 y Hence they are not independent. unknown quantity. = . A system of two simultaneous equations containing two quantities is solved by combining them so as to obtain unknown one equation containing only one 173. are simultaneous equations. of elimination most frequently used II. 6x . Any set of values satisfying 5 x + 6 y = 60 will also satisfy the equation 3 x f. ELIMINATION BY ADDITION OR SUBTRACTION 175. y = 2. 21 y .24.X. the last set inconsistent. 172. Substitution. for they are 2 y = 6 are But 2 x 2. x H 2y satisfied 6 and 7 x 3y = by the values x = I.
are like. subtract the equations.3 y = 47. 10 . = 406. x = 10. preferably 3x Therefore + 4 = 13 x = 3. 5 13 . 37. 25 x . Therefore Substitute (6) in (1). 10 + 5 1 = 135. Check. EXERCISE answers: 64 Solve the following systems of equations and check the ' .15 y 39 x + 15 y Add (3) and (4).SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS the simpler one (1). 3. Therefore Check. + 2. = 235. y = 1. coefficients If the signs of these if unlike. 8 2. 131 Substitute this value of y in either of the given equations. 60 . whose coefficients In general. add the equations.14 =8. Multiply (1) by Multiply (2) by 5.3 1 = 47. x = 10. 3y = 3. Transposing. eliminate the letter have the lowest common multiple. 3. y = 2.2 = 6.2 = 9 + 4 = 13. Hence to eliminate Multiplyy if necessaryy the equations by such will make the coefficients of one unknown quantity equal. by addition or subtraction : numbers as (3) (4) (6) 176. 64 x = 040.
13. I oj 5y = 17. v ^ = ll. = 6.1ft is 1 fl<>* r A + 22/ = 40.4. ' 12. [2o. f 3# ?/ = 0.5 y = 2. * + 3 y = 50.3. + 2/ 17. _.ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 5. I ~ y~~> 22. x 11. ] ^ . J I y = 1U. f 3X 7x 14. I . + 3?/ { 3 x f 2 y = 39. .9 *. = 24. 7 ' 1fi fl . 9 1 r 20. 13 61 l7a. ' 94 ^4 ' 15 ' ^  25 * 60.v 23. I i 3 a.f2/ ' = 50. i 3.3. 19< I a. = 41. O t K 8.
(1) (2) Transposing 2. 133 Solve 7 y in (1) (27.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS ELIMINATION BY SUBSTITUTION 177. EXERCISE Solve by substitution : 65 f5aj l3a. tity in the Substitute this value for one unknown quan other equation. = 4#8. x ) ^"" 13. and solve the resulting equation. Substituting this value in (2) 3 7 ( ?/ t " 8 +2y= + 4 y 25 y Clearing of fractions. = 13. = 2y + 10. 3. = 2. Hence to eliminate by substitution : Find in one equation the value of an unknown quantity in terms of the other. . This value substituted in either (1) or (2) gives x 178. = 60. 21 y 24 Therefore y = 26. 8. I3ar + 2y and dividing by .
6)7(y7)==18. f8(z8)9(y9) = 26. . From 9 = 36. + 212y4 = 14. Whenever one unknown quantity can be removed without clearing of fractions. 7 y = 6. (7) (7) (8) . Solve 2 7 (2) Multiplying (1) by 12 and (2) by 14. 2 y = . and check the answers: + 5(y + 5) = 64. x = l. 3 (1) Ex. 3. 29 x = 29. 7x_2y=3. (8) 1 +8 2 _ 7 EXERCISE 66 Solve by any method. however. 21z6y=9. it is advantageous to do so in most cases.134 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 179. (3) (4) (6) (6) Multiplying (6) by 2 and (6) by Sx + 6y = Adding and 3S. 43 + 8f3y + 7z From (3). 4* + 3y = 19. \ \6(a. the equation must be cleared of fractions and . Substituting in (6) . (4). simplified before elimination is possible. (4t(x\) ' ""^IT 3.3.
10 2a?5 17.1) + 5(6 y . 4~2v 3a?2^4 3 1 18. . J 9. a. .f2 2. yM a. = 3. 10. ff "*" _13 ~ 4 2' 15. 14. 135 "25 ' 6 ' tsjj ' r4(5. 12. +y 2 .SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS 3x 4. 4(5 x l2(315 8 8. a. . 16. 2 4^ ~ 3 = 13.1) = 121. 4 11.
f y .136 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 4_1 2' 19. . In many equations it is advantageous at first not to consider x and y as unknown quantities. and y. 180. * ((* (( . {.Q ^ 4 21.#. 3x\" 1 23 24.and x y . but some expressions involving x. ?~y . 22. e. <X + 20. l_3 4' 2/41 2 a.
Substituting x = 3 in (1).4 x = 4 xy. 15 y + 8 x . Dividing by 11 3 = #. y. Clearing of fractions. x 2x(2).SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS x Ex. 33 = 11 x. y 4. can also be solved Examples method. (4) (6) (6) (7) 2x(5). x 3. by the regular Clearing (1) and (2) of fractions.3 xy. Therefore y=4. etc. . of this type. 1. however. EXERCISE Solve : 67 2' 1. 137 Solve y y (1) . y 1. (4) + (G). . 2* * x 2. (2) (3) a.
LITERAL SIMULTANEOUS EQUATIONS 181. 4 13. x 8.= 5. bmx = en anx anx + bny (3) (4) ftp. x y 5. . Solve (1) (2) (1) (2) (8) x x (4). 10 " 12 25 U y 6. 1. = en. 21 9 . 6. 253 7.= o 6. y MOi y a. Ex. 6w3 + bny = 6p. n.138 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 4 6 K . x y 331 9.
(1) (2) (7) an bm (6) (7) x w. w. Uniting. 6.y = = 9a + 46. amx + bmy amx f any = any (an cm. . 139 (an bm)x = en bp. From and L the same simultaneous equations find d in terms of a. ny = fy/ I sc 1.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS Uniting. d. s in 11. x 12. x a. . and I if 13. d. Dividing. and I.cm y= EXERCISE 68 bm f 6y = c. f 5. ax + by = 2 a&. .W. x f my = 1. apan cm. fax f = l. ap. bmy bm}y ap cm. f 6^ [ nx f my == m. W . From the same equations find s in terms of a. a Find a and terms of n. 14. .
9z =11 x (6) Eliminating x from (4) and (5).140 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA SIMULTANEOUS EQUATIONS INVOLVING MORE THAS TWO UNKNOWN QUANTITIES three unknown quantities three simultaneous independent equations must be given.3=4.8 = 1. y =* 2. etc.16.12 y + 6 z = . 4. 6. 1.by 2. 20. = 3. (1) (2) (3) Eliminate y. 8 x . Multiplying (1) by Multiplying (2) by 4. ties are Similarly. the to the solution problem reduced of two simultaneous equations containing two unknown quantities. (8) 2. 3. 4. 182. To solve equations containing By tions.13.15z=12 Adding. . eliminating one and is the unknown quant iff/ from any pair of equasame unknown quantity froni another pair.lf> z . Multiplying (2) + = 20 12 2 10 (4) Multiplying (3) Adding. (4) (5). 3y = Hence Check. by 3. 3. x + 12 y .1+4. f 3y 12 =s 8.25.3 = 8. (6) + 3 Therefore Substituting the values of x and z 2 x = (7) in (1). Ex.2 + 3. Solve the following system of equations: = 8. 17 x 100 z Therefore Substitute this value in (4). = 30.2 + 4. 1. 8B12y + 17 x 16z z = 32 Oa + 12?/. l. four equations containing four unknown quantireduced to three equations containing three unknown quantities.
y f ?/ M 2? = 4. + 2 y f 2 = 35. 2 . ~6?/ 5. + y f z = 15. 49. a? 11. 7. f 2 i/ f z = 14.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS EXERCISE 10 x 69 141 1. 8. k 2/ f 2 x a. == 6. a? + 709 = 26. 2 4. 12. 10. x 13. 14. 4 = 42. 2z = 40. 15 2 = 45.
23.6 2. = 8*. =s 20.. . .2 a. . 19. 60. 4. 16. (3 _.42 = 2. 84 21. x _2 3 ' 0742! J 18. 27. ? = llz.3 y + . 32. = 5. 1510 4 17. ?/ 3x = 0. 22.142 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 15. ^ = 2.
+2+ 6 = 8. = l. however. . and Then 100 + 10 y +z the digit in the units' place. symbols: x + y +z 8. The sum of three digits of a number is 8. unknown quantity by every verbal statement as an equation. Find the number. to express it is difficult two of the required digits in terms hence we employ 3 letters for the three unknown quantities. (1) 100s + lOy + z + 396 = 100* + 10y + x. + z = 2p. Let x y z = the the digit in the hundreds' place. and if 396 be added to the number. as many verbal statements as there are unknown quantities. = 2 m. . the first and the last digits will be interchanged. either directly or implied. Problems involving several unknown quantities must contain. # 4.2/ 2/ PROBLEMS LEADING TO SIMULTANEOUS EQUATIONS 183. The digit in the tens' place is  of the sum of the other two digits. the number. and to express In complex examples. 1 = 2. Ex.) it is advisable to represent a different letter. The three statements of the problem can now be readily expressed in . 1 digit in the tens place. Check. Obviously of the other . Simple examples of this kind can usually be solved by equations involving only one unknown every quantity. M=i. ( 99.y 125 (3) The solution of these equations gives x Hence the required number is 125. 2 = 6. x : z =1 : 2. y 31. + 396 = 521. z + x = 2 n.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS 143 x 29. 1. 2 = 1(1+6). y * z 30.
B. increased by one. (1) (2) 12. 4 x = 24. 6 x 4 = 24. ELEMENTS OF ALGE13KA If both numerator and denominator of a fraction be . 3. Ex. y = 3. = Hence the fraction is f. 3+1 5+1 4_2. 5_ _4_ A. + I 2 (1) and These equations give x Check. the fraction Let and then y is reduced to nurn orator. C. 2. By expressing the two statements in symbols. . = 8. 2. who travels 2 miles an hour faster than B. Since the three men traveled the same distance. From (3) Hence xy Check. 8 = xy + x xy = xy f 3 x 2 y = 2.144 Ex. the distance traveled by A. x y = the = the x denominator . x 3x4y = 12. we obtain. 3 xand y I 1 (2) 5. and C travel from the same place in the same B starts 2 hours after A and travels one mile per hour faster than A. starts 2 hours after B and overtakes A at the same How many miles has A then traveled? instant as B. (3) C4) = 24 miles. the fraction is reduced to  and if both numerator and denominator of the reciprocal of the fraction be dimin ished by one. Find the fraction. direction. x 3 = 24. xy a: 2y 4y 2. = the fraction. Or (4)2x(3).
}. the value of the fraction is fa. Find the numbers. to the number the digits will be interchanged. and the second one increased by 5 equals twice number. 6. the digits will be interchanged. if its numerator and its denominator are increased by 1. the last two digits are interchanged. the fraction is reduced fraction. 7. ? What 9. number by the first 3. If 27 is 10. If 4 be Tf 3 be is J. and four times the first digit exceeds the second digit by 3. it is reduced to J. Find the numbers. Five times a certain number exceeds three times another 11. . Four times a certain number increased by three times another number equals 33. Find the fraction. Find the number. and twice the numerator What is the fracincreased by the denominator equals 15. 5. the number (See Ex. and the fourth 3. part of their difference equals 4. and the numerator increased by 4. its value added to the denominator. Find the numbers. A fraction is reduced to J. tion ? 8. added to the numerator of a fraction. 2. If 9 be added to the number. Half the sum of two numbers equals 4. both terms. The sum 18 is is and if added of the digits of a number of two figures is 6. 183.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS EXERCISE 70 145 1. and its denomi nator diminished by one. and the two digits exceeds the third digit by 3. to L <> Find the If the numerator and the denominator of a fraction be If 1 be subtracted from increased by 3. the Find the fraction. Find the number. fraction is reduced to \. If the denominator be doubled. The sum of the first sum of the three digits of a number is 9. the fraction equals .) added to a number of two digits. 1. If the numerator of a fraction be trebled. and the second increased by 2 equals three times the first.
Two cubic centimeters of gold and three cubic centimeters of silver weigh together 69 J. in 8 years to $8500. now. Find the rates of interest. If the sum of how old is each now ? at invested $ 5000. Find the weight of one cubic centimeter of gold and one cubic centimeter of silver. 14. and 4 %. If the rates of interwere exchanged. and B's age is \ the sum of A's and C's ages. and partly at 4 %. 19. Twice A's age exceeds the sum of B's and C's ages by 30. partly at 5 %. A man invested $750. partly at 5% and partly at 4%. and The 6 investment brings $ 70 more interest than the 5 % % 4% investments together. What was the sum and rates est The sums of $1500 and $2000 are invested at different and their annual interest is $ 190. 5 %. 13.grams.000 is partly invested at 6%.146 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 11. Three cubic centimeters of gold and two cubic centimeters of silver weigh together 78 grains. How 6 %. What was the amount of each investment ? 15. Ten years ago A was B was as as old as B is old as will be 5 years hence . What was the amount of each investment ? A man % 5%. and the 5% investment brings $15 more interest than the 4 % investment. and money and 17. the rate of interest ? What was the sum of A sum of money at simple interest amounted in 2 years to $090. Find their present ages. . respectively ? 16. the annual interest would be $ 195. 12. the rate of interest? 18. a part at 6 and the remainder bringing a total yearly interest of $260. Ten years ago the sum of their ages was 90. and in 5 years to $1125. bringing a total yearly interest of $530. A sum of $10. much money is invested at A sum of money at simple interest amounted in 6 years to $8000. and 5 years ago their ages is 55.
BE. and e. B find angles a.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS 147 20. 24. BC = 7 inches. On /). If one angle exceeds the sum of the other two by 20. and F. and F '(see diagram). and $15 for each sheep. and their difference by GO . andCL4 = 8. angle c = angle d. triangle Tf AD. Find the parts of the ABC touching the three sides if AB = 9. and sheep. Find their rates of walking. points. and angle BCA = 70. $ 50 for each cow. for $ 740. 25. and GE = CF. and AC = 5 inches. and CF? is a circle inscribed in the 7<7. c. cows. . ED = BE. is the center of the circum scribed circle. BC=7. BD = HE. In the annexed diagram angle a = angle b. 1 NOTE. the three sides of a triangle E. 23. and angle e angle/. the length of NOTE. what is that = OF. and F. what are the angles of the triangle ? 22. three AD = AF. It takes A two hours longer 24 miles. An C touch ing the sides in D. A farmer sold a number of horses. and CE If AB = G inches. he would walk it in two hours less than than to travel B B. The sum of the 3 angles of a triangle is 180. The number of sheep was twice the number of horses and cows together. A r ^ A circle is inscribed in triangle sides in D. are taken so ABC. receiving $ 100 for each horse. but if A would double his pace. If angle ABC = GO angle BAG = 50. How many did he sell of each if the total number of animals was 24? 21. then AD = AF. E. respectively. .
and whose ordinate is usually denoted by (X ?/). 2). lines PM the and P^V are coordinates called point P. B. and respectively represented Dare and by (3 7 4). is the abscissa. 186. (2. and PN _L YY'. ?/. PN. the ordinate of point P. Thus the points A. hence The coordinates lying in opposite directions are negative.. and ordinates abore the xaxis are considered positive . and PJ/_L XX'. is The point whose abscissa is a. the ordinate by ?/.CHAPTER XII* GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS AND EQUATIONS 184. and point the origin. PN are given. (3. or its equal OM. . jr. The of Coordinates. (7. Abscissas measured to the riyht of the origin. It' Location of a point. then the position of point is determined if the lengths of P P3f and 185. YY' theyaxis. 3). The abscissa is usually denoted by line XX' is called the jraxis. (2. * This chapter may be omitted on a 148 reading. PM. two fixed straight lines XX' and YY' meet in at right angles. and r or its equal OA is . first 3).
4). (5.and(l.4). =3? is If a point lies in the avaxis. 12. paper ruled with two sets of equidistant and parallel linos intersecting at right angles. 1). 6. 8. (4. Plot the points (6.(!. 0). . 0). Graphs. 3). (3. 2). (4. 4. (2. . 3.e. Plot the points: (4. (1. the mutual dependence of the two quantities may be represented either by a table or by a diagram. What are the coordinates of the origin ? If 187. all all points points lie lie whose abscissas equal zero ? whose ordinates equal zero? y) if y 10. 4) from the origin ? 7. (0.) EXERCISE 1. (4.3). !). What Draw is the distance of the point (3. 4) and (4. Graphic constructions are greatly facilitated by the use of crosssection paper. 3). 2J). which of its coordinates known ? 13. (4. and measure their distance. (4. Plot the points: (4. Draw the triangle whose vertices are respectively (l. the quadrilateral whose vertices are respectively (4. 2. i. 0). Plot the points : (0. (See diagram on page 151. (0. 1). 0). (4. 2). whose coordinates are given NOTE. 3).GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS The is 149 process of locating a point called plotting the point. 4). What is the locus of (a?. two variable quantities are so related that changes of the one bring about definite changes of the other. 11. 71 2).2). Where do Where do Where do all points lie whose ordinates tfqual 4? 9.1). 6.
ABCN y the socalled graph of To 15 find from the diagram the temperature on June to be 15 . C. A graphic and it impresses upon the eye all the peculiarities of the changes better and quicker than any numerical compilations. we obtain an uninterrupted sequence etc. 10 . 1. D. may be represented graphby making each number in one column the abscissa. . Thus the first table produces 12 points. in like manner the average temperatures for every value of the time. 188. may be found on Jan. ure the ordinate of F. and the corresponding number in the adjacent column the ordinate of a point.. A. 15. or the curved line the temperature. ically each representing a temperature at a certain date. B. representation does not allow the same accuracy of results as a numerical table. however. By representing of points. from January 1 to December 1. and the amount of gas subjected to pressures from pound The same data. we meas1 . Thus the average temperature on May on April 20.150 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA tables represent the average temperature Thus the following of New volumes 1 Y'ork City of a certain to 8 pounds. but it indicates in a given space a great many more facts than a table.
the rise and fall of wages. EXERCISE From the diagram questions 1. (c) January 15. The engineer. (b) July 15. concise representation of a number of numerical data is required. and to deduce general laws therefrom. (d) November 20. physician. Daily papers represent ecpnoniical facts graphically. Whenever a clear. the matics. etc. uses them. as the prices and production of commodities. the merchant. . : 72 find approximate answers to the following Determine the average temperature of New York City on (a) May 1.GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS 151 i55$5St5SS 3{utts33<0za3 Graphs are possibly the most widely used devices of applied matheThe scientist uses them to compile the data found from experiments. the graph is applied.
152 2. is 10. How much.? is is the average temperature of New York 6. 1? 11 0. At what date is the average temperature highest the highest average temperature? ? What What is 4. 1 ? does the temperature increase from 11. is ture we would denote the time during which the temperaabove the yearly average of 11 as the warm season. When the average temperature below C. June July During what month does the temperature increase most ? rapidly 12.. During what month does the temperature change least? 14. 1 to Oct. ? 9. (d) 9 0. (freezing point) ? 7. ELEMENTS OF ALGEKRA At what date (a) G or dates is New York is C. During what months above 18 C. (1) 10 C. At what date is the average temperature lowest? the lowest average temperature ? 5. (c) the average temperature oi 1 C.. From what date to what date does the temperature increase (on the average)? 8. How much warmer 1 ? on the average is it on July 1 than on May 17. When What is the temperature equal to the yearly average of the average temperature from Sept. from what date to what date would it extend ? If . 15. ?  3. During what month does the temperature decrease most rapidly ? 13.. Which month is is the coldest of the year? Which month the hottest of the year? 16. on 1 to the average.
19. Hour Temperature . Draw .GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS 18. in a similar manner as the temperature graph was applied in examples 118. a temperature chart of a patient. Draw a graph for the 23. From the table on page 150 draw a graph representing the volumes of a certain body of gas under varying pressures. NOTE. transformation of meters into yards.09 yards. One meter equals 1. Construct a diagram containing the graphs of the mean temperatures of the following three cities (in degrees Fahren heit) : 21. 20. 153 1? When is the average temperature the same as on April Use the graphs of the following examples for the solution of concrete numerical examples. Represent graphically the populations : (in hundred thou sands) of the following states 22.
+7 If will respec assume the values 7. 2 8 y' + 3 y is a function of x and y. Show graphically the cost of the REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS OF ONE VARIABLE 189. from R Represent graphically the = to R = 8 inches. If dealer in bicycles gains $2 on every wheel he sells.154 24. 28.5 grams.. etc. 3. (Assume ir~ all circles >2 2 . 2 . to 27. . 1 to 1200 copies. amount to $8. if each copy sells for $1.50. books from for printing. e.inch.50 per copy (Let 100 copies = about \. and $.) T circumferences of 25. the daily average expenses for rent. 2 is called x 2 xy + 7 is a function of x. binding.) On the same diagram represent the selling price of the books. 2. the value of a of this quantity will change. if x assumes successively the tively values 1. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA If C 2 is the circumference of a circle whose radius is J2. 29. x increases will change gradually from 13. An expression involving one or several letters a function of these letters. x* x 19. x 7 to 9. then C irJl. if 1 cubic centimeter of iron weighs 7. 2 x f 7 gradually from 1 to 2. 26. A 10 wheels a day. Represent graphically the distances traveled by a train in 3 hours at a rate of 20 miles per hour.. to 20 Represent graphically the weight of iron from cubic centimeters. The initial cost of cost of manufacturing a certain book consists of the $800 for making the plates. etc.g. gas. if he sells 0. 4. represent his daily gain (or loss).50. 3. 190. function If the value of a quantity changes.. 9. Represent graphically the cost of butter from 5 pounds if 1 pound cost $.
1 the points (3. Q. and (3. Draw the graph of x2 f. may . may.g. ( 2. is A constant a quantity whose value does not change in the same discussion. 155 A variable is a quantity whose value changes in the same discussion. The values of func192. 9). If a more exact diagram is required. 2). etc. hence various values of x The values of a function for the be given in the form of a numerical table. 3 (0. To obtain the values of the functions for the various values of the following arrangement be found convenient : . (1^. plot points which lie between those constructed above. and join the points in order. 2 (1. Ex. is supposed to change. E.0). be also represented by a graph. while 7 is a constant. . 2. (2. 3 50. 4). to con struct the graph x of x 2 construct a series of 3 points whose abscissas rep2 resent X) and whose ordi1 tions .1). J). construct '. values of x2 nates are the corresponding i. x a variable.e. however. (1.GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS 191. Thus the table on page 1G4 gives the values of the functions x 2 x3 and Vsr. Graph of a function. a*. 9). as 1.2 x may 4 from x = 4. 4). to x = 4. it is In the example of the preceding article.1). for x=l.
2 x . the function is frequently represented by a single letter. rf 71 . = 0. and joining in order produces the graph ABC. Thus in the above example. j/=3. It can be proved that the graph is a straight of a function of the first degree line. and join(0.. Ex. . 2 4 and if y = x f. etc. Draw y z x the graph of = 2x3. 4). If If Locating ing by a 3) and (4. as y. Thus 4x + 7. (To avoid very large ordinatcs.. (2. A Y' function of the first degree is an integral rational function involving only the power of the variable. (4. 4J. or ax + b f c are funclirst tions of the first degree. 1). r */ +* 01 .156 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Locating the points( 4. 2. if /* 4 > 1i > > ?/ = 193. = 4. 194. y = 6. the scale unit of the ordinatcs is taken smaller than that of the x.) For brevity. 5).20). straight line produces the required graph... hence two points are sufficient for the construction of these graphs. (3..4). 7 .
2J. i. The values of a?. + 4. 1J. 1J. a* 13. 2 2 a. and (a) (6) (c) (d) The values of the function if x = \. Jar . Draw the graph of : from #= 4 to 05 = 4. (If) Va25.8)'.or. from x VlO'S". 2. 4 a. y = 2x = 4. . if"a. (/) The roots of the equation x The roots of the equation a2 4 x f 2 = 1. 9. Draw the graph ofy=2j2# and from the diagram determine : #2 from # = 2 to a?=4. (</) The roots of the equation x2 4 x f 2 = 2. 1. (a) (6) (c) (d) (e) The values of y. 2 or 2 20. 15. ?/ a. 4a? I. . (/) Vl2^ (0) V5. 6. (ft) (_ 1. The value of x that produces the smallest value it* of the function. x+1. The values of x that make 2 4 a? + 2 = 0. 19. Draw the graph of or from the diagram determine: 4 a? +2 a. = 4. if a. 21. 3 a 8. J.5)2. a ar. The smallest value of the function. (C ) (2.GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS EXERCISE 73 157 Draw 1. a? 1. 2 2. a? 2 4. a? the graphs of the following functions: + 2. 8. 3. 5. The roots of the equation 2 {2x a*2 = l. 3. 1 8 10. the function. xz + x. The values of a*. fa 17. 16. 2 4 x f 2 = 0. 2 a. (7i) (c) 23. xl. 1J. (d) (^) 1 to and from 2 . 14. a. l. 22. 2. 2J. = The values of a*.5)2. 2x + 3x a?.2 4 # + 2 equals 2.e. if the function equals zero. The roots of the equation 2 f 2 a a*2 = 0. 11. 7. if y = 2. 18. a?. 2 a. 12. the diagram find (a) (e) (3. 23x. 6 fa.
9 F. . to Fahrenheit readings : Change 10 C.. what values of x make the function x2 + 2x 4 = (see 192).24. Show any convenient number). we have to measure the abscissas of the intersection of the 195. it is evidently possible Thus to find to find graphically the real roots of an equation.) scale are expressed in degrees of the Centigrade (C. Therefore x = 1.. 32 F. that the graph of two variables that are directly proportional is a straight line passing through the origin (assume for c 27.. i. Represent 26. y= formula graphically. then y = . that graph with the o>axis. if c Draw the locus of this equation = 12. From grade equal to (c) the diagram find the number of degrees of centi1 F.158 24... If two variables x and y are directly proportional.) scale by the formula (a) Draw the graph of C = f (F32) from to (b) 4 F F=l. the abscissas of 3.where x c is a constant.24 or x = P and Q. 1 C. GRAPHIC SOLUTION OF EQUATIONS INVOLVING ONE UNKNOWN QUANTITY Since we can graphically determine the values of x make a function of x equal to zero. then cXj where c is a constant. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Degrees of the Fahrenheit (F. A body moving with a uniform t velocity of 3 yards per second moves in this seconds a distance d =3 1. C. 14 F. If two variables x and y are inversely proportional.e. 25.
(a) (6) 9. de = termine the points where If the function is 1. 12. a: (a) (6) (c) 6a. z 2 4x 6 a2 6. 14. draw through 1) a line parallel to the #axis. 2 and 1. = 0. . 0.GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS 196. Such equations in general have two roots. tion x 2 159 To +2x solve the equa4 1. 6. viz. the points may be found otherwise by inspection. and c represent \3 2 1 1/2 known quantities. (0. 10. 7. a2 2a. 4.f 9 = 0. 8. + + = where a. An equation of the the form ax2 bx c 0. is called a quadratic equation. 13. crosssection paper is used. 11. (a) x2 = 0. Y' EXERCISE 4x_ 7 74 : Solve graphically the following equations 1. 3.7 2 a 5 = 0. 197. and determine the abscis 1 sas of the points of intersection with the graph. 6. or 5 2.
Ex. Hence we may join (0. 1) and 0). 199. Ex. 4) and them by straight line AB (3. X'2 Locating the points (2.1. that can be reduced Thus to represent x   L^ \ x =2  graphically. locate points (0.2 y ~ 2. if y = is 0. == 2. and join the required graph. represent graphically equations of the form y function of x ( 1D2). 4) and (2. first degree. we can construct the graph or locus of any Since we can = equation involving two to the above form. ?/ =4 AB. because their graphs are straight lines. and joining by a straight line. Thus If in points without solving the equation for the preceding example: 3x s . Draw the locus of 4 x + 3 y = 12. 2). i. 0). unknown quantities. y= A and construct x (  graphically. y y 2. Represent graphically Solving for y ='"JJ y. solve for ?/. NOTE. y = l. Hence. 3x _ 4 . Hence if if x x  2. Equations of the first degree are called linear equations.2. fc = 3. T . If the given equation is of the we can usually locate two y. If x = 0. ?/.160 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA GRAPHIC SOLUTION OF EQUATIONS INVOLVING TWO UNKNOWN QUANTITIES 198. (f . produces the 7* required locus.e. = 0. . Graph of equations involving two unknown quantities.
201. 203. parallel have only one point of intersection. The every coordinates of point in satisfy the equation (1). AB but only one point in AB also satisfies (2). linear equations have only one pair of roots. and CD.57. Graphical solution of a linear system. The coordinates of every point of the graph satisfy the given equation.GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS 161 200. To find the roots of the system. Solve graphically the equations : (1) \xy\. By the method of the preceding article construct the graphs AB and and CD of (1) (2) respectively. equation x= By measuring 3.1=0. Since two straight lines which are not coincident nor simultaneous Ex. viz. P. 3. AB y = . The roots of two simultaneous equations are represented by the coordinates of the point (or points) at which their graphs intersect. (2) . the point of intersection of the coordinate of P. and every set of real values of x and y satisfying the given equation is represented by a point in the locus. we obtain the roots. 202.15.
obtain the graph (a circle) AB C joining. = 0. Solve graphically the : fol lowing system = = 25. which consist of a pair of parallel lines.0). etc. 5.5. 2. 3). Locating two points of equation (2). 4. 1. 4. (4. Using the method of the preceding para. Measuring the coordinates of P. 2 equation x 3). the graph of points roots. 3x 2 y = 6. construct CD the locus of (2) of intersection. This is clearly shown by the graphs of (1) arid (2). AB the locus of (1).9. 5. 0) and (0. (4.5.g.. Solving (1) for y. and joining by a straight line. parallel graphs indicate inconsistent equations. 4. Inconsistent equations.y~ Therefore. there are two pairs of By measuring the coordinates of : P and Q we find 204. 3. 0. we of the + y* = 25. 4. 1.  4. (1) (2) cannot be satisfied by the same values of x and y. and + 3). 4. intersection.0. 4. and . The equations 2 4 = 0. (2. (1) (2) C. e. they are inconsistent. . P graphs meet in two and $. Since the two  we obtain DE. 4. In general. 3. 2. 4.162 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA graph. 0. x2 . There can be no point of and hence no roots. 3. i.e. if x equals respectively 0. the point we obtain Ex. V25 5. Locating the points (5. y equals 3.
20. as 2^3 and 3x f ==l 2y =6 tical have identical graphs. 17. 7. and solve each If there are no solutions. state reasons. y 2 4.. 16 22. . 6. 2x 3?/=6. y = 4. a+r/=6. if possible. 4. 16 23. idengraphs indicate dependent equations. 2. y=x + 5. EXERCISE 75 Construct the loci of the following equations: 1. Draw system. 10. a. '163 Dependent equations. vice versa.GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS 205. 8. 19. 3. 1 6* + 7 y = 3. \ 2x + 3^ . and. x~y=0. 9. y= a2 2x y6. the graphs of the following systems. 5.
CUBES.14 y = .y). 30. 25. 3 31.164 24. 29 . TABLE OF SQUARES. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA "~ U # .8. AND SQUARE HOOTS . 28. 26. 4 a = 3(6 . Show that the same values of x and y cannot satisfy the : three equations x f 5y = 5.
( a) is positive. involution repeated multiplication. fa. ^4/? it According to 50. To find (#(**&)" is a problem of involution. ( 3 a268 ) ( a 8 = _ (2m ) (8 ____ 16 *)"" 27 n 165 .faa a a a Obviously 1. = a2 5 =6 (5 )* n m n (a ) = a (a 2 3 ) a2 b5 . 8. All even powers of a negative quantity arc positive. ( 2 aft ) 9 is negative. Involution is the operation of raising a quantity to a Since a power effected positive integral power.CHAPTER XIII INVOLUTION 206. . 52. ( 3 2 6 3 )* = ( 3 a2 6 8 ) . follows that 3. 2. All odd powers of a negative quantity are negative. According to 1. a special kind of product.a2 . = 6+ 5 + +fi = fi 62. 3 f a = f a = +. on to in factors 4. powers of a positive quantity are positive. etc. a = a3 . a2 6 6 = ?> 2+2 5 5 + 2 = a. INVOLUTION OF MONOMIALS 208. 2. Law of Signs. is may be by 207.
V V/ 13. 5. 24. 6.166 To find To To power. a product to a given power. \ 3 J '  MW 10. The square of a binomial was discussed in 63. (a ) 2 5 . ^/2?n?A 4 ' 30. ' 27 ' / _4_ _4_V ' 11. amVy) 3 . 4. V 3xy )' INVOLUTION OF BINOMIALS 209. raise ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA the exponent of the power of a power. (^^) 2 . 76 : (>y. 4 /2mV. 2.6) = a . (a ) 2 4  3. (277171 )*. raise a fraction to a power. The & cube of a binomial (a 3 3 _j_ we obtain by multiplying (a 2 2 + 6) 1 by + and = a + 3a 6 + 3a6 + * 6) .3 a 6 f 3 a6 . 3 2 2 8 . 210. 16. multiply tht raise each of its factors to given exponents.6 (a 8 8 . 2 11 (afc ) . . 15. raise its terms to the required EXERCISE Perform the operations indicated 1. (2ar). the required power.
(6m+2w) (3 8 .6 2 8 ft) . Ex.3(3 a*)a(y = 27 a . An 1. 13. are obtained by multiplication. frequently called ex. + 4aj) 3 .) 14. 8. and decreases in each succeeding term by L .3 y. 16. 167 Find the cube of 2 x f. 9. 2. (3a (a (4 62 l) 3 . a.27 ay + 9 x y2n 2 EXERCISE 77 Perform the operations indicated: 1. 2 a8 3a2 + 3al. 7. (a + &)8 . 5 5 4 2 2 3 s . 1. + 3a 6 + 3a& f& ^Sx^ + S^ ^ 3 2 2 3 . 3 . 12. 2. 2 . (3af26) 8 . or*  Find the cube root of 19. = s= (2s) 8 a. . TJie exponent of a in the first term is the same as the expo2. (m2) 8 (w+w) 3 8 10.INVOLUTION Ex.y . (afl) . . 21. The higher powers of binomials. 3 3 + 3(2aO*(Sy) + 3(2aj)(3y)> + 36 z2y + 54 xy* + 27 y3 . nent of the binomial. (3 (l I) 2 8 . Find the cube 2 6 n of 3 x* . 4 4 2 2 3 4 . : a 20. as follows : + 6) = o + 3 d'b + 3 a6 + + 6) = a + 4 a?b + 6 a & + 4 a6 + b (a = a + 5 a 6 + 10 a*b + 10 a 6 f 5 aM + 6 (a + 6) 8 8 2 (a b*. 6. 3. (5 (1 a) 3 . 5. 15.y) = (3 y?y . 86 3 w + 3 w + ra8 126 + G6l. 8 (a??/) 3 . 1 f 3 2 3 . 18. examination of these results shows that : The number of terms is 1 greater than the exponent of the binomial. etc. (aj7) . pansions.  lx  (7 a (1 I) 3 17. +5a) 22. + a 2 a. 211. 3 8 . 4. (3 x . 23.
(tff1) (cfd) . (2 4. (3a f5) 5) 4. 15. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA T7ie exponent ofb is 1 in the second term of the result. 4 . and the result divided by 1 plus the exponent of b. The The coefficient coefficient of the first term is 1. of the second term equals the exponent of the binomial 6.2. . The minus.81 y 2 8 9 8 4 ) . (a~^) 5 . 5. . (m 2 + n) 8 . (mnp 5 I) 5 . 18.a) 3 19. 25. 78 s . Ex.4(2 * )'(3 *f) f 6(2 ^) (3 y ) 8 . (?/i~w) : 16. 1. (mJ) 4 11. 12 EXERCISE Expand: 1. (m fl) 2 20. 3. (p + q) 4 * 7.4(2^(3 ^'+(3 y . mn 5 2 5 ) . Ex. 10. (m 5 I) 2 22. 14. 21. 17. (w 4 ?i) 4 . (af 5) . Expand (a??/) x5 5 x4 y + 10 x'2 (and odd + 212. . 13. (l 8 . . (la&) 4 12. and increases by 1 in each succeeding term. ( &) 5 . Expand <? 2 (2 #  3 y3 ) 4 2 . 5. (lfa 6 2 ) 5. (1 + 4 ?/) . 2. . and the powers negative. (2 a 4 . 10 x*y* + 2 5 xy* + y5 . 24. Ex. * 2 4 ) 16 ic 8 . . 23. 4. 3. . 6. is the coefficient of the next term.96 ^y f 216 o?y . (2w 2 2 fl) 4 .168 3. TJie coefficient of any term of the power multiplied by the exponent of a. Expand (x = ic 5 f 5 x*y + 10 ^V + 5 . 9.216 a^ 4. 8. since the even powers of signs of the last answer arc alternately plus y are positive. (2a5c) (1 f 2 4 a:) 4 . 4 (1for) 5 . (?>i?i f c)*.
or x &4 . for distinction. 215. it is evidently impossible to express an even root of a negative quantity by Such roots are called imaginary the usual system of numbers. 2. or y ~ 3. V9 = + 3. which can be simplified no further. tity .CHAPTER XIV EVOLUTION 213. and all other numbers are. for (f 3) 2 ( 3) equal 0. for (+ a) = a \/32 = 2. Thus V^I is an imaginary number. called real numbers. V \/P 214. and ( v/o* = a. = x means = 6. 4 4 . etc. (_3) = 27. Evolution it is is the operation of finding a root of a quan the inverse of involution. \/"^27=3. quantity may the be either 2wsitive or negative. \/a = x means x n = y ?> a. Since even powers can never be negative. numbers. a) 4 = a4 . 109 . or 3 for (usually written 3) . Every odd root of a quantity has same sign as and 2 the quantity. 1. It follows from the law of signs in evolution that : Any even root of a positive. 27 =y means r' = 27.
\/2 4 9 .(. = V26TIT81 = 53. we have (Vl472) 2 Ex. for (2 a 2 6c4 ) 8 = Ex.1. Ex.64 5 4 . 10.200 . Ex. 79 2 v/2 5 . Find (x/19472) Since by definition ( v^)" = a. Ex. 2. 2. = 19472. EXERCISE 1. 6. . To extract a root of a fraction. 3i . . Ex. 62 = V2* .9 = 136. index. 7. v^SjW 3 = 2 a ^/gL^g = * c* A 82 &c*. 9. VT8226 = V25 2 729 .170 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EVOLUTION OF MONOMIALS The following examples root : are solved by the definition of a .for(*Siy = 3 3 6 c* \ c*J 2 2 b' ?*243 ft^c20 216. extract the and denominator. 7. Ex 5 a" . V?. Ex. for (a")" a = a mn 3. v/^i2 = a*. V5 v/2 7 2.201) = 2. for (a 3 )* = a 12 . 7 . . 2 . v/2^. 8. 82 .125. 3 33 53 . 4 v. V25 9 16.4. = 199 + (_ 198) . Ex. 5. 3/0** = am . 6.  100 a 2 . 8. 9. To extract the root of a power. divide the exponent by the A root of a product equals the product of the roots of the factors. 3. 7 . V36 9 4. fy 5 3 . 6 7 = 030.lL. 14 63 25 = V2 3* = 2 32 6 . roots of the numerator \/18 .
98. 1. 2 .) 4 3 EXERCISE 80 : Extract the square roots of the following expressions 1. ( VI5) x ( VT7) 2 2 2 2 x ( V3) 35. 2 f ( V240) 3 . a* 4 8 2 . a f2 l 2 + l. (Vl24) { 2 EVOLUTION OF POLYNOMIALS AND ARITHMETICAL NUMBERS 217.) by inspection. 45 V5184. V9216.6 ofy 2 f 9 y4 . 116. 2. 3.4/. ^40^4. 6. (V2441) ~(V2401) 36.3. . Find the square root of a2 . 5.3 y2) ( vV . 2yh2/ 4  9^ + 60^ + 2 2/ ./). 31. A trinomial is a perfect square if one of its terms is equal to twice the product of the square roots of the other terms. 32. In such a case the square root can be found ( 116. 30. Hence _ 6 ary f 9 y = (s . 34.6 tfif + 9 y = O . \/d \Vab r + b\ 9. 29.(V200) f ( VI5) 2 . 2 . ( VH) + (Vl9) 2 2 .3 . Ex. 33. V8.75.EVOLUTION 171 28. V20 .
172 7. + 6 + 4a&. the that 2 ab f b 2 = we have then to consider sum of trial divisor 2 a. 12. #2 a2  16. and b. the given expression is a perfect square. a f. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBEA 4a2 44a?> + 121V2 4a s . let us consider the relation of a f. and b (2 a f b). 15.2 ac . 2 49a 8 16 a 4 9. 2ab . a\b is the root if In most cases. 10.2 &c. The work may be arranged 2 : a 2 + 2 ab + W \a + b . 11.> 13. 8 . 14.e. term a of the root is the square root of the first The second term of the root can be obtained a. it is not known whether the given expression is a perfect square.2 ab + b . multiplied by b must give the last two terms of the as follows square. second term 2ab by the double of by dividing the the socalled trial divisor.72 aW + 81 & 4 . 2 . In order to find a general method for extracting the square root of a polynomial. i. a2 + & + c + 2 a& . . The term a' first 2 .b 2 2 to its square. however. 2 2 218. mV14m??2)f 49.
\ 24 a 3 4f a2 10 a 2 Second remainder. The process of the preceding article can be extended to polynomials of more than three terms. 8 /. 8 a 2  12 a +4 a f 2. the required root (4 a'2 8a + 2}.  24 a 3 + 25 a 2  12 a +4 Square of 4 a First remainder. 6 a. 8 a 2 Second complete divisor. we obtain the next term of the root 3 y 3 which has to be added to 2 the trial divisor. of x. 219. Arranging according to descending powers of 10 a 4 a. the first term of the answer. Explanation. Ex. 1. 1.EVOLUTION Ex. is As there is no remainder. . Extract the square root of 16 a 4 . and consider Hence the their sum one term. Multiply the complete divisor Sx' 3y 3 by Sy 8 and subtract the product from the remainder. 10 a 4 8 a. 8 a 2 2. First complete divisor. 173 x* Extract the square root of 1G 16x4 10 x* __ . and so forth.24 afy* f 9 tf. . By doubling 4x'2 we obtain 8x2 the trial divisor. Second trial divisor. */'' .24 a + 4 12 a + 25 a8 s . Arrange the expression according to descending powers root of 10 x 4 is 4 # 2 the lirst term of the root. We find the first two terms of the root by the method used in Ex. double of this term find the next is the new trial divisor. 4 x2 3 ?/ 8 is the required square foot. First trial divisor. The square . by division we term of the root. . . 24# 2 y 3 by the trial divisor Dividing the first term of the remainder. 2. As there is no remainder. 8 a 2 . 2 Subtracting the square of 4x' from the trinomial gives the remainder '24 x'2 + y. .
37 a ^ . 729 4. 1 4. 4 36 a 2 12 4 4 16 a4 4 46 a 4 4 44 a 8 f 25 a h 12 a 4 4 25 a6 4. 18. 5 4 16 4 iK . 15.12 m 4. 36it.25 x 4 4.162 a2 60 a10 4.25.12m 5 4. 10. 25 x 4 f 40 afy 446 x 2 if 4 24 a^ 8 4 9 4 i/ .V430^425^ 4m 4. 8.73a4 440^436^460^. 2 x2 3 2x. + 81 a 454 a + 81.a 6 x*y 2 . l 4.42 a f 49 a 6 16 a4  24 a3 4 J 2 3 3 4 4 .16. 16 _^ + 2 JX XT 4a.20 J or 2 16 x 4.54 a 40 a 6 4 9 a4 . 4 .9m 4 20m3 30m 4.73 a8 .42 a*& 4. 16x6 4. 16.20 o 4. 17. x 6 4 4 0^4.14^44 ic 4^ 3 12^. 13#4 413ar 44a. 9. 24. 412 a& f 37 a' 6 . a? 2 . 14. 12. 20. 4 4?/ 42x 4 3 j/ 2xif 6 a5 4.24 or . 36a 460a 473a 440a 416a 3 2 13. 3. 5. 6 6 2 49 a 4 . 6.2^43^42^ 46 5 4 a. > 7. 436^?/469a.40 a 22 . 2 4. 25 m 20 w + 34 m . 19.6 .10 x2 4.9.4 x 4. . 6 11. 3 a2 a4 4 2a + a4 2 or 41 3 2 a3 + 1.174 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 81 : Extract the square roots of the following expressions 2.12 a6 2 2 3 4 4 64 .
the consists of group is the first digit in the root. the square root of 7744 equals 88.EVOLUTION 220. and the first remainder is. square root of arithmetical numbers can be found to the one used for algebraic Since the square root of 100 is 10. 175 The by a method very similar expressions.000. Therefore 6 = 8. Thus the square root of 96'04' two digits. 2. a 2 = 6400. the first of which is 9 the square root of 21'06'81 has three digits. Hence if we divide the digits of the number into groups. then the number of groups is equal to the number of digits in the square root. and the square root of the greatest square in units. and the complete divisor 168. 1. two figures. Ex. etc.000 is 1000. the preceding explanation it follows that the root has two digits. beginning at the and each group contains two digits (except the last. and we may apply the method used in algebraic process. Ex. 7744 80 6400 1 +8 160 + 8 = 168 1344 1344 Since a 2 a Explanation. a f>2'41 '70 6 c [700 + 20 + 4 = 724 2 a a2 = +6= 41) 00 00 1400 + 20 = 1420 4 341 76 28400 = 1444 57 76 6776 . Find the square root of 7744. As 8 x 168 = 1344. which may contain one or two). of a number between 100 and 10. = 80.. The is trial divisor = 160.176. of 10. the integral part of the square root of a number less than 100 has one figure. of 1. the first of which is 8. etc.000. first . Hence the root is 80 plus an unknown number. From A will show the comparison of the algebraical and arithmetical method given below identity of the methods.000 is 100. the first of which is 4.1344. Find the square root of 524.
we must Thus the groups 1'67'24.1T6 221.688 4 45 2 70 2 25 508 4064 6168 41)600 41344 2256 222. or by transforming the common fraction into a decimal.GO'61. 3. 12. annex a cipher. EXERCISE Extract the square roots of : 82 .0961 are '. in .70 6.1 are Ex. and if the righthand group contains only one digit. Roots of common fractions are extracted either by divid ing the root of the numerator by the root of the denominator. ELEMENTS OF ALGEKRA In marking off groups in a number which has decimal begin at the decimal point. places.7 to three decimal places.10. The groups of 16724. Find the square root of 6/.
36. J. = 3. JT . .) 40. 1. 34. feet. T\. 31. Find the side of a square whose area equals 50. 13.53. 5. 33. 37.4 square when R = radius and 11.01.EVOLUTION Find 177 to three decimal places the square roots of the follow ing numbers: 29.1410. Find the mean proportional between 2 and .22. 30. feet. 32. Find the side of a square whose area equals 96 square yards. 35. whose area equals 48. 1. TT Find the radius of a (Area of a circle circle 1 equals irR . 39.58 square 38.
2)* + 5 = 33. This answer Check. or incomplete. ax 2 + bx + c = Q. is A quadratic equation. is frequently written x 13( 2)2 = 7(  19 = 33 .g. Extracting the square root of each member. x 2 7. = 4. 2 ic = a. The 7 equation. x = + 2 or x =2. 6 y2 = 17. complete. quadratic equation contains only the square of the axt unknown quantity. is 12. or affected.. 178 . 224. 226. x f 12 = the absolute term PUKE QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 227. Dividing. absolute term of an equation is the terra which / does not contain any In 4 x 2 unknown quantities. = 7^ + 5.CHAPTER XV QUADRATIC EQUATIONS INVOLVING ONE UNKNOWN QUANTITY 223. or equation of the second degree. 6#2 = x* 24. Solve 13 x2 19 etc. 1. . + bx f c r= is a complete quadratic ax 2 = m is a pure quadratic equation. quadratic equation is one which contains both the square and the first power of the unknown A quantity. 225. A pure quadratic is solved by reducing it to the form and extracting the square root of both members. Transposing. but no higher power e. A pure. 2. an integral rational equation that contains the square of 4x the unknown number. Ex.
EXERCISE Solve the following equations 1.2. 16^393 = 7. 7. 8. 4. 2 4fc 5' 18. ' =: y? b* b . o. (a? 9. 0^ + 1 = 1. 2. 6(2)=10(ajl). 2 2 a. : 83 2. 19 + 9 = 5500. or Therefore. Solve 179 . 3. 4 ax.25.QUADRATIC EQUATIONS Ex. 7 = 162. . 5. 10. + 4 ax = ax + 4 a 2 + x2 f 2 x2 = 8 a 2 4 a2 x2 = x = V 4 a2 x= x = . ax Transposing and combining. 15^5 = 6. Dividing by Extracting the square root.=g x2 4 a2 Clearing of fractions. s3 ? + oj x +3 = 4. .
If s = 4 Trr ' 2 . 2a f 1 23. = a 2 2 (' 2 solve for solve for = Trr . 2 .180 on __!_:L ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA a. 28. and their product : 150. and the first exceeds the second by 405 square yards. then Since such a triangle tangle. its area contains =a 2 f b2 . If a 2 4. The two numbers (See is 2 : 3. EXERCISE 1. : 6. 4. If G=m m g . and the sum The sides of two square fields are as 3 : 5. If 22 = ~^. solve for r. 3. Find the numbers. 2. The sides of two square fields are as 7 2. solve for v. 9 & { c# a x +a and c. . and they con tain together 30G square feet. If the hypotenuse whose angles a units of length. Three numbers are to each other as 1 Find the numbers. 84 is Find a positive number which equal to its reciprocal ( 144). may be considered one half of a rec square units. and the two other sides respectively c 2 contains c a and b units. 25. 27. opposite the right angle is called the hypotenuse (c in the diagram). 2 . Find is the number. 2 : 3. 22 a. Find the side of each field.b 2 If s If =c . . 108. A right triangle is a triangle. ' 4. If 2 f 2 b* = 4w 2 f c sol ve for m. is one of _____ b The side right angle. r. find a in terms of 6 . 228. 29. A number multiplied by ratio of its fifth part equals 45. solve for d. is 5(5. 24. Find the side of each field. 26.) of their squares 5.
181 The hypotenuse of a right triangle : is 35 inches. A body falling from a state of rest. add () Hence 2 . Find the radii. J = 12. Method of completing the square.) 13. The area $ /S of a circle 2 . (b) 44 square feet. The hypotenuse of a right triangle is 2. The hypotenuse of a right triangle is to one side as 13:12. The following ex ample illustrates the method or of solving a complete quadratic equation by completing the square. Find the sides. Find the unknown sides and the area. its surface (Assume ir = 2 . and the two smaller 11. member can be made a complete square by adding 7 x with another term. Find these 10. . 8 = 4 wr2 Find 440 square yards. we have of or m = .QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 7. . let us compare x 2 The left the perfect square x2 2 mx f m to 2 . passes in t seconds 2 over a space s yt Assuming g 32 feet. in how many seconds will a body fall (a) G4 feet. 4.2 7 . Two circles together contain : 3850 square feet.) COMPLETE QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 229. is and the other two sides are equal. the formula = Trr whose radius equals r is found by Find the radius of circle whose area S equals (a) 154 square inches. 2m. 7r (Assume and their = 2 7 2 . Solve Transposing.7 x f 10 = 0. 9. . 24. The area : sides are as 3 4. of a right triangle Find these sides. 8. radii are as 3 14. sides. and the other two sides are as 3 4. make x2 Evidently 7 takes the place 7x a complete square to to which corresponds m 2 . and the third side is 15 inches. To find this term. (b) 100 feet? = . x* 7 x= 10. the radius of a sphere whose surface equals If the radius of a sphere is r.
Ex. Extracting square roots. Hence to solve a complete quadratic : Reduce the equation to the form x*\px==q. 80^69^2 = 9 x2 sc Transposing. 62 x 5 = f.182 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 2 Adding ( J) to each member. Complete the square by adding the square of one half the coefficient of x.a. a. Uniting.1. 2  . 7 5 + 10 = 0. or J. Extract the square root and solve the equation of the first degree thus formed.2. Ex. Transposing. .. Or (*i) x Extracting square roots. = x\ = 2. 22 7 2 + 10 =0. Transposing.  x Q) 2 to each Completing the square (i. = 6. 2 a* a. = \ # = ff.x(l = . = . 15 x 2 Dividing by 9.e. adding member). Therefore. 2 ax f 2 o) s a . J. a Clearing of fractions. Hence Therefore Check. or x = 2.  \. x x2 x x2 + 2 a2 x f a = 2 ax. (*~8) a = at . Simplifying. 230.2 a2 .
1+2?= "*"   Vl . x .4 ~ a2 Transposing. Extracting square root. 183 Simplifying.QUADRATIC EQUATIONS Completing the square. x = l+ * a = 1 +2 <* V IT * Therefore * Vl < EXERCISE 85 .
\bx\. any quadratic equation may be obtained by 6. 2 Every quadratic equation can be reduced to the general form. ao. . article. 49. =8 r/io?. and c in the general answer. 231. x la 48. = 12. Solution by formula. o^ or } 3 ax == 4 a9 7 wr .c = 0.184 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 45 46. Solving this equation we obtain by the method of the preceding 2a The roots of substituting the values of a. 2x 3 4. =0.
2 .QUADRATIC EQUATIONS Ex.25 x. 20. 15. V^tT)* . 18. 2 o. = 12 . Solve 2 j>o? p*x x px* a 2 p. TIO. 10. 2 a. 19. 11.4 4 5 .  P + VQ^+T? ^4^ EXERCISE Solve by the above formula 1. = 64120?. Reducing to general form.15 x9 25x* = 21 . 7. c = 5. 1. 6. : 86 + 2 = 0. 2. 4.. 14. ?i 2 . 3 x 11 + 10 = 0. 9. c p. 20 x Hence Therefore a = 5. 3. 8. 12. 21. 6 Ex. 5 x2 Transposing. 6 . 2or } 5o. 2 a? = 44 x . a. 13. 6 10 2024 =6or 10 l. 185 Solve 5 x2 = 26 x5. 17. 7^ + 9 x 90. b =  + 20 == = 0. Hence Therefore =p 1 t b = (p 2 + 1). 2# 11 + 15 = 0. 16. 6. 26. 2. 6^+5^ 56.  . 6m = 7 m + 12 = 64 7 x2 2 2 a.
Therefore the equation will be satisfied 5x _. = 0. and 6. a? 28  7al=7s be required to solve the 232. 27 x== 42a. = 14.5 Solving (1) and (2). = 0. 233. =7 x se 2 2 + 16 x. 5 = 0. we x obtain the roots =^ or x = 5. 25. Eesolving into factors. (5 a? !)(.4) = . ar>8o. Solve a*= 7a? + 15x 2 2* . a=:i^^. Clearing for fractions. member can be Ex. Transposing. orz roots.x. 2a^7x sc(2 16rc Therefore a = 0. Solution by factoring. all or. Bx 1 1. or # 5 is zero. Hence the equation has three + 3) (x 2xf3=0. 3x?+x = 7. x(x <2 . factors Now. 2S3x 1 2 . . 24. = 0. Evidently this method can be applied to equations of if one member of the equation is zero and the other factored. if either of the uct is zero. Let it e(l uation: 5^ + 5=26*. 23. 0. x2 = 1 . 26. the prodif x has (1) (2) such a value that either or a?. 5) = 0. 1. }.2. Factoring.186 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA to Find the roots of the following equations places : two decimal 22. transposing terms to one member.5) =0. any degree.
8. + 8=s: 7. E. 7.3 =5 or = 2 3 obtained from the 5 (x or x equation x (x = is also a root.3)(x + 3 3. 3) Factoring. is 5) = 0. a?10a=:24. O roots are 2. 13.6)) = 0. for a: .e. (*2)(x + 2)(a3)=0. the resulting expression equation contains fewer roots than the original one. + 9 f 20 x = 0. 3) = 0. we 9 obtain x 4.  3) 2 4 (x = 0. 4. and the equation thus formed be solved.QUADRATIC EQUATIONS Ex. : 87 = 0. 187 Solve x? 3x x*(x 2 4x + 12 = 0. 0(02) = 7(02).24 = 0. 6. x2 f 2 x . 14. 5 = 0. such a common divisor must be made equal to zero. members by x But evidently the value x 3 3. 2.g. let it be required to solve If or x we divide both = 2. Therefore x =3 = 2. + 100. 3^ 25^ + 28 = 0. 3.= 24. 3# y 5 = 0. 12. aj( 15. 0^ ar> 11. a?. 2o3 f9a. (aj4)(a. The equation I. EXERCISE Solve by factoring 6 2. } 2 2 (5 . 2. 3 or 2 a. Ex. evidently (x Or 4)(x . 3^ = 0(1106). 9. members of an equation are divided by an involving the unknown quantity. In order If both to obtain all roots of the original equation. ar'Sa^ 12. Or Hence the 234. Form an equation whose roots are 4 and 6. 5. 0^ + 21 = 10 10. a* 10a=24. 4)(z3) = 0. + 6)=0.:=0.(. 16. + 10 a = 24. 3. 4or + 18a f 8a.
+ 2)= (y( j_ ? (+ 3)(a?+2). 23.188 17. 2. 19. 22. (2a? 3) (a 24. '3a!J  . f ELEMENTS OF ALGEKRA tt(3tt + 7tt)=6tt. 25. w(w x2 2 w)=6tt. uz + u 21. 27. a 2 =(x a)b. 20. or 3 a 2 2 a? 26. 18. (a + 1) (a.3) = (s + l) (3 a). 50. ara + ft + c*.
but frequently the conditions of the problem exclude negative or fractional answers. 4. 2. Find the number.1. 88 its reciprocal A number increased by three times equals 6J. 57. 189 the equations whose roots are 53. 8. feet. of their reciprocals is 4. PROBLEMS INVOLVING QUADRATICS in general two answers.2.0. Twentynine times a number exceeds the square of the 190. 3. 54. . 55. 1. 58. The 11. 6. : 3. and whose sum is is 36. What are the numbers of ? is The product two consecutive numbers 210. and whose product 9. 52. 7. its sides of a rectangle differ by 9 inches.3. The difference of . is Find two numbers whose product 288. number by 10.9. Problems involving quadratics have lems of this type have only one solution. 2. EXERCISE 1. 2. 2. Find the sides. Find the number. G. 3. 56. Find the numbers. two numbers is 4. and consequently many prob 235. Find a number which exceeds its square by is . Divide CO into two parts whose product is 875.QUADRATIC EQUATIONS Form 51. 5. and equals 190 square inches. 2.3. 1. The sum of the squares of two consecutive numbers 85. area A a perimeter of 380 rectangular field has an area of 8400 square feet and Find the dimensions of the field. 0.0. and the difference Find the numbers.3. 2. 5. Find two numbers whose difference is 40.
other. one of which sails two miles per hour faster than the other. What did he pay for 21. c equals 221 Find AB and AD. 15. Two steamers and is of 420 miles. dollars. as the 16. If he each horse ? . ABCD. vessel sail ? How many miles per hour did the faster If 20. A man cent as the horse cost dollars. it would have needed two hours less to travel 120 miles. and lost as many per cent Find the cost of the watch. 19. At what rates do the steamers travel ? 18.190 12. Find the rate of the train.10. a distance One steamer travels half a mile faster than the two hours less on the journey. The diagonal : tangle as 5 4. 17. start together on voyages of 1152 and 720 miles respectively. and the line BD joining two opposite vertices (called "diagonal") feet. What did he pay for each apple ? A man bought a certain number of horses for $1200. and Find the sides of the rectangle. 14. watch cost sold a watch for $ 21. . had paid $ 20 less for each horse. sold a horse for $144. and lost as many per cent Find the cost of the watch. A man A man sold a as the watch cost dollars. 13. watch for $ 24. and the slower reaches its destination one day before the other. If a train had traveled 10 miles an hour faster. A man bought a certain number of apples for $ 2. Two vessels. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA The length 1 B AB of a rectangle. he had paid 2 ^ more for each apple. ply between the same two ports. he would have received 12 apples less for the same money. he would have received two horses more for the same money. and gained as many per Find the cost of the horse. of a rectangle is to the length of the recthe area of the figure is 96 square inches. exceeds its widtK AD by 119 feet.
Equations in the quadratic form can be solved by the methods used for quadratics.) 25. 24. Solve ^9^ + 8 = ** 0. Ex. (tf. Find TT r (Area of a circle . 30 feet long and 20 feet wide. constructed with and CB as sides.QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 22. a point taken. is surrounded by a walk of uniform width. and working together. of the area of the basin. and the area of the path the radius of the basin. A needs 8 days more than B to do a certain piece of work. Find and CB.I) 4(aj*l) 2 = 9. . =9 Therefore x = \/8 = 2. 27. is On the prolongation of a line AC. contains B 78 square inches. By formula. If the area of the walk is equal to the area of the plot. In how many days can B do the work ? = 26. as 0. or x = \/l = 1. The number of eggs which can be bought for $ 1 is equal to the number of cents which 4 eggs cost. the two men can do it in 3 days. 237. and the unknown factor of one of these terms is the square of the unknown factor of the other. B AB AB 2 191 grass plot. how wide is the walk ? 23. A rectangular A circular basin is surrounded is  by a path 5 feet wide. ^3^ = 7. so that the rectangle. EQUATIONS IN THE QUADRATIC FORM An equation is said to be in the quadratic form if it contains only two unknown terms. Find the side of an equilateral triangle whose altitude equals 3 inches. 1. How many eggs can be bought for $ 1 ? 236. 23 inches long.
4 2 4 37aj 2 = 9. 4. 2 16 a^40 11. Hence Le.2 =4. 3 a4 44s + 121=0. Solving. a? 15 1=2*. 19. a. 2 (^Z)  "3 14.192 238. 4 8 = 2 a* 2. 7. or y = 8. stitute ELEMENTS OF ALGEBEA In more complex examples it is advantageous to sub a letter for an expression involving a?. 4 : 89 10a. EXERCISE Solve the following equations 1. 4 6. 12. 2. a 21or=100. (a: +aj) 18(x2 +a. aV+9o 4 =0. >. 8. 9. 2 h9:=0. Ex. y8)=0. T 17. = 13. 18. 10. = 1. 16. ^^ ~ 28 (a? ^ 2:=Q> .T 2 2 . a4 5o. 6. 4 a. Let x + 15 = J < Then or or rf 15 = 0. 436 3.)+72=0.
QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 193 CHARACTER OF THE ROOTS 239. the roots are equal. it 2a follows 2 : 2. If b Ifb* 2 If b Iflr 4 ac is is is 4c 4 ac a positive or equal to zero. kac 4 ac is 'not a perfect square. . the roots are imaginary.12 x + 9 = 0. Ifb 2 Jfb 2 is zero. are denoted __ Tl If the roots of the equation ax2 4. and equal. 241. c the roots are real. Since ( 12) 2 4 4 9 = 0. Determine the character of the roots of the equation 3 a 2 . 2 4 ac 2a Hence / 1 4r2 = a Or . the roots are real. a perfect square. 1. The quadratic equation oa/* 2 f bx f c = has two roots. the roots are rational. negative. the roots are unequal.f> = 0. Determine the character of the roots of the equation 4 x2 . The expression b 2 the equation ay? 4. Hence the roots are real.2 z . The discriminant =(.2) 2 4 3 (. rational. the roots are irrational. 240. is 4ac not zero. Ex. and unequal. 2. ( 2a Hence 1. rational.Vfr 2 4 ac T* b Vi . Ex. 3.c 4 ac is called the discriminant of = 0. b 4.bx 4.bx 4 by ' i\ and r2 then . Relations between roots and coefficients.5) = 04.
5oj aj + l = 0. 10 x = 25 x + 1. n a?3 ' ~ == l 5. 17.194 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 2 a? these results If the given equation is written in the form may be expressed as follows : x +a += a 0. x2 4 x 0^ or j + 205 = 0. 9a3 = 0. 15. 9x2 ~ the In each of the following equations determine by inspection sum and the product of the roots: 13. 18. = 0. = 0. + 18 2 8. 12. x2 !i>x + 2 z2 2 16. 24.2 + 4a: + 240 = 0. 3a. 2 : 3. + 2a. : a 2 . = Q. = 0. 23. o.19 # 20. 5aj 9. ^12. f 2 E. ar + ^ + 2^2 = 0. or + 10 + 4520 = 0. their product isf. 14. 2a 4z5 = 0. 2. 6.. 12~x = x 2 . the sain of the roots of 4 x 5 x 3 =: is j. + 2a15 = 0. x2 7 10. 4.g. = 5x. 2 7. lla. If the (a) coefficient ofx 2 in a quadratic equation is is unity. Sa^ + 2 Ooj 2 Solve the following equations and check the answers by forming the sum and the product of the roots 19. EXERCISE 89 a Determine without solution the character of the roots of the following equations 1. The sum of the roots equal is to the coefficient of x with the sign changed. tfmx+p^Q. 2x* + 6x + 3 = 0. 21. (b) The product of the roots equal to theubsolute term. + 12 2  . 2 a. 22. 5a 26a? + 5 = 0. 60 2 = 0.
(a m ) w . II. provided w > n. 244. while the second of the first. = a"" < . (ab) . no Fractional and negative exponents.CHAPTER XVI THE THEORY OF EXPONENTS 242. and . instead of giving a formal definition of fractional and negative exponents. a m a" = a m+t1 .a" = a m n mn . however." means "is greater than" 195 similarly means "is . that a an = a m+n . hence. 4~ 3 have meaning according to the original definition of power. The following four fundamental laws for positive integral exponents have been developed in preceding chapters : I. It is. Then the law of involution. ~ a m f.* III. The first of these laws is nition of power. must be *The symbol smaller than. the direct consequence of the defiand third are consequences FRACTIONAL AND NEGATIVE EXPONENTS 243. for all values 1 of m and n. very important that all exponents should be governed by the same laws. > m therefore. we may choose for such symbols any definition that is con venient for other work. m IV. (a ) s=a m = aw bm a . we let these quantities be what they must be if the exponent law of multiplication is generally true. such as 2*. We assume.
ml. 29. m$. Write the following expressions as radicals : 22. e. = a. 3*. as.  we find a? Hence we define a* to be the qth root of of. 25. 31. we try to discover the let the meaning of In every case we unknown quantity and apply to both members of the equation that operation which makes the negative. 245. 23. Hence Or Therefore Similarly. (xy$. fractional. a?*. disappear. 28. '&M A 27. . etc. a*. 30. a\ 26. Assuming these two 8*. 0?=^.196 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA true for positive integral values of n. a . Let x is The operation which makes the fractional exponent disappear evidently the raising of both members to the third power. (bed)*. To find the meaning of a fractional exponent. since the raising to a positive integral power is only a repeated multiplication. at. n 2 a. 4~ . 24. ^=(a^) 3* 3 .g. or zero exponent equal x. laws.
e. 5L is indeterminate Indeterminate. 43. a * a2 Or a=l. 64* + 9* + 16* + (32)*. however. Let a = a. 44. : 4* + 9* + 16* + 25* + 36*. If. is The operation which makes the zero exponent disappear 2 evidently a multiplication by any power of a. a. 40. v/o&cT 34. Solve the following equations 39. is Therefore the zero power of any number NOTE.THE THEORY OF EXPONENTS Express with fractional exponents 32. 41. : 197 33. 7z* Find the values of 47. 45.g. a . = 2.g. 35. ty?.\/n. 49. = 49. 246. 27* = 3. v'mT 36. \/xy \/m. the base is zero. 42. = 2. 48. 5 a* = 10. \fi?. hence is . 37. 50. equal to unity. a* * = 3. e. To find the meaning of zero exponent. 3* = 27. : 2' 4* = 4. 46. 38. Vo5 .
Or a"# = l. in which obtained from the preceding one by dividing both members by a. a8 a 2 = 1 1 . Factors may be transferred from the numerator to the denominator of a fraction. cr n.g. each is The fact that a if = we It loses its singularity 1 sometimes appears peculiar to beginners.2 = a2 . consider the following equations. or the exponent. a a a = = a a a a1 1 a. e. by changing the sign of NOTE. etc. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA To find the meaning of a negative exponent.198 247. . vice versa. Multiplying both members by a". 248. Let x= or". an x = a.
^L. 2 . . a. Write with radical signs and positive exponents 35. 40. : or 5 . 37. 3 a. 22. 66 45. ""^T"*' Write without denominators 29. . 25. 2 . 2m~i 43. rfS. c 32. 7~ l a 2b 2 . m . 27. 3 a? * 42. : mi m~^. 39. 6 or 2 ^^ ^."* 38. 36. : * 31 l> ' <W* arV 8 30. a^ 41. * 24. 44. ^?2 y' 34. 1 L ?>i""i 3 cci .THE THEORY OF EXPONENTS EXERCISE Find the values of: 91 199 Express with positive exponents 21. f (2w)~i 1 .
81 f (a . z* = 1. 52. = ^. 58.(. 2 =f 3* = f x~ l 50. 54. It then follows that: Fractional and negative exponents may be treated by the same methods as positive integral exponents.9*.343)* + (. (a*&~*)* + (aVM = a*&~* + V ' = '*&* Ex 2 . 47. 10* 5* = . 5  75 USE OF NEGATIVE AND FRACTIONAL EXPONENTS 249. = 5. 49. of: 3ll4~* 60. and we shall hence assume that all four laws are generally true. 61. + A_. (81)* + (3f)*(5 TV)*3249 + 16 * .001. = . It can be demonstrated that the last three laws for any exponents are consequences of the first law. . 57. ar = i. Ex.200 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA : Solve the equations 46. 55. 250. z 5or*=10. 53. 10* Find the values 56. (. 17' 2 51. 1.008)* + A. Examples relating to roots can be reduced to examples con taining fractional exponents.26)* 1 (I) 2 . 59. 48. + 1~* f 21 . = l.6).1.
$". . 7~ 5 27  . remove the fractional exponents. 6a. 3sVS. . a. Negative exponents should not be removed until all operations of multiplication^ division. #* a. (d) If required. 4 5. 23. OA 20.THE THEORY OF EXPONENTS 251. 3. 95 ^9i 5**. 16. 16.&. 72 . EXERCISE Simplify : 92 2. 27  28. 7.$*. 4 x^. 14.. 7*. 13. 12. 3 a. &.4 a8 .&. 17.7i. V5.4 2 a? 2 ar 1 .^/5^5. 25 26  2~ 8 2~ 9 22. 18.7W.5a. S'sS8.4 .7*. ' 11. 6. 7~ 6 . etc. 6 *. Perform the operation indicated. Remove the negative exponents. 10. 8 ' 9. 201 Expressions containing radicals should be simplified as : follows (a) (6) (c) Write all radical signs as fractional exponents. .5. 79 .6 *' 6 *25. 26. 14an (4**(Va) 4 . are performed. NOTE. / 7fv 7. __ 29 /m '=V a9 ia.3 aj" a.
If powers of a?. the term which does not contain x may be considered as a term containing #. 34. 6 35. lix = 2xl =+1 Ex. 2. The 252. V ra 4/ 3 \/m 33. 1.2 d . 1 Multiply 3 or +x 5 by 2 x x. 40. we wish to arrange terms according to descending we have to remember that. Divide by ^ 2a 3 qfo 4. Arrange in descending powers of Check. 1. powers of x arranged are : Ex.202 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 32.
THE THEORY OF EXPONENTS
EXERCISE
93
203
Perform the operations indicated:
2.
3.
4. 5. 6.
(7r8Vr + r>)(9 Vr7). 2  1 ). (a + a f 1) (a~ + a
2 2 2
7.
8. 9.
10.
11.
(4
a 3
 24 a  9  3 a~ )
1
2
r
1
(a"
 3).
12.
13.
14.
+ + 47i) + 35V5?)*(5Vp + l). VS" ^ ( Vo Vft) H (a~ f 7 a ^a~ + 1C a*b~  33 a 6~ + 14 a(3 a _&)*. (^? + ^/^ + */fr^ 15. 16. (a6 + 2V6c c)^(Va+V6 Vc). 17. y^TTOa; f 13  12 * + 4 aF*.
(13Vp
5
l
(Va^f aV^&Va
l
3
)
3
2
2
^>~
3
2
1
1
)
(
1
18. 19.
Vor
2
2 x h or
2
2 or
1
f
3.
V25 #
 2()"ar r+ 34  12 x f 9 x*.
20.
^^
l
21. 22.
23. 24.
25.
+2
a?
8
(l+4^flO^ + 20oTf 25^T f24\/i?f 16
(1+V2)V2. (2+V2)(V22). (5+V3)(52V3).
26. 27.
)*.
(13VS)(2 + V5).
(VU  V2)(Vn~3V2)
204
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
:
Find by inspection
28.
29.
(x*
+ 3)(tf*f 2).
35.
36.
8 (a;*
yi)
.
a*
+ 3l5.
V2
(5*2*
2
.
30.
31.
32.
38. 39.
(3^
(#* ^
(fl
2*)
f
.
33. 34.
5) (x*
5).
40.
(m
n)
f
(m*
11
f
n 5 ).
CHAPTER XVII
RADICALS
253.
A
radical is the root of
a quantity, indicated by a
radical sign.
254.
The
radical is rational, if the root can be extracted
exactly; irrational, if the root cannot be exactly obtained. Irrational quantities are frequently called surds.
^9
4^
\/2,
(*
+ V) *
are radicals.
= 2, V(a + 6) 2 are rational.
V4af
b are irrational.
255.
root.
The
order of a surd
is
indicated by the index of the
va
\/2
/
.
is
is is
of the second order, or quadratic. of the third order, or cubic. of the fourth order, or biquadratic.
Vc
256. A mixed surd is the product of a rational factor and a surd factor; as 3Va, a;V3. The rational factor of a mixed surd is called the coefficient of the surd.
An
257.
factor.
entire surd is
one whose coefficient
is
unity; as
Va,
Similar surds are surds
3v/2 and 6
which contain the same irrational
are similar.
av^
3V2 and
3 V8 are dissimilar.
206
206
258.
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
Conventional restriction of the signs of roots.
All even roots
e.g.
may
be positive or negative,
VI = + 2
or
2.
Hence
6. which results in four values, viz. 14, 6, To avoid 14, or this ambiguity, it is customary in elementary algebra to restrict
the sign of a root to the prefixed sign.
Thus
5 V4 4 2 V4
= 7 VI = 14.
If the object of an example, however, is merely an evolution, the complete answer is usually given thus
;
=
(oj 2).
259.
Since radicals can be written as powers with fractional
exponents, all examines relating to radicals
may
be solved by the
methods employed for fractional exponents.
Thus, to find the nth root of a product ab we have
T
1
1
(a6)"==a"6"
I.e.
(242).
to extract the root of a product, multiply the roots of the
factors.
TRANSFORMATION OF RADICALS
260.
Simplification of surds.
A radical is simplified when the
expression under the radical sign is integral, and contains no factor whose power is equal to the index.
Ex.
1.
Simplify
= \/25~a~ Vb = 6 a*VS.
4
Ex.
2.
Simplify
v/16.
J/lB^^.
4/2
= 2^.
RADICALS
.
207
261 When the quantity under the radical sign is a fraction, we multiply both numerator and denominator by such a quantity as will make the denominator a perfect power of the same
degree as the surd.
Ex.
3.
Simplify V.
Ex.
4.
Simplify
EXERCISE
94
208
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
/s
37.
39.
j
*x+y
38.
n
\ 2m
262.
An
same manner
imaginary surd can be simplified in precisely the as a real surd thus,
;
42.
V16a
:
,
2
.
44.
2\
Simplify and find to three decimal places the numerical
values of
47.
48.
VJ.*
49.
50.
Vf.
VJ.
VA
263.
Reduction of a surd to an entire surd.
Ex.
Express 4 a V& as an entire surd.
EXERCISE
Express as entire surds
1.
:
95
4V5.
3.
2\/lL
5.
6.
7.
2.
3V7.
4.
3^5.
a VS.
8.
* See table of square roots on page 164.
RADICALS
264. Transformation of surds to surds of different order.
209
Ex.
1.
Transform \/uW into a surd of the 20th order.
Ex.
2.
Transform
\/2,
V3, and
\/5 into surds of the
same
lowest order.
V2 = 2* = a* = '#64. ^ = 8* = 3A= ^gi. ^5 = 6* = 6* =^125.
1
Ex.
3.
Reduce the order of the surd tyaP.
Exponent and index bear the same relation as numerator and denominator of a fraction ; and hence both may be multiplied by
same number, or both divided by the same number, without changing the value of the radical.
the
EXERCISE
Reduce
1.
96
:
to surds of the 6th order
2.
Va?.
fymn.
3.
\/ v
4.
v'c?.
5.
\
z
\
^3
6.
mn.
Reduce
7.
8.
to surds of the 12th order
9.
:
V2~a.
\/a4 6 2c.
\/3ax.
11.
12.
\/oP6.
13.
14.
a.
^v/mV
10.
\/5a5V.
Express as surds of lowest order with integral exponents and indices
:
15.
v/o
5
.
16.
\/oW.
17.
v/IaT .
2
18.
\/
20.
A/^
22.
VSlmV.
24.
39. 3: \/=^8 v~ 8ft 2 s/a. To add or form. </20. ^6. ^/IT. if dissimilar. 29.2. s!/3. 5V2. V2. 31. \/5. v/3. A/2.2 V50. VS. Ex. Simplify V + 3 VlS. v/4.10 V2 =  V2. 36. </3. V2. Simplify/a35 ~ o . ^2. terms their If the resulting surds are similar. signs. 34. V3. in order of magnitude : \/7. V3. Simplify V~ . ^2. 26. V5.2 V50 = V2 + 9 V2 . connect them by proper 1. 32. 2\ 3*. 40. </2. Ex. I VJ + 3VT8 . ^30. ^3. ^126.210 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA : Express as surds of the same lowest order 25. 3  s/ / 3ft 2  3 ^y Ex. (i. V2. ^2. 33. ^5. 30.3\ . 28. \/7. 4^/4. 27. ^7. ^4. A/3. ADDITION AND SUBTRACTION OF RADICALS 265. 3. v/3. + . subtract surds. ^4. reduce them to their simplest add them like similar add their coefficients) .e. Arrange 35. 37. v^S. 38.
VT2 + 2V27 + 3V759V48.3V20 + 6V5.J a6 V4 aft. 13. V45c3 3 abv'ab V80~c~3 f V5a c + c 2 + 3 aVo^ 3 Va^ . 6. VJ+V8V1 + V50. 2V87Vl8f5V72V50.RADICALS EXERCISE 97 : 211 Simplify the following expressions 2. V18+V32VT28+V2. 3. 10. 12. 11. V175V28+V634V7. 9. . 14. + 3V835V2. 8VT8J2V32 7. 4. 8. 6. 4V805V45.
. and then multiplied. Multiply 5 V7 8\/7 6\/7.212 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA .fab V \~\ jab FW MULTIPLICATION QEJRABIQALS 266. Dissimilar surds are reduced to surds of the same order. 23. . 5 4/6072 = 16^6272. 2. Ex. for a~\/x b~\/y ab^/xy. 26^ .6V35 106 460V35100 .100 = f 44 VS6 6 + 44\/36.2v/6 + IPV6 105. y* = Ex. 3. Multiply 3\/25^ by 5\/50Y 3v / 2 .2 VS by 3 Vf + 10 VB. 1. 98 ab ^" fab 1 " . 6*. Ex. the Surds of the same order are multiplied by multiplying product of the coefficients by the product of the irrational factors. Multiply V2 by 3\/l.
37. 39. 12. V3 V6. . VTO. + VB)(2V5). 40. (VmVn) (V3V2) 8 . 15.^/2. a?. 41. V42. 2. 6 V4 5. (Va Va 36. v/18 v"3. 18. (V6 + 1) 1 . V2 V50. 27. 21. (5V58V2)(5V5 + 8V2). Vll. 2 . 6.VSS. (5V22V3CVS)V3. v/4. fWa 17. 40 10 30. (6V23V3)(6V23V3). 213 98 11. (2V3) 8 . V20 V30. 7.RADICALS EXERCISE 1. 34. 38. 13. ( Vm \ 1 Vm) (Vmf 1 6(Vaf Va { Vm). V2aV8^. VlO V15. 6. 28 . aVa. 10. (VmVn)(Vm+Vn> 33. (V2+V3+V4)V3. V5 Va VaV?/ V Vr 16. (3 20. 3. 4. \/3 \^). 9. 19. 25. V3 Vl2. 8. 14.
ELEMENTS OF ALGEHRA (3V55V3) S . 43. 49. . 60. it more convenient to multiply dividend and divisor by a factor which makes the divisor rational. 53. v/a  DIVISION OF RADICALS 267. 47.214 42. 51. Ex. 52. 48. 46. all monomial surds may be divided by method. E.V5) ( V3 + 2 VS). (3V52V3)(2V3V3). a fraction. (2 45. Ex. is 1 2. 268. Monomial surdn of the same order may be divided by multiplying the quotient of the coefficients by the quotient of the surd factors. (5V2+V10)(2V51). the quotient of the surds is If. (3V32Vo)(2V3+V5). (V50f 3Vl2)4V2== however.y. a VS f a?Vy = \/  x*y this Since surds of different orders can be reduced to surds of the same order. Va v/a. V3 . 44. (5V72V2)(2VT7V2).
Divide VII by v7. 1. is illustrated by Ex.by the usual arithmetical method. Divide 4 v^a by is rationalizing factor evidently \/Tb hence. metical problems afford the best illustrations. Divide 12 V5 + 4V5 by V. VTL_Vll ' ~~" \/7_V77 .. 3. Hence in arithmetical work it is always best to rationalize the denominators before dividing. . is Since \/8 12 Vil = 2 V*2. we have V3 But if 1. 4\/3~a' 36 Ex. Evidently. e. the by 3 is much easier to perform than the division by 1. . + 4\/5 _ 12v 3 + 4\/5 V8 V8 V2 V2 269.73205. /~ } Ex.g. To show that expressions with rational denominators are simpler than those with irrational denominators.57735. we have to multiply In order to make the divisor (V?) rational. . The 2. called rationalizing the the following examples : 215 divisor. however.73205 we simplify JLV^l V3 *> ^> division Either quotient equals . the rationalizing factor x ' g \/2.RADICALS This method. by V7. arithTo find.
2361. V5 = 2. find to four decimal places the numerical values of: 19.216 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 99 Simplify : 1. 7.4142. 272. 14. . VffV?.. V8 JL. A. 21. The product of two conjugate binomial surds is rational . V48 25.7320. V5 270. V8?^ V7 xy T 13 11 n V7 ~ VH 5 2. V2 22 . they differ only in the sign which connects their terms. 271. Vll 212*. Vn V7 ' * 8. To rationalize the denominator of a fraction whose denom inator is a binomial quadratic surd. i. V8 12. if 4=V50 Two binomial quadratic surds are said to be conjugate. and Given V2 = 1. A. V3 = 1. ^/H . 20. 2V5 ' 2 V3 o vfi* ' ^ Va 12. V3 24 . multiply numerator and denominator by the conjugate surd of the denominator. . 23 . Va + Vb and Va Vb are conjugate surds.
RADICALS Ex. Ex. 217 Simplify 2V3V2 ' V3V2 ~ = 4 + V5. .2.07105 = 7 7 2V21 2V21 2V2 + 1 EXERCISE Eationalize the denominators of : 100 . V82 2V3 1fVS .1 xVtf a.Vs2 .= 18.vffi^T _ . Find the numerical value of : V2 + 2 2V21 e . 1. . V2+2 _ V2+2 2\/2+l_6 + 6\/2. s Simplify a. Ex. 3.
W3.218 6 . By the use of fractional exponents . 2V5V18 mVm Va 22.7320. V52 17 1Va? Vg+v/2 5V77V5 ' V3V2 15. 27. V21 = 25 . 19. = V3 = 1. . Given V2 1. V3 + 1 1+V5 _ 3V5 ' V5+2 31. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 13 ~3 V51 14 A 16. Vo1 26. : and V5 = 2. four places of decimals 23 .5 3 = 125.4142. 24. it can easily be shown that VcT = ( V) w Hence 3 V25~ = ( V25) 3 . J?_. V32* to 1 Find the third proportional + V2 and 3 f 2V2. 6V7. v 2V3 28. INVOLUTION AND EVOLUTION OF RADICALS 273. find to _!_. V5V7 18> ^SVg.2361.
To find the square root of a binomial square by inspection. Find the square of EXERCISE Simplify 1. V643 . \/l6*. In other examples of involution and evolution. ( V5 + V3) = 5 + 2 V5~^3 + 3 2 = 8 + 2 VIS. 1. we had to find problem would be quite simple if presented in the form v52V3 5 + 3.RADICALS 219 274. 8. . SQUARE ROOTS OF QUADRATIC SURDS 275. it to this form. v8f 2\/15. According to G3. 2. 2 12. To reduce is two numbers whose sum 5 and 3. 2. introduce fractional exponents : Ex. : 101 (3Vmw) 2 . 5. V255 . viz. on the other hand. the If. Simplify Ex. we must find 8 and whose product is 15. \/125" . 3 (V2~u)  7. 11. 4. 3. 9.
3. ^TT.220 Ex. +2 Ex. 2 \/18. is 11. EXERCISE 102 : Extract the square roots of the following binomials . is Find two numbers whose sum numbers are 10 and 2. These Ex.2 \/20. Find Vll . 2.6 A/2 = Vll Find two numbers whose sum numbers are 9 and 2. coefficient of the Irrational Write the binomial so that the term is 2. The Hence ^11 .6\/2 = ^9 . Find V4 + VJ8. 12 and whose product is 20.A/2. Find Vl2 4.2 A/2 = V9A/2 = 3 . and whose product is 18. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA l.6 V2.
: 221 Vl32V22. * 4 * 2 V6 VT 4. 277. 8.e. \/x Vx = + 3 = 7. by raising both members equal powers. The value x =2 reduces each . 4x x = 2. they are transto formed into rational equations. Transposing Vsc2 + f 12 12 Squaring both members. first involution. (2x xrf 1. examples to simplify the equation as it is necessary in most as possible. 4. = xa + 4 x f 4.V48 4 20. +=. member to 2. are radical equations. If all radicals do not disappear through the the process must be repeated.1. VT . Transposing and uniting. much and to transpose the terms so that one radical stands alone in one member. r 22. Ex.RADICALS Simplify the following expressions 18. 5. . Solve vVf!2a = 2. a. V48 23. 19. Radical equations are rationalized. A radical equation is an equation involving an irrational root of an unknown number. i. Dividing by Check. x2 = x f 2.. Before performing the involution. V4 + V12 RADICAL EQUATIONS 276.
Transposing and uniting. V4afT~l.1) = 0. tion which has two roots. Dividing by 24. Solve Vx f Squaring both members. Transposing. Therefore CftecAr. they may be extraneous roots. at . viz.222 Ex. radical equations require for their solution the squaring of both members. f 25 = 12. a socalled extraneous root. Ex. = 12 = 144 24\/4# + 1 = 120. 4#f 4 = 9. Therefore Check. a. tion usually introduces a new Squaring both members of an equaThus x 2 = 3 has only root. Extraneous roots. 5. Transposing and uniting. one root. x = J. Squaring both members. 2 Vx^ Dividing by 2. 5 and The squaring of both members of the given equation introSince duced the new root 1. V24~+~l = 0. the first member = V2. x + 1 + 2 Vx'2 + 1 x + (. . Factoring. Vitf 4x f 25 f 25 4x f 1 25. 2. It = 3 x . f V/2TT25 = 5 + x 7 = 12. 278. member =\/2 + jV2=v^. = 9 x2 18 x + 8x 2 25xf3 = 0. . or = VzMx2 7 x f f 7 x + 9. \/4 jc~+~l = 5. 3. The results of the solution of radical equations must be substituted in the (jlren equation to determine ivhether the roots are true roots or extraneous roots. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBltA Solve V4 x + 1 f V4 f 1 . viz. an equaSquaring both members we obtain or 1. (x 3) (8 x x = 3. Squaring both members. the roots found are not necessarily roots of the given equation 279.3. . 24 \/4 # Transpose V4 x Squaring both members.
and to 5. Transposing.3) (2 x . Hence there is only one root. Therefore. is x V.2 r. If the signs of the roots were not restricted. If If x 3 = 3. Solve Vz+T + V2aT+3 = + "b"x f A5_ 15. Check. Hence x = the only root. 4 VxT~0 = \/8 x f 1. . V2x' 8 42x43 Transposing.12 . both members reduce to 5. * Exclude all solutions which do not satisfy the equation or which make the given radicals imaginary. tlie Jeft both members reduce member = 12T V2. + 6~ieT~3 . 2 z 2 4 6 x 4 3 = 144 . x root of the preceding equation.48 x + 2 x2 53 f 141 = 0. 223 x = 3. equation it is an extraneous root. Squaring. or x *j. Solve the following equations : = G.47) = 0. Factoring. ViTie 4 z2 . . . the right member = V2. = 3. 2 Clearing of fractions. NOTE. for it satisfies the equation .RADICALS Hence x If a. 4. = } would be a VaT+T Ex. \ does not satisfy the given. viz. (x x = 3.
Many 1. Solve af*. Factoring.224 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 280.33 af* + 32=0. radical equations may be solved by the method of 238. Therefore . Ex.
8 x 2 Hence y' 2y = 35.i~24 = 0. 225 x = 32~* or 1"* = ^ or 1. = 26. 3. 2. = 7. EXERCISE 104* its Solve the following equations: 1. Let 8 x f 40 . y then x2 . 4. make the given radicals * Exclude extraneous roots and roots which imaginaries. _ 2 y . + 40 = 6. for 6 and 3 are the roots of the may 2 equation Vx' 8x it positive values.35 = 0.*2a. 412a* = 16. x =6 or 3. 5. But as the square root is restricted to cannot be equal to a negative quantity. 2. 3 6. 45 14VJB = . or y or Therefore 2 y = 5. Vi 2 8a.8 x + 40 = 36. Ex. x Since both =9 or 1. o. members of the equation were squared. Substituting.RADICALS Raising both members to the  power.8 z40 = 7. it will be found that 9 and 1 satisfy the equation. some of the roots be extraneous. x + Vx a? = 6. This can be seen without substituting.f40= 5. . 2_8z 440 = 49. 2Va. Solve x* 8x x* Adding 40 to both members. Q . = 0. + 40 = Vz2 $x + 40 = y. while 6 and 3 are extraneous roots.
14. 2. 4 V SB* 4 a. +x . 16. 18.f 18 = 24. or 2 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 8a f 40 2 V* 2 8. a. 12. 19.a 440 = 35. a^x2 5 2 13.226 11. ar fll x 3x 12 V5l? +1 1^7^30 = 1 ^ + G V2^"^I + 2 = 4. 15. +3= 6. 17. 20. 6 Va?~3o~ = y? 3 x f . 2 7a?HV^ 3 7a.
does not contain a?. to x we # = 2 3. then or* 2 and there is a 3 x2 f. we make a? what the value of Q. if Q was known. assign any value whatsoever and would always obtain the same answer for R. however. Hence.bx? + ex2 4. could.CHAPTER XVIII THE FACTOR THEOREM 281.3 x~ + 4 x + 8 is divided by x remainder (which does not contain a?). Without actual division.2 + 4. by dividing 3 x* f. Let then find the remainder obtained z = 3. 2. " Or. a? R = x* .<fo f e is divided by x Let then 2 4 8 ca: f (to + e (x = w. 227 . = 2. find the remainder when m. then (x 2)Q 0. E = ax + &z + m) Q.360 = 244. 3 2 Ex. R = am* + 6m3 + cm2 + tZw + e.3 x + 4 + 8 As 72 (a? .4 a. 1. we can find the value of R by making x = 2.2 x 5 by x 3. substituting Q " and ani^ ^ 2 respectively for Quotient " and Remainder. no matter If.2) Q ." transposing. Without actual division. even if Q is unknown.2 + 80 = 12. If x* . Ex. f 8 = (a? 2) x Quotient f Remainder. ^ = 381+2. ax4 4.
x m is factor of the expression.g. 8. a f b 7 by a ^14y ~132/  283. + ^by x + b. + 7 = 632.949. } 2 by a1. if 8 42  . hence (x divided by x 4. ing x becomes zero x8 3 x2 2 4 when 2 x If a rational integral expression involvm is a is written in place of x. the remainder is obtained by substituting in the given expression E. of the division 3) is m in place of x. EXERCISE Without actual division dividing : 105 find the remainder obtained by 2.228 282. x*x + 4x Tx + 2\)y x + 2.3)f 11 =. fora?.4(. The remainder obtained by dividing (x + 4)4 _ (3 + 2) ( X  1) +7 by x  1 is 6* 3 . 43 3 E.8'= 0.4x411)^0 + 4 ( 3) . 3. 5 (4x . ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA The Remainder Theorem. the divisor is a factor of the dividend. x* s 2 4. the remainder equals 8 2 x . Only factors of the absolute term need be substituted . The Factor Theorem. If the remainder is zero. 2 j 7. 3 x2 4) is a factor of x    00 *.8. x5 a^ 7 b 5 by x 6. + 3x3 2x* 32x12 by a?3. 5. x is divided by x The remainder 6 sion involving If an integral rational expresm. a100 50 a47 4 48 a2 b.g. + 6.
x 4o8 + 2a^ + 4a?~3 =0 4^ or* f 9 or* 2 a? aj? a? a? 2 4 3 . x8 By dividing by x a?8 f 1. 5. 8. 106 division. a^8^ + 19a. a + 32. factors of the absolute term.13m + 30 10. 8 }3 3 2 3 s 2 3 4 8 2 2 4 s 3 t . oj 5x2 f3a. 5 Solve the following equations by factoring 15. 15. & p*. 2o? m 6ra fllm 6. The 5. then x8 7 x'2 4. f 15 does not vanish. f 16) EXERCISE Without actual 1. 9. we obtain 7  7 x2 + x + 16 = (x + l)(x 2  8 a.49 = 0. p 5^ + 8p 4. ^ + 7y + 2y40 = 0. Let x = .1. a 5x 6.TEE FACTOR THEOREM Ex. a? 19.7 x + 15 = 0. + ttt15 = 0. Let x = 1 then 7 x + 7 a. 24. 1ft : ar*f 6aj 2 o?5ar 3 l + lla. ^10^429^20=0. 1. 2m 5m . 25. 3 2 : 7.1.7 + 16 . 8. 229 1. are f 1. 23. a. m 4 n4 25 mV + 19 ran 13. 18. a 8a f 19 a 12. show that divisible 4x 2 j +3x 2 a? 2 2 as 5 is or 2 by is a.7 f 5a 18 divisible by x 2. m f m n 14. x* 34 ar 5 225 is divisible by x 5.12. f 3. Resolve into factors 4. 4m p~m p + 16m^ 12. 6.9^ + 23^15. 20. 11. 2 2. 1.r6 = 0.e. Therefore x ( 1). Factor a? 15.12 = 0. or x 4. a 2a + 4. 21. + 15. 7 46 = 0. 3. f 5. or 5 4 + 3^ . 17. . + 27 + 27. _ . 7 2 a? 2 f 7a?f 15. 2. i. is a factor.
Ex. it follows from the Factoi xn y n is always divisible by x y.y n is divisible by x f ?/. Two special cases of the preceding propositions are of viz. is odd." .xy +/). Factor consider m m 6 n9 . and have for any positive integral value of If n is odd. xn y n y n y n = 0. actual division n. ar +p= z6 e. Factor 27 a* f 27 a 6 8. x* f/ = (x +/)O . It y is not divisible by 287. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA positive integer. if w is odd. if n is even. If n is a Theorem that 1. 286. xn f. if n For ( y) n f y n = 0. We may 6 n 6 either a difference of two squares or a dif * The symbol means " and so forth to. : importance. 2 Ex. 2. By we obtain the other factors.230 285. The difference of two even powers should always be considered as a difference of two squares. 1.  y 5 = (x  can readily be seen that #n f either x + y or x y.g. 2 8 (3 a ) +8= + 288. For substituting y for x. 2.
x3 8=0. a. y 3 +8=0. Factor a 12 EXERCISE Resolve into prime factors : 107 Solve the following equations: 25. 27. however. as 27=0.= . preferable. leads 231 is The first method. 3. since it more directly to the prime factors. 26.i mn f w 2).THE FACTOR THEOREM ference of two cubes. 28. Hence = (m Ex. f n)(m 2 mn f w 2 )(wi .
(4) Hence. x y. to equations of the fourth few cases. in general.CHAPTER XIX SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 289. xy x*y f y = 4 is of the second degree. xywe have 3. 4 xy = 16. xy are given. & + 2 xy + = 25. however. 232 . * A I. If two of the quantities x f y. can be solved by the methods degree. ==5 > 1^ = 4. 2 2/ (1) (2) (3) (2) x 4. 290. Hence " /  X y = =} 4. (5) Combining (5) with (1). of quadratics. *The graphic solution of simultaneous quadratic equations has been treated in Chapter XII. The degree of an equation involving several unknown quantities is equal to the greatest sum of the exponents of the unknown quantities contained in any term. + 6 a?V .y4 is of the fifth degree. Squaring Solve (1). Simultaneous quadratic equations involving two un known quantities lead. = 6. the third one can be found by means of the relation (ojjy) 2 4 xy Ex. EQUATIONS SOLVED BY FINDING x +y AND xy 291.1.
' 10. r (" 1 = 876. In many cases two of the quantities x f y.g. x and xy are not given. I I x + y=7. but can be found. 3. = .SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 292. 12. b=3. roots of simultaneous quadratic equations must be e. EXERCISE Solve: 1. 108 2. F* Lx ' 2 (1) ' (2) (3) (4) 2 + 3 = 293. the answers of the last example are : r*=2. 233 y. " "' "' { r 8. 1. ^. The arranged in pairs.
one linear and ne quadratic. =^ 18* ONE EQUATION LINEAR. Substituting in (2) Simplifying. 9 y2 17 y 2 + ) 8 (y  40 y (17 y 1 Hence Substituting in (3). ^ f or* f 4 xy = 28.  42 y + Transposing. ( \ ~^V\ + 2 / 2y 2 ?/' . x " (3) 49 etc. 3. ' ' .20) = 0. A system of simultaneous equations. 5. or y = 1 . 6 "I 14. Factoring. 4 y = 20.a.4 [ ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA x 4. I* Jj ^ [. THE OTHER QUADRATIC 294. I x+y = a. or JJ.o 18.  . Ex. 19. can be solved by eliminating one of the unknown uantities by means of substitution. 7 . la.?/ i = 6. EXERCISE Solve : 109 47/ = 0.i/ = r 13. + 29 = 0. aj = 2. Solve 2 x + 3y = 7. 2 (1) From (1) we have. .. r^ 2 as ] f.~ y = 5. .  f J.
3 2x 2 Ex. the example can always be reduced to an example 296. ' x*. 1. 3 y2 Substituting in (1). (x to solve the 2t/)(2 x = ( Hence we have two systems (3) (1) From (3). 4^ 3 x 2 y 3 y3 A and # 2 2 xy 5 y2 are homogeneous equations. quantities. 3y) : Factor (2). = 1 3 3. 4 f + 2 y = 3. 235  > ' 1 lla 8 12~ 10 13. HOMOGENEOUS EQUATIONS homogeneous equation is an equation all of whose terms are of the same degree with respect to the unknown 295. ':il e :) . x2y. one equation of two simultaneous quadratics is homogeneous. 9. 10. Solve . (1) (2) 7 xy + G if = 0. 8 V~80 Hence y =1 y . y* + 2y = 3. If of the preceding type.SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS y 7. III.
j Substituting y in (2). 2. y = 110 f 10^370^ + 7^ = 16^7^ . 15 x2 . 11 a2 Factoring. 109 a. (rc2/)(llx5y) 16 xy f 5 y 2 (3) Hence solve : (2) From (3).20 xy + 15 y 2 = 2 x 5. 2 . Solve 2. (3) (4) Subtracting. = 0. = 0. the problem can be reduced to the preceding case by eliminating the absolute term.2 ^ EXERCISE Solve: 6ar 7aK/427/2 ==0. } VI09. (1) (2) x x 5. If both equations are homogeneous with exception oi the absolute terra.236 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 297. = Ex. (1) Eliminate 2 and 6 by subtraction.
!.y = 7. A.175 ay = 12. f 1 150 a?. Division of one equation by the other. ' ^ 15.SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 237 m U.3^42^=43. Some of the more frequently used devices are the following: 299. y? a? f . and others not belonging to them. which in most cases must be left to the ingenuity of the student.6. 2 xy + y2 = 10. 298. .125 ay = . ' <"" =m _ 14 ' &. (4) (3). 2 (3) (4) Squaring (2). can be solved by special devices.xy 4. SPECIAL DEVICES Many examples belonging to the preceding types. " IV. E. Equations of higher degree can sometimes be reduced to equations of the second degree by dividing member by member. 150 */2 . Solve * + '* { Dividing (1) by (2). Bxy9.
y . Considering V# + y and y as quantities and solving. x 2 . Some simultaneous ?/. = 189.. considering not x or but expressions involving x and as the as x . i" <Vx f ' unknown 6. (1 > (2) 1. B. Vx y 4 or V^^y = 3 x 4 or But the negative roots being extraneous. Solve Ex.238 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 111 Solve * : fajy=152. f^ + 3 7/ = 133. we obtain by squaring. we have from (1). 2. jc~ y = 9. x +y y etc. at first it is unknown quantities. In more complex examples letter for advisable to substitute another such expressions. = 12 J. quadratics can be solved by ?/. y = 3. Therefore x = 16. i ^ *>. xy. * ' 300. from (2).
239 Ex. The solution produces the roots EXERCISE Solve : 112 5. . Hence we have 7 x 4 to solve the two systems U) : x ! + */ = 17.SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS . 4. 7. Solve (1) (2) Let Then r __ 17^ + 40. 6. M6. Hence = V or = 4. F+y+ . [2x + : y= 17. 36* 2. I e. 2.
= 198. 16. .4 y = 47 a. + o5)(6hy) = 80. ( xy (7 m 2 n*. ' x2 1 6 xy = 15. ' ** 5x+ 7y = 13 ' ' 1 f. 19 ' 26.21 ^ = 15. 2 or 5 CCT/ + 3 f + 3 . 25. = y 1 y* . * . . f 18.240 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Solve by any method : far' 9 + a^lSG. x 1 20' = 41 400' =34. 27.
etc 302. = 48201. 33. 32. 7' j/ 39. The results of problems and other examples appear sometimes in forms which require a special interpretation. ~\ OK OO.SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS i 241 y . . or ~ indeterminate. Interpretation . oo 301. Q 7. .of  According to the definition of division. as a . ^ oo .  But this equation is satisfied by any is value of a?. 3 a2 38. 30. . 203): ix y Solve graphically (see 40. 31. y % 9 f*K 36. hence may be any finite number. 25 34. etc. . INTERPRETATION OF NEGATIVE RESULTS AND THE FORMS OF 5 . finite  =x y if = x.
(1) = 0. equation. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Interpretation of ? e. (1) is an identity. = 10.g. (a: Then Simplifying.000 a. + I) 2 x2 ' f 2x + 1 x(x + 2)= . great. Let 2. however x approaches the value be comes infinitely large. and . 306.decreases X if called infinity. .e.increases if x de x creases.242 303. the answer is indeterminate. I. without exception. the If in an equation terms containing unknown quantity cancel. TO^UU" sufficiently small. as + l. Interpretation of QO The fraction if x x inis infinitely large. i. creases. it is an Ex. be the numbers. or infinitesimal) This result is usually written : 305. ToU" ^100 a. 1. The ~~f fraction .x'2 2 x = 1. is satisfied by any number. The solution x = indicates that the problem is indeter If all terms of an minate. and becomes infinitely small.e.can be If It is made larger than number. customary to represent this result by the equation ~ The symbol 304. while the remaining terms do not cancelj the root is infinity. By making x any * assigned zero. of the second exceeds the product of the first Find three consecutive numbers such that the square and third by 1. Hence any number will satisfy equation the given problem is indeterminate. or that x may equal any finite number. 1.i solving a problem the result or oo indicates that the all problem has no solution. Or. cancel. x f 2. Hence such an equation identity. i. . oo is = QQ. (1).
e. 3. Solve x a.8 x + 15 6. 243 Solve the system : (1) (2) From Or. the second exceeds the product of the first and third by 2. 1=0. EXERCISE PROBLEMS 1. Solve  9 7. Solve ~o 3 x v ~K 6 x r x 6 4. y finite QO. Find three consecutive numbers such that the square of 2. third and sixth parts. * 6. and a. Solve (aj + 1) : (x + 2) = ( + 3) 114 : (a? + 4). z = 1 Substituting. The sum is of squares 2890. .SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS Ex. Solve . = oo. no numbers can satisfy the given system. 42 and' their product is 377.2 y = 4. 4 3 x x5 a2 . (2). 2. Hence /. 113 is One half of a certain number equal to the sum of its Find the number. and the sum of Find the numbers. The sum of two numbers Find the numbers. EXERCISE 1. is their 2. two numbers is 76.
255 and the sum of 5. Find the numbers. Find the dimensions of the field. and the diago(Ex. The volumes of two cubes differ by 98 cubic centimeters. rectangle is 360 square Find the lengths of the sides. 14. and is The area of a rectangle remains unaltered if its length increased by 20 inches while its breadth is diminished by 10 inches. The area of a nal 41 feet. is the breadth diminished by 20 inches. the area becomes f% of the original area. and the edge of one exceeds the edge of the other by 2 centimeters. 8. Find the sides of the rectangle. is 6. 12. 6. 9. Find two numbers whose product whose squares is 514. To inclose a rectangular field 1225 square feet in area. and its The diagonal is is perimeter 11. 146 yards. 190. of a right triangle is 73. and the side of one increased by the side of the other e. Two cubes together contain 30 cubic inches. two numbers Find the numbers. 148 feet of fence are required. Find these sides. of a rectangular field feet. Find the edges.) 53 yards. The sum of the areas of two squares is 208 square feet. equals 4 inches.244 3. 103. Find the edge of each cube.) The area of a right triangle is 210 square feet. But if the length is increased by 10 inches and 12. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA The difference between is of their squares 325. and the sum of ( 228. 13. . and the edge of one. The hypotenuse is the other two sides 7. is is 17 and the sum 4. and the hypotenuse is 37. Find the side of each square. Find the other two sides.quals 20 feet. p. the The mean proportional between two numbers sum of their squares is 328. increased by the edge of the other. Find the sides. 10.
Find the number. The radii of two spheres is difference of their surfaces whose radius = 47T#2. and the equal to the surface of a sphere Find the radii. and if the digits will be interchanged. by the product of 27 be added to the number.SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 15. their areas are together equal to the area of a circle whose radius is 37 inches. Find the radii. differ by 8 inches.) 17. the quotient is 2.) (Area of circle and = 1 16. 245 The sum of the radii of two circles is equal to 47 inches. irR *. is 20 inches. . (Surface of sphere If a number of two digits be divided its digits.
10.. The progression is a.. Hence / = a + (n . a. The terms ARITHMETIC PROGRESSION 308. series 9. of the following series is 3. to produce the nth term. 3 d must be added to a. a 11. f . to produce the 3d term. 4. (n 1) d must be added to a. Since d is a f 3 d. An arithmetic progression (A.. added to each term to obtain the next one... except the first.. To find the nth term / of an A. . + 2 d.. 12. the second a descending.1) d. each term of which.) is a series. P. 16. a + d. 309. P. : 7. .. 3. a 3d. 15 is 9 f. . the first term a and the common difference d being given.CHAPTER XX PROGRESSIONS 307. a f d.. progression. P. 17. to produce the 4th term. 11. to each term produces the next term..7. a + 2 d. is derived from the preceding by the addition of a constant number. 2 d must be added to a. and d. to A series is a succession of numbers formed according some fixed law. The common differences are respectively 4. The first is an ascending. 19.11 246 (I) Thus the 12th term of the 3 or 42. . The common Thus each difference is the number which added an A. of a series are its successive numbers.
.. the last term and the common difference d being given. 4.. 3.. 1J. 2. the term a. 3.. 8. 10. Find the 12th term of the 4.. d = 3. 5. 7. = a + (a Reversing the order. 8. 5. . 19. 5. 21.. ? (a) 1. 3. d . Find the 7th term of the Find the 21st term series .4..8. 4^. 1. 6 we have Hence .. 7.PROGRESSIONS 310.. = I + 49 = *({ + . 2 sum of the first 60 I (II) to find the ' ' odd numbers. P. series . series 2. Or Hence Thus from (I) = (+/). P. (a + + (a + l) l). 3. 3. . . 2. 99) = 2600. Find the 5th term of the 4. 1... . 24. Find the 101th term of the series 1.3 a = l. 6. if a = 5. 115. . Adding..16. 8. = 2. 2J. 5. . Find the 10th term of the series 17. 2*=(a + Z) + (a + l) + (a + l) 2s = n * . a = 2. = 99. (d) 1J. 247 first To find the sum s 19 of the first n terms of an A.. 6... first 2 Write down the (a) (6) (c) 6 terms of an A. Which (6) (c) of the following series are in A. 9... 7. 5. Find the nth term of the series 2. 2 EXERCISE 1. 6. 9. of the series 10.. . P.' cZ == .
to 20 terms. . striking hours only. 2. and for each than for the preceding one. 11.7 f to 12 terms. 29. the other two may be found by the solution of the simultaneous equations . 33. 7. 15. ..248 Find the 10. to 15 terms. (x +"l) 4. P. 3. . 8. rf. 16. '. 12. . 7. . 2J. 17. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA last term and the sum of the following series : . 1+2+3+4H Find the sum of the first n odd numbers. 18. 15. 11. 11. 31. \n. strike for the first yard. to 7 terms. (i) (ii) . 19. 22.5 H + if f to 10 terms. . > 2f 2. 7. 20. 16. 15. In most problems relating to A. hence if any three of them are given. 13. to 10 terms.1 f 3. 23. . to 20 terms. 6.(# 1 2) f (x f 3) H to a terms. 1. 11. + 2f3 + 4 H hlOO. 12. 4. Sum the following series 14. + 3. 21. : 3. $1 For boring a well 60 yards deep a contractor receives yard thereafter 10^ more How much does he receive all together ? ^S5 A bookkeeper accepts a position at a yearly salary of $ 1000. and a yearly increase of $ 120. 1. Jive quantities are involved. to 8 terms. 1J. to 16 terms. . Q^) How many times in 12 hours ? (&fi) does a clock. How much does he receive (a) in the 21st year (6) during the first 21 years ? j 311. to 20 terms. 1.
2. = n(104 . = a + (w. Find the series. 49 (1) (2) Substituting. #. 204 = ^ (a + 49). I. Findn. x=  4 the arithmetical mean between two numbers is equal to half their sum. I Substituting in (I) and (II). When is called the arithmetic three numbers are in A.6 n). if a. the and the sum of all terms 1014. J = 49. 67. The series is. = 1014. = 1014. = 144. Ex. 89. or if x Solving. 100. d = 6. . 111. From (1). The first term of an A. 312. 133. But evidently n cannot be fractional. 23. a = 49 6(71 . n = 6.e. or 11 J. n d.104 w + 408 = 0. 78.. 56. P. is Thus x the arithmetic mean between a and a=b x. . 12. = 13.~n~\ 408 6). if s = 204. P. is 12. 122. 6 n2 . or 144 = 12 + 12 d=ll. Substituting in (2). 144. 6. 2 (2) From Hence (2). (1) 1014 = ^(12 + 144). 3 n2 52 n + 204 = 0.PROGRESSIONS Ex. and b form an A. Solving. l)e?. 45.. the second one mean between the other two. 1. 78 n Substituting in (1). 34. s 24ft last term 144. 204 = ^ (98 . hence n = 6.6.1) .1). a = 12. P.
7. How many terms How many terms Given d = 3. Find n. = 52. n = 16. I Find I in terms of a. Find d. n = 4. 11. has the series 82. n = 17. and s. Between 10 and 6 insert 7 arithmetic means . = 45. 10. 6? 9. = 17. s == 440. 14. f? . Between 4 and 8 insert 3 terms (arithmetic is means) so that an A. = 1870. . n has the series ^ j . Find d and Given a = 1700. a+ and b a b 5. d = 5. 16. 15. 3. = 83. produced. = 16. s = 70. I. A $300 is divided among 6 persons in such a way that each person receives $ 10 did each receive ? more than the preceding one. 74. n = 20. 4. f J 1 1 / . of 5 terms 6. n. Find w. P. m and n 2. a x f b and a b. = ^ 3 = 1. ceding one. Given a = . Given a = 4. man saved each month $2 more than in the pre 18. y and #f5y. T? ^. 17.3. n = 13. 13.250 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 116 : Find the arithmetic means between 1. How much did he save the first month? 19. Find d. and all his savings in 5 years amounted to $ 6540. 78. Find?. Find a and Given s = 44. Find a Given a = 7. Given a = . Given a = 1. 12. How much . 8.
24. A geometric progression first.. (I) of the series 16. To find the sum s of the first n terms term a and the ratio r being given. 4 (1) . . 36. 36. . called the ratio. or 81 315. r n~ l . the following form 8 nf + q(lr") 1 r .arn ~ l . is it (G.. NOTE. Hence Thus the 6th term l = ar n~l .. The 314.. P. is 16(f) 4 . . 4..PROGRESSIONS 251 GEOMETRIC PROGRESSION 313. ar8 r. ratios are respectively 3. <zr . . except the multiplying derived from the preceding one by by a constant number. 2. 108. 12. or. 4.g. . the first term a and the ratios r being given. 24. ar. fl lg[(i) l] == 32(W  1) = 332 J. The progression is a. and To find the nth term / of a G. If n is less : than unity. 2 a. E. s(r 1) 8 = ar" 7* JL a. P. 2 arn (2) Subtracting (1) from (2). of a G. Therefore Thus the sum = ^ZlD. 36.) is a series each term of which. g== it is convenient to write formula' (II) in *... the first = a + ar for ar f ar Multiplying by r.. a?*2 To obtain the nth term a must evidently be multiplied by .. +1. P.. . rs = s 2 . I. (II) of the 8 =s first 6 terms of the series 16.
l. P. 36.l. ._!=!>. \ t series . And the required means are 18. + 5. P. 117 Which (a) of the following series are in G. 3... 9. series 5. (b) 1..252 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 316. 288. 36. . 676.. first term is 125 and whose common . 25. Hence n = 7. . f. 144. 576. if any three of them are given. 72. Jive quantities are in. 676 t Substituting in = r6 = 64.. P. .5. 1. . the other two be found by the solution of the simultaneous equations : may (I) /=<!/'. Find the 6th term of the series J. fa.. 10.. I = 670. first term 4. Write down the first 6 terms of a G.18. Hence the or series is 0. . 6. 0. 8. 144.6.. In most problems relating to G. Write down the first 5 terms of a G. whose and whose common ratio is 4. 4. ? (c) 2.18. hence. 72. i 288. series . series 6.. a = I.. series Find the llth term of the Find the 7th term of the ratio is ^.4. . volved . Find the 7th term of the Find the 6th term of the Find the 9th term of the ^. (it. .*. r^2. 80. P. 4. +f%9 % . . . To insert 5 geometric means between 9 and 576.5. . . . 18. 7. 2 term 3. (d) 5.. 36. fa. P. 9. whose . 144.. EXERCISE 1. first 5. f.72. Ex. or 7. 20.54.. Evidently the total number of terms is 5 + 2. whose and whose second term is 8. is 3. Find the 5th term of a G. . is 16. 9..288.
>"> . .. 81. 2. Prove that the geometric mean between a and b equals Vo6. J. to 5 terms. . = 3. I. 12 terms. J. . and hence ~ r . to 8 terms. a^. 27. may be than any assignable number. 126. 22. 1. Therefore 8^ = 1 i =1 1 '.. Find a and 4. n = 5. Find the geometric mean between 7. 36. 54. 25S series : 32. Consequently the sum of an infinite decreasing series is By n less r^Ex. J. Find a and Given r = 3.nV> i*> !718. Find the sum to infinity of the series 1. to 7 terms. s = 605. 16 .. 14. 4. to 6 terms.i a9 . Z s. 243. P. . M. Find a and Given r = Given r = 2. 81. 24. 12.J and 270. be written If the value of r of a G. 72.. r .. == 160. to 6 terms. to 6 terms. . . + 4 . 19. of r n decreases.. n = 5. 23. J. to G terms. is less than unity. to 7 . a.PROGRESSIONS Find the sum of the following 11. Given r = n Z 5. s = 310. 42. 21. 20. Find a and n = 4. the value The formula for the sum may if n increases* = _ fl flf made taking n sufficiently large.. INFINITE GP:OMETRIC PROGRESSION 317. 15. 14. = 3. 13. 48. 1.
6. 10.. Find the sum to infinity. of all squares ? .072. 2.= _4Z* . 12. .72. .254 Ex. 8.. of: 11.. 16. (6) the sum of the perimeters.. = .. r = j. 7.37272 .. If a = 40. is 16. 16.. . 65 = 1L 110 EXERCISE Find the sum to 1. 9.1. Given an infinite series of squares. 2.191919. Hence . 8. 4. i.3727272 .. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Find the value of .)7?7272 . . . =A+ 10 i. = .. = a . .= .3121212. . first and the common term.. Find the value 9... of an infinite G. 12..01 ^ . If the side of the first square is 2 inches. .. P. 4. 100. and the first term is Find 17.3 + . P. ratio 15. The terms afteAhe first form an infinite G. 40. The sum r. 1. 5. 1 r = . 6. 66 Therefore . what is (a) the sum of the areas.Ql..072 + .. ... is J. is 9. I. the diagonal of each equal to the side of the preceding one..272727. .. 118 : infinity of the following series 3. .. 3.. . 9.. 5. 14. . 13.27777 .99 . 1.00072 f .. = 990 ..717171. i i J. P.... 1.555. .. . 250. 1. The sum Find the of an infinite G.... . ..
21. 16. 28. 15. Find the middle term of f f x }\8 : ) 27.6) . 11. . Find the 5th term of Find the 3d term of + b) . /2a+Y\ 8. 26. 5. 25. (a2) 6. (\ 9 .a2) 25 Find the 5th term of f Vx + ^r 18.b) w (a (a f (1 . 10. 4 (1+V#) + (1 Va) 4 . Find the Find the u 13 coefficient of a?b in (a f 5) . 17. 4 7. 12. (z2 ^ Simplify 9. (xy) : 6 . : (1 + xy. a6 8 16 in .BINOMIAL THEOREM EXERCISE 119 257 Expand the following 3. 20. . 4. Find the middle term of (m ri) 16 Find the 99th term of (a + b) m im Find the 1000th term of . Find the coefficient of a?V" in (a Find the coefficient of 23. coefficient of . l 2. + a) Find the 4th term of 7 (a f 2 b) . Find the 4th term of (w Find the 5th term of 12 ri) 11 . (a + b) .6) 20 .b ). (s + i). 7 . . 14. (a 100 . 22. Find the middle term of (x + y) 4 Find the middle term of (a b)\ . 2 2 24. Find the 6th term of (x . . 13. a4 b 12 in (a f 6)16 Find the coefficient of a5 b 15 in (a . Find the 3d term of fa f V ^Y Va/  19. 29.
4. 2. 2J 4J 16 x* 32 afy 24 afya 1. 5. = 2. 1. 4 2. 2. 3. 3. 1. 4 *2  4 xy  4 ^+ a: ?/ 2 ?/ + 2 3. 2. 2. 7. 3. 6. 2. of : 27 x* ~ 27 xy or f 9 xy~ 1 # 8 . 3. 1. 2 . 1. if = = = 2. if x^l. 3. 1. 3. 4. 2 (2 a  3 aft f 4 2 ft ). 4. 4. 2. 2. 2. 2. 24 4. 6. 2. 4. 3. 4. 2. 1. 5. 2. + c(a  c). (ft c)(c 4 ) 3. . (ca)(cft)' 4. 2. a8 + ~T 3 2 ft' a2 + + 3T r C + + c2 + 2 . c = = = 2. 3. 3. a ft c = = 2. 3. 6. 3. i (aft)(ac) a 6 (ft.] a 2^ aft + r 3 a l} 2 be 4. 2. aft 3 + 4. 3. y 3. ft 4 ) 5. + 2. if a ft c = = = 4. . + 1.c )(fta) 1. ft) . 1. 6. 5. 3. 5. 1.a(a 4.  2. c if 7 . if y=2j 2. 2. 2. 4 (2 a  13 a a b + a ft 31 a 2 ft 2  38 3. 5J lj 2j 3} 8 4j y 8 . 1. 2. 1. 3. *=M  M 3J f 2 2 ] 2 ] 2 1 3 1 3 1 M. 3. 4.f ac 1. 3. 1.  2. 3. 5. 5. 3. 2. 2. 2. 1. 1. 1. 1. 4. if = = 2. 4 ft  c) 2. 1. 5. 6.  a)(a 1. 2. 4. 2. 3. 3. 2. 5. l. 1. 4.258 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA REVIEW EXERCISE Find the numerical values 1. 5. 3. 4. 3. 2. 2. 2. 1. ^+^ 3. (c 3. 2. 4. 3. 1. 5. 2. + 2.  8 ^ 2. 3.
10.11 z 3 4 4 ?p 2 . . 3.8 y y 5 4 * 8y. 9.' 4 x2 2  5 z3 8 .7 + . a. by The and c is represented radius r of a circle inscribed in a triangle whose sides are by the formula Find r. ' b) + 3.4. c = 3.5 xy 3 + + 4 . 4 y 13. a /> 3. 8. 4a + 9 a2  3 a5 . f 8. and 3 y 8 f 12 z 8 . 1 + 3 x + 2 x 8 .4 xyz + 4 xy'2 . 4. 41.10. 40. 7 xy 3 . + x/y 2 + + y'2z + 2 3 x 10 y'2 + 5 z2 . 5. 2 . 16. or . . 21.x 5 4 . x C 4 4x y + . x3 2 a2 . c)(x a} . + 8 x4 *y . + 4 ?y .7 ys. + 3 y 2* . 15. a: . . 6 a4 4 a8 . 18. 25.7 y 2* 4. b(x (b 1.r 6 x  4 xy . 9. 6.259 x c) . 1.  2 x 2// + 3 2 x?/  7 y3 . 2.  a) (c 2. if a 6 = = c = 3. 8 .2 x2 . + 2. 4 a 5 9 4 2 */. 5.a 5 a . c(x (c g)(x 6) = 1.a 4 . x3 f 3 ax'2 .4 x'2 f 12 x and 5 2 + 7 x8 . xy 2 12 xy* + G y4 4 xy*  zy + 12 xy*  4 y4 . 7. 2. 2. x 3 11. x = 4.\ yz + xz. 10 z 8 12  6 2 8.2 x?/.3 a?y . Add the following expressions and check the answers : 10. 6 y4 y 4 + 3 z8 . 26.1. ~c)(b.5. 15. 7y 4 . (5.2 a?y + 3 aty . 29. 5.11 x 5 12 z 7/ 3 ary. 4 z . 2 2 x2 + and 9 2:2 y' xy. 2  + 12 a 8 .a8 .2.2. = 2.3 xyz. 2 x 8. a 4 + 11 a . x 3 x' 14. 17. 24. 4. 3. 11 z 4 x4 12 17. + 4. x 2 +  2 ax* f a zx + 2 ?/ a8 . r> . 4 x 4 .2 z8 4 x.x 2 + 4 2 ~ 10 z 2 + z 2 + 11 yz + 8 2:2 .a) . 20. 1.8 + 2 // .8 3 + 7 x4 .4 yz\ 7xy* + z 3. 21. 11 x 8 + 14 x^ij . 12. a. 2.c' 2 4 / . 2 a3 7 y4 3 // f ax'2 . . + 1. 5. 4.
(7 x 4. and a ft 4 ft 3 c take  6 a.2 a . c =x y }~ z.4 Vl 4.. 2 c  2 a  and 2 a 3 x2 28.[4 x 4. Simplify 31.8 3 4. f ft.2) . 542 x 2 and .(4 * . (*) a  c.[3 if  (3 _^ ft 6 ft f c)}] a: .(5 y .2 x 8y2 44 . c 4. [4 I 2a47c(7ft44c)[6a3ft4 2~c44c{2a(ft2T2)}].c. find (a) a (ft) (c) a 4(</) 4. 4 4 4.(5 c .260 19.1)}] .2 . 4 3 From 44 the 3 // and G x 4y 2 x2 2 . sum of . 4 .3 .4 x from the sum of 9 x 2. Add 9 Ifcc 2 7 12 .x . 0" 30. and . ft. and a 2 ft 4 ft 3 c take sum  2 c 4 2 a and 2 a 5 x c. .2 . 6 VI ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 4X5V14.5 10 b 3 \ G 11 = ft x4y42.2 3 ax 2 . 2 x 32.3. c 4ft.n/ 4 4 12 x 5 4 4 x?y 4 2 x6 f 4 x 4 ?/ x// 5 ?/ . take the sum of G x 5 . 7 12 . and d= c c 4 x4#4z </. .x 4. . 2 xy 4 the ^V 4 G x5 From take 4 sum sum 2 c of . 3 4 5 10 2  7 12 . (/) a +  ft 4 6 +  rf.4) .#48. = x y ft z. 7 x x the ft 4 x2 11 x. 3 ft.6T .c.1).(x* . 35.(4 x 2 . of 2 x 8 4 4 x2 4 9 and 4 x .?> x 4 20.{G * 2 .x . 2 x2 + 2 y5 24. of a. 34.5 .(a . and 2 Vl 4*/ 2VT+7 . : a x . 3 x2 133ft[l7a5ft^[7fl3ft{4fl~4ft(2a3ft)}]].3 x 3 from G a 8 2 a 2x  4 x8 22.4 ft) 4. 5 10 + 7 .a ft. 36. 5 4 7 12 . x8 x2 2 a'2x. 33. .[4 z 8 . x'2 .4\/i + x 3Vl 4. and 7 x a 2x 2 ax'2 4.c 4 3 a.4 x 8 from ax 2 4 6 x8 4 21.x2 .1 and x 8 G 11 4 3 x2 +  from G x2 4 x. 5 10 4 G 11 4.7. ft 25.x 2 4. and 4 4 2 xs 4 and 5 x 3 y 5 . .] 26. From of 2 the 4. a  ft + c.4.2 _[5ft{^ 2 8 4 x* . 3 x Subtract the difference of x 8 4 .{2 x 2 . 4 2 x2 23.3 x . the From sum of 2 1 sum 2 c of ft 4. Take the sum of G a8 4 4 4 a 2x 4 .27~~7)}]. / x5 2x 4 # 3 y5 G x a 4 3 5 x*. . 4vTT~y 3. Take the sum of 3 x 4.(x 4.5. Take the sum 4x 4.c 3 a. 4 2 x8 x 4 4. Find what expression added the ft to 3 x 2 2 x 4 3 will give 27. 29. 4 3 5 y/ .3 .6 x ] .
c 2 . (1 55.2c(V/ . (a 2 + 2 + 9 . (x 2 + 4 y 2 + 3 z 2 ) (.3T~2~s)} + 5 2].  2 a  {3 2x a .4 a . (.3~ft f 2 c + 4 ^ .(7 a. 5a(7ft+4c) + [6 a.[7 a 36 {4 a 46 (2 a 3 ft)}]]. + 4x + 5)(j.[0 a 5a + 2 c + 4 c .2 <?)} 13 ft ft _[&{2c(3d + Perform the operations indicated 47.3 a + 3 + aft)(a + 3). .4 a 2 + a 4 ).ac .3 c)].r 2 + !>ar + 3)(^ 2 .3 *).[3 y [2 ft 2 z + {4 (3 a ar 40. 7 a 2 261 {5 2 a2 2 a + (2 a 2 i j 38.(7 i + 4 r:) . (a 2 + 2 + c 2 .r 2:c+ l)(ar. 13 a . 49. (a 2 + 2 + c 2 + aft + ac . (. 2 53.(2 a 2 . .{2 a (ft .3).ab .2 zz . 48.& + {.5 )}] + {4 c . .5)} + (3 a 2 . a .{2 a .3c). a {.a~^~c)K].(6 . 51. 2 : 7e)a}]. 57. (x. 45. . (2 x 2 3 ar+ 1)(3 z 2 x+ 1).(2 x2 .96 [17 a.(5 y . .e '/)}] (2a + 2b . (1 ar+a.12).2 2 + 1)(7.56.3 z 2 ). 62. 2 52. 2 f [3 c 7 a . 'J 44. 67.2x + 3). 60. (5 a 39. )(lz a ). 46. 2 ft 41.(2 a + 5 a . (4 + 3a 2 .6)}].6 xy . (4 z 2 + 9 2 + ^ 2 . 65.rf)} + a [. (x . (/> 4 . .(4 d .{3 c . 3 x 42. 59. . 64.[4 x  5 .2 2 .6c) (a + f c). .3 yz)(2 a (* 2 ft ft ft ft ft ft ?/ ft ft ft ?/ a: 61. 4 + 2 2 + 1).[2 . .JT^T+1)} + (2 . 56. 54.7). 50. (a:2)(r4)(a:9).6 x + 5 x'2) (2 .2)(1 .c).* 2 + (x + x + l)(a: (z 1). +  ^+ y)(x 2 ) (x + a 2 )(a: 4 + a 4 ).(2 . 2 a) (2: + 7/ a)(x 2 2 66.b (c . 68. 2 2 x + !)(* . + 2)  (4 x 2  2 x 7)}]. 43.REVIEW EXERCISE 37. 63. (ar + 7)(ar + 5)(a: + 3).1).Z .0)} .3)(*5)(* 7). + *+!){> + 2).be) (a 58.ary + 2) (^ 4 ?/ *V + *)(! + ar)(l + ^ 2 )(1 + **). (r (1 (a.2a .
3y) a (* 2 4. O (x (a 2 + 4 y y) 2 a J 4 .262 69.m np c .a) 2 .(a 48 8 8 4. 83. 92.2 ft}) f (3 a . + (rtP+i 4 2 6)(a^+ .x + y + z).2 (y 4. a(2 + 4 3ft) 2 (2a 4 4 8 ^) .2y)(.r3y)4l)y( a :y)^2y)418 // (2ry)46 8 // . 76.(a? 4 y)*(x  y).a) (2 + 7(7> ~ 'y) 2 4.c)]. 77.c) j.c .z)(x y + z)(.y)\x y).c) rr identities. 74. 94.z\x 4.q).(a 2) (s 4 ft. 86. f 72.O (a 4(a 4.(^ 4 y 2 )  4 ^/(. ft" l Simplify 80. 70. 82.{3 a .c c 2 4 2 am 20 (??2 + : n 6 f p ) (w . 88. 1).3 a .y + z)(x + y .am&t 4 A 2 *). (. xy y 2 ). 4 (a + ft)(a 2 81. 90. ft ft ft a}.c) 4) (ft 4. .r 2 . by multiplying out each 4 side of the equality. Prove the following 8 4.ac b + n~ + /? 2c n ft n an b c)(a"* ?n + + c).c) 2 . ft 8 ft) 4 ft 8 4.(c 4. 85.(ft 4. ft 95. 89. 75. 71.(x 42 y) O 2 4 y) (^ 44 y ).c) .2ft) 8 ( + 2 ft).3 (ft .:y)( a.a) (a? 4(c 4 y) (y c)(ar 2 ft + 8 a). (a 2 ft 2n 4. 73.> 2 2 + 2 3 9). b 4. (a) (a (ft) a8 4 ft 8 4. 3[a{2 a (a 4ft 4 2 2 ^>) c) 44 a2 a8 4 2 4.c)} .c) .c 8 4 3(6 c)(c 4 a)(n + 2 ft).b 4. 8 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA (a 2  z 3) (a 8 2 a + z 3 )(a 6 2 + a: 6 ) (a 12 a (a  + l)(a 2 f 2a + l)(a + + ( a: 12 ).n pc).6*y . a (a 2 2a + + " 4 l)(u 2a n f (:r a.<f(p . 4 4 .v) 4. 79.c . 4. (x (x ( + *) . ft /.ft) + 4(2 . (a (2 b)*(a 4.2 (a .y).y'*4y 2m )OK y I)(a m ). 87.ft) 4 .z) . ft 78. p(p + ?) + 4 A) (a . 2 (x 2 .5 . ar .(/>  3 v)^(.(4 .9y2). 1). 84. 91. _ ft) (a: + a)(x + b) + (bc)(x + ft) (a: 4. 93. (p 2 . 2 + a 2 ). . (x 4 2 y) (2 ^ 3 y)2(/ y) (^ 3 V)  . .
r . 103.9 x 2 . 2 4 41 x 4a. 1O4.6 ) (a** (a (x 10 3 J 1 a  1).(x 2 . . (20 x*  4 72 x 2  35 4.2 2% 4.v/ ~ // = a: .REVIEW EXERCISE Simplify : 263 96.(7 xi/ . O3a n O2a 4~ i O4a 2a T (3' 3m n ~*~ 3 3n 3") 3".2 xy 8 .xy 4. 110. 124. 20) * (3 a* 4 4 a? + 5).3 a"+ 4. (a 8 ^4 + 8 & 8) (  2 2 119.*) (x 8 .) . a*. 4 (6 x 4 23 x s 33 z 43 42 a. (2< 107. 122.6 y 4 4. 99 100.a". 116.(y 2 ~ (a 2 ) 5 y 6 a  12). 102. 121.5 a 21 (10 a 4 5 a*) Qafl^ = 5 a*. (4 4 3 a  4  5 a 3 .16 a 6 4.y 2 4. 26 (a 4 c). 25 4 .y 4 ) .1). 108.40 />) .y 2 ) 4 a 2// 2 /> 8 a.5 b*). 109.2y 2 4. [10( 4.b) 98. 3*. (.21 x*if) (4 ^ 2 . . 10).y 4 . 105. (80 a 112.4 aft . 106. (x* 4 9 ax 8 44 12 .(a 1 2 8 . 118.(2 a 2 .r 4 4.&). (8 x* 115. 1). 123.2 y 2 ) 3 xy (25 . 114.&) 8  5(a n 4 2 6) ] 5(a 4 &) 6 (a 4. ( y 8_o7)^^2 + 3 y + 0). 113.5 xy).'30) ~ (4 ^  5 x 4 10).27 x* . (a 8  8 68 8 4. (2 y 44 2 y 2 4 02 y 23 a 4 3 16 y a 50 4 48) 2 111.35 x 2 2 ) . 4 (a 8 44 16 a 2 4 4 256) s ~4 2 (a 4 4a ^ 4 16). 2 (a+ .c 4 6 afo) f + ^ 4 ). Cr (z 27y l9a:y) (a:3yy 6 ) r 2 (a: 4 xy 4 y 2 ). 120. 117.
2) (a: + 3). 126. 149.G) . 1 o + 5 + 1=15.2(10 x .264 125. .(x + 3) ] .l)(ar + 2) (a: (ar (2ar 2 4} = 2(3 x .2 7^~5] + 1).2 {3 8)} ^ 5(13 4(j = 5{2 x .(9 x + 10) (a:  3) . (4 x .3 a:).4) . 10(2 x 141. 148. 143.2) = 3 . By what expression must x* + G x2  4 a: 1 be divided to give x2 + 5 # 9 as quotient.8 6 .5) = 12(4 x .r + 7[or .2(j: .22. 138. 1) . 142. 5 146. .(1 .9) + 3.r>) . . 136. 3(2 x 134.2) + 2(ar + 4).n .3(2 z .4(0 x . 2(3 x + 4) 8 [2 (a: . 129. (5a: 150.3 a (1 + * l l 1 3 f 2 &). .18 *&) (1 . 3) = x\x . . remainder when a 4 3 a b B + 12 a 2 6'2  b* is divided By what expression must a: f 3 be multiplied to give 4 x*7 8 a*b + 4 a 131.3(* + 4) + 9} .2(4 . 42(3ar 145. . 2 4(ar .5{.4) .9) 4.3 a#z) (ar + y + s).12 M 132. 5(2 x . with 8 as remainder? Solve the following equations and check the answers: 133.7) = (7 x  1 1) (3 x .x+ + x a ) ~ (x a + + x).2(5 . 3) a: a: a: +?+4= o 13.(x .  9)  7(0 x a?  32) + 5 = 4x  3(2 j  3). 1) = 2(* .3 x).3).3) (3 x 4. 10(2 x 5 x + 3(7 x .a:)]}.7) = 4 . By what expression must 3 a 2 ab + & 2 ? be divided to give the quotient 3 a 2  2 6 2  8 ttfc 8 + 2187? .7(4 * .(j a? 144. What is the 2 by a*ab + 26 ? 130.27 a 3" .5). 128.3). y (* l x. o o 140.(3 a? 2 [2 x + (x 4. 7(2 x .3) = 12 . 135. (*+ + .1) . . (1 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA + a8 3  G ax z8  8 z 8) 5 (1  a  2 x).19) + 5 = 4 . 137. 139. x 147.1) (a? . 127.(x f 9).
(5 x . The formula which transforms Fahrenheit (F. 165.2 x) (4 .z) (4 .3) (3 .5*) + 47. Find five consecutive numbers whose sum equals 100.2).5 x) = 45 x . 158. By how much does 15 exceed a ? How much must be added to k to make 23? 167. + 10) (ar . . (b) At what temperature do the Centigrade scale and the Fahrenheit scale indicate equal numbers? (c) How many degrees C. ^ + ?=13 + 2o 10 o .2) a + 7(x . .19) + 42.5(x . 156. = 15.T)O .7) (1 x . 160. 5(ar x . A man is 30 years old how old will he be in x years? 168. will produce F. (3 O + . sheep more than the 169.2(x ~ 1) + 12 = 0.9) + (a.3) (a: .17) 2 + (4 x . The second contains 3 first. sheep are there in eacli flock Y The second of the three angles of a triangle is 180. and if 15 were taken from the third and added to the first.8) = (2 x 4. If the area of the frame inches. these two angles would be equal. (7 14 . transformed into F.76.6 x) (3 . How many 170. 163.24. 2 4 . 164. 161.(* + 2)(7 z + 1) = (* .3) = (3 x .REVIEW EXERCISE 151.l)(z .29) 2 = 1.2) (j? + 1) + (x . . + 2) + (5 . 153.? . =  (F 32). There are 63 sheep in three flocks. 159. how wide is the picture ? surrounded 108 square is 172. 162. 265 152. 154. (2 .a:) + 229. . find the value of F.r + 3) . . f^ + ^sO. 166.2) (7 *) + (*.3) (j. (a . a: ar a. (a.3)(* (ar 2 7)  113.4) (a .5)(.) readings of a thermometer into Centigrade readings is C.. are the three angles? is A picture which is 3 inches longer than wide by a frame 2 inches wide.2 x) = (1 . + 5) = (9 . 155. (x (x a.25) 2 .3) (3 . + 4) (2 x + 5).j Write down four consecutive numbers of which y is the greatest. and the third twice as many as the first.7) (a.1) (s + 3).5) = (3 .14) (a: + 3). + 5) 2 (4a:) 2 =r21a:. (a) If C. = 2 C.1) O + 4) = (2 * . 157. angle of a triangle is twice as large as the first. The sum What 171.
A the boy is as old as his father and 3 years sum of the ages of the three is 57 years. 6 in each row the lowest row has 2 panes of glass in each window more than the middle row.266 173. 2 2 + a _ no. ll?/102. 4 a 2 yy 42. father. same result as the number diminished by 175. 176. sister . younger than his Find the age of the father. and the middle row has 4 panes in each window more than the upper row there are in all 168 panes of glass. How many are there in each window ? . Four years ago a father was three times as old as his son is now. +x 2. .56. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA A A number increased by 3. train.36. and  as old as his Find the age of the Resolve into prime factors : 184. . and 5 h. 181. 180. + 11 ~ 6. 3 gives the 174. two boys is twice that of the younger. 190. A boy is father. Find the number. was three times that of the younger. the sum of the ages of all three is 51. . 3 gives the same result as the numbet multiplied by Find the number. Find the dimensions of the floor. An The two express train runs 7 miles an hour faster than an ordinary trains run a certain distance in 4 h. A each 177. 7/ 191. 189. aW + llab2&. 13 a + 3. if each increased 2 feet. 10x 2 192. z 2 92. power one of the two Find the power of each. x* 185. The length is of a floor exceeds its width by 2 feet. side were one foot longer. 187. dimension 182. + a. and the father's present age is twice what the son will be 8 years hence. 178. respectively. Find the age 5 years older than his sister 183. A house has 3 rows of windows. The age of the elder of it three years ago of each. the ana of the floor will be increased 48 square feet. number divided by 3. 12 m. 186. What is the distance? if square grass plot would contain 73 square feet more Find the side of the plot. 15 m. is What are their ages ? Two engines are together more than the of 80 horse 16 horse power other. z 2 + x . 188. 179.
1. 8 a. 2  5 xy 13 y a. wiy + la mx + aw. 217. + G *2#2 + 9 x*y\ 6 x* + 5 a:y .6.28.x + 1.19 z 4 204. 210. + 2 .c) 2  (a . 201. 227. a.3 xf + 3 * 2y . a: 4  a: 2 a: V 2 .6 aq .64. 239. x 219.6 y2 + 4. 195.REVIEW EXERCISE 193. 4 f yx* + z*x + z*y.8 6 2. a: 236. a: .77 y + 150. 23 12. 12 x +4. a. 222.10 xy. 2 x 2 .22 z + 48. 224. 207.3 xy. 2a te 3% ly 247. xm+l 243. 211. a+a* + o a +l. . 5 x 2. 208. a. 11 2 + 10 20 x 4 . 2 a: 2 + 4y2) 2 + 240. y 2 194. *2 234. 2 2 y f 1. 238. x* + 8 2 + 15. 245.21 a:  54. . 5 ?/ + 1 1 a*b .14 2 . 216.a 2/A 214 12 x*y .(a + z2 ) 2 (a 2 3 (x (r + y + a. (13z 2 5# 2) 2 2 2 (a 6 (12 c 2 ) 2. 2 a 8 . x*y 223.6s. 2 200. 235. 6 197. 215. a a: a: 237. 202. 2 afy 13 28 a: ary + 66 y. 213. + 8.10 y a x* . 3 x 2 . x 5 . . . 4a 2& 2 241. 2 + x 2 ) 2 .10. 230.3 c/> + 6 cq. a: 231. . z 2 2. 15 x 2 + 26 x a . 206.y) y) 6 a 2 + 5 a .6 2 ?/ . 14x 2 25ary + Gy 2 3 x* x 2 . 2 a 2 . z + 5x 2 . 16x 4 81. 209. 8 a: ar.(b + rf) 2 . (a + . a 2 .20 z 8 a: 220. 229. 3 x V . + 3a 196. . a^a 226. + 30 x. 3y 2 + ary .c) 2 . 203. # 2  29 y + 120.19 a . .r?/f y 2 9.12 * . 2 . 9a4a6 (a 2 + b . 246. ifWy+b. 244. 233. 3y 248. 267 199.xm y + xym  + (a c)  (c rf) 242. + 198. 212. 60 a 2  a: // 205. 3 ap 2 . a. 232. 221. 218. 7x 2 225. 24 2 + 2 . 7a 228. 4 m +^.
4 ab + 1. 2 8 .G7 x f 33. z 2 268.&z. 270.3 x .23 x f 20. Reduce to lowest terms 271.10 a 4.2 ax 2 + 2 for 2 . 7 12 2 2 .7 f 5. 10 a. x 2 + 4 + 3. 3 #2 255. 251.11 x f 28.15 + 30. 261.11 a 2 .ry .(55. x 2 + 2 x . x 2 4. a? a: a: // 262.3 abc . : x2 4 a: ~ + a. 2 2 + 39 xy 4. 30 ^ .36. + 3 x + 2.C. a: . C. of: 253. 257.18 ry + 32 y 2 2 .120. 22x2 a. z 2 267. 2 a. * 2 . 264. 6.14 bx a%% 8 . _ 40 y 2 272 f f 2 !8a: . + 23 x f 20.2/ 2 .4. * 2 .2 aft*. .9. x 2 263.a 2 />c 2 f 3. a 3 a 2 2 . 2 z 2 f 13 x + 1 5.M.2 z . x* .5 ab f 2.ry 21. x*y* 4. * a . ^27/7 + 12 2?6 28 x 2 12 Jr 2__7^/_ J/ 2 + 3 . G(x+  l)'\ 9(x 2  1). 252. 15 # 2 z/ /.77 + 77 ' 2?5 5 ' 2 5 a: 2 7 . 8 2 + 10 x .16 x . x 2 f 9j: + 20. 2 . a. 7 ax 250.1 9 . 28 2 f 71 x . 10 x 2 .91. 259.3. x 2 + 5 f . x* . a 4.a + 2 4. + 20 x 4. + 8 x + 5. 1 x ar Find the L.x .73 xy . F.r + a# + az f 2 6z fry 4. of: 266. 258.9 x + 14.12.23 + 12.13.48 afy 2 .8. 3 ay 4. 269. * 2 . ft a. 2 x2 .9 x .17 x + 6 * 14 273 P a 5y>+4.10. 5 x 2 256. 8 xf < 3 xy + a.80.9 xy + 14 y 2 ar ar a: .15. 265. + 8. 18 x 2 . I Find the II. 260.6 by. 3 a% 2 . 2 + 7 r f 2. x 2 .268 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 249. 254.r .18 xy + 5.
2c a: 282. m 4.(y 2 z) * t (j.ar 1 279.2* + 3 x* 280. z2 (a 2 + c)a..  9 ' 2Q4 4 *2 ' 8x+8 ' 278..!/. + ac . a. 8 .rL.REVIEW EXERCISE 277 8 agg 269  6 a. 289 ' . *2 " 2 + Oge. 9 286 1 1 + 2* 3 x f *2 ar + a . fr 293 ' y <? 294 2 2 2 + 2 cV + 2 a 2^ 2  4  ft* ~ c4 295 296 ' 297 ' . 285 z4 n* + a.J' 4 2 2 w mp .2 22 + 2 2 yz 4 2 zx 2 + ary _ _ 22 _ 292 ^  ?/.n 2 )P * 287 " 281 2 q^( 2  a: 2 ) m 288 ' . y)' z2 283 t 290 ' x'2 2 y* + z2 + 2 0:2 291 *2 + y 2 + 0. _ "* m ~n w 4 + 2 7w% 2 f sa .
* 19 23 19(23 23. ^n m+n "*" + n) 2 g 309. O(ca) 306. _L + 12 x 1 + 35 1 307. a (: a) (x 2. + 19) 2Lz + 3 x " 2 99 ' i x +4 *3 a +7 300. (a: 1 + l)(ar + 2) (x + l)(ar + 2)(* + 3) 302. Lnl + ar 2 a. x x ~~ +^ i ^ ~ ''^ . 4 3 301. (a 1 1 + a b c) (a + ^ ct) (a + a c)(a f e) 304. a? __ + *_ + + la?la? * a l 303.270 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA : Find the value of 298 23. x 7. 6) _ ~ i 305. X2 (ca)(ai) 1 x2 4 (a +9 i_ 20 a . ^. x + 3 ^ "" 310 x a: 2 a: 2 2 a:  17 a:2 ar3 x 2 5a:i6" . ^_2*(m 308. 2 + 7 _ 44 3.
(a? 4 2) 317. 2ft 2 a8 3 314. } . . ( ftc g~ft ( 6_ c) 2_ (a. 1a: + y a. 2 + y 2 319._ '(a6)*(a:r)a 323.+ a 10 z 2 2 *2 9*+ 20 *2  8* + 15 315. i 271 + b a2 + ft 2 312. nl g(jL+ 2 ) ^^^_ 318. Dx x(l *) * 8(1*) 4(1 +*) 2 8(1 + 4(1 .2 1 f 1 + : *2 1  2 x' 316.BE VIEW EXERCISE 311.(a .. _ x8 . a: 1 313.ft) 2 322. .*) + * 2) 321  c) 2 . 1 x2 + + a. (1 . 1 _.
2 a2  2 a  ' 03 i^+^T 42 ^2 _ l5rt~+~54* 327 8 ' ^ .272 Simplify: ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA ~ 324. 2 ^ "" 1B x + 40 y *2 + 5 x  3.5 a . a: 2 x* .9 *// + 27 .7 acy + 12 y2 + 5 a:y + y 2 . 2 lOx 5x. 4 y2 2 5 x8 2 z6 3 y 10 a: 2 + 8 2 .y20  2y + 4 2 .6* t 328./  3 y  6 ( 331 g gy ' f a 3y ~ 6 q  9 G 2 y/ + 5 ?/ 6 G fl y~4y+ 15 ^e  10 6y 332 3 a: +lly10 4 xy 8 2  a. z2  4 x  ^ "" 12 *.28 8 2  11 2 + J?_ x fl^^ffjje _ 2 12 a 4 a + a  4 6~7** 27^12^7 . .a: ' 2 + 0^ + ^2^7 a.2 y2 ' 334 *2 ' + 2 y 8 a. .ll.7 xy + 12 x .4 x?/ 2 ^_ G x 2 + 13 gy_+ .19 xy + 6 y 2 8 x* a: ?/ ' ~" 6 y 333.15 33 . 250 5 10 2 325. 2 ?/ 4g~0yg 10 o# 2 ~ x 6 a* x' 2 24 y 2 1 ..V  + y  x 3y a . 20 44 333.y 2 x (a?4y) 3(2 x  ' _ ^/ 3 y) 2 8 330 . 2 x* 8 x2 4 r8 i + 2 a.B ~ 1037  329 4 a. ' a: 2 2 5 sy a: f zy + 4 y* .. * 3a.2 +lOar 2 a.
\x yj 340. 338.REVIEW EXERCISE 336. 352.13 13 s 11 Find the numerical values of 351. 344. 7 ( ?f!?.1V. (ar \ 346.+ r . ' ~ ~ x2 + 8 + 76 2" 350. Simplify : 353 ^3 * 2 L pE+1 a /2x~l V 5a:~2 10 4 354. (a \ + lV. ( 342. ?_2 ^ . : 1+ i. \5yl 341. (aWi + iJ. a: 349 _ o. 5 343. + l + IV. fl. + ni + . 278 C  ~ a c* \ c* ~ b a2 q2 h c 5 5 ~ a c b q  q c 6 * \ : f 1 \  { 337. xi 347. f V. ' 2 "l 5 .y.r 5 2 .. 348. ** i. +^ a: y x . a>74 . aj 339. w \. if a = 3. 1 345.) 2 . (af2/.
_ + l a 359. 1+2 362. y360. ar xy + yl x* 358. a2 4 . + x x a . (a a b yx c yabc 361. I  I f 366.274 355 f 5 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA U<>3) 356 fl V ___ _/ 2(*l)J + ya xl x 1* YTx 2 110*W*1 1** JUal + xy 357. (~ 364. W?* (* + 1 + 2x) \3a _ 1 + 2x \3a 1 365. i+5 1+1 9 x2 f 363.
a + .REVIEW EXERCISE 2 275 f 367. 6 a c b a b b 1 ' ~ _^ . (1 +ab)(l+bc) 369. b c 368. . 2  m 373 "1*7 374. 370 ' 1 (/')(&o) 1 a 372. \b* + c* b + b b*c*)^ c ^\ b (b* f c*) } c 4 c a b .
""" 2J 7 ' + 2 28 ear7 + i3JTo^ . 2(3 x (x + 4) + 10) + 1 (x + 7) = 0. 20 iLf5 + !*=! = 2 J. + 1) 45 O 377. . __4 2x 3_ = !. J !__7. 5 {2 x 381. 4(* . 5 3 vC 7 a: 385 10 17 387 * L*J> _ 14 1 7ar = (5 ar 10ar + 15 .^^ + x f o 51) +2J = 0. <3 378. 8  376. 1 + 16ar_63 24 g 2T~~~ia 7 12f a 8 a' 389 5  14(arl) 18 105 390.*2 = 15. . r 1  3(* + 1)} ! ' . a: r ~ 2 + 5"^  10 xf x  382. 379. + 6)+  (* + J = _j_ j(* v/ O + 5)10 ^\:) / 380. # k 1 _j j a: 2 a: 3 383. 3 Solve the equations : or a: 2 (a. ^ . 5*8.276 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 375.
_____ .  ft) = 2(ar  ) (a.6~a: 7 _ x 8~a. JLg:== 7wa: c c } q. 400. y ~ rt ^= & ~ 402. b 404. 277 x 4 _x 5 _ _ a: ar. 399.5 ^ ~ a: a..* 2 + *2 " 2 ~ ^ H. u '2 a.5 x =r f .REVIEW EXERCISE 391. a.2 a:  1. f 1 1 + a 403.147. a: a)(a:  &)(>: + 2a +2&) = (a: + 2 a) 408.8 = .  J). .6  . ^ (a . 40.. 397. . m x 398.25 x + . n a 4O5 b b x f (a:  a) + a(a. c . 3* 177.25. l)(x  a) (a:  3) 42 3(4 *  2)(ar + 1). (x ~ a)(x f 6) f c = ^ (z a: + 2 a)(a: a: 5 i). "i 2 37370 ^ x i x x + 1 a?  R  7 ~r * 1 a.5 1 f 1 x  2 = x . 396. + 4 a. 401. 6 7 7 ^ 2 1(5 a.75 x f . (8 x  3) (x 2  1) = (4 x a: 1) (4 x  5).  8 9* x ~r.1 .
2 a x c x 6 f c a + a + a + 6 f walks 2 miles more than B walks in 7 hours more than A walks in 5 hours.278 410. A in 9 hours B walks 11 miles number of two digits the first digit is twice the second. a x ) ~ a 2 b 2 ar a IJ a. a x a x b b x c b _a b f x 414. and was out 5 hours. far did he walk all together ? A . Tn 6 hours . mx ~ nx (a ~ mx nx c d d c)(:r lfi:r a b)(x .(c rt a)(x  b) = 0. 18 be subtracted from the number. (x . he takes 7 minutes longer than in going. 421. (x f ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA a)(z  b) = a 2 alb = a (x f b)(x 2 .  a) 2 6 2a.a)(x b b) (x b ~ ) 412. 411. How long is each road ? 423. In a if and 422. and at the rate of 3^ miles an hour. Find the number of miles an hour that A and B each walk. Find the number. 4x a a 2 c 6 Qx 3 x c 419. f a x f x f c 1 1 ab b x 415. the order of the digits will be inverted. x 1 a x x1 ab 1 1 a x a c + b c x a b b ~ c x b 416 417.(5 I2x ~r l a) . 418 ~jo. down again How person walks up a hill at the rate of 2 miles an hour. hour. 420.c) . A man drives to a certain place at the rate of 8 miles an Returning by a road 3 miles longer at the rate of 9 miles an hour.
wi* + y= ny. Solve 436. 435.2 (a + &*) (a h & ) = (a ) (a 6). of the sixth and ninth parts of the less.6 8 ). a. 3 and 1J. 279 A in 2 lowed steamer which goes at the rate of 264 miles a day is foldays by another which goes 286 miles a day. z2  y\ x* xy + y*.REVIEW EXERCISE 424. z 2 y. Prove that the number of miles one can see from an elevation of h feet is very nearly equal to ^  miles.46 2): (15a 2 .a 2^ 8 + aft* . 431.& 5 ) (a 8 . : m n(n x) =p : m n(p : x).31 afc + UV ) = (15 a 2 + 31 ab + H 6) (25 a2 . When will the second steamer overtake the first? 425. 430. . and : b : c = 14 : 15. 438. Which of the following proportions are true? (9 c. a8 f 2 ab f 6 2. 8 8 5 ~ a*b + a*b* . A line 10 inches long divided in the ratio m:n. Find the mean proportional to 429. Find the ratio x 5x : = 7y . Find the fourth proportional 426. 428. Find the length of the parts. 2 2 8 2 . x 427. .49 63). a + 5. find : a : c. b. : i. + 4ft):(Oo + 86)= (a26):(3o46). . 5 7 or 151 208? 437. find the angles of the triangle. a  t>. Which ratio is greater. : If is one equal 434. Find two consecutive numbers such that the sum of the fifth and eleventh parts of the greater may exceed by 1 the sum. 433. 432. The sum of the three angles of any triangle is 180. (a + 6 ) (a + ft) = (a (3a 2 2 : : fc : : : . angle of a triangle is to another as 4 5 and the third angle to the sum of the first two. if . d. ax is \ by  ex + dy.iand 22 22 I a . y. If a b : =5 n : 7.
The volumes If their diameters. 3 a. x + 5 y = 49 3 x . 456. if 2 ft : 439. 1(3  a. ?/ 447. . 5z4:# = 3. Find the value of a. what is the weight of a sphere of the same material having a diameter of 3 inches ? 440.11 y = 95. 445. x + 17 # 53. 450. 16. 8 x + y = 19. /) ar a. . 444.*. 4 = 5 y + 29.7 y = 25. 2 (3 a + 2 ab  8 ft) : 2 (5 a f 4 ai  12 ft 2 ) = a? : (5 a  6 ft).rf2# = l. 42 = 15y + 137. ft. 20y + 21 18a = 50 + 25y. 5 2 = 7 . + 5y = 59. 56 + 10y = 7a. . 15ar = 20 + 8y. a: 2y= = 1 . 446.11 7. 9ar7# = 71.280 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA x. 5x+4y=lQ. 443.4 12 . 28 = 5 a . 452. 5#+ 10 = 27 a.35. c. ft. 7 442. 457. 7jr9y = 17. a. 8 . 455. 448. ax + ly = 2 a*x + & 2# = a + b.55 y = . 29(a + &) : x = 551 (a 3  ) 19(a  &). 5j + 7 7 = = 2. 9/> = 2 .59 = 3 z. 3 . . a: a: + 5y). 453. 7a?y = 3. 33 x + 35 y = 4 55 * . ox f &// = 2 + y) = a + 8a + 21+3ft = 0.. = 25. 449. . />(. 21 7 = 27 + Op. Solve the following systems: 441.89 = q. 458. 454.3 y = 3 5 f 7 . 459. of two spheres are to each other as the cubos of a sphere 2 inches in diameter weighs 1:2 ounces. 7 a: . 451.(or l(*2y)=0.
3 a? _ y 7 a? 3 y _ 1 12 15 ~~10 4 __ 10 "10 463.REVIEW EXERCISE 460. x y 474. _ & +y 3 dx+frj c\ . i = 5. car = 4 rf cte  ey =/.  = 2. 8 461.7. ax by = c \ 472.c=563y. ' a: + 2 g + 3 y _ 467.?/ + 1 . 465. 468. 475. + eyn. 3 x 28i + 7 ~~~^ = 5.. ^ + i^ = 7. _ 469. i 47O _ 3~12 } 4* 471.+ =2.2y) (2 = 2J. 473. ax cx by = m. 4 g ~ 2 7g + 3 . (or .
487. and in 20 months to $275. and in 18 months to $2180. half the The greatest exceeds the sum of the greatest and 480. A sum of money at simple interest amounts in 8 months to $260. 483. 479. If 31 years were added to the age of a father it would be also if one year were taken from the son's age .282 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 476. if the sum of the digits be multiplied by the digits will be inverted. fraction becomes equal to . Find the numbers. 481. by 4. and a fifth part of one brother's age that of the other. If 1 be added to the numerator of a fraction it if 1 be added to the denominator it becomes equal becomes equal to ^. . There are two numbers the half of the greater of which exceeds the less by 2. the Find their ages. also a third of the greater exceeds half the less by 2. latter would then be twice the son's A and B together have $6000. A sum of money at simple interest amounted in 10 months to $2100. Find the fraction. What is that fraction which becomes f when its numerator is doubled and its denominator is increased by 1. 477. to . In a certain proper fraction the difference between the nu merator and the denominator is 12. least The sum of three numbers is is 21. Find two numbers such that twice the greater exceeds the by 30. How much money less 484. and 5 times the less exceeds the greater by 3. and becomes when its denominator is doubled and its numerator increased by 4 ? j 478. 486. thrice that of his son and added to the father's. Find the sum and the rate of interest. A spends \ of his. age. Find the numbers. whose difference is 4. Find the principal and the rate of interest. and if each be increased by 5 the Find the fraction. A number consists of two digits 4. years. had each at first? B B then has J as much spends } of his money and as A. 485. and the other number least. Find their ages. Find the number. Of the ages of two brothers one exceeds half the other by 4 is equal to an eighth of 482.
494.? + 2y = 8./ f z =a. a. a: 499. y Solve : x +z= 5. 30 2^ 3^ = ' ' 4r=9. a: + // = 11. a: + ?/ 2z = 15. *i. . 3 x 500. . z y x 25 .z = 20. = 15. x f y f z 29 . 7. 4z+3z = 20. 7 4#+ 3z = 35. . ifi = x a. a. x y f z = 13. There is 283 digits which is equal to seven times the digits be transposed the new number Find the will exceed 10 times the difference of the digits by 6. 2 a. 490. 2a:f 7. ~ 507. of two the sum of the digits also if number. 493. a: f z = 79. Find two numbers whose sum equals is s and whose difference equals d. 1+1 = 6. 7 + 2 z . a number . 8. = 209. 2 ar + 3 y 2 z = 8 . 492. 5 + a. 496. The sum of two numbers squares is b. * + 425  = . 3ar 503. + y 5 y = 101 .REVIEW EXERCISE 488.5#+2z = $x a: G. 1. 495. 2y + 2z = a: 2. . and the difference of their Find the numbers. 3 a: + 5=84.z = 12. f + 3 y 62 4 y 4a. 498. 4 506. 489. z y ifi = z x 502. 2 2 = 41. = 20. . 2 e. : Solve the following systems 491. x s + y z = 18J . + # +z= 35. 5^ 9z = 10. 4 497. 2/>3r = 4. \ . 2y + 3a = ll./ 504.
z z =3a&c. 517.284 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 516. i=a + 6 c. 523. 36 + c. ll" . ra? + y 2 + 524 x \ +y + = + t jx [y + 9 = 3af& + r. + + 3579 2+?. + : = 1472. !f == 2800.
. M. In circle A ABC. and B together can do a piece of work in 2 days. . Tu what time will it be filled if all run M N N t together? 529. 37 pounds of tin lose 5 pounds. it is filled in 35 minutes. 527. BC = 5. L. Find the present ages of his father and mother. touches and F respectively. it separately ? 531. sum of the reciprocals of of the reciprocals of the first of the reciprocals of the second and the sum 528. and third equals \\ the sum third equals \. and losing 14 pounds when weighed in water? (b) How many pounds of tin and lead are in an alloy weighing 220 pounds in air and 201 pounds in water ? in 3 days. and BE. A can do a piece of work in 12 days B and C together can do the same piece of work in 4 days A and C can do it in half the time in which B alone can do it. and one overtakes the other in 6 hours. Tf and run together. How long will B and C take to do . AB=6. the first and second digits will change places. Two persons start to travel from two stations 24 miles apart. An (escribed) and the prolongations of BA and BC in Find AD. (a) How many pounds of tin and lead are in a mixture weighing 120 pounds in air. Find the numbers. 530. CD. What are their rates of travel? . A number of three digits whose first and last digits are the same has 7 for the sum of its digits.REVIEW EXERCISE 285 525. 532. and 23 pounds of lead lose 2 pounds. his father is half as old again as his mother was c years ago. 90. If they had walked toward each other. B and C and C and A in 4 days. N. if the number be increased by Find the number. Throe numbers are such that the A the first and second equals . In how many days can each alone do the same work? 526. A boy is a years old his mother was I years old when he was born. A vessel can be filled by three pipes. if and L. AC in /). E 533. if L and Af in 20 minutes. When weighed in water. and CA=7. they would have met in 2 hours. in 28 minutes.
then / = 3 and write = 3. c. 2 x + 5. x 2 + x. 2 541. if x = f 1. 2  x  x2 .  3 x. 545. If to feet is the length of a seconds. the time of whose swing a graph for the formula from / =0 537. FRANCE. . 2. The roots of the equation 2 + 2 x x z = 1. One dollar equals 4. Represent the following table graphically TABLE OF POPULATION (IN MILLIONS) OF UNITED STATES. from x = 2 to x = 4. the function. x 8 549.  7. x *x + x + 1.10 marks. 548. a. The value of x that produces the greatest value of y.3 Draw down the time of swing for a pendulum of length 8 feet.  3 x. b. x*. d. e. to do the work? pendulum. z 2  x x  5. i. AND BRITISH ISLES 535. + 3. 543. formation of dollars into marks. Draw the graphs of the following functions : 538. 550. 2.e.286 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA : 534. . The values of y. 546. 547. 3 x 539. x*  2 x. x 2 544. 536. How is t / long will I take 11 men 2 t' . 542. GERMANY. Draw the graph of y 2 and from the diagram determine : + 2 x x*. 540. The greatest value of the function. of Draw a graph for the trans The number in of workmen Draw required to finish a certain piece the graph work D days it is from D 1 to D= 12. The values of x if y = 2.
3 = 0. Which negative value of x produces the greatest value of y ? : Solve graphically 570 ' 571. 556. ' = 8. + 5 . x* .5 x . Solve// = 0.4 = 0. If y +5 10.17 = 0. c. 563. 18 x  4 = 0.1 = 0.3 x . a. 15.11 = 0.= 0.11 x* + + 2 8 569.r .0. 565. a. z 4 . 562. 2 554. 2. J. e.  2 1 a: a. // Solve y Solve y = 5.10 x 2 + 8 = 0. a: 559. . i. 3 x . g. h.3 . c. r?. j. 2 a.G .4 . and make the unit of the b.9 = 0.13 = 0. Solve 552.r 1 561. + 10 x . 555. 566. 558. 2 ~0a: + 9 = 0.) How In far does a how many body fall in 2^ seconds? seconds does a body fall 25 meters? Solve graphically the following equations : x*"2x7 = Q.' 2* + Z  4 = 0. . 2 567.REVIEW EXERCISE 551. 3 . \ to t = 5. 564. if y =m has three real roots. Find the value of m that will make two roots equal if y = m. 568. graphically from t = (Assume g = 10 scale unit of the t equal to 10 times the scale ^ 2 . 2 8 . f. x 2 ~ 2 . x 5 . 287 by a falling body is The formula 2 ] f/f for the distance traveled a. a? 4 x .r a: a: x a. 553. a.4 x 2 + 4 . 557. 572. Find the greatest value which ?/ may assume for a negative x. . Represent meters.3 x .6 + 3 . z 2 .= 0. = 5.7 = . 3 + 3 z .15 = 0. Determine the number of real roots of the equation y Determine the limits between which m must lie. 2 x 2 560. 3 x* . x 4 .
9  4 fSb 607. 4 (1a:) 3. a: f ~+ x [ 10 ^i  1 V 6x + 4 + 610. (1 (1 (1 . (aiy. : y* or 25. j^f = 3.128 a*^ + 04 aty 10 3 5 zy . a 2a. 6 + 1) . [ y =10. 600. 4 . 579.4 8 f 4 4 + i 2 ) 2 f (a 1 .x + 2 )'2 601. 595. 2 + f 9 6 + 25 c 2 10 ac  a6. jj+. a.2 2 + y. 3 . (# 2) . 3 (f.o 2 [ ?/ > 3'  578.2 & 2 ) (4 a: ?/ 14 a: 1 2 2 ?y 4 a: 10 2 + x^f . 598.4. x + z2) 8 . (a. 2  100 aW + 100 aW. + + 4 x) (l 2 ^) .48 a*h + 6 a: ?/ 10 6. . f ?>) 3 591. 582. + . + jf:ji f590> (2 (3 (1 Perform the operations indicated 584. Extract the square roots of the following expressions: 602. 4 a. 592. 596. 48 xf + a: 4  04 aty 6 a: // 16 2 605.(1 . (1 + x a. 2 611. a 8 606. (a  8 ft) . + ^) + (air%)8.frf : 583. + %) (a* + *) 5 .4 + 4 a 8^6 + 9 a a^e _ 6 aW + 8 9(5 a: 7 // fe . <r)3  2 3 a:) . 2 943 ++ ~bx. 2 (2 a ft 6 + + 4 a 6& 2 + x f 13 2 .4 x*y* + 3 4 6 . x [ ?/ 577. 5 a*. a: . fMV  586 ' ^ (a + 6)T ' 587. f ^s_ 14 a 4/. + + 4 .2 6a: + 30 &c a. 604. 585 594. 593. a:. a 612. 608. 599. 589.288 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 4. {f_7l j? 2* + ''. . = 2 \*> + a: [ ^ = 4' = 581. a: f 2 2 aAa: + 2 ?/ . xY. 588.5 xy = 0. 1 . 609.%) 4 (aa. 597.a:) 6 (1 2 2 (2 + 3 x + 4 ) f (2 3 x + f. 2 2 a:' ) + x' )'2 . 2  2 aa: 2 . 64 a 12 603.  128 a 10 6 30 3 a: + 2 ?/ ' 100 a 8 /.
623.V250 . 644. = 87.REVIEW EXERCISE Find the fourth root 613. 630. = 0. x 2 641. Find to three decimal places the square numbers : roots of the following 627. 40. (x 9 x 646. According to Kepler's law. V950484 . /.12 a?y + y*. VOIOOD + V582T09. 0090.8 aft 6 + 8 21G. 4370404. GGff. 49042009. = . 2 + 189 z = 900. 2 + 21Ga. 643. 494210400001. the cubes of the distances of the planets from the sun have the same ratio as the squares of their periods of revolution about the sun. 615. 634. + 2 21 x = 100. 633. f 4 aft 8 + 4 ft .\/4090. 10:r 4 + 9G* 3 + HI x s  108 afy 616. x2 + 9x _ 5x _ 22 66 ? * + 9 . *+* = 156. 639. 624. 614. + 54 'x*y* .49. x 2 f x ~  16 = 0. a 8 of:  8 tvb + 28 a 6 //2  50 a c ft 8 + 70 a 4 ft 4  50 a 8 ft 6 + 28 a 2ft 618. x 2 . find Jupiter's period. 3a. ft . 8*' + 24* = 32. 21. 25023844. 32 631.2. 645. f (x + 5) 2 = (x + . 636. 629.150. 4J. 210. 44352. If the distances of Earth and Jupiter from the sun are at 1 days. 632. 637. 626. 942841. V 635.2410. 9a. 7) 2. 650. 9g.448 z + 1120 a: 4  1792 x* + 1792 2 . 638.1024 x + a: 256. 2 2) 2 +x = 14. Find the square root of 619. 628.15174441. 625 : 621. + 24 a 2 4 . = 70. 647t x 2 648 649. 2. a 642.30.191209. 035. 620. Find the eighth root 617.871844. 651. 371240. 10 a 4 32 fe 2 + 81. a 8 10 a* 8 aft 7 + ft 8 .53 x ~ . 622. : 5. 49.*. and the Earth's period equals 3G5J Solve the following equations : 640. 4 289 of : 4 4 a*b + a2 2 /. + 112 a 8 .
290 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA """ ar a x b ab .
a. 1 __ : )'*' _i. 2 ' 3 2 a:)  28 + 21 + 5 '^ = 0. 699. 2 702. . 2 2 697.ax .a a )jr . ex abc= fx 0. 2 (:r + :r)O 2 + :cf 1) = 42. 696. 708. = 0. (x 2 +3a:) 2 2a.c = 0. 2 2 .2 a(l + & )z fa 2 (1 ax + to f ru: 2 . 7^^ ^3" ^^ ^T 704. 693.2V3:r 2 V5 a: f + fa + 1 = 0.REVIEW EXERCISE ~ 291 X+ x 1> a +c ~ a i~ i c ~ b  ~ " x 690.bx . + ~T~ * a + b x = rj* 2 4(5 4 x + + Ox + 4 691. 1 + V* 2bx + a 2 + 2 ax . 707. 2(4 :r 7r\O /'r'S = a: 0. . 695. 692. 4 a: + 4 ^^ 6a:x2 8 701. ax 2 698. 706. 2 ft 2 2 fi 2 = 0. 694.
714 2 *2 ' + 25 4 16  25 a2 711. **13a: 2 710. 717.292 709. 729. of a rectangle is 221 square feet and its perimeter Find the dimensions of the rectangle. The difference of the cubes of two consecutive numbers is find them. Find two consecutive numbers whose product equals 600. Find the altitude of an equilateral triangle whose side equals a. Find two numbers whose 719. 16 x* . 3or i 16 . ___ _ 2* 5 3*27 715. paying $ 12 for the tea and $9 for the coffee. What two numbers are those whose sum is 47 and product A man bought a certain number of pounds of tea and 10 pounds more of coffee. What number exceeds its reciprocal by {$. How shares did he buy ? if 726. A man bought a certain number of shares in a company for $375.l + 8 8 + ft)' (J)* (3)* + (a + 64 + i. A equals CO feet. 12 4*+  8. Find four consecutive integers whose product is 7920. . 722. sum is a and whose product equals J. Find the price of an apple. he many 312? he had waited a few days until each share had fallen $6. in value. needs 15 days longer to build a wall than B. and working together they can build it in 18 days. 724. 217 .44#2 + 121 = 0. a: 713. 727. The area the price of 100 apples by $1. If a pound of tea cost 30 J* more than a pound of coffee.40 a 2* 2 + 9 a 4 = 0. 723. 2n n 2 2 f2aar + a 5 = 0. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA +36 = 0. 725. if 1 more for 30/ would diminish 720. what is the price of the coffee per pound ? : Find the numerical value of 728. 721. In how many days can A build the wall? 718. 716.25 might have bought five more for the same money.
1 f ^ 2). n. 293 (y* (a* + f y* + y*+l)(y*.2? 50.2)(x2 4.1 + x. (x* 2 a M+ f a8) (x*  2 aM" a).aM ?n^n^ f ft*c*)(a* + 6* + c*). (^ (a* (a^ ary* + x^y f y*) * + * (x*  y*). 31. + a*x* x*)(a* /^ (a* (rrr + c^ s M ' + x*). 43. (v/x).1 f c" ). f + M 6* f 6) (a* U*") 4 a*6^ (<i* &*). (64 x~ + 27 y r (4 x~^ + 3 y"*). (4 x~* + l 3 ar 2 + 2 2 ) a.aft* 1 + a 2*. (x* (i* (a2 (a(1 1 4 d*). 34.)(ai + &. 46. (4 a: 2  12 x* 28 x + 9 x*  42 x* + 49)*. 1 + l)(>r 2  i + 1). 35. 42. +w 5 n* +w n 3 + n )(m* 3 n^). 52. 37.X . 40. + &2)( a 2_ 1 j2). .REVIEW EXERCISE implify : 30.1 + c. +   c* + 2 + ^ + cbf 44. 39. 38. 1 6.2 d*m* + 4 d)(w* + 2 rfM + . 32. 48 ^i? x T ^ ^2? x sT~ x . 41.2 ).l). 33. + a^ 1 + a 26" 2 )(l . . 36.
_ 1 4j "r O/lf * ^ ^ II r* 4"*" 1 A "1 1. vff + V^~ 4^ 2^/2 776. 759.294 753. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 755. 758. + V22 + + 12 V2b8  760. JU. 2V2 2V3 . 761. 4\/50 4 SVlOOO.. 768. [1r^ T 1 i .1+J 756. \/G86 v/lGv/128. ~ r* x . 754. 757. 2^3(^2^21 + 4^3^:0.
y/a + Va Va x x + x 781. x 782.2 V30. f x Va z Va f x + Va a. 13 799. . 3812VIO. a 9442V5.IIEVIEW EXERCISE y/a 295 f 780. 7512V21.12VIT. 14 791. 783. 789. 794. 16 + 2V55.4 V(j. . . 10 785. Find the square roots of the following binomial surds: 784.2V3* ^ 807. Va 809. 790. 3J . 92VI5. + 2V21. 7 + 3 V5 ( 7 7  3 V'5 ( 2 4 73V5 + 3V5 + V3 + V3 4  5 . 806. c 792. 87 ac + 6t  12 ^ + 2 Vab Simplify 801. 786. 787. 103 788. 793. .VlO.
+ ViTli + V7 .f 5 = V5x + 4. f 2 VaT+1 1 a: 832. 2\/^"+~5 + 3Vor7 = V25 . + 103Var. 836. 819. (x a: 2 ) 4 . Va: . x/aT+l .g.1 V* + 60 = 2 Vx~K5 + V5. Va: + 28 f + V9 x . 3 x + 2 .V2 ar 10. VaT+lJ f ^l .79. 811. Find the sum and difference of (ar + V2yx 2)* and 1. 831. 830. 816. 814.4 = 0. 818.28 = 4 V2 ar 14.V? = 813. /9ar a: = 17.Vc^lJ . 9 7 3 + V3a:+ = 0.13 = 0. + Vx . V3 f 1 V4a. V14 a.  5 + V3 f 12 817.\/2y  810. V2a: Va: + 3 + ar 2 Vx f 1 834. \/12 a. 833. 812.296 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA . 829. \/2(r+ /3 a: 1) + v/2 x + a: 15 = 13. 815. 820. = 1.
6. 5 a 4 7 a8 . a 8 869. x 6 x4 f + + a: x f 1. a* * 1 + a8 8 a. a: 2 + 4\/3^~. 27 862. . y 4. 846.3 x . 853. a*" & 6n . 2 x 3. 8 . .10 x f 1 = 10 x + L * 2 . a 872.1. 2 f 2 18a: f + 16. + 1. V4 x 2 . 868. 871. 19 x 14. 8 + a: 5 8 a. a. 6 2 f 3 6 s. f b**. + . . 870. 855.  3x a. 27 y 8. 8 + 4 4 ar 2 2 a. 8a: 2 4 f 8 a: + 2 19a. 875. a. a.12\/(ar44)(5z~ = 36. a: . 845. 856. 40 x 2 7 f 49. a. 2 f" + a/ 15. x* 8 ^ 8 2 a#* a. a l0m . z*y 8 l64a. 8 860. 865. 8 2a. 863. a 8 873. 9. 64 a 866. 4 x* 847. x 8 2 857. a. 275 8 l. x 4 + f 2 a. a 8 850. 4o.10 = 118. 4 x 8 858.ab9 ft*. 8^27^. 852.3 Va: 2 . + 512 y8 874. 864. 8 8 848. 4 a. 861. 16 859. +3 4 +  4.x*y + 3x f 2. a. 840. a: 849. . .28 a 4 xy 8 80. f 841. 4 a: 2 842. f 12. 8 8  13 a. 2 a: 64 y*. 876. 64. 8 a.12. 729 867. 839. 844.1)+ + Vo: 2 + 3 x f 5 = 7 . 851. a: : Resolve into prime factors 843.3 .7x + 3 = 3ar(a. 8 4a: 8 a.1000 6. + 216 rt aty a 10 . 5 x* f 297 9) 11 x . x 11 a^ J 13 854.KEVIEW EXERCISE 838.3 a:. a 18 4.a.
+ 2y=\2.y 2) = 20. . y(a:2 + y 2 ) = 25 x. y*+ xy .35. y 2 2 8f. 900. . that 1001 79 of 1 is divisible by 1000. 899. 2 . 2 + ary = 8 y + 6. a. +y f y = 7. 895. x 882.Vi' + 1 1_3. 2 f ary = 8 + 3.sy = 198. y y 2 y 2 1121. . 878. x 8 3 = 13:3. 890. a. 2 + 3 y 2 = 43. For what value m is 2 #3 mx* by x  880. 2 + xy = 28. 883. 3 x 2 . a: 1 1 _ 5 892. x*xy. What must be the value of m and n to make 8 + mx 2 + nx f 42 exactly divisible by 2 2 and by a. x a: lI = xz . a:y . 901. a: 884.y 2 = 2 y + 2. xy 2 a: a: ?/ a. 2 = 2 + 5.xy + y 2 = 19. . xy + y = 32. 887. f ?/ a: a: .298 877.5 xy + 4 f = 13. a: 888. 885. z 2 898. a: a. . a# f + xy = 126. 4 2 2 + afy 2 + f ary + y = 37.18.15. 2 . a: 2 897.y 2 + V(j. 5. 2 + y 2 . = ? + p"iaL+L=13. f a: a: 4 ?y = 481. y 2 4. : x 3? Solve the following systems 881. 886. . M1 891 1 .y = 2 ay + a a# = 2 aa: + 6 a. 2 3 2 z3 xy + y = 7. 894. 2 2 = 16 y. 2 + xy = 10. + ary + 2 = 37. 2 + 2 f = 17. 5x 3 exactly divisible 879. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Show Show 3 ? that 99 + 1 is divisible by 100. 896. 889. y = 28. ar(ar + y ) 2 2 2 2 xy . a. 1 x 893. xy(a:y + 1) = 6. 8 8 + y y 9 9 a: = = 37 a: 152. a: + y 2 = 34.1 = 2 a#.
x) = 21.y) = 33. y 49(x 2 2 = 6 2 (x 2 + y 2). xa 903.2 y) = 49 2 919. 3 y 8 ) =1216.3)2 = 34. x + y 2 = aar. = 8. 23 x 2 . x f 2 a:y = 32. 7 y . + ?/) . 2 924. 2 2 2 916. L/ay = a: + 5? + g = ^ + g. ny ft ma: = * a 2 m*. . (!) * . f y 2 x 2 y = 1. + 2 y) (2 + ?/) = 20. + y 8 = 189. (a. 914. 4 (a. ?/ ^: ^f!i^2. a: a.y2 = 22. (* 918. xy + x= 15. *y . 912.23 = 200. a. + y = 9. 2 * 2 ~ g. a o o 2 j + a:y = 2. Vary + y = 6. ^ 2 + 2 a:y = a a 2 3 a: a: a. 3 :r(3 .16 y 3 8 = . a: y zx 12. 2 y 2 f ay/ = 16. 2 915.REVIEW EXERCISE 902. y 2 + xy = b 2 925.y). 2 913. ary y = 8. 910. (0 Vx f 10 f v^+T4 = 12. a: * a: a: ar 928. + a. yz = 24. y 2 + 3 ary = 2. x + y}(x + y) = 273.6. 908. 7 + 4 y f 6 ary = 0. (o. 911. ^ 2 . 2 5 xy = 11. 905. 907. x 4 299 xy z 904.y)^ 03 926 12 +y +y 927. . * + y = 444. + y)(a.r a. 2 2 f 4 a: ar// or f a.y) (3 y . 3 y 2 + xy = 1. y . + 2 ary = 39. or or a? a: a: .3) 2 f (y . x 2 ry + y = 3.#y + 2 = 27. 917. xy 2 2 x 2y 2 = 0. y # 2 2 f f y = 84. + 2 a:y + = 243. 921. a:y xy 929.y = a(ar + y).3(* + y) = 6. x* + ary f y 2 = 9. y + a:y = 180.y) (a? . . + ary = a*. 920. 909. # + xy + y = 7.V + y 2 = + xy + y a = (a? . 906. y 3 2 2 922. 2 + y = 2 a 4. y x 2 = by. (3 x . xy + 2 y 2 = 65. 9 f 8 y f 7 ay/ = 0. 923.
and 10 feet broader. s(y 932. 935. find the radii of the two circles. The diagonal of a rectangle equals 17 feet. The sum of the perimeters of sum of the areas of the squares is 16^f feet. A plantation in rows consists of 10. The perimeter of a rectangle is 92 Find the area of the rectangle. 943. How many rows are there? 941. two squares equals 140 feet. (3 + *)(ar + y + z) = 96. 944. In the second heat A . + z) =108. feet. is 20. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA (*+s)(* + y)=10. and also contains 300 square feet. (y (* + y)(y +*)= 50. Find the length and breadth of the first rectangle. y( 934. and the Find the sides of the and its is squares. The difference of two numbers cubes is 513.102. and the sum of their cubes is tangle certain rectangle contains 300 square feet. . Find the sides of the rectangle. there would have been 25 more trees in a row. a second rec8 feet shorter. 942. and the sum of their areas 78$.square inches. The sum of two numbers Find the numbers. + z)=18. In the first heat B reaches the winning post 2 minutes before A. A and B run a race round a twomile course. rate each man ran in the first heat. diagonal 940. Find the numbers. two numbers Find the numbers. If each side was increased by 2 feet. A is 938.300 930. 931. y(x + y + 2) = 133. (y + *) = . Tf there had been 20 less rows. 34 939. two squares is 23 feet. is 3. 2240. is 3 . the difference of their The is difference of their cubes 270. = ar(a? f y + 2) + a)(* + y 933. feet. 937. Find the side of each two circles is IT square. z(* + y + 2) = 76. the The sum of the perimeters of sum of their areas equals 617 square feet. and B diminishes his as arrives at the winning post 2 minutes before B. *(* + #) =24. and the difference of 936. 152. Assuming = y. much and A then Find at what increases his speed 2 miles per hour.000 trees. The sum of the circumferences of 44 inches. the area of the new rectangle would equal 170 square feet.
The area of a certain rectangle is 2400 square feet. that B A 955. What is its area? field is 182 yards. and the other 9 days longer to perform the work than if both worked together. Find the width of the path if its area is 216 square yards. set out from two places. overtook miles. Find two numbers each of which is the square of the other. When from P A was found that they had together traveled 80 had passed through Q 4 hours before. 950. A number consists of three digits whose sum is 14. The sum of the contents of two cubic blocks the of the heights of the blocks is 11 feet. The area of a certain rectangle is equal to the area of a square side is 3 inches longer than one of the sides of the rectangle. at Find the his rate of traveling. the digits are reversed. . sum Find an edge of 954. Find the eter 947. A and B. Two men can perform a piece of work in a certain time one takes 4 days longer. Find the number. and its perim 948. . the difference in the lengths of the legs of the Find the legs of the triangle. If the breadth of the rectangle be decreased by 1 inch and its is length increased by 2 inches. The diagonal of a rectangular is 476 yards. 953. its area will be increased 100 square feet. is 407 cubic feet. if its length is decreased 10 feet and its breadth increased 10 feet. triangle is 6. was 9 hours' journey distant from P. and that B. Find the number. P and Q. the area lengths of the sides of the rectangle. 949. unaltered. 952.REVIEW EXERCISE 301 945. Find its length and breadth. the square of the middle digit is equal to the product of the extreme digits. A certain number exceeds the product of its two digits by 52 and exceeds twice the sum of its digits by 53. at the same time A it starts and B from Q with the design to pass through Q. Two starts travelers. . A rectangular lawn whose length is 30 yards and breadth 20 yards is surrounded by a path of uniform width. distance between P and Q. whose 946. and travels in the same direction as A. The square described on the hypotenuse of a right triangle is 180 square inches. 951. Find in what time both will do it. and if 594 be added to the number. each block.
970. 5. Find the sum of 4. (x 4 to n terms. J. !Ll^ + n . Sura to 24 terms.v 973. the terms being in A. 971.. are 1 and sum of 20 terms.4142 . s  88.302 956. the first term being Find the sums of the 960. 974. Find the Find the common 977. ..1 4 f j$V . difference. 1G series .to infinity. first ? n+l(n + l) The 10th and The term and the T + ( + +!) V (to J' infinity). 3 . 972. Sum Sum to infinity. *" 968.. (to 2 n terms).. P. . = 4. to infinity.. (x + O 2 4 y 2 ) + O 8 + y*) + y) + x(x 2 4 y 2} 4. n to n terms. and 976. 3 + 5 7 + .. are 29 and 53.. 5. 4 4 to 7 terms . P. . . 964. x(x to 8 terms.. 4. 957. Find n f (ft) . 16 962. to 7 terms. ^1 + Vj 1 2  .3151515. Evaluate (a) . 958.V2 . '. f + 1 . fourth of the unity. \ .141414.. P. Sum to 20 terms. 9th and llth terms of an A. Find n. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Sum to 32 terras. 961. 12434+ j I 967..  2. : + f 24 21 24 4f 32 36 1G 10..... such that the sum of the 1 terms is one sum of the following five terms. 975. 966. ^ 1 .321? 965. + (iiven a +  4 d .. 1 to n terms.. P. 18th terms of an A. 36 963..454. Find the difference between the sums of the series 5 n + !Lni n " 4 4. Find an A. ^ Vfirst five 959. 969.>/) to infinity. How many Sum Sum terms of the series 1 + 3 + 5 + amount to 123.x*(x 3 f 8) + y) + (2x + f) + (3 x + y 8 ) 4.. Sum Sum Sum to 10 terms. to n terms.
1. 980.. 990..2 . The Arabian Araphad reports that chess was invented by amusement of an Indian rajah. P.REVIEW EXERCISE 978. 989. If of 2 of integers + 2 1 + 2'2 by which is it is the sum of the series 2 n is prime. Find n.04 + . The term. Find the value of the infinite product 4 v'i v7! v^5 . then this sum multiplied by (Euclid. Insert 22 arithmetic means between 8 and 54. Find four perfect numbers. all A perfect number is a number which equals the sum divisible... : + 9   V2 + . Find the sum of the series 988.001 + . such that the product of the and fourth may be 55. to oo. 985.. of n terms of 7 + 9 + 11+ is is 40. named Sheran. P. doubling the number for each successive square on the board. Find the first term. and of the second and third 03. and the sum of the first nine terms is equal to the square of the sum of the first two. and the common difference. to 105? 981.01 3. who rewarded the inventor by promising to place 1 grain of wheat on Sessa for the the 1st square of a chessboard. Insert 8 arithmetic means between 1 and . 2 grains on the 2d.. to n terms. is 225.+ lY L V.001 4.1 + 2. 0. v/2 1 + + + 1 4 + + 3>/2 to oo + + . P. to infinity may be 8? .) the last term the series a perfect number. 303 979. The 21st term of an A. 992.. What 2 a value must a have so that the sum of + av/2 + a + V2 + .3 ' Find the 8th 983. and so on. Find four numbers in A. 987. Find the number of grains which Sessa should have received. The sum 982. first 984. 986. 4 grains on the 3d. How many sum terms of 18 + 17 + 10 + amount . . "(. of n terms of an A.. 5 11.
c. ABC A A n same sides. In a circle whose radius is 1 a square is inscribed. The fifth term of a G. are 28 and find the numbers. Insert 3 geometric means between 2 and 162. areas of all triangles.304 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 993. The sum and product of three numbers in G. One of them travels uniformly 10 miles a day. 1003. find the series. many days will the latter overtake the former? . inches. the sides of a third triangle equal the altitudes of the second. Under the conditions of the preceding example. The sides of a second equilateral triangle equal the altitudes of the first. is 4. Find (a) the sum of all circumferences. The side of an equilateral triangle equals 2. The other travels 8 miles the first day and After how increases this pace by \ mile a day each succeeding day. at the same time. In an equilateral triangle second circle touches the first circle and the sides AB and AC. 1001. and if so forth What is the sum of the areas of all circles. prove that they cannot be in A. 512 996. in this square a circle. Two travelers start on the same road. P. and so forth to Find (a) the sum of all perimeters. 997. pump removes J of the of air is fractions of the original amount contained in the receiver. The sum and sum . third circle touches the second circle and the to infinity. ft. Each stroke of the piston of an air air contained in the receiver. If a. P. (6) the sum of the infinity. 999. are unequal. and so forth to infinity. after how strokes would the density of the air be xJn ^ ^ ne original density ? a circle is inscribed. and the fifth term is 8 times the second . 1000. (a) after 5 strokes. AB = 1004. (6) after n What strokes? many 1002. are 45 and 765 find the numbers. 994. of squares of four numbers in G. in this circle a square. . P. 995. (I) the sum of the perimeters of all squares. Insert 4 geometric means between 243 and 32. P. P. 998. and G.
Find the 9th term of (2 al 1010. x) 18 . Write down the (a first 305 three and the last three terms of  *)". 2 ) 5.iV 2i/ 5 . . Write down (x the first four terms in the expansion of + 2 #). Find the coefficient a: X  \88 1 in 1019. (12 #) 7 . ) 1021. Find the eleventh term of /4 x >> . 1014. .l) w f . 1006. Expand  2 a.REVIEW EXEHCISE 1005. Write down the expansion of (3 1007. Find the middle term of (a + b) 1016. Find the two middle terms of ( ( 9 . (1 1018. Find the middle term of 1020. Find the middle term of ( . + lQ . a: 8 7. 1008. Write down the 1 5a  6 V . Find the two middle terms of (a *2 x) 9 . 1012.ft) 19 . 1011. 1009. coefficient of x 9 in (5 a 8 7 .o/) 14 . Find the fifth term of (1  a:) 1015. Find the middle term of (a$ bfy. Find the two middle terms of 1013.
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.. . .. 9 ** . 246 91 " multiple. 148 178 Conditional equations Conjugate surds .193 11 . . numerical . 123 .. 49 Clearing equations of fractions 108 8 ' graphic solution.... 249 246 20 10 23 193 . simple simultaneous ... signs of Algebraic expression . Aggregation.. . . .130 .Base of a power Binomial " theorem 54 8 45 130 10 255 9 Elimination Equations ' 63 consistent fractional .181 105 " Complex fraction " Evolution Composition .... 129. . 97.. t 53 120 . .. Checks Coefficient 20. . quadratic . Discriminant Discussion of problems Arrangement of expressions Average .. . . 9. 158. . Constant Coordinates Cross product 155 148 41 " Alternation 123 Antecedent Arithmetic *' 120 Degree of an equation Difference . .. .. 160 in quadratic form 191 . . . .. 54. 8 .. 232 169 807 . 232 mean progression ....] Abscissa Absolute term .. Brace Bracket Character of roots . 129 54. . .. . ... . lowest ratio " '* . . ..108 160 " . 37.INDEX [NUMBERS REFER TO PAGES. . .. linear literal Common ** * difference ..241 45 45 Dividend Division Divisor Axiom .. .... 112 54 54 251 . 19.210 130 " Addition value 4 15. sum Consequent Consistent equations 210 27 10 18 .. .... graphic tion of representa . .178 Completing the square ..
. . 189. . .. Imaginary numbers . 17 65. common factor Homogeneous equations Identities . 195 Extreme Factor " theorem " II. Integral expression Interpretation of solutions Progressions.. 45 Laws of signs . . 212 . INDEX 8 .. 42 7 Independent equations Index . L. directly. Like terms Linear equation . 195 33. Negative exponents 11 . 45. Mathematical induction . . .154 Order of operations " of surds . first and second . 109 102 . Graphic solution of simple equations Graph of a function Grouping terms Highest . .. P . 120 Lowest common multiple 70 . .31. 184 54. . .105 Monomials 03 Multiple. exponent . 227 .C Multiplication . 45. C Factoring 222 Literal equations . Insertion of parentheses . . arithmetic ..251 Graphic solution of simultane. Fourth proportional Fractional equations u Fractions. addition of " square of . . 241 123 geometric . 178 45 221 205 Law of exponents . .108 Minuend . numbers . 205 148 148 27 86 Ordinate Origin . Known numbers . 195 4 13 ous equations 100 158 . 120 Member. . 180. G.... . 130 9 Power Prime factors Problem. .808 Exponent Exponents. 91 .. 63. . 143. Mean " 81) proportional Mean. 112 . 227 geometric . . 205 . 243 7 . .. law of Extraneous roots . Geometric progression .. . . 89 235 Parenthesis Perfect square 53 . 84. arithmetic 346 120 338 341 53 70.. Product '* 76 Infinite. . 1 Quadratic equations Quotient Radical equations Radicals . 23 10 91 102. 253 28 70 1. .. 9. . .. .. inversely 122 numbers .. 34. Inconsistent equations . . 83 10 19 Polynomial Polynomials. 246 251 121 Inversion Involution Irrational Proportion 105 Proportional. . 114.
Sum. ... 193 Rule of signs Series Signs of aggregation Similar and dissimilar terms Similar surds 33...... . 45 Trinomial 240 ... 4 155 9 " of ... 1 Simple equations Simultaneous equations Square of binomial 205 Value. . ..INDEX Ratio national Rationalizing denominators 76. 9. 309 171 133 120 Square root Substitution 205 Real numbers Reciprocal 215 Subtraction 169 Subtrahend 104 22 Remainder theorem Removal of parenthesis Root Roots of an equation " character of " . algebraic Surds .... 129. 23 18 228 27 9 205 10 Term " absolute 54 193 178 Theorem.... 232 Vinculum Zero exponent 40 42 197 Printed in the United States of America. . . ... 255 120 54 10 sum and product of . . binomial Third proportional Transposition . absolute 54 Variable .... 27 17 Unknown numbers . polynomial ..
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ANSWERS TO SCHULTZE'S ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA COMPILED BY THE AUTHOR WITH THE ASSISTANCK OP WILLIAM P. MANGUSE STrtn gork THE MACMILLAN COMPANY 1918 All rights reserved .
Mass. Berwick <fe Smith Co.COPYRIGHT. . BY THE MACMILLAN COMPANY. 1910.S. 1917. 1913. August. December. U. Norwood. Set up and electrotypcd. Reprinted April. 1910. NorfoooS J. 8..A. Published September. Gushing Co. 1916.
2. 1. 2. 3. 6.000. 18. 25. 3. 48 ft. A $90. 21. 2. 4. T . 6. 17. 3. 12. 2. 22. (a) (/>) 1. 3. 4. 13. Page 4.C. 9 m. 0. 3. x. 28. 6. 144. B 10 mi. 12. 29.  22 20. 1. 192. 17. 1. 13. Page 8. 12. 106. 14. 64. 25. 115. 2. 2. 5. 25. 9 = 4. 3.000 negroes. 3. 2  Page 8. 12. 20. 576. 1. 4.. 32. 9. 1. 8 ft. 3. 73. 10. 256. . $160.. 9 14. B $4700. 59. 36. 27. 2. 18.2. 8. 30?. 32. 3 m.1. 27. 16. 1. 16. c. 32.. 6.. 3 below 0. 24. 18.  2 p. 10. $ 1 50 10. A 15. 14. 19. 37. 1. 3. 16. 1.000. 6. 1. 6 yd. 1 16.000. 10. 89. 17. . 5. 6. 3. 22. Page?. 210. 8.00000001. 13. 11. 12.8. A 38 mi. 6. 13 d. Page Page Ilis expenditures. 13 S. 2. 14 11. in 12. 150. 1. ^. V 23. 4. 9 16  larger than 7. 10. 7m. 11. 27. 12. 9. 6* 16.12. = 5 81. 3.ANSWERS Page phia 8 in. Page 1. 2. + 1. 9. 8.. 6.000.  1. 12. 8. 16. 19 4. i . 16. 3* 7. Page 13. 6. 16. 15. 49. per sec. 0. Multiplication. C $60. 7. C $1(50. 2. 7. 49. 4. 1. 3.000. 24. 19. 17. 6. 13 V. 6. 20. 8. 7. 128. arithmetic. 7.. 28. 4.21 24. 3. B $20. 5. 24. . 14. A Bl 7. 8 13. 16 in. C $ 16. 30. B $ 128. 126.000. $100. A . 23. South America 46. 1. 21.000.$9400. 20. . 7. 1. 2 5. 14. x. 7. 15. 15. 9.. 16.000 Indians.3. 6. loss. 29. 5000. 10g. 14. 16. 14. 9.. sign. 15. 8. }. 10. 26. 5. 16. Not 5. 2. 3. 9. B $80. 9. 2. 14. 12. 11. 5. 1. 26z. 18. 10. 2 ~ 15. 512. 14. 11. westerly motion. 25. 16f 2. 7. 7. in. 7. 10. 2. 16 in. Seattle 12 Philadel 9. in.  1. 20 jo. 18. _ 32. 5. 2. ft. 11. 9.000. 10.  13. 12. 19. 13. . 5. Ot 15. 12. 85. is $10. 9. Australia ft. 3. 3. $40. 37 S. 32. 18. 1. 13. 15. sign. 17. 3. 8. Yes.. 72 = = 216. 21. 20 \. 4. 20. 20 B.150. 5. b.
0. w. 16.5 (ft) sq. 8. Pagel4r. 18. = ()501. 12. 17. 7 7. 27. 15a. 8. 33. 5. 27. 3rf 27. 25. 26. in. 57. 5.. 3.r f 15. 27. 13. 12.. 25. 31. 27. . 4. 00 24 04 ft. 7.. arty 1 20. 14. . #1111. x^ 20. 34. 0. 21. m + 3(a. 11. 33. ft. 19. 7. 12. 15.  11. 14.9?/2 8. (a} 100 1(5 cm. 3.GOG. 15. 8.rty8. (59. 31. 13. (a) 200. 6. 20.4 ft. (V) (rf) (ft) 50. 8.ft) 4. ^.14 sq. 9. Page 21. :J!>r'. 4. (r) 2G7. $3000 Page 6. I.<>Gq. (b) 135 mi. 35. 9. 4 y/ .5f> sq.94(>. 0. 18. (a) r>23ifcu. 13. (r) 78. 2. 17. ??i??.. 19. 35. 13. 2ftx. 17. WIN + wiw. (ft) mi. (c) S(i.1. a ft c.  2 4 13 ft 2 . ft n. 11. 15. 10. ft. r:A 29. . 15. 11. 24. 27. ^).. 11. 3 . 0. 38. 2. 5x+3. . 13 cu. Page 23.  xV 3 y. m 24. 30. 3.'J. 22( 19. 5. 27. 32. 16.r~ f 34. rt. 20(. 24. Page 31.32 c2 > ft 3 .'JO ft. a2 4 15^44.. 37. 13. ]*. a 32. 15. 3.r 2 . 14. . 5. 240. 6. (ft) Page 2. (r) 2. Polynomial. 1. 42. 1. 4. 4 9/^/rl 2. 29. 16. 2V^4^/ 8 x* 6. 18. 3 a* + 2 at*. y. It. 8. 314 sq. 4. 12. + v> 2 .a . 32 2 ftc. 18. 04. 0* Page 3 w" 0. <i~ 26. 1. vi 14. 50. 14. 2x' 2 5 . in. c. (ft) 7.  1.ii ANSWERS Page 11. (<7) (a) 314 sq. jrif 4 9. 18. //'. 30. 29. v'ft a4 4 a a 41. ft. 1. Trino inial.000 . yyz+xyz*. 15.~4. .q 4. Page 18. 12.ft.. 237. f  5e 35..  0. Binomial.x. 19... sq. 0. :. 21 a 3 4 10. Page 7. 0.ab. 23. 31. 5. 0.3 * 10 r5 <3 . 3 y v> <Mft 3* 2. II. 3(c4a). (a 4 4. 35. ft. 22. 34. 17. r+l. $80. 92. . 39. 4<> 2 ?t Vc. 5.900. in. 3a.  40. 30. 6. +/2(/. 12 a.  12. 12yd. 9. 1. 7. Polynomial. ft f 19. 20. 13. 58.4  2ft 2 33. $r*y 4 3x?/ 4 m* run  . 3. 32. + 5. 21. 5. 49. r/ \(\xyz. 3. . 8. \'\ 4. (r) 2000 m.. Va'+Y2 8^2 .  3. t. + ft). 22. 22. 0. 20. 104. 36. 10. 3. 36.6) 38. (c) 8. 2. 4. 3. 1. 2. 4. 38 ab. 14. ft)  3 /A  8x :i (/* 4 ft)(X 36 2 "'* ~ 5V (a ft). 9. 43w//2 17. 21. 7. 21^. 6<t. 26. 28. 1. 7. ft' 3 .. 14. 12. 51 f. (ft) 12. ft. 16. 0. 3. 17. 14. 25. 2. 1. _ 4 . 16. 14:). a3 a2 4 a 4 1. 2. 1. mi. Monomial. 173. i:5. o^ft. 8. 28.. 5. (a) <> sq. 2oVmf?i. 22. 8. 9. 41. 10. (a) 50.000 sq. (ft) $40. 28. 23. = 81. in. .
11. 7. 14. Page 44. ' 12 m?/'2 27. 2 3x f z. Page 28.  b* 4 r 1 . 4wipg>' 27. _ Page 30.2 a2 2m 2 4. '  . 19. . 2// 16. ti. lOrt 15w4. 21.2 ft 2 r2 10. 28.r 2 + 4?/ 4l). 2. 2a.aft. 3. a a. (mn} 11. 4. 38. . s_r>a5. 1.6 x + 0) 16. .  b.(a f 6) + 4(1 + c) . (w4w)(ww). 5x 2 rt ft. 18.  G J8 r  4 a <?. :5 41. 8 . 4. 35. G a bd. 4. a 3 .. (2n' 43p 47 ). 1. 2 4 5 2 a3 1.r' 2 z2 2 4 a 1. a + (ftc4df). 2m + 2w. ?/. 9. c. 364c. .a f 54.c. 2 2.2 57. . 36.ws 2 ft) . 24 b 46.h. 6. a 3& . 11. . 8. 37.5 4 2 3 ?/ . 2x 4 a 13.AXSH'EJtS Page 23. 5. a). ?/i 13. 4. (yz~d}. 40. 15. + a 2 f 2 a 4.4c 3 8 8 J. 26. 8a*b8<tb'\ a + /> fc + 4 r. 2 a f 6 414. 20. . 2 + a4l). 31. &. 20. 58. G. a2 9. a + a. 2 4.8(c + a). 50. 4. 10. 3 m. ii\ 22. 5 2 Page 29. 3. 2 .a'2 .11. 12.3 6. . 24. 2. 2. m*  n*. a 4 + ft. 10. a 6 2 . 25. + 6. Exercise 16. . 25. 36. f 2 ?/  2. 7  a + 2 + c. 3 nv> w 3 a 24 npy . 15.r 2. 8. a  ISjfat. _5a<>&43c. _2?> 2 + 3 x 9. w* ( . 8. a f 2 f 2 9. 2. a 52. 6. 12. a4 4 4. 5. 16. 3 a . 55. w 17.Oa: + 10. 24. 7 a5 1 . 3 a3 & 41. 14. . 8 + 2 a . a 3a 4 2 &. !  </ .  17. 8 b. 7.5. 2 3. a. + 2y. 22. f ft 9.(7x2 Ox2).l.  1. 2 2 2 6. a  49. 51. + 4 c. 16. (5x47 3. 25 47. 59. 26. 0. 2 y' 4 .7. \ :{ 2 a 48. 43.x f 1 2 . /> Zmn + qt G/ 4 . 19. x a8 1. 1. 2 6. + c 4 d x + 6 e. 0. 7. 3 Ji 8 . 10 m.  23. 29. 10. 4r 2 . ( 7. 7  # + 12. 18. ^ <. 34 39.abc. ft Exercise 17.2 a. 30. 0. + 8. M + 10. 12. 26. c2 .2. 1. 18. ?>4tl 53.2 .5 z?/ + 3 y .'U4j>. 17. 2m(4? 2 4ir#(2.1. 10 x.  a: 2. 21. .a .a~. 25. 34. 4ft ~. 2 .a*. 1 4. 4 21. 2m. 2 17. 32. 3m2 n 9 (a + $) 2 . 2. 6. 5. 13.4x.  14 afy . 7. 2.r. 33. 42. 24. x  + 3z. Page 8. .1 .  4 b 17 y*. ri\ 18. 2. 2 a 37. ab a. 814. a' 4ab + ?/. 6.3x 2 2 tf. n*. a2 24. ar. mn. 11. 14. 2. . j)(g1. 1 + 45. 17. . t). 5. 13. . 1. + 4 m4 4 8 7?i 8  G m. ?> 22.4.. a2 4 2 ft 4 Ve. 14.(2 x2 . 19. 3. r.  12. 4. 12. . 8 8 . 56. 2. 2. a 10w. 32 w 2 w. Page 7. 31.4 d. 15. c. 21. 2a: 2 4x. 22. 20. x3 . 1.
30. 22. +. 18. 2 . 21. 2 ). 161b. 9 w 2 + 13 n . etc. 7 + r/m 4^4^414. 12. 20. 26. 6. 25. .. 30. 40 r 2 . 27. 15. ll 2 i. ft 17. 38 a*b 6 : 24. 4 jcy*z*>. 30. 34. 27. 90. 18. 9.r% 2 2 ry. 2 * 80 . 28.21 a 3 c2 21. 2 a2 (y 2 . 14.35 a*b*c8 f 14 a?/e . 23. . 3. 33. 66 39 k* . 343. 20. 4. 24.. 10. 16. Page 7. 3..r + 7 1S + 2 mp. 1400. 23. 18. 6. 8. + 58 .10 3 30 a a 4 c f 15 aWc . +15. 2 8 xy f 4 a. 7. 4 m3 + 9m2 + m. 9.11 xyz . 10c 2 19rd+0c? a I' . 5.19 + 2. a*b*c. 15 lb. 37.15. 17. 30. . 20.14 a 2 _6g8 + 9 2_i2g + 8.2.19p" + 19^ 10 . 1. 2 a*62 c2 + 11 a&c . 3. 27. 76 8 a' 1 .12. a. 04. 16. 30.6) =a2 31. 210. 13. 19. 16. 4200. 8. 9z 8 16z2 9z + 10. 13. 127"'. 64. 17. a: . fa 2. 108. 36. . 12 ^. 13. + O4 66 . 6 . 66 8W 34.25 x* + 25 x + 20 . . 2 2 2 . 216. 30 ? 49 p*qh*t. iSx8 . 14f 5. ! 2. 2 + aft 4 ft 2. . (+3)x6=+16. 770. 25 4 4.3 a 2 6 + 3 aft 2 . 15. 18. 8. 21. a. 4 a8 . 42. 19. .69 rt + 21 132 + r . (x f ?/)  a 12 10. 3(*+0 + 2). 7. 14. 4.000. 161b.14 ?/i r?/6j/ 5. 1. 15 q\ 6.32 y s s G . 4 fc. n (a6) 125. a + ft. 16.22 ac + 30 c2 + 43 2 2 8. 20 aW. 60. a 8 . 24. 13. 8. 10. 7. 30 j9 jt?g j . 24. 8. 1904. 27. 1. //. 7. ?> 4 . 20.8 4a12 a2 ftf 5aft2 f 6 6. + 7. 2. 3 ?i w 1(5 pag'V 2 W 2 . 31.14 xyz + 14 a:y0. 29.14 w 2 2 . 20. 10. a: 3a: 2 (2a:f iHa. m. 12 x2 2 .36 35. 1. 2 n8 29 a + 30. 11. 5. 1. ?/ .>(/ r . 34. 12.26. 16 lb.(3x2_4^+7). 3. 23. 14. 0. 6". 9. a. . . Page 35. 28. . 18. s 9 ww. 2 ll9HH 2) + . 30. 30 n?b*c*.32. 2*8f x2 6x4. 13. 18> ^* = a . 360. . 29. 32. 35. 6. 11. r' 2 a: j/ (? ft . 17.28 p'^/. 2 wiw 8 + 2 wiwp 2 2 x*y* 15.25 + 14. 21 a'&c. Page 38. 1. 2''. 102. ISartyW e*f*tj. 25. 29. 6. 12.1. 15. 4aWy. 2. . 3 a 3 . 18. 11. 4 a2 . 19. 0. 14. 20. 216. 3 a 2 46. 10.7(50. 25. 28.iv ANSWERS + &)(. 42. Page 36.18 w w + 10 WI M . 25. 4.44 aWc 16 abxy. 33. 11. 5aft(a 126 2). 38wiw. Page 3. 34.8 12.16 a 2 + 32 a . 108. ci 5 .6 wiw 24 n 2 36 + 65 ww . 60. 2 7t A. 33. 16 51. f 26. 22.16 x2/ 5 4. 31. 16. 9 13. 23.6 2 . x2 xy42^. 4. 19. 26. 24. 120. 8 . 28. 83 In + 1 n*. . 22. . Page 5. 1. 52 + 6s 12. 21. 2. 32. 2z 8 s 2 3zl. 22. 15. 24. 4. 14 m 2 .:>/ . 29. 4.20 xyz . ^^ = 20. 3300. 27. 18a% y. 4 7> 4 :j !} . 84.64 190 p6. Ox a 5 . 2 2 +2621ft 2 .12.57 p6 3 2 4 25. 7G . 2 w +2 2 . 17.14 . 2 ).. 2.21. 15.
6. + 4 a +4. 40. 2 a' y' . 42. ( 5) O5)(w + 3). ?/H)0. 7. 1. n2 a4 6. . 37. 2 (5 a 3). 10. w'n 2 //^ + 25. 2 4 a + 4.15.25. + 2 fz& + 2 i> + p + 9.x2 + 6 x2y 2 . 2 (6 a + 3) (3a66)(3a6&). (r ?/) (x 6 (b + 5 ?i)(& 50. Om2 4 6m 6. ab. 12 x2 . .84 a' 9. 7. 10. ab . m 2 .ANSWERS 28. 4 . 2 6' . + 4 t*. x4 4 121 4 ?/ . 2. 15. +   5). 51.r . 441. +4 34.54 p 2 + 81.ab . + <z 22 2 4 20 rt2 32.201. 32. 2 1: 21. 6 2 + 6lf>0. 2 m3 + 4m2 . 14. 2 a4 6 4 +8 a2 6 2 2x4 +7x 2 6 2 15 6 4 36. ^' J  7 f 12. x*2^f I. 4 x2 13. 1). 8.. y.2 y*. 26. 33. 32. 6. 6 x6 + 13 x3 . 31. . 1. 34. a4 4 ?/ . 25 25. . x 2 f xy + 9 41. (a (3 54. 7 . n + 2. 16. (x  2) (x Page (rt2). ) 4' 6/ 49. 33.020. 5. (m + 6)(m3). a2 >2 2 2  84 a a + 49./ . ^V^4 . 41. 2 4 2 2 64 . 29. .3. + 7 6)(3a~76>. 4 a&c + c2 30 x 4 ?/ 23. ' 46. 6. + a2 12 ab 2 8 0. 44. V + o ft . 8)(?i (x2)(x3). 10. 29. r. 10 a' 2 .5 ?i m #2 4 ?7i%'2 4 . 166.p132. +  m' 1. x4 28. 24. 21 2 . 2. 2 fr . 10. s rc 47. I/). 8. 40.^ + a? + 1.00 + 37. 35. . 18. 7. x2 GiC+5. 55. a + 25.14 jp + 49. + 10 + 121 y*.6 y4 10.<* &2 + 106 + tt + .712. m 3 j) 3 . 2 12. 36.1. 38. r*d< x/2 ?/'2 18. 3. ~ 6 20 . 22 x 2 ?/ 2 y + 121 x4 29. 15.8. 2 . 40.009. p 2 . 53. 8.49. 10.2 6 + 13. (w+4)(m4). 10. 31. 4.098.m 30 6 4 1.10 x + 25. 1. 28. fo*. (p 2. p4 + . . 52. 999. a 2 . 4 21. Page 12.20. 3. 10. 17.4 12. 990. 25 a 2 6 2 .6 xy .000. 30 x + 19 x3 .+ l5J x// + 9 2 2 4 ^ 4 ()Or 2 20.4 n. 4 . . 1. 5.009. 36 a 4 . . 19. 27. 9801.. x 48.10 35. 10. 25. 4x21. 2xV+6x2y2^2 +22. 27. a2 ' + 48Z100. 8 a W . 8 38.ri 17. 31. 35. 9999.6 x2 13. 4 + 25 q*. 30.020. 39. 37. 2 62 V2 132. G a6 2.4 a&+ 4 &*. 56. 36. 1. a' .004. (a + 4) (a + 2). 57. 1. 45. 20a 2 21a + 4. 2 . (46c + 5) (4 abc 43. 9 4 /> . + 3)(3). + 2 9.2. 7> . 34.r .404.16 a3 f 50.2 x + 2 x.500.^. 33. m'2 +18?rt 2 ' + 81. 9. . lflrt 2 8 + l. 9.606. 4 2 //. 4.35 ab 9. a + 56. . x* . . x 4 ?/4 + ab .r* 2 30. 3wi2 m Page 42. 30 /><. a + 25.008. 10 a 4 ?. 9990. Page 39. 11.  12 xy +9 2 >2 ?/ 2. ft' 11. 36. ^/> 8 4 . 2). . . 484.996.994.5 ~ 81. 4 m'2 40 (i V2 c 2 + 25 r 4 22. 26. 14. 2 j3 Z . (n 2 5.810. 39. 25 r 4 ?/i 30. 23. 19. 11. 14. (w4)(w + l).000. 2 +10s281. . . . 10. 2 0)(p + 5).x2y22. 10. 10. 24 ab + 9 & 2 .^V"' . 10 p 2 g ?> 2 ?/ + 49 & 4 2 16. 2 a' + 2 ?/ 5 + a 3. 24. 998.001. 41. + 12. 2 a 2 + a . a3 0. 4.
3 x 2 2 4. 2. 11. a 2 . 4 c m . 2 ?/ ft Page 2. 8.r' ~ 16. a 2 410 + 9 r 8 + w2l ftc. 8 r<ft 4 2 .25. 6x 3. 2 4 3 9. 2 2 + 2 a.r ?/ ??i ?). m L 4. 50. + c 2 4 aft2 ac + 4 ftc.1. 4 x y 2 7 x + 5.34. 2 ? 14 .1. ft 17. 8. c3. 13. 2 ?/' . 3. 5. 6. . a 8 4.2 ac . 5. 8 ?/ .  12 y 25. as _ 10 16. ??.15. ti'jry1 7. 6. a 2 ft 4 9 c3 .8. 3. + x?/ 2 1. 18.2 <</. 3 l48m47?n 2 20. 10 ft. 135. 2 .n. // 19. 15. 8.2 wZ 4. 5 4 a Oft. w . 4ft.9 4. 14 r 2 . 3. Page 51. 5. *3 y 4 . 2 a 3 ft. r 7.12 aft 4 20 ac .r?/ j/. 4 n2 4 +p ft 2 42 2 aft 2 mn + 2 mp 4 10 a ft \ x* 4 4 2 z2 + 2 jrz a2 2 2 f 25  2 np. 17. 1. . a 4 4 ft.8 y. aft 4 tt ac 2 ftc. 6. +w . aft. 9w 2 + 0m+ 1. 9. 8.lit x + 4.1. 44.r .r" 20 S? . 13. 4xy + 13 <) . Page 11. 5. x' u' 2 2 z~ 4. 4 x. 2 1. sr 11.5 a . . 4. 5. 47. 2 12. 1. 9. 12. :r !>.3^V. a 2 44 a2 ft' 4 ft 2 2 4.25 c .15 21. 6. + 4.r?/. 8. 14. 5. . w 2 . 21. aftc 52. 01. 4 a* 4 9 11. a2 x 8 4 ft 8 .VI ANSWERS 43. 5^418(7.8 <r 2 2 ?/' ./ 4.27 x 2 4. + 16 r 4 + 12 a'2 //2 . 1. 17. 7 r .y3. '.23.1. c 12. 22. 4.  11.000. a 10.2 . 19. 13. 1000 1000 .3 3. 16. 13. 4 ac. 1.2 2 2 8 . 3.21 2 2 f + .rw f 8 . z. 11. Page 48. . r ft. 10. 1. Exercise 2 a:// 26.  5 z* . m'2 3. i 2 tji. 2 ?/ 4.29.9 d. 5.3 ry.30 ftc. 7a 2 ftc 4 4c42a. r/2 4. 8 x . 7a3ft. 1. a r'43 ll'a^S 15. 12. j) . 3. 4 pq. 4 a 2 4.3 a 41. 1.  . 46. ft* ft / . 8 ?/ . 4 d 2 4. x 2 + 2r f J. 5 aft 4 ft 2 4 8. 9. .2 2 . 1/*.1. 49. 23. 6 x 2 t/ 2 4 . 14.7. . 125. 9 5 4a' 2 ft 6.8. 6 <z 2 4 ft 3 . 2 ^r ???' 2 . 2.1*5 2 r 2 . 3 a.2 . 11 4.2 ftc . 15. f>r* 4. 2. Page 7. 3 5 a4  4 a2 4. Osy. 12. 20. 14.> 10. 4. 75 a 2 29. 26. a. 7. 18. 2.1. 2 m2 4 2 w2 7.  3 c. . ft ? ft' ft ft. 2. l 4 . 5.2 ar. 9.rw.5 n*. ?/2. 13. 20 15. 16. 17.yar 4 */ ?/ Page 50. abc 7. . _ 2 a . . . 16. 2. G. Exercise 27.x^. 10. 12.2 . aft 12.8 yn . 12. 14.2 1 //.4.6 :rs 4. 2 4.r'^ 15.11 _ 5x _ _ o 18. . 19. 5 a  (5 ft. 4. 21.3 w 4*7 m 2 3 mn .1. 10. 2 . 3 aft 20.c ft*/ 1  ft' ?/ . 5. + 3. 4. . 8. 4. r//. 24. 3.2 aft 4. 14. 4. ft. . 8 x5 ? + 4 1.  10. 6. yfl. 4. i 9.24 . /r .10 2 + z 2 410. 9.5 mp.3 5. . .2. 2 ft 2 ?nc w . x 4. y 7.w. 2 4 2 x 4. Page 22. x4. Page 13. 4x43?/.7 arty 4 4 x 2 //V2  3 Z2 3 1. 3*y2 w + 1.+ 77 15. 13.10 xy*.
5. 34. 6. . 59. 46. x. 18. ] 2 ri 42. + f + b 2.. . 4. 00. b. I. 15. 3. 6. 1. 26. 39. r>?imi. b. 100= ^. 10 x sq. f = eZ 2 x. ? 43. ct.ab a. 11. 44. 13. 7. 43. 30. sq. 60 25 1. 2. 8. 'nj 100 a 28. 41. vil 56. 3 9. Page 13. 5. m=  100 2x=2(3x~10). 7x 2 Page 21. 8 n  10 yr. 4^ = 100.r ct. lO. ) 2^ x 20 =a 7.  2\. 12. fix. d. f (I. 38. # + 20yr. (c) (2zf 600) (3 =4. 0. "mi. 41. 10 yr. 3. lOx 10 + w. 37. 12. 23. . 800 = x + 1300. 44. + 3 = 2(3* . 57.r1.100. <>. " lir.. (A) 3 x f (4 x . 7. 10. 45. .(3x+ = rraxlO. 1. 10) + = (a) 2 x . 47. 10. Page 61. 23. 31. (> 27. ft. 28. }f. 17. 13. / + y + a// 12 yr. 20. rn mi. </ 20. . 8.p+7. 2. 1. ct. m+ 11. 4. 2b 22. 5. 17. 4 f 39. (d) 2a + 10 = n. 2. 11.000. f 6)(o 62. ^ 12 sq. 2x + 35.  9 = 17 a. 29.ANSWERS Page 9. 7. 16.7). 100 14.  />) a = all. 20. 13. r tx mi. 16. 10 >_&. x 49. 5. 11. x = m. 9. 10. . 19. a 10. xy ft. Jj12.10) 100. 19. 17. 40. 27. 10) (6) 2 zf 20 3^740. 3. ft. v (6) 2x. x + 1=a. 14. 1. 18. ct. + (d) 2 x + (3 sc 700) = (x f 1200)  x. 2. ft. 2b. 14. 7. 16. Page 40. (a) ' 12. !). l. 22. 10. s. 7. 1&.6 = *.. 36. 2. 33. n M. 20. X 60.  6 10. 25. d + !. 2. (>. 36. 90 7 2 + 10 = c. 15. 2=10. y 100 a 24. 4. I. Page 6. y yr. 22. 35. 30. . 2 ct. 32. a 8. + 4x 3y 34. % 4. 7. 42. (2 a. + 10 b + c ct. 6.x700. y 50. 5. y ?>i x + 26. 1. y 2z p= 3 (a c. m +~m 3. 50= L 100 15. 5.  1$. 21 2. + 3x + 2y + 32. (</) 2a. 6. 0. 37. 38. 7. 25. ( a f 4. 4. x 2y 10 act.rr2. 3x2. 29. 9. 4. 4(a ft) c = 8. Page 31.200) f(^ + (e) 200. 10 a.. x 48. 58. 33. (c) 2x. '^ . (c) 2a? + 3 (/) (2fl58)h(8aria)=60. 100 2. 6. 3x  1700) = 12. 24. 100 d ct. iL*. = 5 ?i x 460. x y $ 6 yr.(3x  700) = 5.
13. 7. 2 2 2 5.3).1). 14.. Pace 65. 4pt.000. 25 yr. Oaj(o62cd). Page 7. 8. (a5)(a4). k ' _ ft v J (d) 100 100 ' V ' ' 100 100 100 =^8000. 30 yr. 11. 17. 5pt. 24J. 7. (a + 6) (a + 3). 13. 600. 90.7.16.. 8 2 19. 17z8 (l3z + 2x'). 10. 2. 480. 6.000 Berlin. 68. 250. 5. (m + n)(a + 6). 25.30) + (2s + 1) v v ' ' 5 18. 2. (z5)(z2). 2 3 6 7.(5z .. 6. 9.22. 12. 2). 42yr. 30 mi. 16. (6) (6 a 30) =20.79. 12. 6rt 2 11. 1250... 74.000 N. = _?_(2ar + 1). 6. (y7)(y + 2). Page 5.000. 11 in. 20 yr... 75. 160 lb. 200. 100. . 21. 7 hr. 14. 1200. '2 > 10aVy(2a 2 ay43y 2 ). 2$.000 Phil. 12. 2 2 ?/ 21. 1.3. 8 12. 1. 45 in. 15 mi.3aftc + 4). 8. 15. 28yr.2. 10 yr. 30. 13. 1200. 23. 18.000. Page Page 480 12. 1. 52. 40 yr. 2. 3. 18.. 3 (a +&)(*. 55. 3x (3r. 100 1.000. 3. 6 aty (3 + 4 6) 2.000. 19. 82 mi. 1. 15 in. 8. 72. 6. 85 ft. 20.411.. (a + 4)(a + 8).. 1. 15.210^. 8. 7. 8. 5.13. 5 lb. 1. ~=90. . MOO HXT 100 100 ^~ (5z30) =900. ^ . 1313. 7a*fe(2a & l). 5.10. Page Page 4. Y. 4. 12. 2. 15. 180.000 pig iron. 78. 10 yr. 4. 11. 8. Page 7. 20 yr. 05. 71. Page Page 4. 150. 3.000.000 ft. 20. ?(g ? g+ 1). 300. 12. 3 hr. 11 pV (2 p8 . 5 Col. 7. 15. 5. 78.6). 3.y"). 2.5. 10 yd. (c) ^ v ' . 9. 17 7>c(2 a'^c2 .5p + 7 g ). 1. 10 Mass. 18.000 ft. 15 yd. 12. 12 mi.2). 9 in. 22. 10 Cal. 4.. (2a63?2_4 a /^) 16.000. 13 a 8 4 * 5 (53 xyz + x y'W).11. 20 yd. (e) i* + A. 8(a6 2 +6c2 c2 a2 ). 50.. (y8)(y + 2).0. 8. (a + 5)(a + 6).3. . 67. 200. 9. 14. 10. . ( + 4)(*2). 70^. 20. 8.. Page 79. by 12 yd. 90 mi. 10. 10. 7. 10. 6. z?/(4^ + 5xy .. (p + 7)(3a5&). 13. 80 A. + 7)(y3). a a (a 8 a+l). (yll)(y4). w (/) 64.24. 13. (*4)( + 11. 9.  PageSO. 2. 11. 70. 8 in.21.000 gold.000 copper. Ib. 3. a 12. 1 lb. 9. 4..5. 5. (a 4) (a. 3. 5$ hr. 29.. 4. 10. 10. 17.8. 25.vili ANSWERS (a) V J^. 14. 3. 6. 14. 6. 7. ? 2  = SJL+J10 13. 15. 2. 11 w(w' + wi . $40. 9. (ro3)(w2). 4. 9. (y 13. 30. 11. 6. (y + 8)(y2). 14.0.
20. 29. 9ft w(?3) 140 w 2 27. 8. 103x97. 26.   . 35. 2. 21. 5.8). y(x.c 2 ). + 3?i) 2 (5x2y) 2 . . (5a4ft)(2 a~3 ft). + y + . 13.y) 2 aft. Page 82. (15z2y)(x5y). 11.1). x\x 24. x (z + 2)(x + 3). 11.7) (a. (m7n) (a. 32. 25. Yes. 14. 2 17. (w ~ n (x . 9. 22.r2). 22. 1. Yes. 18. 23. + 8)(g3). (x + y4 )(x . (5wl)(m5). (a (p8)0> + l). Yes. . 6.6) 2 1. (y + 4)(yl). 100 (a. (5 a 2) (2 a 3). 26. (a*& + 9) (aft + 3) (aft 3). (w* (3a26). 8. No. (2yl)(y + 9). 24. Yes.y4 ). 3)(3a. No. . . Yes.ANSWERS 16.3 y 2 )(2 a: 2 f y'2 )2 3 Yes.  x (5 a. 24. 1. 35. 17. 6. + 2 )(a + ft)(aft). 10. Yes. 7 6) (a 10 6).2 ft). (a 6 6) (a 4. 14. 18. 4 (a . 17. (g . 5. .2 y). (4 18.1).w*)(l 2 n 2 ). 9. 28. Yes. 30. 24. 2. 10(2 30. (2 a? 4. (3*2)(. (3#y)(+4y). 3. (l + x )(l + x )(l + x)(lx).9*). 10 a 2 (4 . . 7.2). 12. 9. (0 (l+7a)(l7a). (15ay2) 2 . + 5) a.3). 10 y2 (\) x + l)(x~ 3). 16. 2. 3. 31. 19. 3. (3a. 8) (a. x(x +y)(x y). (m + w) 2 5. 100(x. 26. ix 18. . (a + 8)(a3). 23. 3a.4 6). (13a +10)(13a 10). (m + n +p)(m + wp). (* + y)(zy). 34.4. (a.2 by2 6.3)(z2). 28. 31. Page 84. (y8) 2 2 . Yes. (6 a. (2w+l)(ro + 3). ( 2 4 19. + 3). 25. 2 No 4. 24 9. . 20. 25. 34. (az + 9)(ox2). 15. (<7 20. (15a + 46*)(16a46). 216 aft. 22. 23. 27. 16. 28. 27. + 0(90 Page 85. a 2 (w7)(w + 3). 20. 2 y(ll x 2 + 1)(11 x2 . . (7 ay + 8) (7 ay 2 2 13. 14. 3(x + 2)(zl). Page 83.2). (5a +l)(5a l). Yes.1). 21.11 6) (a 4. 12. (5xy ) 3 ft 8 B 2 (12+ y 2 )(12y 2 ). 1. y) (a. . 21. 4. 2 3 by2 Yes. Yes.4p). 33. f 2). 26. (5x . 10. + 4) (a. (2xl)(x + f>). 15. 9. y) 2 29. (n2 + 12)(n 2 + 5). a. (4al)(a2). 32. (7 a + 4) (2 a . (ft + ll)(aftll). 2(2s + 3)(a: + 2). 10(a . . Yes. 4. 7.5y)(3a. 10. a .11 ft)(a6). 22. 7. a*(5a f l)(flr . (10 aft + c 2 (10 aft . 9.7)(2z f 1). + 3)(c44).6) 2 2 . (3 n + 4) (2 (3x+l)(x + 4). 17. 25. 200 (x + l)(x + 1). (9y4)(y + 4). 29. (6n + l)(+2). Oa 2 (a2)(al). 13x(a + ft)(aft). 8. 16. (a2 + 10) (a2 2). (a 3 + 10)(a. (0 + 6)(66). No. (4a. 27. (2o + l)(2l). + 9^)(oxy . 2 2 15. 10x2 (y9)(y + 2). 12. Yes. 11. No. (w + 20)(w + 5). 21. + 2y). 10. (:52y)(2a!3y). 36. 23. (4 13. 13x7. 40 x. . 19.. 2). 2 y' (2y3)(2yl). (m + n + 4p)(w + . 10(a + ft)(aft). a(2u. 33. (2 *+!)(* 9). 2(9a:8y)(8a:0y). (4y3)(3y + 2). 10(3 5 6) 2 . (ay8)(ay3). (10a + ft)(10aft). 25. 30.y (6x + 4)(5x4). (a a: 19.* (2 y + 3)(y. No. .+4 y)(3x4 y). (a 4 10) (a 4 + 3).1).
ofc)( fid). (. + 3. 7.3. Page 12. 8. (a &4. (5 26. (a 4. 16. a (a + 2 6). . 4). 5.2). 17(x43//)(x2y). 2 2 10. 11. 32. 42). . 8.>*)(:> 4 lj 4. 7.1). 8). (5a+l)(9a). 14.^ c)((> 4 3 (3 w 2 w 4 m  ). 39. (7/1 2) (m 41). 19 13> (7rt3)(7a~3). 6.i4l)(x4l)(x~l). K + l) a (a 5 />z 9. 13.&).) j). 4. x43.r(3x' 2 4 (14.&). . 3. (> 1.y. (x//. 38.4. 13 x 8 2 . 4. 27.5 m2 x2. 14. 5.^46) a?/ 2 /> + o) (ff n 2 T>). (c. 2. Exercise 47. 36. 5  (2 2 . 42a 3 x. 2. a 2_rt4l)(a rt 1). 14. ( y). y(2x?/).  WIM.))(x  ^OC 1 1). 12.1) 3.n). 6. (Ox  7 ?/)(7 x4 y/).8) ( (16. 3(.2).4). 8.y (m + 2 u + (\p)(m + \ . (w4w) 2 1. a(a 2 + !)(+ !)( . ah}. 18. 11. l. 3x(x?/) 4. y )(. O + ?/4<?)O ?> 4 q). 2 + . 13( 33. 1(V/ 88. (r420(4 10. 2 (a 4. 4 3. ?i(w 4y) .4.8). 11. 4.e 4. 2 k (wi 4. (16 4  2(5 n . fi(c426). 8. 2 21.  29. 5 x8 3. 7. 2. a8 . 8 4 15 ?>)(a 34. a x 3 10. 11. 6. . 40. ^ . ( 4 1 ) (2 m . (a />.5 <:  9 </) (2 a 12. (!__/>). 4 a8 .?>) H. a 41. (a 9. Page 86. 37. 35. 7. ( a ^)(^3. 3(47>44)(^4'> 22/)((3x). 4. (* _ 2 )(a 4. 10(8x' 4l) 4. 12. 2 a 2 13x 3 y. 19. + 2 //). 8. 7. (x. 13. ANSWERS r)(4x (4x 4.4). ( { &). b) (r 4.  (m3n + a + b)(m 3nab). (5 31. x(x f y)(jr . 6. 24x sy s 9. a + a b. . 3 x4 .y '2 2).  (w' 4. 8.7)(^ {I 12. 2 y) ^ . 14. Gp). ?>).42 x 4. 6 f c). Page 87. 2 5 a 2 6c 2 3. x 4. 4.?/). (f> + fo 7.36). 1. 30. (xf!/)' 3 4 w)(m. (5^4. ( (<> r4y3 . 9.3. 4& 2 )(tt4/>)('e 62 2 2 4l)(a' & &) 5).l)( a 25. n  r)(5a 10. (^ 7.//)(5y x(x4ti<0. 9. 16.8) n 43*). a 4. 12 m 2 (m n) 2 .y)(fi a . 4 a s &8 . (14. 8x. 2. ( rt 23.4)(?  5 (6a 4l)(a +)2( 2x2/)(x2?/).'/)('< 4.7s) (2 a. 2 8(w . (5 al) 3) (f> a/> 15 ?>). 4 6. 80a6 4 40 aV>*>c >d\ !)&(<* 4. 17. 2(5 a  ft) (a 3 ?>). (2 a ~ f> b 4. Exercise 46. Page 89. 2. x  1). 24.9). 22. 10. 28. 2 2 3 . (w * . 15. (^ + ?>_8). 4.& (a 5 & 4#  2 y) (a 1.!) (x42)(x2). (2x7)(x 2 2).a + (< (3 7>)(3  a l fo).2 y). 8.2)(x 1. r x 2 */3 .'J)(' . 15.?50)(xt/z. 6.'})(c . 41.1). Page 92. 13.w )(l 4 w 2 )(l 3 + ( y) r)(x ( . . 2 .^ 48. y6. a 2 (a9). 7. c 5 b 5 + 9 iZ) . 5. 4  9. 2(m4l)' . 20.b. 450. (a + (2a3fc)0*+ tf)Or 41) (^42). a 4.y). Page 90.0+ 12).X 5.. 15 M. 6. 10(2 (3 4. x . 12. 5. y). 3p (^9)(j) 4). 4.3)(x 4. 2 1. 4. 2 2 (3a 4// )(x4>/). (m  I)' 6.
2(2al) + l). 1). (a2)(a + 2)2. b ! 21. a 10 25. w 2 ^ (!L 5 +2 3 i + 63 3^1 rr Pace 991 20 . +5 1. + &)(&) ( . 11. (a2y2 (a3) 2 (a4) 2 14. +8b a 4 3 / ^. 13. ?_!&. x 24. + &) 2 ( . a 23.6).  1).ANSWERS 10. 30(3 2 (a 15. + y) (a: y). x 12. 6a2&(rt6). // m+1 !+*?. 18. x 22.
6a5f^. 6. ^iie^+JoJ^^ilOa bc 9 11 92 aft  1>*  10 12 + qc + ab ' 238 . a 2 ft 2 + 21 ft' 1 4m m2 26 9 fi 7 . w + _ i + _J? a w+4+ ? 3 8. 6. 3a 2 2) ' i (x ' t+3) 5x (wi8)(w go a 3ffl + 13 + *2)(x + 3)' 19 ' rtv+Ji:'. i^. 26. i. a 5.2g ftc 46 ?t ~ 30 y .  **/* + 84 _. ^~ 29. 0.y~ z ' ] 5 x2 y + :j y. ^i 2n a 22 9x * T 94 4<i ^ 33 9 ^ 37 (a 2 b)' (a + ft) a 42. ab121 12 ft 2 8 a 2 196 a2 8. + ^8 1 a 2 1 ~ 41.. 4. w1 + ac w 4 7. Page 100. _*^p5_^^_. 6. 2x1 + 5x 12 + ^. 1. + lH + .50 ~ 1/2 . 11. 7. xy 43. Page 101. 4c 10. ' 2 7. rt 3a2 + ~3a a 3. 4 L 8 2 . 30. 28.Xll ANSWERS 21 2 . 2 a. c 8. r > 'a2 f an f ft' ' 2(czft) (x 2. A^. + 2H 1 ^. .80 MP 2 30 ?/ r + t S ^ 2ft "' 180 wv 15.
36. 31. . J. 5. ?. ft 2 f 1 + a + 1 Page 109. Page 106. 4a3ft. 27. 1. 8. ?+_!?>. 6.  V o 4. j L . 29. 26. . 15. 21. y(x + x ?/). 7.ft . 11. (a + y) 2 Page 104. 14. (>. 15. 39. 46. 2 47. 43. 3. 11. 3 7 i o. 4. 13. 5. x 05m ' 5. 6. 15. 6. 3. 7. 14.^U\WF### X<6. pf n 6 1. f Page 107. ^_. I) 2 3z 1. 16. 40. 12 28. 2ft a i m x. 45. 0. 14.L+ft. 3. 3. 1. Page 113. 42. w^x 2 b Page 105. f 7. ' 6. 3. 8j_m 7 3. 16. 1^)2 ' 2 1) 2 13. ft. 2) 19. 38. 19. 44.  10 X + u. ^i 11. 21. Page 111. a 17. 10. xiii in <l ~ 2b 18. ! 4 20. J. +3 ( + 15. . 10. 5. a2 2. n m a + 13. 1. 11. ac mp lf> n 12. 23. 24. Of. 1. 7. m 9. 11. 4. 5 be _J_. 0. A. 35. 1. c 8. x 1. 4. 34. 3. 5 6 Q 5 a 12.y 7. 32. + f. 2 re +3y mn 10 lo. 1. 12.^_. b 2. n 16. 1. x\. 7. a. n . . 6. 8. b a f +c 14. 1. 4. 20. 4. J. 9. 41. 17. 25. Page 110. an 18. 9. (y + (z 12. 12. 9. 5. 21. flf. 11. 18. 33. 30. 4. 17. 4. 6. 37. 1. 1. 6 .
(ft) 104. 1.  + . 275:108. 10. 7. a 4 ft. (ft) 28. 24. 16. 12. (ft) 5 hr. 8.000. No.. (a) 4 min.139. . * 7:9. 19. 10. 24. $45. 10. 11. 4. 32. $0. 35. (ft) (r) 8 hr. 300. Yes. 3. 27. Yes. (a) 30. P+ ^ 33. r/ i  PM xx HXH />/ Page 114. 10. 12.} da. 55 mi. 16. 10. 11 hrs./hr.. :2. 17. 30ft. . 5. 40 mi. min. Page 118. 3 da. 20. 2 20.. 1. 21. 15. 21ft min. 19. $30. . ft. 3. 7. _JL. IV s.2. Yes. 8. ^?i min. 3. 1:1 = 1:1. 36. 20. . 7. 14.. 16.138.15.  C . 9$. 8. 18.000 If da. 19. 2. 10.x + y. () 2. Page 121. 15.0 & . ANSWERS 16. $40. 40 yrs. 26 30. 500. 5. min. Page 125. 4x'2 :3?/ 2 1 . 10. 33. 21. (a) 12 hr. (c) 8300. after 18.000 1 = 23. 1. 1 : 12. Yes. 19. (r) 3^ da. Yes. b 25 ' mft 26 ' w 27 ^ ' ~i~ ^ . w 21. 15. 14. 9. 13. No. 20. 38ft min. gold.0. 23< &n b ' .10.11. dn ~ mi.9. 7T 2 Page 116. 17.2. Yes. ^p^ r ~ 7. Yes. 0. 9. J. f . 75 . 31. . 74. 4. 8301 hr. [>> ^ a . 3. Page 117. jj. after $12. = A's.002. 8. 13. 4. 4~r~ n . 5ft 30mi. w 44. 30 yrs.. ~m . 12. 7 . (d) 500. 3 : 19 = 4 : 25. " 0. 9. 14. 2x:3y. 5 25. 11. 24 mi. 9J oz. silver. 17. 1:4. xy.001.. 9.  29. 40wn.003. (ft) 5 da. 212. 7. 5. nm. 5 2. 15. 2:1. n 32. 4.004. ^m . #V ~~ 34. 1:1=1:1. 1:1 = 1:1. 18. 8. 33. 13. 28. 7. 34. '"I 22. 1^'.000. (d) 4 da. 1. w 18. 6. Yes. 1: ~. 15. 81. 1 da. 11. 10^ oz. 26 mi. $00. 22. Page 124. 15./hr. . 18.. 300. 5. 4. 30. 6. after 20. 10 yrs.. 15.000. 9ft. 00. 7} 18. 10. (a) 25. J ^'.. 10.000. 26. 2. 4fl M_. 1:1 = 1:1. 13. (c) 2 hr. 7. 3:2.137. f. 30 mi. 1:3. a 4 ft 3 T 29 30 ' 5T (a) ^ 10 (ft) 31.. . 6. Page 119.XIV '/ . 3. 14. 3. 300. 17.
21. 9. 14. 4. 50.5. t 5. 32j. 6. 41. . 1. 57. 7.3. 3.9. 2. 19. 127. 3 2=3 x. Page 133. 7. 5. 6.2. 7. 5.1. 3.5. 5. 2. 7. 31. 14. 8. 6*. 29. Page 131. 30. 13J. 2 n . 59. 9. ini. x y y . 23.*.15.4. 24 1 (e) Directly. 15. Of. 2. 13.. Page 9. J. 2. 32+ mi. ft.3. mi. land. 9. 11. 21. . 7. Inversely. 3.4.22. 43.' : : : : <>. 4. x:y a: b. 24. . 4. 48. 5:0 = 10:12. 30. + 7>i//  ft 1 . 9. OJ.  ?.x a. Page 134.2 x. 22. 16. 36. () 7 Page 126. I. 2. 9. Page 132.2. 9./':</ c a f :y=2:9. 40. 8. y 1. (b) Inversely. 3.a. 17. 2. 19 OJ. 3. 7. 15> 9. 11 w a 13. 5. 1 18 = 3 51. 1.5.. x +y x + 74 7 \.3. 25. 3}. 3.17. 11.000 sq. 24. 26. J pq. 56. 5. 19. Page 137. 9. . 5.1. 2. 58. 4. 7. 7. water. 1 1 : : : : : : (I.^ 0?j ' gms. Page 5. 8. +m ' 12 3_a ' 7^ 10 ' 1 . 6. s<i. ig 6.15 x.3. 2. *. 47. + W.6. 20. (a) Directly. 1. 1. 23. 2. : XV 27. . 2. 11 5 . 9. 8. 15. . 2. 45. jc:y = n:m.3. 11. i. 39. 6. 20 cu. 11. . 7. 44. 9  15. 1.5. .  28. 2. 7. 26. 7. 12. 138. 5. 8. + m* <7^' 10 7)C 14.J 3. 945 11 10 . 6. Page 136. 28. 38. 32  <>' 33  4 <^: 34 : : . (b) C C' = fi JR'.4. 1(5. 13. ' 55. 1. 12. 5:3 = 4: x. /.5.5.7. x y = 1 = 3 2. 27. 40. 3  24.3.) 31. 12. a f 2 2 = 5 x. 2. "lO. w 8.12.1. 41. 2. 13.]. : />. 3. 53. 35. : . 10. \\.ANSWERS 22. 2. 5.5. OJ. lo mi. () Directly. 7^. 7. 14. Page 135. in n. 7. copper. 2. 19.5. 52. 36.1.20.  19.J. 4. : 23. 16. : : T 1' : /> : . .4. 17. 2. w. 22.4. 4. = 7 b'. 4. (<l) A A (e) m m = d> (. 2. \. 3. . 19 3 . 2. 2. 20. 16. J. $."2:1. 17. x 42.3. 3. 3. 4. 7. l.8 oz. tin. ~ 1. 2. 18. 31J. 5 2.2 oz. = R~ R>'\ V V = P> P.3.li. . 2. 200 mi.5. J.57. 7. 5. 1. 1. 3. a 3. . 11. 1. 4.r. 3. 5.3. mi. 141. 7. 4. 55.840. 8.000 sq. y :y =. 25. 8.2. 54.160. 12.C ?/ a . (I. 14. cu.1. b x 37. (</) ft. 4.3. : : .12. 10. 49. 5.3. 2. 2. 2. 46. a +b 1. 3. a~. y a y = 7 0. 10. 4. 10. + b 7 . 20 20 J ^..36. : : : ?/ : tf : ?/ : : : : : : : : : sr. y . ." ^ 2. 174+ Page 128. 13.7. . 1.2. 3. in. 4. 4. 2.46. 25. 4. 1 rt * vm^1. 6 10 = 12.
B's 40 yrs. 15. 4. 24. Jan. be 10. & May. 3. 11. 19.l. 19. . ' . m f 8. 4. A's 30 18.4. 10 sheep. 12. 13. (a) 12./hr. 4 mi. 2. 20. On the x axis. 1. u 2ft. 6. 21. 16. 2 horses. 20 & Oct.. Jan. 5. The ordinate. 3. Nov.3. 3. 11. 14. $250. A's 50 13. 0. 14. afcd ae ftd 8 ft. 2. 7. 10.. 20 to Oct. 23f . 7. Page 152. 18. 9. 16. Page 143. . Feb. (ft) 23 J.9. 2. 3. 4. 20. 10. 23. m f 9. 20. 1. 4. $500. 12.65. 24. 2. 25. 8. & part of Sept. SL=J o ft r^2.3. 26. 7. 1. 17. 7. On the y axis. 90. ad _(?jrJL. 5%. May 5. 2t2. C's 10 yrs. $3000. 2. 19 gms. 2. 21. 10. 25. 5. . 10. 8. Jan. M 2. 1.0. 00. 10. 2. at 15. ft 3. yrs.1J. 3. 6. . = ^ a Page 141. 147. ^. 2. 6. ad AzA. Page 145. 3. J. 13. &. 12. & part of Feb. 24. 4. 4. 3.n + p. 9. 5. 30. 23. 1 (d) Apr. C's 30 yrs. . 25.1.10. Jan. 2. 27. 0. 31. (ft) 20. 11. 1. 5. ' 6 3 a. Page 153. 5. June. 3. 3.0. 6%. 4. 14. B's 15 yrs. Apr. . 18. (<f) 13. 3. yrs. About 12f. 3. 3. 16. Nov. 1. 5. 6. 4. 3. Page 142. Nov.  Zn  "(^ll 14.$2000. 4. 2. 22. through point (0. 24. 6. . 4. $ 1000. . 423. Apr. 4. 12. m . 11. 3.. 6. <*ft/ bd 1.2. 100. 3. 2.$5000. 10^ gms. 16. 11. 15. 7. Page 151. 5. 20. 5. 13.. 2 a. be 7. Page 22. 16. 9.  11. a =J (n  1) rf. 6. 1. 16. 7. 2. 8. 7. 17. 1.3. On 11. (5. Jan. 4. 9. ' w_i 7 fr^ m w ' 2 m+w . 11. 72.4.XVI Fagel39. $900 5%. 2. Nov. 2.  17. 40. 3). 1. 2. 4. . . 4. 32. 25. 3. 5.& w_ i ae 22 5 L=. . 0. parallel to the x axis 0. 2. Page 146. . July.7. 5. $6500at3Ji%. 15. . 40.4. 18. 3.^. Oct.. 20. Page 149.. July 20.33. 9.2. 30. 16 to July 20. 7. A a parallel to the x axis. 18. 8. 1 (c) Jan. 28. 3. m + n p. July. 3. 29. 6 cows. 4 ' q.8. 17. 7. 6. 3. 1. 1. 1. a. 2. 12. $4000. Aug. 9. 2. 30. Apr. (a) Apr. 26. 4. (c) .1. 7.
16. aH64 a2 + 36 aft 2 +8 8 27a135a2 ft4225aft2 125ft8 . xW.73. . m. 2.64.  1. 5. 11. 2. Indeterminate. 30. 3. Page 159. 2. 27 27 81. 4. 2 2 22. 1. () (rt) 3.75.5.79. 15. 7. 3. 8 1 f f g*. 4. 04 x 12 */ 1 '^ 1 2 t  9 11. 2. (<?) 2. 1^. 10.24 . 10. 2. 4 ) 21.4 a^ft 4*/ 3 + t/*. 19.24. 25. 32F.4 aft h a 2 ft 2 . 8 a1. .75. (e) 3. H.79. 3.25. 5. 2. 11. 15. 5. . 12. 20. 14. 1. 1. (c) 7. 26. 3. 13 . . 22. 27a 3 27 343 a 6 27 2 +9al. . 28. 3.27. (a) 2. 1. 8. 3. \ft) 5. 9. . 1.83. +3 4. . m4 1/ m%+6 w2 n f 2. f. (ft) (d) 2.3. 9. 2 l. 2. 4. 2. 5. .25. 3. f 10. 5. H.  1. 2. 8mW.. 1. xg . 30. 125 a 8 12. 2. . 3.25. 14. 24. x3 3x2y + 3x?/2 2 a 3 +3a 2 +3a + m8 6w _ i. . x*f 4x 8 + 6x2 f4 xf 1. 4wn8 + n4 5. 11. 1. (ft) (ft) 2. 27 a6 ft  9a 2 1. 10 C.41 and 23. 22. 1. I21a 4 ftc 2 18. m + 8 m% f 60 win2 4.83.75 (ci) 3^.5 (ft) 3. 2. . ' :=_!. (ft) and (d) 2.17 (ft) (c) 2.5.24. 147 a 4 ft 21 a 2 12.. 3.84.8 n 27 a 4 ft 4 f 8. 44 + 6t/2 m4 4m8 H6m2 4m4l. (e) 2. Inconsistent. 2 a&m Page 167. 3. ImW.87 (0) 3 (c) and and 1 2. . 4. 1. 13. 3. _ 9 x ^27 1 . 5. 1 23. 3 . 2. 20. Indeterminate. ft 2 4. 1. 9 and Page 166. 3. f4p 7+6p g f4pg 6. * 16. 2ft4 Page 168. 14. 3. ft . . 125 16. . a 29. (c) 2. 2.59. . 1.3 aft 2 + 8 ft . 27 19. . 4}. a 10 ' a ll V&.25. (/) 3.1.25. 125a 28.64. 2.4. 1 + I5a 3 + 75a6 + 150 126a 9 ft . 4. 13. . 81 ". . 4.7. f. 6. 1. (a) 4. 17. 2.13. 2.3. . . 14.2 (ft)  1.67." 23. 1. 4. a 6o&i85 c i5o . 0C.34F. 15 . 1. f12 wi 9.. 18. . (ft) 2. Page 164. . . 21. 5 and 2. 2. 83. (c) 14 F.73 ami . 0. . 3. 10. SlstyW 7. 1.AN WE US 'S xvii Page 157. 18C. 24. 12. 1. 6.1. 1 4. 3. 3. 1.73. Inconsistent. 64_ a 12 ft 27 ' a 121 81 a 4) ft 44 a 4TO a3 l. 13C. a + ft. 3. (a) 12. 1. 1. G. Page 163. 8. 5.  . .75.  12 ft xW  26 31. 15. jgiooyiio 17. 2. 3. (a) 5. i/* 25 a8 343x30 ' 1 125 29. (/) 3. 8. Page 158. 2. . 3.. 27.59 . xy.6.73. (gr) 21. 13.41 and . 19. + a 4 ft* .
10*. 16. . Page 172. + 29. . (Gn + 5 a + 4 a). 180 . (4a2 9& 2 13. 13. 3. 5. + Z). 2 2 4. wi 8 + 3m 2 . 31. 23. Page 176. 36. 9. 7. . 3. 28. + i)). 300. (48 + 6. (x' l). 4. 21. m* m*>n + 16 w 4 2 +5 c*d+ 10 c 3 tf2 + 10 c 2 d+6 c<74 + d5 20 in s + 15 w 2 w 4 G mw 6 + w 6 11. 25. m 13. AN S WE no . +3 + 5 4. ??i ?i .x ). 4. 978. 2. Zll. 30. 17. 1. 3 w 2 H2 + 3 4 n 4 . 1 w + 5 m' G 7 w. (7 (2 2 3 2 16. Page 171. 2 12. 71. 24. (x + y\ 90. 3 6 23. ( Page 174.5. 10. 14. 6. 14. 6. 12. 9. 15. 18. 32. 8. f 21 rt'6 + 7 f 6 13. (6a + 4a + 3a + 2). 10. + + ?V 22. 18. 15. 1. 16 6 w . 90. (l + x + . ? . (Gx + (i + 2a. 2 49 . 420. rt . ( x + 2 x 2z + 4). 9. 1 + 8 z + 24 2 + 32 r + 10 x 4 25. 5. 57. 7. 16. 6. 90. 5. (27 + 3 a xy 8 21. 4.1. 8. 40.+ 50 m*w* + 70 w 4 4 + f>6 ?n *w 6 +28 >/* + 8 mn + w 8 17. 2. 8 4 se 1 1 :J . 16.i c 6 15. 5.y2 ). 11. a: l .+3^ + 4. 6. 32+ 80 a +80 a* +40 a 3 + 10 a 4 fa 5 14.2). 2 ?>i?< >2 10. . 32 r^ 10 + 80 w 8 + 80 wt c + 40 m 4 + 10 m'2 + 21. +35. ^i. 0.94. 5. 72.  +X '. I 8x2). 9. 15. 22. + l). 15. 2.a b 22. 3M. 33. 1.r 2 + S:r2/2 ). 1. 76.XV111 7. 101. 17. .10 a~ + 5 a . 309.037. 25 19. 98. 70. (a 2. /> 4 ). fe *?>' ?> fi .  x.3 ab + 2 2 ). (rt' (2 a (7 4 10. (2 a + ft).5 a 4 + 10 a9 . 18. 3. 99. 27. (6 a + 5 a + 4 a ). a 2 . 11. 3 2 8 3 12. + (win . a ).7 /)). 20.6.f 1 m 9 16. 9. 237. 20. l lV (l+? + & + x J x V s 24. 2. 247. 6. 100 *6 + GOO x 1000 2 + G25. . a 7 + 7 b + 21 + 36 4 & 8 + 35a 3 & 4 6 6 7 . 19. (a + 2 +l). 11. 26. 2.5). (1 (x2y). 1 + 5 a?b* + 10 a 4 b* + 10 a& + 5 a/> + a 10 10 i c5 . 11. 2(> + ( 2 7>). 34. 2 2 7. 20. 12.1000 ac 3 + (J25 c 4 24. . 12. 21. 64. 119. (23 alt + 7 (4rt +3 (5m 2 Cm + 3). 1247. c 10 6 :l 20. . 81 + 540 + 1360 a 4 + 1500 a 2 + 025. j/^/t^/' wi n 4 p*+ 10 w 8 w y 10 wi 2 w 27> 2 +6 w/ip. 35.1. 2038. 2 4 8 2 . (5^ + 4x?/ + 3?/ ). 10. 84. r> 4 : 1 . ? : 1 . 6 (\x 3. w w + 5 W w c + 10 19. 20. 8. 19. 14. . + y).GO a c + 23. (ly). ?7i 1 1 3 1. GOO 2 c 2 . ). ro 12 + 4 m+ w + 4 w + l. + 4 x2 + Ox4 +4^ + x8 10. a. (ab + c). a. 8.r 2 + 6jt). fr ft i/ /> ^  23 . 5 5 8. 13. 14.83. (3a.^). w 8 + 8 in n + 28 5 5 4 4 3 8 2 w c + 10 w 2 2 c 3 + 5 mwc 4 + r5 18. 00. 10 x G a 4 . 1 1 ?>). 8. 763. (a + y+l). . 3 2 ^. (:' + (2a3a: 2 + a. 9. 7. 3. 30. Page 170. +(^ 2 3^ + 2). 8 /. 17. 4.
29. 17. 6yds. m. /. 10. 2. vV'TA 24. a + 61. l~8. > w ft. 4J. 39 in. 16. 12. 8. 31. 16.. 42. v 17. V17. 33. (6) Vl4 3. 39. . 40. 12. 7. }. 17. 28.. 3. 9 15 ft. 15. 6. 22. 3. 3.  5. / 11.5.916 yds.V 8j. 9. 6. 15 1 10. 19. 4. ft. 34. Page 181.  2. 4. . 2] see. 6. 4 a. 7. 7. 8. . f ^ is. or 3. 7. 23. 20. 23.. 4. Page 177. 21 28 ft. 4 W**.. _ iVaft. 1. 4. (afl). 1. 10. 41. ZLlAiK 19.243. 1. 6561. . ft.13. 4 n. 40. 6. 18.6. 5.4. 30. 5. 27. 7 in. V2. 39. 29. V.i. i. 1 7. 32. f. 24. 7. 7. 21yds. 16. 2. 15. Page 180.798 yds.236. 10.?. 12.  1. 9.6. \/3.935. 7. m. Page 179. .Sn. ^^7m.6. 11. 4 TT M 28. 49. 15. 25.  f. vYb. 4. 1..742 in. 5. 6 f !. 37. 1. 8. Page 183. 4. 19. {. xix 26. 3. 14. 13. 5. 1.. . 3.005. 34. 5. 13. 2.*.. 4. 2. 7563. 7. 2. 23.645. 1. 9. 13.1. . 5083. 3.237. 12. 12. 8. 10.w 18. 35. 5. 7}.  43. 14. 20. 9. 15. 9. 5. 30.6. 7 45. 7. 2. 3. 5f. 3. Page 184. 46. >i 27. 3. . 4. 6J.  3. *. 2. 28 in. 36 in. 9. 12. 25 J. 5.6. 11. J. 15. 21. 4.5. 10. i ^. 35.690. . 2. 8. ft.a. 18. 11. 2.1. 270 sq. 37. or 5. 4. Af^. 14. 24.  f. 13. 10. 2. 6. 7. ii :J _7.367. 6V'2J. 6. 10. w. 21.4. 2. 10. 44.4. f .. 3. 10.}. 13. ~ V^3.. 3. 1. 2. 1. If ^. JJI. V35 1. 21 in. 1 f Vl3. V J l. 32. 3. 3J.925 ft. Page 185. (< + ?>). 3. 12.522 38. 9. 2. 4. 1 38. 47. 25..60. 3. 9. 27. () 2. f. 12. a. f 3. 6V21. ^. 8. 5. 5. 11. 6. 36. * 1. 17. 14. 48. 29. 50. 5. 28. 16. " ^_ 22. f f V. 7. 16n. 11. 20.469. 4. 1.18. . 5. 2 sec. 5. 5. . 6.  14.ANS WERS 22. ^. 31. 33. 1&. 26. 1. 14. 4. >TT 26. 21. V2. . 36.
2. 53. + 7 x + 10 = x*x 2 6x = or . Real.6 = 0. 18. 58. 9. 34.7.  1. . unequal. 32. unequal. ' 1. 3.17. 3. 19. f.2. 1). unequal. 1 3. i . $30 or $70. 16.l. . 4. unequal. 0. 1. 7. 25. 35.a. 1. unequal. 16. 3.$40 or $60. V ~ 16 4 2.23.5 x + 6 = 0./hr. 11. 2 . 64c. irrational. 37. . .2. 20 nii.1. V2. V7. 8\/2 17. 6. 50. 55. . 19. 13. equal. 2. 21.3. 6. 10 in. 31. a8 .12. .2. (5 10. VV11. 0. 22.74. . 2. x 14. 2. 0. 1. . 4. If.4. i. 24. 9. + 11 x. 28. 4. 12. AB = 204 ft. = 0.4.5. 25.  1. 7. 4. 20. 20. 10. 2.. 3. 3. 20 eggs. 20./hr. a. 2. 4. 8. Real. 22.2. V2. 4 da..3. 0. 10 or 19.. 1. 27. 4.2. unequal. 2. 6. 8. 39. 28. 0.2 x2 . . 56. 3if. f 6 52 a. 6. 29. V^~2.6.10. 3. 1. 23.  5. 5. *'' 12. . 45. 1. 41. 2 V3 in. 8 or 12 mi. 16. 12. 1 . 12.0*8.4. %. 24. 9.  2. 11. 10 mi. ft. 1. 10 mi. 2. 5. 1.  i. 35. 0.1. 4. 27. f. 26. V^l. 10.48. 13. . irrational.a 3 a. . 2. 57.12 = 0. Imaginary.  1. 3. . . 7. 3. 0. 47.5^. rational.* 2.62. 21. 0. 0./hr. 49. V^l. 38. 5. 14. Real. Page 189. 42. 5. 1. 2. 2. 6^2 in. 3. Real. equal. 3. 15. 2. 2.1. 10.2. 48. 36. 0. 25. 1. 5 ft. Real. 0. . 27. 2. Imaginary. 0.  24. . 1. . 6. 1. 18. 3.XX Page 186.  Page 194. 7. 23. Page 190. 2. equal. #<7=3. jr .4. 9. r* i.]. 43. 1. 5. rational. a + 6. in. 0./hr. 24. a + 1.'. 44. 120 ft. t is. 3.7. Imaginary. 52. $ 120. 3. 3. x* 51. unequal. 3. 12. 2. s 11. 23. x*4x=0. unequal. 2. 3.  1. 0. 1. 3. 0. 2. 3. 15. 26. 1.02.23. 3. 4.  2. 2. v^^fcT"^. .2. $80. 6. rational.37. 15 ft.59. 3. 2.2.48 3. 33. .7. Real. 1. 7. Page 191. 26. ANSWERS 22. x2 + B . 8. AB = 3. 17. 25. . 6. 64. 3. 30. 21.41. 1.  13. 1.a. _ 19. H.70. Real. 7. 7. Page 188. 6V64. 4. 2 ft.  5.Oa. 3. 26. orf.. Page 192. 70 ft. 40. 1_^L ft 14. 7.4. 46. 8. . 19 in. 1. 2 4jr + x2 8 3 = 0. 3. 1. 6. 12.  6. 6. ^l/>> = 85 ft.  1.2. 0. 18. 2. U. . 14. 15. 6. Imaginary.  9x <). Page 187. rational.. Real.. 28. 2.2. a. rational. unequal. '  f 5. 4.3. 2.
24.6. 5. 2. 2. 4. Jb \. 28. 0. 10. 19. &. 25. JV37. : . 3. 2. 3. 30. . 21. 3. 8. 14. . 3. 25. . \a\ \/^. 15. 2. 15. 40. J. fx'^z'l 23. 41. 30 a. 9. 16. . 42. 29. 17. 12. 17. \. 3. 15.  5. z + 22. . 36. 7V7. ). 8.^7. Page 199. 4. 16. \.  J j. 1. 52. p. 29. 53. 8. 11. Vr. 18. ^Sf 3 38. 25.1 5 15. 9. 2. 5. a. 2. 2. 1 39. J. 5\/5. x$. 32." 17. 7. 26. 51. 1V1. $7. 45. 3. 1. 19. 5. y . 20. v/3. 9. 43. 27.  a'2 . 58. 21.32. r*. 5. 8. x/25. 28. 10. 18. 2 L ( V. 12. 44. 50. 11.//^. 13. 23. v'frW. x. 125. y. I. 1. 3. 12*2 61. 39. \/3. i. 3. 47. 3. 6. wA 46. 24. 2. 30.17. xxi 15. 8. 6  AAf. 20. 8. 2V a. v^T4 m. 22. 1. 1. 37. 23. 2. *V. J. 24. 10. 0. m'. . 49. Page 196.  f . 16. 14. v'frc 18. 31. 1. 0.2. 1. 5. 19. J 3. . 5. J. 7. 8. 49. 56. 33. a 18 . 8. 21. 'J. \/r\ 11. 6. 4. (m 26. ^49. . 29. 4. 13. 3 4 11. ) 2 >J i 10. 47. 243. _! V3. .ANtiWEUS rational. v. 33. 1.  f. 20. 1.  48. 9. l  5 12. 33. 16. 1. m. n\/* Page202. 60. \/. 10. 3. 1. 84. ifa. V^ 34. 50. 9. Page 200. 7. 31. 54. 2. 14. 59. 13. vm. . 4. vV.. 19. 13. aW\ 40. 2. Page 201. 55. 22. 38. 9. 49. 4. 17. 14. 49. jV 10. 3. 35. Page 197. 20. 4. 3. 1. r. 57. 27. 48. ar 1 . ? . 32. 4. \ . 18. 46. 7 .
577. V80. 135V6. 40. ^88". 20&V6. 15. 3. 9 . 2 x* 15. 13. 23. 26.707. 41.Vxy 35. Va a + 2 a^b* 14. 21.XXii ANSWERS 1. 6. v/^r 5  A/^~. 2. V. 03r* 7. 30. 40.648. 37. 2v (T 2aVf. 4. 3^ + 2). 3V5. ?tV?w. 24.f. + 2 ar 1 ). 12. . 1) 3V3. . . a^ + 2^+1.r. V 5 47.3 + 40 3 . 2. x 7  34. (x' (l 1+x). 2.  2 3:r. 38. k/2. 7. (o* 2. m* n*. 43. 31.  a Vft 2 121 b. 3 a~ 3 (x (. T.12 *^ + x 7/> x  a** + or " 2 + 1. 3. 9. 3^2. + 2). . 3 4\/2.rV:r. + 2 Vzy + y 1. 1 2 or 1 ?. 3 x^y 33. 3 42.632.'\ 14. x%  3 ^+ 1. ^: V2c. 4. l 5. 2\/7. 34 r 6. V63. + + ft. 2 '"V5. r c . 7. 24. + . x + 5 x3 + 0. 2 4 z2 l 3. ftV 46. 4aV^J 16. y. . 45. 5. 21.. + 1. 37. x. Page 203.yl : . . 62V(J. 25. 101 1. 2. Vr 8. 5 22. 11V3. 11. 17. 33. 18. . 2. 9.x^y* + y%. x^ . abVab. 10. 32. r 17  Page 204. 19. x 25.692. 29. 28. 8a6V5. 13 35. 32. 2>X2. 20. V2 + 4 V22. 10.). a2 4. . (Va (5xJ Vft+Vc). 3 \ 39. 5. 51. 26. 6. 30. yV35. 27. 16. 9. 10. Page 207. 1. 31. 13. 39. Va 2 "ft. 8. ). + 2 V22. 16. 1+2 v/i + 3\/!^ + 4 x. a 3. 19. Vz2 ?/ 2 44. 22. 13 a. (a 27. 8. 3V^T. Page 208. 5 ( . 4 or + 3 9 <r + 12. 2. 29.2 VlO. 2 a?>V2 a. + Vic + 25. JIV6. 8V/) 15. 195V3. x y. / V3. 28. 11. ^7 \AOx. 20. 49. V. 17. 34. v^. a 4 +* + !.r^ 5 a~ 2 ft~ 1 + Vft. y (a + ft) V2.2 18. 3. 48. 50. 36. v'TM.
31. 21. '. v^lf. 12. 5. Vdbc. 51. 34. 8V2. 24. 48. 39. 3 V15  47. 10. Page 214. ab 4.. 21. v^a. 1. 7\/(l 7VTO. 19. \^r^bVabc. \/8. + VlO  v y (5. 7. VLV/ ^i?i= a: . 9. 3 V2. 5. 36. 6 2\/0. 53. \/a6c.30 2. 7. 35. VT5. 0. 26. vT). 4 a*. 18. 18. fl^Vac. 10. a\/5c. v^4. + 20. 52. 28. 10V(). 6. 43. 5 \/2. 3.J Page 212. 38. 13. 2 \/2. \XOfl6Vi5. 15. 37. v"3. 16. 6+2V5. 32. 44. x/8. . 40. Page 216. \/04a. : ^32. 16. 46. x/8L v/27. V2. V2. V/. x/125. 6. 12. "^8000. 29. 1V5. ^v 7 15. 2 1. D 45. 13\/3. 39. 14. 2.T*. 31. 14. V3. 3. 21 23. 3. \V3. \/abc*. W). x/27. v/9. 8  \/15. \/128. 11. x/w^ 8. 6aV2\^. 2 ate. 2. Vat. a2  b. 42. 27. v 25^4714 V2"a. V8. 3v^2. x/3. 9. 3 Vl5 30. 35. / \/w/t 4 13. 32. Page 210. 20. 11. a^\/a7>. . 8v2T 12. 38. 17. 15. 14c 4 V5. 9 VlO + 4. 6. V5. 26. v/lO. 32m27n. ^27. Page 213. 23. 16. 50. Vtf +3+ 33. 34. ^9. 4\/5. "v/wi ??.r v/^ v^fr*. 4. . 2yV2?/. 3\/15  6. 41. 3\/wi. \^6. . ^\/3. xx 1. 0. \^6. 5V2. 4 >/3. 3. 74\/Jl 120 46. v7^. r)\/(l Vrtr.  3. b. rtv/5. 14. 6. 1. 8. Vn. 13. 30 Vl4. 24. 5. __ rw 3 \~s~' ] * . m ?i2Vm/t. 30. 25. 19. 8V73\/IO. 23. 2. 2 28. 17. 10. 9. 6V2. 40. v"5. v/i). V3. . 4VO. 5v/2. v/l2. 3. 36. V5. v^O. 4. 7. 3\/2. 2\/7. 11. ^ 3 b 5 24. 22. 8. 2 V'3. 6. \/2. % 29. 27. 37. v^f. x/4. aVa. 18. x/8l. 2. 17. 5V2. 22.ANSWERS _ Page 209. v^30. 49. 2. 1. w?i. 33. 6x2?/. . V3"m. Page 211. 25. v/8. VJla. .
11. 22. nVTl. 23. 31. . V6c. 6. 2. 14. 14. j 15. 3. 9.4142. 21. 2 .13. 15. j. 8 V3V2. 7. (V8 + V2. 12. 7 f 5 4. 3. . (2. (3+ v/2). 23.3. 28.1805.625 10. (Vf + (4 V2).. 24. 1. 9. 14. Page217. 5 f. \. ANSWERS 8.389. 25. 8. 33. V2. K>/0 + \/2). _^JflJ?. 2. 22. 8. 6. 30. 26. 9. 512. 14. 5. 7. 23. 16.V3). V3.1. V. 25. 12.601. 1. 17. 4V3 + 6. 11. x 20. 8. 9 mn. 7.64. 10. (V5f 5. . f. 36. 24.^ (\/22 4.7071. i(Vf Vft). 1. 2. 6 V. 5. 5 V65. 8. 15.1547. 3. Va. (\/3f 1).4722. 4. 2. (VllV2). 19.2. 18. V35. 0. J. 2ajV2*. 29. 9.6 V3. 23. 6.XXIV 7. i^Lzi. V^TTfc. 125. 3. 8. 8. * 3. 9. 15. 25. (a 1. 30. 224. 81. 25. {. +3 V2). 25. 4. ~ Vac _c 0. fV2. 7.\/TO). ^. 0. ^\/2. 100. 1. J. 4.0606. V5. 4. i^ ~ 1 v ^. \/3). 12. 5.464. !^ 6 4. 21 ' Vob 26. . 3. Page 225. 2x^2^. 18. 3. 7. 11. 8. Vf6fVtf. 11. 11. 27. 13.9. 5. 4.  f.2.3. 18. 1. 17. 19. Page220. 19. (V51). 4. \/57t. 20. 16. 29. Page 226. 3(7+3V5). 4. V3. 20. 16. 2. 22. 10. 18. . 13. xy 2. Page 218. m f. + 6) 2 . 5. . 5. 16. 2V2. 9. 32.5. Va. 4. 9. 2V3. 37. + 5V2. 6. 16. 2V3. (V21). 25. 10. 11. 7 Page221. 4. 9. . 23. Page 219. 4. V3. 5. 10. 10. 17.732. 12. 34. .w 6. 27. p 6 13. Page 223. (\/5V2). 1. 9. 4 14. 64.W + 12 v/7  3 \/15 . 27. 24. 7. ' 22 i . ^r. 19.  13. 35. 20.6. 12. 3. 21. 24. 1. n*. 21. 7. 4. 16. 6 (V2 + 1). 4. 10. (2f V"5). 5 + 2 vU 17. 16. 16.2828. . A . 26. . 6.7083. 15. V3 . 19. 4. 1. 4.81. 12.5530.732. 216. 3V23. 2!5_. 17.  2. 18. Page 28. 2. (V6 + 2V2). 10. (2V2). 15 f 3 V2L 4. 8. 13. (VaT^v a). 5. 7. 1. 81. (2Vll). 1. . ^. 5. 1. 25. 20. 15. 4.  .3535. ^(VlO\/2). 2.
(pl)(p2)(p2). 30.  . o. . 2 .l)(a3)(a . 56l). 3. 1. + 6 4 )(a*a' 6 + a 2 6 2 a& 8 H6*). 8. V3. 4. 6. f>. 3. (a2)(:iB2 f 2a44). 5. 1 . 15. XXV 4. Page 233. 7. 10.2 ) ( 10 w 2 n 2 f 4 winy 2 Page 231. 1. 2 <? 4a2 . 22. (a+&)( 2 14. 2. 3. 3. 7.2)(m.3. 2. (8. 4. 24. (rt. 1. 3.  16). ( 16. (a.l)(m . 4.3. 12. 15. (a + l)(a*a 8 + aa + l). 1 .  J. 12. 4. 3. 3. 30 30.2. 4 . 11. 1.w 4 + 1). (r. 5. 21.+ ^)( 4 a 2 6 2 h6 4 ).  1. 28. . (xy + 5) (x*y* . (w2)(m3)(2m + 5).5 xy + 25) 22. a(l+a)(l_afa 2 ). 3. o& (3m 3 7)(9w 6 +21m*+49).f 2)(sc 2 2 r + 4). 30 .  4. 8 6 & 0. 2. 12. 2. (2 a. 0. . . 2. 20. 6. Page 236. 11. 4. 2 6. 3. 22. 24. (4 mn . 30. 3. 18. 2. 4.4.4).l)(z 2 + z + 1). (1 +a 2 6 2 )(l a 2 6 2 +a 4 6 4 ). 1. 0. 2. 20. 2. 4. 1 . (B43).3. a: :} . 4. 9. . 2 V^ . 1. 5. 8. (a. 73. 3. 6. 11. P. 16. 2. 11. (a + 2) (a Page 229. 87 .3 2. 25. 7. 2.4. 17. 1.1. 0. . 19.  2.3. .8a 18. \/0. (w . 12. 2..2 + (row)(w4w)(w a + 6mw f w 2 ). . 10. 5. J. 19. 13. . 27(2 a 4fc)( 4 2 2 (a 4 &)(* + 4 & + !&*). . 5. 2 . . 1. 2. 7. 3. 1. (&y2a#H4). (63)(6' t 18. 25. 6. 9. 19. 23. 13.Y.4. (pl)(p3)(p6).1)(4 a + 2 a + 1).  5. (m 4 + l)(ro. 3. ~ f7. 4. a  . 1. 0. a . 12 24 y . 3. 2. t/ 23. 4. 5. (a 4.5. J.ANSWERS Page 228. 0. . . 7.0. . 3. a(. 4. 1. 2. 1. 25. 0. 1. 2.3. 1 3. 3. J Page 235. 15. 1 .  1. 4. 2 6. 12. 3. (s + l)(x2 :r + 1). f .nl^EI. 3. 6 2 2a + 2). (a . 13. 2 . 16. (la&)(l46 + 2 & 2 ). 1. 14. 3. 10. 2. 4 1. (10 #0(100 + 10^ + 4 ). //. & + 6 2 ).2. 2 &. 5. 3. 17. 10. 14. 25. 13. 13. 3 . 1 6. 4 . 2. . 8. 17. 10. 1. 3. 3 . 7. 4. 7.3). 4. 2 > 1. 4. 4.2. 3. (+!)( 2) 10. . 4.l)(a 4 + a + a 2 f a f 1). 2. 21. 3. 2. 3. 1. . 1 (?> x/^3. 9. 50. 8.3. 2. 1. 8. 100. 1.  3. b . 6. 4 4. J 24. .22. 1. 2. y. 4 20. 5.^a.10.a) (04 + 8 a + a 2 ). . 18. 10. 5. 2. .  3. 3. 2. . . ' J. 1 . .r . 5. 0. 2 . 6. 3 5. 20.12. 3 9. 6.1. 8. 5. 73. 0. (wp)(w2p)(wi3p)(w*42p). qpl. 5. 1. 4. 5. 7. 2. 4. (2a + l)(4a*2a + l). 5. 26.  3. =A^Z3.2)(* . l. 11. 11. 2. 2. 2. 2.7.l)(a 2 + a f 1). 14.  f . Page 234. 3 .
2. 1J. oo. 3 2.3 . 41. 5050. 18. 1 2. 14. 2. Page 247. 8. tn 2. 7f solution. . 5 cm. J. 48. 9. 1. 3. 1 . 5. 1. 4. 11. 37. $.30. 2. 400. 3V5. . 35 a. 13. 35^ 5. 1. 12. 9.. 21. 512. 3. 1 . 17. no co . 24. 7.13.6. i. f. 6. 4. 16. 2.5. 23. 14. 1. Page 240. 2. 6. 5. GO . 2 ft. 30 13. 5. 2. 8 . .2. ( 3. 5. (>. 0. 2. 4 6. 11. x 4. 8. . 4. 7. 2n. 1. 2. 3. . 1 . . . $. 50. 36. } . 12. 3.3. 24. 30. 8. 22. +  n. 10. 28yd. 3. 0. 17. \/6. 1. 18. 4 8. 5 . 30. n . 2. Page 244. 1.4. 2 26. 3 . 2. 2. m28. 3.xxvi Page 237. V3~. 3. 3. 3 . V7. . 1. (a) 5. 31. 2. _ 7. . 5. 14. 7. ri*. 35 ft. 12. ANSWERS 2. 33. 5.1. Page 239. 5.1. . 5. 11. j. 4.. . 3. 14. 31. . 84. 10. 1. . 8 3. i j. 35.e.4. 14. 3. ft.4. 18. 22. 4. 4. 3. 201.3. 7. 15.200. Page 238. 3. 5. 1. 1. 15. 7.1. 2 2. 4.0. 5. 25. 19. 4. . 3. _ 13 (0 6. 11. in. 7 3..  11. ^~2. 2 Y> V . . ^ }. 23. Indeterminate. 2. Indeterminate. 2 . 17. 1. 4. 2.18. 3. 2. f>. 37. 11.136.3. 8. in. 5. in. 55. 4. i i i . 78. 1. 2.3. 6. 7. . 1. 7. Page 241.  2 . 10. 12 d. 12 1. 1. 40 in. 2 . 1. 4. (/>) "_. \.0. Page 248. 4 34. 4. 40. . 1. 4 . 20 7. 2. 4. 1. 1. 21 30.. 3 cm. 10. 39. 125 125.020.3. $46.. 4. i'ljVU. 1. 1. 17. 4. 2 1. . 12ft.. 9. 5. 16. 2. 8ft. . 40 1} 9 3 ft. . . 20. . 3. 1. 4. 1. 3. 5. 5 4. 1.. = QO 6. . 1. 3 3. 1. 2. Page 245. 6. 8. 11. . m + n. 3. 3. 21. 3. co . 2 . _ 10. J. 29. . 2V7. oo . 38. 9. 15. in.y. 12. 32. 26. 3. in. . 45yd. 3. 2 10. 4. 9. 17. 8. 1. 1. J. 14. ft. ft. 14. 19. . . . 4. 3.4.3. 9. 3.. (&) 2. 5. 1.  . 4. 1. 15. 2 16. 3 4. 15. 37. 50. 5. n. . 1. 900. 40 25 in.6. 1. 4.3. Exercise 113. oo . 12 ft. 1 . 4.5. 2. 2. 20 in. 2. $VO. J. 288. . 2>/3. 2. m27. . 12. 8. 15. 12. 6.. f*. 13. 512. 0. . and _ 4. 15.  1. 5. }. 1 . 20. Page 243. . Exercise 114. . 17. 3. 3. 8. '>. 13. 4. ' j. 69. _ 5. jj. . 5. 5.. 3 . c. (a) $3400. 3. 16.
12.384. 2. 100. ' 1. 1.2 45 a 8 /).3 ays. 16. 32. . 05. 0. 1820.470. 18. 27. d. 2. 2. 35. 4. 27. 20. 7.<2 4.504. 8. 10. 6.5 J4 10 47 d*b 6 4 4. 3. 1. . 23. 29. 15. B . 8. 495. 19. 2. 3. 4. 3. . 5. 5. 343.^ ?>i 2412x4. 4. 280 53. xxvii 1. .r* 4 70 . 7. 3. :r 4 4 8 x 28 x~ 60 . 12. 500 x3 10 4 4 072 a? 3 . 81.120. 1 7 4. 0. 12. 8.5 M ' 41 fc 5 . 5. c. 2.ANSWERS Page 250. . 5. 15. 3.1. 4. 13. 16. 14. 16. REVIEW EXERCISE . 10. Y11. 128. 1 14. 8 4x' 2 . .5. 6. 9. 20. 15.700. A.K 4 4 50 x 5 4 28 x 4 4 ^8 1 g ! . . 4. x + Vy. 125.130 x30 189 a 4 24. in.2 9. 105.210. 4. 6i. 7. 35. 0. x4 .  17. 7. 48. 16 11. 4. 10.v Page 253. r 5 4. 1.8.920. Page 259. 22. 7. 50. 3.7 10. w9  8. 9. 5. (?>) 4 8(2 V2). 2. 70.5*7 + ^4 1 12 w 4 10 x' 2 //^. 17. 12. 192. 8 1. 7. 21. 220 . 6. 8.r^  280 x 4 4i^S + 6. 25. 0. 6. 1. . f 7 ^ 14 x 84 4 . vy. 8J. 4950 M 2 b y *. JSg. 6. Jj? 45. 19.12 x*y 16. 1. .870 m*n*. 53. 410.  20 flW.x^ 4 x8 15 x 4. 405. 2i* 7f. x r 4. 15. G. 44. 10. 16. \ w 4 . 3. 3.5y 4 . 43. 3. />*. 1JH. 8. ~ an . 4. 5. 17.4 &z x>&. 0. 1000 aW. 16. 9.x' 10 . ^a 8.53. 5. 04. 2. ?/i 6 x llj . I. 3. 12. 4 0.^ x2 ^x w ^2 ? . 7. 8. .419. ().15 x 4 //'?/ a5 4 J 5 4 Z> 4. 16. . 6. 2. 8. 7 x4 17. 55. 6. . 45. 10. 17. 304.  101.4. 005. 75.0.192. 27.6.5 x. sq. 5.r 4. 0. . 2 1 x 4 6x'2 12. J 2 //2 25. 4. 10 14. a. } $ 50. 12. 22. 9. 18. Page 254. y ^ 5  ^\ ). 16. 1. 9. 4. 125. 0. 3. 28. 45. 2. 4. 708. . 6. 5. 4. . 4. 1. 7.6 . 12. ~v 9. 910. 2. 70. 13. 327. 12. and 1. % 4 20 ab* 42 330 x 4 15. 7 2 x 4 x8 . 18. 13. 1. Page 252. 3 4 15 a 8 11 4 14 a  1  2 y* .^ 448 x a' 3 /') . f r6 4  20 rV 42 15 xV 8 . 1. 10. 04. 11. 120 aW. 8.13. 11. 70. 5. Page 258. f y 8 + z* . 8 . 18. 4. 5. 1. 19. 4. 5 13. 26. 3. <. 8. r r j.r x>/ 7 3.10 a 3 ?/2 10 4<J aW 4. 343. 9. 2. 6. . **+. a4 4 14. 15. '23. 27. Ja.680. 1. 45 Page 257.5. 4. 3. 20. 4.170. i 10. &' 14. 11. 0. 8. 2. 2. 21. 0.
3 r2 2 ?/ 2  ax . x8 x2 55. x } 4. 2 2 x2 ?/ 2 4 63 4 ?/ . .rty x2 4 123. a* 4. a* a 8 a aftc. 8 x* + 27 y 2 x2 2 . 2 a2 4 aft 5 116. . !! 71. 0. 2 x'V2 90. 2 2 *  3 2n 101.2.2. 4 fee 4.36 xfy 2 a 8 ?* 3 4. 118. 49. 91. ft n . &p 84. x 8 + x 4 68. 132. . 100. ?/ . 120.2 x^. 102.5 b + c . 37. a~b 89. 6a6c. Page 263. 2 x2 4. x2 471x4. + 28 x2 13x 3 56. x4 f + 23 . 1 121.2. x . 6 a2 97. 3a'2 Page 261. 4 15 x 5 . 24.3 .9 b. x4 3 4 2 x 2 4 0. 66. 16. fi :ry 42 4  a 2 4 a 2 ft 2 3 119.5 3n 4. 88. . .4 x y 87.1 4 jry 4 x . a4 x. x' 79. 2 2 9 ^4 2 59. 3 a . as 20.7 x   15. ft x6  3 x5 4 9 x4  27 x 3 1. x* . . 5 42. 26. 2 2/' . 4 2 .15 4 62 x  72.+ 4 2 ft) (a 4.5 3 2 y2 5 a2 4 2 aft 4 ft. x 2 . 38. .4 ac. 21. 3 y2 2z2 ~3xy?/. x 8 + x 4 y* 67.  . 36 + 9c9 a x3 4 + 8. 3 36 b c . 2 aft 3 4 3 ft 4 . 62. 96. 15 ab 4 Oac 4 6 be. a J .3 aftc.  12 a. 105. 0. . 94. 133.c. 2 . 29.4.6 am b\ 129. 6 8 j27 40 ab. (d) x  (a) 2 x 2 ?/ 4 ?/ (ft) 2 y 2 y 2 g (c) 3 x +y 11 a: y 4 3 2 . 4. x2 2 . 2 x2 108.a. 32. 63. 9x.3 103. 4 . 46..ac 44 aft.c. 2 a.^a . ft /> 78. 99. 1 x 45. x 8  a8 . 27. . 4 69. 82. 36. 4ft y3. 80. 7 + 3 xf 2. x3  15 x 2 71 x  105. Page 260. 10 a 12 b.4 x 2 . + f 2 2 (/) 2 34. 12 x. 10 4.5 a 2x8 x 3 . 124. 86.3 b . . 76. 130. 4 115. 40. x 3 41. 107. . 8x3 8x.  + 16 a/> 8  a*2a 2 6 2 +& 4 74. ?> .{ 54.  3 x2 . 4 ! . 2 30 . . 50. 4 65. 4.1.2 x 4.1. ft2ft 4 4l. fc' 6 p'2 q  54 ? 3 .fee 2 4. x 4. 13 + 2 s. a2 2 aft 2 2. x2 + 4 x7 9 y2 x4 4 4. 24 a 2 6 3 x3 0. 3a~2c. x2 5r*x ft 5 . r 5 VFTx + vTfy + 1.ft).c 3 4. x?/ 2 2/V2 4 2 x2z2 4 92. 3 a 5 a 5. _55_7c 48. . 5x + 2y~z. 3 c .18 x?/0. ?/ 3. x 3 4. 127. x2 3x2/?/ 2 112.3 a 2 '6 w 4. . 30. 12 a/.a' 'ft 4.x4 + y'2 z 4. + a 4. 122.41.4. 2 113.5. 1x 4 x3 xty6 a 24 3  Page 262.5x4. f5+7. 43. 39. y 4 z* 0.x24 73.3 mn p 2/ x 4 . 2 2a 2 2 2(a. 25.1w 77. . 61. 104. 243x4729. 64.  + 3 x2 . 5x 2 2x43. 2 . * 60. 93. 70.  ft 3  13 a 4 + ll a 2 2. 35. 2 q.x x*  f 2 ax 4. 109. 31. m " + n + P3c .18 ?/ 5x4.1.3 a'ft. .a 2 x 2a . a' 111. . 3~ n 4. 125. a 4 .2 xy + 4 y2 106.x 2 4. xyxzyz. (a + ft)" 98. 131. x3  15 x 2 48 ?/ .xxviii ANSWERS 19.9 x .a*ft 2 126. . I 57. 1 .x 51. . .3 y. 6y 2 a2 _52 45 = 73(). 3 a 44. 0. 6 c 47. x2 a2 1 .105.1. . a 3m 4. 72. 1 + 4 xy. 14 x . 22. . df. () 2 x 33. 23. 5 4 4. 81 ?/ 4 108 xy 3 75. x' . ^ .7. + 3 a?.4 x?/2 3 4. 4 Page 264. 114.4 2 4 c2 42 .4.3 x?/ 2 1/ 4a 3 a o_a 4 a2 +l. 16t/.a6 2 4. .15 x 6 x4 ?/ Ilx 2 ft a8 4 8 y4 .a'2 c. t 81. 4. 4 4 4 ft*" 3 4 + 2'2 ~+ 2 81 x2 134. 110. 9 2w 128.3 x 2 + 3 x . 8 . c3 4 58.  4 a3 85. . +^ + ft W. /> 4 83.2 c .  e +/.a" xy 2 2/' 3 . 28. 52.4. + z. 2 . 2 53. az 4.6 b.y*.x. 1 a"* 4 an .
(2a + l)(a . (/ 246. (JT y 225. 154.2). 206. (a 2 +l)(a*+ 1). z(x10)(xl).3 y). . 185.I2y). 3. 10 ft. m. 163. 4. (233). 201.y)(z . 138. + 11) (a 10). 209. (y7)(y + 188. 1. 150. 212. (x + 2)(x . (.6 . (3x2?/)(2. 208.2 )(x+y) 228. . 158. 2 2 (a. 160. 147. + 3). Or (a + 2)0el). 4. 148. 15. a(a. aft.3). (4 x 2 + 9)(2 x 4. 1. 162. (x . y  y 165. (c) 160 C. 224. 181.3.r & (a + ary c)(a 1 2 + ) + 3y).3 y)(a . 241. (3a + 4?> + o(5crt). Page 266. (a} 59. . 1. (8x + 3)(3x4).11) (5x 2)(2x + 3). 20. 152. 2 xy(3 x .y) (\r3y). 220.l)(a 2 +3). 189. xxix 139.1).l)(y + 1). 205.. 36ft. 161.y). 146. 179. 210. 15. (r^x + 1). 166. (x + 6)(x6). 156.2) (3 x . 167. 237. . 12 yr. 180. 193. 48 h. p. 2(d)(rt + + c+c2).2). + 7)(rt4).y)(jc + 7 y). 233. 177. + 2) + 9a. 3. 171. 178. 10 in. (5 x . 218. .y2 ). 75. a.ANSWEKti 135. 240. ?.y + 3)(r (. r>x 2 (4x. Page 265. 247. 211. . 191. k. 190. p. x(x f 3)(x+ 2).6)(4 + 6). (y _ ft)(y 4. 174. 216. 236. 6). + 3) (x f f>) . 186. 197. y 245. 40 yr. 1. ( jc // a 2 (a1).. 137. 144. (x^ + x1) 234. 2. 1. 12. +)(x2 x^+2. (7 x + y +y+ 2)(x . + 22)./_4). 1. 153. 4 2 ?/(x  ll)fx 3). 2(x8)(x3). 143. 230.6) (2 x + 1). + 6 y) (x 2 y) . x(x + 6) 213. 235. 2. Page 267. 136. fc'2a+62c).  1. (?/+l)(yl). a + 2x2 ). (2 198. 187. yr.r + 4). 173. (a 2 + 2a6. (y  17)(y + (>). 8(ar}(/)27). 22.4xl). y3.c2 )(a 2 2 +2a/) + c 2 ). 244. 147 mi.l)(x8 + x2 . 15  a. 202. + y. 12. y. 142. 6. . 8 204. ? >2 ft ?) ft 242. 176.1). 164. 232. 226. 157. 231. 5. 239. 214. 149. 195. 151. (3x  . 168. 172. 18. 199. 20. (r7y)(ai. 23 18. 175. (a& 192.1(5) 200. 7. 10. (7x2//) 203.c) + or OB (2 + 4 y) Oe* + 2 s). 10). 182. (xyX^+y" )1 243. 3(x . Iff 145. ( + 2y)(2x3y). 169. (at (4 a +!)( + 3). 1.2ac + 229. 2. 2. 183.9)(xf 2). (32)(2a ftc v?y(x + 223. 24. 50. 218.. as 194. (y 7f))(y 196. 184. (y + 1) a(3 + 26)(3a2ft).r . 219. (y_24)(y5). 19. 12 6 panes. 2. 2 (4 x . 12) (j. 215. HI. C3 y _l)(. 170. 30.m)(x + a). 140. 159. 2^.3) (2/3y).1). 207. (6) 40. 30 yr. (x + l)(xl)(y + l)(yl). 238. 10). 222.. 12 yr. (x 227. 32 h. (ox + /)(5xy)(x+3 y)(x3 y). ft. G7. 30 + xyr. 155. 1. ry(x (a (y + + * 221. (5x + 2) (3 x yfory) +4). 6. 217. a 2 (15. 2a(42ft)(2fo). (ab + 8) ( 7). 21. (7 c 2 ).2. (2x3y) 3 xy(x. 37 1. (x  42 yr.
258. 306. (2 (x 4 (x 4 3) (x . 269.. 263. 250. (x 4 (x 4 1) 5) 275. > 4.4). a. 4 5. 0. 2 4 300. 0. x ?/ z 1.2* i^^ !^. &).^^^^^^^^. 261. 3).4) 1) (3 x . o. x . x12. 7^T 2 . (7 255. 251. 307. 4 II 4 )rt 5x42. 295. x 283. ^/>J. 301. Ca&c 1)(M 253. 259. 3). ^^A^ + w^ n(w4 n) a 309. 279. 4 11) (xJ^l^^J. \')(s x  5) (x 4 2)(x 4 .1. 310. 249. 2 x  3. (x44)(x3)(?/47)  Page 270. o(x4l). 264. a~ ' b*). x3y 4 1)( 4 2 252. 298. (a 4 A)(2 x 5.  7. 260. 2x(x)(x 4 3x44. 5.^ ^^. 7. 256. (^4) (x x'2 13) 5x46 . 3  262. 3. 266.(x  4) (x4 304. 2. 268. ^ 299.  3xyf x// 257.   . ? 1) 302. *>). 10. 303. 254. ?^ZLiZ 308. 43 '^rJ'. x 267. 7 x 265.AN 8l\' Eli S Page 268. 305. *. + f.
355. 401. 343 00 351. 386. ab.(5 a . 326. A^L5L.. 376. 375. 9^. _*L'L+. ^_:r f> 331. * 357. 406. a + b + 6). 4 A.. 325.  1. . 2(q. 392. + 335. 380. 4 rw. 5 ^^K^+M^ AC^Ln?). x 54 359. 3. a +6. c 402. 377. . 0. 7/i ^ _ . S. 370. 405. Page 274. 408. 20. 388. a) A^_. 379. . 366. 1.1 ')_ x'2 + 4x + 381. Page 277. 0. <L 409. f. 2 ?/ 363. 6 ?/+:>.3. ?>*. xa' 2 '2 7/ + 4 f Page 273. 0.vin a /r " 337. 2 ).7. 382. 394. 398. 2. T+^. 2 r36 384. ^"" 4 s . a 2 . 27 ^" li'oy 3 r J // J 341. 336. 12. ?/ + 3 332. 334. 2(a i 403. 11. 390. 389.H ' 2wi ^' /' . 393. 361. If. 4. 3. 397. ?=. T\. 387. 383. L . (a + b + c\ . . 13 391.)Cr4)__ . **" ~ 2 3 > + 8 x* f 2 y 4 1 ^ 350. m. 0. 7. 396. 2 327. 395.". . l'j. 333.!. 339.J . 407. y 4 I 340.XXXI Page 272. " 4 378. 1 i 2 ^.  1 356. 2. A^izA??r+J!j/?_ *x 330. 1. . j 328. 385.1. 2 ab  a Page 276. + 4 & 4 \ b. 399. ^ 3 // . 3. 1. 324. l . 4. 365. 400. 404. 360. 329. 1. 6a. 364. + x 362. 1.
7. c. . \ 1.7. ft 5.  1. 502. a + + ft c. 8.489. (c) not true. 20 yr.7. (a) 1. 430. . 50. . 6. & 491. 481. 14 miles. />c c(f be. 421. 477. I. 441.5. 84. 0. 444. : />a. 20. 410. . 6. 0. 5. 32. .2. 467.  2f 504. . 419. ^.  2. 506. . ^r?i 434.  10. 445. Page 281. 503. Page 282. 486. 495. 493. z8 +?/ 3 431. 483. + () 433. 436. i a b 451. '.. 500. 1.  f>. (d  6) f. 426. 466.. 22. <L+ 6 (. not true. 501. A $ 3500. $2000 at 0%. 17. + b ' + a __ b c ' 2 w f w 417. 10. 9. 455.} ' c^acjd} ^ fcfZ a/ ?>rf + 86 (.  . . 439. 2 a 2. . 42. 463. 6. 11. 10. .4.  2. 420. . 428. 478. 6. Page283. *+. 496. 472. 425. 461. 446. 1. (a  c).3. 2. 24 days.  7.m  m+ M in. 457.4. 63. 18. 10.}.7. 432. 427. m. 454. . 3. 450. 468. 460. 7. ISjmi. 7. 5. 482. 17. 479. 10$. \.rz Page 279. 3. 447. 2$. . .  2. 2 438.  453. . 440. a* 424. 411.  7. 0.12. 2. 10. m 1 : wi.3. B $ 2500. (&) 443. 462. 28 yr.0. 435. 10.7. 2. 5.XXX11 ANSWERS ab. L2 a  6 . 464. 2. !L=4. 53 yr. 494. * . 418. (&) true. 4. 7 : . 8. 4. L (c) I. 480. 6. 499. Page 278. 452. 413. 3.  1.7. 485. 1.1. 5. 40 oz. 490.te + . 0. a 22 . 465. Page 280. 33. ^V. B 4 mi. 412. 51.46.. 458. 1. 21. 7. 2. 0. .. 0. 1 a /?$+&?. fc. 476. 507. 6. 10. 6.. 3a 4 5. . 2. 2. 5. 8. 423. 498. 4.. ' $260 at 0%. 508. A 5 mi . 32 yr. b 449. 5.2. 487.vz in.  505. 442. 0. 6 f c a + ? & ~ a 0. 90. 2. 12. 2. 448. . i. 5J. 459.}.55. (d) true. 4. 8. c 6fc 10. ISJini. 40. 3 . 1.488. 429. fj. 456. 2. 1$. 10. 492. 7. 497.0. 422. . 484.
5. 6. .54. 2.xV f +6 a2 &2  4 6.15.21. _ 4.r8 596. 3. 3.4.55. 3 da.  2ft da.   (h) 8.  (a) 2. 1. 0000.83. . 1.5 f.  ft*. g(rc+ 6c). 551. 558. . f.7. <z ft 1. 574. . 4.ANSWERS Page 284. 599.1. f.52.25m. 4. 3.24. 577. 518. (/)  10 to 8.3.7. Roots imaginary. 1. 593. 2. 552. 1 . 1.73.7. tin. + 35 86 4 4 &8 3 + 589. 2 10. T .25.56 sec.5. a f ft + c. 1.88.4. 525.31. 581. l+4x+0x 2 +4x 8 f x4 4 4 594. . 578.02. 2(6 597.2 xt/ a4 + x3 4 6 x4 3 xG fx.6. 1. 567.20. 3. 2. 2. 603.0.6. 530.1. 583. 571. 2 1. 516.9. 4. Page 287. (c) 4. Page 285.6 2. .3. lead. .  4. 1. 0.  J(a f + 2c). 14. 7.1. 3. 1.2.. ft 584. 3. 5. 4* da. 6435. per hr. 4.12. H.24 sec.78. lead.  2 a*b + 3 a6 3 . 1. 2 .1. 510.37. 2. 2 a 8 x 8 + 6 ax&fy 2 x + 12 a 2xt2 b*y'2 + 2 6 4 ?/ 4 595.31. 3. S82 c. 1. 1 580.35.3. .75. 536. . 561.21 a2 + 3x + 3x2 rA 86 3 4 ft + 35 4 + 21 2&6 fts + 7 7 rt?> 6 a^ _ 8 +^ 57. 3. (ft) 4. (6) .  1. .8 x3^.4. .  557. 1$.6. 563. 1 600.0. y 4.00. 40 Ib.62. . .xj/ f xV . 3. 564. ^ ft 4. .37.16. 1.  3. . 598. .38. 4. 582. 7^ da. 555. 529. 1. . 3.03. (d) 537. 4 0. 1 1  2 x 7 2 f 3 2 x' 2 + x8 f x4 .3.4.8. (gr) 10 1. 3f 4f. 1. 527. If 572. 2. (c) 3.8. 562.1.33. 4. 232.02. 31. a 7 687i 588i tt e a _ _3 7 ir 7 rt e & + 2 1 a 5 ft 2  rt 4^2 + i 3 ^254 590. 8. 575.53. 2 1.10.3.5. 515. 573.1. 531.10. 1. or 8. . 576. . M ft c 2 ft 3465. .15. (e) 570. _ 3. 2(4 602.02. . 565. (ft) Ill Ib. 27 y* f\4 .  + + c.3. 568. 2 imag. 8 a6 42x + 8x2 + 2x 8 4x4 601. imag. 21*_. 528.  2. f36a28x8 592. i _ 4 sc2 + 6 + 10a:8 + a6) . ._ ft 523 a 2 ftc 2 524. 2. Page 288.05. + 26x2 + 10 x4 ). x8 .5. 2 2. 509. 553. 1. 4.. 1J. 6. 569. 1. 8 +3 x f 6 x2 2 a4 & 604. 514. + 12 x . o> .4 x + . . xxxin 511. tin. 566..5. 8 mi. .02. 550. 3. 532. f ? a f ft __ + c C). 24. 3.14. 5. (6) 3.5.5+. + 6 tf f 3 . 526.0. 559.8. 4 mi.  imag.83.4.  .24. 513. da. 3.f 1.03.04. 4. 554. 591. + 26 + . 1. 2. . > ^ . 560.8.4. 579.75. (e) (c) 2. 1.  (a) (d) 1.62. 1..% rr\* 585. 115 Ib. . 533. 3 . 1 . per hour. a + ft  a  f c. y% Z * 586.  7. a*8a + 24tf 82a. 24 da. 5..3. 1.30. 4 8 x2 ?/4 605.54. 3. (i) 3. J7] min.51. _^ 2754x . 1.0.15. 2$.6. 556. 2 .78.04. a+ Page 286. 4. 1. 512. (a) 74 Ib.3. . . 2.
8 6 fo .3f l 668. 0. 8. 2f. (*_ + a: 611. V2. 678< 682. 615.  6. 0. 638.001. a. 2f. .c ) 697.>A 610. 3 x2 . c. 632. 4 676. If. 2092. + 2 A (i f Page 291. 7003. 705. 613. 1. 3. . V^~3). 2 / 2 4.  1. 1 ~a . If f 667. 669. J^^. . a 2. 2 a: 4.  2f r 659. 631.. 2. If .  684.002.  a2  a (ab). 657. 3 a. 25.7/ ~ +w ( 7>) ^~ V3 ^' 3. 0. 4. 626. 0.3. . 3.303. 2.  3. 614. 666. . ^ 1. 2.25. (a3&45rj. . 677 680.203. 648. 1 ^  7Q7> b j(_ (_ x/^15). 11. 679. 1 2. 11.0. 971. 655. 654.702. 7. 633. a ' 2 + . 629. 617.. 649.43^4. /> 4. 5. 696. 4. 708. 703. x3 4 3 x x ' 4 X* 609. if 4/> 671. 607. 1. 622. 636. 661. 660. 651. b . 14. af6fc __ __ ( a 4. 623. 621. b.b 686. 662. ab 689. 640. \+ab 699. 647. 2. 4$. 698. b 664. 009. ix 2 . 2 ab + a  &.XX XIV 606. la6 2. 2&). V7. 2 a  6*. . n^l +^.  ft. 50. 5.  13. 646. ANSWERS ( 3 x 2 S 2 . i. 898. . l/'3. 1. 701. 691. o. 2 x 44 ^/. 4.a~ {Z 663. 1. 625. 10. 692. ^^ 695. a 4. . 650.  4. 628. \. 3 681. 2 + 36 )K3 + ( 687. 2. 5.2f (5 4.  4. 637. 703. ^. V"^TJ. 652. 643. ^ _ \/3 +^~< 2 a a +^ 694. ' fe 2 ).3. 690. 634. 1010. . 608. 672. If 658. 78. 616. z  1. K 5 2 V2. be ac \. 700. 2. 1$ 639. 627. 635. 1m*.3. I}'/.  .04. 2 a 688. 5. 620. 4330 da.b. 5 3. 1 704.049. ^. 5002. fe + a. ft). 3. 670. . 9*. 683. ab. 702. 645. 9. 612. 6.3.y. 656. 630. 4. 653. fta a/> ^A. 2. 6. 2. 642. 210. 618. 641. 1 V5 1. / V^+lO^M"^. a 1J. 0. 6 685. Page 289.001. 2. . 624. 12. y  619. If 665.2f Page 290. ' 674.f 3 V^3). a 673.14 If 1. 13. . 4 V 0. 25. 8 f 3. a + b. 7. V2. 706. + ~^'2 + a 1. . 644. 0. If b. <T! .
^ ?>. 3 720. 1^ _ 760. 30\/10 764.1 .12 af V^ 4 744. 39. rt3 2 ^i^. 723. mn. . Page 293. a db Va^T < 45da.^. cr*lr*. VIO\/3. i^. + < 735. 750. 2\/53V2. 1. 1 I . 721.V2. "V313. 714. VT14V5. 769. 792.. 737.9. 776.9. 751.r. 3^. a 5 .^ 743. a 2  x2 . 5. 753. a". 24 4 . 7  3V5. 29\/3. 728. 718. 3V52V3. 736. 5. 715. 767.ANSWMHti Page 292. 3 VlT 795. 732. 729. 758. ^ . T%. 00. 300. 1 747. 722. 746. 15 shares. 719. 1 752. 3V72V3. 32>/2. y  1. 1.. 731. iv/Jj. 1 [ + '> J. 712.V/^ 741. 739. 3V72VO. 25.10. 3V7. 790 2v 3v 2. 755. v'll.2. *+V( x 2 "r 2 )' ^ 786. j 742. 4 104 v/2. 2 V2 . 734. 727. 756. 709. 711..1 />f f + lr'~ + _L a 4 6. fyaw&cu. x\y. 788. ^ Ti i a*tj~ 4. 3.8. 725. 24. 716. Page 294. 342V3. ^^ f ^3 _ r} t 2 i3x 4 rt + + 2u: 8'o'a +a2 3 .257. .~ . 4 x' 5 x 4 3 x~* ( 2 ar 1. . 777. i 2. 59. 717. 710.2 4 w" + 4 d" + Hid. 17ft. 33^2. J(v'lO2V 791.4 . 796. 782 785. 738. 8. ^7xy. 778. 740. 749. 793. 789. 1. 763. v/7 / . . a 2 6^. r. Hi a. 2x3^ a. 794. 713. 726.rJ w L 754. 768. + 6 2 tf'c. 8. a:* . 13ft. 733.11. 724. 47. 730. 34. .4 . 24V2.. 773. x i f^' .r+y> 759. VV> L4V34. / 787. > 748. a + 6 +cx* 2 (t' 3 1 a*&M.
7). 8. **. 6. 849.+ m f ") (a* ).1)(V 2 .l)(x . . 819. (3 862. b' 2 821. Page 296. 2 . .7)(4 x.1) (a 8 .4.1) . a^*4l)(aa 4 + l).5) (x + * 853. _ 3 ^ 860 r + 3) . (x 2 . $. 3. 11. 19. 2. jV3 f 3. x. 7. Hoots . 888.4) 860. 899. . (4 c 4. 886.XXXVI 797.l)(x + 2). 857.  1. f. x . 896. 883. ( 4 4. (1 . 2. 867. 2 *x 807. m = 2.1. 16xyV2*/^~x2 .a 2 2 ). 1. (:r 11. 824. 847. $. 812. 1. ^VG.10 ab 4. (2x3?/^)(4x2 4Ox^ + 9//%2). 884. a(ft)( 873. 2. o. 1 . 5. 1 1. 838. 10.4.7. are extraneous. +j!>. . 1. 822. 831. 2.r?/ 50(i ( 2)(5 04. 3. 887. ^. (x 2 f r . . 848. 0. 8(?/ + 2x2 ?/ ~ x 4 ). (x*y*ryz + z*). (a 1) (x 4. 2. 895. 810.4)(1 f 4 a 4 10a 2 ). 801. 3. 4 .y) 852. 868. 841.r4). 2 2 . 7.a 3 " 4. 2. 2 (x 4*4. (. 2 . o 828. 825. 890.3. . 842. (xl)(^~3)(.0. 898. 4. (2 x + 3 y} . 892. 1C. 2 j 889. 836.a 2m W" 4 ^ m f & 2m 870. 3. 834.1). 843.f. 827. H. 6. \/5. X4 1). 832.25 ?>2). 20). 808. 897. (a m .a 4 + 1).  839. (x . 2. '0 3 2 an 4 3(> n 6 ). 4 885. 811. 2 .3)(x + 4). 5). 816. 840. 4. 14. + d)*.l)(x + 3)(2x43). 894. 872. ) (a' 874.  + l(l^)./>") (a'. 3. 4.7). 11. 4 1)(4 x jc jr ::} ?> ?> . 3. a 42)(x .rae) (4 . \/2. 829. (x . 4.. 5. m 875. 820. Hoots are extraneous. 817. . (am l)(a m + 1) 4m . 5.7 4 1) 846. db 7. n =  29.  tt 815. 879. ^ V}. Va 803.. V 3. 830. 2. 2/ 856. 6 4 V&  e " X/^^+A^ + 2 *a o l V 2 802. 881. 17. 4 818.2) (x 4 2). 6+V7.2w . . (x + 0X024. 3. Page 297. (3 b .. a2 ^E*!. 3. (2 a . 2 + 2)^ 3 + (a 4 5 f 8). 23. 880. 0. 876. 837.3. 835. 799.om 441) (a 855.2 ax 4. f 3 866> (9 + 8 ) 81 ^3 _ 72 xy 4 04 ^). 891. 7. 17. 2. %7 ?/ ( 2 >wt 2wt ft ft 4 rc f 1 '* Page 298. 3 . 833. 8. ANSWERS 798. 4. 851. Va. 859. a* 4. 800.  ' . 4. (a + 2 ?>c)(a 2 2fl?>44 ?/V ). 4. 2 m . 6(a6)(o a + + &). 1. 8 09. 863. 2  2. 0.r . 882. 813. 4. (x 845. 25. . 861. 900. (2x (r. 826. 3. 4. 844. ( 869. . 814. 0. 3.l)(x . 4.5 b) 4 1).1)(0 865. a(ry + 864. (a 4 871. 1. ((' 1). 6. 2 806. 48. . (2 4. J V. 13. . . 2 854. (x 4. 858. (x + y) (x f y) (x + y) (x .6 xy + 9 )(4 x 2 (9x 4l2x + 10). 5. Va + 6 + Vtt"fc. 893. 2. 7. (x42?/)(x2y)(4x . 4. (  ?>) (a + ^> . 5. (x3). 823. 6 $. 804.
948. 978. 1 XXXVll ' a 1. S07. . v/(ai !)(&910. 1 + V953.. 115. 903. 942. 3 4 . 937. 918. 2 yd. i1" 913. 3. r ft ' < Page 299. 248./hr. 3 .. 984. . Va926. 56. 6 . 496. 936. ft. 941.1. 15 946. 925. 6. 11. 4. 28.01. 11. 14 . 2. 73. 959. 943. 333. V^3).. 0. 1. 4. 981. 935. 40 16 in. 983.  1 . 2. 4. 912. 60 949. 2 ft. 11. 8. I) v/Ca^T)^ 2 5. 962.. 5l4f. 909. 980. 5. 1 . . 933. 4. Page 303. 5 . 938. 4. 922. 4. 12. 28. f. . 6 a 915. V5 fj... J. ?/i 6. yd. 950. 979. 2. 6. . V5 T 2 . 18. 7. 28.744.ANSWERS oJV 41 6 901. 8128. 3). . 1. 6. tt2 19.V~~3). 8. 5. 932. 3. 930. 911.446. 1 _2 . 10. ft. ft. 954. 15 16 ft.. 2 w 914. 7. 905. T 6. 940. 4. 66 924. . 5. 923. 12 in. 917. 333. 939. 11. 280. . 945. 12. 3. Page 301.760 sq. 951. 987. 20 19 ft. 921. . 985. 7 or 30. 960. 977. 8. 934. %* . ft. . ft. J(_ ft. 7 ft. .. 3. 10. i 3. w 3. . 6.709. 8.651. 916.. Z ^. 5. . 2. Y. 4.. 958. 957.  1. 100 rows. 2. 0. 1. . ..0. =F J. 8.I. 8. T3. 6 1 1. 111. . 80. 2. 480 8 sq. a. 8. .. i 8.. a + . 2 i ' a V. 2. ^y. 908.1. 329. 947. i>.' ifcVira^ 2 3. 12 mi. 6. 6 a + 3 2 ft ' 4 3 & 928. 2.615.1 = 9. . 8 . 6. 8.. Page 300. J. . 982. ft. 2..111. 1 2. 961.2. 0. 964. 904. 944.2.073. 1 1. 920. f ft 4 . 956. 6 da. $(l 4. 7. 3. 4 . 986. dL 4. 902. i(6 in. 1). 6. 955. 7. 952. Page 302. 0. 931. T 6. '3 3 in. 927. 4 6 mi. 4 in. 3. 3. 2.  26j. w. 108. 963. 4. 4. . ft. ft. 5. 2 1. 9 in. 919. 12. 906.
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ELEMENTARY ALGEBRA By ARTHUR SCHULTZE. which have been omitted from the body of the work Indeterminate Equahave been relegated to the Appendix. HEW TOSS . book is a thoroughly practical and comprehensive textbook. The introsimpler and more natural than the methods given In Factoring. so that the Logarithms.10 The treatment of elementary algebra here is simple and practical. Half leather. but these few are treated so thoroughly and are illustrated by so many varied examples that the student will be much better prepared for further The Exercises are superficial study of a great many cases. 6466 FIFTH AVBNTC. etc. Ph. especially duction into Problem Work is very much Problems and Factoring. not The Advanced Algebra is an amplification of the Elementary. great many work. but the work in the latter subject has been so arranged that teachers who wish a shorter course may omit it ADVANCED ALGEBRA By ARTHUR SCHULTZE. To meet the requirements of the College Entrance Examination Board. THE MACMILLAN COMPANY PUBLISHERS.D. comparatively few methods are heretofore.25 lamo. very numerous and well graded there is a sufficient number of easy examples of each kind to enable the weakest students to do some work. Particular care has been bestowed upon those chapters which in the customary courses offer the greatest difficulties to the beginner. A examples are taken from geometry. and commercial life. without the sacrifice of scientific accuracy and thoroughness. given. $1. i2mo. and the Summation of Series is here presented in a novel form. save Inequalities. which has been retained to serve as a basis for higher work. Half leather. xiv+563 pages. xi 4 373 pages. physics. than by the . but none of the introduced illustrations is so complex as to require the expenditure of time for the teaching of physics or geometry. The more important subjects tions. The author has emphasized Graphical Methods more than is usual in textbooks of this grade. proportions and graphical methods are introduced into the first year's course. All subjects now required for admission by the College Entrance Examination Board have been omitted from the present volume. $1.
physics. 12010. $1. HatF leather. but the work in the latter subject has been so arranged that teachers who wish a shorter course may omit it ADVANCED ALGEBRA By ARTHUR SCHULTZE. has emphasized Graphical Methods more than is usual in textbooks of this and the Summation of Series is here presented in a novel form. In Factoring. and commercial life. so that the tions. xiv+56a pages. All subjects now required for admission by the College Entrance Examination Board have been omitted from the present volume. bestowed upon those chapters which in the customary courses offer the greatest difficulties to the beginner. To meet the requirements of the College Entrance Examination Board. 6466 7HTH AVENUE. but these few are treated so thoroughly and are illustrated by so many varied examples that the student will be much better prepared for further work. comparatively few methods are given. book is a thoroughly practical and comprehensive textbook. The more important subjects which have been omitted from the body of the work Indeterminate Equahave been relegated to the Appendix. especially duction into Problem Work is very much Problems and Factoring.10 The treatment of elementary algebra here is simple and practical. xi f 373 pages. The author grade. The Exercises are very numerous and well graded. THE MACMILLAN COMPANY PUBLISHBSS. The introsimpler and more natural than the methods given heretofore. there is a sufficient number of easy examples of each kind to enable the weakest students to do some work. Half leather. HEW YOKE . proportions and graphical methods are introduced into the first year's course. save Inequalities. etc.D. but none of the introduced illustrations is so complex as to require the expenditure of time for the teaching of physics or geometry.25 i2mo. great many A examples are taken from geometry.ELEMENTARY ALGEBRA By ARTHUR Sen ULTZE. not The Advanced Algebra is an amplification of the Elementary. Ph. than by the superficial study of a great many cases. $1. without Particular care has been the sacrifice of scientific accuracy and thoroughness. which has been retained to serve as a basis for higher work. Logarithms.
80 cents This Geometry introduces the student systematically to the solution of geometrical exercises. The Analysis of Problems and of Theorems is more concrete and practical than in any other distinct pedagogical value. Attention is invited to the following important features I.r and. By ARTHUR SCHULTZE and 370 pages. xii + 233 pages. under the heading Remarks". The numerous and wellgraded Exercises the complete book. Half leather.D. $1. 4. NEW YORK . PLANE AND SOLID GEOMETRY F. at the It same provides a course which stimulates him to do original time. SEVENOAK. Pains have been taken to give Excellent Figures throughout the book. wor.10 By ARTHUR This key will be helpful to teachers who cannot give sufficient time to the Most solutions are merely outsolution of the exercises in the textbook. 6466 FIFTH AVENUE. . izmo. Difficult Propare made somewhat? easier by applying simple Notation . xttt PLANE GEOMETRY Separate. Preliminary Propositions are presented in a simple manner . iamo. 10. The Schultze and Sevenoak Geometry is in use in a large number of the leading schools of the country. State: . lines. $1. of Propositions has a Propositions easily understood are given first and more difficult ones follow . aoo pages.10 L. These are introduced from the beginning 3. Cloth. Cloth.. and no attempt has been made to present these solutions in such form that they can be used as models for classroom work. KEY TO THE EXERCISES in Schultze and Sevenoak's Plane and Solid Geometry. 9. 6. Ph. SCHULTZE. Many proofs are presented in a simpler and manner than in most textbooks in Geometry 8. THE MACMILLAN COMPANY PUBLISHERS. ments from which General Principles may be obtained are inserted in the " Exercises. textbook in Geometry more direct ositions 7. guides him in putting forth his efforts to the best advantage. Algebraic Solution of Geometrical Exercises is treated in the Appendix to the Plane Geometry . i2mo. Proofs that are special cases of general principles obtained from the Exercises are not given in detail. Hints as to the manner of completing the work are inserted The Order 5. more than 1200 in number in 2. 7 he .
. . . and not from the information that it imparts. " is to contribute towards book/ he says in the preface. . . Students to still learn demon strations instead of learning how demonstrate. 370 pages. enable him to " The chief object of the speak with unusual authority. a great deal of mathematical spite teaching is still informational. New York City." The treatment treated are : is concrete and practical. Typical topics the value and the aims of mathematical teach ing . $1. . Most teachers admit that mathematical instruction derives its importance from the mental training that it But in affords. New York DALLAS CHICAGO BOSTON SAN FRANCISCO ATLANTA . methods of teaching mathematics the first propositions in geometry the original exercise parallel lines methods of the circle attacking problems impossible constructions applied problems typical parts of algebra. of these theoretical views. THE MACMILLAN COMPANY 6466 Fifth Avenue. . causes of the inefficiency of mathematical teaching.The Teaching of Mathematics in Secondary Schools ARTHUR SCHULTZE Formerly Head of the Department of Mathematics in the High School Commerce.25 The author's long and successful experience as a teacher of mathematics in secondary schools and his careful study of the subject from the pedagogical point of view. . making mathematical teaching less informational and more disciplinary. 12mo. and Assistant Professor of Mathematics in New York University of Cloth.
which put the main stress upon national development rather than upon military campaigns. but in being fully illustrated with many excellent maps. $1. New York SAN FRANCISCO BOSTON CHICAGO ATLANTA . which have been selected with great care and can be found in the average high school library. Cloth. The book deserves the attention of history teachers/' Journal of Pedagogy.AMERICAN HISTORY For Use fa Secondary Schools By ROSCOE LEWIS ASHLEY Illustrated. is an excellent example of the newer type of school histories. photographs. supply the student with plenty of historical narrative on which to base the general statements and other classifications made in the text. diagrams. i2mo. This book is uptodate not only in its matter and method. An exhaustive system of marginal references. and a full index are provided. " This volume etc. All smaller movements and single events are clearly grouped under these general movements. Studies and Questions at the end of each chapter take the place of the individual teacher's lesson plans. diagrams. THE MACMILLAN COMPANY 6466 Fifth Avenue. The author's aim is to keep constantly before the This book pupil's mind the general movements in American history and their relative value in the development of our nation. Topics.40 is distinguished from a large number of American textbooks in that its main theme is the development of history the nation. Maps.