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ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
LONDON LIMITKU HOMBAY CALCUTTA MELUCK'KNK THE MACMILLAN CO.AS  BOSTON CHICAGO SAN FRANCISCO MACMILLAN & CO. LTD. . OF TORONTO CANADA.THE MACM1LLAN COMPANY NKVV YORK PAII.
PH. HIH SCHOOL OF COMMERCE.ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA BY ARTHUR SCJBULIi/TZE.D. NEW 1 ORK CUT THE MACMILLAN COMPANY 1917 All rights reserved . FORMERLY ASSISTANT PROFESSOR OF MATHEMATICS. NKW YORK ITNIVEKSITT HEAD OF THK MATHEMATICAL DKI'A KTM EN T.
1910. August. Reprinted 1913. 1915. 1910. BY THE MACMILLAN COMPANY. January. July. . Mass.S. . 1910 . May. Cushlng Co. Published Set up and electrotyped. Norwood.A. 8. May. 1911. September. September.. . 1917.COPYRIGHT. 1916. IQJS January. Berwick & Smith Co. U. J.' February.
Typical in this respect is the treatment of factoring in many textbooks In this book all methods which are of and which are applied in advanced work are given.PREFACE IN this book the attempt while still is made to shorten the usual course in algebra. are omitted. and ingenuity while the cultivation of the student's reasoning power is neglected." this book.. in order to make every example a social case of a memorized method. Such a large number of methods. owing has certain distinctive features. All parts of the theory whicJi are beyond the comprehension of the student or wliicli are logically unsound are omitted. All unnecessary methods and "cases" are omitted. giving to the student complete familiarity with all the essentials of the subject. and conse . manufactured for this purpose. chief : among These which are the following 1. but "cases" that are taught only on account of tradition. Until recently the tendency was to multiply as far as possible. not only taxes a student's memory unduly but in variably leads to mechanical modes of study. All practical teachers know how few students understand and appreciate the more difficult parts of the theory. however. etc. The entire study of algebra becomes a mechanical application of memorized rules. " While in many respects similar to the author's to its peculiar aim. Elementary Algebra. specially 2. shortcuts that solve only examples real value. omissions serve not only practical but distinctly pedagogic " cases " ends.
Topics of practical importance. and it is hoped that this treatment will materially diminish the difficulty of this topic for young students. Moreover. in particular the requirements of the College Entrance Examination Board. as quadratic equations and graphs. For the more ambitious student. all elementary proofs theorem for fractional exponents. The presenwill be found to be tation of problems as given in Chapter V quite a departure from the customary way of treating the subject. the following may be quoted from the author's "Elementary Algebra": which "Particular care has been bestowed upon those chapters in the customary courses offer the greatest difficulties to the beginner. however. all proofs for the sign age of the product of of the binomial 3. may be used to supplement the other. TJie exercises are slightly simpler than in the larger look. This made it necessary to introduce the theory of proportions . The best way to introduce a beginner to a new topic is to offer Lim a large number of simple exercises. hence either book 4.vi PREFACE quently hardly ever emphasize the theoretical aspect of alge bra. differ With very few from those exceptions all the exer cises in this book in the "Elementary Alge bra". two negative numbers. " The book is designed to meet the requirements for admis sion to our best universities and colleges. are placed early in the course. there has been placed at the end of the book a collection of exercises which contains an abundance of more difficult work. In regard to some other features of the book. a great deal of the theory offered in the avertextbook is logically unsound . enable students who can devote only a minimum This arrangement will of time to algebra to study those subjects which are of such importance for further work. etc. especially problems and factoring.g. e.
The entire work in graphical methods has been so arranged that teachers who wish a shorter course may omit these chapters. are frequently arranged in sets that are algebraically uniform. an innovation which seems to mark a distinct gain from the pedagogical point of view. and they usually involve difficult numerical calculations. based upon statistical abstracts. and of the hoped that some modes of representation given will be considered im provements upon the prevailing methods. But on the other hand very few of such applied examples are genuine applications of algebra. but the true study of algebra has not been sacrificed in order to make an impressive display of sham life applications. is based principally upon the alge . and hence the student is more easily led to do the work by rote than when the arrangement braic aspect of the problem. in " geometry . while in the usual course proportions are studied a long time after their principal application. viz.PREFACE vii and graphical methods into the first year's work. such examples. McKinley than one that gives him the number of Henry's marbles. and commercial are numerous. elementary way. Moreover." Applications taken from geometry. to solve a It is undoubtedly more interesting for a student problem that results in the height of Mt.' This topic has been preit is sented in a simple. of the Mississippi or the height of Mt. " Graphical methods have not only a great practical value. physics. nobody would find the length Etna by such a method. but they unquestionably furnish a very good antidote against 'the tendency of school algebra to degenerate into a mechanical application of memorized rules. By studying proportions during the first year's work. the student will be able to utilize this knowledge where it is most needed.
1910. is such problems involves as a rule the teaching of physics by the teacher of algebra. William P. edge of physics. NEW YORK. genuine applications of elementary algebra work seems to have certain limi but within these limits the author has attempted to give as many The author for simple applied examples as possible. April. pupil's knowlso small that an extensive use of The average Hence the field of suitable for secondary school tations. . ARTHUR SCHULTZE. Manguse for the careful reading of the proofs and many valuable suggestions. however.viii PREFACE problems relating to physics often offer It is true that a field for genuine applications of algebra. desires to acknowledge his indebtedness to Mr.
34 35 36 Multiplication of Polynomials Special Cases in Multiplication 39 CHAPTER IV DIVISION Division of Monomials 46 46 47 Division of a Polynomial by a Monomial Division of a Polynomial by a Polynomial Special Cases in Division ix 48 61 ... II 6 7 10 CHAPTER Addition of Monomials Addition of Polynomials Subtraction ADDITION.. AND PARENTHESES 15 15 10 .. Powers...... and Hoots Algebraic Expressions and Numerical Substitutions ... .. SUBTRACTION. Numbers Monomial Monomials 31 31 Multiplication of a Polynomial by a . III 22 27 Signs of Aggregation Exercises in Algebraic Expression 29 CHAPTER MULTIPLICATION Multiplication of Algebraic Multiplication of ..CONTENTS CHAPTER INTRODUCTION Algebraic Solution of Problems Negative Numbers I PAGB 1 1 3 Numbers represented by Letters Factors. ...........
Type V... HIGHEST COMMON FACTOR AND LOWEST COMMON MULTIPLE 89 89 91 CHAPTER VIII 93 93 97 FRACTIONS Reduction of Fractions Addition and Subtraction of Fractions Multiplication of Fractions Division of Fractions 102 104 * .63 55 67 to Simple Equations 63 CHAPTER VI FACTORING 76 I. Type VI.. Type IV. Form x'2 f px f q Form px 2 f qx + r f ... Type III. . /^ ..... All of whose Terms contain a mon Factor Com77 .. ..X CONTENTS CHAPTER V PAGE LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS Solution of Linear Equations Symbolical Expressions Problems leading . The Square of a Binomial x 2 Ixy The Difference of Two Squares Grouping Terms of Factoring . * . Complex Fractions 105 CHAPTER IX FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS Fractional Equations Literal Equations . . Type II. 80 83 84 86 87 Summary CHAPTER Common Factor Lowest Common Multiple Highest VII . Type Polynomials. .. Quadratic Trinomials of the Quadratic Trinomials of the 78 ..114 .. 108 108 112 Problems leading to Fractional and Literal Equations .
171 CHAPTER XV QUADRATIC EQUATIONS INVOLVING ONB UNKNOWN QUANTITY Pure Quadratic Equations Complete Quadratic Equations Problems involving Quadratics Equations in the Quadratic Character of the Roots ...... 140 143 CHAPTER XII GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS AND EQUATIONS Representation of Functions of One Variable ..CONTENTS XI RATIO AND PROPORTION Ratio . Two Unknown 129 130 133 138 Quantities Problems leading to Simultaneous Equations ... Evolution of Polynomials and Arithmetical Numbers ... 148 164 Graphic Solution of Equations involving One Unknown Quantity Graphic Solution of Equations involving Two Unknown Quantities 168 160 CHAPTER INVOLUTION Involution of Monomials XIII 165 165 166 Involution of Binomials EVOLUTION ..... . CHAPTER XI CHAPTER X PAGE 120 120 121 Proportion SIMULTANEOUS EQUATIONS OF THE FIRST DEGREE Elimination by Addition or Subtraction Elimination by Substitution Literal Simultaneous Equations Simultaneous Equations involving More than .... 1*78 178 181 189 191 Form 193 . CHAPTER XIV 169 . ... Evolution of Monomials 170 .
xii
CONTENTS
CHAPTER XVI
PAGK 195
THE THEORT OP EXPONENTS
Fractional and Negative Exponents Use of Negative and Fractional Exponents
....
195
200
CHAPTER XVII
RADICALS
Transformation of Radicals Addition and Subtraction of Radicals
Multiplication of Radicals Division of Radicals
205
206 210
.212
Involution and Evolution of Radicals
.....
214
218
Square Roots of Quadratic Surds Radical Equations
219
221
CHAPTER
THE FACTOR THEOREM
XVIII
227
CHAPTER XIX
SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS
I.
......
.
.
.
.
232
232
II.
Equations solved by finding x +/ and x / One Equation Linear, the Other Quadratic
.
.
234
III.
Homogeneous Equations
Special Devices
236
237
IV.
Interpretation of Negative Results
and the Forms
i
,
.
.
241
Problems
243
CHAPTER XX
PROGRESSIONS
Arithmetic Progression Geometric Progression
Infinite
.
246
24(j
251
Geometric Progression
263
CHAPTER XXI
BINOMIAL THEOREM
.
.
.
.
.
.
..
.
.
255
BEVIEW EXERCISE
.
268
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
CHAPTER
I
INTRODUCTION
1.
Algebra
it
may
arithmetic,
treats of
be called an extension of arithmetic. Like numbers, but these numbers are freletters,
quently denoted by problem.
as illustrated in
the following
ALGEBRAIC SOLUTION OF PROBLEMS
2.
Problem.
'
The sum
x
is five
times the smaller.
Let
two numbers is 42, and the greater Find the numbers. the smaller number.
of
Then
and
Therefore,
5 x = the greater number, 6x the sum of the two numbers. 6x
= 42,
and
3.
x = 7, the smaller number, 5 x = 35, the greater number.
A problem
An
is
a question proposed for solution.
4.
equation is a statement expressing the equality of
two
quantities; as,
5.
6 a?
= 42.
In algebra, problems are frequently solved by denoting numbers by letters and by expressing the problem in the form of an equation.
6.
Unknown numbers
;
are usually represented
as, x, y,
z,
by the
last
letters of the alphabet
but sometimes other letters
are employed. B
1
2
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
EXERCISE
The sum
1
Solve algebraically the following problems
1.
:
of two
times the smaller.
2.
numbers is 40, and the greater Find the numbers.
is
four
twice as
and a carriage for $ 480, receiving for the horse as for the carriage. much did he receive for the carriage ?
sold a horse
A man
A
much
How
3.
and
B own
a house worth $ 14,100, and
capital as B.
A
has
in
vested twice as
invested ?
4.
much
How much
is
has each
The population
of
South America
9 times that of
Australia, and both continents together have 50,000,000 inFind the population of each. habitants.
and fall of the tides in Seattle is twice that in and their sum is 18 feet. Find the rise and fall Philadelphia,
5.
The
rise
of the tides in Philadelphia.
6.
6 times as
7.
Divide $ 240 among A, B, and C so that A may receive much as C. and B 8 times as much as C.
A pole 56 feet high was broken so that the part broken was 6 times the length of the part left standing. .Find the length of the two parts.
off
8.
The sum
If
two
of the sides of a triangle equals 40 inches. sides of the triangle are equal, and each is twice the A remaining side, how long is each side ?
A
9.
The sum
triangle is are equal,
of the three angles of any 180. If 2 angles of a triangle and the remaining angle is 4
times their sum,
there in each ?
how many
degrees are
is
G 10. The number of negroes in Africa 10 times the number of Indians in America, and the sum of both is 165,000,000. How many are there of each ?
B
INTRODUCTION
11.
3
twice as
12.
Divide $280 among A, B, and C, so that much as A, and C twice as much as B.
B may
receive
twice as
13.
Divide $90 among A, B, and C, so that B may receive much as A, and C as much as A and B together.
A
is
which
14.
line 20 inches long is divided into two parts, one of long are the parts ? equal to 5 times the other.
How
travels twice as fast as B, and the tances traveled by the two is 57 miles.
A
sum
of the dis
How many
miles did
each travel ?
15.
4
A, B, C, and
does
A
take, if
B
D buy $ 2100 worth of goods. How much buys twice as much as A, C three times as
much
much
as B,
and
D
six times as
NEGATIVE NUMBE
EXERCISE
1.
2
Subtract 9 from 16.
2.
3.
Can 9 be subtracted from 7 ?
In arithmetic
why
cannot 9 be subtracted from 7 ?
"*
\
4.
The temperature
is
What
5.
noon is 16 ami at 4 P.M. it is 9 the temperature at 4 P.M.? State this as an
at
at
of subtraction.
The temperature
4 P.M.
is
7, and
at 10 P.M.
it is
10
less.
6.
What is the temperature at 10 P.M. ? Do you know of any other way of
below zero) ? What then is 7 10?
(3
expressing the last
answer
7.
8.
Can you think
of
any other
practical examples
which
require the subtraction of a greater
number from a smaller
one?
7.
Many
greater
number from a smaller
practical examples require the subtraction of a one, and in order to express in
a convenient form the results of these, and similar examples,
4
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
it becomes necessary to enlarge our concept of number, so as to include numbers less than zero.
8. Negative numbers are numbers smaller than zero; they are denoted by a prefixed minus sign as 5 (read " minus 5 "). Numbers greater than zero, for the sake of distinction, are fre;
quently called positive numbers, and are written either with a prefixed plus sign, or without any prefixed sign as f 5 or 5.
;
The
fact that a
thermometer falling 10 from 7 indicates 3
be expressed 7 10
below zero
may now
= 3.
is
loss of $ 60,
Instead of saying a gain of $ 30, and a loss of $ 90 we may write
equal to a
$30
9.
$90 = $60.
number
is
The
absolute value of a
the number taken
without regard to its sign. 5 is The absolute value of
10.
6,
of f 3 is 3.
It is convenient for
many
discussions to represent the
positive
a line
numbers by a succession of equal distances laid off on from a point 0, and the negative numbers by a similar
series in the opposite direction.
,
I
I
lit
4
to
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
6
5
3
2
1
+\
4,
+2
+
3
+4
45
+6
y
Thus, in the annexed diagram, the line from
the line from
4 represents
etc.
to 4 6 represents 4 5,
resented by a motion of "three tion of 8 by a similar motion toward the
The addition of 3 is repspaces toward the right, and the subtracleft.
Thus, 5 added to
1
equals 4, 5 subtracted from
1 equals
6, etc.
EXERCISE
1.
3
If in financial transactions
we
indicate a man's income
by
a positive sign, what does a negative sign indicate ?
2. State in what manner the positive and negative signs may be used to indicate north and south latitude, east and west
longitude, motion upstream
and downstream.
INTRODUCTION
3.
5
If north latitude
is
indicated by a positive sign, by what
is
south latitude represented ?
4.
If south latitude
is
indicated by a positive sign, by what
?
is
north latitude represented
5.
the meaning of the year 6 yards per second ? erly motion of
is 6.
What
20 A.D. ?
Of an
east
A
his total gain or loss ?
7.
merchant gains $ 200, and loses $ 350.  350. (b) Find 200
(a)
What
is
higher, is 8
 +7? 8. A vessel
(6)
If the temperature at 4 A.M. is 8 and at 9 A.M. it is 7 what is the temperature at 9 A.M. ? What, therefore,
starts
sails
38 due south,
(a)
from a point in 25 north latitude, and Find the latitude at the end of the
journey.
9.
Find 25 38.
A
22
sails
vessel starts from a point in 15 south latitude, and due south, (a) Find the latitude at the end of the
(b)
journey,
10.
Subtract 22 from
15.
18.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
From 30 subtract 40. From 4 subtract 7. From 7 subtract 9. From 19 subtract 34. From subtract 14. From 12 subtract 20. 2 subtract 5. From 1 subtract 1. From
19. 20.
21.
22.
23.
24. 25.
To 6 2 To To 1 From 1 To  8 To 7 From
add add add
12.
1.
2.
subtract 2.
add add
9. 4.
1 subtract 2.
Add
1 and 2.
26.
the one of
Solve examples 1625 by using a diagram similar to 10, and considering additions and subtractions as
motions.
27.
(a) 28.
Which is the greater number lor 1? (b) 2 or 4?
:
By how much
is
7 greater than
12 ?
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
29.
Determine from the following table the range of tempera:
ture in each locality
NUMBERS REPRESENTED BY LETTERS
11. For many purposes of arithmetic it is advantageous to express numbers by letters. One advantage was shown in 2 others will appear in later chapters ( 30).
;
EXERCISE
1.
4
is
If the letter
t
means 1000, what
the value of
5t?
a=
2.
3.
What is the value of 3 6, if b = 3 ? if b = 4 ? What is the value of a + &, if a = 5, and 6 = 7?
if
6,
and
b
=
4?
is
4.
5.
What
If a
the value of 17
c,
if c
= 5?
ifc
= 2?
marbles,
many
6.
boy has 9c? marbles and wins 4c marbles has. he ?
Is the last
how
7.
How
8.
9.
merchant had 20 much has he left ?
A
answer correct for any value of d ? m dollars and lost 11 m
dollars.
What
is
the
sum
of 8 &
and G
b ?
Find the numerical value
If c represents a certain
of the last
answer
if b
= 15.
10.
number, what represents 9 times
that
number ?
INTRODUCTION
11.
1
From 26 w
subtract 19 m.
12.
if
What is the numerical
From 22m
if
value of the last answer
if
m = 2?
m = 2?
13.
subtract
1
25m, and
find the numerical value
of the answer
14.
m=
2.
Add
13 p, 3p, 6p, and subtract 24 p from the sum.
15.
16. 19.
From
10 q subtract 20
q.
17.
18.
Add lOgand +20 q. From 22# subtract 0.
7 a=
From subtract 26 Add  6 x and 8 x.
x.
20.
From
Wp subtract 10^).
is
What sign, therefore, 140. 21. If a = 20, then understood between 7 and a in the expression 7 a ?
FACTORS, POWERS, AND ROOTS
12.
The
and equality have the same meaning
in arithmetic.
13.
signs of addition, subtraction, multiplication, division, in algebra as they have
If there is no sign between
two
is
letters, or
a letter and a
number, a sign of multiplication
6
is
understood.
written win.
x a
is
generally written 6 a
;
m
x n
Between two
(either
figures,
x
or
)
however, a sign of multiplication has to be employed as, 4x7, or 4 7.
;
4x7 cannot be
14.
written 47, for 47
means 40
f 7.
A product is
=
the result obtained by multiplying together
two or more
Since 24
Similarly,
quantities, each of which is a factor of the product. 3 x 8, or 12 x 2, each of these numbers is a factor of 24.
7, a, 6,
and
c are factors of 7 abc.
15.
A
power
is
thus,
aaaaa
6 aaaaaa, or a ,
is the product of two or more equal factors called the " 5th power of a," and written a5 " the 6th is power of a," or a 6th.
;
;
The second power is also called the square, and the third 2 power the cube; thus, 12 (read "12 square") equals 144.
8
16.
ELEMENTS OF ALQEBEA
The
base of a
power
is
the
number which
is
repeated
as a factor.
The base
of a 3
is a.
17. An exponent is the number which indicates how many times a base is to be used as a factor. It is placed a little above and to the right of the base.
The exponent
of
m
6
is
6
;
n
is
the exponent of an
.
EXERCISE
1.
5
find the numerical value of the square of 7, the cube of 6, the fourth power of 3, and the fifth power of 2. Find the numerical values of the following powers :
2.
3.
Write and
72
.
6.
42
.
10.
11.
.
8
(i)
.
14.
15.
2
.
25 1
.
2*.
7.
8. 9.
2*.
O
9
.
.0001 2
.
4. 5.
52
83
.
10 6
I 30
.
12.
(4)
(1.5)
16.
.
l.l 1
.
.
13.
2
17.
22
+3
2
.
If
a=3, 6=2, c=l, and
18. 19.
3
ci
.
d=^
22.
a*.
find the numerical values of:
24.
2
.
20.
21.
c
10
.
3
(2 c)
ab.
.
26. 27.
2
at).
b2
.
d\
23.
(6cf)
25.
(4 bdf.
28.
If
29.
30.
= 8, what is the value of a? If m = what is the value of m ? = 64, what is the value of a ? If 4
a3
2
jJg,
In a product any factor product of the other factors.
18.
is
called the coefficient of the
In 12 win 8/), 12
19.
is
the coefficient of
is
mw 8p,
12
m is the coefficient of n*p.
A
17
numerical coefficient
a coefficient expressed entirely
in figures.
In
aryx,
17
is
the numerical coefficient.
is
When
stood ; thus a
a product contains no numerical coefficient, 1 1 a, a Bb 1 a*b.
under
=
=
INTRODUCTION
9
20. When several powers are multiplied, the beginner should remember that every exponent refers only to the number near which it is placed.
3 9
2
means 3
3
aa, while (3
2
)
=3ax
3 a.
= 9 abyyy. 2* xyW = 22.2.2. xyyyzz.
afty
1 abc*
7 abccc.
EXERCISES
If
a
= 4, b = 1, c = 2, and x = ^, find the
numerical values of
:
21. root is one of the equal factors of a power. According to the number of equal factors, it is called a square root, a cube root, a fourth root, etc.
3
is
A
6
is is
the square root of 9, for 32 = 9. the cube root of 125, for 6 8 = 125. the
fifth
a
root of a 5 the nth root of a".
,
The nth
Va,
is
fifth root of a,
indicated by the symbol >/""; thus Va is the is the cube root of 27, \/a, or more simply the square root of a.
root
is
A/27
Using
this
(Va)
22.
n
= a.
The
symbol we
may
is
express the definition of root by
the
index of a root
number which
indicates
what
root is to be taken.
sign. In v/a, 7
23.
It is written in the opening of the radical
is
the index of the root.
The
[ ]
;
signs of aggregation are
:
the parenthesis,
.
( )
;
the
bracket,
the brace,
j
j
;
and the vinculum,
4V3~6c. 2 . e. expression containing more than one and a 4 term. V36". 11. aVc^. (cfd) 4. some number is . 4(a 6(6 + &). A polynomial is an y. 8. since the parts are a . 16. 17. 10 x [4 by 4 + 1 or by 5. are trinomials.10 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA They are used. 0. 6. a polynomial of two terms. 10. A monomial or term f an expression whose parts are not as 3 cue2. !^f\/03 3 ft. 14. 27. as in arithmetic. x 9. V2a. 2. + 1]. Each 10 is of the forms 10 to be multiplied x (4 f 1). ALGP:BRAIC EXPRESSIONS 24." EXERCISE If a 1. to indicate that the expres* sions included are to be treated as a whole. V3 . A binomial is 62 . 7 = 2. 6 a26 7 Vac ~* 2 f 9. 3. is 28. a2 + and   \/a are binomials. b = 3. 10 x 4"+T indicates that (a b) is sometimes read "quantity a b. 5Vl6c. AND NUMERICAL sym SUBSTITUTIONS An algebraic expression is a collection of algebraic bols representing 25. [6c] 3 . \/c. c = 1.g. find the numerical value of: Vff. A trinomial a polynomial of three terms. 6. 15. + M f c 4 f d 4 are polynomials. 26. 9. v'Ta. c f d). 13. 12. + c). V^a6. Val \fi?. separated by a sign (6 + c + d} is o c ^and (6 + a monomial. or 9 Vx. d 7.
5 means 3 4 20 or 23.e.INTRODUCTION 29. 5c +d 2 . * For additional examples see page 268. 6a2 +4a62 ~6c' 27 c 3 +12a(i *15. .9 a& 2 c + f a 6 . Ex. . Ex. 3 4 . l 13. i. 2 ). 6. Otherwise operations of addition. each term has to be computed before the different terms are added and subtracted. b = 3. a 2 6. x=^. 8. 5a2 2 a2 46cf2^^ + 3 a& +.19 = 6. 1. 14. find the numerical value of: 9. 5c6 2 +6ac3 a 3 17c3 hl2o. 4a6fVaV2^. 2. and division are to be performed in the order in which they are written all from left to right. 5=3.19 a 2 bcd = 6 5 32 . multiplication. a2 f + (a + 6)c 6+ a (2 2 c 2 . 2 3a& 2 + 3a2 6a&c2 . 2 of 6 ab If a = 5. = 32 + 4527 = 50. a2 11. . 11 if it In a polynomial each term is treated as were con tained in a parenthesis.390. 4 . EXERCISE 8*  .30 = 270 . d = 0. 3. 4. 12.9 aWc + f a b .. 6.4 6^9 ad. 16.99. c = 2. c=l. ' f & f c 3 8 d s . d=Q. . Find the value of 4 28 +5 32  *^. 3 2 If 1. 5. 52 .19 a 6cd 3 2 3 find the numerical value 6 aft 2 . 3a + 56 a 2 . + 26+3 c.2 + I126. 10. (a (a f b) 7.810 + 150 = . __ E.9 5 32 2 + ^ 5 8 3 . 2. subtraction.5 ax 50 a6cd.g. a=4.9. 5.
6 f c) (6 a + c). 6 = 2. a =4. w cube plus three times the quantity a minus plus 6 multiplied 6. 30. 26.6 . 6. 22. 6 = 6. 6 = 6. 34. 29. 6 = 7. 6 = 5. 23. 6. and the area of the is triangle S square feet (or squares of other units selected). . a = 4. Six times the square of a minus three times the cube of Eight x cube minus four x square plus y square. 35. a = 4. sible to state Ex.12 17 & * ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 18 ' 8 Find the numerical value of 8 a3 21. a = 3. Six 2 . 38.c) (a . if : a = 2. a a=3. 26 of the exercise. Six times a plus 4 times 32. 37. 6 = 1. a = 3. = 3. then 8 = \ V(a + 6 + c) (a 4. 6 = 5. 33. 12 cr6 f 6 a6 2 6s. 6 = 4. Read the expressions of Exs. of this exercise? What kind of expressions are Exs. and other sciences. 24. The quantity a 6 2 by the quantity a minus 36. : 6. 1014 The representation of numbers by letters makes it posvery briefly and accurately some of the principles of arithmetic. 30. Express in algebraic symbols 31. Twice a3 diminished by 5 times the square root of the quantity a minus 6 square. 6=2. 25. physics. geometry. a = 2. and If the three sides of a triangle contain respectively c feet (or other units of length). a. 27. 6 = 3. a =3. 28.
i. then a 13. 4. the three sides of a triangle are respectively 13. d. 15 therefore feet. Find the height of the tree.g. An electric car in 40 seconds. 84 square EXERCISE 1.16 1 = 84. if v = 50 meters per second 5000 feet per minute. if v . A train in 4 hours. b.) Assuming g .e. if v = 30 miles per hour. (b) 5. (c) 4. 12.seconds. 2. and 15 feet. 14. = (a) How far does a body fall from a state of rest in 2 seconds ? (b) * stone dropped from the top of a tree reached the ground in 2J. count the resistance of the atmosphere. b 14. 9 distance s passed over by a body moving with the uniform velocity v in the time t is represented by the formula The Find the distance passed over by A snail in 100 seconds. c. By using the formula find the area of a triangle whose sides are respectively (a) 3. and 13 inches. and c 13 and 15 = = = . A body falling from a state of rest passes in t seconds 2 over a space S (This formula does not take into ac^gt 32 feet. 13. How far does a body fall from a state of rest in T ^7 of a (c) A second ? 3. S =  V(13hl4fl5)(13H1415)(T314i15)(1413f15) = V421214. if v : a.16 centimeters per second. . the area of the triangle equals feet.INTRODUCTION E. and 5 feet. A carrier pigeon in 10 minutes.
to Centigrade readings: (b) Change the following readings (a) 122 F. $ = 3.) Find the surface of a sphere whose diameter equals (a) 7. (c) 5 miles.14d (square units). If the diameter of a sphere equals d units of length. If cated on the Fahrenheit scale. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA If the radius of a circle etc.14 4. (c) 8000 miles. 5.14 is frequently denoted by the Greek letter TT. square units (square inches.14 square meters. the 3. fo If i represents the simple interest of i p dollars at r in n years. on $ 500 for 2 years at 4 %. and the value given above is only an surface $= 2 approximation. If the (b) 1 inch. the equivalent reading C on the Centigrade scale may be found by the formula F C y = f(F32). is H 2 units of length (inches. meters. ~ 7n cubic feet. then =p n * r %> or Find by means (a) (b) 6. (The number 3. : 8000 miles. (c) 10 feet. 2 inches. . denotes the number of degrees of temperature indi8. Find the area of a circle whose radius is It (b) (a) 10 meters. then the volume V= (a) 10 feet. of this formula : The The interest on interest $800 for 4 years at ty%.). diameter of a sphere equals d feet. the area etc.). (c) 5 F. This number cannot be expressed exactly. 6 Find the volume of a sphere whose diameter equals: (b) 3 feet. 32 F.
$6) + ( $4) = ( $10). AND PARENTHESES ADDITION OF MONOMIALS 31. or that and (+6) + (+4) = + 16 10. the fact that a loss of loss of + $2. however. SUBTRACTION. . In algebra. of $6 and a gain $4 equals a $2 may be represented thus In a corresponding manner we have for a loss of $6 and a of loss $4 (. we define the sum of two numbers in such a way that these results become general.CHAPTER II ADDITION. we call the aggregate value of a gain of 6 and a loss of 4 the sum of the two. Or in the symbols of algebra $4) = Similarly. In arithmetic we add a gain of $ 6 and a gain of $ 4. in algebra this word includes also the results obtained by adding negative. While in arithmetic the word sum refers only to the result obtained by adding positive numbers. or positive and negative numbers. but we cannot add a gain of $0 and a loss of $4. Since similar operations with different units always produce analogous results. Thus a gain of $ 2 is considered the sum of a gain of $ 6 and a loss of $ 4.
is 2. 12. the one third their sum. of: 20. d = 5. . (17) 15 + (14). c = = 5. if : a a = 2. = 5. + (9). 4. (always) prefix the sign of the greater. the average of 4 and 8 The average The average of 2. 6 6 = 3.3. of 2. 23. 2326. The average of two numbers is average of three numbers average of n numbers is the is one half their sum. 19. c = 4. 21. Thus. find the numerical values of a + b f cjc?. 24. (_ In Exs. + 12.16 32. 5. add their absolute values if they have opposite signs. 22. lf(2). ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA These considerations lead to the following principle : If two numbers have the same sign. d = 0. and the sum of the numbers divided by n. EXERCISE Find the sum of: 10 Find the values 17. 4 is 3 J. 18. is 0. subtract their absolute values and . 33.  0. 10. '. 5.
3. . 32. . Find the average temperature of New York by taking the average of the following monthly averages 30. . are similar terms. 31. 30. 43.4. which are not similar. ' 1? a 26. : 48.. 13. or and . 39. AND PARENTHESES d = l. c = 0. $1000 loss. 10. ^ ' 37. Find the average gain per year of a merchant. . = 22.. $500 loss. 37. 5 a2 & 6 ax^y and 7 ax'2 y. 74. 6. & 28. 6. d= 3. 7 yards. 29. . 4. 66. Find the average of the following temperatures 27 F.7. 40. 60. 41. 27. 5 and 12. . 2. . 1. and 3 F.5. c=14. 7 a. 0. 10. 38. 25. \\ Add 2 a. }/ Add 2 a. . 36. 6. ' Find the average of the following 34. : Find the average temperature of Irkutsk by taking the average of the following monthly temperatures 12. if his yearly gain or loss during 6 years was $ 5000 gain. affected by the same exponents. 72. & = 15. 7 a. $7000 gain.5. and $4500 gain. 10. 34. Similar or like terms are terms which have the same literal factors. Dissimilar or unlike terms are terms 4 a2 6c and o 4 a2 6c2 are dissimilar terms.7. and 3 yards. sets of numbers: 13. and 4. 3 and 25. and 3 a.. 12. or 16 Va + b and 2Vo"+~&. What number must be added to 9 to give 12? What number must be added to 12 to give 9 ? What number must be added to 3 to give 6 ? C* What number must be added to 3 to give 6? **j Add 2 yards. 11 (Centigrade). 32.ADDITION.3. 2. and 3 a. = 23. 33. $3000 gain. 4 F. 35. : and 1. SUBTRACTION. 55.13. 42. = 13. and 8 F. : 34. 09.
7 rap2. + 6 af . 9(af6). While in arithmetic a denotes a difference only. EXERCISE Add: 1. f 4 a2. 2 . . 3a . 2(af &). 1 \ f 7 a 2 frc Find the sum of 9. 5l 3(af6). 5 a2 . either the difference of a and b or the sum of a and The sum of a. : 2 a2. The sum The sum of a of a Dissimilar terms cannot be united into a single term. 12(af b) 12.18 35. sum of two such terms can only be them with the f. b wider sense than in arithmetic. Vm f. 12 2 wp2 . 13. or a 6. In algebra the word sum is used in a 36. The indicated by connecting and a 2 and a is is f a2 . Algebraic sum. 5Vm + w. 11.ii. 14 . 12 13 b sx xY xY 7 #y 7. 2 a&. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA The sum of 3 of two similar terms x2 is is another similar term. The sum x 2 and f x2 . 10. 11 2 a +3a 4o 2. b a f ( 6). 12Vmfn. and 4 ac2 is a 2 a&  4 ac2.sign. in algebra it may be considered b.13 rap 25 rap 2. ab 7 c 2 dn 6.
2 2 2 31. 4x9' 10x38 ADDITION OF POLYNOMIALS Polynomials are added by uniting their like terms. xyz + xyz 12 xyz + 13 xyz + 15 xyz. Simplify : AND PARENTHESES 19 15. is . "Vx + y Vaj + y 2 2 Vi + + 2 Va. n x* 2 22. ra 19. 30. SUBTRACTION. 3a76 + 5a + 2a3610a+116. 2 7 1 26. a a8 ZL **. 17c + 15c8 + 18c + 22c3 +c3 3 3 . 2/ : Add. 2a 4a4 + 6a 7a 9a2a + 8. i xyz co* mn mri Simplify the following by uniting like terms: 29. + / + 3 Va. 33. +m """ 20.ADDITION. 5x173 + 6x1733x1737x173. It convenient to arrange the expressions so that like terms may be in the same vertical column. m n ^ 2 Add: 18. 36. 6 23. 37. 35. 32. and to add each column. without finding the value of each term 34. 17. l^S 25. + y. c 2 ^24. 1 27. 21.
2 025. a 4. While the check is almost certain an absolute test e.2 6 + 4 c = 1 +4 a.g. 9 q 4.c= 2. 2 Sum. to add 26 ab . f 110WS: 26 aft.6a& 7 6ca a5c + 4 be 6c 4 26 ca c' 9a& 38. to show any error.8 abc . 46 4z 7 c. ft any convenient and c.3 a f 4 the sum a = 1. .10 6c 6 c 2 and 7 a&c 4. it is convenient to arrange the terms according to ascending or descending powers 39. NOTE.3 s. x of x. c = 1. and 2 . the following polynomials : 2a 3646 t c.o c and 4. 2z2 4?/ 2 f2z 2 5 3ar 22/2 4 4 3 /. .4 6c + c 2 we proceed as . 5. 3 a f 4 1) 4. 4a46 12 q 5 2 a.3 + 8 + 5 = 1 0. 3.15 6c. and J 2 s. 3a 2? .2z and 0^9 z * For additional examples see page 259. the erroneous answer equal 7.15 abc . Numerical substitution offers a convenient method for the addition of checking the sum of an addition.20 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA . 6=2. 2c. V3. . 5 .2 a 26 To check c assign numerical values to then . = . 7 4. e. 2 Thus. It is not also a406 4c would In various operations with polynomials containing terms with different powers of the same letter. 6 a7 4 5 x"2 + 7 x* 4 5 7a &+4a fi 5 4 is 6c 8 arranged according to ascending powers 4 7 a&<d? + 9 6 5 4 e 7 is arranged ac aW a. of that letter.20 c 5 ab 4.7 2 . 2 . 4 2. 4 = 7. cording to descending powers of EXERCISE 12 Add 1. s. therefore the answer is correct.12 a& 4.g. f 5 c f But 7 = 10 .41 = 3.8 & c~15&c 12a&4l5a&c 20c2 flO&c .
a 4 a . a 4ar ! byb 8 c^c 8 . 2 ?ft ?/z. + a + 1.a . 4 3 .7m .3 ay 6 afy + 6 ay/ 4 10 and . a2 a. 6 # 4 5 z 4 2 7. m 4 6. . 11. d and / 3 ? 12. 16e + 17/90.10 Vc. 2 2 . 6 # 2 2 2 2 2 2 . 2 2 and . a4 6(a a a2 f a f 1. 7(a + 5) 4 2 and 6 4 a.a 4 a 4 1. 4(a . 4. 56 w. and 5 Vb 18. 7ar + 3B 5. ?/ . </ AND PARENTHESES 2i 14d15e + 2/. and v 15.a. 2(6 + c) + (c f a). 2 a. and and 13. 8. . d. . v/20.Va 4 2 V& 4 6 Vc. 4 o^?/ 4 y\ and a. + 50 + 62 . 3 ?/ 3 ? 2 j and a 2 4. 6a 5a &47a& 4& and 7.3 5 Va 2 2 3 3 2 . ^2 1 e.9(a + &) . and 8 3 .a 3a 9 y\ 3 afy .1.6. .Ga 43x45. . 4 3 3 ^* f h <l. 19. 4 + 6)  5 (a + 6) + 3. a + 1> 8 2 2 .6) + 14(a 4 6) 4 10.5 c ll& 7c 6 4.ADDITION.4:xy xz 6yz.and 6.12(a 4. 4 Vc.2 #?/ 4 5 a + 4 aft . . and 1 4 a .(b + c) 1.2n 2 2 3 rz . . 8 2 2 3 s 2 3 . 4 ajy 17. a2 2 14. 16. .4 Va . e a4 /. a. and .5 cr& + 7 6 9. 7 4 5 x*y 2 y?y* 3 xf. 3 2 tf 2 l 2 ^_.5a^6 f 6) .15 5. 2 ?/. 2 3(c f a).7^ 2iB 8 + 2y + 2 8 8 . 3 2 2 3 9 . a) y ^/.12.1 a 4 1 0. . 18/+6y + d. 4 8 3 4 4 .3 mn 2 2 n8 .8 m 2m 12.7v/if. xy3xz + yz. w* 4 3 m n 4 3 m?i 4 2w .VS 4 2 Vc. 10a +lOa 6ll& 10. .a. in 8 3 m n 4. SUBTRACTION. 2xy + 4:XZ}5yz. and 12a 4 15& 20c . a 4 a .12 6 ~5 a . 2 and 9m 48m 4.
f 1. 8 . ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 4 w + 3 m + 2 m.3^* 2n 2 . 6 f c 2 23. f number may be added 3. c 3 3 3 2 3 . 13 1.9aj 2. 1.11 xy + 12. does he thereby become richer or poorer ? . +d a. many negative units re main ? from 2. 22. and 25. how 1. 1.m 4m ?/?/ d. what to obtain the same result ? total of the units f 1. What is therefore the remainder is when 2 is taken from 2? When . and 2 24. 16m 7/12my d+e a 6. T8a.5< 3 2 s 4^4.17 + 4 ?nfy .3 taken from 2 ? 5. . 45a6 2 . The sum and ? 1. If from the five negative units three negative units are taken. . and e + 6y . 1. 1. f 1. a 6 2 c. 12 xyz. .22 21. 5 } and 3 m 3 7 m. 1. What is therefore the remainder when 3 is taken 5? Instead of subtracting in the preceding example. and 3^2 SUBTRACTION EXERCISE 1. 5 3 f 4 ?n 4 2m+2m e. 1.4 2tn* Sic 2 . 2 a3 a 4 3 af^. 1/ . + 1. 2fa 3 4 a +7a. 8 f3f a n2<w +n . m 3 3 5y 3 8 . SM/Z + 2 a:?/ f x y bxyz~lx. 2 8 n + <w 2 . What other operations produce the subtraction of a negative number? same result as the 6.. a s f3o $ xy and 5+a\ ^ "27. is 2. s . What away is the value of the sum if two neg ative units are taken ? If three negative units are taken away 4. If you diminish a person's debts. 4^ + 3t*n l2aj 2 a. and 6 + 9 x + 12 26. + n*.ra + m.
2. This gives by the same method. if x Ex. To subtract.2. From 5 subtract to The number which added Hence. In addition. may be stated number added to 3 will give 5? To subtract from a the number b means to find the number which added to b gives a. a. the given number the subtrahend. 5 is 2. From 5 subtract to . Subtraction is the inverse of addition. and their algebraic sum is required. Therefore any example in subtraction different . AND PARENTHESES 23 subtraction of a negative positive number. Ex. two numbers are given. . 3 gives 5 is evidently 8. The student should perform mentally the operation of chang8 2 6 from 6 a 2 fc. called the minvend. from What 3. 41. 1. 7. 3. 3 gives 3) The number which added Hence. In subtraction. 6 (3) = 8. Ex. State the other practical examples which show that the number is equal to the addition of a 40. Or in symbols. and the required number the difference.ADDITION.3. The results of the preceding examples could be obtained by the following Principle. ab = x. ing the sign of the subtrahend thus to subtract 6 a 2 6 and 8 a 2 6 and find the sum of change mentally the sign of . SUBTRACTION. NOTE. ( 6) ( = . change the sign of the subtrahend and add. the other number is required. +b 3. may be stated in a : 5 take form e. From 5 subtract + 3.g. the algebraic sum and one of the two numbers is The algebraic sum is given.
Ex.3 r*5o.24 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA we change the subtract 2 x sign of each term 42.5 x + 8. From _6ar3 3z + 7 2 6ar3 3o2 +7 2 or3 . Check.f 8 . If x = l = 2 t .3 x* . To subtract polynomials of the subtrahend and add.
c. c f d. 4v From 6 subtract lt2af3& + 4<7. 41. From 6(af. 57. 2 + 4 a& 3 f 6 4 . From 5 a 2 2 ab ?/' subtract 2 a 2 + 2ab . From From $ a 3 7 x 2 ?/ 5 a/ + ?/ subtract f ar f 7 a 2 ?/ . From 5a(>& + 7c From 2 x2 8 a?y + 2 From mn f ??/> 8d 11 cf 17 d. 2y 2 . AND PARENTHESES from 14 a 25 Subtract the sum of 2 m and 7 m c 10m. 43. of x2 4x f 12 and 3 a2 3 # 3 sub From a3 + 2 a2 4 a subtract the sum of a 3 } a2 2a and a 2 + 4.ADDITION. From 16 + a3 subtract 8 2 a + a2 f a3 From a 4 .w>t. 45. From 2 a take a & j. f 2 aa 7a 2 ?/ 2 subtract a3 take 11 a 2 :c + 2 a . 50. From From x2 the sum sum 7.& 4 subtract a 2 2 4 +4 8 6 6 a& 59. + a the 2 a. From a3 subtract 2 a3 f. 53. From a3 From 6a 1 subtract f a + b 3 1.4 a^ 4. of a 4. and 3 7/ .7 a . . 96 subtract 10 b 2 From From 1 f & take 1 f b f & s . 2. tract 4 x 3. 52. 6 6 2 2 ?/ . 56.5 #?/ 2 and check the answer.a 2 j. 44. 47. SUBTRACTION. check the answer. 42. 58. 51. 49.5(6 + c) 4(c + a) subtract 7(af&) REVIEW EXERCISES 1.a From 3 or 2 a:// + 2 subtract 2 1. 48. f 12 b f From 10 a 12 & f 6 subtract 5 c.6)f. take 2 8 o# + qt c mt subtract a2 f mn f wp f. 6 4 a. +3x f & f 12 take 3 f ar f 4 x + 11. 46. 54.b h c and a & f c subtract a _ 6 _ 2 c.2. 55.4 a*& + 6 a & . ?/ 3 #?/ 2 y2 .
+ 2. a 2y + z. 19. years ago ? How old was he a b years ago? . sum of Subtract the x2 + 2 and 6 a iE 3 2 from x3 + a^ 4 6. ~2a6 + 2c? expression must be subtracted from 2 a to produce a+6? v . a a + c. to produce find : 0? = x +g c =x 18. + 6 + c. 9. What expression must 8a3 2a7? What What be added to 7 a 3 +4a 2 to pro expression must be added to 3a + 56 cto pro duce 14. of # 2 8. What must be added to b 4^ + 4^ + 2 z. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA From the difference between a? a? 3 j +5 a: 2 + 58+1 + cc and 4 a? 2 +4x 5. n years hence ? A c How old will he be 10 years hence ? a +b is 2 a years old. A is n years old. Subtract the difference of a and a Subtract the sum + f and + 6 + c from a + b + c a +2 y from 2 2 2 ar* 2 */ 10. 4 6 2 c add the To the 3 sum a3 4 a2 3 between 5 a 12. a + 6. 6 17. Subtract the sum of 5 a2 + 2 7 and 2a2 + 3a and from 2 a2 + 2 a 7. 20. 6.15. Subtract the sum s of 6 m +5 m +6m 8 4m* 5 m +4m 2 from 2 ra + 7 m.26 4. subtract # + 1. +4 and 4 a +1 +a 2 and a2 a. 10 a + 5 b sum of9ci66 + c and 11. To the sum of 2a + 66 + 4c and a 2 c. 16. +a add the difference duce 13. 2 m 21.
tractions By using the signs of aggregation.& c additions and sub + d) = a + b c + d.a f = 4a sss 7a 12 06 6.6 b f (.b c = a a & f f. may be written as follows: a f ( 4. Ex. 46. a+(bc) = a +b . SUBTRACTION. A sign of aggregation preceded by the sign f may be removed or inserted without changing the sign of any term. Hence the it is sign may obvious that parentheses preceded by the f or be removed or inserted according to the fol: lowing principles 44. 66 2&a + 6 4a Answer. If we wish to remove several signs of aggregation.c.c. the sign is understood.2 b . I. we may begin either at the innermost or outermost.ADDITION. Simplify 4 a f + 5&)[6& +(25. one occurring within the other. 6 o+( a + c) = a =a 6 c) ( 4. 4a{(7a + 6&)[6&f(2&. The beginner will find it most convenient at every step to remove only those parentheses which contain (7 a no others.a~^~6)]} = 4 a {7 a 6 b [.a^6)]  } . II.g. & f c. If there is no sign before the first term within a paren* f thesis. A moved w may be resign of aggregation preceded by the sign inserted provided the sign of evei'y term inclosed is E. AND PARENTHESES 27 SIGNS OF AGGREGATION 43. changed. 45. . (b c) a =a 6 4 c.
[36+ (a 2c]. 15. 8.+ 6)f (a2 b). 3. 7 6)+ {a [a: 22.1422) J ] . 17. may be inserted according to 43. Ex.(a + 6). find the numerical value of { 1422 . 18. 2a (4a 26 +c ). 2.) 5 . 16. a f (a a .)]. : x + (2yz). 271 + (814 . last three Inclose in a parenthesis preceded by the sign terms of the See page 260. a (a + 26 c ).y (60.28 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 15* Simplify the following expressions 1. a (a + 6). By removing parentheses. 2m 4af 2 2 2 10. 5. the fourth and fifth terms respectively in parentheses. 14. 2 2a. 6. (m a2 f. ? 11. a a c) + [3 a {3c (c 26 a)} 6a]. In the following expression inclose the second and third. . 6) 2. 4. 2a 2 + 5a(7f 2a )f (55a). 13. m f ft) a.: Ex. + (2a 6 + c ). Signs of aggregation 1. 9. m+n + [# (6 (m (r + M> + w n p) ___ ( m~n\p. 19. a(3b a3 3 2 2 2c). 3 3 f 7.[271 47. 2 2 2 a(. 21.7i h jp) (m ?*.
10. 5^2 _ r . 7. 7. II. m and n. p + q + rs.4 y* .7fa. The minuend is always the of the two numbers mentioned.ADDITION. 2mn + 2q3t. 4. )X 6. difference of the cubes of n and m. 8. The product of the sum and the difference of m and n. of the cubes of m and n. a\l> > c + d. 2. . Nine times the square of the sum of a and by the product of a and b. ' NOTE. 9. The difference of a and 6.2 tf . SUBTRACTION. 5. 5 a2 2. 3. 12. The square of the difference of a and b. The sum of tKe squares of a and b. 3. The The difference of the cubes of m and n.1. 4 xy 7 x* 49 x + 2. 13. and the subtrahend the second. EXERCISES IN" ALGEBRAIC EXPRESSION 17 : EXERCISE Write the following expressions I. The sum of the fourth powers of a of and 6. z + d. 6 diminished . y f 8 . The product The product m and n. In each of the following expressions inclose the last three in a parenthesis preceded by the minus sign : 27i2 3^ 2 + 4r/. 6. EXERCISE AND PARENTHESES 16 29 In each of the following expressions inclose the last three terms in a parenthesis : 1. terms 5. Three times the product of the squares of The cube of the product of m and n. The sum^)f m and n. first. m x 2 4.
6 is equal to the square of b. 16. (Let a and b represent the numbers.30 14. and c divided by the ference of a and Write algebraically the following statements: V 17. d. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA The sum x. difference of the cubes of a and b divided by the difference of a and 6. b. 18. The sum The of a and b multiplied b is equal to the difference of by the difference of a and a 2 and b 2 . a plus the prod uct of a and s plus the square of 19. 6.) . dif of the squares of a and b increased by the square root of 15. The difference of the squares of two numbers divided by the difference of the numbers is equal to the sum of the two numbers. x cube minus quantity 2 x2 minus 6 x plus The sum of the cubes of a.
what force is produced by the addition of 5 weights at B ? What. If the two loads what What. By what sign is an upward pull at A represented ? What is the sign of a 3 Ib. 3. what force is produced by the Ib. force is produced therefore. weights at A ? Express this as a multibalance. 4. two loads balance. weight at A ? What is the sign of a 3 Ib. If the two loads balance. weight at B ? If the addition of five 3 plication example. is 5 x ( 3) ? 7. 5.CHAPTER III MULTIPLICATION MULTIPLICATION OF ALGEBRAIC NUMBERS EXERCISE 18 In the annexed diagram of a balance. is by taking away 5 weights from A? 5 X 3? 6. If the two loads balance. and forces produced at by 3 Ib. what force 31 is produced by tak( ing away 5 weights from B ? What therefore is 5) x( 3) ? . therefore. applied at let us indicate a downward pull at by a positive sign. A A A 1. weights. 2. let us consider the and JB.
9 9. however. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA If the signs obtained by the true. In multiplying integers we have therefore four cases trated illus by the following examples : 4x3 = 412. make venient to accept the following definition : con 49. ( 9) x ( 11) ? State a rule by which the sign of the product of two fac tors can be obtained. . 9 x ( 11). or plied by 3. Multiplication by a positive integer is a repeated addition. NOTE. 4x(3)=12. a result that would not be obtained by other assumptions. Thus. ( (.32 8. 4 x(8) = ~(4)(4)(4)=:12. Practical examples^ it however. and we may choose any definition that does not lead to contradictions.4) x braic laws for negative ~ 3> = (. 48. becomes meaningless if definition. examples were generally method of the preceding what would be the values of ( 5x4.4)(4) = + 12. times is just as meaningless as to fire a gun tion 7 Consequently we have to define the meaning of a multiplicaif the multiplier is negative. such as given in the preceding exercise. 4 multi44444 12. or 4x3 = = (_4) X The preceding 3=(4)+(4)+(4)=12.4)(.9) x 11. This definition has the additional advantage of leading to algenumbers which are identical with those for positive numbers. (5)X4. To take a number 7 times. the multiplier is a negative number. thus. 4 multiplied by 3. 5x(4). Multiplication by a negative integer is a repeated sub traction. x 11. (.
NOTE.2f 18. 16.2. 9. 2. _2. is 6x7. 15. 5x3. 13. (c#) . 10. 1. 3. 6. 12. _2^ 3. z s 11 aWcx. 2a 2 6c. 29. 4. the parenthesis frequently omitted. . b = 3. tors is no misunderstanding possible. etc. x= 0.MULTIPLICATION 50.a)( =+ a&. 17. 1. 6 2. .7. EXERCISE 19 : Find the values of the following products 1. . c = 25. 26.(a&c) 2 2 . 33 We shall and negative integers the assume that the law illustrated for positive is true for all numbers. (2) 8 (.4. 22. 3 aW.(4J). 30. Formulate a law of signs for a product containing an even number of negative factors. 24. 3 a2?/2 . and obtain thus product of two numbers with like signs in signs is negative. (.3. 11. 27. x. Law Thus. Formulate a law of signs for a product containing an odd number of negative factors. 2a6 c . 4 . . 20. 19. find the numeri values of: 21. 8. 6. 8 31. (7) X (12). +5. . _3.3) (1) 7 2 . (2)x9. 7. Ua b 28. If a cal = 4a6c. and y = 4. (4)'. 3.2 f+x 2 . 14. about fac (2)X If 6. 32. (10) 4 . X(5). (4)X(15). of Signs: TJie positive. 5. 4 a2 . the product of two numbers with unlike &) (a)(+6) = a&. 8 4 . 23. 4a f26 2 2a + 3&2 6c* .
2). = 2.3). 3. 10. a = 2. 9 .503).. 11. 2. known as of Multiplication : The Exponent Law The exponent of is the product of several powers of the same base the exponents equal to the 8 (ft sum oj Ex. 3 3 4 . . i.. Or in m and n are two positive to factors) f n) factors. 5(711. 36. 4. 4 x (2 25) =8 25. B. only one of the factors is multiplied by the number. In multiplying a product of several factors by a number. 12 U U . & = 3. a8 a=2. a 5 (a) (^ + 14 8 2/) (a? + 4 2/) (aj . 2 x (2* 5 7 2 )= 26 5 7 2 . By 3 definition. 2 2 3 6 .m a 3  4 . 3. 14.(12) . a 23 =2 Hence 2 x 2 general. 200.(7). 50(112. This 52. 100. 4. 5 . 2(14. 127  127 9 7 . &*) c d*. m*. 6 = 1. 6 aWc x .  2 2. IB. 2 3 .12 Perform the operation indicated 12. . 3 2 . 53. + 2/). 7.(2. 6" 127 U . 5. 2(7.257).2 2 23 + 5 . 34. . fl*" integers. 4. 13. : 3a7abc. EXERCISE 20 : Express each of the following products as a power 1.6 if 35. a= 1. if =2 a a to  2 2 x2 2 2. or 2 .1 2 a 6 f 6 aW . Ex. of the factors. =2 a *.e. 6 = .34 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA of 8 Find the numerical value 33. 2. a 2 2 .7 &*# =(6  7) (a 2 a8 ) . am Xa n = (a =aa is m (a a to n factors) (m X fl w = fl /w +w . 5 3 5 3 2 . a = 3.<?.7. (a6) (a5) 9. 2 2 2 . 5 = 2. 16. MULTIPLICATION OF MONOMIALS 51. . Ex. 17. 78 .  and 2 25 8 . 1. .35). 6.
7p*q r*.4a#.M UL TIPLICA TION 18. 5 2 aft (6 e 8 C a 2ftc). 6 e/ a ( ( 2 a2 ) 3 . tet^m f c) = ab +ac. 24. 35 4 7(6. 23. 21. . 26. 17(10041042). . 2(645410).7pqt. 31. by first multiplying. 5.7 w'W (8 n^W). .3 win ) . (. 29. 25. . 2 19 ' mV 2 ft 5  2 ran4 30. ) 2 33. .f 2). 2 32. = (a + 26)+(a + 2 ft) f (a 4 2 ft) + (a + 2 ft) 55. c(4a ftc ). . is evidently correct for any positive integral multiplier. 5 aft 3 ( ftc ( 2 2ac).3 a2 6(6 a*bc + 2 be  1) = 18 a 4 6 2 c . Thus we have in general a(b 56.6.A). 23(10004100420). EXERCISE 21 Find the numerical values of the following expressions. 19. 7. and then adding : 1. 11(3. multiply each by the monomial. 28. 3. ax /) 2 4 1 (. 4 9 afy 2 a3 ?/ ). If results ft. 6. (. 4 aft 5 aft 2 . 12( + 1 4 i). 4. This principle. 22. 35. 6(10420430). To multiply a polynomial by a monomial. 2. /). 20. 34. 2(5fl5f25).6 a2 62c f 8 a2 6. called the distributive law.5 xy 19 aW lla ( 3 3 tfy 2z*. the would obviously be 6 yards and 9 inches. _4aft. 27. 3(124342). MULTIPLICATION OF A POLYNOMIAL BY A MONOMIAL we had to multiply 2 yards and 3 inches by 3. Similarly the for quadruple of a 4 2 b would be 4 a f 8 54.2 3 aft ).4 (2 a 2 ft 3) 2 3 . but we shall assume it for any number.
29. . 4 13 (4 9 4 5 4).36 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA : Express as a sum of several powers 8. 5 x\5 pqr + 5 pr 5 x2 . 11. Find the factors of 6 ary . 6 (6 2 +6 +6 10.6) (x f y z) = x(a = (ax b) + y(a b) z(a (az b) bx) f (ay by) bz) by az + bz. 5). . 7 3 (7 3 f7 +7 10 ). Find the factors of 5 a 6 . 21.5 x 7). 7 a 6 c(. 23. 2 4 %Pq\ 14.6 a6). By what 25. ~2mn(m +n p ). 2 2 16. Any it closing x +y (a polynomial may be written as a monomial by inb by within a parenthesis. 20. ofy 2 4 +8 2 4 a.3 x2y 2 + 3 xy. : expression must 24. Perform the multiplications indicated: 13. 5(5 + 52 + 2 2 5 7 ).we b) (x law.asa product. 5 aW( 3 2 2 aW + 3 a 2 2 ?/ 6 c 2 .3 aftc).60 a& 10 aft. 2 m(mhn \p). 22. . 2 27. Find the factors of 6 Find the factors of 2 or* f 3 x* f arty 3 a4 . 30. 26. be multiplied to give 4o.2 mn(9 mV . 9. 28.5 w*V f 7 wn). . 3 ).^ c + 2 . 17. Thus to multiply a write (a + y z) and apply the distributive z. f7a. MULTIPLICATION OF POLYNOMIALS 57. 12. Express 3a^ Find the factors of 3x + 3 y + 3z. 19.
2.a6 =2 by numerical Examples in multiplication can be checked substitution. If the polynomials to be multiplied contain several powers of the same letter. Since errors. this method tests only the values of the coefficients and not the values of the exponents. the work becomes simpler and more symmetrical by arranging these expressions according to either ascending or descending powers. Multiply 2 + a a.4.3 b by a 5 b. Since all powers of 1 are 1. Check.a . multiply each term of one by each term of the other and add the partial products thus formed. If Arranging according to ascending powers 2 a . Ex. To multiply two polynomials. The most convenient way of adding the partial products is to place similar terms in columns. a2 + a8 + 3 . as illustrated in the following example : Ex.a6 4 a 8 + 5 a* . 1 being the most convenient value to be substituted for all letters. are far more likely to occur in the coefficients than anywhere else.3 a 3 2 by 2 a : a2 + l.3 a 2 + a8 a a = = I 1 =2 f 2 a 4.3 a 2 + a8 .1. Multiply 2 a . however.2 a2 6 a8 2 a* *  2" a2 7 60. .M UL TIP LICA TION 37 58.3 ab 2 2 a2 10 ab  13 ab + 15 6 2 + 15 6 2 Product. 59. the student should apply this test to every example. 2a3b a66 2 a .
* For additional examples see page 261. a 5c)(2a6c). OQ OO. 3<7).n)(m 8 n)(m n). 20. 28. 1). 40. 2) (3 A: 1). 31. 16. (6a~7) 2 . 2  37. 13. 3. 2 (m?n?p (x (a //)4 lA/ //j. 11.38 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 22* Perform the following multiplications and check the results 1. 36) I) 14. 2 . 32. (ajf6y)(aj 23. 2 . 7y). ^ 2 . 4 2). (6p (2 f 21.4) (x + 1). (4a 2 33. 29. 15. (2s 3y)(3a? + 2y). 25. 5. QQ O7. 6. 10.2m)(l m). 6 2 (6a&c5) 3a6f2)(2a6~l). 35. (a&c 2 + 7)(2a&c3). (a^26) . 8. 12)(a?^2l). (6xy + 2z)(2xy 27. 26. 18. (2w 19. (2 x* x 2 . 22.2 ^/ ' 2 mnp f. . 3n)(7m f6<7)(5^) + 8n). 2 (a al)(2a?fl). 2. 41. 36. (13 A. l)(raf 2). + & + 1f a^faj 1). (9m2n)(4m + 7tt). 9. . 24. 36). (a 2a + 2)(a3).2). 12. 30. (6i7n)(llJn). 17.1 . I (mfn)(m4. (8r7*)(6r39. 4.4) (mnp 4. 7. (4af 76)(2tt (4ra fra (5c2d)(2c3d). (llr + l)(12r (rcya (2m (a (4 a 2 .
24. . (*. i. (wi 2^*12)(ajy 6. (a (a (a. 16 ft) (5 a) 75 ab. 19. 3. plus the product 62. 15. 14. (6 12) (6 f. ft 16.4). X 102. (ofy* f 3) (tfy* (a5 2 ). 20. 9. 2 5 b z) (a2 f 4 (a 2 4. 1) (10 + 2). ( 2 Hence the product equals 25 a'2 54 ft 2 . 2) (1000 + 3). 2 a? 29. 27. (p12)(p + ll). : 23 2. 6. (a3)(a + 2). in of the two unequal terms. (a 102 x 103. . 2 6) (a 3 6). 3 (a 7) 3 (a 8). 10. 1005x1004. i. 12. = + EXERCISE Multiply by inspection 1. (ra. 18. 22. + 2) (a f 3). 11. (100 +2) (100 + 3). + 3) (a 7).13). 99 (a + 2 6) (a 6). _3)(a _4). 39 The product of two binomials which have a common term. + 60)(f2). 25 a 2 . 25. 28. plus the sum of the two unequal terms multiplied by the common term.2 6) (a f 6). + 9)(m+9).MUL TIPLICA TION SPECIAL CASES IN MULTIPLICATION 61. (a 9) (a + 9). + 5) (1000 + 4). (5 a plus the sum of the unequal terms multiplied by the common terms. 7.n)(wf w).e. 21. 75 ab f 54 ft . 17. (J 23. 6 ft) (5 a 9 ft) is equal to the square of the common term. 13. plus the product of the two unequal terms.e. 26. (!)(* 5). The product of two binomials which have a common term equal to the square of the common term.25)(y+4).!!)( (a + 21). (1001) (100 (1000 + 2). 8. Find two binomials whose product equals 3x + 2. (10+ (1000 (2. .
15. (II) is only a The student should note that the second type special case of the first (I). <J>7) J . 77ie square of the of the first. (a26) 2 . n2 10ii+16. 16 y* t plus twice the product of the i. III. and the second.40 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA of each. : ar'Sz + a 2 G. a2 2 w + 2 w . plus the square of the second. : 24 (a 2. 7. 2 5. (4 x3 + 7 2 i/ 2 is )' equal to the square of the first. 8j/ 2 + 49 y4 first .30. . is The product of the sum and to the difference the difference of two numbers equal of their squares. 33. second. of the second.e. i. + 3) 2 .e. EXERCISE Multiply by inspection 1. + 6 a + 8. p 2 p. oft x 3 y'2 plus the square of the Hence the required square equals 16 xP f. 9. of the following expres Find two binomial factors sions 30.e. III. 6. . plus twice the product of the first and the second. 35.15. 31. 34. minus twice the product of the first and the 71ie second. 7 a + 10.66 s. (ain general language : Expressed is equal to tlie square I. Ex. w 2 ro . 63. square of the difference of two numbers is equal to the square of the Jirst. i. + 6) (a + 2) a) 2 . (x+3i/) 2 . 3. 32. 4. Some special cases of the preceding type of examples : deserve special mention II. plus sum of two numbers the square II. 2 (a (*5) 2 . m2_ 3m _ 4 2 36. . 8. (a2) (p a . 49 y*. 37.
(6afy 2 5) (a. 62 25n 2 . 2 J ). 2 . I) 2 . 40. 42.998 39. + 3z) 2 2 . 35. . 41 16. (1000 2 . 41. 31. 7& ) 25. 21. n*6n+9. 55. 52. (20 f 1) . 9 a2 .MULTIPLICATION 10. (m f 2 tt n)(ra w ) 26  (^ (2m + 3)(2m3). a2 9. : Extract the square roots of the following expressions 43. 2 + 11 2 (5 r 2 2 2/ ) 2  Z ) 2 2 (5 r f 2 2 . 49. (a 3) 2 2 2 .30 ab + 25 6 64. G> +5g)*. By actual multiplication. 54. 47. ( 27. (3p 9) (6a 2 2 2 . 17. 16aW25.ll^X^+lly (100 30. 51. 99x101. (2x3yy. 2 2 . 2 9a 496 2 56. two binomials whose corresponding terms are similar. 2 11 # ) 2 20. + 1) (100 + 2) 2 . (^. a 2 + 10 ab f 25 b\ Pind two binomial sions 50. (100 + 2) (100 2). a 2 8a6+166 2 . 2 (4a36) 2 13. 12. 18. 104 2 37. 2 2 (5 (a r*2t ) 2 5 (cd 5)(c d 2 . n 2 f4n+4. we have 3x 5x + 2y 4y 2xySy* . 103 36. 48. 15. 29. 991 2 2 . x*+2xy+y\ a 2 2a6 + & 2 m 2 2mhl. 45. 46. 33. The product of 57. 2 2 5c ) 2 2 19. 22. 14. (m 27i )(m + 2n 2 5 ). + 5)(5+a). . 7)(a 2 2 f 7). 22 2 . : factors of each of the following expres y?f. ). 44. 23. 2 (2a6c) (2a# (4 a 6 2 2 . + 5). m 2 16. 32. 24. 11. 998x1002. 38. 2 . . 34. 28. 4 53. 2 . . 25 a 9.
(5a64)(5a&3).42 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA of the result is obtained product of 5 x follows: by adding the These products are frequently called the cross products. : 25 2. 9. . 2 2 + 2) (10 43). sum of the cross products. The square 2 (a 4. ((5a? (10 12. plus the last terms. (4s + y)(32y). (2a3)(a + 2). 3. or The student should note minus signs. 2 (2x y (6 2 2 + z )(ary + 2z ). ) (2 of a polynomial. 2 (2m3)(3m + 2).& + c) = a + tf + c . 8. (3m + 2)(ml). 14. 7. plus the product of the EXERCISE Multiply by inspection 1. The middle term or Wxy12xy Hence in general. 4. 2 2 2 2 (2a 6 7)(a & + 5). (5a4)(4al). that the square of each term is while the product of the terms may have plus always positive. and are represented as 2 y and 4y 3 x. the product of two binomials whose corresponding terms are similar is equal to the product of the first two terms. 65. 6. (x i 5 2 ft x 2 3 6 s). 5. 2 10. 11. 7%e square of a polynomial is equal to the sum of the squares of each term increased by twice the product of each term with each that follows it. (100 + 3)(100 + 4). 13.f 2 a& f 2 ac + 2 &c.
4.i2&c) 2 .(m 2 6.r _ 2 . 8. 3. 8.X2 + 2 x .(>. 12.(= [ Xa + 2 . ber that a parenthesis is understood about each term.4) . 4(* + 2)5(3). the beginner should inclose the product in a parenthesis. 2)6. 66. 7. Ex. = 10 x . 5.4) .[a? . EXERCISE 27 : Simplify the following expressions.3)(z. (u4& + 3c'. 6. 3.39. Check. 2 m 2 + n2 2 "f jp f 2 mn 2 ?wp 2 np.3) . : 43 26 (mf n+p) 2 2 . 5. 7. 4y sf n) 2 . Hence.29. 6(a 2.5).8 x + 15] . 4(aj2)h3(7).5) = (7 . If x = 1. n).24 . . 4. 9. + 6 )2(6 + &)~(&4& ). (mf n)(m+2)3m(n + m).3) (x . 8 2(m 3(6 3 n) 2 3(m + n)H.1 5 = 10 .y? + 8 .(x . of z : 10. (2a36 + 5c) (3 (.39. + 65) . 6~2(a + 7). 13. + 6)( . (a (. after multiplying the factors of a term. Simplify (x + 6) (a .24] . Find the square root 11. (xy+z)*. In simplifying a polynomial the student should remem.M UL TIPLICA TION EXERCISE Find by inspection 1. = . s? + y + z + 2xy + 2yz + 2 xz. (  2 4) =  20 a. 2 2. and check the answers !. (a2)(a3)~(al)(a4). a.
44
9.
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
10. 11. 12.
13.
4(m + 2)
(a?
+ 5(w
3)
5)(oj2)
(a;
(n f 5) (w
 2) + (n  7) (n + 4)  2 (n*  2)
14.
15.
6(p+2)7(p9)2(i> + l)(pl).
16.
17.
x 2 y)(3 x f 2 y)  (4  y) (a3 (a f 6)  4 (a + &) (a f 2 6) + (a (5
2
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
2
(a
faf
1)
(
a  1)
 (a + 1) (a  1).
8
CHAPTER
DIVISION
IV
is the process of finding one of two factors and the other factor are given. The dividend is the product of the two factors, the divisor the given factor, and the quotient is the required factor.
67.
Division
if
their product
is
Thus
by
f
to divide
12.
12
by
+
3,
we must find
is
the
;
number which
3 gives
But
this
number
4
hence
_
multiplied
12 r +3
=4.
68.
Since
f
a

f b
fa
_a
and
it
f
a
= f ab = ab b = ab b = ab,
b
f
follows that
4a
=+b
ab
a
ab
a
69.
Hence the law
:
of signs
is
the same in division as in
multiplication
70.
Like signs produce plus, unlike signs minus.
Law
of
,
a8 5 a5
=a
3
for a 3
It follows from the definition that Exponents. X a5 a8
=
.
Or
in general, if
greater than
m n, a
f
and n are positive integers, and m ~ n an = a m a" = a'"", for a
<
m
m
is
45
46
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
71. TJie exponent of a quotient of two powers with equal bases equals the exponent of the dividend diminished by the exponent
of the divisor.
DIVISION OF MONOMIALS
7 3 72. To divide 10x y z by number which multiplied by number is evidently
2x y
6
2
,
we have
z
to
find
the
2x*y
gives 10 x^ifz.
This
Therefore,
the quotient
*
,
=  5 a*yz.
is
Hence,
sign,
of two monomials of their
part
coefficients,
is the
a monomial whose
coefficient is the quotient
preceded by the proper
literal
and whose
literal
found
in accordance with the
quotient of their law of exponents.
parts
73. In dividing a product of several factors by a number, only one of these factors is divided by that number. Thus (8 12 20)?4 equals 2 12 20, or 8 3 20 or 8 12 5.


.

.

.
EXERCISE
Perform the divisions indicated
'
:
28
'
2
.
76H15.
39* 3.
2
15
3"
7
7'
3.
4*
'
4.
5.
j2
12
.
4
2
9
5 11
68
3 19 j3
5
10.
(3
38

2 4 )^(3 4 .2 2).
56
'
11.
3
(2
.3*.5 7 )f(
2
'
12
'
2V
14
36 a
'
13
''
yfflg
35
5.25
12 a
2abc
15
42^
'
56aW
'
UafiV
DIVISION
lg
47
^1^. 16 w
7
20>
7i
9
_Z^L4L.
22.
10 iy.
132 a V* 14 1
*
01
240m
120m
40
6c
fl
/5i.
3J)
c
23.
2 (15 25. a ) = 5.
25. 26.
(18
(
.
5
.
2a )f9a.
2
24.
(7 26 a
2
)
f
13.
DIVISION OF POLYNOMIALS BY MONOMIALS
To divide ax} fr.ef ex by x we must find an expression which multiplied by x gives the product ax + bx J ex.
74.
But
TT
x(a
aa?
Hence
+ b e) ax + bx + ex. + bx f ex = a 4 b +
\.
,
.
c.
a?
To divide a polynomial by a monomial, cfc'wde each term of the dividend by the monomial and add the partial quotients thus
formed.
3 xyz
EXERCISE
Perform the operations indicated
1.
:
29
2.
5.
fl
o.
(5*
_5* + 52)
5.
52
.
3.
97
.
(2
(G^G^G^iG
(11 2
4.
(8 3
+
11 3
+ 11
5)* 11.
18 aft 27 oc
Q y.
9a
4
25 2 )^2
<?
2
.
+8 5 + 8
7) *8.
5a5 +4as 2a
2
a
14gV+21gy
Itf
15 a*b

12
aW + 9 a
2
2
3a
48
,
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
22
4,
m n  33 m n
4
s
2
f
55
mV
 39 afyV + 26 arVz 3
 49 aW + 28 a W  14 g 6 c
4 4
15. 16.
2 (115 afy f 161 afy
 69
4
2
a;
4
?/
3
 23 ofy
3
4
)
5
23 x2y.
(52
afyV  39
4
?/
oryz
 65 zyz  26 tf#z)
5
13 xyz.
f
,
17.
(85 tf
 68 x + 51 afy  34 xy* f 1 7
a;/)
 17
as.
DIVISION OF A POLYNOMIAL BY A POLYNOMIAL
75.
Let
it
be required to divide 25 a
 12 f 6 a  20 a
3
2
by
2 a 2 f 3 a, divide
4
a, or, arranging according to
2
descending powers of
6a3 20a
f
25a12
2 by 2a 
The term containing the highest power of a in the dividend (i.e. a 8 ) is evidently the product of the terms containing respectively the highest power of a in the divisor and in the quotient.
Hence the term containing the highest power
of a in the quotient is
If
the product of 3 a and 2
2
4 a
+
3, i.e.
6 a3
12 a 2
f
9 a, be sub
8 a 2 f 16 a tracted from the dividend, the remainder is 12. This remainder obviously must be the product of the divisor and the rest of the quotient. To obtain the other terms of the quotient we have
therefore to divide the remainder,
8 a2
f
16 a
12,
2 by 2 a
4 a
+
3.
consequently repeat the process. By dividing the highest term in the new dividend 8 a 2 by the highest term in the divisor 2 a 2 we obtain
,
We
4,
the next highest term in the quotient. 4 by the divisor 2 a2 4 a Multiplying
I
+ 3, we
obtain the product
8 a2
16 a
12,
which subtracted from the preceding dividend leaves
the required quotient.
no remainder. Hence 3 a
4
is
DIVISION
The work
is
49
:
usually arranged as follows
 20 * 2 + 3 0a 12 a 2 +
a3
25 a
{)

12
I
2 a2 8 a

4 a 4
a
_
12
+3
I

8 a? 4 16
a
76. The method which was applied in the preceding example may be stated as follows 1. Arrange dividend and divisor according to ascending or
:
descending powers of a common letter. 2. Divide the first term of the dividend by the first term of the divisor, and write the result for the first term of the quotient.
3.
Multiply this term of the quotient by the whole divisor, and
subtract the result
4.
from
it
the dividend.
the same order as the given new dividend, and proceed as before.
Arrange
the
remainder in
as a
expression, consider
5.
until the highest poiver
Continue the process until a remainder zero is obtained, or of the letter according to which the dividend
is less
was arranged
the divisor.
than the highest poiver of the same
letter in
77.
Checks.
Numerical substitution constitutes a very con
venient, but not absolutely reliable check. An absolute check consists in multiplying quotient and divisor. The result must equal the dividend if the division
was
exact, or the dividend diminished by the remainder division was not exact.
if
the
Ex.
1.
Divide 8 a3
f
8 a
 4 + 6 a  11 a
4
2
by 3 a
,
 2.
^ _ _
,
Arranging according to descending powers,
6 a4 6 a4
,
,
+ 8 a8 4 a3
12 a 8
11
a2 a2
f
8a
4
I
3 a
2 a8
2
f
=
a _+ 2
.
7rl,
4 a2
=
7
+
11

3 a2
3
a'
2
+ +
8 a 2 a
4 + 6a  4
50
Ex.
2.
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
Divide a4
 46 6a6
4
3
f
9
2
6
2
2 l by 26 3a& + a
.
Arranging according to descending powers of
a,
we have
a<a4
6 a36
fr
f
f
9 a2 6 2
2 a2 6 2
2
2
46*
I
a2
a*

8 ab 3 ab
 3 a8


+ 2 6^  2 62
46*
 3 a^ + 9a 2 6  6 ab 8
+ 6 a& a  4 6 4  2 a^a + 6 aft  4
Check.
ft*
The numerical
it
substitution a
=
1,
&
=
1,
cannot be used in this
either to use
example since
larger
renders the divisor zero.
Hence we have
a
number
for a, or multiply.
2  8 ab + 2 & 2 ) ( a _ 3 ab  2 6 2 ) (a = [(a2  3 aft) + 2 62 ] [(a2  3 a&)  2 62 ] = (a 2 3 aft) 2 4 6* = a2  6 8 6 + 9 a2 6 2  4 5*.
EXERCISE
30 *
:
Perform the operations indicated and check the answers
2. 3.
(jf_2y15)i<y6).
2 (15 a
2
4.
5.
6.
 46 a# f 16 ) _ 26 mn 4 5 n ) (5 m
2
i/
5
(5
a5 w).
2
*
(m
7.
(6^53^ + 40)^(6^5).
(56
2 a; f
8.
19 x
15) (8
3).
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
2 (25 a
 36
2
ft
)
j
(5
a
f
6
6)
* See page 263.
(3 a 13 m + 47 m + 35 w (1 (5 m f (6a 2 & 2 2 2 3 2 f 2 3 f ) 5 1) . (8xy + lo22x' y)+(2x y3). c + 3* ' v7 169 a<6 2 ' . b f b by the difference or by the sum Ex. SPECIAL CASES IN DIVISION 78.2) (3 a . 20. 51 15.2).DIVISION 14.81 c8 f ' ISVftQc 8 64 ' a2 166 2 ' a? 10 1 . a I. . . 18. (a? s 8) 4 *( 2). v/17.e. 16. 19. (81 m + 1 . + 23a& + 20)*(2a& + 6). . (aj 3aj2)^(oj2).11 a + 9 a . EXERCISE Write by inspection the quotient 31 of : 2 x 1 c 2 6 ' 3 ^.l. Division of the difference of two squares. (a f b) (a V) Since =a a 2 b 2 .18 m 2 ) f (1 G m f 9 m 2 ). the difference of the squares of two numbers is divisible of the two numbers.
aW 12 a. 4 b. . 14.000. : the following w a 4 !. 16.49. 12. 10. 100ry. 15. 36 a4 ?/ 4 . 9& 2 . 16 . 121a a 16 100 11. .0001. r/ 1. f 13. 1.52 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA of Find exact binomial divisors of each expressions 9.
hence it is an equation of condition. in the equation 2 x 0. in Thus x 12 satisfies the equation x + 1 13. Thus. An equation of condition is an equation which is true only for certain values of the letters involved. is said to satisfy an equation. ber equation is employed to discover an unknown num(frequently denoted by x. the 80. (rt+6)(aft) = 2  b' 2 . The first member or left side of an equation is that part The secof the equation which precedes the sign of equality. An equation of condition is usually called an equation. x 20. the first member is 2 x + 4. (a + ft) (a b) and b. which is true for all values a2 6 2 no matter what values we assign to a Thus. A set of numbers which when substituted for the letters an equation produce equal values of the two members. 81. ond member or right side is that part which follows the sign of equality. 83. y = 7 satisfy the equation x y = 13.r f9 = 20 is true only when a. . . An identity is an equation of the letters involved. second member is x + 4 x 9. =11. . y y or z) from its relation to 63 An known numbers. 82. The sign of identity sometimes used is = thus we may write .CHAPTER V LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS 79.
an^ unknown quantity which satisfies the equation is a root of the equation. the products are equal. one member to another by changing x + a=. 87. 89. x I. 2. A term may be transposed from its sign. If equals be added to equals. 3. To solve an equation to find its roots. Transposition of terms. expressed in arithmetical numbers literal is as (7 equation is one in which at least one of the known quantities as x f a letters 88. If equals be subtracted from equals. If equals be multiplied by equals. a. 90. 9 is a root of the equation 2 y +2= is 20. The process of solving equations depends upon the : lowing principles.g.54 84. 86. 85. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA If value of the an equation contains only one unknown quantity. the quotients are equal. . the sums are equal. (Axiom 2) the term a has been transposed from the left to thQ right member by changing its sign. A numerical equation is one in which all . fol A linear equation is also called a simple equation. called axioms 1. 5. the remainders are equal. A 2 a. If equals be divided by equals. A linear equation or which when reduced first to its simplest an equation of the first degree is one form contains only the as 9ie power of the unknown quantity. = bx expressed by a letter or a combination of c.2. NOTE. Like powers or like roots of equals are equal. Axiom 4 is not true if 0x4 = 0x5. the known quan x) (x f 4) tities are = . 4. 2 = 6#f7. E.b.e. the divisor equals zero. . but 4 does not equal 5. Consider the equation b Subtracting a from both members.
6 y f y\ . 6a5 = 185 = 13. 4x 1 + 6.3 y) + y 2 = 2(11 + i)^ V= 2) 1 4 = 26 i +  = 26 f f = 26$ JI . The second member. b c. Qx 6# = 4x + l + 6. is correct. a? Adding 5 to each term.8. Subtracting 4 x from each term. may be changed Consider the equation Multiplying each member by x\1. The first member. Check. The first member.2. 2 x = 6. if a x = b. Ex.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS Similarly. Uniting. x = 3.9 y + y2 = 22 . 3 y . y) (5 y) unknown Ex. Dividing both members by 2. 2(11 . Dividing by Check. (4y)(6. 91. = 2 (11 3 y) + #*. The sign of every term of an equation without destroying the equality. . b Adding a to both + a. Unite similar terms. and the known terms to the second. Solve the equation Qx 5 = 4 f 1. f If y 20 . SOLUTION OF LINEAR EQUATIONS 1. (Axiom 4) When x = 3.9 y + 6 y = 20 f 22. To solve a simple equation. if 55 x members. 4fl = 12fl = 13 3. Transposing. a= a 6fc.y) = C4 + })(5f The second member. (Axiom 1) The result is first member to the same as the right we had transposed a from the member and changed its sign. x = 93. Solve the equation (4 Simplifying. transpose the unknown terms to the first member. Hence the answer. and divide both members by the coefficient of the quantity.2 y= f . Uniting similar terms. x = (Axiom 3) 92.
x x 1 . : 5# = 15+2a. 2. 19. 3 = 17 3 a? a?. 20. = 5a?+18. = 3. + 7(3 + 1) =63. If x = 18. Dividing by Cfcecfc. a. 15. 7 (6 x 16). + 22. BXEECISB 32* Solve the following equations by using the axioms only 1. 12. 14y = 59(24y + 21). 3 7 a. = 2 ?/. v23. 4y 10. 8. 3. 13 y 99 = 7 y. it NOTE. = 60 7 = 16 + 5 : Xx 7 = 14.. 11 ?/ a? 18. . 17 9 x + 41 = 12 8 17.69. aj * See page 264. {(x (x The The member right member left .. 9 9a? = 7 13. 6. x = 18. 32 = 264.17 + 4y = 36. 87 9(5 x 3) 6(3 a? = 63. a. and check the answers 9. 4a + 5 = 29.7. etc. 11.4) = + 3) = \ x 14 x 21 = 7. 14. 247y = 68lly. a?. 50. \x x 2^xfl. 17 + 5a. 7a? 5. Uniting. 24. J.56 Ex. 21. 3. f Simplifying. =2 = 3. 13a? 3a?. a? a?. Transposing. 7. + 24) = 6 (10 x + 13). ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Solve the equation  (x 4) = \ (x + 3). 22. 17 7 a. + 16 = 16 + 17. 3)= 9(3 7 a. Instead of dividing by \ botli members of the equation \ x would be simpler to multiply both members by 0. 16. Solve the following equations by transposing. 4. = 7.7a: = 394a. .
5) (as (a. and apply the method thus found to the algebraic problem. 39. (aj 37. . WJienever the student is unable to express a statement in algebraic symbols.5(2 u . . . + 7) (. .1) (a (a? + 3) = . 6(6a. Suppose one part of 70 to be a?.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS 25.5) + 199.32.1) (u .14 = 0. + 4). he should first attack a similar problem stated in arithmetical numbers is only. + 1) 8(75 a?) +24 = 12 (4 . . 36.5) = (a.4) + 4 w . and let it be required to If the student finds it difficult to answer find the other part. 42. 41. 40.1 0) = 0. 29. 34.(2 + 6) (4 . Hence if one part the other part 70 x. 27.  +6= aj (4 t t t 1 (5 x (a? 2 2 2 2 2 2 (a? . 57 734* = 13*~2(5*12).2) (M . . . 7(7 x y 26.5)5(7a>8)=4(123a5) + l. 25.7) (7 x + 4) . e. : One part is of 70 is 25 . is the other part.g. a? 43.12) (2 + 5) .3) .(14 x + 1) + 7) = 285 + 21 a* (z + 2) (a5) :=2. SYMBOLICAL EXPRESSIONS 94. he should formulate a similar question stated in arithmetical numbers only.3) + 14. 31. (6 u =5 44.7. Evidently 45.3) + . 7) (a. 35. a? 28. . . 30. (a. find the other part.4) (x + I) + (x + 2) = (x 2(* + l) (2J3)( + 2) = 12. 2 2 * Jaj. 38. or 70 a?. this question. 33.
13. Divide a into two parts. is d. What number divided by 3 will give the quotient a? ? What is the dividend if the divisor is 7 and the quotient ? . a. Divide 100 into two 12. so that one part Divide a into two parts. 17. Find the greater one. find the cost of one yard. or 12 7. 4. so that of c ? is p. greater one is g. and the smaller one parts. 10. 6. smaller one 16. two numbers and the and the 2 Find the greater one. 11. 3. 1. 9. is a? 2 is c?. one part equals is 10. x f y yards cost $ 100 . By how much does a exceed 10 ? By how much does 9 exceed x ? What number exceeds a by 4 ? What number exceeds m by n ? What is the 5th part of n ? What is the nth part of x ? By how much does 10 exceed the third part of a? By how much does the fourth part of x exceed b ? By how much does the double of b exceed one half Two numbers differ by 7. Ex. Hence 6 a must be added to a to give 5. EXERCISE 1. If 7 2. 14. one yard will cost 100 dollars. The difference between two numbers Find the smaller one. one yard will cost  Hence if x f y yards cost $ 100. is b. 5. 7. so that one part The difference between is s. 6. $> 100 yards cost one hundred dollars. 33 2. 15.58 Ex. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA What must be added to a to produce a sum b ? : Consider the arithmetical question duce the sum of 12 ? What must be added to 7 to pro The answer is 5.
smallest of three consecutive numbers Find the other two. 19. amount each will then have. 32. A room is x feet long and y feet wide. A feet wide. find the of their ages 6 years hence. feet wider than the one mentioned in Ex. Find 21. The greatest of three consecutive the other two. How many cents had he left ? 28. 33. 28. sum If A's age is x years. is A A is # years old. A man had a dollars. and c cents. 26. Find 35. b dimes. A dollars. and B is y years old. and B's age is y years. How many years A older than is B? old. What What What What is the cost of 10 apples at x cents each ? is is is x apples cost 20 cents ? the price of 12 apples if x apples cost 20 cents ? the price of 3 apples if x apples cost n cents ? the cost of 1 apple if . Find the sum of their ages 5 years ago. numbers is x. 59 What must The be subtracted from 2 b to give a? is a. If B gave A 6 25. find the has ra dollars. Find the area of the Find the area of the feet floor of a room that is and 3 30. 24. 28. and B has n dollars. ?/ 31. and 4 floor of a room that is 3 feet shorter wider than the one mentioned in Ex. square feet are there in the area of the floor ? How many 2 feet longer 29. 34.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS 18. 20. How many cents are in d dollars ? in x dimes ? A has a dollars. rectangular field is x feet long and the length of a fence surrounding the field. and spent 5 cents. How many cents has he ? 27. y years How old was he 5 years ago ? How old will he be 10 years hence ? 23. 22.
and "by as much as" Hence we have means equals (=) 95.50. What fraction of the cistern will be filled by one pipe in one minute ? 42." we have to consider that in this by statement "exceeds" means minus ( ). how many how many miles will he walk in n hours 38. How many x years ago miles does a train move in t hours at the rate of x miles per hour ? 41. . What fraction of the cistern will be second by the two pipes together ? 44. Find x % % of 1000. % % % of 100 of x. m is the denominator.60 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA wil\ 36. The first pipe x minutes. The numerator If of a fraction exceeds the denominator by 3. miles does will If a man walks r miles per hour. as a exceeds b by as much as c exceeds 9. of m. Find a. find the fraction. A was 20 years old. and the second pipe alone fills it in filled y minutes. c a b =  9. If a man walks n miles in 4 hours. 48. 49. A cistern can be filled in alone fills it by two pipes. per Find 5 Find 6 45. 46. A cistern is filled 43. of 4. b To express in algebraic symbols the sentence: " a exceeds much as b exceeds 9. he walk each hour ? 39. Find a 47. Find the number. how many miles he walk in n hours ? 37. If a man walks 3 miles per hour. a. . in how many hours he walk n miles ? 40. If a man walks ? r miles per hour. The two digits of a number are x and y. How old is he now ? by a pipe in x minutes.
equal to the sum and the difference of a and b sum of the squares of a and gives the Twenty subtracted from 2 a a. etc. In many word There are usually several different ways of expressing a symbolical statement in words. Four times the difference of a and b exceeds c by as d exceeds 9. thus: a b = c may be expressed as follows difference between a : The and b is c. The excess of a over b is c. of x increased by 10 equals x. 80. third of x equals difference of x The and y increased by 7 equals a. 8 b ) + 80 = a . the difference of the squares of a 61 and b increased } a2 i<5  b' 2 ' by 80 equals the excess of a over 80 Or. same result as 7 subtracted from . 3. 4. 5. 2. = 2 2 a3 (a  80. EXERCISE The The double The sum One 34 : Express the following sentences as equations 1. c. double of a is 10. a exceeds b by c. The product of the is diminished by 90 b divided by 7. 80. of a increased much 8. The double as 7. 6. by one third of b equals 100.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS Similarly. cases it is possible to translate a sentence word by in algebraic symbols in other cases the sentence has to be changed to obtain the symbols. c. a is greater than b by b is smaller than a by c. of a and 10 equals 2 c. 9.
6 % of m. the first sum exceeds b % of the second sum by first (e) % of the first plus 5 % of the second plus 6 % of the third sum equals $8000. of 30 dollars. . (c) If each man gains $500. is If A's age is 2 x. express in algebraic 3x : 10. sum equals $20. 12. the first sum equals 6 % of the third sura. a second sum. and (a) (6) A If has $ 5 more than B.*(/) (g) (Ji) Three years ago the sum of A's and B's ages was 50. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Nine is as much below a 13. and C's age 4 a. In 10 years the sum of A's. (e) In 3 years A will be as old as B is now. m is x % of n. a. and C's ages will be 100. 16.000. a third sum of 2 x + 1 dollars. >. A If and B B together have $ 200 less than C. they have equal of A's. first 00 x % of the equals one tenth of the third sum. A gains $20 and B loses $40. and C have respectively 2 a. express in algebraic symbols : 700. A is 4 years older than Five years ago A was x years old. 11. as 17 is is above a. B.62 10. In 3 years A will be twice as old as B. amounts. they have equal amounts. (d) In 10 years A will be n years old. a. 18. 3 1200 dollars. 14. 17. #is5%of450. symbols B. the sum and C's money (d) (e) will be $ 12. 5x A sum of money consists of x dollars. x is 100 x% is of 700. pays to C $100. B's. 50 is x % of 15. B's. (a) (b) (c) A is twice as old as B.. B's age 20. x 4 If A. Express as : equations of the (a) 5 (b) (c) % a% of the second (d) x c of / a % of 4 sum equals $ 90.
the required . Ex. Simplifying. Check. equation is the sentence written in alyebraic shorthand. Find A's present age. A will Check. . NOTE. In order to solve them. x+16 = 3(35). 3z40:r:40z. 4 x = 80. Dividing. Three times a certain number exceeds 40 by as Find the number. 1. exceeds 40 by as much as 40 exceeds the no. 6 years ago he was 10 . number. much as 40 exceeds the number. 3 x + 16 = x x (x  p) Or. number by x (or another letter) and express the yiven sentence as an equation. denote the unknown 96. 23 =30. Ex. by 20 40 exceeds 20 by 20. but 30 =3 x years.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS 63 PROBLEMS LEADING TO SIMPLE EQUATIONS The simplest kind of problems contain only one unknown number. Write the sentence in algebraic symbols. verbal statement (1) (1) In 15 years A will may be expressed in symbols (2). Let x The (2) = A's present age. The student should note that x stands for the number of and similarly in other examples for number of dollars. Uniting. The equation can frequently be written by translating the sentence word by word into algebraic symbols in fact. The solution of the equation (jives the value of the unknown number. be three times as old as he was 5 years ago. be 30 . = x x 3x 40 3x 40 Or. number of yards. In 15 years 10. 3 x or 60 exceeds 40 + x = 40 + 40. Three times a certain no. Transposing. Transposing. the . x + 15 = 3 x 3x 16 15. Let x = the number. 15. Uniting. x= 15. In 15 years A will be three times as old as he was 5 years ago. etc. 2. x = 20.
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 56 is what per cent of 120 ? = number of per cent. A train moving at uniform rate runs in 5 hours 90 miles more than in 2 hours. Let x 3. Find the number. Six years hence a 12 years ago. exceeds the width of the bridge. Uldbe 66  x x 5(5 is = *. to 42 gives a sum equal to 7 times the original 6. Find 8. . Find the number whose double increased by 14 equals Find the number whose double exceeds 40 by 10. EXERCISE 1. then the problem expressed in symbols W or. 13. Forty years hence his present age. Find the width of the Brooklyn Bridge. How long is the Suez Canal? 10. Hence 40 = 46f. 3. 35 What number added to twice itself gives a sum of 39? 44. Dividing. twice the number plus 7. A will be three times as old as toda3r . 5.64 Ex. 47 diminished by three times a certain number equals 2. % of 120. Four times the length of the Suez Canal exceeds 180 miles by twice the length of the canal. A number added number. 300 56. 120. How old is man will be he now ? twice as old as he was 9. 11. 4. by as much as 135 ft. 14. How many miles per hour does it run ? .2. Find the number whose double exceeds 30 by as much as 24 exceeds the number. Find the number. 14 50 is is 4 what per cent of 500 ? % of what number? is 12. What number 7 % of 350? Ten times the width of the Brooklyn Bridge exceeds 800 ft.
B will have lars has A now? 17. 97. If a problem contains two unknown quantities.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS 15. five If A gives B $200. If the first farm contained twice as many acres as A man number of acres. B How will loses $100. the second one. which gives the value of 8.000. written in algebraic symbols. two verbal statements must be given. One number exceeds another by : and their sum is Find the numbers. F 8. times as much as A. x. how many acres did he wish to buy ? 19. Ex. In 1800 the population of Maine equaled that of Vermont. then dollars has each ? many have equal amounts of money. . The sum of the two numbers is 14. 14. 1. and as 15. How many dollars must ? B give to 18. statements are given directly. One number exceeds the other one by II. A and B have equal amounts of money. 65 A and B $200.000. is the equation. and B has $00. and another which lacked 25 acres of the required number. During the following 90 years. numbers (usually the smaller one) by and use one of the given verbal statements to express the other unknown number in terms of x. Vermont's population increased by 180. If A gains A have three times as much 16. Find the population of Maine in 1800. while in the more complex probWe denote one of the unknown x. and Maine had then twice as many inhabitants as Vermont. The problem consists of two statements I. Ill the simpler examples these two lems they are only implied. Maine's population increased by 510. How many dol A has A to $40. make A's money equal to 4 times B's money wishes to purchase a farm containing a certain He found one farm which contained 30 acres too many. The other verbal statement.
Another method for solving this problem is to express one unknown quantity in terms of the other by means of statement II viz. in algebraic i symbols produces #4a. / . the smaller number. < Transposing. + a f f 8 = 14.= The second statement written the equation ^ smaller number. to Use the simpler statement. 26 = B's number of marbles after the exchange. A has three times as many marbles as B. x 3x 4 and B will gain. the greater number. the sum of the two numbers is 14. terms of the other. 2. . Let x 14 I the smaller number. has three times as many marbles as B. = A's number of marbles. 26 = A's number of marbles after the exchange. If we select the first one. consider that by the exchange Hence.66 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Either statement may be used to express one unknown number in terms of the other. Let x 3x express one many as A. o\ (o?f 8) Simplifying. B will have twice as viz. unknown quantity in Then. = 14. A gives B 25 marbles. B will have twice as many as A. and Let x = the Then x +. 2x a? x j = 6. = 3. although in general the simpler one should be selected. expressed symbols is (14 x) course to the same answer as the first method. If A gives are : A If II. 8 = 11. A will lose. To express statement II in algebraic symbols. 25 marbles to B. which leads ot Ex. Then. Dividing. = B's number of marbles. 8 the greater number. Uniting. x x =14 8. . Statement x in = the larger number. . x = 8. The two statements I. I.
Eleven coins. Simplifying. x = 15.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS Therefore. x from I. of dollars to the number of cents. 45 . the price.10. w'3. Uniting. (Statement II) Qx . greater is . The number of coins II. 15 + 25 = 40. have a value of $3. The value of the half : is 11. A's number of marbles. differ differ and the greater and their sum times Two numbers by 60. Let 11 = the number of dimes. How many are there of each ? The two statements are I. . * 98. and the Find the numbers. B's number of marbles. Find the numbers. 6 half dollars = 260 cents. Check.10. 3 x = 45. Two numbers the smaller. 11 x = 5. 50. Uniting. by 44. . 2. x = 6. Dividing. The sum of two numbers is 42. Never add the number number of yards to their Ex. 6 times the smaller. 3. Check. Simplifying. dollars and dimes is $3.$3. 1. then. cents. Find the numbers. x x + = 2(3 x = 6x 25 25). the number of dimes. consisting of half dollars and dimes. Selecting the cent as the denomination (in order to avoid fractions). the number of half dollars. their sum + + 10 x 10 x is EXERCISE 36 is five v v. The numbers which appear in the equation should always be expressed in the same denomination. but 40 = 2 x 20. is 70.25 = 20.. 40 x .5 x . etc. 67 x f 25 25 Transposing. * ' . 50(11 660 50 x )+ 10 x = 310. Dividing. 6 dimes = 60 = 310. we express the statement II in algebraic symbols.240. 60. x = the number of half dollars..75..10. 50 x Transposing.550 f 310.
Two numbers The number differ by 39. and twice the altitude of Mt. would contain three times as pints does each contain ? much 13. Everest by 11. 3 shall be equal to the other increased by 10. A's age is four times B's. cubic foot of iron weighs three times as much as a If 4 cubic feet of aluminum and Ibs. Mount Everest is 9000 feet higher than Mt. Twice 14. How many hours does the day last ? . United States. How many 14 years older than B. McKinley. 5. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA One number is six times another number. and B's age is as below 30 as A's age is above 40. What are their ages ? is A A much line 60 inches long is divided into two parts. and twice the greater exceeds Find the numbers. the larger part exceeds five times the smaller part by 15 inches.. and four times the former equals five times the latter. What is the altitude of each mountain 12. 2 cubic feet of iron weigh 1600 foot of each substance.68 4. the night in Copenhagen lasts 10 hours longer than the day. How many volcanoes are in the 8. ? Two vessels contain together 9 pints. McKinley exceeds the altitude of Mt. 7. How many inches are in each part ? 15. tnree times the smaller by 65. and the greater increased by five times the smaller equals 22. the number. Find their ages. it If the smaller one contained 11 pints more. and in 5 years A's age will be three times B's. 6. as the larger one. one of which increased by 9. find the weight of a cubic Divide 20 into two parts. Find Find two consecutive numbers whose sum equals 157. 11. of volcanoes in Mexico exceeds the number of volcanoes in the United States by 2. On December 21.000 feet. and in Mexico ? A cubic foot of aluminum. 9.
Ex. 4 x = number of dollars C had after receiving $10. Let x II. x = 8. the the number of dollars of dollars of dollars A B C has. number had. they would have 3. sum of A's and B's money would exceed much as A had originally. and C together have $80. 69 If a verbal statements must be given. try to obtain it by a series of successive steps. first According to 3 x number number and according to 80 4 x = the express statement III by algebraical symbols. or 66 exceeds 58 by 8. 1. 8(8 + 19) to C. If 4x = 24. . and 68. The third verbal statement produces the equation. and B has three as A. three One of the unknown num two are expressed in terms by means of two of the verbal statements. has. 5 5 Expressing in symbols Three times the sum of A's and B's money exceeds C's money by A's 3 x ( x _5 + 3z5) (904z) = x. number of dollars of dollars B C had. Tf it should be difficult to express the selected verbal state ment directly in algebraical symbols. original amount. B has three times as much as A. let us consider the words ** if A and B each gave $ 5 to C. The solution gives : 3x 80 Check. are : C's The three statements A. bers is denoted by x." To x 8x 90 = number of dollars A had after giving $5. 19. then three times the sum of A's and B's money would exceed C's money by as much as A had originally.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS 99. times as much as A. and C together have $80. II. A and B each gave $ 5 respectively. III. = 48. number of dollars A had. If A and B each gave $5 to C. B. I. If A and B each gave $5 to C. B. then three times the money by I. and the other of x problem contains three unknown quantities. has. = number of dollars B had after giving $5.
4 x f 8 = 28. 9 cows. sheep. according to III. number of sheep. x = 5. first the third exceeds the second by and third is 20. A and the number of sheep was twice as large as the number How many animals of each kind did he buy ? of horses and cows together. and each sheep $ 15. number of horses. 37 Find three numbers such that the second is twice the first. Find three numbers such that the second is twice the 2. 90 x f 35 x + GO x = 140 20 + 1185. x Transposing. 90 may be written. each cow $ 35. the third five times the first. Dividing. 28 2 (9 5). cows. The number of cows exceeds the number of horses by 4. The number of cows exceeded the number of horses by 4. 85 (x 15 (4 x I + 4) + 8) = the number of sheep. + 35 x 4. 2. according to II. The I. first.140 + (50 x x 120 = 185. 185 a = 925. and 28 sheep would cost 6 x 90 f 9 + 316 420 = 1185. = the number of dollars spent for cows. 28 x 15 or 450 5 horses. = the number of dollars spent for horses. x j = the number of horses. and Ex. and. number of cows.70 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA man spent $1185 in buying horses. and the sum of the . x 35 f + = + EXERCISE 1. The number of sheep is equal to twice tho number of horses and x 4 the cows together. Uniting. The total cost equals $1185. each horse costing $ 90. Let then. + 35 (x +4) f 15(4zf 8) = 1185. III. + 8 90 x and. and the difference between the third and the second is 15 2. x f 4 = 9. 9 5 = 4 . number of cows. 2 (2 x f 4) or 4 x Therefore. three statements are : IT. 1 1 Check. = the number of dollars spent for sheep Hence statement 90 x Simplifying.
first. what is the length of each? has 3. what are the three angles ? 10. increased by three times the second side. the first Find three consecutive numbers such that the sum of and twice the last equals 22. v . If the second angle of a triangle is 20 larger than the and the third is 20 more than the sum of the second and first. The three angles of any triangle are together equal to 180.000 more inhabitants than Philaand Berlin has 1. 71 the Find three numbers such that the second is 4 less than the third is three times the second.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS 3. and the pig iron produced in one year (1906) in the United States represented together a value . and the third exceeds the is second by 5. and is 5 years younger than sum of B's and C's ages was 25 years. and of the three sides of a triangle is 28 inches. and 2 more men than women. the second one is one inch longer than the first. the third 2. If twice The sum the third side. men. v  Divide 25 into three parts such that the second part first. A 12.000. women. and children together was 37. In a room there were three times as many children as If the number of women. If the population of New York is twice that of Berlin.  4. Find three consecutive numbers whose sum equals 63. 13. twice the 6. the copper. and the sum of the first and third is 36. "Find three is 4. twice as old as B. 9. and the third part exceeds the second by 10. is five numbers such that the sum of the first two times the first. equals 49 inches. New York delphia. The gold. what is the population of each city ? 8.000.000 more than Philadelphia (Census 1905). A is Five years ago the What are their ages ? C. first. how many children were present ? x 11. 7.
Hence Simplifying.000. of 3 or 4 different kinds. then x 2 = number of hours B walks. = 35.000. 14. and quantities area. number of hours. of arid the value of the iron was $300. we obtain 3 a. start at the same hour from two towns 27 miles walks at the rate of 4 miles per hour. together. it is frequently advantageous to arrange the quantities in a systematic manner.000 more than that the copper. 8 x = 15. California has twice as many electoral votes as Colorado.000. width. and A walks at the rate of 3 miles per hour without stopping. or time. speed.72 of ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA $ 750. and 4 (x But the 2) for the last column. 7 Uniting. such as length. Let x = number of hours A walks. Find the value of each. B many miles does A walk ? Explanation. has each state ? If the example contains Arrangement of Problems. i. statement "A and B walk from two towns 27 miles apart until they meet " means the sum of the distances walked by A and B equals 27 miles.g. but stops 2 hours on the way. After how many hours will they meet and how E. 3z + 4a:8 = 27. . 3x + 4 (x 2) = 27.e. A and B apart. The copper had twice the value of the gold. Since in uniform motion the distance is always the product of rate and time. and Massachusetts has one more than California and Colorado If the three states together have 31 electoral votes. = 5. First fill in all the numbers given directly. number of miles A x x walks. and distance. how many 100. Dividing. 3 and 4.
fid 1 The field is 40 yards long and 20 yards wide. were increased by 30 yards.053. the second 100. $ 800 = required sum. Find the dimensions of the field.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS Ex.04 8. But 700 certain = 800 2. z = 20." gives (2.01 = = . 73 of a rectangular field is twiee its width. Transposing and uniting. . Cancel 2 # 2 (a 10) = 2s 100. . + 8. A sum invested larger at at 5 % terest as a sum $200 4%. 2   and transpose.x + 00) 2 x2 Simplify. 10 x = 200. x . 2 a = 40. Multiplying.06 = $ 40. $ 1000 x . or 700. + 10 x 300 = 2 z2 100. l. x . Check. The an area 40 x 20 =800.04 = $ 40.05 x x . $ 800 = 800. the area would be 100 square yards less. What brings the same is the capital? in Therefore Simplify. x + 200). If the length The length " The area would be decreased by 100 square yards.M(x . original field has Check. and the width decreased by 10 yards. 70x10 Ex.
sions of the field.55. the area would remain the same. Ten yards $ 42. How much did each man subscribe ? sum walking at the rate of 3 miles per hour. and the sum Find the length of their areas is equal to 390 square yards. sum $ 50 larger invested at 4 brings the same interest Find the first sum. After how many hours will B overtake A. 3.74 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 38 rectangular field is 10 yards and another 12 yards wide. together bring $ 78 interest. as a 4. What are the two sums 5. Find the share of each. The second is 5 yards longer than the first. If the silk cost three times as For a part he 7. A of each. and its width decreased by 2 yards. twice as large. 2. 1. and the cost of silk of the auto and 30 yards of cloth cost together much per yard as the cloth. were increased by 3 yards. A man bought 6 Ibs. but as two of them were unable to pay their share. paid 24 ^ per pound and for the rest he paid 35 ^ per pound. of coffee for $ 1. and in order to raise the required sum each of the remaining men had to pay one dollar more. A If its length rectangular field is 2 yards longer than it is wide. and a second sum. Find the dimen A certain sum invested at 5 % %. mobile. and follows on horseback traveling at the rate of 5 miles per hour. how much did each cost per yard ? 6. A sum ? invested at 4 %. A sets out later two hours B . Twenty men subscribed equal amounts of to raise a certain money. each of the others had to pay $ 100 more. but four men failed to pay their shares. Six persons bought an automobile. invested at 5 %. and how far will each then have traveled ? 9. How many pounds of each kind did he buy ? 8.
walking at the same time in the same If A walks at the rate of 2 far miles per hour. traveling by coach in the opposite direction at the rate of 6 miles per hour. and another train starts at the same time from New York traveling at the rate of 41 miles an hour. and from the same point. Albany and travels toward New York at the rate of 30 miles per hour without stopping. how many miles from New York will they meet? X 12.will they be 36 miles apart ? 11. After how many hours. A sets out two hours later B starts New York to Albany is 142 miles.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS v 75 10. and B at the rate of 3 miles per hour. A and B set out direction. The distance from If a train starts at . how must B walk before he overtakes A ? walking at the rate of 3 miles per hour. but A has a start of 2 miles.
it is composite. 104. it contains no indicated root of this letter . as. \ V& is a rational with respect to and irrational with respect 102. if this letter does not occur in any denominator. a. if. if it is integral to all letters contained in it. + 62 is integral with respect to a. J Although Va' In the present chapter only integral and rational expressions b~ X V <2 Ir a2 b' 2 2 ?> . The prime factors of 10 a*b are 2. The factors of an algebraic expression are the quantities will give the expression. An after simplifying. if it does contain some indicated root of . a factor of a 2 A factor is said to be prime. expression is rational with respect to a letter. f db 6 to b. we shall not. 5. at this 6 2 . 76 . but fractional with respect 103. irrational.CHAPTER VI FACTORING 101. a. this letter. which multiplied together are considered factors. if it contains no other factors (except itself and unity) otherwise . An expression is integral with respect to a letter. vV . 6. a + 2 ab + 4 c2 . stage of the work. a2 to 6. An expression is integral and rational with respect and rational. consider 105.
?/. 2 4 x + 3) is factored if written (x' would not be factored if written x(x and not a product. x. factors of 12 &V is are 3. since (a + 6) (a 2 IP factored. 01. it fol lows that every method of multiplication will produce a method of factoring. TYPE I.3 6a + 1). 2.g. 2. E.9 x2^ + 12 sy* = 3 Z2/2 (2 #2 . .9 x if + 12 xy\ 2 The greatest factor common 2 to all terms flcy* is 8 2 xy' . 110.3 sy + 4 y8). Factor G ofy 2 . Ex. in the form 4) +3.9 x2 y 8 + 12 3 xy f by 3 xy\ and the quotient But. . Factor 14 a* W 21 a 2 6 4 c2 + 7 a2 6 2 c2 7 a2 6 2 c 2 (2 a 2 . 1. 107.62 + &)(a 2 . It (a. 8) (s1). x. it follows that a 2 . 55. Hence 6 aty 2 = divisor x quotient. for this result is a sum. y. or that a = 6) (a = a . 77 Factoring is into its factors. dividend is 2 x2 4 2 1/ . Divide 6 a% . 2. An the process of separating an expression expression is factored if written in the form of a product.62 can be &). The factors of a monomial can be obtained by inspection 2 The prime 108. POLYNOMIALS ALL OF WHOSE TERMS CONTAIN A COMMON FACTOR ( mx + my+ mz~m(x+y + z).FACTORING 106.) Ex. 109. or Factoring examples may be checked by multiplication by numerical substitution. Since factoring the inverse of multiplication.
8. 34 a^c 8 . 2. in general. TYPE IT.2. 4 tfy f.8 c a 15 ofyV . (as 3) and (ccf5).78 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 39 Resolve into prime factors 1. and to multiply 3 and 5 to obtain the term which does not contain x or (x 3)(x f 5) 15. 16. 2 + q. x2 f2 x = 15 we have. 19.4. Ilro8 9. 15.51 aW + 68 21. to find two numbers whose product is 15 and whose sum is f. 7a & 10. 2 2 . obviously. 3x*6x*. 15 2 7. a(mf7i) + & ( m + 3 (a + 6) 3 /(a + 6).4.5 + 2.51 x4 2 6 xy s . 14a 4 5. &{20a 6 4 &3 2 .16 a'V f 48 ctfa^ 2 s 4 : + 34 X 8 a*b f 8 6V .45 afy . in factoring a trinomial of the form x f/>#f q. In multiplying two binomials containing a common 3 and 5 to obterm. + llm llm.30 aty. QUADRATIC TRINOMIALS OF THE FORM 111. 4. 3 2 .5 + 13 8. the y factored expression is (x }m)(x + n). f In factoring x2 2x we have to find whose product is g. : 6 abx . 20.6. . q*q*q 2 a. . a6c. 13.3. we had to add tain the coefficient of x. 14. 11. 3 3 5 6. ) 22  2. 4 8 .5 x*y 2 17 a? .12 cdx.3. 12. 3. e. 2 Or. 17. 2 23. two numbers m and n whose sum is p and and if such numbers can be found.g. 2 6. 32 a *?/ . 7i 13. 18. a a 'Ja . 5f 2 .
3.11. Therefore Check.5) (a .4 .1 afy 8 The two numbers whose product is equal to 12 yp and whose sum equals 3 8 7 y are 4 y* and 3 y*. of this type.1 1 a tf a 4. the two numbers have opposite signs. the two numbers have both the same sign as p. determine whether In solving any factoring example. tfa2  3..11 a 2 . Hence z6 ? oty+12 if= (x 3 y)(x*4 y ). the student should first all terms contain a common monomial factor.30 = (a . or 77 l. 11 a2 and whose sum The numbers whose product is and a. . but only in a limited number of ways as a product of two numbers.11) (a + 7).6 = 20. and (a . If 30 and whose sum is 11 are 5 a2 11 a = 1. Factor a2 . is The two numbers whose product and 6.77 = (a. 77 as the product of 1 77. can be factored. or 7 11. Since a number can be represented in an infinite number of ways as the sum of two numbers. or 11 and 7 have a sum equal to 4. Factor + 10 ax . m 5m + 6. Hence fc f 10 ax is 10 a are 11 a  12 /. and the greater one has the same sign Not every trinomial Ex. 2 6. + 112.11 a + 30.a). Factor x? . Ex. Ex. but of these only a: Hence 2 .G) = . however. If q is positive.4 x . EXERCISE Besolve into prime factors : 40 4. 4. 2. If q is negative. We may consider 1. 2 11 a?=(x + 11 a) (a. 5.5) (a 6). it is advisable to consider the factors of q first.FACTORING Ex. . a 2 . 11 7. + 30 = 20. . as p. 79 Factor a2 4 x .
48 + + 446 200. and the sum of the cross products equals 13 x. ay 11 ay +24. 29. a? + 5 + 6 a. 2 . 2 . 24. 16.70 x y . a 2 +11 a a? 16. ^ </ 2 2 7p8. 36. ra + 25ra + 100. 20. 19. 16. By actual trial give the correct we find which of the sum of cross products.17 + 30. 25. + 2xS. 21. and 5 x. 31. 6 8 8 4 2 a.80 7. 8. 30. . 17. 9. QUADRATIC TRINOMIALS OF THE FORM According to 66. + 44. 17a& + 7(U 9a&226 + 8 a 20. 12. ITT. + 30.500 x + 600. 32. TYPE 113. a 2^ 2 a2 + 7ax 18. 27. 10 x y 2 200 x2 . x*y ra 2 2 4xy 4 wia 2 2 21y. . . a 7 a 30. + 400 x aft a4 4 a 2 . 2 ?/ 28. +7 Hence a? is the sum of the 13 x cross products. (4 x + 3) (5 x 20 x2 is the product of 4 a. 4 3 2 . x2 23. 14. in factoring 6 x2 + 5. 2 ?/ 5?/14.180 a. factors of 6 x 2 and 5 . 2 .2) = 20 x2 + 7 x . 2 ?/ 22. y_ 6y +6y 15?/ 2 ?/ 10. 13.6. a2 . 33. 26. 3?/4 + a' 2a&24& n + 60+177> a + 7 a 30. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBEA x*2x8. + 5<y 24. 18. 2 2 . 21 a 2 2 . 15. such that The The first last two terms are factors of 6 x 2 two terms are factors of 5. 2 2 a' 34. + 4?/21. 35. or . 6 a 18 a + 12 a 2 2 ?/ . 11. 6 is the product of + 3 and 2. 4 2 . 100 xr . we have to find two bino mials whose corresponding terms are similar.
31 x Evidently the last 2 V A 6.5) (2 x . If py? \qx\r does not contain any monomial factor. If the factors a combination should give a sum of cross products. 2. 11 x 2x. 27 x 2. the signs of the second terms are minus. but the opposite sign. Ex.1). and r is negative.13 x + 5 = (3 x . and that they must be negative. exchange the signs of the second terms of the factors. we have to reject every combination of factors of 54 whose first factor contains a 3. the If p and r are positive. which has the same absolute value as the term qx. 2 x 27.83 x f 54.e5 V A x1 3xl \/ /\ is 3 a. Since the first term of the first factor (3 x) contains a 3.5 . . all it is not always necessary to write down combinations.FACTORING If 81 we consider that the factors of f 5 as must have is : like signs. 6 x 9. sible 13 x negative. then the second terms of have opposite signs. 54 x 1. . 64 may be considered the : product of the following combinations of numbers 1 x 54. If p is poxiliw. X x 18. none of the binomial factors can contain a monomial factor. or G 114. Factor 3 x 2 . viz. 18 x 3. 3 x and x. a. 9 x 6. all pos combinations are contained in the following 6xl x5 . and after a little practice the student possible should be able to find the proper factors of simple trinomials In actual work at the first trial. 3.17 x 2o?l V A 5  13 a combination the correct one. The and factors of the first term consist of one pair only. Hence only 1 x 54 and 2 x 27 need be considered. The work may be shortened by the : follow ing considerations 1. the second terms of the factors have same sign as q.
32.2 a 90 x*y . 5. 11. 90 a 8 2 . 2 2 2 23. 22. 5 a6 2 2 9 a .30 y 6 4 . 35. 2 ar* 2 i/ . : 41 2. 16. 25. SoJ + llay 15 aj* 40*. 12y 2/6. 18. Therefore 3 z + 64 The type pa.179. the expressions should be it. . 14 a fa 4. 20. 9a.83 x = (3 . x54 a. 2 2 2 . 12^17^16. 6. + 4. 8. 30. 24. 34. 2m t7w + 3.77 xy + 10 y 23afc + 126 .27). 6n 2 f 13w + 2. 144 x . 9. 14. + 11 or 2 + 12 a.13 xy + 6 y2 12 x 7 ay. 29. arranged according to the ascending or the descending powers of some letter. 19.260 xy . 7. 3x*Sx + 4. 2. . Sar' + SaG.10 4a? + 14oj + 12. 2 31. 2i/ * 2 2 x 27. 100^200^ + 100^. EXERCISE Kesolve into prime factors 1. h r is 2 the most important of the trinomial types. 10 a .19 a f 6. 2 fc . . + 2/3. 10a2 G a2 2 . 15.300 ab 2 f4 250 . 2 . 2 f3y 4y 40a 90aV + 20aV. 6n + 5?i4. 12. 2 28. 10. 13. IV) are special cases of In all examples of this type. and the monomial factors should be removed. f go. 5m 26m f 5. 9 y + 32^16. 4a2 9tt + 2. 2 26.82 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 3xl 3s2 x X 115. 21. X 27 .2) (x . 3a + 13a. 17. 2 . 10a?2 2 33. 3.290 xy f 144 y* 4x 8 ofy + 3 y 2 2 4 2 4 f .7.y + 172/9. 2x* + 9x5. since all others (II.83 x .163 x 2 . 4.
it is a perfect square. 11. 9 +6a6 2 2 f a4 . 14. 13. for + 9 y2 = (4 x .20 xy f 4 y\ . 25 7. A term when two is trinomial belongs to this type. connect the re square roots of the terms which are squares by the sign of the indicate the square of the resulting binomial. 6. 8. form are special cases of the preceding type. a flOa&46 4 wi f 2 2/ 2 . it is more convenient for that type. and may be factored according to the method used In most cases.3 y) 2 is 2VWx 2 x V0y2" = 24 xy. 116.e. To factor a trinomial which maining term. m 14ww + 49n 2 16 a . 4 6 m*ti f 9 n*. . and the remaining equal to twice the product of the square roots of these in order to be a perfect terms. 9 10a625. 5. x> 2 a 2_4 a & a 2 + 462. 16 y? The student should note that a term. however.  2 xy + if = (x 2 ?/) . 3. 4. and factor whenever possible : 1. Expressions of this to factor them according a2 to 65. i. 2 . 10. must have a positive sign. of its terms are perfect squares. 24 xy + 9 y' 2 is Evidently 10 & 24 xy a perfect square. 2 9 10gf25.10 x f 16. and a perfect square. . 9. 2. square. x* . EXERCISE 42 per Determine whether or not the following expressions are feet squares. THE SQUARE OF A BINOMIAL 2 Jr 2 xy +/. 2 2 . m + 2mn + n c 2cdd 2 2 .FACTORING 83 TYPE IV. 12.26 ab + 9 6 2 .
2. +( )f816 30. 16. aV .84 15. 22. 2 20.4 6 = lG(tt +2Z> )(a 26 ). ). product i. 3. 9a2 .6 m* + 9 m. 9. a2 24. prime. m 4a + 12a + ( 2 4m 2 20 f ( ). !Gar 9 ( )+25. 10 a 2 4 2 . 17. TYPE 117. 2 . EXERCISE Resolve into prime factors 1. * 2 . 29. 3. V. ).3 * ). 6. According to 65. . ). + GO + 25. 27. 2 .64 6 = 16(a .20 ab + 10 b a . 100a2 68 a2 & 2 121. 25. 4a2 l. x*Sx + ( 64 a 4 100w +( )+49.e. 48 a +( ). ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 16a 2 24a&4. 5. 16&*. 149 a 81 8. 2 . 36 2 4. 225 ofy . a. a4 a2 2 f 6 is .6 = (a 4 b) = (a* + b*)(a + b)(ab). 6 2 . 2 f b 2 2 2 ) (a NOTE. difference of the squares of two numbers is equal of the sum and the difference of the two numbers. 1. Ex. ^//c to the Ex.60 a# + 4. 2.9 z* = (2 ary + 3 z ) (2 1G a . 19. 4 3 4 ^ 3 8 10 8 10 ) 4 5 4 5 Ex. : 43 tfy\ a 9.2 ofy + ofy m .  + 6a + ( 9a ( ) + 144 a 2 28. 26. 18. a. . 3 Make the following expressions perfect squares by supplying the missing terms : 21. 7. THE DIFFERENCE OF TWO SQUARES JT 2 /. . u2 6& + 2 ( ). 4 2 23.9& 2 3<> 4 2 .
4. (m 3n) 2 ( 2 2 . (m7?) y. Ex. 36> . 13.c .(I) . 11. Resolve into prime factors and simplify EXERCISE 44 Resolve into prime factors 1. (2a5&) (5c9ef) 2 3. 2. (a x? f 6) 6 2 . a2 .d) 2 . 14. 2 . 2 2 : (mfn) _p 2 .FACTORING 85 118. Factor a 2 . 8. 25a (&c) (mh2n) 2 2 . 16p 2 . 2 . of polynomials. (2a (2s + 5) (3a4) 2 2 . a:) 12. T. 2 ?/) 16 2 (y f 2 . 2.(c 4.(c + d) 2 = (a + c + cZ) (a . 5. (m f # 2 2 n) 42:) 10. Ex. 9. One or both terms are squares 1. (?/ 2 cc (x y)*. 6. (x f 3 9 2/ 2 .
VI.1. which may be factored according to types I. 12. + x + 2x + 2. Factor 9 x*y*4:Z 2 f 4 yz. 4 B. 2. a5 + ab 6 .7 c + 2c . ma ?*a + m& nb. the expression becomes the difference of two squares.r.6z2 + 5 = z2 (. After grouping tain a the terms. 6. polynomials can frequently be transformed into bi.4 6 x f 3 a y 2 4. ive find that the new terms con common factor. a 26 2 2 3 . 5) . 119.86 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA TYPE VI. a3 c 3 10ax5ay6bx + 3by. By grouping. + bx + ay + by = x(a + &) + y(a + 6) Ex. GROUPING TERMS By the introduction of parentheses. x8 . = (3 x + y .y + 2 2).14. .ab + bx. + 4cy5dx 2 5dy. Factor ax ax f bx f ay f by. 3. A.and trinomials. raV + nV 3 a 2ic 2 m ?/ 2 n 2an3&n + 2ag3&?. 5. : 45 ax + bx + ay+by. 7. 10.(x  5) EXERCISE Resolve into prime factors 1. Factor or 5 5 x2 x x f 5. a? 11. . Ex.a a . 4:cx . Ex. 9. 8.2 ) (3 x . 1. 2.
12 ax + 9 a2 + 4 &t/ 4 y2 = (4 a 2 .9 a2 4 v* 2 . IV.* */2 ft EXERCISE Kesolve into prime factors 1. Arranging the terms. 6a4 + 37a2 + 6.10 xy + 4 y\ 2 . : 46 x* 2. + 2xy + y*q*. $ a8 . 4 a2 . l~a 2a56 2 2 . Trinomials are factored by the method of cross products. .12 aaj 4 6y. 4. +c+ 2 2 2/ .l.4 f . 87 f Factor 4 a2  6 2 + 9 tf . a 2 10a6 4 2 + 256 2 x ar 2a. 5. 2a3/ 7. Binomials are factored by means of the formula a 2 6 2 III. 3. First find monomial factors common to all terms. 4. : m 2 2 16. 8. 8. 3. 6. EXERCISE 47 MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES* Resolve into prime factors !. m Gw + 9n * See page 266. 2. SUMMARY OF FACTORING I. 6 6.FACTORING Ex. 2 7. 8ra 2 + 16. Polynomials are reduced to the preceding cases by grouping terms. .62 + 9 _ 4 _ 12 ax + 4 6y 2 = 4 a 2 . w m 2. although frequently the particular cases II and IV are more convenient.6 ww + n 2 2 < a 2 4a6 + 46 25. II. 6a4 12a2 + 6. 2. = (a + 6)(a6). 36 9 m .12 z + 9 x2)_ (&2 _ 4 ty + 4 ^2) a.
3 a2 23. any V 2 ( 51 xyz + 50. 28.24. 30. 2 ft . 24. 13 c . 12. 2 17. 42 s 2 . 11. 13. . 42 x .40. 5 a. 32 aft + 6 4ft 4 . 35. + 14. 2 3#4 3a2 36. 40.156.88 10. + 6 aft + 3 . 2 a 128. 1 ?v _w 8 2 33. 50^ + 45.85 xy + 42 y 10 w 43 w 9. a5 a 1 4 2 39. 256 4 2 2 ?/) . a3 156. __ ft)2 n Qy 2 . 4 a. 6 :J 2 2 ft 2 16. 10 a 2 4a 4 26. (^ 34. 32. 3 41. 48. 3 25. a6 36. 29. 20 >r + 2 ?<s __ G4. (a. 49 a 4 4 42 a + 9 a 20a 90a 50. 18.310 x . 5a' 20. a + a + a + l. or 3 7#2 . 4 8 tt 2 z . 25 a + 25 aft . 3 2 . 14. 80 a 2 ft 38. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA x*xif. 4 2 2 ft ft 2a + a*l. 19. 27. 22. a.13 c .
Thus the H. of : 48 4. F. F. F. C. 122. aW. 3 . . 5 2 3 . 6.  23 3 . F. of two or more monomials whose factors . F. of aW. If the expressions have numerical coefficients. 5 s 7 2 5. is the lowest that the power of each factor in the power in which that factor occurs in any of the given expressions. 121. C. expressions which have no are prime to one another. C. 13 aty 39 afyV. find by arithmetic the greatest common factor of the coefficients. C. EXERCISE Find the H. 3. 33 2 7 3 22 3 2 . of the algebraic expressions. 54  32 . The H. the algebraic factor of highest degree common expressions to these expressions thus a 6 is the II. The highest is common factor (IT. 5. II 2 . F. are prime can be found by inspection. + 8 ft) and cfiW is 2 a 2 /) 2 ft) . The student should note H. F. 2. F. and prefix it as a coefficient to H. F. and GO aty 8 is 6 aty. 25 W. of a 7 and a e b 7 . F. 24 s . C. 15 aW. 8 .) of two or more . 12 tfifz. of 6 sfyz. 2 2 . of (a and (a + fc) (a 4 is (a + 6) 2 . C. The H.CHAPTER VII HIGHEST COMMON FACTOR AND LOWEST COMMON MULTIPLE HIGHEST COMMON FACTOR 120. 5 7 34 2s . Two common factor except unity The H. of a 4 and a 2 b is a2 The H. C. 89 . C. C. C.
4a f 4a2 2 2 a 2  .y + y42.# 4 afy f 4 . 8 6. F. 11. 2a f5af 2. 2 . 7/ EXERCISE Find theH.7 xy + 10 2 = (x . 13. . 1. 8(?/ifl) 14. 3^ 2 4 . 9. 38 #y. 3 . ^2 2 . 6 a2 y? . F. 8. 4 7/i 3 n2 10 4 mV. a3 16 a.y)\ O+ 0^(0. Find the H.2 y) (a. 15 3ao. 25 m27i.y) 123. of: . F. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBEA 6 rarcV. a2 + 7af!2. 3. a2 . a2 + 2a3. .5 y). (a7 ?/) . 4(m f ?i) 3 3 5(w + w) 5 7(m + n}\m 2 ri). 57 a>V. 4(m+l) 3 . . 11. 5 a6 5^ 2 a. ^f a. 15 xy^ 2 10 arV .2 ?/) (x . 16 a .8 a + 16. 10. aWd. To find the H. 15. 1.5 x3?/ 2 6. 16. .6 a' + 2 a& + 6 . 75 a&X 15 bed 11 . 2 . 2 . C. and apply the method of the preceding article. 0^80:416. resolve each polynomial into prime factors. 8 a 10 . 6 mx . ^707 + 12. of + 4 if.3 xy + 2 y* = (x . of polynomials. 12 w*nw 8.90 7. y + 3y64. a. a3 9a. 95 2/V. C. 12 . 14. Ex. F. 65 zfyV. 3). 9. 52 oryz4. 12.^9. 4 a3 6 4 8 a663 . 8. 6 3 a. x* x2 Hence the H. 7. 30 mu\ 39 afyV.6. 5. . . 49 C. 2 . = x 2 y. 225 4a 9 . ^a + 5^ + 6.6 . 12. 4 ?io. x2 ^4^ and tf 7 xy + 10 f.6 a&. 10.12 as 66 . 24 a 2 .5 + 6. a 3a4. 6(m+l) (m+2).y) . 9 aj*(a? . 2.?/ . a2 ar* 4. C. 13.
= (a f last 2 &)' is (a  6) . The lowest common multiple (L. of 3 aW. thus. C. C. of several expressions which are not completely factored. C. A common remainder. M. 128. of tfy and xy*.C.) of two or more expressions is the common multiple of lowest degree. Find the L.M.6 3 ). M. of 4 a 2 6 2 and 4 a 4 4 a 68 2 . Ex. 2 multiples of 3 x and 6 y are 30 xz y. M. find by arithmetic their least common multiple and prefix it as a coefficient to the L. of 12(a + ft) and (a + &)*(  is 12(a + &)( . M. 1. C. L. Obviously the power of each factor in the L. of as &2 a2 + 2a&f b\ and 6a. 2 The The L. If the expressions have a numerical coefficient. 6 c6 is C a*b*c*. C. Find the L. The L. a^c8 3 . M. 60 x^y' 2 . C. Common 125. . Hence the L. M.C. C. &) 2 M. 300 z 2 y. C. ory is the L. 126. two lowest common multiples. each set of expressions has In example ft). 2. M.(a + &) 2 (a have the same absolute value. Ex. =4 a2 62 (a2 . etc.M.6)2. of the general. M. C. is equal to the highest power in which it occurs in any of the given expressions. 127. .LOWEST COMMON MULTIPLE 91 LOWEST COMMON MULTIPLE multiple of two or more expressions is an which can be divided by each of them without a expression 124. 4 a 2 &2 _ Hence. NOTE. C. which also signs. resolve each expression into prime factors and apply the method for monomials. L. To find the L. M of the algebraic expressions. but opposite .
3. + 2 7i) .92 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 50 C. 2 x \2 y. a. 3 (a2)(a3) ( a 3)(a4) 2 2a?b'2ab 2 a. a2 4. 4 a f 2. 16. G a. 2 a?b\ a + 2ab + b' 2a2b. a. 3 f2. a 2 f 4 a +4. 6b 2 . 4 a 5 6cd. f b. ) . (For additional examples see page 268. 2 a . 3 ab. of: 4. bx a? 8 2 lOajflfi. or f 3 a 15 #. 4 a . afc'cd 2 . 5 a 2 ^ 2 15 . by. . 11. 24 x.1. . x2 5 f 2 3# 5 + 2. 22. 21. x 2 5 a. a { a~b. xy\ . 1. a2 ~ab 1. T a 3 a 2 . ic 2 ?/. 7. 2(m 2 . a f 3. 8 d 5 . 2 a. a& 4 +& 2 . 5.1. 2 7ic+10. Find the L. a 2 a3 . (a 4)(a2) 12. 2 . x2 2 + 5 a + 6. 40 abJ. 2 10. 2 a . 30 a. b 2 . 8. 6. 3 . a f 2 19. a 1. 3(a + b). a !. 2 ic 3 4a 8 a. + 2. afy. ic 23. a?b. x2 + 4 a f 4. 3 Z> . 18. a 2 fa6. 24. 3 6 xif. 9. 3(m + n) 4 m 2 . 6 y. 5 a? 5 a? y. y*. 15.f 6. + 6. 8 afy. 17. 6 a. x* ~5a. a^1. 2 . a. 20. 14. 20 9 a. #. ax {ay ~ 3 a 3 b. 2 . 2. 3. 13. M.
the value of a fraction is not altered by multiplying or dividing both its numerator and its denominator by the same number. Thus. a?. C. thus  is identical with a divisor b the denominator. however. The dividend a is called the numerator and the The numerator and the denominator are the terms of the fraction. and denominators are considered. Reduce ~ to its lowest terms. All operations with fractions in algebra are identical with the corresponding operations in arithmetic. an indicated quotient. rni Thus 132. TT Hence 24 2 z =  3x . common 6 2 divisors of numerator and denomina and z 8 (or divide the terms . etc. only positive integral numerators shall assume that the all arithmetic principles are generally true for algebraic numbers. a b = ma mb . and i x mx = my y terms A 1. 130. as 8. Ex. successively all 2 j/' . F.ry ^ by their H. A f fraction is b. the product of two fractions is the product of their numerators divided by the product of their denominators. 131. If both terms of a fraction are multiplied or divided by the same number) the value of the fraction is not altered. but we In arithmetic. Remove tor. fraction is in its lowest when its numerator and its denominator have no common factors.CHAPTER VIII FRACTIONS REDUCTION OF FRACTIONS 129.
Keduce a* ~ 6 a' 4 *8a 6a qs _. resolve numerator and denominator into their factors. Keduce 62 ~ 2 62 a2 to its lowest terms. Ex. 3. _Q 2 6 EXERCISE 51* Reduce i to lowest terms 3 : 95 2 *' o 3 * 3T5"** T^ 12a4 " 3 K 6 ' 32 78 ' ' 2. 6 24 a2 to its lowest terms.4) Ex. tf a*  n2 + 8 a 24 a* _ ap 2 . cancel factors only. To reduce a fraction to its lowest terms. and cancel all factors that are common to both. Never cancel terms of the numerator or the denominator.94 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 133.33 7 a 36 arV 18 x2^' 39 a2 6 8c4 * See page 268. . 2.6 a + 8) 6 d\a* .
9x + "a" 10. . 16. g J 21. ^' rt ^  31.FRACTIONS 7 95 22 a 2 bc 1 4 ^. n h ' m11 2 m 3 8. 29. x1 15 ' ft< 4 xy //(/ _. ^" a.*.n 8 + T> ? wn + n 2 ?i 2 m " *7 . ny 4 18.7 . """. nx 17. + ' 4 2 ?/ 27. 11 ^ Mtr f . 19.10 a + 3 2 14. 12 15 m m 2 2 7 w. 3a ^ ^ "^ 2 9 . _ 3 7i rt< 26. 5^10 y 30.' 32. ~__ 9n _ 22 9. 'M 3 ??i 2fi 25. 04 !l 9 or 2 6 it*?/ +y 2 12. ^+3*. ' ^ . . . 23.. LJZJ^JL. * OQ 3 a3 _6a a/i 2 2 5 ?tt +6 ^.
 by 4 6' . 1. =(z (x + 3)(z.1^22 ' . Multiplying these quotients by the corresponding numerators and writing the results over the common denominator. 2> . and 135. and (a 8). Ex. and 6rar 3 a? kalr .C. . we may extend this method to integral expressions. multiply each quotient by the corresponding numerator. ^ to their lowest com The L.M. . 1).3)O  Dividing this by each denominator. mon T denominator. ELEMENTS OF 'ALGEBRA Reduction of fractions to equal fractions of lowest common Since the terms of a fraction may be multiplied denominator. Reduce ^. M.~16 (a + 3) (x.C. C. by the denominator of each fraction. by any quantity without altering the value of the fraction. TheL.96 134. multiplying the terms of 22 . and Tb reduce fractions to their lowest common denominator. Ex  Reduce to their lowest common denominator. To reduce to a fraction with the denominator 12 a3 6 2 x2 numerator ^lA^L O r 2 a 3 ' and denominator must be multiplied by Similarly. 3 a\ and 4 aW is 12 afo 2 x2 . we have (a + 3) (a 8) (!)' NOTE. of the denominators for the common denominator.3) (!)' = . Divide the L. we have M^.  of //* 2 . take the L.D. we may use the same process as in arithmetic for reducing fractions to the lowest common denominator.by 3 ^ A 2 ' . Since a (z 6 + 3)(s3)Ol)' 6a. C.r 2 2 . and the terms of ***. we have the quotients (x 1).M. . + 3).
fractions having a common denominator are added or subtracted by dividing the sum or the difference of the numerators by the common denominator. o o a.oj o* or / .FRACTIONS EXERCISE 52 97 . 2 3 9a ~l' 3al 6 8 a ' 2 a8 * 5 4a 8' ' a jj + 6 a 9 ^ . 7i 2 ab* ". 22 a2 5a * .T n"> ^' 5c 3 26 o atf o> 5 77" ' . 74).a+2 ' a 2 3af 2 ADDITION AND SUBTRACTION OF FRACTIONS 136. . 8 i i. i. . . they must be reduced to equal fractions which have the lowest common denominator before they can be added (01 subtracted). Since {c c = 5L^ c (Art.T 3y Ga1 ax 9 ' 2a . 3.Reduce the following to their lowest 1. 2aj ~ . 137. common denominator 6. 5a 3 zl ' _ 2al n. . If the given fractions have different denominators. ?y2" m^ S? m 2 7^ m S* **. JL.^1. 2 ay IB. 5?. bxby g ! a 5 ' a f5 a2 25 ?. . j y 3. 2. 18... a? 1 5 > ^* .
20 aft 3ft) f 3 ft 2 4(2a3ft)(2af 4 aft f 21 2 138. 4(2 a 3 ft). ^ is 2^JT) . D. cr \t Simplify _T__ r* + .3 .ft)(a . e. a 3 2a + "~ a2 ft). write 2 the product in a parenthesis.(a 2 6). in the beginning. 2. 4 6 + 2qg+6~agf4a&8 a(aft)(a 2ft) ft 2 a2 a(a + 5 aft . L. T? Ex.ft) (a ft ft)~.3 ft)(2 a + 3 ft) ft ft) (6 a ft) _ 8 a 2 f 24 aft 20 a 2 f f 18 2 + ft 12 a 2 . the student should remember that parentheses are . (2 ~ a ft) a(a  + 7 ft)fa ft)(a 2 ft)  ft) a(a 2 ft) NOTE. 2 ^. (a .3 ft)(2 a f + : Ga6 + 3 ft). and adding.aft  _ 3 ab + 2 = ( a _ ft)( _ 2 a 2 2 aft :=(. a2 ab ft2 Hence the a a2 f 2 6 a2 .3 ft).. Multiplying the terms of the first fraction by 2(2 a the second by (2 a . ft). The L.2 ' 2 _. as 4 aft f. (a8ft)(a~ft) 8 2 2ft) 2 =a 4 2 + 2 (2 a 4.98 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA  Ex ' Sim C. (a ft).7 .g.3 ft 2).4 aft + ft ft ) a(a  ft)(a 2ft) 2 =a . ft) ft ft a(a ~ 3 aft + 2 ft2 a2  2 aft _(a + 2ft)(a2ft) +a (2q + a(a . ^ _ ^ a3b ft). understood about terms ( 66) hence he should. The results of addition and subtraction should be re duced to their lowest terms. we obtain 2 a the terms of 2(2 a +3 3 ft 6 a f ft _ 2(2 a + ft) 3 ft) (2 a ft) 4(2 a 3 4(2 a ~~ + 3 ft) f (2 a . D..aft) Ca2 . (a 3 ft) In simplifying a term preceded by the minus sign. C.2 = a(a .
1 f q * 1 m m . 1* 1 + mf 3 1 M. 15. 6 c 3a 7. 23. 20. 46 2a 4a 12. 1 1 f w 16.5 18 ^4f25. 2. 18 v 19. A+2_3. a 36 ++. a+6 a 6 2 14. t3 m2* a _2 6 a 4. 9m + 7n 3 6m 5n 2x + 3y 3x 15 y x + 2y 45 8. 36 3u 2v v 5 wv 8v 12 uv 13. j>0 i> 21. 6a116 13 a 15a26 116 e ' 6 2 10. 30 u +? + i _H_ + _*_. 2L + 2a 1 17. a2 a + 3* 2 a 7 af1 ' 2) * See page 270.FRACTIONS EXERCISE 53* Simplify : 99 2a4 5 3. + . 5a76 4a 106 9. + a "" 2 6 ' . 24.
41. a ?^ 40. 3a 9 +. / IIlNT: Let a 1  39. af 1f /j. 43. _ ' a +b +a= ( 38. _ + a? ?/ + y. a 30. a 4 31.9. ^2^+6m 3 45 ' 44.LOO ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 26  x*3x + 2 x2 5x 27 ' ~. 1 34. a 2 ^> 2 x2 7x+12~x l7x + 4:~ ' } . 42. _m & 2 i +m 6 i _w 36 a2+ a ^_2&2 35. ic 1 + 1.9 79 6 2 i. ! n. a. 2 af1 32. x2 Q 3 /Yl Qfi ou L "I "I \_ L I * 7 ITi ~T~ 7 TTo O :_ ' i 37 _ 9 <1  1 i 1 '> a2 . x + 3y x3y Gx x2 2x .
 4 or 3 2a.6 x + 10x4 x2 17 Therefore x y 3g . 2 + 4tf 3 17 .  . T. . Reduce .17 (2^ + 2x f 53 (2x.7 5a v Ex. . . 2x 4 x3 to a mixed expression. 2 x2 + 2 g 4. To reduce a fraction to an integral or = + ceo 2 * * (S74) v ' Hence 5a2 15a7 = 5 a2 oa 5a 15a oa 7 5a =a 3 . 101 mixed expression.FRACTIONS 139. 1.6 + 4x 4 x2 .'3) 2 EXERCISE expression 54 to a Keduce each of the following fractions : mixed or integral a a +1 9a2 6a + 2 3a m 2 * 5 m f 6 4 m 7 n 2 + 7n + 14 fi .
expressed in symbols: c a _ac b'd~bd' principle proved for b 141. we may extend any e. multiply the 142.) Ex. and the product of the denominators for the denominator. 2 a Ex. integer.102 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA MULTIPLICATION OF FRACTIONS 140. (In order to cancel common factors. Fractions are multiplied by taking the product of tht numerators for the numerator. each numerator and denomi nator has to be factored. Simplify 1 J The expreeaion =8 6 . Common factors in the numerators and the denominators should be canceled before performing the multiplication. 2. x b c = numerator by To multiply a fraction by an that integer.g. Since  = a. fractions to integral numbers. !. or. F J Simplify .
14.. 5n a2 43a4 a2 3 a 4 a 2 5ah4 <  x2 + x (x 2 I) 17.20 3a 2 6 ' GoA ai> 56 2c " ar " ' 4 ac2 V V 3m " " +1 " " o?f 2 ~ ' _ 9m JO.6 12 d6 4. 50 . _G x 7 a2 5a6 a. aj 5 1 a? 18. 2 f 5 a.. 6) 12 ot 2 ab + 2 fc a b* o. 4 8.FRACTIONS EXERCISE Find the following products ' 103 55 : 2!v! 2 4 5 8 a2 " ' ^ ' 36^ 21m* ' 17 ab ' ' 2 48 as b*' 34 ab 2 14m4 . 53 *38 " ' 4 ' 14 b* ' 10 a 8 ' " 4af86 76 5c 36C2 10 (a 7a216 a2 2 q~. 5# 56 / c& 4. . 2 25n 2 1 3m +&n 15.
and the principle of division follows may be expressed as 145. * x* f xy 2 by x*y +y x' 2 3 s^jf\ = x' 2 x* . x a + b obtained by inverting reciprocal of a fraction is the fraction. 144. To divide an expression by a fraction. Integral or mixed divisors should be expressed in fractional form before dividing. 8 multiply the Ex. 1. : a 41 ab * See page 272. . The reciprocal of a number is the quotient obtained by dividing 1 by that number. To divide an expression by a fraction. Divide Xn?/ . The The reciprocal of a is a 1 f reciprocal of J is  .104 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA DIVISION OF FRACTIONS 143.y3 + xy* x*y~ f y 8 y f 3 2/ x3 EXERCISE 56* Simplify the following expressions 2 x* '""*'*' : om 2 a2 6 2 r  3 i_L#_i17 ar J 13 a& 2 5 ft2 ' u2 +a . invert the divisor and multiply it by the dividend. The reciprocal of ? Hence the : +* x is 1 + + * = _*_. expression by the reciprocal of the fraction.
l.6 s + 064. Simplify <! c a a2 c 4 L 4. a 6 _6 c c ac a6 2 4. a a2 4. ga2 4 8 5 a .FRACTIONS 105 .T ?/ 4 2 a*?/ 15 #4.6 COMPLEX FRACTIONS 146.&c 2 ~ a 4 a2c 4. or both.10 ?/ _.afr 4. are fractional. A complex fraction is a fraction whose numerator or denominator.' ' * ' ^5^+4 . t ' a^3^4 ? 4* ' a?~ab > a 2 a 4a 4 4 a: +3 m 12 2 f.^c 2 2 . Ex. c ab 2 4 &c* & a .5 ??i 80 50 . mm 5 a a2 6 2 4g2 2a 2 4g20 25 ._ # ~ y ' 45 14 in^o 2 ?/ ^y "xy 15 a2 + (Jf fr a b .1 5 w + 56 a 2 w a2 2 4.
of their denominators. 6.16 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA In 147. Ex. . y X 4* 2 y 3. a m "" . i. JL. M. 7i+~ 7. the answer is directly obtained. the expression becomes (x EXERCISE Simplify : 57 x 2. 2.a ^c c _^ a . 9. . C. c +6. 10. many examples the easiest mode of simplification ia multiply both the numerator and the denominator of the mplex fraction by the L.?/ x y _x^_l X ~V x+y . n a 8.y 32 . . . B If the numerator and denominator of the preceding examples multiplied by a&c. xy x +y Multiplying the terms of the complex fraction by (x y). x* 4. & . Simplify x }.
1 + 1+ 1 ti flgfl a?l ic+1 a. i ~T" * ~ 1 y 19 4 ' !^5n a "~ 12. sy 18. 2 & a 20  a46 13. m^n* n L a 17. 1 +2 1 i " f " ( a + 1 /*_i_i 4 14. o 15.~l (For additional examples see page 273.) .FRACTIONS 107 1 i m 11. 1 i 1 2 5 . : .
C.28 a = 5 x2 .9(se + !)( 14 x 2 . 5 x2 + 20 x + 15 15 . 14 z 2 + z 2 + 20 x . 108 .42 + 9. Bx 12 Qx. M. Solve ^2^ = 63 2 x 12 * + **.1. 4 4)  x.48. Clearing of fractions. tions. 9x x Check. of the denominator. 2 3. each member is reduced to Ex. a.28 x + 42 = . Transposing. Multiplying by (x Simplifying. x = 6. each member is reduced to 1. !)(&+ 1) (x + 3). Solve 5 I 14 x +1 x +3 I). .9 x2 + 9. If x 6.  2(x 2 + 3) Removing parentheses. Uniting. 148. these Ex. = 6. 2x Transposing. + 1) (a + 3) .14 (a. If = 64.l)(z + 3) = . 6 = = 72 72 3 (a. = 6.CHAPTER IX FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS FRACTIONAL EQUATIONS If an equation contains fracbe removed by multiplying each term by the may L.8 x = . 2z2a. 2. Multiplying each term by 6 (Axiom 89).f3# + C:E=6f7212. Uniting. 5(3 85 Check. 1.
+1 = 5. o ""~TiT" ' 3 12. . +4 14. 4 y 2 ^ 16 20 +2 334 y2 y3 == on . 15. 18. a/  5 a/ = 12. ^' 2. . a. = xx a? a? hi x +^ + 3 = 11. 16. 1 *> = 2.FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS EXERCISE Solve the following equations : 109 58 ^ 4 3 _ +7 a? 32 3 10.= 2.1 _77 a. 1+5 & ^0 ^ a? = 19 1 11. '  4 13. 3 a? '2 4 "  2 a? "T"" 4 4. a: 7 a. ^1 = 9.
and after simplifying the resulting equation to clear of all denominators. 33.11_4 x 149. ?_=_. . 3x 35. 26 26. J_. 2^12 = 2 = 34. . 3 3x2 51 3x*2x 23 x 3x2 22 36. 2 20 x+3 x3 3 o^ 28 .  38 = 40. + 26 2^43 1 4^9 1 2a?3 A* 37. 32 6 ._ _ . .110 ELEMENTS Of ALGEBRA 24. it is advisable first to remove the monomial denominators only. 25. ^^ ' 39 7 ' x. . 27 . 31 31. y+3~2 29. If two or more denominators are monomials.  2  13 _J_ = _J3 . 4a4l4* + l~. and" the remaining one a polynomial.
Check. f 13 8#f 2__ 2x 5 7 15 ~~716* 6a? 44. Solve 111 10 Multiplying each term by tors. Solve the following equations 41 : 5a. = 9. a.29 50712' 9 18 . 26 a. 24 a. M. Dividing. 5 = 20 g 5 a: ~ Jff 1 . C. Transposing and Multiply ing by 6 uniting.2 3 ~  == 7a. 10 x f 6 __ 4a.2 42 9 43. the 1 5 L. each member is reduced to ^.r7 5 +l 6afll~~ 3 6xflO ' 5 2a?~25 15 17a?~9 14 28 6414 . 5# 10.. 60. Transposing and uniting.  5 = 20 x 45. If a. . 5x x : = 9.1. 1.FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS Ex. of the monomial denomina~ &Q =: n 16 x 2( +3~ x 16 x  2.
unknown letter is not expressed by or z.2 ac + 3 aft . = 6 a2 . Uniting. f ~ 5c. a.be. ax f x f. = 2 f b 2 . 5> a. they are united by factoring.m bx 2 mn) x. 3(ac) c) Multiplying by 3 (a .& . = = 6 6c 7 6c. b a a a z Clearing of fractions. . and multiplying by a(9 b 4 c 4 c) = 7 &c. If 3ac L= = a ? .c) (3 a ac 6(rtfc)(ac) 6 a2 6 a& +6 6c = (2a + &)(3ac). 2.m 2* = (a f 6) mnx = (1 4. Literal equations ( 88) are solved by the same method as numerical equations.2 62 2 ab. Dividing. ax + bx ax (a f IP Transposing. l to = !=?_=^6? a f 6. to Transposing all terms containing a 6 ab 6 ac one member. It frequently occurs that the x. Ex. bx f 6)z = 3 & 2 ab. fr Reducing lowest terms.1. find a in terms of b and c. jr.112 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA LITERAL EQUATIONS 150. =a 2 151. Uniting the Dividing. Ex. + 2 ac 9 a& 3 ab Simplifying. 4 ac 1. When the terms containing the unknown quantity cannot be actually added.3 6 2 = a' . y. = l^ 9 b 4 . Thus.
30. iw 21. q solve for/. + 3a. ^ ax a^ 26. 6. If * 33. 4. 1 f. 3(2a + aj) 25 ?+l '~~ a/ 1 = 2L . Find the formula for: () The (6) (c) principal. 12. = 8 4 #. 3. co?. Ex. f ^o. If s (wi n) x =px + q. . 3(* 8. c. p the principal. = vt. mx = n. f P =+!. 11.i l . denoting the interest. 34. 4. in terms of other quantities. = 5. r the number of $>. solve for a. 10. 17. = 3 (6 a). + xx = 1. 2 solve for y a. c 18. . a? x!7  a ITo x T _ ~ 2 8. . 15. 9. solve for .FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS EXERCISE Solve the following equations : 113 59 *. a. 13. and n the number of years. The The i time. 29. = 2(3a = aajffta? + 7^ = 0*+^ 4 (a x) 1 a). a + 26+3aj=2o + 6 + 2a?.= H. * Solve the same equation for^). t. m a? x . 31. = rt.a. i The formula for simple interest ( 30. rate. IIL n b + &o. s = Vt solve for v. If s If 16. = 6 (m f n) = 2 a + (m?i)a?. If ^^ = a 1 32. 14. .= n.= c a Z> . 5) is t =^. _ 2.
Ex. and 12 = the number over. ~^ = 15 11 x ' !i^=15. When between 3 and 4 o'clock are the hands of a clock together ? is At 3 o'clock the hour hand 15 minute spaces ahead of the minute : hand. is 36.minutes after x= ^ of 3 o'clock.114 35. hence the question would be formulated After how many minutes has the minute hand moved 15 spaces more than the hour hand ? Let then x x = the required number of minutes after 3 o'clock. = 16^.. 1. Ex. 12. of minute spaces the hour hand moves Therefore x ~ = the number of minute spaces the minute hand moves more than the hour hand. 2 3 . C is the circumference of a circle whose radius R. 2.. In how many days can both do it working together ? If we denote then / the required number by 1. then = 2 TT#. 100 C. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA (a) Find a formula expressing degrees of Fahrenheit terms of degrees of centigrade (<7) by solving the equation (F) in (ft) Express in degrees Fahrenheit 40 If C. Multiplying by Dividing. . .20 C. A would do each day ^ and B j.180. Find R in terms of C and TT. A can do a piece of work in 3 days and B in 2 days. days by x and the piece of work while in x days they would do respectively ff ~ and and hence the sentence written in algebraic symbols ^. x Or Uniting. PROBLEMS LEADING TO FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS 152. = the number of minute spaces the minute hand moves over.
u The accommodation train needs 4 hours more than the express train. Ex. and the statement. Solving. 180 Transposing. or 1J.FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS A in symbols the following sentence 115 more symmetrical but very similar equation is obtained by writing ** The work done by A in one day plus the work done by B in one day equals the work done by both in one day. what is the rate of the express train ? 180 Therefore. 3. then Ox j 5 a Rate Hence the rates can be expressed. the rate of the express train. = the x part of the work both do one day. the required number of days." : Let x  = the required number of days. Clearing. fx xx* = 152 +4 (1) Hence = 36 = rate of express train. 32 x = . 4x = 80. The speed of an express train is $ of the speed of an If the accommodation train needs 4 accommodation train." gives the equation /I). hours more than the express train to travel 180 miles. But in uniform motion Time = Distance . = 100 + 4 x. Explanation : If x is the rate of the accommodation train. in Then Therefore.
fifth Two numbers differ 2. and of the father's age. ex What 5. A man left ^ of his property to his wife. J of the greater increased by ^ of the smaller equals 6. ceeds the smaller by 4. Twenty years ago A's age was  age. and one half the greater Find the numbers. and J of the greater Find the numbers. How did the much money man leave ? 11. and found that he had \ of his original fortune left. 3. A man lost f of his fortune and $500. and 9 feet above water. 9 its A post is a fifth of its length in water. How much money had he at first? 12 left After spending ^ of his ^ of his money and $15. which was $4000. Two numbers differ l to s of the smaller. Find a number whose third and fourth parts added together 2. The sum 10 years hence the son's age will be of the ages of a father and his son is 50. is oO. make 21. Find A's 8. length in the ground. by 3. money and $10.116 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 60 1. Find two consecutive numbers such that 9. to his daughand the remainder. are the The sum of two numbers numbers ? and one is ^ of the other. its Find the number whose fourth part exceeds part by 3. to his son.  Find their present ages. one half of What is the length of the post ? 10 ter. is equal 7. a man had How much money had he at first? . by 6. of his present age.
A can do a piece of work in 4 clays. An ounce of gold when weighed in water loses fa of an How many ounce. what is the rate of the express train? 152. Ex. At what time between 4 and ( 5 o'clock are the hands of a clock together? 16. and B in 4 days. . How much money $500? 4%. If the accommodation train needs 1 hour more than the express train to travel 120 miles.) 22. and it B in 6 days. 3. and after traveling 150 miles overtakes the accommodation train. air. after rate of the latter ? 15. and has he invested if his animal interest therefrom is 19. A man has invested J of his money at the remainder at 6%.FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS 13. ^ at 5%. Ex. and B In how many days can both do it working together in ? 12 days. A can A can do a piece of work in 2 days. and an ounce of silver fa of an ounce. and losing 1* ounces when weighed in water? do a piece of work in 3 days. At what time between 7 and 8 o'clock are the hands of ? a clock in a straight line and opposite 18. investments. what is the 14. In how many days can both do it working together ? ( 152. ounces of gold and silver are there in a mixed mass weighing 20 ounces in 21.) At what time between 7 and 8 o'clock are the hands of a clock together ? 17. 1. If the rate of the express train is f of the rate of the accommodation train.) ( An express train starts from a certain station two hours an accommodation train. A has invested capital at more 4%. 2. 117 The speed of an accommodation train is f of the speed of an express train. Ex. at 4J % and P> has invested $ 5000 They both derive the same income from their How much money has each invested ? 20. 152. ? In how many days can both do working together 23.
B in 16. The problem to be solved. B in 12. A in 4. 6 I 3 Solve the following problems 24. A in 6.= . . is 42. Then ft i.414.118 153. . is A can do a piece of work in m days and B in n days. : In how many days if can A and it B working together do a piece of work each alone can do (a) (6) (c) in the following number ofdavs: (d) A in 5. B in 30. it is possible to solve all examples of this type by one example. by taking for these numerical values two general algebraic numbers. 25. Find three consecutive numbers whose sum equals m. if B in 3 days. Find three consecutive numbers whose sum Find three consecutive numbers whose sum last : The two examples are special cases of the following problem 27. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA The last three questions and their solutions differ only two given numbers. Ex. A in 6. In how in the numerical values of the : many days If can both do we let x = the it working together ? required number of days. 2. and apply the method of 170. 3. Hence. B in 5. Find the numbers if m = 24 30. they can both do in 2 days. e.g.009 918. and n = 3.e. To and find the numerical answer. 26. we obtain the equation m m . n x Solving. is 57. m and n. . therefore. make it m 6 A can do this work in 6 days Q = 2.= m f n it Therefore both working together can do in mn f n days. Answers to numerical questions of this kind may then be found by numerical substitution.
last three examples are special cases of the following The difference of the squares of two consecutive numbers By using the result of this problem. (c) 16. 5 miles per hour. is (a) 51. is ?n . squares 30.FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS 28. same hour from two towns. if m and n are. two pipes together ? Find the numerical answer. . d miles the first traveling at the rate of m. 3 miles per hour. and how many miles does each travel ? 32. the area would be increased by 19 square feet. by two pipes in m and n minutes In how many minutes can it be filled by the respectively. (b) 35 miles. After how many hours do they rate of n miles per hour. A cistern can be filled (c) 6 and 3 hours. 88 one traveling 3 miles per hour. 119 Find two consecutive numbers the difference of whose is 11. Two men start at the first miles apart. squares 29. The one: 31. and the second 5 miles per hour. 34. If each side of a square were increased by 1 foot. After how many hours do they meet. and how many miles does each travel ? Solve the problem if the distance.001. : (c) 64 miles. (d) 1. Find the side of the square. respectively. (b) 149. and the rate of the second are. 4J miles per hour. the Two men start at the same time from two towns. 33. Find two consecutive numbers the difference of whose is 21. the rate of the first. 2 miles per hour. (a) 20 and 5 minutes. solve the following ones Find two consecutive numbers the difference of whose squares : find the smaller number. respectively (a) 60 miles. 3J miles per hour. 2 miles per hour. (b) 8 and 56 minutes.000. the second at the apart.721. meet.
1.g. b. etc. b is the consequent. term of a ratio a the is is the antecedent. Thus the written a : ratio of a b is . all principles relating to fractions if its may be af)plied to ratios. The ratio of first dividing the two numbers number by the and : is the quotient obtained by second. b is a Since a ratio a fraction. " a Thus. The ratio  is the inverse of the ratio . 158. E. b. the second term the consequent.CHAPTER X RATIO AND PROPORTION 11ATTO 154. the symbol being a sign of division. instead of writing 6 times as large as ?>. : A somewhat shorter way would be to multiply each term by 120 6. a ratio is not changed etc. A ratio is used to compare the magnitude of two is numbers. is numerator of any fraction consequent.5. In the ratio a : ft. Ex. the denominator The the 157. terms are multiplied or divided by the same number. 6 12 = . Simplify the ratio 21 3. : : 155. the antecedent. . antecedent.or a * b The ratio is also frequently (In most European countries this symbol is employed as the usual sign of division." we may write a : b = 6. The first 156.) The ratio of 12 3 equals 4.
: ay . The last first three. 3 8. 1. either mean the mean proportional between the first and the last terms. J:l. terms. equal 2. 61 : ratios 72:18. extremes.RATIO Ex. 3:1}. : ratios so that the antecedents equal 16:64. two  ratios. 7f:6J. proportional between a and c. 16 x*y 64 x*y : 24 48 xif. 62:16. 12. Simplify the following ratios 7. : 1. b is the mean b. 9. 11. 27 06: 18 a6. 4. 16. 8^ hours. In the proportion a b : = b : c. 7:4 T T 4 . and the last term the third proportional to the first and second 161. the second and fourth terms of a proportion are the and third terms are the means. A proportion is a statement expressing the equality of proportions. : is If the means of a proportion are equal. 10. 17. $24: $8. The last term d is the fourth proportional to a. 3. 3:4. = or:6=c:(Z are The first 160. 159. 6. term is the fourth proportional to the : In the proportion a b = c c?. a and d are the extremes. Transform the following unity 15. 5 f hours : 2. and c. and c is the third proportional to a and . 4:5f : 5. b and c the means. AND PROPORTION ratio 5 5 : 121 first Transform the 3J so that the term will 33 : *~5 ~ 3 '4* 5 EXERCISE Find the value of the following 1. 18. b. 16a2 :24a&.
and the other pair the extremes. 163. are : : : inversely proportional. if the ratio of any two of the first kind is equal \o the inverse ratio of the corresponding two of the other kind. The mean proportional of their product. 3 4. 163. then 8 men can do it in 3 days. Clearing of fractions. a b : bettveen two numbers is equal to the square root Let the proportion be Then Hence 6 =b = ac. = 30 grams 45 grams. " we " NOTE.) b = Vac.e. Hence the weight of a mass of iron is proportional to its volume. briefly. Hence the number of men required to do some work. or 8 equals the inverse ratio of 4 3.__(163. i.122 162. If (Converse of nq. of iron weigh . ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Quantities of one kind are said to be directly proper tional to quantities of another kind. 6 ccm. of a proportion. and the time necessary to do it. ad = be. t/ie product of the means b is equal to the Let a : =c : d. : : directly proportional may say. is equal to the ratio of the corresponding two of the other kind. : c.) mn = pq. if the ratio of any two of the first kind. In any proportion product of the extremes. Instead of u If 4 or 4 ccm. If 6 men can do a piece of work in 4 days. ccm. and we divide both members by we have ?^~ E. 164. If the product of two numbers is equal to the product of two other numbers^ either pair may be made the means. of iron weigh 45 grams.'* Quantities of one kind are said to be inversely proportional to quantities of another kind. q~~ n . pro portional. !. then G ccm.30 grams. 2 165.
2. ad = be. (163. + b:b = c + d:d. AND PROPORTION x = 12 : 123 Find x. hence the proportion true. is 4$ = 35.) = f f = 3 J. bd bd.) d 167. I. if 6 : 7. ad ( 163. is Ex.) Any is of these propositions may be proved by example : a method which illustrated by the following To prove This is b if d true ad  Or if But Hence ^ =^' o = be = be. If 6 : a a : 6 =c : : d. d d. (Frequently called Inversion.) a + b:a = c + d:c. 166. By inversion 5 : 4 =6 : x. a+b a (Composition and : : : Division.PATIO Ex. then =d c. (Division. These transformations are used to simplify proportions. a III.) II. Or IV.) (Called Alternation. . Change the proportion 4 5 = x 6 so that x becomes the : : last term. V. I. 12x Hence a? = 42. a:c=b:d.) a b b=c b = c)d:c d. = 35 . 1. (Composition. Determine whether the following proportion 8:6 = and 5 x 7 7 : true rn 8 x t: 4.
3. E. To simplify the proportion 11 : 5:6 =4 x : x.e. . 5. .124 IT. = ^2x x Or Dividing the antecedents by m. the consequents by 7. 8. To simplify m 3n ? = + *. Or III. EXERCISE 5^:8 = 2:3. 4. 2. Simplify the following proportions. 72:50 m n (m n) = (m + rif m 2 : 18:19 6 2 : = 24:25. 13 = 5f llf : : n 2. = 20:7. and determine whether they are true or not : 6. 6 =4 : x. V. 3:3 1:1 divide the antecedents by 16.:J 62 : Determine whether the following proportions are true 1. 8ajy:17 = i^:l^. 3n JJ =n x NOTE. To simplify the proportion 8 Apply division. 11 : 5 : 15:22=101:15. mx tin Apply composition and division. x = 2. 1 : 3 3 Divide the antecedents by : = = 5 1 : jr. Apply composition. 120:42 2 2 7.!=!*. = 7:2f 3J. A parenthesis is understood about each term of a proportion. : x. = 2:3. to simplify 48:21=32:7x. IV. its ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Alternation shows that a proportion is not altered when its consequents are multiplied or divided by antecedents or the same number.g. : 3 = 5 f x : x. i. 10. = 180:125. = 12 5ft. 9. 5 5. = 2:x.
8:1. 6. = l^:18. 14 and 21. 18. 03:a?=135:20. 25. 5= 18 a? : a?. 6x = 7y.RATIO AND PROPORTION Determine the value of x 11. 4 a*:15ab = 2a:x. 14. 8 a 2 and 2 b 2 Form two x 10 If ab proportions commencing with 5 from the equation 6 36. x:5 = y:2. 52. . = 3 43 + x. 3t.. 29. 1 and a. 38. 21. 13. 12. : 125 40:28 = 15:0.j>. x m = y n. 47. = 5 x 12. 35. 2 3 = y #. if : 40. = 2 + x: x. mx = ny. ra 2 . a?:15 15. f. : : Transform the following proportions so that only one contains x: 48. = 15o. 112:42 = 10:a. Find the mean proportional 30.6 : : Find the fourth proportional 19. terra 2:3 = 4. + fyx = cy. : 53. Find the third proportional 24. 34. 23. 16 and 28. to : a and 1. : a2 . 27. 4 and 16. 7iy = 2:x. 2= 5 x x. 1. 4. 50.  32. 33. 31. rap. 22. 26. 5. y : b y : =x 1 =x : a. 21 : 4z = 72 : 96. 3.:ff. 39. form two proportions commencing with x : = xy. 6 x = y. 9 x = 2 y. a 2 and ab. 43. 44. 41. and 2/. b. : . 20. Find the 37. 2. 51. 46. to : 9 and 12. (a : : 45. 28. 16 n* x = 28 w 70 ra. ra + landra 1. 3. 22: 3 19 2 : : 49. 2 a and 18 a. rag.x: 6:5 a : x. 17. w. 42. a. to: = 35:*. 16. ra. ratio of y. 2.
(d) The sum of money producing $60 interest at 5%. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBEA State the following propositions as proportions : T (7 and T) of equal altitudes are to each. areas of circles are proportional to the squares of If the radii of two circles are to each other as circle is 4 : 7. State whether the quantities mentioned below are directly or inversely proportional (a) The number of yards of a certain kind of silk.inches long represents map corresponds to how many miles ? The their radii. and the area of the smaller is 8 square inches. What will be the volume if the pressure is 12 pounds per square inch ? . 1 (6) The circumferences (C and C ) of two other as their radii (R and A"). and the time necessary for it. what 58.126 54. the volume of a The temperature remaining body of gas inversely proportional to the pressure. and the speed of the train. and the area of the rectangle. A line 11 inches long on a certain 22 miles. The number of men (m) is inversely proportional to the number of days (d) required to do a certain piece of work. (e) The distance traveled by a train moving at a uniform rate. (c) The volume of a body of gas (V) is circles are to each inversely propor tional to the pressure (P). 56. A line 7^. othei (a) Triangles as their basis (b and b'). (d) The areas (A and A') of two circles are to each other as (R and R'). (c) of a rectangle of constant width. under a pressure of 15 pounds per square inch has a volume of gas is A 16 cubic feet. 57. (b) The time a The length train needs to travel 10 miles. and the : total cost. the squares of their radii (e) 55. and the time. the area of the larger? the same.
7 x = 42 is the second number. x = 6. Therefore 7 = 14 = AC. produced to a point C. 2. x=2. 127 The number is of miles one can see from an elevation of very nearly the mean proportional between h and the diameter of the earth (8000 miles). it is advisable to represent these unknown numbers by mx and nx. is A line AB. 4 ' r i 1 (AC): (BO) =7: 5. 11 x x 7 Ex. AB = 2 x. : Ex. as 11 Let then : 1. 11 x = 66 is the first number. 18 x = 108. Hence or Therefore Hence and = the first number. Let A B AC=1x. Then Hence BG = 5 x. . 4 inches long. so that Find^K7and BO. 2 x Or = 4.000 168.RATIO AND PROPORTION 69. What is the greatest distance a person can see from an elevation of 5 miles ? From h miles the Metropolitan Tower (700 feet high) ? feet high) ? From Mount McKinley (20. Divide 108 into two parts which are to each other 7. 11 x f 7 x = 108. = the second number. When a problem requires the finding of two numbers which are to each other as m n.
what are its parts ? (For additional examples see page 279. Brass is an alloy consisting of two parts of copper and one part of zinc.000 square miles. of water? Divide 10 in the ratio a b. : 197. and the longest is divided in the ratio of the other two. What are the parts ? 5. and 15 inches. : 4. How many grams of hydrogen are contained in 100 : grams 10. The total area of land is to the total area of is water as 7 18. Water consists of one part of hydrogen and 8 parts of If the total surface of the earth oxygen. cubic feet of oxygen are there in a room whose volume is 4500 : cubic feet? 8. 13.000. If c is divided in the ratio of the other two. Gunmetal tin. A line 24 inches long is divided in the ratio 3 5. m in the ratio x: y % three sides of a triangle are 11. 12. : Divide 39 in the ratio 1 : 5. consists of 9 parts of copper and one part of ounces of each are there in 22 ounces of gun metal ? Air is a mixture composed mainly of oxygen and nitrowhose volumes are to each other as 21 79. find the number of square miles of land and of water. How The long are the parts ? 15. How many ounces of copper and zinc are in 10 ounces of brass ? 6. 14. 2. Divide 20 in the ratio 1 m. : Divide a in the ratio 3 Divide : 7.) . 7.128 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 63 1. How many 7. 9. 12. 6. 11. and c inches. 3. The three sides of a triangle are respectively a. How many gen. Divide 44 in the ratio 2 Divide 45 in the ratio 3 : 9.
CHAPTER XI SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS 169. From (3) it follows y 10 x and since by the same values of x and to be satisfied y. values of x and y. the equations have the two values of y must be equal. =. which substituted in (2) gives y both equations are to be satisfied by the same Therefore. However. the equation is satisfied by an infinite number of sets Such an equation is called indeterminate. y (3) these unknown numbers can be found. Hence 2s 5 o = 10 _ ^ (4) = 3. a? (1) then I. such as + = 10. The root of (4) if K 129 . 2 y = .e. expressing a y. there is only one solution. etc.. y = 5 /0 \ (2) of values. y = 1. if . x = 1.L x If If = 0. If satisfied degree containing two or more by any number of values of 2oj3y = 6. Hence. if there is different relation between x and * given another equation. is x = 7.y=. An equation of the first unknown numbers can be the unknown quantities.
The first set of equations is also called consistent. for they are 2 y = 6 are But 2 x 2. = . 4y . The process of combining several equations so as make one unknown quantity disappear is called elimination. for they express the x f y 10. the last set inconsistent. Therefore. 26 y = 60. are simultaneous equations. and 3 x + 3 y =.130 170. to The two methods I. Substitution. 3. 21 y . y = 2. y I 171. Any set of values satisfying 5 x + 6 y = 60 will also satisfy the equation 3 x f. E.24.3 y = 80. 30 can be reduced to the same form f 5 y Hence they are not independent. ~ 50. x H 2y satisfied 6 and 7 x 3y = by the values x = I. viz. unknown quantity. ELIMINATION BY ADDITION OR SUBTRACTION 175. 174. for they cannot be satisfied by any value of x and y.X. 6 and 4 x y not simultaneous. cannot be reduced to the same form.26. A system of two simultaneous equations containing two quantities is solved by combining them so as to obtain unknown one equation containing only one 173. 172. Solve y=6x 6x f Multiply (1) by 2. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA A system of simultaneous equations is tions that can be satisfied a group of equa by the same values of the unknown numbers. of elimination most frequently used II. same relation. (3) (4) Multiply (2) by  Subtract (4) from (3). Independent equations are equations representing different relations between the unknown quantities such equations . 6x . By By Addition or Subtraction.
2 = 9 + 4 = 13. are like. x = 10. preferably 3x Therefore + 4 = 13 x = 3. 3. EXERCISE answers: 64 Solve the following systems of equations and check the ' . 10 + 5 1 = 135. by addition or subtraction : numbers as (3) (4) (6) 176. add the equations. 5 13 . 8 2. 60 . eliminate the letter have the lowest common multiple. Multiply (1) by Multiply (2) by 5.2 = 6. x = 10. 37. y = 1. 10 . = 406. 25 x . coefficients If the signs of these if unlike.15 y 39 x + 15 y Add (3) and (4).3 y = 47. whose coefficients In general. Therefore Check. 131 Substitute this value of y in either of the given equations. Check. y = 2. 64 x = 040. Therefore Substitute (6) in (1).SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS the simpler one (1). + 2. subtract the equations. 3.3 1 = 47. 3y = 3. Transposing. = 235. Hence to eliminate Multiplyy if necessaryy the equations by such will make the coefficients of one unknown quantity equal.14 =8.
f 3X 7x 14. J I y = 1U. * + 3 y = 50. + 3?/ { 3 x f 2 y = 39. _.4. I i 3 a. = 6. ' 94 ^4 ' 15 ' ^  25 * 60. f 3# ?/ = 0. 13. . [2o.3. + 2/ 17. = 24. I ~ y~~> 22. i 3. = 41.ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 5. 19< I a.9 *.3. 7 ' 1fi fl .1ft is 1 fl<>* r A + 22/ = 40. 13 61 l7a.5 y = 2.v 23. ] ^ . I . O t K 8. 9 1 r 20. I oj 5y = 17. ' 12. x 11.f2/ ' = 50. v ^ = ll.
21 y 24 Therefore y = 26. and solve the resulting equation. .SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS ELIMINATION BY SUBSTITUTION 177. = 2. = 2y + 10. Substituting this value in (2) 3 7 ( ?/ t " 8 +2y= + 4 y 25 y Clearing of fractions. 133 Solve 7 y in (1) (27. = 13. = 4#8. 3. = 60. This value substituted in either (1) or (2) gives x 178. Hence to eliminate by substitution : Find in one equation the value of an unknown quantity in terms of the other. tity in the Substitute this value for one unknown quan other equation. 8. EXERCISE Solve by substitution : 65 f5aj l3a. x ) ^"" 13. (1) (2) Transposing 2. I3ar + 2y and dividing by .
6)7(y7)==18. + 212y4 = 14. f8(z8)9(y9) = 26. (3) (4) (6) (6) Multiplying (6) by 2 and (6) by Sx + 6y = Adding and 3S. simplified before elimination is possible. 3 (1) Ex. the equation must be cleared of fractions and . (7) (7) (8) . Solve 2 7 (2) Multiplying (1) by 12 and (2) by 14. (4t(x\) ' ""^IT 3. 4* + 3y = 19. and check the answers: + 5(y + 5) = 64. 7x_2y=3. Whenever one unknown quantity can be removed without clearing of fractions.134 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 179. however.3. 3. x = l. 2 y = . Substituting in (6) . 7 y = 6. 43 + 8f3y + 7z From (3). 21z6y=9. . \ \6(a. (4). From 9 = 36. it is advantageous to do so in most cases. 29 x = 29. (8) 1 +8 2 _ 7 EXERCISE 66 Solve by any method.
12.1) = 121. 4~2v 3a?2^4 3 1 18.f2 2. 16. 10 2a?5 17. 10. . . a. 2 4^ ~ 3 = 13. 135 "25 ' 6 ' tsjj ' r4(5. +y 2 .SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS 3x 4. ff "*" _13 ~ 4 2' 15.1) + 5(6 y . 4 11. 4(5 x l2(315 8 8. yM a. . = 3. J 9. 14. a.
and x y . * ((* (( . <X + 20. 180.136 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 4_1 2' 19. f y . e. In many equations it is advantageous at first not to consider x and y as unknown quantities. l_3 4' 2/41 2 a. 3x\" 1 23 24. ?~y . {. and y.Q ^ 4 21. 22.#. . but some expressions involving x.
SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS x Ex. (4) + (G). etc. Therefore y=4. by the regular Clearing (1) and (2) of fractions.3 xy. (2) (3) a. y 4. Substituting x = 3 in (1).4 x = 4 xy. of this type. can also be solved Examples method. (4) (6) (6) (7) 2x(5). EXERCISE Solve : 67 2' 1. Clearing of fractions. . Dividing by 11 3 = #. 15 y + 8 x . 1. however. 33 = 11 x. 2* * x 2. x 2x(2). y. . x 3. 137 Solve y y (1) . y 1.
x y 331 9. 6. 21 9 .138 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 4 6 K . 10 " 12 25 U y 6. = en.= 5.= o 6. y MOi y a. 253 7. x 8. 4 13. n. 6w3 + bny = 6p. LITERAL SIMULTANEOUS EQUATIONS 181. Solve (1) (2) (1) (2) (8) x x (4). Ex. x y 5. . bmx = en anx anx + bny (3) (4) ftp. 1.
From and L the same simultaneous equations find d in terms of a. 14. . 6.W. 139 (an bm)x = en bp. Uniting. a Find a and terms of n. ny = fy/ I sc 1. apan cm. x f my = 1. s in 11. From the same equations find s in terms of a. .cm y= EXERCISE 68 bm f 6y = c.y = = 9a + 46.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS Uniting. . fax f = l. d. f 5. amx + bmy amx f any = any (an cm. . W . x a. and I. (1) (2) (7) an bm (6) (7) x w. d. f 6^ [ nx f my == m. w. bmy bm}y ap cm. x 12. ap. and I if 13. Dividing. ax + by = 2 a&.
Ex.3 = 8.25. etc. 4. (1) (2) (3) Eliminate y. 182. 3y = Hence Check. the to the solution problem reduced of two simultaneous equations containing two unknown quantities. . Solve the following system of equations: = 8. 8 x . To solve equations containing By tions. = 30. = 3.8 = 1. 20. ties are Similarly. 1.140 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA SIMULTANEOUS EQUATIONS INVOLVING MORE THAS TWO UNKNOWN QUANTITIES three unknown quantities three simultaneous independent equations must be given. 6. Multiplying (1) by Multiplying (2) by 4. 8B12y + 17 x 16z z = 32 Oa + 12?/.12 y + 6 z = . y =* 2. (4) (5).2 + 4. 3. by 3.16. x + 12 y . 4. (8) 2. four equations containing four unknown quantireduced to three equations containing three unknown quantities.15z=12 Adding. f 3y 12 =s 8. l. eliminating one and is the unknown quant iff/ from any pair of equasame unknown quantity froni another pair.1+4.lf> z .9z =11 x (6) Eliminating x from (4) and (5).3=4. 17 x 100 z Therefore Substitute this value in (4).by 2. 3. (6) + 3 Therefore Substituting the values of x and z 2 x = (7) in (1).13.2 + 3. 1. Multiplying (2) + = 20 12 2 10 (4) Multiplying (3) Adding.
SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS EXERCISE 10 x 69 141 1. + y f z = 15. 8. 12. 14. a? + 709 = 26. y f ?/ M 2? = 4. 2z = 40. + 2 y f 2 = 35. 7. 2 . 15 2 = 45. 49. 2 4. x 13. == 6. 10. k 2/ f 2 x a. 4 = 42. ~6?/ 5. a? 11. f 2 i/ f z = 14.
. x _2 3 ' 0742! J 18. 1510 4 17. 60. 27. = 5.142 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 15. (3 _. ^ = 2. = 8*. ? = llz. ?/ 3x = 0. 84 21. 22. 32.2 a. .. 19.6 2.42 = 2. . =s 20. 16.3 y + . 23. 4.
y 125 (3) The solution of these equations gives x Hence the required number is 125. and Then 100 + 10 y +z the digit in the units' place. Obviously of the other . Problems involving several unknown quantities must contain. ( 99. however. = l. 2 = 1(1+6). The digit in the tens' place is  of the sum of the other two digits. symbols: x + y +z 8. + z = 2p. Simple examples of this kind can usually be solved by equations involving only one unknown every quantity. = 2 m.2/ 2/ PROBLEMS LEADING TO SIMULTANEOUS EQUATIONS 183. z + x = 2 n. x : z =1 : 2. unknown quantity by every verbal statement as an equation. # 4. and if 396 be added to the number. +2+ 6 = 8.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS 143 x 29. . the first and the last digits will be interchanged. as many verbal statements as there are unknown quantities. The three statements of the problem can now be readily expressed in . (1) 100s + lOy + z + 396 = 100* + 10y + x. Find the number. M=i. 1 = 2.) it is advisable to represent a different letter. Check. Let x y z = the the digit in the hundreds' place. y * z 30. The sum of three digits of a number is 8. y 31. + 396 = 521. and to express In complex examples. the number. Ex. 2 = 6. . 1 digit in the tens place. 1. to express it is difficult two of the required digits in terms hence we employ 3 letters for the three unknown quantities. either directly or implied.
the distance traveled by A. direction. we obtain. 2. Since the three men traveled the same distance. = 8. By expressing the two statements in symbols. increased by one. the fraction Let and then y is reduced to nurn orator. the fraction is reduced to  and if both numerator and denominator of the reciprocal of the fraction be dimin ished by one. x y = the = the x denominator . y = 3. 5_ _4_ A. Ex. 4 x = 24. From (3) Hence xy Check. 8 = xy + x xy = xy f 3 x 2 y = 2. xy a: 2y 4y 2. B. 3+1 5+1 4_2. 3 xand y I 1 (2) 5. who travels 2 miles an hour faster than B. and C travel from the same place in the same B starts 2 hours after A and travels one mile per hour faster than A. Or (4)2x(3). x 3 = 24. x 3x4y = 12.144 Ex. = the fraction. . 3. (1) (2) 12. (3) C4) = 24 miles. + I 2 (1) and These equations give x Check. Find the fraction. C. ELEMENTS OF ALGE13KA If both numerator and denominator of a fraction be . = Hence the fraction is f. starts 2 hours after B and overtakes A at the same How many miles has A then traveled? instant as B. 2. 6 x 4 = 24.
to the number the digits will be interchanged. 1. . The sum 18 is is and if added of the digits of a number of two figures is 6. Find the numbers. Find the numbers. 183. Four times a certain number increased by three times another number equals 33. the Find the fraction. tion ? 8. and four times the first digit exceeds the second digit by 3. the digits will be interchanged. If the numerator of a fraction be trebled.}.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS EXERCISE 70 145 1. The sum of the first sum of the three digits of a number is 9. and the second one increased by 5 equals twice number. if its numerator and its denominator are increased by 1. the last two digits are interchanged. and the two digits exceeds the third digit by 3. both terms. to L <> Find the If the numerator and the denominator of a fraction be If 1 be subtracted from increased by 3. the fraction equals . Half the sum of two numbers equals 4. and twice the numerator What is the fracincreased by the denominator equals 15. 7. the fraction is reduced fraction. number by the first 3. 5. and the numerator increased by 4. and the second increased by 2 equals three times the first. the number (See Ex. part of their difference equals 4. Find the number. its value added to the denominator. and its denomi nator diminished by one. and the fourth 3. 6. If 27 is 10. If 4 be Tf 3 be is J. the value of the fraction is fa. 2. A fraction is reduced to J. Find the number. Find the numbers. If the denominator be doubled.) added to a number of two digits. ? What 9. If 9 be added to the number. fraction is reduced to \. added to the numerator of a fraction. Five times a certain number exceeds three times another 11. Find the fraction. it is reduced to J.
000 is partly invested at 6%. bringing a total yearly interest of $530. partly at 5% and partly at 4%. 13.146 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 11. 12. partly at 5 %. How 6 %. Find their present ages. and The 6 investment brings $ 70 more interest than the 5 % % 4% investments together. 5 %. much money is invested at A sum of money at simple interest amounted in 6 years to $8000. Two cubic centimeters of gold and three cubic centimeters of silver weigh together 69 J. and B's age is \ the sum of A's and C's ages. in 8 years to $8500. If the sum of how old is each now ? at invested $ 5000. If the rates of interwere exchanged.grams. Three cubic centimeters of gold and two cubic centimeters of silver weigh together 78 grains. A man invested $750. a part at 6 and the remainder bringing a total yearly interest of $260. Ten years ago A was B was as as old as B is old as will be 5 years hence . and partly at 4 %. 19. A sum of $10. Find the weight of one cubic centimeter of gold and one cubic centimeter of silver. What was the amount of each investment ? 15. the rate of interest ? What was the sum of A sum of money at simple interest amounted in 2 years to $090. . and in 5 years to $1125. Ten years ago the sum of their ages was 90. What was the amount of each investment ? A man % 5%. respectively ? 16. and 4 %. and the 5% investment brings $15 more interest than the 4 % investment. and 5 years ago their ages is 55. and money and 17. Find the rates of interest. 14. now. the annual interest would be $ 195. the rate of interest? 18. Twice A's age exceeds the sum of B's and C's ages by 30. What was the sum and rates est The sums of $1500 and $2000 are invested at different and their annual interest is $ 190.
are taken so ABC. and F. 25. what are the angles of the triangle ? 22. what is that = OF. respectively. . On /). cows. Find the parts of the ABC touching the three sides if AB = 9. and GE = CF. An C touch ing the sides in D. points. he would walk it in two hours less than than to travel B B. If one angle exceeds the sum of the other two by 20. and F. and CF? is a circle inscribed in the 7<7. for $ 740. and angle e angle/. three AD = AF.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS 147 20. is the center of the circum scribed circle. If angle ABC = GO angle BAG = 50. andCL4 = 8. angle c = angle d. E. $ 50 for each cow. BE. Find their rates of walking. and angle BCA = 70. The number of sheep was twice the number of horses and cows together. and sheep. 23. 24. and F '(see diagram). BD = HE. and $15 for each sheep. A r ^ A circle is inscribed in triangle sides in D. BC=7. In the annexed diagram angle a = angle b. B find angles a. and e. and their difference by GO . and CE If AB = G inches. triangle Tf AD. the three sides of a triangle E. the length of NOTE. ED = BE. BC = 7 inches. A farmer sold a number of horses. How many did he sell of each if the total number of animals was 24? 21. but if A would double his pace. receiving $ 100 for each horse. The sum of the 3 angles of a triangle is 180. then AD = AF. It takes A two hours longer 24 miles. 1 NOTE. and AC = 5 inches. c. .
2). jr. and whose ordinate is usually denoted by (X ?/). is The point whose abscissa is a. (7. or its equal OM. is the abscissa. YY' theyaxis. hence The coordinates lying in opposite directions are negative. The of Coordinates. and PJ/_L XX'. and PN _L YY'. PM. . (3. (2. and ordinates abore the xaxis are considered positive . two fixed straight lines XX' and YY' meet in at right angles. Abscissas measured to the riyht of the origin. the ordinate by ?/. Thus the points A. lines PM the and P^V are coordinates called point P. 3). PN. It' Location of a point. the ordinate of point P. and respectively represented Dare and by (3 7 4). * This chapter may be omitted on a 148 reading. PN are given. first 3). ?/. and point the origin. (2. then the position of point is determined if the lengths of P P3f and 185..CHAPTER XII* GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS AND EQUATIONS 184. The abscissa is usually denoted by line XX' is called the jraxis. 186. and r or its equal OA is . B.
6. 1). 6.e. 3).) EXERCISE 1. 4). What are the coordinates of the origin ? If 187. two variable quantities are so related that changes of the one bring about definite changes of the other. (4. 1). which of its coordinates known ? 13. (4. (See diagram on page 151. Plot the points : (0. (4. the mutual dependence of the two quantities may be represented either by a table or by a diagram.(!.2). all all points points lie lie whose abscissas equal zero ? whose ordinates equal zero? y) if y 10. 2). =3? is If a point lies in the avaxis. What is the locus of (a?. . (4. 8. (4. (0. i. 3). .and(l. (4. Plot the points (6. What Draw is the distance of the point (3. paper ruled with two sets of equidistant and parallel linos intersecting at right angles.4). Draw the triangle whose vertices are respectively (l.3). 4) and (4. 71 2).GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS The is 149 process of locating a point called plotting the point. 11. 0). 4. Where do Where do Where do all points lie whose ordinates tfqual 4? 9. 2). 3.1). Plot the points: (4. (5. Graphs. (3. 4) from the origin ? 7. 0). 2J). 4). 3). 0). and measure their distance. 0). 2. (0. Plot the points: (4. Graphic constructions are greatly facilitated by the use of crosssection paper. !). whose coordinates are given NOTE. the quadrilateral whose vertices are respectively (4. (2. (1. 12.
Thus the average temperature on May on April 20.. . but it indicates in a given space a great many more facts than a table. By representing of points. Thus the first table produces 12 points. from January 1 to December 1. 15. we meas1 . may be represented graphby making each number in one column the abscissa. D. ABCN y the socalled graph of To 15 find from the diagram the temperature on June to be 15 . A graphic and it impresses upon the eye all the peculiarities of the changes better and quicker than any numerical compilations. and the amount of gas subjected to pressures from pound The same data. and the corresponding number in the adjacent column the ordinate of a point. or the curved line the temperature. 188. in like manner the average temperatures for every value of the time. A. representation does not allow the same accuracy of results as a numerical table. we obtain an uninterrupted sequence etc. 1. B. however. ure the ordinate of F. C. ically each representing a temperature at a certain date. may be found on Jan. 10 .150 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA tables represent the average temperature Thus the following of New volumes 1 Y'ork City of a certain to 8 pounds.
: 72 find approximate answers to the following Determine the average temperature of New York City on (a) May 1. the matics. (b) July 15. physician. the graph is applied. (c) January 15. (d) November 20. as the prices and production of commodities. . the merchant. etc. Daily papers represent ecpnoniical facts graphically. uses them. Whenever a clear. concise representation of a number of numerical data is required.GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS 151 i55$5St5SS 3{utts33<0za3 Graphs are possibly the most widely used devices of applied matheThe scientist uses them to compile the data found from experiments. EXERCISE From the diagram questions 1. The engineer. the rise and fall of wages. and to deduce general laws therefrom.
? 9. ELEMENTS OF ALGEKRA At what date (a) G or dates is New York is C. ?  3. is ture we would denote the time during which the temperaabove the yearly average of 11 as the warm season. (freezing point) ? 7. (1) 10 C.. At what date is the average temperature lowest? the lowest average temperature ? 5. 1 ? does the temperature increase from 11. Which month is is the coldest of the year? Which month the hottest of the year? 16. 1 to Oct. June July During what month does the temperature increase most ? rapidly 12. How much. From what date to what date does the temperature increase (on the average)? 8.? is is the average temperature of New York 6. is 10.. 1? 11 0. When What is the temperature equal to the yearly average of the average temperature from Sept. When the average temperature below C. At what date is the average temperature highest the highest average temperature? ? What What is 4. (c) the average temperature oi 1 C. on 1 to the average. How much warmer 1 ? on the average is it on July 1 than on May 17. 15. During what month does the temperature change least? 14. During what months above 18 C.. (d) 9 0.152 2. During what month does the temperature decrease most rapidly ? 13. from what date to what date would it extend ? If .
19. in a similar manner as the temperature graph was applied in examples 118. Draw .GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS 18. NOTE. 153 1? When is the average temperature the same as on April Use the graphs of the following examples for the solution of concrete numerical examples.09 yards. From the table on page 150 draw a graph representing the volumes of a certain body of gas under varying pressures. One meter equals 1. Construct a diagram containing the graphs of the mean temperatures of the following three cities (in degrees Fahren heit) : 21. Draw a graph for the 23. a temperature chart of a patient. Represent graphically the populations : (in hundred thou sands) of the following states 22. transformation of meters into yards. Hour Temperature . 20.
.inch. 9. An expression involving one or several letters a function of these letters. If dealer in bicycles gains $2 on every wheel he sells.50. e. x* x 19. 29. (Assume ir~ all circles >2 2 . if he sells 0. the daily average expenses for rent. then C irJl. 3. represent his daily gain (or loss). 190.. function If the value of a quantity changes.50. Represent graphically the distances traveled by a train in 3 hours at a rate of 20 miles per hour. 26. A 10 wheels a day. Represent graphically the cost of butter from 5 pounds if 1 pound cost $. 2 x f 7 gradually from 1 to 2. etc.50 per copy (Let 100 copies = about \. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA If C 2 is the circumference of a circle whose radius is J2.. Show graphically the cost of the REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS OF ONE VARIABLE 189. amount to $8. gas. if each copy sells for $1. if 1 cubic centimeter of iron weighs 7. 2. The initial cost of cost of manufacturing a certain book consists of the $800 for making the plates. 2 8 y' + 3 y is a function of x and y. and $.154 24. etc. 2 is called x 2 xy + 7 is a function of x.) T circumferences of 25. 1 to 1200 copies. +7 If will respec assume the values 7. if x assumes successively the tively values 1. from R Represent graphically the = to R = 8 inches. . to 20 Represent graphically the weight of iron from cubic centimeters. x increases will change gradually from 13. binding. x 7 to 9. 28.g.) On the same diagram represent the selling price of the books. the value of a of this quantity will change. to 27. 2 . books from for printing. 4.5 grams. 3.
for x=l. it is In the example of the preceding article. 3 50.e.1). to con struct the graph x of x 2 construct a series of 3 points whose abscissas rep2 resent X) and whose ordi1 tions .2 x may 4 from x = 4. however. to x = 4. and (3. The values of func192.g. values of x2 nates are the corresponding i.0). 4).GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS 191. while 7 is a constant. E. 9). hence various values of x The values of a function for the be given in the form of a numerical table. (2. . 9). Graph of a function. J). (1^. as 1. be also represented by a graph. may . and join the points in order. Draw the graph of x2 f. 155 A variable is a quantity whose value changes in the same discussion. (1. Thus the table on page 1G4 gives the values of the functions x 2 x3 and Vsr. plot points which lie between those constructed above. 3 (0.1). is supposed to change. 2. construct '. To obtain the values of the functions for the various values of the following arrangement be found convenient : . 4). Q. Ex. 1 the points (3. x a variable. If a more exact diagram is required. a*. ( 2. 2 (1. etc. 2). is A constant a quantity whose value does not change in the same discussion. may.
= 0. (To avoid very large ordinatcs.20). (2. rf 71 . if /* 4 > 1i > > ?/ = 193. etc. 1). y = 6.. r */ +* 01 . A Y' function of the first degree is an integral rational function involving only the power of the variable. 4).4).. Thus 4x + 7. the function is frequently represented by a single letter. . 7 .. or ax + b f c are funclirst tions of the first degree. = 4. 5).. 2. as y. and join(0. 194.. j/=3. It can be proved that the graph is a straight of a function of the first degree line. (4. straight line produces the required graph. 2 4 and if y = x f.) For brevity.2 x . Thus in the above example. Ex. the scale unit of the ordinatcs is taken smaller than that of the x. (3. 4J. Draw y z x the graph of = 2x3. and joining in order produces the graph ABC. hence two points are sufficient for the construction of these graphs. If If Locating ing by a 3) and (4.156 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Locating the points( 4.
6 fa. Jar . 21. . 2 2. Draw the graph of : from #= 4 to 05 = 4. 2. The value of x that produces the smallest value it* of the function. 2J. from x VlO'S". 7. (a) (6) (c) (d) (e) The values of y. 3 a 8. a? 1. 1 8 10.8)'. 14. 2 4 x f 2 = 0. xl. 2 2 a. 19. The values of x that make 2 4 a? + 2 = 0. ?/ a. a?. 9. + 4. if y = 2. 2J. (</) The roots of the equation x2 4 x f 2 = 2. (/) The roots of the equation x The roots of the equation a2 4 x f 2 = 1. 1.5)2. (d) (^) 1 to and from 2 .GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS EXERCISE 73 157 Draw 1.e. . 2x + 3x a?. x+1. The roots of the equation 2 {2x a*2 = l. a ar. 23x. a? 2 4. 5. (/) Vl2^ (0) V5. The smallest value of the function. (C ) (2. (7i) (c) 23. y = 2x = 4. 4a? I. 1J. the function.or. a. 8. = 4. 22. 2 or 2 20. the diagram find (a) (e) (3. 11. 6. 3. (If) Va25. 2 a. i. xz + x. (ft) (_ 1. 2 a. if a. The values of a*. Draw the graph of or from the diagram determine: 4 a? +2 a. 16. The values of a?.2 4 # + 2 equals 2. 4 a. = The values of a*. if the function equals zero. if"a. 1J. a? the graphs of the following functions: + 2. a* 13. 12. fa 17. 3. The roots of the equation 2 f 2 a a*2 = 0. 1J. l. 2. 15.5)2. and (a) (6) (c) (d) The values of the function if x = \. J. Draw the graph ofy=2j2# and from the diagram determine : #2 from # = 2 to a?=4. 18.
that the graph of two variables that are directly proportional is a straight line passing through the origin (assume for c 27. Therefore x = 1. 14 F. From grade equal to (c) the diagram find the number of degrees of centi1 F. i. 9 F. then cXj where c is a constant.24.. 25. 32 F. y= formula graphically.. that graph with the o>axis.. Represent 26. A body moving with a uniform t velocity of 3 yards per second moves in this seconds a distance d =3 1. If two variables x and y are inversely proportional. what values of x make the function x2 + 2x 4 = (see 192). ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Degrees of the Fahrenheit (F.158 24. . Show any convenient number). If two variables x and y are directly proportional. C. we have to measure the abscissas of the intersection of the 195. to Fahrenheit readings : Change 10 C. the abscissas of 3.where x c is a constant. then y = .. it is evidently possible Thus to find to find graphically the real roots of an equation.. if c Draw the locus of this equation = 12.) scale by the formula (a) Draw the graph of C = f (F32) from to (b) 4 F F=l.24 or x = P and Q.) scale are expressed in degrees of the Centigrade (C. GRAPHIC SOLUTION OF EQUATIONS INVOLVING ONE UNKNOWN QUANTITY Since we can graphically determine the values of x make a function of x equal to zero.e. 1 C.
0. 197. draw through 1) a line parallel to the #axis. a2 2a. a: (a) (6) (c) 6a. 6. the points may be found otherwise by inspection. (a) x2 = 0. 2 and 1. (a) (6) 9. 13. Such equations in general have two roots.7 2 a 5 = 0. 7. 6. = 0. 3. . de = termine the points where If the function is 1. z 2 4x 6 a2 6. + + = where a. 10. and c represent \3 2 1 1/2 known quantities. 8. tion x 2 159 To +2x solve the equa4 1. or 5 2. 14. Y' EXERCISE 4x_ 7 74 : Solve graphically the following equations 1. 11. (0.f 9 = 0. is called a quadratic equation. viz. 4. crosssection paper is used. 12. and determine the abscis 1 sas of the points of intersection with the graph. An equation of the the form ax2 bx c 0.GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS 196.
1. Ex.2. Hence.160 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA GRAPHIC SOLUTION OF EQUATIONS INVOLVING TWO UNKNOWN QUANTITIES 198.2 y ~ 2. X'2 Locating the points (2. represent graphically equations of the form y function of x ( 1D2). (f . and joining by a straight line. i. Hence we may join (0. ?/. = 0. if y = is 0. 4) and them by straight line AB (3.e. because their graphs are straight lines. first degree. 199. Equations of the first degree are called linear equations. == 2. NOTE. 0). we can construct the graph or locus of any Since we can = equation involving two to the above form. Represent graphically Solving for y ='"JJ y. 4) and (2. 3x _ 4 . 2). y y 2. 1) and 0). Ex. locate points (0. that can be reduced Thus to represent x   L^ \ x =2  graphically. unknown quantities. If x = 0. y = l. Draw the locus of 4 x + 3 y = 12. y= A and construct x (  graphically. . Graph of equations involving two unknown quantities. fc = 3. ?/ =4 AB. If the given equation is of the we can usually locate two y. produces the 7* required locus. T . solve for ?/. Thus If in points without solving the equation for the preceding example: 3x s . and join the required graph. Hence if if x x  2.
and CD. 202. equation x= By measuring 3. By the method of the preceding article construct the graphs AB and and CD of (1) (2) respectively. linear equations have only one pair of roots. we obtain the roots. 3. P. 203. 201. and every set of real values of x and y satisfying the given equation is represented by a point in the locus.1=0. (2) .GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS 161 200. viz. To find the roots of the system. AB but only one point in AB also satisfies (2). The coordinates of every point of the graph satisfy the given equation.15.57. The roots of two simultaneous equations are represented by the coordinates of the point (or points) at which their graphs intersect. AB y = . the point of intersection of the coordinate of P. The every coordinates of point in satisfy the equation (1). Since two straight lines which are not coincident nor simultaneous Ex. parallel have only one point of intersection. Solve graphically the equations : (1) \xy\. Graphical solution of a linear system.
3. 2 equation x 3). AB the locus of (1). etc.162 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA graph. x2 . parallel graphs indicate inconsistent equations. Solve graphically the : fol lowing system = = 25. if x equals respectively 0. 5. 4. intersection. 0. 5. there are two pairs of By measuring the coordinates of : P and Q we find 204. = 0. the graph of points roots. Since the two  we obtain DE.  4. 3x 2 y = 6. e. 2. and joining by a straight line. Solving (1) for y. 1. The equations 2 4 = 0. 4. Locating two points of equation (2).0. In general..g. 3. Locating the points (5. Measuring the coordinates of P. 4. y equals 3.y~ Therefore. we of the + y* = 25. V25 5. Inconsistent equations. obtain the graph (a circle) AB C joining. P graphs meet in two and $. This is clearly shown by the graphs of (1) arid (2). . (1) (2) C. 4. (1) (2) cannot be satisfied by the same values of x and y.5. (4. the point we obtain Ex.5. 4. and . (4. (2. There can be no point of and hence no roots. 4. 3).9. 0. 0) and (0. 4. 2. construct CD the locus of (2) of intersection. i.e. 3.0). and + 3). which consist of a pair of parallel lines. they are inconsistent. Using the method of the preceding para. 4. 1.
y= a2 2x y6. 17. the graphs of the following systems. 20. 7. y 2 4. 8. . idengraphs indicate dependent equations. vice versa. Draw system. 3. a+r/=6. '163 Dependent equations. and solve each If there are no solutions. 2. 5. if possible. 6. 19. 16 22. 1 6* + 7 y = 3. y=x + 5. \ 2x + 3^ .GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS 205. EXERCISE 75 Construct the loci of the following equations: 1. 16 23. 10.. as 2^3 and 3x f ==l 2y =6 tical have identical graphs. state reasons. 4. 9. and. y = 4. 2x 3?/=6. a. x~y=0.
28. 30.8. 25.14 y = . Show that the same values of x and y cannot satisfy the : three equations x f 5y = 5.164 24. 26. 29 . CUBES.y). 3 31. 4 a = 3(6 . TABLE OF SQUARES. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA "~ U # . AND SQUARE HOOTS .
INVOLUTION OF MONOMIALS 208.faa a a a Obviously 1. = a2 5 =6 (5 )* n m n (a ) = a (a 2 3 ) a2 b5 . follows that 3. powers of a positive quantity are positive. fa. 52. ( 2 aft ) 9 is negative. ( 3 a268 ) ( a 8 = _ (2m ) (8 ____ 16 *)"" 27 n 165 . Law of Signs. ( 3 2 6 3 )* = ( 3 a2 6 8 ) . on to in factors 4. 2. a2 6 6 = ?> 2+2 5 5 + 2 = a. 8. All even powers of a negative quantity arc positive. a special kind of product. . Involution is the operation of raising a quantity to a Since a power effected positive integral power.CHAPTER XIII INVOLUTION 206. According to 1. ^4/? it According to 50. ( a) is positive. etc.a2 . involution repeated multiplication. To find (#(**&)" is a problem of involution. is may be by 207. = 6+ 5 + +fi = fi 62. All odd powers of a negative quantity are negative. a = a3 . 3 f a = f a = +. 2.
4. 4 /2mV. 16. \ 3 J '  MW 10. raise its terms to the required EXERCISE Perform the operations indicated 1. 24. (a ) 2 5 . The & cube of a binomial (a 3 3 _j_ we obtain by multiplying (a 2 2 + 6) 1 by + and = a + 3a 6 + 3a6 + * 6) . The square of a binomial was discussed in 63. (2ar). 6.6 (a 8 8 . 210. 2 11 (afc ) . amVy) 3 . 76 : (>y. the required power. V V/ 13.6) = a . 15.166 To find To To power. (277171 )*. a product to a given power. (a ) 2 4  3. 5. . ^/2?n?A 4 ' 30. ' 27 ' / _4_ _4_V ' 11. raise ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA the exponent of the power of a power. raise a fraction to a power. 2. V 3xy )' INVOLUTION OF BINOMIALS 209.3 a 6 f 3 a6 . (^^) 2 . multiply tht raise each of its factors to given exponents. 3 2 2 8 .
7. 18.3(3 a*)a(y = 27 a . (3a (a (4 62 l) 3 .INVOLUTION Ex. and decreases in each succeeding term by L . 6. 4 4 2 2 3 4 . as follows : + 6) = o + 3 d'b + 3 a6 + + 6) = a + 4 a?b + 6 a & + 4 a6 + b (a = a + 5 a 6 + 10 a*b + 10 a 6 f 5 aM + 6 (a + 6) 8 8 2 (a b*. pansions. . +5a) 22. nent of the binomial. (afl) . TJie exponent of a in the first term is the same as the expo2. = s= (2s) 8 a. a. The higher powers of binomials. 8 (a??/) 3 . or*  Find the cube root of 19. 86 3 w + 3 w + ra8 126 + G6l. 13. 2 . + 3a 6 + 3a& f& ^Sx^ + S^ ^ 3 2 2 3 .y) = (3 y?y . 4. .3 y. etc. + a 2 a. 1 f 3 2 3 . 12. 9. (a + &)8 . are obtained by multiplication. Ex. 2. (3 x . 15. : a 20. examination of these results shows that : The number of terms is 1 greater than the exponent of the binomial. 3 3 + 3(2aO*(Sy) + 3(2aj)(3y)> + 36 z2y + 54 xy* + 27 y3 . An 1. 1.y . 2 a8 3a2 + 3al. 167 Find the cube of 2 x f.27 ay + 9 x y2n 2 EXERCISE 77 Perform the operations indicated: 1. 3. 8. (aj7) . Find the cube 2 6 n of 3 x* .6 2 8 ft) .) 14. (6m+2w) (3 8 . (3 (l I) 2 8 . (3af26) 8 . 23. + 4aj) 3 . 211. 21. 16. 2. 3 8 . (m2) 8 (w+w) 3 8 10. frequently called ex. (5 (1 a) 3 . 3 . 5. 5 5 4 2 2 3 s .  lx  (7 a (1 I) 3 17.
a) 3 19. 8. * 2 4 ) 16 ic 8 . (af 5) . 4 . 10 x*y* + 2 5 xy* + y5 . (2a5c) (1 f 2 4 a:) 4 . (2w 2 2 fl) 4 . ( &) 5 . 4 (1for) 5 . The minus. 24. (p + q) 4 * 7. (1 + 4 ?/) . 12 EXERCISE Expand: 1. 5. (2 a 4 .4(2^(3 ^'+(3 y . (mnp 5 I) 5 .4(2 * )'(3 *f) f 6(2 ^) (3 y ) 8 . (2 4. 15. (tff1) (cfd) . TJie coefficient of any term of the power multiplied by the exponent of a. 10. . 3. Ex. (la&) 4 12. 17. 4. Expand (a??/) x5 5 x4 y + 10 x'2 (and odd + 212. (w 4 ?i) 4 .2.168 3. 9. 23. 3. 5. 18.81 y 2 8 9 8 4 ) . Expand (x = ic 5 f 5 x*y + 10 ^V + 5 . (3a f5) 5) 4. . (m 5 I) 2 22.96 ^y f 216 o?y . Ex. . (a~^) 5 . 21. 6. (l 8 . 13. (lfa 6 2 ) 5. 2. (?>i?i f c)*. . . . ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA T7ie exponent ofb is 1 in the second term of the result.216 a^ 4. and the powers negative. of the second term equals the exponent of the binomial 6. since the even powers of signs of the last answer arc alternately plus y are positive. (m 2 + n) 8 . (mJ) 4 11. and the result divided by 1 plus the exponent of b. is the coefficient of the next term. . 25. Ex. (?/i~w) : 16. The The coefficient coefficient of the first term is 1. mn 5 2 5 ) . (m fl) 2 20. 78 s . and increases by 1 in each succeeding term. Expand <? 2 (2 #  3 y3 ) 4 2 . 1. 14.
CHAPTER XIV EVOLUTION 213. for distinction. or x &4 . \/"^27=3. 2. 27 =y means r' = 27. numbers. Evolution it is is the operation of finding a root of a quan the inverse of involution. 1. 4 4 . V \/P 214. V9 = + 3. which can be simplified no further. quantity may the be either 2wsitive or negative. \/a = x means x n = y ?> a. Every odd root of a quantity has same sign as and 2 the quantity. 109 . Since even powers can never be negative. etc. a) 4 = a4 . tity . for (+ a) = a \/32 = 2. = x means = 6. It follows from the law of signs in evolution that : Any even root of a positive. for (f 3) 2 ( 3) equal 0. 215. and all other numbers are. it is evidently impossible to express an even root of a negative quantity by Such roots are called imaginary the usual system of numbers. and ( v/o* = a. called real numbers. Thus V^I is an imaginary number. (_3) = 27. or y ~ 3. or 3 for (usually written 3) .
(. = 19472. 14 63 25 = V2 3* = 2 32 6 .lL. V25 9 16. for (2 a 2 6c4 ) 8 = Ex. v/2^. VT8226 = V25 2 729 . 7. Ex. Ex. Ex. 7. Ex. 3/0** = am . 3i . Find (x/19472) Since by definition ( v^)" = a.9 = 136. Ex. v^SjW 3 = 2 a ^/gL^g = * c* A 82 &c*. To extract a root of a fraction.1. 5. 2 . 2. 8. 9. To extract the root of a power. \/2 4 9 .4. 62 = V2* . 6. V5 v/2 7 2. 6 7 = 030. 3. roots of the numerator \/18 .201) = 2. 4 v. 10. extract the and denominator. EXERCISE 1. 82 . fy 5 3 . V?. v/^i2 = a*. for (a")" a = a mn 3. Ex 5 a" . 8. = V26TIT81 = 53. 9. we have (Vl472) 2 Ex. index. V36 9 4. 7 .200 . for (a 3 )* = a 12 .  100 a 2 .170 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EVOLUTION OF MONOMIALS The following examples root : are solved by the definition of a . . . 7 . divide the exponent by the A root of a product equals the product of the roots of the factors. 3 33 53 .64 5 4 . . Ex. = 199 + (_ 198) . 79 2 v/2 5 .for(*Siy = 3 3 6 c* \ c*J 2 2 b' ?*243 ft^c20 216. 6. 2.125.
a* 4 8 2 . A trinomial is a perfect square if one of its terms is equal to twice the product of the square roots of the other terms. 2 f ( V240) 3 .3. 5. 31.(V200) f ( VI5) 2 .6 tfif + 9 y = O .98.75.6 ofy 2 f 9 y4 . Find the square root of a2 . ( VH) + (Vl9) 2 2 . 2.) by inspection. 116. In such a case the square root can be found ( 116. V8. 1. V9216.3 . ( VI5) x ( VT7) 2 2 2 2 x ( V3) 35.3 y2) ( vV . (Vl24) { 2 EVOLUTION OF POLYNOMIALS AND ARITHMETICAL NUMBERS 217. 34. ^40^4. Ex.) 4 3 EXERCISE 80 : Extract the square roots of the following expressions 1. 30. 6. 45 V5184. a f2 l 2 + l. (V2441) ~(V2401) 36. 2 .4/. Hence _ 6 ary f 9 y = (s ./). 2 . 29. 32.EVOLUTION 171 28. V20 . \/d \Vab r + b\ 9. . 3. 33. 2yh2/ 4  9^ + 60^ + 2 2/ .
. and b (2 a f b). + 6 + 4a&. 15. the given expression is a perfect square. second term 2ab by the double of by dividing the the socalled trial divisor. The work may be arranged 2 : a 2 + 2 ab + W \a + b . mV14m??2)f 49. 8 . a2 + & + c + 2 a& . i. term a of the root is the square root of the first The second term of the root can be obtained a. The term a' first 2 .2 ab + b . #2 a2  16.b 2 2 to its square. 10. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBEA 4a2 44a?> + 121V2 4a s . a\b is the root if In most cases.> 13. 2 2 218. let us consider the relation of a f. a f. 2 . 2ab . 2 49a 8 16 a 4 9.e. it is not known whether the given expression is a perfect square. and b. 14. the that 2 ab f b 2 = we have then to consider sum of trial divisor 2 a. In order to find a general method for extracting the square root of a polynomial.172 7. 11. multiplied by b must give the last two terms of the as follows square.2 &c.72 aW + 81 & 4 . 12. however.2 ac .
Arrange the expression according to descending powers root of 10 x 4 is 4 # 2 the lirst term of the root. . \ 24 a 3 4f a2 10 a 2 Second remainder. 24# 2 y 3 by the trial divisor Dividing the first term of the remainder. 8 /. 1. 8 a 2 . Extract the square root of 16 a 4 . The process of the preceding article can be extended to polynomials of more than three terms. 219. . 10 a 4 8 a. 2. by division we term of the root. As there is no remainder.  24 a 3 + 25 a 2  12 a +4 Square of 4 a First remainder. By doubling 4x'2 we obtain 8x2 the trial divisor. Arranging according to descending powers of 10 a 4 a. of x. First complete divisor. 4 x2 3 ?/ 8 is the required square foot. 8 a 2 Second complete divisor. The square . double of this term find the next is the new trial divisor. and consider Hence the their sum one term. First trial divisor. is As there is no remainder. Explanation.24 afy* f 9 tf. we obtain the next term of the root 3 y 3 which has to be added to 2 the trial divisor. Ex. We find the first two terms of the root by the method used in Ex. 1. 6 a.24 a + 4 12 a + 25 a8 s . Second trial divisor. . . . */'' . the required root (4 a'2 8a + 2}. 173 x* Extract the square root of 1G 16x4 10 x* __ . and so forth. 8 a 2 2. 8 a 2  12 a +4 a f 2. Multiply the complete divisor Sx' 3y 3 by Sy 8 and subtract the product from the remainder. 2 Subtracting the square of 4x' from the trinomial gives the remainder '24 x'2 + y.EVOLUTION Ex. the first term of the answer.
> 7.73a4 440^436^460^.54 a 40 a 6 4 9 a4 . 436^?/469a.14^44 ic 4^ 3 12^.42 a f 49 a 6 16 a4  24 a3 4 J 2 3 3 4 4 . 4 36 a 2 12 4 4 16 a4 4 46 a 4 4 44 a 8 f 25 a h 12 a 4 4 25 a6 4. 4 4?/ 42x 4 3 j/ 2xif 6 a5 4.12m 5 4. 13#4 413ar 44a. 6.12 a6 2 2 3 4 4 64 .16.42 a*& 4. 6 6 2 49 a 4 . 10. 9.20 o 4. 4 . 36a 460a 473a 440a 416a 3 2 13.25. 16.24 or .2^43^42^ 46 5 4 a. 3.4 x 4.162 a2 60 a10 4. 17. 16x6 4. 24. 6 11. 729 4. x 6 4 4 0^4.V430^425^ 4m 4.9. 14.40 a 22 . 5. 2 4. 20.10 x2 4. 25 m 20 w + 34 m . 36it. 15. 2 x2 3 2x. + 81 a 454 a + 81.6 . 18. 412 a& f 37 a' 6 .9m 4 20m3 30m 4. . 12.a 6 x*y 2 . 1 4. 3 a2 a4 4 2a + a4 2 or 41 3 2 a3 + 1.20 J or 2 16 x 4. 8. 16 _^ + 2 JX XT 4a.174 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 81 : Extract the square roots of the following expressions 2. 25 x 4 f 40 afy 446 x 2 if 4 24 a^ 8 4 9 4 i/ .73 a8 . 19.37 a ^ .25 x 4 4. 5 4 16 4 iK . l 4.12 m 4. a? 2 .
2. 1.000. Hence the root is 80 plus an unknown number. 7744 80 6400 1 +8 160 + 8 = 168 1344 1344 Since a 2 a Explanation. The is trial divisor = 160. of a number between 100 and 10. the first of which is 8. of 1. a f>2'41 '70 6 c [700 + 20 + 4 = 724 2 a a2 = +6= 41) 00 00 1400 + 20 = 1420 4 341 76 28400 = 1444 57 76 6776 . From A will show the comparison of the algebraical and arithmetical method given below identity of the methods. 175 The by a method very similar expressions. etc.. square root of arithmetical numbers can be found to the one used for algebraic Since the square root of 100 is 10. Hence if we divide the digits of the number into groups.1344. the square root of 7744 equals 88. Ex. As 8 x 168 = 1344. the integral part of the square root of a number less than 100 has one figure.000 is 100. and the first remainder is. beginning at the and each group contains two digits (except the last. Find the square root of 7744. which may contain one or two). and we may apply the method used in algebraic process. two figures. and the square root of the greatest square in units. Find the square root of 524. the consists of group is the first digit in the root. of 10. a 2 = 6400.000. Therefore 6 = 8. the first of which is 4. the first of which is 9 the square root of 21'06'81 has three digits. = 80. Thus the square root of 96'04' two digits. and the complete divisor 168.EVOLUTION 220. etc. the preceding explanation it follows that the root has two digits. first . then the number of groups is equal to the number of digits in the square root. Ex.176.000 is 1000.
Roots of common fractions are extracted either by divid ing the root of the numerator by the root of the denominator. places. 3. annex a cipher. 12.10.1 are Ex. we must Thus the groups 1'67'24. in .0961 are '.70 6.688 4 45 2 70 2 25 508 4064 6168 41)600 41344 2256 222. or by transforming the common fraction into a decimal.1T6 221. EXERCISE Extract the square roots of : 82 . and if the righthand group contains only one digit. ELEMENTS OF ALGEKRA In marking off groups in a number which has decimal begin at the decimal point. Find the square root of 6/.7 to three decimal places.GO'61. The groups of 16724.
Find the mean proportional between 2 and . 32. 1. 31.58 square 38.1410. feet. 37. .) 40.4 square when R = radius and 11. Find the side of a square whose area equals 96 square yards. J. JT . = 3.01. 35. Find the side of a square whose area equals 50. 13.22. 30. T\. 33. feet. whose area equals 48. 1. TT Find the radius of a (Area of a circle circle 1 equals irR . 34. 5.EVOLUTION Find 177 to three decimal places the square roots of the follow ing numbers: 29.53. 36. 39.
Dividing. The 7 equation. quadratic equation is one which contains both the square and the first power of the unknown A quantity. or incomplete. 226. is frequently written x 13( 2)2 = 7(  19 = 33 . x 2 7. Solve 13 x2 19 etc. 2)* + 5 = 33. is 12. complete. but no higher power e. + bx f c r= is a complete quadratic ax 2 = m is a pure quadratic equation. Transposing. is A quadratic equation. 178 .g. or equation of the second degree. 6#2 = x* 24. = 4.. This answer Check. = 7^ + 5. 2. 225. Ex. A pure. an integral rational equation that contains the square of 4x the unknown number. 2 ic = a. 224. A pure quadratic is solved by reducing it to the form and extracting the square root of both members. 1. . ax 2 + bx + c = Q. x = + 2 or x =2. Extracting the square root of each member. or affected.CHAPTER XV QUADRATIC EQUATIONS INVOLVING ONE UNKNOWN QUANTITY 223. quadratic equation contains only the square of the axt unknown quantity. 6 y2 = 17. x f 12 = the absolute term PUKE QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 227. absolute term of an equation is the terra which / does not contain any In 4 x 2 unknown quantities.
7 = 162.2. 7. 16^393 = 7. EXERCISE Solve the following equations 1. 10. s3 ? + oj x +3 = 4. . 4 ax. 2 2 a. or Therefore.QUADRATIC EQUATIONS Ex. + 4 ax = ax + 4 a 2 + x2 f 2 x2 = 8 a 2 4 a2 x2 = x = V 4 a2 x= x = . 4. 8. 2.25. ax Transposing and combining. Dividing by Extracting the square root. . (a? 9. 5. 19 + 9 = 5500. o. 0^ + 1 = 1. 2 4fc 5' 18.=g x2 4 a2 Clearing of fractions. 15^5 = 6. ' =: y? b* b . : 83 2. 3. 6(2)=10(ajl). Solve 179 .
is 5(5.180 on __!_:L ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA a. solve for v. . and they con tain together 30G square feet. 4. and the sum The sides of two square fields are as 3 : 5. solve for d. If G=m m g . 2.b 2 If s If =c . 3. 108. Find the side of each field. If 2 f 2 b* = 4w 2 f c sol ve for m. 2 . If the hypotenuse whose angles a units of length. If 22 = ~^. its area contains =a 2 f b2 . A right triangle is a triangle. may be considered one half of a rec square units. A number multiplied by ratio of its fifth part equals 45. EXERCISE 1. Find is the number. 29. = a 2 2 (' 2 solve for solve for = Trr . 84 is Find a positive number which equal to its reciprocal ( 144). 22 a. solve for r. is one of _____ b The side right angle. opposite the right angle is called the hypotenuse (c in the diagram). and the two other sides respectively c 2 contains c a and b units. Find the numbers. find a in terms of 6 . Three numbers are to each other as 1 Find the numbers. and their product : 150. 28. 228. If s = 4 Trr ' 2 . The sides of two square fields are as 7 2. and the first exceeds the second by 405 square yards. then Since such a triangle tangle. 26. 2 : 3. Find the side of each field. 9 & { c# a x +a and c. The two numbers (See is 2 : 3. : 6. ' 4. 27. r. 25. 24. . 2a f 1 23. 2 .) of their squares 5. If a 2 4.
2m. make x2 Evidently 7 takes the place 7x a complete square to to which corresponds m 2 . Find the sides. Find the radii. passes in t seconds 2 over a space s yt Assuming g 32 feet. 8. of a right triangle Find these sides. the radius of a sphere whose surface equals If the radius of a sphere is r. The hypotenuse of a right triangle is to one side as 13:12. 9. Find these 10. let us compare x 2 The left the perfect square x2 2 mx f m to 2 .7 x f 10 = 0. add () Hence 2 . Method of completing the square. J = 12. . we have of or m = . 181 The hypotenuse of a right triangle : is 35 inches. A body falling from a state of rest. member can be made a complete square by adding 7 x with another term. is and the other two sides are equal. 4. and the third side is 15 inches. sides. and the other two sides are as 3 4. the formula = Trr whose radius equals r is found by Find the radius of circle whose area S equals (a) 154 square inches.2 7 .) COMPLETE QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 229. The hypotenuse of a right triangle is 2.) 13. x* 7 x= 10. 7r (Assume and their = 2 7 2 . (b) 44 square feet. Two circles together contain : 3850 square feet. The following ex ample illustrates the method or of solving a complete quadratic equation by completing the square. . in how many seconds will a body fall (a) G4 feet. (b) 100 feet? = . its surface (Assume ir = 2 . Find the unknown sides and the area. Solve Transposing. . The area : sides are as 3 4. 24. To find this term. radii are as 3 14. The area $ /S of a circle 2 .QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 7. 8 = 4 wr2 Find 440 square yards. and the two smaller 11.
= x\ = 2. = . 2 ax f 2 o) s a .x(l = . Complete the square by adding the square of one half the coefficient of x. a. adding member). or x = 2. Transposing.182 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 2 Adding ( J) to each member.  \. (*~8) a = at . Ex. = \ # = ff.2 a2 .a. J. 62 x 5 = f. Hence Therefore Check. . a Clearing of fractions. Or (*i) x Extracting square roots. x x2 x x2 + 2 a2 x f a = 2 ax. Ex. 7 5 + 10 = 0. 2  .  x Q) 2 to each Completing the square (i.. Uniting. 2 a* a.1. 22 7 2 + 10 =0. 80^69^2 = 9 x2 sc Transposing. Hence to solve a complete quadratic : Reduce the equation to the form x*\px==q.e. = 6. 230.2. Extract the square root and solve the equation of the first degree thus formed. Therefore. or J. Transposing. 15 x 2 Dividing by 9. Simplifying. Extracting square roots.
x .QUADRATIC EQUATIONS Completing the square. x = l+ * a = 1 +2 <* V IT * Therefore * Vl < EXERCISE 85 . Extracting square root.1+2?= "*"   Vl .4 ~ a2 Transposing. 183 Simplifying.
231. any quadratic equation may be obtained by 6. Solution by formula.184 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 45 46. article. =8 r/io?. 49. = 12. 2 Every quadratic equation can be reduced to the general form. =0. x la 48. . 2x 3 4. and c in the general answer. o^ or } 3 ax == 4 a9 7 wr . Solving this equation we obtain by the method of the preceding 2a The roots of substituting the values of a. \bx\. ao.c = 0.
2 . 6. 9. 2. 20. 6. 1. = 12 . 21. c p. 16. 6 Ex.QUADRATIC EQUATIONS Ex. 3. 20 x Hence Therefore a = 5. = 64120?. b =  + 20 == = 0.  . 3 x 11 + 10 = 0. Solve 2 j>o? p*x x px* a 2 p. 6m = 7 m + 12 = 64 7 x2 2 2 a.4 4 5 . c = 5. 26. 2or } 5o. 6 . 4. 14.25 x. 17. 2. 18. 19. 15. 6 10 2024 =6or 10 l. 6^+5^ 56. TIO. 2 a? = 44 x . 13.15 x9 25x* = 21 . 10.  P + VQ^+T? ^4^ EXERCISE Solve by the above formula 1. 5 x2 Transposing. 7. Hence Therefore =p 1 t b = (p 2 + 1). 7^ + 9 x 90. V^tT)* . 12. 2 o. : 86 + 2 = 0. a. 11. Reducing to general form. 8.. ?i 2 . 2 a. 185 Solve 5 x2 = 26 x5. 2# 11 + 15 = 0.
3x?+x = 7. x(x <2 . and 6. the prodif x has (1) (2) such a value that either or a?. ar>8o.5) =0. 23. Bx 1 1. Transposing. 25. orz roots. any degree. Clearing for fractions. 24. x2 = 1 . if either of the uct is zero. 233. 26. a=:i^^.186 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA to Find the roots of the following equations places : two decimal 22. Factoring. = 0. 2a^7x sc(2 16rc Therefore a = 0. =7 x se 2 2 + 16 x. (5 a? !)(. 0. factors Now. transposing terms to one member. we x obtain the roots =^ or x = 5. all or. or # 5 is zero. Evidently this method can be applied to equations of if one member of the equation is zero and the other factored. 5 = 0. = 14. }. a? 28  7al=7s be required to solve the 232. .x. = 0. 2S3x 1 2 .2. Therefore the equation will be satisfied 5x _.4) = . Eesolving into factors. 1.5 Solving (1) and (2). Solution by factoring. 5) = 0. 27 x== 42a. Let it e(l uation: 5^ + 5=26*. Hence the equation has three + 3) (x 2xf3=0. Solve a*= 7a? + 15x 2 2* . member can be Ex. = 0.
E. 2. a?10a=:24.3)(x + 3 3.6)) = 0. ar'Sa^ 12. we 9 obtain x 4. 3^ = 0(1106). 3. : 87 = 0. such a common divisor must be made equal to zero. 3) = 0. 4. 0(02) = 7(02). 16. 3. 4)(z3) = 0. + 8=s: 7. is 5) = 0.g. 5. } 2 2 (5 . Ex. + 100. a* 10a=24. + 6)=0. 14.3 =5 or = 2 3 obtained from the 5 (x or x equation x (x = is also a root. and the equation thus formed be solved. (*2)(x + 2)(a3)=0. 9. 3# y 5 = 0. 6. 8. Form an equation whose roots are 4 and 6.24 = 0. O roots are 2. 187 Solve x? 3x x*(x 2 4x + 12 = 0.= 24. aj( 15. 2.QUADRATIC EQUATIONS Ex. The equation I.(. 13. + 10 a = 24. 2o3 f9a.e. 3^ 25^ + 28 = 0. 5 = 0. x2 f 2 x . + 9 f 20 x = 0. a?. Or Hence the 234. (aj4)(a.:=0. for a: . 3) Factoring. 12. let it be required to solve If or x we divide both = 2. members of an equation are divided by an involving the unknown quantity. In order If both to obtain all roots of the original equation. 0^ + 21 = 10 10. the resulting expression equation contains fewer roots than the original one. members by x But evidently the value x 3 3. evidently (x Or 4)(x .  3) 2 4 (x = 0. 4or + 18a f 8a. 3 or 2 a. EXERCISE Solve by factoring 6 2. 0^ ar> 11. 7. Therefore x =3 = 2.
25. uz + u 21. w(w x2 2 w)=6tt. 19. 50. 2. 20. ara + ft + c*. a 2 =(x a)b. 18. 22. f ELEMENTS OF ALGEKRA tt(3tt + 7tt)=6tt. (2a? 3) (a 24. or 3 a 2 2 a? 26.188 17. 27. 23. (a + 1) (a. + 2)= (y( j_ ? (+ 3)(a?+2).3) = (s + l) (3 a). '3a!J  .
Find the number. number by 10. . 5. and equals 190 square inches. EXERCISE 1. 2. The 11.3. 3. Find a number which exceeds its square by is .1. PROBLEMS INVOLVING QUADRATICS in general two answers. area A a perimeter of 380 rectangular field has an area of 8400 square feet and Find the dimensions of the field. : 3. 2.2. 2. G. of their reciprocals is 4.QUADRATIC EQUATIONS Form 51.0. Twentynine times a number exceeds the square of the 190.3. 52. 2. 2.3. and whose sum is is 36. 57. its sides of a rectangle differ by 9 inches. 58. 0. 56. What are the numbers of ? is The product two consecutive numbers 210. The sum of the squares of two consecutive numbers 85. 3. Find the number. and whose product 9. 7. 2. 6. and the difference Find the numbers. 8. 88 its reciprocal A number increased by three times equals 6J. 54. 1. two numbers is 4. Problems involving quadratics have lems of this type have only one solution. Find two numbers whose difference is 40. 1. and consequently many prob 235. 4. Find the numbers.0. but frequently the conditions of the problem exclude negative or fractional answers. Find the sides. 5. feet. is Find two numbers whose product 288. The difference of . Divide CO into two parts whose product is 875.9. 55. 189 the equations whose roots are 53.
it would have needed two hours less to travel 120 miles. At what rates do the steamers travel ? 18. The diagonal : tangle as 5 4. Two steamers and is of 420 miles. . watch cost sold a watch for $ 21. he would have received 12 apples less for the same money. dollars. sold a horse for $144. and lost as many per cent Find the cost of the watch. and the line BD joining two opposite vertices (called "diagonal") feet. Two vessels. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA The length 1 B AB of a rectangle. 19. as the 16. and gained as many per Find the cost of the horse. exceeds its widtK AD by 119 feet.10.190 12. watch for $ 24. A man bought a certain number of apples for $ 2. he had paid 2 ^ more for each apple. A man A man sold a as the watch cost dollars. 17. c equals 221 Find AB and AD. If a train had traveled 10 miles an hour faster. 15. start together on voyages of 1152 and 720 miles respectively. he would have received two horses more for the same money. A man cent as the horse cost dollars. and the slower reaches its destination one day before the other. one of which sails two miles per hour faster than the other. a distance One steamer travels half a mile faster than the two hours less on the journey. vessel sail ? How many miles per hour did the faster If 20. ABCD. 14. 13. and lost as many per cent Find the cost of the watch. had paid $ 20 less for each horse. of a rectangle is to the length of the recthe area of the figure is 96 square inches. ply between the same two ports. Find the rate of the train. and Find the sides of the rectangle. other. What did he pay for each apple ? A man bought a certain number of horses for $1200. What did he pay for 21. If he each horse ? .
is surrounded by a walk of uniform width. 23 inches long. B AB AB 2 191 grass plot. Ex. A rectangular A circular basin is surrounded is  by a path 5 feet wide. Find and CB. and the unknown factor of one of these terms is the square of the unknown factor of the other. (tf.) 25. of the area of the basin. Equations in the quadratic form can be solved by the methods used for quadratics. a point taken. constructed with and CB as sides. or x = \/l = 1. How many eggs can be bought for $ 1 ? 236. Solve ^9^ + 8 = ** 0. EQUATIONS IN THE QUADRATIC FORM An equation is said to be in the quadratic form if it contains only two unknown terms. =9 Therefore x = \/8 = 2. ^3^ = 7. By formula. Find the side of an equilateral triangle whose altitude equals 3 inches. The number of eggs which can be bought for $ 1 is equal to the number of cents which 4 eggs cost. A needs 8 days more than B to do a certain piece of work. 237. the two men can do it in 3 days. In how many days can B do the work ? = 26. 24. 1. and working together. how wide is the walk ? 23.I) 4(aj*l) 2 = 9.QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 22. 27. 30 feet long and 20 feet wide. . and the area of the path the radius of the basin. as 0. so that the rectangle. contains B 78 square inches. If the area of the walk is equal to the area of the plot. Find TT r (Area of a circle . is On the prolongation of a line AC.
4. 4 8 = 2 a* 2. Hence Le. 8. a? 15 1=2*. y8)=0. T 17. aV+9o 4 =0. stitute ELEMENTS OF ALGEBEA In more complex examples it is advantageous to sub a letter for an expression involving a?. Ex.192 238. a4 5o. = 1. 7. 19. 4 : 89 10a. 18. 4 2 4 37aj 2 = 9. >. 16. 4 6. 3 a4 44s + 121=0. ^^ ~ 28 (a? ^ 2:=Q> . or y = 8.2 =4. 2 (^Z)  "3 14. 4 a. 12. (a: +aj) 18(x2 +a. 10. a. 6.)+72=0. 2. Let x + 15 = J < Then or or rf 15 = 0.T 2 2 . 9. 436 3. 2 h9:=0. EXERCISE Solve the following equations 1. 2 16 a^40 11. a 21or=100. Solving. = 13.
and equal.Vfr 2 4 ac T* b Vi .12 x + 9 = 0. b 4. the roots are imaginary. Relations between roots and coefficients. The expression b 2 the equation ay? 4. is 4ac not zero. If b Ifb* 2 If b Iflr 4 ac is is is 4c 4 ac a positive or equal to zero. Ifb 2 Jfb 2 is zero. the roots are rational. c the roots are real.2 z . The quadratic equation oa/* 2 f bx f c = has two roots.QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 193 CHARACTER OF THE ROOTS 239. rational. negative. a perfect square. the roots are real. the roots are irrational.bx 4 by ' i\ and r2 then . kac 4 ac is 'not a perfect square. Hence the roots are real. Determine the character of the roots of the equation 4 x2 . 3. 2. Ex. the roots are equal. 1.bx 4. rational. . Ex. Determine the character of the roots of the equation 3 a 2 .c 4 ac is called the discriminant of = 0. Since ( 12) 2 4 4 9 = 0. ( 2a Hence 1. it 2a follows 2 : 2.2) 2 4 3 (. 241. the roots are unequal.5) = 04. are denoted __ Tl If the roots of the equation ax2 4. The discriminant =(. and unequal. 240. 2 4 ac 2a Hence / 1 4r2 = a Or .f> = 0.
21. = 0. x2 7 10. 2a 4z5 = 0. 22. + 18 2 8. 60 2 = 0.2 + 4a: + 240 = 0. 14. 5oj aj + l = 0. 12~x = x 2 . x2 !i>x + 2 z2 2 16. o. Sa^ + 2 Ooj 2 Solve the following equations and check the answers by forming the sum and the product of the roots 19. their product isf. 17. 10 x = 25 x + 1. the sain of the roots of 4 x 5 x 3 =: is j.194 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 2 a? these results If the given equation is written in the form may be expressed as follows : x +a += a 0. = 0. The sum of the roots equal is to the coefficient of x with the sign changed. 3a. 12. + 2a. = Q. (b) The product of the roots equal to theubsolute term. EXERCISE 89 a Determine without solution the character of the roots of the following equations 1. ^12. or + 10 + 4520 = 0. 2x* + 6x + 3 = 0.19 # 20. 15. + 12 2  . 5aj 9. ar + ^ + 2^2 = 0. 2 : 3. 2 a. 4. lla. n a?3 ' ~ == l 5. If the (a) coefficient ofx 2 in a quadratic equation is is unity.. 9x2 ~ the In each of the following equations determine by inspection sum and the product of the roots: 13. 2. = 0. : a 2 . 23. 18.g. tfmx+p^Q. f 2 E. x2 4 x 0^ or j + 205 = 0. + 2a15 = 0. 24. 5a 26a? + 5 = 0. 2 7. 6. 9a3 = 0. = 5x.
It is.* III. we may choose for such symbols any definition that is con venient for other work.a" = a m n mn . (a ) s=a m = aw bm a . The following four fundamental laws for positive integral exponents have been developed in preceding chapters : I. for all values 1 of m and n. no Fractional and negative exponents. II. and . that a an = a m+n ." means "is greater than" 195 similarly means "is . 4~ 3 have meaning according to the original definition of power. 244. Then the law of involution. > m therefore. hence. = a"" < . we let these quantities be what they must be if the exponent law of multiplication is generally true. ~ a m f. m IV. The first of these laws is nition of power. must be *The symbol smaller than. provided w > n. a m a" = a m+t1 . very important that all exponents should be governed by the same laws.CHAPTER XVI THE THEORY OF EXPONENTS 242. however. the direct consequence of the defiand third are consequences FRACTIONAL AND NEGATIVE EXPONENTS 243. while the second of the first. such as 2*. We assume. (a m ) w . (ab) . instead of giving a formal definition of fractional and negative exponents.
as. laws. . fractional. (xy$. or zero exponent equal x. = a. ml. a . 24. disappear. e. (bed)*.g.  we find a? Hence we define a* to be the qth root of of. we try to discover the let the meaning of In every case we unknown quantity and apply to both members of the equation that operation which makes the negative. 31. 23. a*. Write the following expressions as radicals : 22. n 2 a. at. 0?=^. 25. '&M A 27. a?*. 3*. 4~ . 245.196 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA true for positive integral values of n. Let x is The operation which makes the fractional exponent disappear evidently the raising of both members to the third power. Hence Or Therefore Similarly. ^=(a^) 3* 3 . Assuming these two 8*. To find the meaning of a fractional exponent. m$. a\ 26. etc. 30. since the raising to a positive integral power is only a repeated multiplication. 29. 28.
7z* Find the values of 47. 43. 27* = 3. hence is . a . If. \/xy \/m. is Therefore the zero power of any number NOTE. 5 a* = 10. : 197 33. v'mT 36. Vo5 . is The operation which makes the zero exponent disappear 2 evidently a multiplication by any power of a. 42. 38. 50. = 2. \fi?. v/o&cT 34. the base is zero. : 2' 4* = 4. 49. 3* = 27. 5L is indeterminate Indeterminate. e. Solve the following equations 39. 246. Let a = a. 46.g. 35. : 4* + 9* + 16* + 25* + 36*. a * a2 Or a=l. 64* + 9* + 16* + (32)*. 44.THE THEORY OF EXPONENTS Express with fractional exponents 32. e.g. 48. 45. a* * = 3. however. 40. 41.\/n. equal to unity. To find the meaning of zero exponent. ty?. = 49. a. = 2. 37.
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA To find the meaning of a negative exponent. consider the following equations. . or the exponent. Multiplying both members by a".2 = a2 . etc. vice versa. cr n. each is The fact that a if = we It loses its singularity 1 sometimes appears peculiar to beginners. 248. in which obtained from the preceding one by dividing both members by a. a a a = = a a a a1 1 a.198 247. by changing the sign of NOTE. Factors may be transferred from the numerator to the denominator of a fraction.g. a8 a 2 = 1 1 . Let x= or". Or a"# = l. e. an x = a.
2 ."* 38. c 32. 2 . . rfS. : * 31 l> ' <W* arV 8 30. 3 a? * 42. 7~ l a 2b 2 . 37. 22. : or 5 . : mi m~^. m . ^L. 2m~i 43. a. ""^T"*' Write without denominators 29. 40. 66 45. . 39. 3 a. 27. 6 or 2 ^^ ^. 44.THE THEORY OF EXPONENTS EXERCISE Find the values of: 91 199 Express with positive exponents 21. a^ 41. * 24. 25. 1 L ?>i""i 3 cci . Write with radical signs and positive exponents 35. f (2w)~i 1 . ^?2 y' 34. 36.
008)* + A. 10* Find the values 56. 2 =f 3* = f x~ l 50. ar = i. 61. (. 10* 5* = . + 1~* f 21 . 17' 2 51. 250. 52. 47. 59. 48. Examples relating to roots can be reduced to examples con taining fractional exponents. 54. of: 3ll4~* 60.001. = 5.9*. (81)* + (3f)*(5 TV)*3249 + 16 * .6). Ex. 1.81 f (a .26)* 1 (I) 2 . It then follows that: Fractional and negative exponents may be treated by the same methods as positive integral exponents. z* = 1. and we shall hence assume that all four laws are generally true. z 5or*=10. 53. 57.343)* + (. = ^. = . (a*&~*)* + (aVM = a*&~* + V ' = '*&* Ex 2 . 5  75 USE OF NEGATIVE AND FRACTIONAL EXPONENTS 249. It can be demonstrated that the last three laws for any exponents are consequences of the first law. 49.200 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA : Solve the equations 46.1. = l.(. 55. + A_. . 58.
4 . 79 . 3sVS. 8 ' 9. 26.$*.5a. OA 20. 13.&. 14. 16. 3. V5. . / 7fv 7.4 a8 .7i.4 2 a? 2 ar 1 .&. 27  28. 12. 72 . remove the fractional exponents. .6 *' 6 *25. EXERCISE Simplify : 92 2. 17. 14an (4**(Va) 4 . #* a. S'sS8.^/5^5.THE THEORY OF EXPONENTS 251. 18. 6. 23. 25 26  2~ 8 2~ 9 22. 7.3 aj" a. 4 x^. Perform the operation indicated. ' 11. 3 a. NOTE. 95 ^9i 5**. __ 29 /m '=V a9 ia. are performed.5. 7~ 6 . 4 5.7*. 6 *. Remove the negative exponents.$". &. 7~ 5 27  . Negative exponents should not be removed until all operations of multiplication^ division.. a. 201 Expressions containing radicals should be simplified as : follows (a) (6) (c) Write all radical signs as fractional exponents. 16. 6a. 10. etc. . (d) If required.7W. 7*.
lix = 2xl =+1 Ex. 1. powers of x arranged are : Ex. the term which does not contain x may be considered as a term containing #. 40. The 252. we wish to arrange terms according to descending we have to remember that. 34. If powers of a?. 1.202 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 32. Arrange in descending powers of Check. Divide by ^ 2a 3 qfo 4.2 d . 2. V ra 4/ 3 \/m 33. 6 35. 1 Multiply 3 or +x 5 by 2 x x.
THE THEORY OF EXPONENTS
EXERCISE
93
203
Perform the operations indicated:
2.
3.
4. 5. 6.
(7r8Vr + r>)(9 Vr7). 2  1 ). (a + a f 1) (a~ + a
2 2 2
7.
8. 9.
10.
11.
(4
a 3
 24 a  9  3 a~ )
1
2
r
1
(a"
 3).
12.
13.
14.
+ + 47i) + 35V5?)*(5Vp + l). VS" ^ ( Vo Vft) H (a~ f 7 a ^a~ + 1C a*b~  33 a 6~ + 14 a(3 a _&)*. (^? + ^/^ + */fr^ 15. 16. (a6 + 2V6c c)^(Va+V6 Vc). 17. y^TTOa; f 13  12 * + 4 aF*.
(13Vp
5
l
(Va^f aV^&Va
l
3
)
3
2
2
^>~
3
2
1
1
)
(
1
18. 19.
Vor
2
2 x h or
2
2 or
1
f
3.
V25 #
 2()"ar r+ 34  12 x f 9 x*.
20.
^^
l
21. 22.
23. 24.
25.
+2
a?
8
(l+4^flO^ + 20oTf 25^T f24\/i?f 16
(1+V2)V2. (2+V2)(V22). (5+V3)(52V3).
26. 27.
)*.
(13VS)(2 + V5).
(VU  V2)(Vn~3V2)
204
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
:
Find by inspection
28.
29.
(x*
+ 3)(tf*f 2).
35.
36.
8 (a;*
yi)
.
a*
+ 3l5.
V2
(5*2*
2
.
30.
31.
32.
38. 39.
(3^
(#* ^
(fl
2*)
f
.
33. 34.
5) (x*
5).
40.
(m
n)
f
(m*
11
f
n 5 ).
CHAPTER XVII
RADICALS
253.
A
radical is the root of
a quantity, indicated by a
radical sign.
254.
The
radical is rational, if the root can be extracted
exactly; irrational, if the root cannot be exactly obtained. Irrational quantities are frequently called surds.
^9
4^
\/2,
(*
+ V) *
are radicals.
= 2, V(a + 6) 2 are rational.
V4af
b are irrational.
255.
root.
The
order of a surd
is
indicated by the index of the
va
\/2
/
.
is
is is
of the second order, or quadratic. of the third order, or cubic. of the fourth order, or biquadratic.
Vc
256. A mixed surd is the product of a rational factor and a surd factor; as 3Va, a;V3. The rational factor of a mixed surd is called the coefficient of the surd.
An
257.
factor.
entire surd is
one whose coefficient
is
unity; as
Va,
Similar surds are surds
3v/2 and 6
which contain the same irrational
are similar.
av^
3V2 and
3 V8 are dissimilar.
206
206
258.
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
Conventional restriction of the signs of roots.
All even roots
e.g.
may
be positive or negative,
VI = + 2
or
2.
Hence
6. which results in four values, viz. 14, 6, To avoid 14, or this ambiguity, it is customary in elementary algebra to restrict
the sign of a root to the prefixed sign.
Thus
5 V4 4 2 V4
= 7 VI = 14.
If the object of an example, however, is merely an evolution, the complete answer is usually given thus
;
=
(oj 2).
259.
Since radicals can be written as powers with fractional
exponents, all examines relating to radicals
may
be solved by the
methods employed for fractional exponents.
Thus, to find the nth root of a product ab we have
T
1
1
(a6)"==a"6"
I.e.
(242).
to extract the root of a product, multiply the roots of the
factors.
TRANSFORMATION OF RADICALS
260.
Simplification of surds.
A radical is simplified when the
expression under the radical sign is integral, and contains no factor whose power is equal to the index.
Ex.
1.
Simplify
= \/25~a~ Vb = 6 a*VS.
4
Ex.
2.
Simplify
v/16.
J/lB^^.
4/2
= 2^.
RADICALS
.
207
261 When the quantity under the radical sign is a fraction, we multiply both numerator and denominator by such a quantity as will make the denominator a perfect power of the same
degree as the surd.
Ex.
3.
Simplify V.
Ex.
4.
Simplify
EXERCISE
94
208
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
/s
37.
39.
j
*x+y
38.
n
\ 2m
262.
An
same manner
imaginary surd can be simplified in precisely the as a real surd thus,
;
42.
V16a
:
,
2
.
44.
2\
Simplify and find to three decimal places the numerical
values of
47.
48.
VJ.*
49.
50.
Vf.
VJ.
VA
263.
Reduction of a surd to an entire surd.
Ex.
Express 4 a V& as an entire surd.
EXERCISE
Express as entire surds
1.
:
95
4V5.
3.
2\/lL
5.
6.
7.
2.
3V7.
4.
3^5.
a VS.
8.
* See table of square roots on page 164.
RADICALS
264. Transformation of surds to surds of different order.
209
Ex.
1.
Transform \/uW into a surd of the 20th order.
Ex.
2.
Transform
\/2,
V3, and
\/5 into surds of the
same
lowest order.
V2 = 2* = a* = '#64. ^ = 8* = 3A= ^gi. ^5 = 6* = 6* =^125.
1
Ex.
3.
Reduce the order of the surd tyaP.
Exponent and index bear the same relation as numerator and denominator of a fraction ; and hence both may be multiplied by
same number, or both divided by the same number, without changing the value of the radical.
the
EXERCISE
Reduce
1.
96
:
to surds of the 6th order
2.
Va?.
fymn.
3.
\/ v
4.
v'c?.
5.
\
z
\
^3
6.
mn.
Reduce
7.
8.
to surds of the 12th order
9.
:
V2~a.
\/a4 6 2c.
\/3ax.
11.
12.
\/oP6.
13.
14.
a.
^v/mV
10.
\/5a5V.
Express as surds of lowest order with integral exponents and indices
:
15.
v/o
5
.
16.
\/oW.
17.
v/IaT .
2
18.
\/
20.
A/^
22.
VSlmV.
24.
^4. V2.2 V50 = V2 + 9 V2 . 27.2. Ex. v/3. V2. 26. </20. 31. v/4. 28. ^7. ^/IT. 4^/4. 39. 36. in order of magnitude : \/7. v/3. v^S. s!/3. ^6. ^5. 34. 3: \/=^8 v~ 8ft 2 s/a. if dissimilar. 32. reduce them to their simplest add them like similar add their coefficients) . V3. ^3. 37. subtract surds. + . Ex. </3. 5V2. V2. V5. ^4.3\ . A/2. 3  s/ / 3ft 2  3 ^y Ex. To add or form. (i. ADDITION AND SUBTRACTION OF RADICALS 265.e. A/3. 38. \/5. ^2. \/7.2 V50. Simplify/a35 ~ o . 3. 30. 29. 40. terms their If the resulting surds are similar. connect them by proper 1. V3. Simplify V + 3 VlS.210 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA : Express as surds of the same lowest order 25. Simplify V~ . ^30. 33.10 V2 =  V2. ^2. 2\ 3*. </2. VS. ^2. ^126. Arrange 35. I VJ + 3VT8 . signs.
6. 8VT8J2V32 7. 14. 8. 10. 4V805V45. 11. V45c3 3 abv'ab V80~c~3 f V5a c + c 2 + 3 aVo^ 3 Va^ . . V175V28+V634V7. 13. 4. 2V87Vl8f5V72V50. 9. + 3V835V2.RADICALS EXERCISE 97 : 211 Simplify the following expressions 2. V18+V32VT28+V2. 12. VT2 + 2V27 + 3V759V48.3V20 + 6V5. 6.J a6 V4 aft. VJ+V8V1 + V50. 3.
Ex. 98 ab ^" fab 1 " .6V35 106 460V35100 . and then multiplied. 5 4/6072 = 16^6272.100 = f 44 VS6 6 + 44\/36. Multiply 3\/25^ by 5\/50Y 3v / 2 . 3. 26^ . Dissimilar surds are reduced to surds of the same order. Multiply 5 V7 8\/7 6\/7.2 VS by 3 Vf + 10 VB. . Ex. 1. Multiply V2 by 3\/l. .212 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA . y* = Ex.fab V \~\ jab FW MULTIPLICATION QEJRABIQALS 266. 2. for a~\/x b~\/y ab^/xy. 6*. 23. the Surds of the same order are multiplied by multiplying product of the coefficients by the product of the irrational factors.2v/6 + IPV6 105.
6. V2aV8^. VlO V15. a?. V2 V50. (Va Va 36. (VmVn) (V3V2) 8 . 38. 2 .^/2. (2V3) 8 . V3 V6.VSS. 34. 41. 9. 28 . (V6 + 1) 1 . 18. (5V58V2)(5V5 + 8V2). 13. (V2+V3+V4)V3. V42. 40. 25. 14. 21. 6. \/3 \^). (3 20. ( Vm \ 1 Vm) (Vmf 1 6(Vaf Va { Vm). 39. Vll.RADICALS EXERCISE 1. 37. VTO. 27. 2. 15. 7. 10. 8. (5V22V3CVS)V3. 12. 3. v/4. 19. (6V23V3)(6V23V3). + VB)(2V5). fWa 17. v/18 v"3. (VmVn)(Vm+Vn> 33. . 40 10 30. 213 98 11. V20 V30. 6 V4 5. V5 Va VaV?/ V Vr 16. 4. aVa. V3 Vl2.
ELEMENTS OF ALGEHRA (3V55V3) S . E. 49. it more convenient to multiply dividend and divisor by a factor which makes the divisor rational. V3 .V5) ( V3 + 2 VS). (5V2+V10)(2V51). 268. (5V72V2)(2VT7V2). a VS f a?Vy = \/  x*y this Since surds of different orders can be reduced to surds of the same order. (2 45. v/a  DIVISION OF RADICALS 267. Va v/a. all monomial surds may be divided by method. (V50f 3Vl2)4V2== however. Monomial surdn of the same order may be divided by multiplying the quotient of the coefficients by the quotient of the surd factors. 46. 52. . 43. 60.y. 48. Ex. is 1 2. 44. 53. (3V32Vo)(2V3+V5). 51. (3V52V3)(2V3V3). the quotient of the surds is If. a fraction. 47.214 42. Ex.
+ 4\/5 _ 12v 3 + 4\/5 V8 V8 V2 V2 269.by the usual arithmetical method. the rationalizing factor x ' g \/2. Divide 12 V5 + 4V5 by V. 1.73205 we simplify JLV^l V3 *> ^> division Either quotient equals .RADICALS This method. VTL_Vll ' ~~" \/7_V77 . The 2. 3. /~ } Ex. e. metical problems afford the best illustrations.73205. . we have V3 But if 1. is Since \/8 12 Vil = 2 V*2. . arithTo find. Divide VII by v7. called rationalizing the the following examples : 215 divisor. Divide 4 v^a by is rationalizing factor evidently \/Tb hence. 4\/3~a' 36 Ex. . by V7. we have to multiply In order to make the divisor (V?) rational. Hence in arithmetical work it is always best to rationalize the denominators before dividing.g. the by 3 is much easier to perform than the division by 1.57735. Evidently.. To show that expressions with rational denominators are simpler than those with irrational denominators. is illustrated by Ex. however.
14. multiply numerator and denominator by the conjugate surd of the denominator. . find to four decimal places the numerical values of: 19.2361. V48 25. V8 12. 2V5 ' 2 V3 o vfi* ' ^ Va 12. 272. V3 = 1. 21. V5 270. ^/H .7320. Vll 212*. if 4=V50 Two binomial quadratic surds are said to be conjugate. VffV?. V2 22 . V5 = 2. 23 . . and Given V2 = 1. 20. 7. A.4142. V3 24 . The product of two conjugate binomial surds is rational .. V8 JL. Vn V7 ' * 8. 271. they differ only in the sign which connects their terms. To rationalize the denominator of a fraction whose denom inator is a binomial quadratic surd. A. V8?^ V7 xy T 13 11 n V7 ~ VH 5 2. i. Va + Vb and Va Vb are conjugate surds.216 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 99 Simplify : 1.
Ex. Find the numerical value of : V2 + 2 2V21 e .Vs2 . 3.RADICALS Ex.1 xVtf a. 1. . Ex.vffi^T _ . s Simplify a.= 18.2. 217 Simplify 2V3V2 ' V3V2 ~ = 4 + V5.07105 = 7 7 2V21 2V21 2V2 + 1 EXERCISE Eationalize the denominators of : 100 . V82 2V3 1fVS . V2+2 _ V2+2 2\/2+l_6 + 6\/2. .
7320. 6V7. V3 + 1 1+V5 _ 3V5 ' V5+2 31.2361. 2V5V18 mVm Va 22. : and V5 = 2.5 3 = 125. . V21 = 25 . J?_.218 6 . INVOLUTION AND EVOLUTION OF RADICALS 273. four places of decimals 23 . V32* to 1 Find the third proportional + V2 and 3 f 2V2. V52 17 1Va? Vg+v/2 5V77V5 ' V3V2 15. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 13 ~3 V51 14 A 16. 19. it can easily be shown that VcT = ( V) w Hence 3 V25~ = ( V25) 3 . By the use of fractional exponents . find to _!_. = V3 = 1. Vo1 26.W3.4142. 27. v 2V3 28. Given V2 1. 24. V5V7 18> ^SVg.
3 (V2~u)  7. it to this form. v8f 2\/15. . To find the square root of a binomial square by inspection. According to G3. V255 . the If. we must find 8 and whose product is 15. 2. ( V5 + V3) = 5 + 2 V5~^3 + 3 2 = 8 + 2 VIS. In other examples of involution and evolution. 2 12. SQUARE ROOTS OF QUADRATIC SURDS 275. on the other hand. 3. Find the square of EXERCISE Simplify 1. 2. \/125" . we had to find problem would be quite simple if presented in the form v52V3 5 + 3. 8. 11. Simplify Ex. 1. : 101 (3Vmw) 2 . To reduce is two numbers whose sum 5 and 3. V643 . 4. viz. 9.RADICALS 219 274. 5. introduce fractional exponents : Ex. \/l6*.
2 \/20.6 A/2 = Vll Find two numbers whose sum numbers are 9 and 2. is 11. Find V4 + VJ8. EXERCISE 102 : Extract the square roots of the following binomials . 2 \/18. 2. Find Vl2 4. and whose product is 18. coefficient of the Irrational Write the binomial so that the term is 2. These Ex. ^TT.6 V2.2 A/2 = V9A/2 = 3 . The Hence ^11 . 12 and whose product is 20. 3. is Find two numbers whose sum numbers are 10 and 2.6\/2 = ^9 .220 Ex. Find Vll .A/2. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA l. +2 Ex.
V48 23. A radical equation is an equation involving an irrational root of an unknown number. = xa + 4 x f 4. much and to transpose the terms so that one radical stands alone in one member. * 4 * 2 V6 VT 4. i. +=.RADICALS Simplify the following expressions 18. : 221 Vl32V22. Transposing and uniting. examples to simplify the equation as it is necessary in most as possible. 277.V48 4 20. V4 + V12 RADICAL EQUATIONS 276. first involution. x2 = x f 2. Ex. by raising both members equal powers. 8. \/x Vx = + 3 = 7. a. Dividing by Check. member to 2. 4x x = 2. r 22. Transposing Vsc2 + f 12 12 Squaring both members. Radical equations are rationalized. If all radicals do not disappear through the the process must be repeated. Before performing the involution.. (2x xrf 1. 4. . VT . are radical equations. Solve vVf!2a = 2.e. 5. The value x =2 reduces each .1. they are transto formed into rational equations. 19.
222 Ex. f 25 = 12. Squaring both members. viz. Transposing. an equaSquaring both members we obtain or 1. . Transposing and uniting. Factoring. Transposing and uniting. Therefore Check. Solve Vx f Squaring both members. V4afT~l. x + 1 + 2 Vx'2 + 1 x + (. . a socalled extraneous root. f V/2TT25 = 5 + x 7 = 12. = 12 = 144 24\/4# + 1 = 120. 24 \/4 # Transpose V4 x Squaring both members.1) = 0. at . 2 Vx^ Dividing by 2. Therefore CftecAr. (x 3) (8 x x = 3. 5 and The squaring of both members of the given equation introSince duced the new root 1. tion usually introduces a new Squaring both members of an equaThus x 2 = 3 has only root. Vitf 4x f 25 f 25 4x f 1 25. . \/4 jc~+~l = 5. they may be extraneous roots. the first member = V2. member =\/2 + jV2=v^. Extraneous roots. or = VzMx2 7 x f f 7 x + 9. 278. x = J. = 9 x2 18 x + 8x 2 25xf3 = 0. Ex. The results of the solution of radical equations must be substituted in the (jlren equation to determine ivhether the roots are true roots or extraneous roots. It = 3 x . tion which has two roots. viz. a. 4#f 4 = 9. V24~+~l = 0. 5.3. 3. Squaring both members. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBltA Solve V4 x + 1 f V4 f 1 . one root. 2. radical equations require for their solution the squaring of both members. Dividing by 24. the roots found are not necessarily roots of the given equation 279.
223 x = 3. NOTE. Transposing. 2 Clearing of fractions. Check. Solve Vz+T + V2aT+3 = + "b"x f A5_ 15.2 r. \ does not satisfy the given. or x *j. + 6~ieT~3 . If the signs of the roots were not restricted. Factoring. viz.12 . Hence x = the only root. Solve the following equations : = G. = } would be a VaT+T Ex. is x V. 4 VxT~0 = \/8 x f 1. (x x = 3. . 2 z 2 4 6 x 4 3 = 144 . x root of the preceding equation. both members reduce to 5. If If x 3 = 3.RADICALS Hence x If a.3) (2 x . * Exclude all solutions which do not satisfy the equation or which make the given radicals imaginary. the right member = V2. V2x' 8 42x43 Transposing.48 x + 2 x2 53 f 141 = 0. . 4. Squaring. and to 5. Therefore. Hence there is only one root. ViTie 4 z2 . for it satisfies the equation . tlie Jeft both members reduce member = 12T V2.47) = 0. = 3. . equation it is an extraneous root.
Many 1. Solve af*. Factoring.33 af* + 32=0. Ex. Therefore . radical equations may be solved by the method of 238.224 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 280.
make the given radicals * Exclude extraneous roots and roots which imaginaries. 225 x = 32~* or 1"* = ^ or 1. it will be found that 9 and 1 satisfy the equation. 5.35 = 0. _ 2 y . + 40 = Vz2 $x + 40 = y. 2Va. = 7. 2. 4. while 6 and 3 are extraneous roots. Q .8 z40 = 7. x + Vx a? = 6. 2. for 6 and 3 are the roots of the may 2 equation Vx' 8x it positive values.8 x + 40 = 36. or y or Therefore 2 y = 5. .RADICALS Raising both members to the  power. Vi 2 8a. + 40 = 6. = 0. Ex. x =6 or 3. 2_8z 440 = 49. Solve x* 8x x* Adding 40 to both members.*2a. 412a* = 16. But as the square root is restricted to cannot be equal to a negative quantity. o. some of the roots be extraneous. Let 8 x f 40 .i~24 = 0.f40= 5. x Since both =9 or 1. members of the equation were squared. This can be seen without substituting. 3 6. = 26. 45 14VJB = .8 x 2 Hence y' 2y = 35. 3. Substituting. y then x2 . EXERCISE 104* its Solve the following equations: 1.
226 11. 2. a. or 2 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 8a f 40 2 V* 2 8. +x . 19. 18. 20. ar fll x 3x 12 V5l? +1 1^7^30 = 1 ^ + G V2^"^I + 2 = 4. a^x2 5 2 13.f 18 = 24. 12. 6 Va?~3o~ = y? 3 x f . 17. 16. 4 V SB* 4 a. 15. 2 7a?HV^ 3 7a. +3= 6.a 440 = 35. 14.
to x we # = 2 3.4 a.<fo f e is divided by x Let then 2 4 8 ca: f (to + e (x = w.360 = 244.2 + 80 = 12. f 8 = (a? 2) x Quotient f Remainder. ^ = 381+2. substituting Q " and ani^ ^ 2 respectively for Quotient " and Remainder. we make a? what the value of Q. Ex. = 2. ax4 4. Let then find the remainder obtained z = 3. " Or. 3 2 Ex. 2. then or* 2 and there is a 3 x2 f. we can find the value of R by making x = 2. E = ax + &z + m) Q. Without actual division. a? R = x* .2) Q . then (x 2)Q 0. even if Q is unknown.2 + 4.3 x~ + 4 x + 8 is divided by x remainder (which does not contain a?). 227 . no matter If.3 x + 4 + 8 As 72 (a? . 1.CHAPTER XVIII THE FACTOR THEOREM 281. Hence. find the remainder when m." transposing. If x* . R = am* + 6m3 + cm2 + tZw + e. Without actual division. if Q was known. does not contain a?. could.2 x 5 by x 3. however.bx? + ex2 4. assign any value whatsoever and would always obtain the same answer for R. by dividing 3 x* f.
2 j 7. + 3x3 2x* 32x12 by a?3. the remainder equals 8 2 x . Only factors of the absolute term need be substituted . 5.8'= 0. 5 (4x . 3. of the division 3) is m in place of x.228 282. The remainder obtained by dividing (x + 4)4 _ (3 + 2) ( X  1) +7 by x  1 is 6* 3 .4x411)^0 + 4 ( 3) .g. x m is factor of the expression.949. a f b 7 by a ^14y ~132/  283. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA The Remainder Theorem. EXERCISE Without actual division dividing : 105 find the remainder obtained by 2. The Factor Theorem.8. the divisor is a factor of the dividend. hence (x divided by x 4.4(. 43 3 E. + 6. + 7 = 632. fora?. If the remainder is zero. if 8 42  . ing x becomes zero x8 3 x2 2 4 when 2 x If a rational integral expression involvm is a is written in place of x.3)f 11 =. } 2 by a1. x*x + 4x Tx + 2\)y x + 2. a100 50 a47 4 48 a2 b. + ^by x + b. x* s 2 4. 8. the remainder is obtained by substituting in the given expression E. x is divided by x The remainder 6 sion involving If an integral rational expresm. 3 x2 4) is a factor of x    00 *.g. x5 a^ 7 b 5 by x 6.
1. 2 2. .7 + 16 . f 15 does not vanish. + ttt15 = 0.12 = 0. + 15. a 8a f 19 a 12. p 5^ + 8p 4. 6. Let x = 1 then 7 x + 7 a.13m + 30 10. 20. a + 32. ^10^429^20=0. i. 7 2 a? 2 f 7a?f 15. x 4o8 + 2a^ + 4a?~3 =0 4^ or* f 9 or* 2 a? aj? a? a? 2 4 3 . then x8 7 x'2 4.1. m f m n 14. 21. 23. 8. 25. factors of the absolute term. 2. ^ + 7y + 2y40 = 0. Therefore x ( 1).r6 = 0. f 5. 2m 5m .TEE FACTOR THEOREM Ex. are f 1. & p*. 15.1. 1. x* 34 ar 5 225 is divisible by x 5. 11. 9. _ . 24. + 27 + 27. 8. Let x = . Resolve into factors 4. m 4 n4 25 mV + 19 ran 13. 229 1. 2o? m 6ra fllm 6. 4m p~m p + 16m^ 12. The 5. a? 19.49 = 0.7 f 5a 18 divisible by x 2. 1ft : ar*f 6aj 2 o?5ar 3 l + lla. we obtain 7  7 x2 + x + 16 = (x + l)(x 2  8 a. show that divisible 4x 2 j +3x 2 a? 2 2 as 5 is or 2 by is a. 3 2 : 7. 3. or x 4. 5 Solve the following equations by factoring 15. or 5 4 + 3^ . 18. f 16) EXERCISE Without actual 1.9^ + 23^15. 5. 8 }3 3 2 3 s 2 3 4 8 2 2 4 s 3 t . a 5x 6. is a factor. a 2a + 4.e.7 x + 15 = 0. a^8^ + 19a.12. x8 By dividing by x a?8 f 1. 17. 106 division. Factor a? 15. a. oj 5x2 f3a. f 3. 7 46 = 0.
" . 2 8 (3 a ) +8= + 288. Two special cases of the preceding propositions are of viz. x* f/ = (x +/)O .xy +/).230 285. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA positive integer. 2. The difference of two even powers should always be considered as a difference of two squares. For substituting y for x. 286. is odd. ar +p= z6 e. Factor 27 a* f 27 a 6 8. If n is a Theorem that 1. 1.g. xn f. xn y n y n y n = 0. It y is not divisible by 287. By we obtain the other factors.  y 5 = (x  can readily be seen that #n f either x + y or x y. Ex. Factor consider m m 6 n9 . if n is even. if w is odd. : importance. We may 6 n 6 either a difference of two squares or a dif * The symbol means " and so forth to. 2. 2 Ex. it follows from the Factoi xn y n is always divisible by x y. if n For ( y) n f y n = 0.y n is divisible by x f ?/. actual division n. and have for any positive integral value of If n is odd.
however. x3 8=0. 3. a. preferable.i mn f w 2).= . 28. since it more directly to the prime factors. 26.THE FACTOR THEOREM ference of two cubes. f n)(m 2 mn f w 2 )(wi . leads 231 is The first method. as 27=0. Factor a 12 EXERCISE Resolve into prime factors : 107 Solve the following equations: 25. 27. Hence = (m Ex. y 3 +8=0.
232 . xywe have 3. ==5 > 1^ = 4.y4 is of the fifth degree. 4 xy = 16. in general. Squaring Solve (1). Hence " /  X y = =} 4. If two of the quantities x f y. + 6 a?V . 290. EQUATIONS SOLVED BY FINDING x +y AND xy 291. x y. the third one can be found by means of the relation (ojjy) 2 4 xy Ex. however. The degree of an equation involving several unknown quantities is equal to the greatest sum of the exponents of the unknown quantities contained in any term. = 6. 2 2/ (1) (2) (3) (2) x 4. to equations of the fourth few cases. xy x*y f y = 4 is of the second degree. Simultaneous quadratic equations involving two un known quantities lead. xy are given. *The graphic solution of simultaneous quadratic equations has been treated in Chapter XII. can be solved by the methods degree. * A I. (4) Hence.1. (5) Combining (5) with (1). of quadratics. & + 2 xy + = 25.CHAPTER XIX SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 289.
EXERCISE Solve: 1. r (" 1 = 876.g. 3. = . x and xy are not given. 108 2. 1. 12. the answers of the last example are : r*=2. In many cases two of the quantities x f y. The arranged in pairs. ' 10. F* Lx ' 2 (1) ' (2) (3) (4) 2 + 3 = 293. 233 y. I I x + y=7. but can be found. " "' "' { r 8. b=3. roots of simultaneous quadratic equations must be e.SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 292. ^.
A system of simultaneous equations. aj = 2. ' ' . Factoring. ^ f or* f 4 xy = 28.?/ i = 6. 5. la. Ex.  42 y + Transposing. 4 y = 20. 3. can be solved by eliminating one of the unknown uantities by means of substitution. 7 .o 18.4 [ ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA x 4.i/ = r 13.a.  . =^ 18* ONE EQUATION LINEAR. I* Jj ^ [.. or y = 1 . x " (3) 49 etc. one linear and ne quadratic.20) = 0. EXERCISE Solve : 109 47/ = 0. + 29 = 0. THE OTHER QUADRATIC 294.  f J.~ y = 5. or JJ. 9 y2 17 y 2 + ) 8 (y  40 y (17 y 1 Hence Substituting in (3). Solve 2 x + 3y = 7. 2 (1) From (1) we have. 19. r^ 2 as ] f. . ( \ ~^V\ + 2 / 2y 2 ?/' . . 6 "I 14. I x+y = a. Substituting in (2) Simplifying.
one equation of two simultaneous quadratics is homogeneous. y* + 2y = 3. ':il e :) . = 1 3 3. 8 V~80 Hence y =1 y . 235  > ' 1 lla 8 12~ 10 13. 1. 3y) : Factor (2). HOMOGENEOUS EQUATIONS homogeneous equation is an equation all of whose terms are of the same degree with respect to the unknown 295. If of the preceding type. 4^ 3 x 2 y 3 y3 A and # 2 2 xy 5 y2 are homogeneous equations. 10.3 2x 2 Ex. quantities. Solve . (1) (2) 7 xy + G if = 0. 9.SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS y 7. (x to solve the 2t/)(2 x = ( Hence we have two systems (3) (1) From (3). 3 y2 Substituting in (1). III. the example can always be reduced to an example 296. ' x*. x2y. 4 f + 2 y = 3.
2 .236 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 297. Solve 2. 2. (3) (4) Subtracting. (1) Eliminate 2 and 6 by subtraction.20 xy + 15 y 2 = 2 x 5. y = 110 f 10^370^ + 7^ = 16^7^ . 11 a2 Factoring. (rc2/)(llx5y) 16 xy f 5 y 2 (3) Hence solve : (2) From (3). = Ex. = 0. j Substituting y in (2). If both equations are homogeneous with exception oi the absolute terra. 15 x2 . the problem can be reduced to the preceding case by eliminating the absolute term. (1) (2) x x 5. } VI09. 109 a.2 ^ EXERCISE Solve: 6ar 7aK/427/2 ==0. = 0.
' ^ 15. . Division of one equation by the other. can be solved by special devices. A. 2 (3) (4) Squaring (2). ' <"" =m _ 14 ' &.125 ay = . (4) (3). f 1 150 a?.6. 298. Equations of higher degree can sometimes be reduced to equations of the second degree by dividing member by member. which in most cases must be left to the ingenuity of the student. y? a? f .175 ay = 12.xy 4.y = 7.3^42^=43. E. and others not belonging to them.!.SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 237 m U. Bxy9. 2 xy + y2 = 10. Solve * + '* { Dividing (1) by (2). 150 */2 . " IV. Some of the more frequently used devices are the following: 299. SPECIAL DEVICES Many examples belonging to the preceding types.
we have from (1). y = 3. x +y y etc. Some simultaneous ?/. i ^ *>. Considering V# + y and y as quantities and solving. jc~ y = 9. y . = 189. B. (1 > (2) 1. = 12 J. x 2 . f^ + 3 7/ = 133. i" <Vx f ' unknown 6. In more complex examples letter for advisable to substitute another such expressions. quadratics can be solved by ?/.. Therefore x = 16. Vx y 4 or V^^y = 3 x 4 or But the negative roots being extraneous. at first it is unknown quantities. from (2). 2. xy. * ' 300. considering not x or but expressions involving x and as the as x . we obtain by squaring. Solve Ex.238 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 111 Solve * : fajy=152.
Solve (1) (2) Let Then r __ 17^ + 40. Hence = V or = 4. F+y+ . The solution produces the roots EXERCISE Solve : 112 5. Hence we have 7 x 4 to solve the two systems U) : x ! + */ = 17. 239 Ex. I e. M6. [2x + : y= 17. 36* 2. 4. 2. . 7.SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS . 6.
= y 1 y* . . ' x2 1 6 xy = 15. . + o5)(6hy) = 80. 16. = 198.240 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Solve by any method : far' 9 + a^lSG. x 1 20' = 41 400' =34.4 y = 47 a. 19 ' 26. 2 or 5 CCT/ + 3 f + 3 . 25. 27. ' ** 5x+ 7y = 13 ' ' 1 f. ( xy (7 m 2 n*. f 18. * .21 ^ = 15.
. . y % 9 f*K 36.SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS i 241 y . ^ oo . etc. 30. ~\ OK OO. 25 34. 3 a2 38. as a . 32. 7' j/ 39. = 48201. or ~ indeterminate. 203): ix y Solve graphically (see 40. oo 301. hence may be any finite number. The results of problems and other examples appear sometimes in forms which require a special interpretation.of  According to the definition of division. 33. Interpretation . finite  =x y if = x. . . 31. Q 7.  But this equation is satisfied by any is value of a?. INTERPRETATION OF NEGATIVE RESULTS AND THE FORMS OF 5 . etc 302.
while the remaining terms do not cancelj the root is infinity.e. (1) is an identity. Hence any number will satisfy equation the given problem is indeterminate. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Interpretation of ? e. customary to represent this result by the equation ~ The symbol 304.e. . is satisfied by any number. + I) 2 x2 ' f 2x + 1 x(x + 2)= . and . i. or infinitesimal) This result is usually written : 305. the answer is indeterminate. of the second exceeds the product of the first Find three consecutive numbers such that the square and third by 1. The solution x = indicates that the problem is indeter If all terms of an minate. equation. and becomes infinitely small. cancel. (1) = 0. I. oo is = QQ. creases. 306. great. The ~~f fraction . x f 2. Hence such an equation identity.decreases X if called infinity. be the numbers.000 a. Let 2. ToU" ^100 a. without exception.increases if x de x creases. 1.242 303. or that x may equal any finite number. (1).can be If It is made larger than number. the If in an equation terms containing unknown quantity cancel. (a: Then Simplifying.x'2 2 x = 1. . 1.g. it is an Ex. TO^UU" sufficiently small. however x approaches the value be comes infinitely large.i solving a problem the result or oo indicates that the all problem has no solution. as + l. = 10. By making x any * assigned zero. Or. i. Interpretation of QO The fraction if x x inis infinitely large.
113 is One half of a certain number equal to the sum of its Find the number. and the sum of Find the numbers. two numbers is 76. 1=0. Solve (aj + 1) : (x + 2) = ( + 3) 114 : (a? + 4). EXERCISE PROBLEMS 1. third and sixth parts. 42 and' their product is 377. Solve . Solve x a. Find three consecutive numbers such that the square of 2. no numbers can satisfy the given system.e. the second exceeds the product of the first and third by 2.8 x + 15 6. Solve ~o 3 x v ~K 6 x r x 6 4. 243 Solve the system : (1) (2) From Or.SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS Ex. (2).2 y = 4. 3. 2. The sum of two numbers Find the numbers. is their 2. 4 3 x x5 a2 . EXERCISE 1. = oo. . Solve  9 7. z = 1 Substituting. and a. * 6. Hence /. The sum is of squares 2890. y finite QO.
8. Find the sides.quals 20 feet. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA The difference between is of their squares 325. the area becomes f% of the original area. and the edge of one exceeds the edge of the other by 2 centimeters. 6. Find the other two sides. and the side of one increased by the side of the other e. 146 yards. and its The diagonal is is perimeter 11. and the edge of one. 148 feet of fence are required. and the hypotenuse is 37. is the breadth diminished by 20 inches. and the sum of ( 228. But if the length is increased by 10 inches and 12. the The mean proportional between two numbers sum of their squares is 328. Two cubes together contain 30 cubic inches. .244 3. two numbers Find the numbers. Find the edges. 255 and the sum of 5. The sum of the areas of two squares is 208 square feet.) The area of a right triangle is 210 square feet. 9. To inclose a rectangular field 1225 square feet in area. is is 17 and the sum 4. Find the numbers. Find these sides. Find the side of each square. 14. 13. and the diago(Ex. and is The area of a rectangle remains unaltered if its length increased by 20 inches while its breadth is diminished by 10 inches. 12. equals 4 inches. 10. of a right triangle is 73. The volumes of two cubes differ by 98 cubic centimeters. is 6. Find the edge of each cube. of a rectangular field feet. The hypotenuse is the other two sides 7. Find the dimensions of the field. 190. 103.) 53 yards. rectangle is 360 square Find the lengths of the sides. p. The area of a nal 41 feet. increased by the edge of the other. Find the sides of the rectangle. Find two numbers whose product whose squares is 514.
Find the number. .) 17. and if the digits will be interchanged. (Surface of sphere If a number of two digits be divided its digits. The radii of two spheres is difference of their surfaces whose radius = 47T#2. Find the radii.SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 15. differ by 8 inches. irR *. 245 The sum of the radii of two circles is equal to 47 inches. their areas are together equal to the area of a circle whose radius is 37 inches.) (Area of circle and = 1 16. and the equal to the surface of a sphere Find the radii. the quotient is 2. by the product of 27 be added to the number. is 20 inches.
. the first term a and the common difference d being given.. to each term produces the next term. except the first. 12. The common Thus each difference is the number which added an A.) is a series. added to each term to obtain the next one. . 16. progression. 4. To find the nth term / of an A. a f d. 15 is 9 f.. 11.. Hence / = a + (n . a + 2 d. is derived from the preceding by the addition of a constant number. of a series are its successive numbers.. to produce the 4th term. 2 d must be added to a. 10. 3. The terms ARITHMETIC PROGRESSION 308. a + d. 3 d must be added to a. of the following series is 3. to produce the nth term. to A series is a succession of numbers formed according some fixed law. a 11.CHAPTER XX PROGRESSIONS 307. .7. P. : 7... a 3d. the second a descending. Since d is a f 3 d. 19.11 246 (I) Thus the 12th term of the 3 or 42. series 9.. a. f . The common differences are respectively 4. each term of which. to produce the 3d term. 17.1) d.. P. (n 1) d must be added to a. + 2 d. The progression is a. 309... and d. The first is an ascending. . P. An arithmetic progression (A.
4^.. 5. . series . 1J.. 2 sum of the first 60 I (II) to find the ' ' odd numbers. Which (6) (c) of the following series are in A.. 9. 5. first 2 Write down the (a) (6) (c) 6 terms of an A. 247 first To find the sum s 19 of the first n terms of an A. 8. P.. 7. 6 we have Hence . 3. 3. P. ? (a) 1.16. 2*=(a + Z) + (a + l) + (a + l) 2s = n * .. . d .. 3. Find the nth term of the series 2. .' cZ == .. 7.. (a + + (a + l) l).3 a = l. the last term and the common difference d being given. of the series 10. Find the 12th term of the 4. 7. series 2. 2. .8. 5. 6. 5. Or Hence Thus from (I) = (+/). . 1. 3. d = 3. 99) = 2600.. 9. (d) 1J. = 99. 2...PROGRESSIONS 310. if a = 5. 3. = 2.. 8. P. 8.. 1. 5... the term a. 2J. Find the 5th term of the 4. 24. Find the 10th term of the series 17. Adding. . = a + (a Reversing the order. 10... Find the 101th term of the series 1. 4. .. = I + 49 = *({ + . 6. a = 2. Find the 7th term of the Find the 21st term series . 19. 2 EXERCISE 1.. 115. 6.4. 21.
rf. In most problems relating to A. 33. 15.5 H + if f to 10 terms. Sum the following series 14. Jive quantities are involved. to 20 terms. to 20 terms.. 7. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA last term and the sum of the following series : . 15. . to 10 terms. + 2f3 + 4 H hlOO. 15. 11. 19. How much does he receive (a) in the 21st year (6) during the first 21 years ? j 311. P. 29. striking hours only. 21. 7. + 3. 22. to 7 terms. 20. : 3. 11. 16. . . \n. 1.(# 1 2) f (x f 3) H to a terms. 8. 1. Q^) How many times in 12 hours ? (&fi) does a clock. $1 For boring a well 60 yards deep a contractor receives yard thereafter 10^ more How much does he receive all together ? ^S5 A bookkeeper accepts a position at a yearly salary of $ 1000. to 20 terms. 1J. 13. 7. 2J. 12. the other two may be found by the solution of the simultaneous equations . (i) (ii) . .248 Find the 10. 3. (x +"l) 4. 17. > 2f 2. and for each than for the preceding one. 4. 16. hence if any three of them are given. '. 11. . . 6. 1. 18. 12. strike for the first yard. 31. and a yearly increase of $ 120. 2. to 16 terms. . 11. to 8 terms.7 f to 12 terms. . to 15 terms. 1+2+3+4H Find the sum of the first n odd numbers. 23.1 f 3.
n d. (1) 1014 = ^(12 + 144). 1. = 1014. 34. a = 49 6(71 . or 144 = 12 + 12 d=ll. 6 n2 . 6. The series is.1) . 133. From (1).e. or 11 J.1).~n~\ 408 6). 144. The first term of an A. 12. P. 67. s 24ft last term 144. 45.. = n(104 . 23. = 13.PROGRESSIONS Ex. 312. 111. if a. or if x Solving. is 12. 3 n2 52 n + 204 = 0.6 n). 122. 49 (1) (2) Substituting. and b form an A. the second one mean between the other two. 100. When is called the arithmetic three numbers are in A. 78. d = 6. . x=  4 the arithmetical mean between two numbers is equal to half their sum. P. 2. = 1014. 56. hence n = 6. Solving. Find the series. J = 49. Ex. the and the sum of all terms 1014. = 144. I. But evidently n cannot be fractional.104 w + 408 = 0. Substituting in (2). if s = 204. 204 = ^ (98 .6. Findn. P. = a + (w. 204 = ^ (a + 49).. 78 n Substituting in (1). . I Substituting in (I) and (II). #. l)e?. is Thus x the arithmetic mean between a and a=b x. n = 6. a = 12. 2 (2) From Hence (2). 89.
= ^ 3 = 1. of 5 terms 6. Find d and Given a = 1700. Find w. and all his savings in 5 years amounted to $ 6540. d = 5. = 52. 4. 16. s = 70.250 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 116 : Find the arithmetic means between 1. I Find I in terms of a. f J 1 1 / . Find d. n = 17. 11. n has the series ^ j . I. 17. a x f b and a b. 7. a+ and b a b 5. Between 4 and 8 insert 3 terms (arithmetic is means) so that an A. Given a = 4. n. Between 10 and 6 insert 7 arithmetic means . f? . 14. T? ^. n = 4. = 45.3. 15. 74. n = 13. and s. y and #f5y. 12. 8. Find n. Find a Given a = 7. 78. Find a and Given s = 44. Find d. m and n 2. n = 20. = 1870. = 83. man saved each month $2 more than in the pre 18. 13. How much . Find?. ceding one. n = 16. How many terms How many terms Given d = 3. has the series 82. Given a = . A $300 is divided among 6 persons in such a way that each person receives $ 10 did each receive ? more than the preceding one. produced. How much did he save the first month? 19. . Given a = . = 17. s == 440. 6? 9. Given a = 1. 10. P. = 16. 3.
ar.. 4. Therefore Thus the sum = ^ZlD. and To find the nth term / of a G.. 4. or... P. g== it is convenient to write formula' (II) in *.. E.. 36. If n is less : than unity. 12. of a G. . NOTE. rs = s 2 . <zr . the first term a and the ratios r being given. ratios are respectively 3. P. (I) of the series 16. r n~ l . 4 (1) . fl lg[(i) l] == 32(W  1) = 332 J.. is 16(f) 4 . except the multiplying derived from the preceding one by by a constant number. the first = a + ar for ar f ar Multiplying by r. To find the sum s of the first n terms term a and the ratio r being given. I. ar8 r. 2.PROGRESSIONS 251 GEOMETRIC PROGRESSION 313. 36. or 81 315. .g. P.) is a series each term of which. 108. 2 arn (2) Subtracting (1) from (2).. . (II) of the 8 =s first 6 terms of the series 16. the following form 8 nf + q(lr") 1 r . 2 a. is it (G. 24. +1. A geometric progression first. called the ratio. . Hence Thus the 6th term l = ar n~l .. .. The progression is a. . 36. a?*2 To obtain the nth term a must evidently be multiplied by . The 314. s(r 1) 8 = ar" 7* JL a. 24.arn ~ l .
.. l. P. 80. i 288. 117 Which (a) of the following series are in G.. if any three of them are given. Jive quantities are in. P. 576. 4. Hence the or series is 0.6. Write down the first 6 terms of a G. 6. . 72.. fa.. hence. Find the 5th term of a G.18. . . (it. a = I.18. 20. .288. P. series Find the llth term of the Find the 7th term of the ratio is ^.. whose . Ex.. . whose and whose common ratio is 4. 676. ...l. \ t series .. the other two be found by the solution of the simultaneous equations : may (I) /=<!/'. 3. 36. EXERCISE 1. 10. Evidently the total number of terms is 5 + 2. series 6. In most problems relating to G. 2 term 3. first 5. 9. 4.. + 5. 144. Hence n = 7. 9. And the required means are 18. first term is 125 and whose common . volved .252 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 316.. +f%9 % . 7. . To insert 5 geometric means between 9 and 576... 288. or 7. 1. . (b) 1. 0. series 5. 676 t Substituting in = r6 = 64. 144. 9. 144. (d) 5. P. Find the 7th term of the Find the 6th term of the Find the 9th term of the ^. fa. series .. I = 670.72. ? (c) 2.5. is 3. first term 4.4. . . is 16. 72. Write down the first 5 terms of a G. . P. f. r^2. 18._!=!>. 36. 36. f. 25.5. Find the 6th term of the series J. . 8.*. whose and whose second term is 8.54. .
n = 5. . M.nV> i*> !718. INFINITE GP:OMETRIC PROGRESSION 317. Find the sum to infinity of the series 1. Find a and 4. Consequently the sum of an infinite decreasing series is By n less r^Ex. J. Find the geometric mean between 7. to 5 terms. + 4 . 22. 54. 1. 13. be written If the value of r of a G. 81. J. to 6 terms. s = 310. 72. to 6 terms. Find a and n = 4. I. to 6 terms. 25S series : 32. >"> . s = 605. 24. of r n decreases. 27. 16 ..J and 270. 15. Find a and Given r = 3.. to 7 . 19. is less than unity. 14.. 48. = 3. to 7 terms. Therefore 8^ = 1 i =1 1 '. . 14. 81.PROGRESSIONS Find the sum of the following 11.. J. 243. . may be than any assignable number. a. == 160. 21. Find a and Given r = Given r = 2. . 36. J. a^. to 8 terms. 12. Z s. the value The formula for the sum may if n increases* = _ fl flf made taking n sufficiently large. Given r = n Z 5. Prove that the geometric mean between a and b equals Vo6. 126. n = 5. 1. 42. to G terms.. 4. 12 terms. P. 23.. 20. = 3. r . and hence ~ r . 2. ..i a9 . .
of an infinite G. 3. 12. = 990 .191919. of all squares ? .3 + . 7.01 ^ . 66 Therefore . the diagonal of each equal to the side of the preceding one.072 + . . Find the value 9.Ql..555.. P. = . 9. 250..3727272 .. .. The terms afteAhe first form an infinite G. 8.. = a .99 . .. 14. I. . 5. 1 r = .072. The sum r.00072 f . ..27777 . i i J...... is J.= ... =A+ 10 i. 118 : infinity of the following series 3. 10. ...1. 65 = 1L 110 EXERCISE Find the sum to 1.. . is 9. 100. 40.254 Ex. . P.72... 9. 6... 13. . .37272 ... first and the common term. Find the sum to infinity. 16. . 2. ratio 15. r = j. 1. If a = 40. . .)7?7272 .. The sum Find the of an infinite G. 5.. P.= _4Z* . 1. 4. Given an infinite series of squares. .272727.. . 2.3121212. . (6) the sum of the perimeters. 6... 1.717171. If the side of the first square is 2 inches. 16.. what is (a) the sum of the areas. i. 8. is 16. 4. of: 11. and the first term is Find 17. = . 1... ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Find the value of . Hence . 12. ..
11. (xy) : 6 . . 14. 21. (a2) 6. (z2 ^ Simplify 9. . 10. Find the coefficient of a?V" in (a Find the coefficient of 23. Find the 3d term of fa f V ^Y Va/  19. . (a + b) . + a) Find the 4th term of 7 (a f 2 b) .BINOMIAL THEOREM EXERCISE 119 257 Expand the following 3. (a 100 . 29. : (1 + xy. 15. 17. /2a+Y\ 8. Find the middle term of (m ri) 16 Find the 99th term of (a + b) m im Find the 1000th term of . Find the 4th term of (w Find the 5th term of 12 ri) 11 . Find the 5th term of Find the 3d term of + b) . a4 b 12 in (a f 6)16 Find the coefficient of a5 b 15 in (a . 4. Find the middle term of (x + y) 4 Find the middle term of (a b)\ . 25. 13. Find the middle term of f f x }\8 : ) 27. Find the Find the u 13 coefficient of a?b in (a f 5) . . coefficient of . 20.6) . 26. 5.6) 20 .b ). (s + i). Find the 6th term of (x . 22. (\ 9 . 12. 28. a6 8 16 in . 16.a2) 25 Find the 5th term of f Vx + ^r 18. 4 7. 7 . l 2.b) w (a (a f (1 . 2 2 24. 4 (1+V#) + (1 Va) 4 .
1. 3. ft 4 ) 5. ^+^ 3. (c 3. 3. a8 + ~T 3 2 ft' a2 + + 3T r C + + c2 + 2 . ft) . 1. 2.258 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA REVIEW EXERCISE Find the numerical values 1. 4. 24 4. of : 27 x* ~ 27 xy or f 9 xy~ 1 # 8 . 3.  a)(a 1. 2. 1. 2. 1. 4. 3. 1. 2. + 1. 2. 2. 1. 6. 6. . 1. 5J lj 2j 3} 8 4j y 8 . i (aft)(ac) a 6 (ft. (ca)(cft)' 4. c = = = 2.  8 ^ 2. 5. 4. if = = 2. 3. 5. 4. 2. if x^l. 3. 5. 6. 2. 2. 4. 1. 3. 5. 2. 2. = 2. 3. 2. 1. 4.  2. 2J 4J 16 x* 32 afy 24 afya 1. 6. 5. 2.a(a 4. if y=2j 2. 5. 7. if a ft c = = = 4. c if 7 . + c(a  c). 3. 3. 1. 1. 3. 1. 5. 1. 2.c )(fta) 1. 1. 6. 2. 2. *=M  M 3J f 2 2 ] 2 ] 2 1 3 1 3 1 M. 1. a ft c = = 2. 5. 1. . + 2. 2. 3. 3. 4 2. 4 ft  c) 2. y 3.] a 2^ aft + r 3 a l} 2 be 4. 3. 2. 5. if = = = 2. 2. 1. 4. 2. 3.f ac 1. 1. 3. 2. 2 . (ft c)(c 4 ) 3. 3. + 2. 3. 3. 2. 3. 3. 5. 2. 4. 2. 4. 4 (2 a  13 a a b + a ft 31 a 2 ft 2  38 3. aft 3 + 4. 1. 2 (2 a  3 aft f 4 2 ft ).  2. 3. 4. 4. 4 *2  4 xy  4 ^+ a: ?/ 2 ?/ + 2 3. 2. 4. 3. 3. l. 2. 2. 2.
x 2 + 4 2 ~ 10 z 2 + z 2 + 11 yz + 8 2:2 .3 a?y .11 z 3 4 4 ?p 2 . 4 x 4 . 4.1. c(x (c g)(x 6) = 1. 4. x 2 +  2 ax* f a zx + 2 ?/ a8 .7 y 2* 4.2 a?y + 3 aty .  2 x 2// + 3 2 x?/  7 y3 . 6. . a /> 3. 26.a8 .a) . (5. 2. 11 x 8 + 14 x^ij . 41. 3.2. 4 a 5 9 4 2 */. 4a + 9 a2  3 a5 .2 z8 4 x. 4.8 + 2 // .2 x2 . .a 4 . x = 4. 8 . 25. xy 2 12 xy* + G y4 4 xy*  zy + 12 xy*  4 y4 . 9. 2 . 5.a 5 a . 29.c' 2 4 / . 21. = 2.' 4 x2 2  5 z3 8 . 5.259 x c) . f 8. x3 f 3 ax'2 . 6 y4 y 4 + 3 z8 . + 8 x4 *y . 12. 24.5. x 3 x' 14.\ yz + xz. 11 z 4 x4 12 17. 1 + 3 x + 2 x 8 . if a 6 = = c = 3. 2.11 x 5 12 z 7/ 3 ary. c = 3. 2  + 12 a 8 . . b(x (b 1.  a) (c 2.x 5 4 .7 + . c)(x a} .4. 10 z 8 12  6 2 8. 2 a3 7 y4 3 // f ax'2 . .5 xy 3 + + 4 . 9. 7y 4 .2. 16. 15.4 x'2 f 12 x and 5 2 + 7 x8 . 8. 1. 4 y 13. a.4 xyz + 4 xy'2 . + 1. 5. 4 z . r> . 1. + x/y 2 + + y'2z + 2 3 x 10 y'2 + 5 z2 . 15. 7.8 y y 5 4 * 8y. a 4 + 11 a . 17.7 ys. + 4. Add the following expressions and check the answers : 10. + 4 ?y . x C 4 4x y + . 3. a: . 10. 40. 7 xy 3 . or . + 3 y 2* . ' b) + 3.r 6 x  4 xy . 18. x 3 11. 2 2 x2 + and 9 2:2 y' xy. x3 2 a2 . ~c)(b. a. 5. 20. 2.10. and 3 y 8 f 12 z 8 .3 xyz.4 yz\ 7xy* + z 3.8 3 + 7 x4 . 21.2 x?/. + 2. 2. by The and c is represented radius r of a circle inscribed in a triangle whose sides are by the formula Find r. 2 x 8. 6 a4 4 a8 .
4 4 4. 2 c  2 a  and 2 a 3 x2 28. Take the sum of G a8 4 4 4 a 2x 4 . and 7 x a 2x 2 ax'2 4. : a x . = x y ft z. 36. 3 4 5 10 2  7 12 .4\/i + x 3Vl 4. and a 2 ft 4 ft 3 c take sum  2 c 4 2 a and 2 a 5 x c.4) .4.c. 4vTT~y 3. 5 10 + 7 .2 .4 x 8 from ax 2 4 6 x8 4 21. and 2 Vl 4*/ 2VT+7 .2) . of 2 x 8 4 4 x2 4 9 and 4 x . 2 xy 4 the ^V 4 G x5 From take 4 sum sum 2 c of .x2 .5 10 b 3 \ G 11 = ft x4y42. 4 2 x8 x 4 4.(4 * .c 4 3 a.x .(x 4. Add 9 Ifcc 2 7 12 . c 4.x 4.7. 7 12 . 35. 4 2 x2 23. 4 3 5 y/ . c =x y }~ z.3 . 3 x2 133ft[l7a5ft^[7fl3ft{4fl~4ft(2a3ft)}]].] 26. 542 x 2 and .2 3 ax 2 . Take the sum 4x 4.1 and x 8 G 11 4 3 x2 +  from G x2 4 x. x'2 .(7 x 4.6T . and d= c c 4 x4#4z </.{2 x 2 . ft 25. and .n/ 4 4 12 x 5 4 4 x?y 4 2 x6 f 4 x 4 ?/ x// 5 ?/ .3 x .8 3 4. Find what expression added the ft to 3 x 2 2 x 4 3 will give 27. x8 x2 2 a'2x.?> x 4 20.x . ft. 3 x Subtract the difference of x 8 4 .x 2 4.a ft.3 x 3 from G a 8 2 a 2x  4 x8 22. 5 10 4 G 11 4. From of 2 the 4.4 x from the sum of 9 x 2. .(5 c .(a . 5 4 7 12 . Take the sum of 3 x 4. f ft. and a ft 4 ft 3 c take  6 a.3.{G * 2 ..1). (*) a  c.(5 y . 3 ft.[3 if  (3 _^ ft 6 ft f c)}] a: .(4 x 2 .5 . 33. find (a) a (ft) (c) a 4(</) 4.2 x 8y2 44 .2 . [4 I 2a47c(7ft44c)[6a3ft4 2~c44c{2a(ft2T2)}]. 2 x 32.(x* .260 19. c 4ft.27~~7)}]. . take the sum of G x 5 .3 .[4 x 4. 2 x2 + 2 y5 24.4 Vl 4.1)}] .6 x ] . 0" 30. .2 _[5ft{^ 2 8 4 x* . 7 x x the ft 4 x2 11 x. the From sum of 2 1 sum 2 c of ft 4. 4 3 From 44 the 3 // and G x 4y 2 x2 2 . . of a. (/) a +  ft 4 6 +  rf.[4 z 8 . / x5 2x 4 # 3 y5 G x a 4 3 5 x*. sum of . 6 VI ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 4X5V14.5.4 ft) 4. and 4 4 2 xs 4 and 5 x 3 y 5 . . 4 . 29. . Simplify 31. 34.c 3 a. a  ft + c.2 a .c.#48.
57. 63. + 4x + 5)(j. .(2 a + 5 a .2c(V/ . 67. 2 53.  2 a  {3 2x a . (x 2 + 4 y 2 + 3 z 2 ) (. .{3 c . (/> 4 . a {.3 a + 3 + aft)(a + 3). 2 2 x + !)(* . 60.[2 .ab . 43.96 [17 a.ary + 2) (^ 4 ?/ *V + *)(! + ar)(l + ^ 2 )(1 + **). 2 f [3 c 7 a .3 yz)(2 a (* 2 ft ft ft ft ft ft ?/ ft ft ft ?/ a: 61.REVIEW EXERCISE 37. 2 a) (2: + 7/ a)(x 2 2 66. 2 52. (a 2 + 2 + c 2 + aft + ac . (.2)(1 .1).2x + 3).3 c)].& + {.[7 a 36 {4 a 46 (2 a 3 ft)}]].2 2 + 1)(7. .6 xy . 2 ft 41.3~ft f 2 c + 4 ^ .4 a 2 + a 4 ). 51.[4 x  5 . (4 z 2 + 9 2 + ^ 2 .Z .c). 3 x 42. + 2)  (4 x 2  2 x 7)}].(7 a. (1 55. )(lz a ). (1 ar+a. 68. 48. 7 a 2 261 {5 2 a2 2 a + (2 a 2 i j 38.6 x + 5 x'2) (2 .3). . 65.[3 y [2 ft 2 z + {4 (3 a ar 40.6)}].(6 . (.(2 a 2 .[0 a 5a + 2 c + 4 c .(2 x2 .3c). (a:2)(r4)(a:9).r 2 + !>ar + 3)(^ 2 .12). 4 + 2 2 + 1). . (ar + 7)(ar + 5)(a: + 3).{2 a . 64.7).5 )}] + {4 c .3)(*5)(* 7).{2 a (ft .3T~2~s)} + 5 2]. 46. (a 2 + 2 + 9 .5)} + (3 a 2 .2 2 . 56. (x.2 <?)} 13 ft ft _[&{2c(3d + Perform the operations indicated 47. (r (1 (a.r 2:c+ l)(ar.b (c . . 5a(7ft+4c) + [6 a.3 z 2 ).a~^~c)K]. +  ^+ y)(x 2 ) (x + a 2 )(a: 4 + a 4 ). 2 : 7e)a}].0)} .JT^T+1)} + (2 . (5 a 39.4 a . (4 + 3a 2 .(7 i + 4 r:) . 50.e '/)}] (2a + 2b .* 2 + (x + x + l)(a: (z 1). (2 x 2 3 ar+ 1)(3 z 2 x+ 1).be) (a 58. 13 a .c 2 . a .(5 y . (x .56. + *+!){> + 2). 62. .(2 .(4 d .2 zz . 'J 44.rf)} + a [. . 54. .3 *). 49.6c) (a + f c). (a 2 + 2 + c 2 . 45.ac . 59.2a .
3 (ft . 89. 77. 82. 91.c) rr identities. 3[a{2 a (a 4ft 4 2 2 ^>) c) 44 a2 a8 4 2 4.c 8 4 3(6 c)(c 4 a)(n + 2 ft).z) .(c 4.c) 4) (ft 4. b 4.q).y).ac b + n~ + /? 2c n ft n an b c)(a"* ?n + + c).z)(x y + z)(.am&t 4 A 2 *). 76. p(p + ?) + 4 A) (a .O (a 4(a 4. .c . 2 (x 2 .c)].c) .c . O (x (a 2 + 4 y y) 2 a J 4 . 74. ft" l Simplify 80. 1). Prove the following 8 4.x + y + z). 93. 86.(x 42 y) O 2 4 y) (^ 44 y ). a (a 2 2a + + " 4 l)(u 2a n f (:r a. ft /. 73. .v) 4. (x (x ( + *) . 88. 90.2 (y 4.2y)(.b 4. (a) (a (ft) a8 4 ft 8 4.262 69. ft ft ft a}. 8 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA (a 2  z 3) (a 8 2 a + z 3 )(a 6 2 + a: 6 ) (a 12 a (a  + l)(a 2 f 2a + l)(a + + ( a: 12 ).(a 48 8 8 4. 75. 1).r3y)4l)y( a :y)^2y)418 // (2ry)46 8 // . (a (2 b)*(a 4. 4 (a + ft)(a 2 81.n pc). by multiplying out each 4 side of the equality.c) j. ft 78.c c 2 4 2 am 20 (??2 + : n 6 f p ) (w .y'*4y 2m )OK y I)(a m ). 71. 87.:y)( a.a) (a? 4(c 4 y) (y c)(ar 2 ft + 8 a). 79. _ ft) (a: + a)(x + b) + (bc)(x + ft) (a: 4. f 72.> 2 2 + 2 3 9). 85.(4 .(a? 4 y)*(x  y).z\x 4.c) . (a 2 ft 2n 4. (.{3 a .y)\x y).c)} .a) 2 .y + z)(x + y . ft 8 ft) 4 ft 8 4. 92. 84. 4.a) (2 + 7(7> ~ 'y) 2 4. 94. + (rtP+i 4 2 6)(a^+ .m np c .(ft 4.5 . 2 + a 2 ). .ft) + 4(2 .(/>  3 v)^(.c) 2 .r 2 .2 (a . xy y 2 ).3 a . ar . (p 2 . (x 4 2 y) (2 ^ 3 y)2(/ y) (^ 3 V)  .ft) 4 .(^ 4 y 2 )  4 ^/(.<f(p .2ft) 8 ( + 2 ft).9y2). 70.3y) a (* 2 4. ft 95. 4 4 . 83. a(2 + 4 3ft) 2 (2a 4 4 8 ^) .2 ft}) f (3 a .6*y .(a 2) (s 4 ft.
5 b*). 10).(a 1 2 8 .2 2% 4. 118. (a 8  8 68 8 4. (8 x* 115.y 4 . (x* 4 9 ax 8 44 12 . O3a n O2a 4~ i O4a 2a T (3' 3m n ~*~ 3 3n 3") 3".4 aft . 110.(7 xi/ .(2 a 2 . (2 y 44 2 y 2 4 02 y 23 a 4 3 16 y a 50 4 48) 2 111. .y 2 ) 4 a 2// 2 /> 8 a.xy 4. 105. 25 4 . 109. r .c 4 6 afo) f + ^ 4 ).9 x 2 .2 y 2 ) 3 xy (25 .16 a 6 4.) .35 x 2 2 ) . 121. ( y 8_o7)^^2 + 3 y + 0).2y 2 4. 117. (20 x*  4 72 x 2  35 4.2 xy 8 . 106.a".(x 2 . 108. [10( 4. 3*.r 4 4.6 ) (a** (a (x 10 3 J 1 a  1). 1).&) 8  5(a n 4 2 6) ] 5(a 4 &) 6 (a 4. 103.40 />) .'30) ~ (4 ^  5 x 4 10). Cr (z 27y l9a:y) (a:3yy 6 ) r 2 (a: 4 xy 4 y 2 ). 4 (a 8 44 16 a 2 4 4 256) s ~4 2 (a 4 4a ^ 4 16).REVIEW EXERCISE Simplify : 263 96. 123. (2< 107. 124.3 a"+ 4. 113. 99 100.(y 2 ~ (a 2 ) 5 y 6 a  12). (. a*.6 y 4 4. 102.v/ ~ // = a: .21 x*if) (4 ^ 2 . 122.y 2 4.5 a 21 (10 a 4 5 a*) Qafl^ = 5 a*. 116.y 4 ) . 1O4.*) (x 8 .b) 98. . (a 8 ^4 + 8 & 8) (  2 2 119. (80 a 112. 4 (6 x 4 23 x s 33 z 43 42 a.27 x* .5 xy). 20) * (3 a* 4 4 a? + 5). 2 (a+ .&).1). 26 (a 4 c). 114. 2 4 41 x 4a. (4 4 3 a  4  5 a 3 . 120.
.3(2 z .5{.22.7) = 4 . 2 4(ar .2(10 x . 3(2 x 134.3) (3 x 4. 149. 137. with 8 as remainder? Solve the following equations and check the answers: 133.1) . 142.r>) . What is the 2 by a*ab + 26 ? 130.r + 7[or .(1 . .3 a (1 + * l l 1 3 f 2 &).2 {3 8)} ^ 5(13 4(j = 5{2 x . 128. 7(2 x .3 a:).2) (a: + 3).19) + 5 = 4 . 135.4) .4(0 x . 127. (*+ + . 126.9) 4. 129.27 a 3" .1) (a? .(3 a? 2 [2 x + (x 4. By what expression must x* + G x2  4 a: 1 be divided to give x2 + 5 # 9 as quotient.3(* + 4) + 9} .n . x 147. (1 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA + a8 3  G ax z8  8 z 8) 5 (1  a  2 x).2(j: .(x + 3) ] .7(4 * .18 *&) (1 . 1) = 2(* .2) = 3 .(x f 9). 1 o + 5 + 1=15. y (* l x.2 7^~5] + 1). 139.3 x).3) = 12 . 3) a: a: a: +?+4= o 13.x+ + x a ) ~ (x a + + x).a:)]}. o o 140. 3) = x\x . .5). remainder when a 4 3 a b B + 12 a 2 6'2  b* is divided By what expression must a: f 3 be multiplied to give 4 x*7 8 a*b + 4 a 131.264 125.2(4 .3). 42(3ar 145.3). By what expression must 3 a 2 ab + & 2 ? be divided to give the quotient 3 a 2  2 6 2  8 ttfc 8 + 2187? . 10(2 x 141.(j a? 144.9) + 3.(x .8 6 . (4 x . . (5a: 150.4) . 138.12 M 132.  9)  7(0 x a?  32) + 5 = 4x  3(2 j  3). 136. 143. 5(2 x . 2(3 x + 4) 8 [2 (a: . 1) . 10(2 x 5 x + 3(7 x . . 148. 5 146.7) = (7 x  1 1) (3 x . .(9 x + 10) (a:  3) . .5) = 12(4 x .2(5 .2) + 2(ar + 4).3 a#z) (ar + y + s).G) .l)(ar + 2) (a: (ar (2ar 2 4} = 2(3 x .
3)(* (ar 2 7)  113. + 5) = (9 .3) (a: . (2 . Find five consecutive numbers whose sum equals 100. 155.2) a + 7(x .5) = (3 .25) 2 .2). + 5) 2 (4a:) 2 =r21a:.T)O . + 2) + (5 . 265 152. The formula which transforms Fahrenheit (F.(* + 2)(7 z + 1) = (* .? .17) 2 + (4 x . 162. 159. There are 63 sheep in three flocks. these two angles would be equal. (3 O + . (x (x a. 158.a:) + 229. a: ar a. 160.7) (1 x .3) (3 .3) = (3 x .REVIEW EXERCISE 151. 154. 157.5*) + 47.5)(. (b) At what temperature do the Centigrade scale and the Fahrenheit scale indicate equal numbers? (c) How many degrees C.29) 2 = 1. find the value of F.(5 x .14) (a: + 3).2 x) (4 .3) (j. transformed into F. sheep are there in eacli flock Y The second of the three angles of a triangle is 180. are the three angles? is A picture which is 3 inches longer than wide by a frame 2 inches wide. + 10) (ar . A man is 30 years old how old will he be in x years? 168.5(x . . 163. how wide is the picture ? surrounded 108 square is 172. angle of a triangle is twice as large as the first. ^ + ?=13 + 2o 10 o .2) (j? + 1) + (x .8) = (2 x 4.2 x) = (1 . (a .24. .7) (a. 161. and the third twice as many as the first.r + 3) .76. will produce F. 156. = 2 C. and if 15 were taken from the third and added to the first.2) (7 *) + (*. If the area of the frame inches.6 x) (3 .1) (s + 3). (7 14 .z) (4 . The sum What 171.5 x) = 45 x . (a) If C. 165.19) + 42.4) (a . . 164.1) O + 4) = (2 * .3) (3 . 166. 153.l)(z .2(x ~ 1) + 12 = 0. f^ + ^sO.. (a. The second contains 3 first. 5(ar x . 2 4 . By how much does 15 exceed a ? How much must be added to k to make 23? 167. + 4) (2 x + 5).) readings of a thermometer into Centigrade readings is C.j Write down four consecutive numbers of which y is the greatest. =  (F 32). .9) + (a. sheep more than the 169. How many 170. = 15. .
189. 187. and the middle row has 4 panes in each window more than the upper row there are in all 168 panes of glass. z 2 92. Find the number. respectively. father. An The two express train runs 7 miles an hour faster than an ordinary trains run a certain distance in 4 h. 186. 13 a + 3. was three times that of the younger. Four years ago a father was three times as old as his son is now.266 173.56. 3 gives the 174. . How many are there in each window ? . 4 a 2 yy 42. A boy is father. 178. if each increased 2 feet. and the father's present age is twice what the son will be 8 years hence. 179. two boys is twice that of the younger. +x 2. same result as the number diminished by 175. 6 in each row the lowest row has 2 panes of glass in each window more than the middle row. 180. is What are their ages ? Two engines are together more than the of 80 horse 16 horse power other. ll?/102. 15 m. number divided by 3. side were one foot longer. + a. 3 gives the same result as the numbet multiplied by Find the number. + 11 ~ 6. What is the distance? if square grass plot would contain 73 square feet more Find the side of the plot. aW + llab2&. 190. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA A A number increased by 3. A house has 3 rows of windows. 181. The age of the elder of it three years ago of each. the sum of the ages of all three is 51. dimension 182. the ana of the floor will be increased 48 square feet.36. . 188. train. z 2 + x . x* 185. 2 2 + a _ no. younger than his Find the age of the father. Find the age 5 years older than his sister 183. A the boy is as old as his father and 3 years sum of the ages of the three is 57 years. . 7/ 191. A each 177. and  as old as his Find the age of the Resolve into prime factors : 184. sister . 10x 2 192. power one of the two Find the power of each. 12 m. The length is of a floor exceeds its width by 2 feet. and 5 h. Find the dimensions of the floor. 176.
238.6 2 ?/ . 267 199. 202. x 5 . + 8.6.21 a:  54.10 y a x* . 245. 239.y) y) 6 a 2 + 5 a . 2a te 3% ly 247. xm+l 243. 213. 8 a. + 30 x. a: 231. a a: a: 237. 2 200. a: 4  a: 2 a: V 2 .64. 3y 2 + ary .6 y2 + 4. 224. . .(b + rf) 2 . 215.xm y + xym  + (a c)  (c rf) 242.10 xy.REVIEW EXERCISE 193. 23 12. + 3a 196. 230. z + 5x 2 . 203. (13z 2 5# 2) 2 2 2 (a 6 (12 c 2 ) 2. 2 afy 13 28 a: ary + 66 y. a: . 2 2 y f 1.6s.28. 3 x V . 2  5 xy 13 y a.3 xf + 3 * 2y . 232. y 2 194. z 2 2. 2 x 2 . .77 y + 150.19 z 4 204. 3y 248. + 198. x* + 8 2 + 15. wiy + la mx + aw. 3 ap 2 . 235.x + 1. # 2  29 y + 120. a. 227. 195. + G *2#2 + 9 x*y\ 6 x* + 5 a:y . 12 x +4.3 xy. 4a 2& 2 241. 14x 2 25ary + Gy 2 3 x* x 2 . 4 m +^. 207. 201. + 2 . a. 217. . 218. 2 a 8 .c) 2  (a . a: 236. a. 210. 2 .a 2/A 214 12 x*y .r?/f y 2 9.22 z + 48.14 2 . a^a 226. .3 c/> + 6 cq. 211. *2 234. 24 2 + 2 . 11 2 + 10 20 x 4 . 5 x 2. x 219. 229. ifWy+b. 216. 2 a: 2 + 4y2) 2 + 240.10. 6 197. 16x 4 81. 221. 8 a: ar.12 * . . 3 x 2 . a. 209.6 aq . 9a4a6 (a 2 + b .20 z 8 a: 220. 233.(a + z2 ) 2 (a 2 3 (x (r + y + a. 208. 2 + x 2 ) 2 . x*y 223. 246.8 6 2. 206. 222. (a + .c) 2 . 5 ?/ + 1 1 a*b . 7x 2 225. a 2 . 7a 228. a+a* + o a +l. 212. 60 a 2  a: // 205. 4 f yx* + z*x + z*y. 244. .19 a . 2 a 2 .1. 15 x 2 + 26 x a .
+ 3 x + 2. + 8. 1 x ar Find the L. 2 . I Find the II.a + 2 4.8. 10 a. 15 # 2 z/ /. + 23 x f 20.36. G(x+  l)'\ 9(x 2  1).2/ 2 . z 2 268. 257.7 f 5.3 abc . a? a: a: // 262.ry .17 x + 6 * 14 273 P a 5y>+4. x*y* 4. 8 2 + 10 x .73 xy . 7 ax 250.x . 254.9 x .3 x . F. 258.91.9. 2 + 7 r f 2.9 xy + 14 y 2 ar ar a: . a: .r + a# + az f 2 6z fry 4.18 xy + 5.ry 21. : x2 4 a: ~ + a. . x 2 .5 ab f 2. 10 x 2 .G7 x f 33. 3 #2 255.6 by. of: 253. _ 40 y 2 272 f f 2 !8a: . a. 252.3. x* . 259. 3 ay 4.9 x + 14. 251.10. z 2 267. * a .23 x f 20. x 2 4. 260.15.M. x 2 + 5 f . 5 x 2 256. 18 x 2 .C.10 a 4.80.120. ft a. 8 xf < 3 xy + a. a 3 a 2 2 .13. 265. a 4.77 + 77 ' 2?5 5 ' 2 5 a: 2 7 . x 2 263. x 2 f 9j: + 20. x 2 + 2 x . 269. Reduce to lowest terms 271.2 z .15 + 30. 22x2 a. 2 2 + 39 xy 4.268 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 249. x* . of: 266. 270. 2 8 .&z. C. 2 x2 .23 + 12.2 aft*.16 x . 7 12 2 2 .4.r . + 8 x + 5. * 2 . x 2 + 4 + 3. 261. 30 ^ .11 x f 28.18 ry + 32 y 2 2 .1 9 .4 ab + 1. 6.11 a 2 .14 bx a%% 8 . 28 2 f 71 x .a 2 />c 2 f 3.48 afy 2 .12. ^27/7 + 12 2?6 28 x 2 12 Jr 2__7^/_ J/ 2 + 3 .2 ax 2 + 2 for 2 . * 2 . + 20 x 4. 264. 3 a% 2 . 2 a. * 2 .(55. 2 z 2 f 13 x + 1 5.
*2 " 2 + Oge.  9 ' 2Q4 4 *2 ' 8x+8 ' 278. 8 .2* + 3 x* 280. z2 (a 2 + c)a.rL. 289 ' .ar 1 279. 9 286 1 1 + 2* 3 x f *2 ar + a .2c a: 282.J' 4 2 2 w mp . 285 z4 n* + a. m 4..2 22 + 2 2 yz 4 2 zx 2 + ary _ _ 22 _ 292 ^  ?/.n 2 )P * 287 " 281 2 q^( 2  a: 2 ) m 288 ' .(y 2 z) * t (j.!/. fr 293 ' y <? 294 2 2 2 + 2 cV + 2 a 2^ 2  4  ft* ~ c4 295 296 ' 297 ' . + ac . a. y)' z2 283 t 290 ' x'2 2 y* + z2 + 2 0:2 291 *2 + y 2 + 0. _ "* m ~n w 4 + 2 7w% 2 f sa .REVIEW EXERCISE 277 8 agg 269  6 a..
270 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA : Find the value of 298 23. + 19) 2Lz + 3 x " 2 99 ' i x +4 *3 a +7 300. Lnl + ar 2 a. ^_2*(m 308. 6) _ ~ i 305. ^n m+n "*" + n) 2 g 309. 2 + 7 _ 44 3. x + 3 ^ "" 310 x a: 2 a: 2 2 a:  17 a:2 ar3 x 2 5a:i6" . X2 (ca)(ai) 1 x2 4 (a +9 i_ 20 a . * 19 23 19(23 23. _L + 12 x 1 + 35 1 307. (a: 1 + l)(ar + 2) (x + l)(ar + 2)(* + 3) 302. x x ~~ +^ i ^ ~ ''^ . x 7. a (: a) (x 2. 4 3 301. O(ca) 306. (a 1 1 + a b c) (a + ^ ct) (a + a c)(a f e) 304. ^. a? __ + *_ + + la?la? * a l 303.
2 + y 2 319.2 1 f 1 + : *2 1  2 x' 316. _ x8 . 1 _.+ a 10 z 2 2 *2 9*+ 20 *2  8* + 15 315. nl g(jL+ 2 ) ^^^_ 318.*) + * 2) 321  c) 2 . 2ft 2 a8 3 314.(a . (a? 4 2) 317.BE VIEW EXERCISE 311. } . . 1 x2 + + a. i 271 + b a2 + ft 2 312. 1a: + y a.. ( ftc g~ft ( 6_ c) 2_ (a._ '(a6)*(a:r)a 323. a: 1 313.ft) 2 322. (1 . Dx x(l *) * 8(1*) 4(1 +*) 2 8(1 + 4(1 . .
ll.2 +lOar 2 a.y20  2y + 4 2 . 2 ?/ 4g~0yg 10 o# 2 ~ x 6 a* x' 2 24 y 2 1 .7 xy + 12 x . 2 x* 8 x2 4 r8 i + 2 a.a: ' 2 + 0^ + ^2^7 a. . * 3a. 2 lOx 5x. 20 44 333. a: 2 x* . .V  + y  x 3y a .4 x?/ 2 ^_ G x 2 + 13 gy_+ . 250 5 10 2 325. 2 ^ "" 1B x + 40 y *2 + 5 x  3. 2 a2  2 a  ' 03 i^+^T 42 ^2 _ l5rt~+~54* 327 8 ' ^ .y 2 x (a?4y) 3(2 x  ' _ ^/ 3 y) 2 8 330 ./  3 y  6 ( 331 g gy ' f a 3y ~ 6 q  9 G 2 y/ + 5 ?/ 6 G fl y~4y+ 15 ^e  10 6y 332 3 a: +lly10 4 xy 8 2  a. 4 y2 2 5 x8 2 z6 3 y 10 a: 2 + 8 2 ..2 y2 ' 334 *2 ' + 2 y 8 a..28 8 2  11 2 + J?_ x fl^^ffjje _ 2 12 a 4 a + a  4 6~7** 27^12^7 .5 a .B ~ 1037  329 4 a. z2  4 x  ^ "" 12 *.6* t 328. ' a: 2 2 5 sy a: f zy + 4 y* .19 xy + 6 y 2 8 x* a: ?/ ' ~" 6 y 333.9 *// + 27 .272 Simplify: ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA ~ 324.7 acy + 12 y2 + 5 a:y + y 2 .15 33 .
' 2 "l 5 .+ r . ' ~ ~ x2 + 8 + 76 2" 350. aj 339. f V. ( 342. (ar \ 346. 352. a>74 . ?_2 ^ . 344. +^ a: y x .REVIEW EXERCISE 336. (af2/. 278 C  ~ a c* \ c* ~ b a2 q2 h c 5 5 ~ a c b q  q c 6 * \ : f 1 \  { 337. \x yj 340. Simplify : 353 ^3 * 2 L pE+1 a /2x~l V 5a:~2 10 4 354. : 1+ i. + l + IV. \5yl 341. 7 ( ?f!?.) 2 .13 13 s 11 Find the numerical values of 351.r 5 2 . xi 347.y. w \. if a = 3. fl. (aWi + iJ. 338. 5 343. 1 345. + ni + .1V. (a \ + lV. ** i. a: 349 _ o. 348..
ar xy + yl x* 358. y360. _ + l a 359. 1+2 362. W?* (* + 1 + 2x) \3a _ 1 + 2x \3a 1 365. (a a b yx c yabc 361.274 355 f 5 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA U<>3) 356 fl V ___ _/ 2(*l)J + ya xl x 1* YTx 2 110*W*1 1** JUal + xy 357. I  I f 366. i+5 1+1 9 x2 f 363. a2 4 . + x x a . (~ 364.
(1 +ab)(l+bc) 369. a + . b c 368. \b* + c* b + b b*c*)^ c ^\ b (b* f c*) } c 4 c a b . 2  m 373 "1*7 374. .REVIEW EXERCISE 2 275 f 367. 370 ' 1 (/')(&o) 1 a 372. 6 a c b a b b 1 ' ~ _^ .
.^^ + x f o 51) +2J = 0. ^ . 2(3 x (x + 4) + 10) + 1 (x + 7) = 0. + 6)+  (* + J = _j_ j(* v/ O + 5)10 ^\:) / 380. 8  376. 20 iLf5 + !*=! = 2 J.276 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 375. 1 + 16ar_63 24 g 2T~~~ia 7 12f a 8 a' 389 5  14(arl) 18 105 390. 5*8.*2 = 15. a: r ~ 2 + 5"^  10 xf x  382. J !__7. __4 2x 3_ = !. r 1  3(* + 1)} ! ' . 4(* . 3 Solve the equations : or a: 2 (a. 379. # k 1 _j j a: 2 a: 3 383. . + 1) 45 O 377. """ 2J 7 ' + 2 28 ear7 + i3JTo^ . <3 378. 5 {2 x 381. 5 3 vC 7 a: 385 10 17 387 * L*J> _ 14 1 7ar = (5 ar 10ar + 15 .
a: a)(a:  &)(>: + 2a +2&) = (a: + 2 a) 408. .5 x =r f . 400.6~a: 7 _ x 8~a. 397. m x 398. 399.* 2 + *2 " 2 ~ ^ H. f 1 1 + a 403. _____ . c . l)(x  a) (a:  3) 42 3(4 *  2)(ar + 1). (8 x  3) (x 2  1) = (4 x a: 1) (4 x  5).REVIEW EXERCISE 391. 3* 177.75 x f .6  . "i 2 37370 ^ x i x x + 1 a?  R  7 ~r * 1 a. + 4 a.2 a:  1. b 404.  ft) = 2(ar  ) (a.5 ^ ~ a: a. JLg:== 7wa: c c } q. 40.25 x + . ^ (a .1 . y ~ rt ^= & ~ 402..25. 396.  J).147. 6 7 7 ^ 2 1(5 a.5 1 f 1 x  2 = x . 277 x 4 _x 5 _ _ a: ar. n a 4O5 b b x f (a:  a) + a(a. u '2 a.  8 9* x ~r.8 = . . (x ~ a)(x f 6) f c = ^ (z a: + 2 a)(a: a: 5 i). 401.. a.
(x f ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA a)(z  b) = a 2 alb = a (x f b)(x 2 . A man drives to a certain place at the rate of 8 miles an Returning by a road 3 miles longer at the rate of 9 miles an hour. 2 a x c x 6 f c a + a + a + 6 f walks 2 miles more than B walks in 7 hours more than A walks in 5 hours. hour.278 410. (x . 421. 418 ~jo.(5 I2x ~r l a) . 4x a a 2 c 6 Qx 3 x c 419. and at the rate of 3^ miles an hour.c) . down again How person walks up a hill at the rate of 2 miles an hour. f a x f x f c 1 1 ab b x 415. far did he walk all together ? A . mx ~ nx (a ~ mx nx c d d c)(:r lfi:r a b)(x .(c rt a)(x  b) = 0. 18 be subtracted from the number. a x ) ~ a 2 b 2 ar a IJ a. 420.  a) 2 6 2a. Find the number of miles an hour that A and B each walk. Tn 6 hours . the order of the digits will be inverted. x 1 a x x1 ab 1 1 a x a c + b c x a b b ~ c x b 416 417. In a if and 422. How long is each road ? 423. A in 9 hours B walks 11 miles number of two digits the first digit is twice the second. 411. Find the number.a)(x b b) (x b ~ ) 412. a x a x b b x c b _a b f x 414. he takes 7 minutes longer than in going. and was out 5 hours.
a. : i.31 afc + UV ) = (15 a 2 + 31 ab + H 6) (25 a2 . and : b : c = 14 : 15.2 (a + &*) (a h & ) = (a ) (a 6). z 2 y. x 427. Prove that the number of miles one can see from an elevation of h feet is very nearly equal to ^  miles. of the sixth and ninth parts of the less. if . 431. 438. Find the fourth proportional 426. 279 A in 2 lowed steamer which goes at the rate of 264 miles a day is foldays by another which goes 286 miles a day. + 4ft):(Oo + 86)= (a26):(3o46). z2  y\ x* xy + y*. ax is \ by  ex + dy. (a + 6 ) (a + ft) = (a (3a 2 2 : : fc : : : . find the angles of the triangle.& 5 ) (a 8 .46 2): (15a 2 . a  t>. Solve 436. If a b : =5 n : 7. 435. . Find the ratio x 5x : = 7y . wi* + y= ny. : m n(n x) =p : m n(p : x).REVIEW EXERCISE 424. d. y. When will the second steamer overtake the first? 425. b. Find two consecutive numbers such that the sum of the fifth and eleventh parts of the greater may exceed by 1 the sum. a + 5. Which ratio is greater. 433. 5 7 or 151 208? 437. angle of a triangle is to another as 4 5 and the third angle to the sum of the first two. a8 f 2 ab f 6 2. . A line 10 inches long divided in the ratio m:n.6 8 ). Find the length of the parts. Find the mean proportional to 429. 8 8 5 ~ a*b + a*b* . . Which of the following proportions are true? (9 c.49 63).a 2^ 8 + aft* . : If is one equal 434. find : a : c.iand 22 22 I a . 2 2 8 2 . 430. 428. 3 and 1J. The sum of the three angles of any triangle is 180. 432.
454. 450.*. what is the weight of a sphere of the same material having a diameter of 3 inches ? 440. 457.3 y = 3 5 f 7 . a: a: + 5y). 448. of two spheres are to each other as the cubos of a sphere 2 inches in diameter weighs 1:2 ounces. 7a?y = 3.. x + 5 y = 49 3 x . 451. 444. 5z4:# = 3. 455. />(. 453. 7 442. + 5y = 59. ?/ 447. 5 2 = 7 . 8 x + y = 19.35. 1(3  a. 445. 9ar7# = 71. . 5j + 7 7 = = 2. c. 7 a: . 9/> = 2 .7 y = 25. 16. 33 x + 35 y = 4 55 * .55 y = .89 = q. ax + ly = 2 a*x + & 2# = a + b. 452. 8 . /) ar a. a. 459. Solve the following systems: 441. 21 7 = 27 + Op. 7jr9y = 17. if 2 ft : 439. 42 = 15y + 137.4 12 . The volumes If their diameters.rf2# = l. 3 .59 = 3 z. 449. x + 17 # 53.11 7. 4 = 5 y + 29. . 3 a.(or l(*2y)=0. 20y + 21 18a = 50 + 25y.280 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA x. . a: 2y= = 1 .11 y = 95. Find the value of a. 2 (3 a + 2 ab  8 ft) : 2 (5 a f 4 ai  12 ft 2 ) = a? : (5 a  6 ft). 456. 56 + 10y = 7a. = 25. 5#+ 10 = 27 a. . 29(a + &) : x = 551 (a 3  ) 19(a  &). ft. ft. 458. . 15ar = 20 + 8y. 28 = 5 a . 443. 5x+4y=lQ. 446. ox f &// = 2 + y) = a + 8a + 21+3ft = 0.
468. _ & +y 3 dx+frj c\ .  = 2.+ =2. x y 474. 4 g ~ 2 7g + 3 . 3 x 28i + 7 ~~~^ = 5. 475. i 47O _ 3~12 } 4* 471. 473.?/ + 1 . 465.REVIEW EXERCISE 460. 8 461.7. ax cx by = m. ax by = c \ 472. _ 469.2y) (2 = 2J. car = 4 rf cte  ey =/. ' a: + 2 g + 3 y _ 467. (or . + eyn. 3 a? _ y 7 a? 3 y _ 1 12 15 ~~10 4 __ 10 "10 463. i = 5. ^ + i^ = 7..c=563y.
Find the fraction. Find the principal and the rate of interest. the Find their ages. A sum of money at simple interest amounts in 8 months to $260. Find two numbers such that twice the greater exceeds the by 30. and a fifth part of one brother's age that of the other. 479. and in 20 months to $275. How much money less 484. and becomes when its denominator is doubled and its numerator increased by 4 ? j 478. if the sum of the digits be multiplied by the digits will be inverted. In a certain proper fraction the difference between the nu merator and the denominator is 12. Find the number. 477. also a third of the greater exceeds half the less by 2. age. There are two numbers the half of the greater of which exceeds the less by 2. latter would then be twice the son's A and B together have $6000. half the The greatest exceeds the sum of the greatest and 480. Find the sum and the rate of interest. If 31 years were added to the age of a father it would be also if one year were taken from the son's age . had each at first? B B then has J as much spends } of his money and as A. Find the numbers. whose difference is 4.282 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 476. least The sum of three numbers is is 21. A sum of money at simple interest amounted in 10 months to $2100. and in 18 months to $2180. If 1 be added to the numerator of a fraction it if 1 be added to the denominator it becomes equal becomes equal to ^. years. and 5 times the less exceeds the greater by 3. fraction becomes equal to . and if each be increased by 5 the Find the fraction. 485. thrice that of his son and added to the father's. Of the ages of two brothers one exceeds half the other by 4 is equal to an eighth of 482. to . by 4. A number consists of two digits 4. Find the numbers. 487. A spends \ of his. 483. 481. What is that fraction which becomes f when its numerator is doubled and its denominator is increased by 1. Find their ages. and the other number least. 486. .
There is 283 digits which is equal to seven times the digits be transposed the new number Find the will exceed 10 times the difference of the digits by 6.REVIEW EXERCISE 488. \ . 1. + y 5 y = 101 . 8. . x f y f z 29 . 3ar 503. 4z+3z = 20. 1+1 = 6. 4 497. 493. of two the sum of the digits also if number. y Solve : x +z= 5. z y ifi = z x 502.5#+2z = $x a: G. 5^ 9z = 10. 2 a. a: + // = 11. 7 4#+ 3z = 35. 494. 2 2 = 41. x y f z = 13./ f z =a. *i.z = 20. The sum of two numbers squares is b. 4 506. = 20.z = 12. Find two numbers whose sum equals is s and whose difference equals d. . a: + ?/ 2z = 15. x s + y z = 18J . f + 3 y 62 4 y 4a. . a number . 30 2^ 3^ = ' ' 4r=9. = 15. * + 425  = . and the difference of their Find the numbers. 490. 2y + 2z = a: 2. 492. z y x 25 . 7. . 496. 5 + a.? + 2y = 8. 3 a: + 5=84. a. : Solve the following systems 491. 7 + 2 z . a: f z = 79. a. 3 x 500. 2a:f 7. = 209. 2y + 3a = ll./ 504. ~ 507. 2 ar + 3 y 2 z = 8 . a: 499. 498. . 489. + # +z= 35. 2 e. 495. 2/>3r = 4. ifi = x a.
ll" . + + 3579 2+?. ra? + y 2 + 524 x \ +y + = + t jx [y + 9 = 3af& + r. 517. 36 + c. 523.284 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 516. + : = 1472. i=a + 6 c. !f == 2800. z z =3a&c.
37 pounds of tin lose 5 pounds. AC in /).REVIEW EXERCISE 285 525. When weighed in water. A can do a piece of work in 12 days B and C together can do the same piece of work in 4 days A and C can do it in half the time in which B alone can do it. if the number be increased by Find the number. L. and losing 14 pounds when weighed in water? (b) How many pounds of tin and lead are in an alloy weighing 220 pounds in air and 201 pounds in water ? in 3 days. CD. . N. How long will B and C take to do . An (escribed) and the prolongations of BA and BC in Find AD. 90. sum of the reciprocals of of the reciprocals of the first of the reciprocals of the second and the sum 528. . Find the numbers. and BE. and third equals \\ the sum third equals \. Tu what time will it be filled if all run M N N t together? 529. A vessel can be filled by three pipes. What are their rates of travel? . A boy is a years old his mother was I years old when he was born. Tf and run together. they would have met in 2 hours. BC = 5. and 23 pounds of lead lose 2 pounds. it separately ? 531. if and L. and one overtakes the other in 6 hours. Find the present ages of his father and mother. M. In circle A ABC. the first and second digits will change places. 532. A number of three digits whose first and last digits are the same has 7 for the sum of its digits. and CA=7. 530. If they had walked toward each other. touches and F respectively. AB=6. it is filled in 35 minutes. if L and Af in 20 minutes. and B together can do a piece of work in 2 days. in 28 minutes. B and C and C and A in 4 days. E 533. his father is half as old again as his mother was c years ago. In how many days can each alone do the same work? 526. Throe numbers are such that the A the first and second equals . (a) How many pounds of tin and lead are in a mixture weighing 120 pounds in air. Two persons start to travel from two stations 24 miles apart. 527.
x *x + x + 1. x 8 549. If to feet is the length of a seconds. 2 x + 5. The greatest value of the function. The values of x if y = 2.286 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA : 534. 2 541. 547. The value of x that produces the greatest value of y.  3 x.3 Draw down the time of swing for a pendulum of length 8 feet. then / = 3 and write = 3. if x = f 1. + 3.  3 x. . b. of Draw a graph for the trans The number in of workmen Draw required to finish a certain piece the graph work D days it is from D 1 to D= 12. . Draw the graphs of the following functions : 538. a. the time of whose swing a graph for the formula from / =0 537. 3 x 539. 550. x 2 + x. FRANCE. 536. formation of dollars into marks. x 2 544. The roots of the equation 2 + 2 x x z = 1. 546. x*. 543. How is t / long will I take 11 men 2 t' .10 marks. The values of y. the function. GERMANY. e. d. i. 540. Represent the following table graphically TABLE OF POPULATION (IN MILLIONS) OF UNITED STATES. One dollar equals 4. 2  x  x2 .  7. 542. Draw the graph of y 2 and from the diagram determine : + 2 x x*. x*  2 x. 548. AND BRITISH ISLES 535. c. 2. 2. z 2  x x  5. from x = 2 to x = 4. 545. to do the work? pendulum.e.
if y =m has three real roots. J. i. z 4 . Determine the number of real roots of the equation y Determine the limits between which m must lie. a: 559. . 3 x . 566. 2 554. Solve 552. 3 x* . 553.4 . 556. 15. x 5 . If y +5 10. x* .7 = .  2 1 a: a. 563. 2 a. z 2 . 558. Find the greatest value which ?/ may assume for a negative x. 564.13 = 0. x 4 . 572. 557. h.6 + 3 . // Solve y Solve y = 5. 3 + 3 z .0.3 = 0. = 5.3 x . 18 x  4 = 0. 3 .1 = 0.) How In far does a how many body fall in 2^ seconds? seconds does a body fall 25 meters? Solve graphically the following equations : x*"2x7 = Q. + 10 x . a? 4 x . \ to t = 5. + 5 .5 x .17 = 0.r . graphically from t = (Assume g = 10 scale unit of the t equal to 10 times the scale ^ 2 .r 1 561.9 = 0.= 0.4 x 2 + 4 . 2. 555. 568.11 x* + + 2 8 569.r a: a: x a. 2 x 2 560. Represent meters. 2 8 . 2 567.4 = 0.= 0. 562. Find the value of m that will make two roots equal if y = m. . a. ' = 8. 2 ~0a: + 9 = 0.15 = 0. c. c. 565. a.10 x 2 + 8 = 0.3 x . r?.REVIEW EXERCISE 551.G . a. Which negative value of x produces the greatest value of y ? : Solve graphically 570 ' 571.11 = 0. Solve// = 0. g. x 2 ~ 2 . and make the unit of the b. e. 287 by a falling body is The formula 2 ] f/f for the distance traveled a. . f.' 2* + Z  4 = 0.3 . j.
<r)3  2 3 a:) .5 xy = 0. a. 595. 1 . a: f 2 2 aAa: + 2 ?/ . (a  8 ft) . 2  2 aa: 2 . a: .frf : 583. 600. 588. 579.2 2 + y. f ?>) 3 591. 608. 2 (2 a ft 6 + + 4 a 6& 2 + x f 13 2 .4 8 f 4 4 + i 2 ) 2 f (a 1 . + + 4 . 597.4.4 + 4 a 8^6 + 9 a a^e _ 6 aW + 8 9(5 a: 7 // fe . a 2a. (a. 582. 593. 585 594.48 a*h + 6 a: ?/ 10 6. a 8 606. (1 + x a. j^f = 3. 2  100 aW + 100 aW. + ^) + (air%)8.a:) 6 (1 2 2 (2 + 3 x + 4 ) f (2 3 x + f.288 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 4. = 2 \*> + a: [ ^ = 4' = 581. 4 . + %) (a* + *) 5 .(1 . 9  4 fSb 607. 2 943 ++ ~bx.2 & 2 ) (4 a: ?/ 14 a: 1 2 2 ?y 4 a: 10 2 + x^f . 5 a*. 3 . 609.x + 2 )'2 601. Extract the square roots of the following expressions: 602.%) 4 (aa. a 612. xY.128 a*^ + 04 aty 10 3 5 zy . 4 (1a:) 3.o 2 [ ?/ > 3'  578. 64 a 12 603. 604. 6 + 1) . 599. 598. fMV  586 ' ^ (a + 6)T ' 587. : y* or 25. a:. [ y =10. + . 596. a: f ~+ x [ 10 ^i  1 V 6x + 4 + 610. .  128 a 10 6 30 3 a: + 2 ?/ ' 100 a 8 /. 2 2 a:' ) + x' )'2 .4 x*y* + 3 4 6 . jj+. {f_7l j? 2* + ''. 2 + f 9 6 + 25 c 2 10 ac  a6. 589. 592. x + z2) 8 . x [ ?/ 577. + jf:ji f590> (2 (3 (1 Perform the operations indicated 584. 2 611. (aiy. 3 (f. 4 a. 48 xf + a: 4  04 aty 6 a: // 16 2 605. .2 6a: + 30 &c a. + + 4 x) (l 2 ^) . (# 2) . f ^s_ 14 a 4/. (1 (1 (1 .
8*' + 24* = 32.871844. 2 + 21Ga. 9g. x2 + 9x _ 5x _ 22 66 ? * + 9 . *+* = 156. 633.\/4090. 628. /. 4 289 of : 4 4 a*b + a2 2 /. = 70.191209. 210. 651. Find the eighth root 617. 44352. 647t x 2 648 649. 7) 2.448 z + 1120 a: 4  1792 x* + 1792 2 . a 642. Find to three decimal places the square numbers : roots of the following 627. 622. 4370404. 632. 630. and the Earth's period equals 3G5J Solve the following equations : 640. (x 9 x 646. 10:r 4 + 9G* 3 + HI x s  108 afy 616. x 2 641. 624. 623.30. 650. 615. GGff. find Jupiter's period.2410. x 2 f x ~  16 = 0. 10 a 4 32 fe 2 + 81. According to Kepler's law. 035. V 635.12 a?y + y*. a 8 10 a* 8 aft 7 + ft 8 . 942841.*. 626. = 87. If the distances of Earth and Jupiter from the sun are at 1 days. 637. 49042009. = 0. x 2 . the cubes of the distances of the planets from the sun have the same ratio as the squares of their periods of revolution about the sun.2. 2 + 189 z = 900.150.15174441. 629. + 112 a 8 . 21. ft . 4J. + 2 21 x = 100. 644. 371240. 40.53 x ~ . 2. Find the square root of 619. = . 49. + 54 'x*y* . 32 631. 634.V250 . 0090. 614. 645. f 4 aft 8 + 4 ft . 625 : 621.49. 2 2) 2 +x = 14. 494210400001. 636. a 8 of:  8 tvb + 28 a 6 //2  50 a c ft 8 + 70 a 4 ft 4  50 a 8 ft 6 + 28 a 2ft 618. 643.REVIEW EXERCISE Find the fourth root 613. V950484 .1024 x + a: 256. : 5. 638. 620.8 aft 6 + 8 21G. 25023844. 639. + 24 a 2 4 . VOIOOD + V582T09. f (x + 5) 2 = (x + . 9a. 3a.
290 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA """ ar a x b ab .
= 0. ax 2 698. .a a )jr . 707. 2 702. 2 2 697. 693. 2(4 :r 7r\O /'r'S = a: 0. 2 (:r + :r)O 2 + :cf 1) = 42. .bx . 1 __ : )'*' _i. 695. 708.2V3:r 2 V5 a: f + fa + 1 = 0. 706. 699.ax . 694. 2 ft 2 2 fi 2 = 0. (x 2 +3a:) 2 2a. ex abc= fx 0. 696. a. 692.c = 0.2 a(l + & )z fa 2 (1 ax + to f ru: 2 . 2 ' 3 2 a:)  28 + 21 + 5 '^ = 0. 1 + V* 2bx + a 2 + 2 ax .REVIEW EXERCISE ~ 291 X+ x 1> a +c ~ a i~ i c ~ b  ~ " x 690. 7^^ ^3" ^^ ^T 704. 4 a: + 4 ^^ 6a:x2 8 701. + ~T~ * a + b x = rj* 2 4(5 4 x + + Ox + 4 691. 2 2 .
3or i 16 . If a pound of tea cost 30 J* more than a pound of coffee. 217 .292 709. 727. 721. a: 713. What number exceeds its reciprocal by {$. What two numbers are those whose sum is 47 and product A man bought a certain number of pounds of tea and 10 pounds more of coffee. ___ _ 2* 5 3*27 715. 717. if 1 more for 30/ would diminish 720. 12 4*+  8.l + 8 8 + ft)' (J)* (3)* + (a + 64 + i.44#2 + 121 = 0. . 16 x* . and working together they can build it in 18 days. 714 2 *2 ' + 25 4 16  25 a2 711. Find the altitude of an equilateral triangle whose side equals a. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA +36 = 0.40 a 2* 2 + 9 a 4 = 0. 729. 724. A equals CO feet. 725. Find the price of an apple. Find two numbers whose 719. 716. In how many days can A build the wall? 718. what is the price of the coffee per pound ? : Find the numerical value of 728. 723. How shares did he buy ? if 726. paying $ 12 for the tea and $9 for the coffee.25 might have bought five more for the same money. he many 312? he had waited a few days until each share had fallen $6. The difference of the cubes of two consecutive numbers is find them. 2n n 2 2 f2aar + a 5 = 0. in value. of a rectangle is 221 square feet and its perimeter Find the dimensions of the rectangle. sum is a and whose product equals J. Find four consecutive integers whose product is 7920. **13a: 2 710. 722. A man bought a certain number of shares in a company for $375. Find two consecutive numbers whose product equals 600. needs 15 days longer to build a wall than B. The area the price of 100 apples by $1.
34. 39.X . (^ (a* (a^ ary* + x^y f y*) * + * (x*  y*). 43. 48 ^i? x T ^ ^2? x sT~ x .2 d*m* + 4 d)(w* + 2 rfM + . 52. 36.1 + c.1 + x.REVIEW EXERCISE implify : 30. 40. +w 5 n* +w n 3 + n )(m* 3 n^). + a^ 1 + a 26" 2 )(l . + &2)( a 2_ 1 j2). +   c* + 2 + ^ + cbf 44.aft* 1 + a 2*. 1 6. + a*x* x*)(a* /^ (a* (rrr + c^ s M ' + x*). (x* (i* (a2 (a(1 1 4 d*). n. 1 + l)(>r 2  i + 1). 37.2)(x2 4. 31. 46.aM ?n^n^ f ft*c*)(a* + 6* + c*).2? 50. 33. (x* 2 a M+ f a8) (x*  2 aM" a). 38. 42.l). f + M 6* f 6) (a* U*") 4 a*6^ (<i* &*). 41. 293 (y* (a* + f y* + y*+l)(y*. . 35. (64 x~ + 27 y r (4 x~^ + 3 y"*).2 ). 32. .1 f c" ). (v/x).)(ai + &.1 f ^ 2). (4 a: 2  12 x* 28 x + 9 x*  42 x* + 49)*. (4 x~* + l 3 ar 2 + 2 2 ) a.
\/G86 v/lGv/128. + V22 + + 12 V2b8  760. ~ r* x . 768. 754. vff + V^~ 4^ 2^/2 776.1+J 756. 2^3(^2^21 + 4^3^:0. 4\/50 4 SVlOOO. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 755. 761. JU. 758._ 1 4j "r O/lf * ^ ^ II r* 4"*" 1 A "1 1. [1r^ T 1 i . 757.. 759. 2V2 2V3 .294 753.
7 + 3 V5 ( 7 7  3 V'5 ( 2 4 73V5 + 3V5 + V3 + V3 4  5 . 786.VlO. 787. Va 809. 3J . 16 + 2V55. 806. + 2V21. x 782.IIEVIEW EXERCISE y/a 295 f 780.12VIT. 13 799.2 V30. 789. 10 785. 790. a 9442V5. 7512V21. . y/a + Va Va x x + x 781. 103 788. . 793. c 792. 3812VIO. 14 791. . Find the square roots of the following binomial surds: 784. .2V3* ^ 807. 92VI5.4 V(j. 87 ac + 6t  12 ^ + 2 Vab Simplify 801. 794. 783. f x Va z Va f x + Va a.
836. \/2(r+ /3 a: 1) + v/2 x + a: 15 = 13. V2a: Va: + 3 + ar 2 Vx f 1 834. 2\/^"+~5 + 3Vor7 = V25 . (x a: 2 ) 4 . Va: . Va: + 28 f + V9 x . V3 f 1 V4a. = 1. + 103Var. /9ar a: = 17.Vc^lJ .4 = 0.  5 + V3 f 12 817. 814.296 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA . 830. 815. 831. 833. V14 a. 816. 818. 829. + Vx . 811.f 5 = V5x + 4.13 = 0. 3 x + 2 .79.V2 ar 10. + ViTli + V7 . VaT+lJ f ^l .1 V* + 60 = 2 Vx~K5 + V5.V? = 813.28 = 4 V2 ar 14.\/2y  810. x/aT+l . 9 7 3 + V3a:+ = 0.g. f 2 VaT+1 1 a: 832. Find the sum and difference of (ar + V2yx 2)* and 1. \/12 a. 820. 819. 812.
1000 6. . 853. . + . 64 a 866. 8 + 4 4 ar 2 2 a. . 64. 8 + a: 5 8 a.x*y + 3x f 2. y 4. 876. 846. 840. a.3 Va: 2 . 2 f" + a/ 15. a: 2 + 4\/3^~. 4 x* 847. f 12. V4 x 2 . 9. 839.10 = 118.3 x . f 841. a 8 873. 27 862.10 x f 1 = 10 x + L * 2 . . a. 8 8  13 a.28 a 4 xy 8 80. . 864. a* * 1 + a8 8 a. 40 x 2 7 f 49. 16 859. x 8 2 857.3 a:. 855.1)+ + Vo: 2 + 3 x f 5 = 7 . 845.ab9 ft*. 27 y 8. 5 a 4 7 a8 . 8^27^. x* 8 ^ 8 2 a#* a. 875. 4 a: 2 842. + 216 rt aty a 10 . 852.12. 861. 2 x 3.KEVIEW EXERCISE 838. a 872. a l0m . 851.  3x a. 4 x 8 858. 868. a*" & 6n .a.3 . a 8 869. 870. 8 . f b**. a. +3 4 +  4. 19 x 14. x 11 a^ J 13 854. 8 8 848. a 18 4. 8 860. 2 f 2 18a: f + 16. 6 2 f 3 6 s. x 4 + f 2 a. x 6 x4 f + + a: x f 1. a 8 850. 871. 865. 8a: 2 4 f 8 a: + 2 19a. 856.1. 6. a. 863. + 512 y8 874. 5 x* f 297 9) 11 x . 4 a. 8 a. 729 867. 4o. 8 2a. a: : Resolve into prime factors 843. 844. z*y 8 l64a. a: . 8 4a: 8 a. a. + 1. 275 8 l. 2 a: 64 y*. a: 849.7x + 3 = 3ar(a.12\/(ar44)(5z~ = 36. a.
f a: a: 4 ?y = 481. 883. a:y .15. x 882. 2 f ary = 8 + 3. y = 28. xy + y = 32.5 xy + 4 f = 13. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Show Show 3 ? that 99 + 1 is divisible by 100. ar(ar + y ) 2 2 2 2 xy . 2 + y 2 . 878. a. 900. y*+ xy . For what value m is 2 #3 mx* by x  880. = ? + p"iaL+L=13. 895. z 2 898. 899. 8 8 + y y 9 9 a: = = 37 a: 152. a: a. 5x 3 exactly divisible 879. 894. . 2 .18. a: 884. 2 + 3 y 2 = 43.sy = 198. 2 + ary = 8 y + 6. . M1 891 1 . .1 = 2 a#. a: 888. xy 2 a: a: ?/ a. . y(a:2 + y 2 ) = 25 x. 4 2 2 + afy 2 + f ary + y = 37.xy + y 2 = 19. x 8 3 = 13:3. 2 + xy = 28. a: + y 2 = 34. that 1001 79 of 1 is divisible by 1000.y 2 + V(j. : x 3? Solve the following systems 881. . 2 = 2 + 5. 2 + 2 f = 17. 2 3 2 z3 xy + y = 7. What must be the value of m and n to make 8 + mx 2 + nx f 42 exactly divisible by 2 2 and by a. + ary + 2 = 37. a. 890. 901. 887. y y 2 y 2 1121. 885. f ?/ a: a: . y 2 4.Vi' + 1 1_3. y 2 2 8f. 2 . x a: lI = xz . +y f y = 7. xy(a:y + 1) = 6. + 2y=\2. x*xy. a: 2 897. 886.y = 2 ay + a a# = 2 aa: + 6 a.298 877. 2 2 = 16 y.y 2) = 20. 1 x 893.y 2 = 2 y + 2. 3 x 2 . . a. a# f + xy = 126. a: 1 1 _ 5 892. 2 + xy = 10.35. 5. 896. 889.
2 915.6. L/ay = a: + 5? + g = ^ + g. 2 y 2 f ay/ = 16.x) = 21. + ary = a*. 23 x 2 . 7 + 4 y f 6 ary = 0. 3 :r(3 . 917.y).3)2 = 34.y) (3 y . y 2 + 3 ary = 2. 923. a: a. . (o. (a.y)^ 03 926 12 +y +y 927.y2 = 22.y) = 33. (!) * . xa 903. ^ 2 + 2 a:y = a a 2 3 a: a: a. y 49(x 2 2 = 6 2 (x 2 + y 2). + ?/) . ny ft ma: = * a 2 m*. x + y 2 = aar. 2 + y = 2 a 4. 3 y 8 ) =1216. a: y zx 12. *y . 2 2 2 916. (3 x . 905. y + a:y = 180. 914. 2 2 f 4 a: ar// or f a. 2 913. . 911. 3 y 2 + xy = 1. 921. ?/ ^: ^f!i^2. + y 8 = 189. 906.2 y) = 49 2 919. 7 y . + 2 ary = 39.REVIEW EXERCISE 902. y 2 + xy = b 2 925. = 8. ary y = 8. y # 2 2 f f y = 84. 2 5 xy = 11.3(* + y) = 6. ^ 2 . + 2 a:y + = 243. xy + x= 15. 4 (a. + y)(a. x f 2 a:y = 32. a o o 2 j + a:y = 2. # + xy + y = 7. 2 * 2 ~ g.#y + 2 = 27. x + y}(x + y) = 273.y) (a? . f y 2 x 2 y = 1. Vary + y = 6.y = a(ar + y). 910.3) 2 f (y . yz = 24. xy 2 2 x 2y 2 = 0. x 4 299 xy z 904. + 2 y) (2 + ?/) = 20. a:y xy 929. 920.23 = 200. x 2 ry + y = 3. + a. 907. y .16 y 3 8 = . + y = 9. 2 924. (0 Vx f 10 f v^+T4 = 12.r a. 912. or or a? a: a: . y x 2 = by. 9 f 8 y f 7 ay/ = 0. 909. . * + y = 444. y 3 2 2 922. 908. a. xy + 2 y 2 = 65.V + y 2 = + xy + y a = (a? . x* + ary f y 2 = 9. (* 918. a: * a: a: ar 928.
A and B run a race round a twomile course. In the first heat B reaches the winning post 2 minutes before A. two squares equals 140 feet. + z)=18. and also contains 300 square feet. Find the numbers. The perimeter of a rectangle is 92 Find the area of the rectangle. 931. a second rec8 feet shorter. feet.000 trees. diagonal 940. A plantation in rows consists of 10. is 3 . there would have been 25 more trees in a row. is 20. and the difference of 936. . A is 938.102. Assuming = y. the difference of their The is difference of their cubes 270. 942. If each side was increased by 2 feet. and the sum of their areas 78$. two numbers Find the numbers. The sum of the circumferences of 44 inches. 944. feet. The diagonal of a rectangle equals 17 feet. How many rows are there? 941. + z) =108. Tf there had been 20 less rows. much and A then Find at what increases his speed 2 miles per hour. and B diminishes his as arrives at the winning post 2 minutes before B. 937.300 930. find the radii of the two circles. In the second heat A . the The sum of the perimeters of sum of their areas equals 617 square feet. y(x + y + 2) = 133. two squares is 23 feet. s(y 932. (3 + *)(ar + y + z) = 96. and 10 feet broader. Find the side of each two circles is IT square. rate each man ran in the first heat.square inches. 935. Find the sides of the rectangle. *(* + #) =24. The sum of the perimeters of sum of the areas of the squares is 16^f feet. = ar(a? f y + 2) + a)(* + y 933. The sum of two numbers Find the numbers. and the sum of their cubes is tangle certain rectangle contains 300 square feet. (y + *) = . y( 934. 2240. 34 939. 943. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA (*+s)(* + y)=10. (y (* + y)(y +*)= 50. Find the length and breadth of the first rectangle. and the Find the sides of the and its is squares. 152. The difference of two numbers cubes is 513. the area of the new rectangle would equal 170 square feet. is 3. z(* + y + 2) = 76.
Find the eter 947. . . The square described on the hypotenuse of a right triangle is 180 square inches. that B A 955. each block. set out from two places. the square of the middle digit is equal to the product of the extreme digits. A and B. overtook miles. The diagonal of a rectangular is 476 yards. the digits are reversed. and the other 9 days longer to perform the work than if both worked together. When from P A was found that they had together traveled 80 had passed through Q 4 hours before. 953. triangle is 6. and if 594 be added to the number. A certain number exceeds the product of its two digits by 52 and exceeds twice the sum of its digits by 53. whose 946. Find two numbers each of which is the square of the other. The area of a certain rectangle is 2400 square feet. A rectangular lawn whose length is 30 yards and breadth 20 yards is surrounded by a path of uniform width.REVIEW EXERCISE 301 945. Find in what time both will do it. Find the number. Find its length and breadth. 951. 949. The sum of the contents of two cubic blocks the of the heights of the blocks is 11 feet. What is its area? field is 182 yards. If the breadth of the rectangle be decreased by 1 inch and its is length increased by 2 inches. 952. Find the number. Find the width of the path if its area is 216 square yards. P and Q. and that B. was 9 hours' journey distant from P. the area lengths of the sides of the rectangle. the difference in the lengths of the legs of the Find the legs of the triangle. its area will be increased 100 square feet. The area of a certain rectangle is equal to the area of a square side is 3 inches longer than one of the sides of the rectangle. A number consists of three digits whose sum is 14. unaltered. Two men can perform a piece of work in a certain time one takes 4 days longer. and travels in the same direction as A. sum Find an edge of 954. at Find the his rate of traveling. at the same time A it starts and B from Q with the design to pass through Q. . if its length is decreased 10 feet and its breadth increased 10 feet. is 407 cubic feet. 950. distance between P and Q. and its perim 948. Two starts travelers.
3 + 5 7 + .x*(x 3 f 8) + y) + (2x + f) + (3 x + y 8 ) 4. Sum Sum Sum to 10 terms.. first ? n+l(n + l) The 10th and The term and the T + ( + +!) V (to J' infinity). P.. 1 to n terms. are 1 and sum of 20 terms. How many Sum Sum terms of the series 1 + 3 + 5 + amount to 123. .3151515. 1G series ... Find n f (ft) .. .302 956.>/) to infinity.4142 .. . f + 1 . 966. ^ 1 . 5... 3 . \ ..1 4 f j$V .141414.. fourth of the unity. Find the difference between the sums of the series 5 n + !Lni n " 4 4. n to n terms. J. 957. x(x to 8 terms. the first term being Find the sums of the 960. s  88.v 973...V2 .. 969. 961. (x + O 2 4 y 2 ) + O 8 + y*) + y) + x(x 2 4 y 2} 4. 970. *" 968.. 964. . + (iiven a +  4 d . the terms being in A. Sum Sum to infinity. !Ll^ + n . 4 4 to 7 terms . 958...454. to infinity. Sum to 20 terms. Find an A. Find n. Evaluate (a) . Find the sum of 4. to 7 terms. 971. ^ Vfirst five 959. 12434+ j I 967. '. P. such that the sum of the 1 terms is one sum of the following five terms. to n terms.. ^1 + Vj 1 2  . 972. are 29 and 53. 16 962. = 4. 36 963. 5. 9th and llth terms of an A. 974. difference. 18th terms of an A. 975. (x 4 to n terms. : + f 24 21 24 4f 32 36 1G 10. P. P.to infinity. (to 2 n terms). and 976.321? 965. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Sum to 32 terras. 4.. Find the Find the common 977.  2. Sura to 24 terms.
5 11. then this sum multiplied by (Euclid. Find the value of the infinite product 4 v'i v7! v^5 . to 105? 981.+ lY L V. Insert 8 arithmetic means between 1 and . The sum 982. v/2 1 + + + 1 4 + + 3>/2 to oo + + . 0. . 987. How many sum terms of 18 + 17 + 10 + amount . and the sum of the first nine terms is equal to the square of the sum of the first two.) the last term the series a perfect number. all A perfect number is a number which equals the sum divisible.. who rewarded the inventor by promising to place 1 grain of wheat on Sessa for the the 1st square of a chessboard. P. Find four perfect numbers.04 + . If of 2 of integers + 2 1 + 2'2 by which is it is the sum of the series 2 n is prime. P.2 . and the common difference. of n terms of an A. is 225. The 21st term of an A. such that the product of the and fourth may be 55. to n terms. 1.001 4.. named Sheran. The Arabian Araphad reports that chess was invented by amusement of an Indian rajah. Find n. Find four numbers in A.. Find the number of grains which Sessa should have received. 986. to oo. 303 979. 989. of n terms of 7 + 9 + 11+ is is 40. 990.REVIEW EXERCISE 978.01 3.. P. 992. "(. first 984.. and of the second and third 03. and so on. 980.1 + 2.. 2 grains on the 2d.001 + .3 ' Find the 8th 983. Find the sum of the series 988. What 2 a value must a have so that the sum of + av/2 + a + V2 + . doubling the number for each successive square on the board. Insert 22 arithmetic means between 8 and 54. 985. 4 grains on the 3d... The term. Find the first term. to infinity may be 8? . : + 9   V2 + .
and so forth to infinity. AB = 1004. third circle touches the second circle and the to infinity. 997. c. find the series. and the fifth term is 8 times the second . The side of an equilateral triangle equals 2. Two travelers start on the same road. is 4. at the same time. the sides of a third triangle equal the altitudes of the second. are unequal. 1001. P. in this square a circle. P. In an equilateral triangle second circle touches the first circle and the sides AB and AC. Find (a) the sum of all circumferences. pump removes J of the of air is fractions of the original amount contained in the receiver. 1003. 998. (I) the sum of the perimeters of all squares.304 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 993. The sides of a second equilateral triangle equal the altitudes of the first. Under the conditions of the preceding example. 1000. 995. (6) after n What strokes? many 1002. prove that they cannot be in A. P. and G. P. areas of all triangles. after how strokes would the density of the air be xJn ^ ^ ne original density ? a circle is inscribed. Insert 4 geometric means between 243 and 32. The sum and product of three numbers in G. The sum and sum . 999. . 512 996. are 28 and find the numbers. Insert 3 geometric means between 2 and 162. ft. (6) the sum of the infinity. inches. Each stroke of the piston of an air air contained in the receiver. are 45 and 765 find the numbers. If a. ABC A A n same sides. in this circle a square. One of them travels uniformly 10 miles a day. many days will the latter overtake the former? . P. of squares of four numbers in G. In a circle whose radius is 1 a square is inscribed. and if so forth What is the sum of the areas of all circles. The other travels 8 miles the first day and After how increases this pace by \ mile a day each succeeding day. (a) after 5 strokes. and so forth to Find (a) the sum of all perimeters. 994. The fifth term of a G.
ft) 19 . (12 #) 7 . 1008. Write down the expansion of (3 1007. Write down (x the first four terms in the expansion of + 2 #). 1006. Find the 9th term of (2 al 1010. Find the middle term of (a$ bfy. + lQ .o/) 14 . Find the middle term of (a + b) 1016. Find the middle term of 1020. 2 ) 5. Expand  2 a.REVIEW EXEHCISE 1005. 1011. Find the middle term of ( . Find the fifth term of (1  a:) 1015. Find the two middle terms of ( ( 9 . coefficient of x 9 in (5 a 8 7 . 1009. ) 1021. Find the two middle terms of 1013. Write down the (a first 305 three and the last three terms of  *)". .l) w f . Find the coefficient a: X  \88 1 in 1019. Find the eleventh term of /4 x >> . .iV 2i/ 5 . 1012. 1014. a: 8 7. x) 18 . Find the two middle terms of (a *2 x) 9 . (1 1018. Write down the 1 5a  6 V .
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... .... 232 mean progression . . . .] Abscissa Absolute term . 160 in quadratic form 191 .. ..178 Completing the square . 129 54... .INDEX [NUMBERS REFER TO PAGES. . t 53 120 . . 123 . linear literal Common ** * difference . 54.. .210 130 " Addition value 4 15. lowest ratio " '* . Checks Coefficient 20. Discriminant Discussion of problems Arrangement of expressions Average . simple simultaneous .181 105 " Complex fraction " Evolution Composition . .. 129... . 158..193 11 .Base of a power Binomial " theorem 54 8 45 130 10 255 9 Elimination Equations ' 63 consistent fractional . . 148 178 Conditional equations Conjugate surds .. quadratic . Constant Coordinates Cross product 155 148 41 " Alternation 123 Antecedent Arithmetic *' 120 Degree of an equation Difference . .. . .. .... 19. 246 91 " multiple..130 . numerical .. . . 97. signs of Algebraic expression . Brace Bracket Character of roots ... 49 Clearing equations of fractions 108 8 ' graphic solution... .. 249 246 20 10 23 193 . . graphic tion of representa . .108 160 " .. .. .. 9..... . .. 112 54 54 251 . . . 9 ** . Aggregation. sum Consequent Consistent equations 210 27 10 18 . 232 169 807 .241 45 45 Dividend Division Divisor Axiom . . 8 ... 37. ..
C Factoring 222 Literal equations . . 63. Product '* 76 Infinite. 189.108 Minuend . 120 Member.. . Fourth proportional Fractional equations u Fractions. . 253 28 70 1.31. 180. 112 . 178 45 221 205 Law of exponents . Negative exponents 11 . . P . 42 7 Independent equations Index . addition of " square of . law of Extraneous roots . arithmetic 346 120 338 341 53 70. 205 148 148 27 86 Ordinate Origin . .. . 45. 195 Extreme Factor " theorem " II. .. .. common factor Homogeneous equations Identities . Inconsistent equations . . 195 33. L. Known numbers . 83 10 19 Polynomial Polynomials. . . Integral expression Interpretation of solutions Progressions. 23 10 91 102. 45 Laws of signs . . .. Imaginary numbers . 143. 227 geometric . 205 . 1 Quadratic equations Quotient Radical equations Radicals . first and second . . inversely 122 numbers . 17 65. . . . 84. 246 251 121 Inversion Involution Irrational Proportion 105 Proportional. .. Like terms Linear equation . 9. Graphic solution of simple equations Graph of a function Grouping terms Highest . Mathematical induction .. 243 7 . 195 4 13 ous equations 100 158 . 91 .. . . . .808 Exponent Exponents. . 184 54. G. . 241 123 geometric .105 Monomials 03 Multiple.154 Order of operations " of surds . exponent . Mean " 81) proportional Mean... INDEX 8 . 212 . . Geometric progression . 45. .251 Graphic solution of simultane. 109 102 . 34. .. arithmetic . directly. 89 235 Parenthesis Perfect square 53 . 227 . 114.. 130 9 Power Prime factors Problem.... 120 Lowest common multiple 70 . . Insertion of parentheses .. . numbers .C Multiplication .
.. 9.... 27 17 Unknown numbers . . 232 Vinculum Zero exponent 40 42 197 Printed in the United States of America. 1 Simple equations Simultaneous equations Square of binomial 205 Value. binomial Third proportional Transposition . 309 171 133 120 Square root Substitution 205 Real numbers Reciprocal 215 Subtraction 169 Subtrahend 104 22 Remainder theorem Removal of parenthesis Root Roots of an equation " character of " . 193 Rule of signs Series Signs of aggregation Similar and dissimilar terms Similar surds 33... 129. . 23 18 228 27 9 205 10 Term " absolute 54 193 178 Theorem. .. ...... ..INDEX Ratio national Rationalizing denominators 76. 45 Trinomial 240 .. .. absolute 54 Variable ... polynomial .. 4 155 9 " of ... algebraic Surds . 255 120 54 10 sum and product of . .... Sum. .
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ANSWERS TO SCHULTZE'S ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA COMPILED BY THE AUTHOR WITH THE ASSISTANCK OP WILLIAM P. MANGUSE STrtn gork THE MACMILLAN COMPANY 1918 All rights reserved .
1910. Published September. Reprinted April.. 1917. NorfoooS J. Gushing Co. 1916. U. August. 1910. December. Norwood. Berwick <fe Smith Co. BY THE MACMILLAN COMPANY. Mass. Set up and electrotypcd. . 1913. 8.S.A.COPYRIGHT.
9 14. . 6. A Bl 7. 10. 17. 3. 14. (a) (/>) 1. . 16 in. 4. 8. 2. 14 11. 29. in. 2.000. 3. 0. 5. 22. 8 13. 6.. 12. 210. 1. per sec. 14. 24. 5. 5. 16 in. 32. 13. 106. 256.  13. 1 16. A $90. 15. 7. 5. 1. 3. 9. 1. 512.00000001. .. 15. 10. 13 d.1. 11. Australia ft. 25. x. 12. 2. 1. 20. 2 5. 27. 8. 5. 5. $ 1 50 10. 16. 9. 1. 13. 16. 16f 2. 15. C $60. 14. 48 ft.000. 12. 9 = 4. 18. T . B 10 mi. 12. 24. $100. 24. 13 S. . 2. 30?. 15. Page Page Ilis expenditures. B $ 128. c.000. 9 m. 6. B $80.. 27. 9. 14. 3. 5. 2. 20 \. B $20. 28. 9. 6* 16. 26z. 49.  1. Not 5.C. arithmetic. 1. 25. + 1. 19. 14. 19. i . 25. sign. 3. _ 32. 18. 10. 4. is $10. 17. 12. 3.000. ^. 2. 150. 4. 5000. 17. 26. 3..ANSWERS Page phia 8 in. 2. 16. A 38 mi. 12. 2. Page 1. 13. 13.000. 8. 9 16  larger than 7. 6. 21. 1. 8. 6. 7. 9. 59. 3* 7. Page 8. 2  Page 8. sign. 7. x. 22. 3. 1. 192. C $1(50. 23. 3. 9. 9. 21. 16. 36. . 9. Ot 15. 20. 2. 32.2. 3 below 0. 19. 3 m.12. 2. Page 4. in. 3. 3. 25. 18. 7. 4. 6.000.21 24. 2. 6 yd.3.  22 20. C $ 16. 4. Yes. 20 jo. 30. 16. 3. 2. 2. 10g. Multiplication. 3. 6. 128. 1. 11.000 Indians. = 5 81. 16. 18. 17. 576. 73. 28. 12. 85. b. 6. 89. 29. 12. 0. 18. 13. 7. $160. Page 13. $40. 17. 20... 7.  1. 21. 11. 6. 1. 5. 12. 8. B $4700. 7. South America 46. loss. V 23.. 14.$9400. 13 V.000. 20 B.000. 11. 19 4. 16. 9. 1. Page?. 10.8. 4. 2 ~ 15. 7m.. 126. 8 ft. ft. 11. 1. 2. 115.150. 6. 1. 6. 32. 37. 64. 20. 12. in 12. 4. 10. 6. 14. A 15. 8. 18. 10. 8. 49.. 10. 37 S. }. 3. 27. 10. 1. 14. 144.000 negroes. 1. 7. westerly motion. 32. Seattle 12 Philadel 9. 16. 16. A . 15. 7. 3. 3. 72 = = 216.  2 p. 3.
Polynomial. (a) 200. (ft) mi. 2V^4^/ 8 x* 6. . 2. 23. Page 7. arty 1 20. 9. 25. 9. + 5. _ 4 . \'\ 4. 27. ft. (59. m + 3(a. 16. 35. 17. 28. 00 24 04 ft. 8. 26. 16. 6. (r) 2G7. c. vi 14. 21. 18.900. 27.32 c2 > ft 3 . i:5. 11. a3 a2 4 a 4 1. 173. = 81.a . 13. ft n. 18. jrif 4 9. 17. 1. 04. a ft c. t. 1. 8.94(>. (ft) Page 2... mi. 12.. Page 31.q 4. 29. f  5e 35. I.rty8.. 58. +/2(/. 27. 4. (r) 2.4 ft.5f> sq. 4 y/ .. 15.  1.'J. 4. 38 ab. 19. 14. 14. m 24. 1. 0. 8. 7 7. (r) 2000 m. 11. 7.r f 15. 15. . x^ 20. 5. 31. 42. 16. 1. . 21^. 5. 7.14 sq. 13. ft. 25. = ()501.  11. 35. $80.6) 38. 15. ??i??. 38. 28. 2. Monomial. 5. 1.ii ANSWERS Page 11. 3a. 5. 3. WIN + wiw. Page 21. ^. 19. 314 sq. 14. 2x' 2 5 . 0. 15. 6. 5x+3. 14. ft)  3 /A  8x :i (/* 4 ft)(X 36 2 "'* ~ 5V (a ft). 36. 4. in..  xV 3 y. (a) 50. 3. in. (c) S(i. 24. 10. 17. 2. 11. 0* Page 3 w" 0. yyz+xyz*. ]*. 31... $r*y 4 3x?/ 4 m* run  . ^). 19. (ft) $40.. 3. y. 17. (ft) 12. ft. ft f 19. 20(. rt. in. 12yd. 12.  2 4 13 ft 2 . 0. 24. 0. 41. 10. 36. 17. 0. 25. :J!>r'. 18. 27. 14. 18. 7.r~ f 34.  40. 237. 31. 12. a 32. 34. (a 4 4. Trino inial. 6<t. 12.ab. 4 9/^/rl 2. 20. 20. 22( 19. ft. 6. 21. 51 f. 28. 2oVmf?i. :. 16. 32. 4. 0.000 . . 104.1. <i~ 26. (ft) 7.r 2 .000 sq. 3. 8. 21 a 3 4 10. 92. 14:). 9. w. (c) 8.x. 2. sq. + ft). 13. Binomial. 16. ft' 3 . 3. 18. 22. 35.  12. r+l. a2 4 15^44.3 * 10 r5 <3 . 50. 23. 3. 5. 22..  3. 21. 2. (V) (rf) (ft) 50. 3 y v> <Mft 3* 2. Pagel4r. in.GOG. 3(c4a). 2ftx. (a) <> sq. 12 a.ft) 4. 8. 13 cu. 8. 14. o^ft. 5. 39. 3. Page 18. 37. 10..4  2ft 2 33. 3 .~4. 27. II. 3. . 13. 8. 32 2 ftc. Page 23. 32. Va'+Y2 8^2 . 12. 43w//2 17. 11. 26. 13. + v> 2 .'JO ft. 3 a* + 2 at*. 57. 27. 4. 33. 4. 9.. . . (a) r>23ifcu. 5. 1. 49. 7. 14. (r) 78. 15. . 7. (<7) (a) 314 sq. 1. 15. 5. (a} 100 1(5 cm. 34. . v'ft a4 4 a a 41. 1. #1111. 22. 12. Polynomial. It. 3. 33. 20. 30.. //'. 240. 30. 0.9?/2 8.<>Gq. 0. 30. $3000 Page 6. 13.ft. ft. 1.5 (ft) sq. 9. 22.  0. (b) 135 mi. 29. 0. 15a. 4<> 2 ?t Vc. 8. r:A 29. r/ \(\xyz. 3rf 27. 2.
 4 b 17 y*. 32 w 2 w. a 3a 4 2 &. a. . . 2. 30. 15. a  ISjfat. 2 + a4l). w* ( . 1. 31. 3 m. 10. 18. 14.  1. 51. a2 4 2 ft 4 Ve. . G a bd. 3 Ji 8 . 34 39.r 2 + 4?/ 4l). 2 4 5 2 a3 1.  23. 58.3x 2 2 tf. 2.4c 3 8 8 J. 2 6. a + a. 15. 25. Page 28. 26. ' 12 m?/'2 27. 7  # + 12.  12. 8. 11. 2.abc. + 6. 10. 7 a5 1 . x3 . 2// 16.4. 21. ri\ 18. n*. . 1. + 4 m4 4 8 7?i 8  G m. 4 21. 26. 6.4x.5.2 57.3 6.(7x2 Ox2). x  + 3z. 2 . 9. 16.a~. 11. .aft. (yz~d}. 26. . 18. 7. _2?> 2 + 3 x 9.1 . 22. . 0. 6. 14.r' 2 z2 2 4 a 1. ti. M + 10. 36. ab a. 12.l. 2a: 2 4x. 2 2 2 6.c. + c 4 d x + 6 e. 4. lOrt 15w4. 25. w 17. c. a 52. 13. m*  n*. 17. j)(g1. Page 44. 16. .x f 1 2 . ar. ?/. 4.ws 2 ft) . Exercise 16. 31. (w4w)(ww). 2 4. 3.11. :5 41. + 2y. 12. 6. a a. c2 . 35. 2.a*. 2 y' 4 .. f ft 9. G. 2 3. ?/i 13. (5x47 3. 5 2 Page 29. 8 + 2 a . 7. 8a*b8<tb'\ a + /> fc + 4 r. !  </ . 8 b. 7  a + 2 + c. 32. 4r 2 . 2x 4 a 13. 0. '  . Page 7. a  49.  b* 4 r 1 . r. 4ft ~. 28. s_r>a5. 2.r 2. 3. 40. 5. 1. mn. 0.5 4 2 3 ?/ . . 21. f 2 ?/  2. 2m(4? 2 4ir#(2. 36. (mn} 11. 2 2. + a 2 f 2 a 4.Oa: + 10. 364c. 8 8 . 21. 3 a3 & 41. . 14. 38. 25 47. 10 x. 2 a f 6 414. 2m + 2w. 5. 12. 18.2 a.  14 afy . 4. 2. 19.'U4j>. 19. . 2m. 42. 43.4 d. a f 2 f 2 9. 2. 1 4. 20. _ Page 30. &. 34. + 8. . 20. 2 3x f z. 55. _5a<>&43c.a f 54. 2a. 15.. Page 8. 10 m. 2 17. 2 a 37. a 6 2 . 3m2 n 9 (a + $) 2 .7. 8.r. 5x 2 rt ft. a + (ftc4df). t). a2 24. ?> 22. 3 nv> w 3 a 24 npy . 2. . 3. 24.  G J8 r  4 a <?. ?>4tl 53.(a f 6) + 4(1 + c) . 25. 5. a). 1 + 45. 17. a 3 .a .  a: 2. 3 a . 8. 59.2 a2 2m 2 4.1. (2n' 43p 47 ). + 4 c. /> Zmn + qt G/ 4 . ft Exercise 17. a 3& .AXSH'EJtS Page 23. x a8 1. 10. a 10w. 56. 29. 1. 814.2 ft 2 r2 10. 13. 22. 12. 8 .(2 x2 . 7. 19.2 .h. 14. 20.5 z?/ + 3 y . \ :{ 2 a 48. 2 . a4 4 4. ^ <. . 4. 11. 37. 4wipg>' 27.  b.  17. 24 b 46. ( 7. 24.2. c. 1. 2.6 x + 0) 16. 2. 5. ii\ 22. a2 9. 4. a 4 + ft. a' 4ab + ?/. 1.8(c + a). . 6. 24. . 33. 7. 4. 50.a'2 .
27. 120. 1.1.44 aWc 16 abxy. 4 fc. 16 lb. 4.19p" + 19^ 10 . f 26.. 9.6 2 . 770. 26. 18> ^* = a . fa 2. + 58 . 12 ^. 30 n?b*c*. 7G . 60. 3 a 3 . 10.(3x2_4^+7). 18a% y. 108.69 rt + 21 132 + r . 7. n (a6) 125. 13. 10. 16. 17. 12. 6". 29. 4 jcy*z*>. 2. 15. 26. 24. 24. . 24. a + ft. 16 51. 108.. 2''. 25 4 4. Page 36. 161b. 22. 9. 16. 21. Page 7. a. 13.22 ac + 30 c2 + 43 2 2 8. ^^ = 20. 14 m 2 . .12. 1. + 7.25 + 14. 3(*+0 + 2). 3300. 14f 5. 21. .3 a 2 6 + 3 aft 2 . 28. 27. 6. 20. 12. 2 wiw 8 + 2 wiwp 2 2 x*y* 15. 31. 13. 8. 2 7t A. 2*8f x2 6x4. 18. 18. 31. 20. 20. 90. . 25. 2 a*62 c2 + 11 a&c . 76 8 a' 1 .14 .57 p6 3 2 4 25. 210.r + 7 1S + 2 mp. 16. 04. 11. 11. 13. 1400. 2 * 80 . iSx8 .7(50.8 12. 12 x2 2 . 16. 13. 34. a: 3a: 2 (2a:f iHa. 19. 25.12.. 216. . 15. 20 aW. x2 xy42^. . 3. 1. //. 4 a8 . 25. 2 ).20 xyz .000. 17. 2. 8. 0.18 w w + 10 WI M . (x f ?/)  a 12 10. ISartyW e*f*tj. ?> 4 . 30. 23. 30.14 xyz + 14 a:y0. ! 2. 102.8 4a12 a2 ftf 5aft2 f 6 6. 216. 4200.14 a 2 _6g8 + 9 2_i2g + 8. 20. 9. 2. 3 a 2 46. 29.11 xyz .10 3 30 a a 4 c f 15 aWc . 11. 16.14 w 2 2 . 2 . 8.2. 34. + O4 66 . 6. 19. 8. 6. 33. . m. etc. 30 ? 49 p*qh*t. 35. 38wiw. 0. 22. 21. 23. a. 11. 42. 8 . 40 r 2 . 9 w 2 + 13 n . 64. a: . 3. 7.36 35. 18. 60.6) =a2 31. 9z 8 16z2 9z + 10. ?/ . 360. 25.iv ANSWERS + &)(. (+3)x6=+16.. 19. . 24. 4. 1. 7 + r/m 4^4^414.:>/ . 30.26. 10c 2 19rd+0c? a I' . 4. ft 17. 2 2 2 . 21 a'&c.32 y s s G . 24. . 10. 19. 17. 2 + aft 4 ft 2. 5. 30. +15. . . 28. a. 83 In + 1 n*. 38 a*b 6 : 24. 4. 84. 3 ?i w 1(5 pag'V 2 W 2 . a 8 . 15. 28. 5aft(a 126 2). 14. . 18. . a*b*c. Page 5. 2 n8 29 a + 30. 29. 18. 15 q\ 6. 1. Page 38. ci 5 . 22. 23.28 p'^/.21. 5. 6 . 2 ). 2 ll9HH 2) + . 34. 1. 4 7> 4 :j !} . 22. r' 2 a: j/ (? ft . 7. 14. 3. 4. 30.21 a 3 c2 21. 2z 8 s 2 3zl. 2 a2 (y 2 . 2 8 xy f 4 a.25 x* + 25 x + 20 . 6.16 a 2 + 32 a . 66 8W 34. 9 13. 17. 1. 33. 2 w +2 2 . 30. 161b. 3. ll 2 i. 36. 15. 4aWy. 23. 27.32. 27. 4 m3 + 9m2 + m. .6 wiw 24 n 2 36 + 65 ww . 37. +. 29. 32.>(/ r . 8. 20. 28. 66 39 k* . 32. 127"'. Page 35. 15.64 190 p6. 18. 30 j9 jt?g j . 27.r% 2 2 ry. 10.15. 42. Page 3.14 ?/i r?/6j/ 5. 20. 14. 33. 343. 52 + 6s 12.19 + 2. 2 2 +2621ft 2 .35 a*b*c8 f 14 a?/e . 2. s 9 ww. 15 lb. Ox a 5 . 12. 1904. 14. 7. 4 a2 . 4.16 x2/ 5 4.
x2 GiC+5. + 12. 7 . 2 62 V2 132. 998.994. 4 . 2 4 a + 4. 1. 33.4 n. (r ?/) (x 6 (b + 5 ?i)(& 50. 42. 27.5 ~ 81. 4 2 //./ .8.. + 4 t*. Om2 4 6m 6. x 48. 4.ri 17. 1. 40. 2 m3 + 4m2 . 2. 12 x2 . 29.+ l5J x// + 9 2 2 4 ^ 4 ()Or 2 20. 23. 4x21. 25 a 2 6 2 . 2 12. a + 56. 9. 10. 2 6' .004. + <z 22 2 4 20 rt2 32. 41.ANSWERS 28. 990. 1. 27.r .^V"' . 39. 37. 2 +10s281. 33.<* &2 + 106 + tt + . (w4)(w + l). Page 39. 18. .x2y22. a' .996. Page 12. 34.r .020. ( 5) O5)(w + 3). 9. lflrt 2 8 + l.500. . G a6 2. 21 2 .16 a3 f 50.606. n + 2. ~ 6 20 .6 xy .5 ?i m #2 4 ?7i%'2 4 . 10 a 4 ?.4 12.098. 56. 2 . 2 a 2 + a . 40. 8 a W . 1. 2 4 2 2 64 . a3 0. ^' J  7 f 12. ?/H)0. 4. 16. 10. 24 ab + 9 & 2 . 14. 29. 1. 25 25. 14. 4. ft' 11. 10 a' 2 . 2 j3 Z . 11. 22 x 2 ?/ 2 y + 121 x4 29. ' 46. 10. 8 38. 2 (5 a 3). 8. x 4 ?/4 + ab . 10. 38. 8)(?i (x2)(x3).4 a&+ 4 &*. 35. 14. 6 2 + 6lf>0.008. 25. (a (3 54. . 2 a4 6 4 +8 a2 6 2 2x4 +7x 2 6 2 15 6 4 36. 441. 1). (m + 6)(m3). 24. 10. 10 p 2 g ?> 2 ?/ + 49 & 4 2 16. 26.35 ab 9. a + 25.404. 51.54 p 2 + 81. . 36. 5.3. 5.2 6 + 13. 45. 3. + 3)(3). 26. 55. 30 x + 19 x3 . 4 . 9 4 /> . 8. 10. + 2 fz& + 2 i> + p + 9. 9990. 1.000.p132.. 2 fr . (w+4)(m4).r* 2 30. . 10. 15. 2 . 20a 2 21a + 4.1. 53. +4 34. (p 2.25.201. 166. w'n 2 //^ + 25. 484. (n 2 5. 25 r 4 ?/i 30. 17. 36. 37.49. 36. 2 (6 a + 3) (3a66)(3a6&). m 3 j) 3 . .6 x2 13. ^/> 8 4 . 2 1: 21. .009. a + 25. r. + 7 6)(3a~76>. 9999. 7. 9801. 2 a' + 2 ?/ 5 + a 3.020. 35. s rc 47. 7. x4 4 121 4 ?/ . + 10 + 121 y*.ab . 57. 10. + a2 12 ab 2 8 0. 44. 30 /><.6. +  m' 1. 33.00 + 37.x2 + 6 x2y 2 . a2 ' + 48Z100. 41.10 x + 25. 3wi2 m Page 42. m 2 . 32.10 35. (46c + 5) (4 abc 43. 999. 34. 2 a' y' . 36 a 4 .001. 4 21.^ + a? + 1. p 2 . 4 x2 13. 30. . x4 28. 24. 4 a&c + c2 30 x 4 ?/ 23. . .009. fo*. a4 4 ?/ . a2 >2 2 2  84 a a + 49. +   5). 52. 4 m'2 40 (i V2 c 2 + 25 r 4 22. (a + 4) (a + 2). 19. . . ^V^4 . ab . 2xV+6x2y2^2 +22. 6.000. . (x  2) (x Page (rt2). V + o ft .6 y4 10. 4 + 25 q*. 7. 15.^. 7> . .15. 10. 6.2 x + 2 x. x 2 f xy + 9 41. y.712.14 jp + 49.810. n2 a4 6. 28. x* . 31. 32. m'2 +18?rt 2 ' + 81. x*2^f I.m 30 6 4 1. . 2. 39. p4 + . + 2 9. 10. I/). 31. 2). . 8. 2 0)(p + 5).2 y*.2. 19. a 2 . 6 x6 + 13 x3 . 31. ) 4' 6/ 49. r*d< x/2 ?/'2 18. 3. 40. + 4 a +4. 10.  12 xy +9 2 >2 ?/ 2.84 a' 9. 11. .20. ab.
c 12.9 d.3 w 4*7 m 2 3 mn . 8 r<ft 4 2 . . 8. 2.  12 y 25. 2. 8 ?/ . 7.3 x 2 2 4. ??. 01. 8. 4. abc 7.5 n*. 16. 4xy + 13 <) . 11. 2. 3. c3.2 ar. 5 a  (5 ft. 47. 5^418(7. a 4 4 ft.1. 13. 5.+ 77 15. ?/2.2 1 //. 14. a 10. 8. . 4x43?/. i 2 tji. a 2 410 + 9 r 8 + w2l ftc. 10. Page 11. 3. 16. a2 x 8 4 ft 8 . 9. .yar 4 */ ?/ Page 50.12 aft 4 20 ac . 3. 2 4 2 x 4. 3. 6. 4 a 2 4.r?/.y3. 2 ? 14 . x4. Page 22.24 . 6 <z 2 4 ft 3 . 21. . 2 12. 2 4.7. /r . 16. f>r* 4. 6. 12.2 .  10. 3.29. 17. 5. Exercise 2 a:// 26.15. 8 ?/ . Page 48. a r'43 ll'a^S 15.r' ~ 16.10 xy*. . 2 1. i 9. 20. 9. Osy. 10.rw f 8 . 6x 3. 2 2 + 2 a. 2 . l 4 . 20 15. w . 14. .1*5 2 r 2 . x 4. 5. _ 2 a . 9. 4 a* 4 9 11. 8 x5 ? + 4 1. + x?/ 2 1.1. G.3 3. 12. + 4. 9. 13.8 y.2 aft 4.4. 4ft. 1. 12. 6 x 2 t/ 2 4 . 8. 4. 4 n2 4 +p ft 2 42 2 aft 2 mn + 2 mp 4 10 a ft \ x* 4 4 2 z2 + 2 jrz a2 2 2 f 25  2 np. Page 7. 5. 2 ?/' .r" 20 S? . 15. 9 5 4a' 2 ft 6. 7 r .  11. 10 ft. x 2 + 2r f J. Page 51. 2 4 3 9.8 yn .11 _ 5x _ _ o 18. 3 aft 20.1. 5 aft 4 ft 2 4 8.2 . aftc 52.  3 c.3 a 41.  . . 14. 4 c m .2 ftc .1.8. 2. 12. 6. 2. 5. 1. 5. 19. // 19. '. 13.rw. 4 d 2 4. 18. r//.5 mp. 50. z. ft* ft / .25.6 :rs 4. 2 ?/ 4. 4. 44. 46. 13. ft. 14 r 2 .w. 1. 2 a 3 ft. . 135.27 x 2 4. aft 4 tt ac 2 ftc. a 2 . 22./ 4. 4 x. + 16 r 4 + 12 a'2 //2 . a 2 ft 4 9 c3 . ft 17.1. 15. +w .21 2 2 f + .r ?/ ??i ?). :r !>. 3 a. aft. 4.2 . 1. y 7. . 2 ^r ???' 2 .2. 2 ?/ ft Page 2.n. 13.  5 z* . sr 11.3 ry. r 7.34. 21. 11. 5. 10.1.9 4.8. 1/*. . 13. 1000 1000 . 4. 7a 2 ftc 4 4c42a.2 <</. 11 4. w 2 . m L 4. . 6. 4. + 3. ft ? ft' ft ft.23. x' u' 2 2 z~ 4. 2 . 2 m2 4 2 w2 7. 4 pq. 1. aft 12. as _ 10 16.3 5. 4. ti'jry1 7. a.8 <r 2 2 ?/' .5 a . Page 13.2 wZ 4. 1. . yfl.2 ac . 14.2 2 . 8. 125.VI ANSWERS 43.c ft*/ 1  ft' ?/ .10 2 + z 2 410. 3 l48m47?n 2 20. . m'2 3. 8 x . Exercise 27. *3 y 4 . 7a3ft. 8. 24.lit x + 4. 49.2 2 2 8 .25 c .1. 1.> 10. 4 ac. 9. 4. .000. + c 2 4 aft2 ac + 4 ftc. 4 x y 2 7 x + 5. 19. r/2 4.7 arty 4 4 x 2 //V2  3 Z2 3 1. 2. r ft. 75 a 2 29. a 2 44 a2 ft' 4 ft 2 2 4. 17. 17. 26. 6. 2 ft 2 ?nc w .3^V. a 8 4. . 5. 12.r . 3.15 21. 5. j) .30 ftc. 5 4 a Oft. 14.r?/ j/. 18. 3*y2 w + 1. 9w 2 + 0m+ 1.r'^ 15. . 3 5 a4  4 a2 4.x^. 23.
n M. 5. 2x + 35. 21 2. 5. + f + b 2. . 15. 59. 2. 100 14. 3x2. f 6)(o 62. 20. 7. f = eZ 2 x. 6. xy ft. m+ 11. 7. 7. 40.. 90 7 2 + 10 = c.100.ab a. 20. 100= ^. Page 40. 100 2. " lir. + 10 b + c ct. b. 10. "mi. 10. 16. lO.10) 100. 2. fix. 16. 27. 13. 4^ = 100.  9 = 17 a. 24. 7x 2 Page 21. 16. 5. 46. 10 >_&. + 3x + 2y + 32. 6.  1$. ft. a 10. 2. 7. r>?imi. 800 = x + 1300. 0. x 49. 15. 25. x 48. (>. 23. . 1. 11. 11. + 3 = 2(3* . y ?>i x + 26. 7. 6.  2\. ? 43. 23. 37. . 12. 2. 1. 3. . 10. y 50. vil 56. 34. ] 2 ri 42. ft. . 60 25 1. m=  100 2x=2(3x~10). 4. (> 27. . 10 yr. 9. 9. 100 d ct. 22. 32. . 19. 'nj 100 a 28. 19. 10) + = (a) 2 x . 29. l. x + 1=a. x = m. 17. 33.  />) a = all. 1. 5.r ct. I. d. (2 a. % 4. Page 31. / + y + a// 12 yr. 8. 6.. 25. 42. ft. iL*.000.. 36. 10 x sq. = 5 ?i x 460. 57. 41. 1&. 17. x y $ 6 yr. + 4x 3y 34. 38. a 8. 43. d + !.x700. 5. sq. 37. 58. 2b. 8. 28. 0.(3x  700) = 5. y yr. 22. 17.ANSWERS Page 9. Page 61. ct. y 100 a 24. 47. s. 44. 39. Jj12. lOx 10 + w. ct. Page 13. 36. 2 ct. 44. '^ .  6 10. 12. 33. 4. 00. <>. 6. 13. 30. 4 f 39. I. 2. 10. 1. 50= L 100 15. ( a f 4. 18. ^ 12 sq. Page 6. 1. 4(a ft) c = 8. 13. 7. 4. 10 a. </ 20. 45. 41. 4. + (d) 2 x + (3 sc 700) = (x f 1200)  x. (A) 3 x f (4 x . 3. 3 9.. !). 2=10.rr2. X 60. (</) 2a. 7. 2. 14. (c) (2zf 600) (3 =4. 5. 20. b. 4. 8 n  10 yr. m +~m 3.7). (d) 2a + 10 = n.r1. # + 20yr. 10) (6) 2 zf 20 3^740. 31. (c) 2x. v (6) 2x. f (I. r tx mi. ) 2^ x 20 =a 7. ct. 11. 14. 3. 38. 30. 3x  1700) = 12. 29.(3x+ = rraxlO. 26. 18.6 = *. x 2y 10 act. y 2z p= 3 (a c. 2b 22. (c) 2a? + 3 (/) (2fl58)h(8aria)=60. (a) ' 12. x. rn mi. 35.p+7.200) f(^ + (e) 200. }f.
15 in. 85 ft.000 gold. (y8)(y + 2). 50. 1200. 1. (e) i* + A..000 copper. 11.. ? 2  = SJL+J10 13.8. 1200. 150. 11. 30. 11 in. 3 (a +&)(*.. 8. 30 mi. 11. 11. 15.000. 14. (6) (6 a 30) =20. 3. 7. 8 12.13. '2 > 10aVy(2a 2 ay43y 2 ). Page 79. Pace 65. 4.. 20. (m + n)(a + 6). (p + 7)(3a5&).000 ft. 9. 12. 6 aty (3 + 4 6) 2.000. k ' _ ft v J (d) 100 100 ' V ' ' 100 100 100 =^8000. 4.411. 300. 67.. 180. 6. 90. 71. 21. 17z8 (l3z + 2x'). 20. (a + 6) (a + 3). 9 in. 25. 12 mi. 2.6). 15 mi.000. 6. 9. Page Page 4. 25. 2). Oaj(o62cd). . 2. 13. 10. 14. 10.79. 80 A. 5. 5$ hr. 2 2 2 5.5. 1. 200. 6rt 2 11. 13. 1. w (/) 64. .2). 78. 2. 70^.000 pig iron. (a + 5)(a + 6).. 74. 14.24. 10 yd. 78.. Page Page 480 12. 2.000 Phil.5. 11 w(w' + wi . 12. 5. ~=90. 25 yr. Page Page 4.0. by 12 yd. (z5)(z2).000 ft.10. 90 mi.1). (a + 4)(a + 8). 18. 22. 7 hr. ?(g ? g+ 1). 3. 8.3.. 2 3 6 7. 30. 8. 1313. (yll)(y4). 18.3). 4pt. (ro3)(w2). 11 pV (2 p8 . 250.16. 15. 5 Col. 10. 8. 29. a 12.. 12. 3.000. 20 yr. 16. 70. 30 yr. 1. 3. 19. 1. 3. 12. 68. 4. 10. 17. (y + 8)(y2). (*4)( + 11. 12. 15 yd. (a 4) (a.000. $40. 5. Page 7. 8(a6 2 +6c2 c2 a2 ). 10. 6. 10 yr.y"). 10 Mass. 14. 15. (y 13. ^ . . 1 lb. 10 Cal.3. 10. 10 yr. Page 7. 8.21. 52. 5 lb. 2. z?/(4^ + 5xy .000..vili ANSWERS (a) V J^.  PageSO.. 8.22. 7. 2. 7. 17. 1250. 15.0. 3x (3r. 8. 20. 10. Page 5. 20 yd. 2$. 13.210^. 5. + 7)(y3). (c) ^ v ' . 6. ( + 4)(*2).000. 1. 160 lb. 4. 3. (a5)(a4). Ib. = _?_(2ar + 1). 100 1. 7. 2. 600. 6. 42yr. 7. 9.2. 14.3aftc + 4). 8. 7.11. 9. 200.(5z . 9.. 5pt. MOO HXT 100 100 ^~ (5z30) =900. 82 mi. 18. 6. 17 7>c(2 a'^c2 . 13 a 8 4 * 5 (53 xyz + x y'W).7. (2a63?2_4 a /^) 16...30) + (2s + 1) v v ' ' 5 18. 100.000 Berlin. 75. 28yr. 6.. 72. 4. 5. 9. 23. 480.000 N. 1. 40 yr. 4. 3 hr. 8 2 19. 15.5p + 7 g ).. 14. 24J. . 12. (y7)(y + 2). 9. 3. 55. 13. a a (a 8 a+l). 7a*fe(2a & l). 8 in. 13. 05. Y. 2 2 ?/ 21. 6. 45 in. 20 yr.
5y)(3a. 17. 36. 10 y2 (\) x + l)(x~ 3). 12. 12. 17. 7. (l + x )(l + x )(l + x)(lx). 10(a + ft)(aft). No. Yes.4p).2 y). 25. 26. 6. (4 13. 20. (6n + l)(+2). 2 No 4. 26. (2o + l)(2l). 29. (n2 + 12)(n 2 + 5). (2 a? 4. 27. x (z + 2)(x + 3).7) (a. Yes. (az + 9)(ox2). No. 40 x. 13x(a + ft)(aft). (a 3 + 10)(a. Yes. + 2y). + 3). + 2 )(a + ft)(aft). 15. No. 8) (a. 11. 23.+4 y)(3x4 y). y) 2 29. 9. 21. 30. 25. 1. x(x +y)(x y). 3. (:52y)(2a!3y). a(2u. . 9. (0 (l+7a)(l7a). 3.2). (6 a. 10x2 (y9)(y + 2). 19. Page 84. 10. 3. 21. (a 6 6) (a 4. 8. 22. Page 83.9*). 24. (w* (3a26).r2). 25. 34. 29. 27.7)(2z f 1).y4 ). (m + n +p)(m + wp).y) 2 aft. 32. . y) (a. 23.2 by2 6. 33. 11.6) 2 2 . Yes. 15. 16. Yes.11 ft)(a6). Yes. 10 a 2 (4 . Yes. Yes. 20. (2w+l)(ro + 3). 28. 5. 25. 2 2 15. (a a: 19. (m + w) 2 5. 7. (2yl)(y + 9). 9. 10. 3)(3a.11 6) (a 4. 30. Page 82.1). 13x7. (5xy ) 3 ft 8 B 2 (12+ y 2 )(12y 2 ). 25. . 14. 200 (x + l)(x + 1). (3 n + 4) (2 (3x+l)(x + 4). 28.3)(z2). 24. 10(3 5 6) 2 . 100 (a. (9y4)(y + 4).3 y 2 )(2 a: 2 f y'2 )2 3 Yes. 1. 9. 26. (4a.* (2 y + 3)(y. x\x 24. (3#y)(+4y). 8. 14. . 2. 11. 2 17. . 2). 21. (5wl)(m5). 7. . (15ay2) 2 . 100(x. 24. (m + n + 4p)(w + . 10(a . 4. (m7n) (a. (10 aft + c 2 (10 aft .ANSWERS 16. (a (p8)0> + l). 22. (3a. (5x . (x + y4 )(x . (4y3)(3y + 2). + 8)(g3). (5a +l)(5a l). 2 y' (2y3)(2yl). a . 18. . ix 18. 10. 31. (a. 16.2 ft). 20. (0 + 6)(66). (w ~ n (x . 17. (7 a + 4) (2 a . 14.  x (5 a. f 2). (5a4ft)(2 a~3 ft). 9.. 24 9. (<7 20. . 2 3 by2 Yes. 2(9a:8y)(8a:0y). 35. 12. (ay8)(ay3). 26. 8. . + 3?i) 2 (5x2y) 2 . (a*& + 9) (aft + 3) (aft 3). 27.3). (10a + ft)(10aft). 2. 16.2). 35. + 9^)(oxy . 1. . 103x97. 6. y(x. (5 a 2) (2 a 3). (15z2y)(x5y). (4 18. + y + .4 6). (2 *+!)(* 9). 28. (a 4 10) (a 4 + 3). (13a +10)(13a 10). No. + 3)(c44). 3a. (15a + 46*)(16a46). Yes. . 22. 21. 3(x + 2)(zl).4. Yes.y (6x + 4)(5x4). (7 ay + 8) (7 ay 2 2 13. (g . ( 2 4 19. 32. (ft + ll)(aftll).1). 7 6) (a 10 6). (a2 + 10) (a2 2). (y8) 2 2 . 216 aft. 22.1). 2. 13. + 0(90 Page 85. Oa 2 (a2)(al). No. 2 y(ll x 2 + 1)(11 x2 . 10(2 30. + 4) (a.   . 33. 18. a. (4al)(a2). a*(5a f l)(flr . 2(2s + 3)(a: + 2). (* + y)(zy). .6) 2 1. 31. 10.c 2 ). 19. (2xl)(x + f>). (3*2)(. a 2 (w7)(w + 3). 5. 34. Yes. 9ft w(?3) 140 w 2 27.8). Yes. 23. . (y + 4)(yl).1). + 5) a. (w + 20)(w + 5).w*)(l 2 n 2 ). 4. 23. 4 (a . (a + 8)(a3).
y)(fi a . ( (<> r4y3 .b. 2 .  WIM. a 2_rt4l)(a rt 1). Gp). 6. 4& 2 )(tt4/>)('e 62 2 2 4l)(a' & &) 5). ?>).n). (a 9.2 y). (> 1. Page 87. 42a 3 x. (^ + ?>_8). 39.^ 48. 2 y) ^ . 2(m4l)' .42 x 4. l. 10(8x' 4l) 4. a 4. 2 8(w . 38. x . Page 89.36). 9. ?i(w 4y) . (. y6.y. (5^4. 4.) j). (m  I)' 6. y). 2 21. r x 2 */3 . 15 M. Page 90. 13 x 8 2 . 2 2 3 .&). Exercise 47. 3(. 8. 6. (w4w) 2 1. 36.4. y )(. fi(c426). ^ . 32. 2 2 (3a 4// )(x4>/).^46) a?/ 2 /> + o) (ff n 2 T>). (^ 7. 1(V/ 88.  (m3n + a + b)(m 3nab). 14. (5a+l)(9a). 4 6. 6. b) (r 4. (Ox  7 ?/)(7 x4 y/). 2. 4.0+ 12).5 <:  9 </) (2 a 12. 10. 12 m 2 (m n) 2 . 3x(x?/) 4. 7. (5 26. 12. n  r)(5a 10. (2 a ~ f> b 4.l)( a 25. 2 a 2 13x 3 y. (r420(4 10. 13.4)(?  5 (6a 4l)(a +)2( 2x2/)(x2?/). x43. a8 .8) ( (16. ah}. 6.X 5. 2 1. 5. 41. ofc)( fid). . 4.5 m2 x2.1). 17(x43//)(x2y). 450.?>) H. 6. 9.^ c)((> 4 3 (3 w 2 w 4 m  ). 15. 4 3. 4. x  1).'J)(' . ( y). Page 86. 8. (xf!/)' 3 4 w)(m.4). 16.))(x  ^OC 1 1). 3 x4 . 40. K + l) a (a 5 />z 9. 19 13> (7rt3)(7a~3). (16 4  2(5 n . 8).8).7)(^ {I 12.>*)(:> 4 lj 4. 80a6 4 40 aV>*>c >d\ !)&(<* 4. 22. 7. (w * . 4  9.4. (7/1 2) (m 41). c 5 b 5 + 9 iZ) . 13. . 5. . 8. + 3. 2 (a 4. ( 4 1 ) (2 m . (2x7)(x 2 2). . 14. 7. 2 2 10. (f> + fo 7. a x 3 10. 3(47>44)(^4'> 22/)((3x). 4). ( rt 23. x(x f y)(jr .a + (< (3 7>)(3  a l fo). (5 al) 3) (f> a/> 15 ?>). + 2 //). 5. 4 a s &8 . 30. 8.3. 11. 2 + . 8 4 15 ?>)(a 34.?50)(xt/z.'/)('< 4. O + ?/4<?)O ?> 4 q). 28. ( a ^)(^3. 4 a8 . 6. 1. . (x.'})(c . 2. a 4. (!__/>).w )(l 4 w 2 )(l 3 + ( y) r)(x ( ..r(3x' 2 4 (14.9). 11. 27. 8x. 5  (2 2 . (c. 3p (^9)(j) 4). 14. 35. 16.&). 2. 20. (5 31. x 4. 5 x8 3. 24x sy s 9. 2 k (wi 4.//)(5y x(x4ti<0.i4l)(x4l)(x~l). 18.  29. 37. 13. 7. y(2x?/). 19. a (a + 2 6). 10(2 (3 4. 2. 7.4). 8. 4. a(a 2 + !)(+ !)( .8) n 43*). (a 4.e 4. 4. 7. 12. 11.& (a 5 & 4#  2 y) (a 1. 14. 17.y). Page 12. a 41.2).  (w' 4. (14. 11. 2. 15. Exercise 46. (* _ 2 )(a 4.y (m + 2 u + (\p)(m + \ .!) (x42)(x2). 24.?/). (a &4. 8. (x//. 4. 2 5 a 2 6c 2 3.y '2 2).2)(x 1. ANSWERS r)(4x (4x 4.3. ( { &).7s) (2 a. (a />. (a + (2a3fc)0*+ tf)Or 41) (^42). a 2 (a9). 3. 6 f c). Page 92. 42).1) 3. 2(5 a  ft) (a 3 ?>).2).1). 8. 13( 33. . a + a b. 5. 4.3)(x 4. 12.
a 23. 13. w 2 ^ (!L 5 +2 3 i + 63 3^1 rr Pace 991 20 . a 10 25. x 24. (a2y2 (a3) 2 (a4) 2 14. (a2)(a + 2)2. ?_!&. x 22. +5 1. b ! 21. // m+1 !+*?. 18. + &) 2 ( .6). + y) (a: y). 30(3 2 (a 15. +8b a 4 3 / ^. 2(2al) + l). + &)(&) ( . 6a2&(rt6).ANSWERS 10. x 12.  1). 11. 1).
+ 2H 1 ^. c 8.2g ftc 46 ?t ~ 30 y . xy 43. r > 'a2 f an f ft' ' 2(czft) (x 2. 6. + ^8 1 a 2 1 ~ 41. ' 2 7. w1 + ac w 4 7.Xll ANSWERS 21 2 . 6a5f^. 2 a. 6. ^iie^+JoJ^^ilOa bc 9 11 92 aft  1>*  10 12 + qc + ab ' 238 . 28. 7. 3a 2 2) ' i (x ' t+3) 5x (wi8)(w go a 3ffl + 13 + *2)(x + 3)' 19 ' rtv+Ji:'. Page 101. 6.  **/* + 84 _. w + _ i + _J? a w+4+ ? 3 8. i^.. ^i 2n a 22 9x * T 94 4<i ^ 33 9 ^ 37 (a 2 b)' (a + ft) a 42. a 2 ft 2 + 21 ft' 1 4m m2 26 9 fi 7 . rt 3a2 + ~3a a 3. + lH + . A^. i. ^~ 29. 4c 10. 2x1 + 5x 12 + ^. 4 L 8 2 . 26. a 5. Page 100. 11. _*^p5_^^_. 0. .y~ z ' ] 5 x2 y + :j y. ab121 12 ft 2 8 a 2 196 a2 8.80 MP 2 30 ?/ r + t S ^ 2ft "' 180 wv 15. 1.50 ~ 1/2 . 30. 4.
I) 2 3z 1. 17. 0. 8j_m 7 3. 40. 7. 4.  10 X + u. y(x + x ?/). (y + (z 12. 3. 25. 46. 19. 7.^U\WF### X<6. 39. 5 6 Q 5 a 12. (>. . 1. 7. 15. J. 16. 33. xiii in <l ~ 2b 18. 1. x 1. 14. 11. 8. 4. 1. 3 7 i o. 1. Page 113. 1. ft. 3. 0. 32. Page 106. +3 ( + 15. 21. 10. pf n 6 1. 11. 12 28. 11. x 05m ' 5. 21. 10. . 45. A. 11. n 16.^_. f 7. 42. 6. b a f +c 14. 38. 44. m 9.y 7. 5. ?+_!?>. w^x 2 b Page 105. 6 . 1. 1. ft 2 f 1 + a + 1 Page 109. . 14. 2) 19. 15. 7. a. 4. 6. 31. 1. 37. . ! 4 20. 18. 3. 3. n m a + 13. Page 111. 1^)2 ' 2 1) 2 13. ac mp lf> n 12. 3. 6. 16. 34. c 8. 15. 5. 1. 4a3ft. 41. J. Of. b 2. 9. 2 re +3y mn 10 lo. 12.L+ft. an 18. Page 110. 6. 2 47. 17. ?. f Page 107. J. 29. 30. 12. 4. 4. 8.  V o 4. 5 be _J_. 9. 20. 13. 14.ft . ' 6. 3. a 17. 9. flf. 36. 6. 5. 27. 26. 43. 2ft a i m x. a2 2. 5. 21. 1. ^i 11. 24. + f. 4. (a + y) 2 Page 104. x\. ^_. 23. 11. 4. j L . 35. n .
001. 33. " 0. Page 124. 2 20. 10. Page 121. 4x'2 :3?/ 2 1 . 10. 20.0 & . 24 mi. No. $45. Page 125.x + y. 20. 500. 1 : 12. 20. 4. 40 yrs. 300. 1. 10. 1:1=1:1. (ft) (r) 8 hr. 11. 1. 15. w 18. Yes. 26. 9. Page 119. 33. 15. 9$. ANSWERS 16.003. 13. P+ ^ 33. 30 yrs. 40 mi.  29. (a) 12 hr. 7T 2 Page 116.15. 81. _JL. 18. 21. 11. 17. Yes. ft. * 7:9. 19. 21. 4~r~ n . 1^'. 16. 1: ~. after $12. 19. $00. 3 da. 12. 30 mi. 2x:3y. 8.} da. 300./hr.. 275:108. 14. 4. 5. .002. 14. 26 mi. 8. 10. 13. (c) 2 hr. 19.000 1 = 23.. 34. silver. 26 30. 300.10. 22. 18. 3.XIV '/ . jj. ~m .000. 15. 24.11.2. f. #V ~~ 34. f . 9J oz.000 If da. (a) 4 min. Yes. 5ft 30mi. w 21. dn ~ mi. b 25 ' mft 26 ' w 27 ^ ' ~i~ ^ . 5. ^p^ r ~ 7. . (ft) 104. 30ft. 5. 3. Yes. [>> ^ a . 12. 7} 18. $30. 9. Yes. 16. 74. 15. 3. 40wn. 2. 1 da.. 1:1 = 1:1.  + . 13.0. 15. 10. ^?i min. (ft) 28.. 3. (d) 500.000. 3:2. 2:1. (ft) 5 hr. 1:1 = 1:1.000. xy. 10. 00. 23< &n b ' . 31. . 10. Page 118. . Yes. 21ft min. Page 117. 8. . 10^ oz.138. 18. (r) 3^ da. (a) 25. 5 25.2. ^m . w 44.137. J. 17.  C . 30. 3. 7 . nm. 10. $0.. 15. 36. 9.004. min. 8. () 2. Yes. 8301 hr../hr. 15. 212. 1:3. 3. J ^'. 8. 7. 17. $40. 6. 6. min. 35. 0.. 9. 14. 13. '"I 22. after 20. 55 mi. (c) 8300. 6. (a) 30. 7.. 17. Yes. . 16. 28.. 24. 19.. a 4 ft. 7. after 18. 32.000. a 4 ft 3 T 29 30 ' 5T (a) ^ 10 (ft) 31. 3 : 19 = 4 : 25. IV s. 38ft min. 2. gold. 1. (d) 4 da. = A's. 11. 5. 10 yrs.139. 4. 1. r/ i  PM xx HXH />/ Page 114. (ft) 5 da. 9ft. . 4fl M_.9. 4. 7. 75 . 7. 7. 27. n 32. 4. :2. 11 hrs. 1:1 = 1:1. 10. 1:4. 12. 5 2. No. 14.
5 2. 4. 1. 41..r. Page 134. a~. 44. 40. . 31J. 25. 4.3. OJ. 31. 1 1 : : : : : : (I. .15.46. 12. 1(5. +m ' 12 3_a ' 7^ 10 ' 1 . 49.]. 16. 53. 14.12. J. + W. 8. x:y a: b. 13J. 8. 9.5. 8. 7.. 11. x y y . 2. 5. 40. . 5.160.1. 39. water. 22. tin. 7^.J. . 5. Page 133. 12. OJ. in.1. Inversely. 3. 3. 41. 13. 21. : />. 3. J. 945 11 10 . 7.4. 1. ini.4. 35. () 7 Page 126. 2. 3  24. 6. i. 4. 29. 56.5. 19. (<l) A A (e) m m = d> (. 38. 9. 2.2. 2.2. 2. + b 7 . 3. 6 10 = 12. 5:3 = 4: x. = 7 b'. 1. 4.840. 2. 8.a.3.li. 4. 9./':</ c a f :y=2:9.9. 8. (I.3. x y = 1 = 3 2. 2. "lO. 5. 3. 1. 15. 26. 3. 20 20 J ^. 20. 3. 7.  28. 7. lo mi. ~ 1.1. 32j. 2.3. 3 2=3 x. 9. 9. 16. y . 7. w 8. 45. 5. 6. 15> 9. 174+ Page 128. 9. 59. 4. Page 137. 1. 32+ mi. 2. Of. 4. 6. /. 18. J.' : : : : <>. 14. . 6. t 5. ig 6. 7.5. 3}. 5. ft. () Directly. 2. 1. 12.36.1. 5:0 = 10:12. 5. Page 132. = R~ R>'\ V V = P> P. 19. Page 5. . 7. 1. 2. a +b 1.^ 0?j ' gms. 3. 7. (a) Directly. 23. 2. a f 2 2 = 5 x. 14. 25. 58. (</) ft. Page 9. 2. 24 1 (e) Directly. . 3. \\. \. . 138. : : .57. 43.12.2. 2. 36. 14. . 55.000 sq. Page 131. mi. mi. 22. 16. 8. : : : ?/ : tf : ?/ : : : : : : : : : sr. 25. 4.4.3. 3. 2. 8.J 3. (b) C C' = fi JR'. 4.5. 13. 24.. .3. 20. 3. 7. 5. 1. 2.2 x. 2. 23. cu.7. : XV 27. 28."2:1.5.4.4. b x 37." ^ 2. 5. 11 5 . + 7>i//  ft 1 .*. 52.1. 47.17.20.8 oz. 2.5. 26. 32  <>' 33  4 <^: 34 : : .6. 9. 54. 11. + m* <7^' 10 7)C 14. 3.) 31.15 x.3. 19 3 . : 23. . 9  15. w. l. 7. 4.3. 2. ' 55.2. 2. 1. 2. 11. 4. *. 200 mi. Page 136. land.000 sq. 7.5. x 42. . 3.ANSWERS 22. . 4. 24. 4. 3. 4. 15. 50. y 1. 7. 1. 2.3. s<i.22. Page 135. 10. 57. x +y x + 74 7 \. 2. 1 18 = 3 51.3. 46.5.  19.5. 10.C ?/ a . 7. 6. 141. 11 w a 13. 127. 2. J pq. 48. 30. 30. 36. 7. 2. 17. 20 cu. 11.  ?. 11. 19. 5.2 oz. 10.7. 2 n . 13. y :y =. jc:y = n:m. 21. (b) Inversely.3. 5. in n. 12. . 17. $. 19 OJ. 17. copper. 2. 7.x a. 10. : . 1 rt * vm^1. 7. I. 6*. 27. 9. : : T 1' : /> : . 4. 13. a 3. y a y = 7 0.
. (a) 12. 2. 6 cows. (<f) 13. 9. 23f . 90. 20. 423. On the x axis. SL=J o ft r^2. 3. through point (0. 1. 3. 3. 17. 5.XVI Fagel39. 8.$2000.65. $500. 20 & Oct. 2. 12. 5. 2.0. 23. ft 3. 24. 24. . yrs. 5. 26. 3. 7. 7. ' w_i 7 fr^ m w ' 2 m+w . 6. 00. Page 152. ^. 11.  Zn  "(^ll 14. 4. 3. 5. 16 to July 20. 20. 7.2. . 3. 5. 16. 1. 2 a. & May. . (ft) 20. . $ 1000. 1. $900 5%. 2. 4. 15. May 5. 9. 26. About 12f.& w_ i ae 22 5 L=. On the y axis. 31. 30.^. 4.9.l. (ft) 23 J. 3. 2. 20. 21. June. 19 gms. ' 6 3 a..$5000. yrs. 3. 5%. 19. 17. A's 30 18. 20. 9. 1. . 25. 30. 4. 11. be 10. <*ft/ bd 1. B's 40 yrs. 7. 10. July. Oct. 15. 13. 7. 17. 16. 8. (a) Apr. 7. & part of Sept. 20 to Oct. 3. 13. 2. m + n p. Jan. parallel to the x axis 0. $4000. 5. u 2ft. 3. 13.2. 2t2. 15. 40. 10. 10. C's 10 yrs.3. 4 mi.. July 20. m . 7. 29. 4. 1./hr. 16. 3. 11. 6. Page 142. ad AzA.  11. Apr. 10. 0. 16. 11.33.4. Nov. (5. = ^ a Page 141. 1. 0. 2. . 3.7. 2. 27. 3. 5.3. $250. On 11. 4. . 2. Jan. 4 ' q. & part of Feb. 11. 12. Page 153. 22. Nov. 18.0. 30. .1. 4. 7. 3. 8. 1 (c) Jan.. Jan. 3). Nov. 9. 6. 72. 23. A a parallel to the x axis. Nov. 9. Jan. Feb. 2 horses. Page 143. Apr. 25. 10^ gms. 12. 2. a. 3.  17. 16. at 15. . 9. 6. 5. 1 (d) Apr. Jan. 3. 3. Apr. &. 18. M 2. The ordinate. Page 151. 2. .3.4. 4. 25. 4. 4. 100. 2. 1. 2. Page 22. 8. Aug. 12. 24. Page 146. be 7. afcd ae ftd 8 ft. 20. 6. a =J (n  1) rf. 1. 7. 4. m f 9. ' .. 1. 4. 10. 16. 18. 25. 14. 6. 12. 147. 11. 6%. 28. 18. 10 sheep. 4. Page 149. Page 145. 0.8. 5. $3000. C's 30 yrs. 3. 2. 32. 1. 4. 3. 2. 3. 24.1J. 14.10. 2.4. . $6500at3Ji%. ad _(?jrJL.n + p. J. 4. . 40.. 1. July. 2. 2. 5. 19. . 6. (c) . 1. B's 15 yrs. 21.1. 14. 7. 6. A's 50 13. m f 8.
3.41 and . 3. 2. Inconsistent. 18. 10. 1. 12. .59 . 28. 04 x 12 */ 1 '^ 1 2 t  9 11. 1. ' :=_!. 125 a 8 12. . (ft) and (d) 2. 32F. 6. Page 158.73. 125a 28. 2. 64_ a 12 ft 27 ' a 121 81 a 4) ft 44 a 4TO a3 l. H.3. (ft) (ft) 2.73.5. (e) 2. . 11. 2. (gr) 21. 2. 18C.64.2 (ft)  1. (a) 4. . (ft) 2. 1. 7. (ft) (d) 2. 1.75. 20. 3. 5. 4}. . 13. 19. 8mW. 2. 1 + I5a 3 + 75a6 + 150 126a 9 ft .4. 13.. 8. 4.24.79. . f 10. 3. 13C. . 9.25. 2 a&m Page 167.  1. 12. 0C. 3. Indeterminate. 2. xg . 1. 2. .25. 2. _ 9 x ^27 1 . f12 wi 9. m. (a) 12. ImW. 2. 22. i/* 25 a8 343x30 ' 1 125 29. 3. 20.1. 27a 3 27 343 a 6 27 2 +9al. Indeterminate.25. 3. .75 (ci) 3^. 9 and Page 166. 13. 3. 15. 3.. 14.64. 3. 3. 3. 14. . (/) 3. 2. 2. a 29. 6. 2 2 22. (c) 14 F. 1 23. jgiooyiio 17. 4.5. SlstyW 7. . 2. 24. 8. 125 16. x3 3x2y + 3x?/2 2 a 3 +3a 2 +3a + m8 6w _ i. 3. 4. 1. 4wn8 + n4 5. . (e) 3. 3. f. a 10 ' a ll V&. .5 (ft) 3. 8 a1. (c) 2. 15.67.24 . \ft) 5. 1. xy. 3.  12 ft xW  26 31.24.3.83. 1. 2. () (rt) 3. .27. (<?) 2.75. Inconsistent. 4. 3 . 9.3 aft 2 + 8 ft . 83. 27 19. 15.59. 1. 3.34F. 30. 1.73 ami .4 a^ft 4*/ 3 + t/*. . (a) 2.87 (0) 3 (c) and and 1 2. 1. + a 4 ft* .1. 10. ft 2 4.25. 2. 21. 26.4 aft h a 2 ft 2 .6.17 (ft) (c) 2. Page 163.8 n 27 a 4 ft 4 f 8. 2. 0.. .75. 27 27 81. . 1 4. 1. 30." 23. 13 . .41 and 23. 4. 8. Page 159. 1. 3. 44 + 6t/2 m4 4m8 H6m2 4m4l. 16. * 16. 4 ) 21. x*f 4x 8 + 6x2 f4 xf 1. 4. 10. .79.84. 10 C. (c) 7. 2 l. 11. 24.  1. . H. 1^.73. 5. 2ft4 Page 168. 81 ". 14. (/) 3. . 22. 1. 27 a6 ft  9a 2 1.83. 8 1 f f g*.7. 5. 2. 5. 3. aH64 a2 + 36 aft 2 +8 8 27a135a2 ft4225aft2 125ft8 . 11. . 27. 1. 1. 147 a 4 ft 21 a 2 12. a + ft. f.. f4p 7+6p g f4pg 6. 5. m4 1/ m%+6 w2 n f 2.AN WE US 'S xvii Page 157. 4. . Page 164. 19. 3. a 6o&i85 c i5o . ft . 5 and 2. 1.  . 14.25. xW. 1. +3 4. .13. . 15 . m + 8 m% f 60 win2 4. G. 1. 2. 5. 25. 2. 2. 5. I21a 4 ftc 2 18. (a) 5. . 17.
(27 + 3 a xy 8 21. (1 (x2y).5 a 4 + 10 a9 .94. 2038. 40. AN S WE no . 5. 15. 11. a ). 12. 1 1 ?>). + 29. 70. (a 2. 18. (5^ + 4x?/ + 3?/ ).^). 4. (4a2 9& 2 13. .10 a~ + 5 a .3 ab + 2 2 ). 1 w + 5 m' G 7 w. 3. 8. ). (rt' (2 a (7 4 10. 76. 2. (ab + c). 101. + (win . fr ft i/ /> ^  23 . Page 171. 19. +(^ 2 3^ + 2). Page 176. (Gn + 5 a + 4 a). 99. 14.i c 6 15. (6 a + 5 a + 4 a ). 28. 763. (6a + 4a + 3a + 2). Page 170. 81 + 540 + 1360 a 4 + 1500 a 2 + 025. + l). 9. a: l . 35. 2 2 4. +35. r> 4 : 1 . + + ?V 22. ^i. 2 4 8 2 . 10 x G a 4 . 1 + 8 z + 24 2 + 32 r + 10 x 4 25. GOO 2 c 2 .+ 50 m*w* + 70 w 4 4 + f>6 ?n *w 6 +28 >/* + 8 mn + w 8 17. 4.  x. (a + 2 +l). 25. (2 a + ft). l lV (l+? + & + x J x V s 24. 11. 27. 23. 309. 4. 978. 57. 15.6. 32+ 80 a +80 a* +40 a 3 + 10 a 4 fa 5 14. + Z). 21. 13. w 8 + 8 in n + 28 5 5 4 4 3 8 2 w c + 10 w 2 2 c 3 + 5 mwc 4 + r5 18. 00. . . 3. 1247.7 /)).a b 22. 6. 15. 4. 26. 11. m* m*>n + 16 w 4 2 +5 c*d+ 10 c 3 tf2 + 10 c 2 d+6 c<74 + d5 20 in s + 15 w 2 w 4 G mw 6 + w 6 11.  +X '. 32. c 10 6 :l 20. 420. 2 49 . 2. 84. 14. 5. 12. 24. 5 5 8. . 17. 33. 11. 1 + 5 a?b* + 10 a 4 b* + 10 a& + 5 a/> + a 10 10 i c5 . 25 19. (23 alt + 7 (4rt +3 (5m 2 Cm + 3). 7. 2 12. 1. 6. 8. wi 8 + 3m 2 . 30. (x + y\ 90. 7. 1. + i)). 2. + y). (7 (2 2 3 2 16.2). 9. + 4 x2 + Ox4 +4^ + x8 10. (ly). 5. fe *?>' ?> fi . +3 + 5 4. 22. 98. 6. j/^/t^/' wi n 4 p*+ 10 w 8 w y 10 wi 2 w 27> 2 +6 w/ip. 8. 3 6 23. 1. 6. w w + 5 W w c + 10 19. 10*. 9. 8.83. 9.r 2 + S:r2/2 ). rt . 72. 18. a. . 90.r 2 + 6jt). 16. m 13. 2. 7. 3. 5. 247. ? : 1 . (48 + 6. 2. 32 r^ 10 + 80 w 8 + 80 wt c + 40 m 4 + 10 m'2 + 21. 19. 119. 12. . 3M. . ( Page 174. I 8x2). (:' + (2a3a: 2 + a. 3 w 2 H2 + 3 4 n 4 .XV111 7. 90.GO a c + 23. . 20. (l + x + . 30. 3 2 ^. 2(> + ( 2 7>).+3^ + 4. /> 4 ). 34. 180 .x ). 10. ? . 8 /. ro 12 + 4 m+ w + 4 w + l. 21.1. 16. a 2 . 20. 2 ?>i?< >2 10. 300. ??i ?i .1000 ac 3 + (J25 c 4 24. 6. 8. 3 2 8 3 12.f 1 m 9 16. 6 (\x 3. 15. 1. 237. 20. Page 172. 14. 2 2 7. f 21 rt'6 + 7 f 6 13. 64. (3a. 14. 9.037. . 0. 9. 18. 36. 8 4 se 1 1 :J . 16 6 w . 17. 20. a. .5. 31. 13. ?7i 1 1 3 1. 71.1. 100 *6 + GOO x 1000 2 + G25. a 7 + 7 b + 21 + 36 4 & 8 + 35a 3 & 4 6 6 7 . 10. (Gx + (i + 2a. 10. 5. 16. 3.5). 17. (x' l).y2 ). ( x + 2 x 2z + 4). (a + y+l). Zll.
. 15. 37. _ iVaft. 7. 13. 34. 14. 3. 5. 1 7. 3. 3. *. . 32. ZLlAiK 19. 11. 1. 10. 1.  14. 7. 7}.5. Page 177. 2. 1. f . V35 1. m. 1 38. 7.935. 6. (afl). 7 45. 48.. . 3. . 36.1. 41. 12. 27. 13.13.  f. ~ V^3. 13. . . }. 5. 23. 36. 35.5. 30. Page 181. 29. 15. 9 15 ft. 13. 1. 7. 47. 10. or 3. 2. 20. 21 28 ft. 15. 8. 27. 4 n. 4 a. 25 J. 20. 5. v 17. 14. . ft. * 1. 37. 40. V2. 18. 2. 3J. 9. 4 W**.  3. ft. 30. 8. . 24. 2.  2. 1 f Vl3. ^.6. 14. 7. V2. If ^.18. 6. 10. 3. 39. 21. 21. V. 19. " ^_ 22. . 1. 8. 11. 42. f. 15. 2. 29. ^.  5. 3. 2. 5f. 50. 6561. 33.6. 1. 28 in. 22. 2 sec. f. 6. 4. {. 39 in. 3. 25.798 yds. 49. 2.6.. >TT 26. 9. 7.367. 4. ft. 5. 17. 39. 5. 17. 10. 34. 10.4.V 8j. 5. 12.*. 21 in. 2. 12. i ^. 5. 31.. 23. 1. 12. 32.6. V J l. 9. 16. 12.925 ft. 4. 6. 11. 6yds. 24. 4.237. 6.469.  f. 4. 36 in. 11. (< + ?>). V17. 9. Page 184.005.645.236. 10. xix 26. 1. JJI.4. 16. 15 1 10. 14. 7. J. 1&. 7.. 3. > w ft. 6. 2. 6J.690. 5. vV'TA 24. 7. ii :J _7. 12. 28. 3. >i 27. . 5.. 31.Sn. 2. 46. 9. ^^7m. 6. . 11.  43. 7 in. 33. 16n. 40. 28. 5. 18. 3.. Page 179. 6 f !.ANS WERS 22. 26. 14. 44. m. . 2.6. 3. 4.i. 9. 5. 8. Page 183. 3. 1. f 3. 3. 20. 270 sq. 12.  1. 17. a + 61. 7563.. a. Page 185. 4.w 18. 4J. vYb. 1. 4. 19.}. 1. 5. 8.243. f ^ is. f f V. 29.916 yds. l~8. 9. 4. 6V'2J. 21. / 11. 7.?.. i. 8. 10. 23. 13. (6) Vl4 3. w.522 38. 4. 4.4. 3. 16.60. Af^. 7. 10.742 in. 21yds. 6. 5. 12. () 2. 35. 25. 5083. /.1. 15. 4. 2. 10. 4 TT M 28. 2] see. Page 180. 9. 16. \/3.. or 5. 4. 6V21. 5. 2.a..
2. 23. 1. 20. unequal. 4. 3. 5. 3. 1. 2. a8 . unequal. in. 2. 0. 1.2. 6. %.a 3 a.2. 5. 45. 30. 0. 6. 1. ^l/>> = 85 ft. 15 ft. 4. s 11.4. a. . 3. 8. 5. rational. 8.3. 47.a. 28. 1. rational. 1. f. a.4. rational.  2. 40. 0. $30 or $70. #<7=3.  9x <). 26. 3. 3.41.7. ANSWERS 22. 1 .  13.. 11. equal. 21. 2.48 3.'. 1.2. 2. 6. 9. 0. 57. 1.12 = 0. . 28. 53.2. 4. . . 2. 6. Imaginary. x*4x=0. 9. 7. Page 187. .2 x2 . 0. 3. 25. 5. Page 192. irrational. . 1. 2 .6.l. 15. 41.  6. 35. V^l. 1. i. V ~ 16 4 2.2. 6. 4. 3. 31. $80. V7. 27. 2. V^~2. 64. 1_^L ft 14. 23. V2. 4. 16./hr. If. 1. 25.48.Oa. unequal. 0.  1. 20.  24.  1. 0. 2. 14. 4 da. 10 or 19. unequal.  i./hr. . x* 51.4. 48. . 10. unequal. 8. 6. 3. 0. 0. 19. 4. 2. V^l.. 12. 13. . 0. 22. 6. .5 x + 6 = 0. ft.$40 or $60. 1.5.59.  5. 7. 12. V2. 8\/2 17.37. *'' 12.1.  1. Page 191. 8 or 12 mi. f.6 = 0. 13. 27. 9. 9. 39. orf. 17. . 120 ft. 2. = 0.3.5^. 0. 28. 38. 12. . 6. 32. . 49. 3. ' 1. 6. $ 120.1. 2. v^^fcT"^. 1). 1. 2. Page 188. 64c. 2. 5 ft. 3. unequal. 8. 14. i .. 7.23.7. 10 mi.1.  Page 194. 2. 6V64. 22. Imaginary. x2 + B . Real. 6.3. 3if. 52. 3. 29. 1 3. rational. x 14. 19 in. AB = 3. 4. 0. 2. 2. Real. _ 19. 10. 2. Imaginary.2. rational. 2 V3 in. (5 10. 19.XX Page 186. 37. jr . 21. 3. . 15. 50. 10. 70 ft. 2. 25. 10 in. .a. 3. Real. r* i. 1. t is. 5.]. 7. 4. '  f 5. + 7 x + 10 = x*x 2 6x = or .  2. + 11 x. 7. 33.* 2./hr. VV11.0*8. 11.2. 7. a + 1. 2 4jr + x2 8 3 = 0.23. 55.70. . 3. 0.10. 1. . 25.  1. 58.62. 27. Page 189. f 6 52 a. Real. 44. equal. 2.4. AB = 204 ft.74.2.  5. 3. 1. unequal. . 10 mi. 26. 2. . 23. .. 46. Real. 12. 20 nii. Real. 20 eggs. 7. unequal. 1.. 3. 3. 12. 1. 24. 0..4. 15.7. 1. 26. 26. 18. 0. 20. 1. . Imaginary. 7.12./hr. 2. 21. H. equal. irrational. 3. Real. 2.  1. 3. 24. 3. .02. a + 6. 56. 2. 34. 16. 18.2. 3. Page 190. 3. unequal. 4. 36.17. Real. 6^2 in. 3. 18. 43. 0. 35. U. 16. 2 ft. 24.2. 42. 4.
12. 7 . 37.  f. 3. 35. 8. 16. 1. 3. 13. z + 22. i. 13. 5. 15. ). 2. 11. \/r\ 11. 1. m. a. 54. vm. $7. 22. 15. 3. ifa. 21. 20.^7. . . 49. 58. 243. 29. 30. 8.  5. x. 57. Page 199. Page 200. 3. 9. p. 49. 23. 19. 18. . 1. 30 a. 84. 18. 50." 17. 14. . x$. 21. \a\ \/^. 3. : . 28. V^ 34. 3. 31.. 4. J 3. 38. _! V3. fx'^z'l 23. 5. 48. 55. J.  J j. . m'. 4. vV. 7V7. 12*2 61. 3. 16.//^. I. ar 1 . 47. 15. 7.ANtiWEUS rational. 1. 8. 17. 1 39. v^T4 m. 4. . 1. 2. ^Sf 3 38. (m 26. Page 201. 3. xxi 15. 24.2. 'J. 27. 45. 49. 10. 7. 1. 53. 59. 7. aW\ 40. 29. 46. 49. 16. 2. 2. 14. 20.  f . a 18 . \ . 24. 13. 27. 1. \. 8. 33. JV37. 5. 14. 39. 9. 4. 26. 25. 3. 4. 20. . 41. 12. 52. 8. 4. jV 10. 125. 10. v/3. Jb \. 3. 1V1. 50. 19. 3. 2. 5. 2. 60. 1. 10. 5\/5. J.6. Page 196. r.32.1 5 15. 2. 13. 6. 3. 43. 23. ^49. 32. 1.  a'2 . 44. 20. 1. &. 28. 33. 14. 0. 42. 18. 31. \/3. 6  AAf. 8. 1. \/. 9. 25. r*. n\/* Page202. 5. \. 4. Vr. 0. 22. 25. 8. 4. 9. ) 2 >J i 10. *V. 19. 33. 5. 56. 36. 9. 17. 6. 17. 11. wA 46. 24. 2. Page 197. y. 47.17. . 8. v. J. l  5 12. 40. 2. 32.  48. 2. 2V a. 30. 21. 19. 51. 2. 3 4 11. v'frW. ? . 9. . 10. y . J. 0. 2 L ( V. 16. . 1. x/25. 29. v'frc 18.
4.r. 3V^T. 17.x^y* + y%. / V3. 3 4\/2. V80. 2 '"V5. 20. 6. 33. 28. 1 2 or 1 ?. 24. + 2 Vzy + y 1. a^ + 2^+1. (x' (l 1+x). V63. k/2. Va a + 2 a^b* 14. 4aV^J 16.577. ^88". 2 4 z2 l 3. 2>X2. 39. + 2). abVab. v/^r 5  A/^~.. 19. x + 5 x3 + 0. x. 62V(J. 7.632. Page 203. ^: V2c. ftV 46. V2 + 4 V22. 13 35. 8a6V5. 20. 50. a2 4. 8. 2v (T 2aVf. 51. + + ft.2 VlO. 135V6. (o* 2. 26.648. 10. 37. 31. 2. 10. + . ^7 \AOx. 29. 25. 32. 03r* 7. 30. y (a + ft) V2. JIV6. 5. 2\/7. Vz2 ?/ 2 44. 2 a?>V2 a. 11. 2 x* 15. 29. 1. y. . 45. 1+2 v/i + 3\/!^ + 4 x. + 1. 2. 6. 19. 5. 32. x 25. v'TM. . a 4 +* + !. 9 . 8V/) 15. 40. 34.  2 3:r. 27. x%  3 ^+ 1. 11. 8. 13 a. (a 27. . 3 a~ 3 (x (.). r c . 101 1. (Va (5xJ Vft+Vc). 17. 2. V 5 47. 3 \ 39.12 *^ + x 7/> x  a** + or " 2 + 1. V. Vr 8. 28. 3 42. 5 22. 31. Page 208. V. + 2 ar 1 ). 22. 26.f. 3^2. 3^ + 2). T. ?tV?w. 38. . r 17  Page 204. 23. 24. 13.  a Vft 2 121 b.3 + 40 3 . 4 or + 3 9 <r + 12. v^. . 5 ( .Vxy 35.2 18. yV35. 195V3. 9. 20&V6. . 9. 3 x^y 33.XXii ANSWERS 1. 3. 43.707. . m* n*. a 3. 16. 21. 15. 7. Page 207. 36. 13. 40. 3.yl : . 3. 18. Va 2 "ft. . 2. 37.r^ 5 a~ 2 ft~ 1 + Vft. 3V5.'\ 14. 41. 2. 2. 9. x^ . x 7  34. x y. 4. + 2 V22.rV:r. 11V3. 10. l 5. 34 r 6.692. + Vic + 25. 48. 30. 12. 1) 3V3. ). 49. 21. 16.
\/8. 1. ^9. V8. 7\/(l 7VTO. Vat. . Page 214.T*. V2. Vn. ^v 7 15. rtv/5. 13. W). 30 Vl4. b. 3\/wi. fl^Vac. . VLV/ ^i?i= a: .ANSWERS _ Page 209. ^27. 35. 6V2. 3. 2 ate. 11. \V3. 25. VT5. 2. 22. 10. x/4. 39. x/8l. 9. 6. 2 28. 37. 9. 41.30 2. 6 2\/0. 16. v^O. Vtf +3+ 33. 35. v/8. a^\/a7>. / \/w/t 4 13. 38. 4 a*. 6. . m ?i2Vm/t. 6aV2\^. 8V73\/IO. V5. v/lO.. 22. 40. 34. 31. . \^6. 7. 8v2T 12. 16. 6. v 25^4714 V2"a. aVa. 32m27n. V/.  3. 27. 74\/Jl 120 46. . 1V5. Vdbc. 21 23. 19. 3 V2. vT). 25. 37. : ^32. 2 V'3. 7. 0. V5. \/abc*. V2. V3"m. 18. % 29. 3. VJla. V3. 26. \/a6c. 39. \/2. r)\/(l Vrtr. 1. 8. \XOfl6Vi5. v/i). 2 \/2. 27. 4 >/3. 36. 10. 0. 32. __ rw 3 \~s~' ] * . "v/wi ??. 6x2?/. Page 210. 5. v^4. \/128. 11. 3 V15  47. 18. 34. w?i. 17. 48. v7^. ^\/3. v/9. Page 211. 31. 4. 4. D 45. 14. \/04a. 14. 14. 5v/2. xx 1. . 46. ab 4. 8. a2  b. 18. \^6. 3v^2. 2. 20. 3\/15  6. 4\/5. v^f. x/27. 28. . 5 \/2. 2. x/8. 17. 44. 2. 7. 5V2. 10V(). 49. x/3. 1. 15. 13.r v/^ v^fr*. 33. 42. 2 1. v/l2. 9. 11. "^8000. 3. v"5. 6. 8  \/15. 6. \^r^bVabc. Page 213. 10. 23. 2. 30. 21. '. 8V2. 29. ^ 3 b 5 24. x/w^ 8. 3\/2. 32. 5V2. 50. 24. v^a. 40. V3. 9 VlO + 4. 38. 3. 53. 5. 3 Vl5 30. v"3. 17. x/125. 24.J Page 212. 2\/7. 52. 13\/3. v^30. x/8L v/27. 43. Page 216. a\/5c. 15. 3. 36. 5. v^lf. 12. 23. 6+2V5. 26. 19. + VlO  v y (5. 4VO. 16. + 20. 12. 21. 2yV2?/. 14c 4 V5. 51.
7. 512. 17. 36. 17. 6. 28. x 20.\/TO). 2 . 4.1. (V21). (3+ v/2).3535. 7. m f. . Page 28. 22. 2x^2^. 8.1547. Vf6fVtf. Page220. 2. . 2. 13. 10. Page 218. j.625 10. 9.. 81. Page217. 4. ^(VlO\/2). 29. 16. 21. fV2. 5 + 2 vU 17. Page 225. 26. (V51). 4. 18.464. 4. 3.w 6. 24. 216. 21. 23. 12. \/57t. 16. 6 V. 5. J. 8. V. 3. 4. 25. 16. 1. 7. 7. 11.  f. ^\/2. 2. 12. {. 16. 18. 23. 1. 20. 25. 1. 9. Va. 5.6 V3. V35. 8 V3V2. 30. 32. f. 100. 15 f 3 V2L 4.81.  . 13. Page 219. 15. 18. . 7. 10. 3. 11. 1. 19. 10. 26. 5. 37. V^TTfc. 125. 25. 6. A .W + 12 v/7  3 \/15 . 4.13. 34. 8.  2. \. 10. 8.601. 2. 15. 14.3. 5. 17. 15. (\/3f 1). 64. 24. 4. 11. 18. 9. 19. 2!5_. 1. ^. 8. Va. 9. 8. 27. 2. 7 Page221. n*. 6. . 24.7083. 3(7+3V5). 4. V6c. 15. 1. 11. 4.2828. 3. 2. 11. 22. 5. Page 226. 35. ^. (VaT^v a).732.2. V3 . 5 f. 14.V3). 14. 13. xy 2. 11. V2. (2f V"5). 0. 2V3. 9. _^JflJ?. K>/0 + \/2).64. (V6 + 2V2). + 6) 2 . J. 16.  13. nVTl. 5. 7.5. .0606. +3 V2). (2Vll). p 6 13. 2V2. 22. Page 223. (V5f 5. V3. 21. 29. 23. i(Vf Vft). + 5V2. 30. 33.1805. 4. !^ 6 4. 9. 9. 25.9. 224.7071. 1. 20. (V8 + V2. 1. 2ajV2*. 7 f 5 4. 5. . 12. 20. 12. (VllV2). 4. 1. 8. 9 mn. 7. \/3). 12. 10. 3V23. 7.3. 1. 6 (V2 + 1). 19. 5.5530.2. 4. 14. i^ ~ 1 v ^. 6. 16.^ (\/22 4. V5. 21 ' Vob 26. 31.4722. ' 22 i . 23. 10.732. 16. . 1. 4V3 + 6. 16. 3. i^Lzi. 4. 27.XXIV 7. (a 1. (Vf + (4 V2). 25. V3. j 15. 5 V65. 23.4142. (2. . 2V3. 20. ANSWERS 8. ~ Vac _c 0. 6. ^r. 24. 0. 17. 19. 10. 2. 81. 5. 3. * 3.6. 4. 12. 9. . 4 14. (2V2). 15. 25. 9. V3. . 19.389. 8. 27. (\/5V2). 3. . 18. 4. 25.
1 . 2 <? 4a2 . 1. 1 . (la&)(l46 + 2 & 2 ).  .  4.w 4 + 1). o& (3m 3 7)(9w 6 +21m*+49). 1 . 5. 4.2)(* . 2.  5. a(l+a)(l_afa 2 ). 15. 14. 5.l)(m . qpl. 7. . 2. 10. 25. (&y2a#H4). .0. (xy + 5) (x*y* . 1. 7. (m 4 + l)(ro. 28. 2. 3.5.a) (04 + 8 a + a 2 ).  16). 0. XXV 4.2. 87 . 17. 1 (?> x/^3. 24. . f>. J 24. 0. 1 . (+!)( 2) 10. (rt. 12 24 y . 2. 2. 3.3. 26. 2. (63)(6' t 18. . t/ 23. 6. 3. 22. 2. 6. 14. 22. 3.l)(a 4 + a + a 2 f a f 1). . 5. 17. 3 . 23. 1. 3. . 5. 20. 2. 3 5. 25. 11. (B43).22. 11. . 4. 3. 6. (a+&)( 2 14. 4. 3. 4. 2. 7. 17.1. 11. (a . 24. a  .4. + 6 4 )(a*a' 6 + a 2 6 2 a& 8 H6*). 2 &. 1. 6 2 2a + 2). 1. y. 18. 3.  1. 3.3 2.3. 7.2 + (row)(w4w)(w a + 6mw f w 2 ). 5.  J. 30. .  2. 16. . 8 6 & 0. (r. 13. 4.^a. 5. Page 236. 4 20.  1. 1. 30.  3. 9. 2. 11. 6. 2 . 4. 2. 6.  3. 10. 12. (pl)(p3)(p6). 3. 3 . . (w . 4 4. (a2)(:iB2 f 2a44). 2. 5. . 2. 13. 8.2 ) ( 10 w 2 n 2 f 4 winy 2 Page 231. 1. 5. 10. 3. f . 5. a .1)(4 a + 2 a + 1). 1 6. 1. 5. 0. 1 3. 0. 4. P. 9. 1. 2. J. . 0. (2 a.. ~ f7. 30 30. 2. b . 4. 5. 2. . 1. 4. . 12. 73. 56l).4. 8. 3.l)(a 2 + a f 1).3. 1. 2. 1.2. 3. 0. 4. 2. 2.10.7. Page 234. 10.l)(a3)(a . 4. 50. 7. 4. 25. 11. 1. 2.+ ^)( 4 a 2 6 2 h6 4 ). (a + l)(a*a 8 + aa + l). 0. (w2)(m3)(2m + 5). 2 .12. 3. V3.8a 18. (1 +a 2 6 2 )(l a 2 6 2 +a 4 6 4 ). //. (a 4.f 2)(sc 2 2 r + 4). . . . \/0. J. 3. (10 #0(100 + 10^ + 4 ). 2 6. ( 16. 13. 4 . =A^Z3.ANSWERS Page 228. 20. 6.1. 14. 4. 3. l. 3. 1. 4. 5. 1. 18. & + 6 2 ). 4.Y.  f . 3. 25. 16. . 1. 2 .r . 5. 30 . 7. 19. 3 . (s + l)(x2 :r + 1). 2 > 1. 3. 3. 4 .3). 3 9. 5. 2. 73. 20. (a + 2) (a Page 229. 12. 15. . 3. 8. 4 1.nl^EI. 2. 1.3. 2 .4. 10. 2. 4. 21. 3. (4 mn . 2. (wp)(w2p)(wi3p)(w*42p). 9. 12. 27(2 a 4fc)( 4 2 2 (a 4 &)(* + 4 & + !&*). 4. o. 2 V^ . (a. (2a + l)(4a*2a + l). 2. 1.  3.5 xy + 25) 22. 3. (a. 7. . (8.4). 2. . 1. 19. 4. 21. 8. (pl)(p2)(p2). 1. 13. 100. J Page 235.3. 0. ' J. 8. Page 233. a: :} . 13. 2 6. 3.2.2)(m. 1 . . 3. . 11. 2.l)(z 2 + z + 1). 19. 12. 4. 6. 2. 10.3. 8. 15. a(. 7.
20 in. 26. 5. 1. 35 a. 22.y. 6. 37. ^~2. i. 1. 4. in. 84.1. 20.. 1. 288.200. } . 3. 2. in. f*. 4. 2. 5.  2 . 4. 3.. 37.3. 8ft. 2n. 12ft. 7. 4. m28. Page 248. 5. 11. 3. 4. 1. 10. in. 15. 3.. 15. Page 238. 33. 5. ANSWERS 2. 2. ( 3. . . 2 2. 1. 12. \/6. 2 26.1. 2. 18. 2. 15. 3. 7f solution. i i i . 3 cm.4. 6. 3. 15. 2 ft.xxvi Page 237. 2. 4 6. ft. . 1. 1. 3. 2. }. 7. 125 125.3 . Exercise 113. 40 25 in. 14. GO . . 3. 14. 8. . 2.. 4 . 1 2. 4. . 20 7. no co . 3. 35 ft. Page 243. m + n. . in. . 17. . 69. ft. 5. tn 2.13. 4. n . 2 . 3. . 12. 7. 23.0. 14. . 30 13. 3 . 3V5. 2. . 1.  . 1. 7 3. . 5. 4. 3. +  n. 3. 16. 32. V3~. $46. 31. 36. 22. 2V7. 1. . 5. 3. 2. 9. 8. 5 . (a) 5. 14. 21 30. . 15. 3.5. 12 ft. Page 240. 5. 4. 4. . 41. 2. 5. . 7. . 512. f>. J. 38. _ 13 (0 6. 19. 8. _ 5. . i'ljVU.18. 7. 3. 4. 12 d. 4. 31. . 9. _ 7. 1 . 1. . 1 . 4.3. '>. 5. 14. 2 . 45yd. 0. $. 48. 11. 37. 12 1. 1. oo. 3 3.1.e. 6. 11. 10. in.. 5. 900. 1. 3. 18. 512. 1. 4.3. 3. 1. Page 241. 2 16. 39. . 5. 2. 15. 12. 3. 5.0. 8 3. 16. oo . 23. 6. f.  11. 1. n. 20. 17. .5. co . 1.3. 1.136. 4. 2.. 5 4. 0. ri*..3. 13. 3. . 1J. 3. 1.6. 400. . 2. . 18. 5. (/>) "_. 3. c. 1. (&) 2. 40 1} 9 3 ft. J. m27. 7. 1. 2.. 5. 4. 4. 1 ..4. 8.4. 2 Y> V . 1. $VO. 35. Exercise 114. . 4 8. 2. 30. 35^ 5. Indeterminate. \. 5. 78. 8. 5. ^ }. oo . 29. 4. 17. Indeterminate. . 3.2. 9. . 2. 1. 40 in. 28yd. 2. (>. 2. 12. 0. j. 16. 8. 2 1. 6. i j. 2>/3.. 10. = QO 6. . 5. 1. ft. 1 . 55. 21. 201. 19. 2 .3. 4. 2. 12.  1. 2. (a) $3400. 1. 11. 11. and _ 4.3. 7. Page 244.30. 1. 1 . 3 . . 4. 3. 1. 3. . 9. 25. 3 . 5050. Page 245. 40. 4. V7. 14. 24. 14. 3 4. . . 10. . J. jj. 50. x 4. 8 . 8. 50. 12. 17. 1. Page 247. 30. 17. 2. 1. 17. 3. 21. 2. 1.6. 8. 1. 3. . 4. 1. 3 2. 24. _ 10. 15. J.020. 11. 2 10. Page 239. 9. ' j. $. 9. 5 cm. 13. 4 34.4. 13.
8 4x' 2 . 2. 1JH. . 27. x r 4. 5. 7. Page 258. . \ w 4 . :r 4 4 8 x 28 x~ 60 . 11. 4950 M 2 b y *. 910. 4. 12. 16. 2 1 x 4 6x'2 12. . 19. 43. 13. 4. 18. 35. 70. 4 0. 70. 22. I. 6i. 20. 405. 2.6 . 10. 35. 2. 6. Jj? 45. 16. ' 1.6. 7 x4 17. 16. .<2 4.10 a 3 ?/2 10 4<J aW 4. 5. 18. 2. 304. 11.5 J4 10 47 d*b 6 4 4. 17. 12. 44. } $ 50. c. 6. 17.3 ays. 3. 4. 2. 10. 8.384. 4. 4. Page 254. 7. 9.920. 22. JSg. 1. 708.ANSWERS Page 250.  17. 1.r x>/ 7 3. '23. . (?>) 4 8(2 V2). 2i* 7f. 13. 4. 12. 4. . 280 53. 15. 100. 23. 10 14. 2. 8. 53.4 &z x>&. % 4 20 ab* 42 330 x 4 15. 12. x4 . 21. vy. 3 4 15 a 8 11 4 14 a  1  2 y* . Ja.8. 2.130 x30 189 a 4 24. a. 6. 125. . 19. 16. 1. 10. 7. 28.5. 19. 4. 4.^ ?>i 2412x4. 12. B . 0. 04. 1. 12. 15. 495. 8 .^ x2 ^x w ^2 ? .  101. 9. A. 12.  20 flW. 8. 5. 0.2 45 a 8 /). f y 8 + z* . 8. 8 1. <.5 M ' 41 fc 5 . 2.419. 5. **+. ~ an . 6. . 8J. 50. 11. 6.470. 7. 4. 1. 0. 1 14. 18. 128. 3. 45 Page 257. REVIEW EXERCISE .x^ 4 x8 15 x 4.5y 4 . &' 14. 8. 1.1. 327. ~v 9.170. 3. 12. 343. Page 252. 1. 3. 0. ?/i 6 x llj . 21. 120 aW.120. 4.^ 448 x a' 3 /') . 2.700.53. 15.4.504. 14. 5. 005. i 10. 05. 220 . f r6 4  20 rV 42 15 xV 8 . 10. 81. 8. 1. 3. 8. 5.5*7 + ^4 1 12 w 4 10 x' 2 //^.x' 10 . 2. 29. w9  8.r* 4 70 . 9. Y11. 410. d. 13.13. 3. 3. 500 x3 10 4 4 072 a? 3 . 70. sq. 7. 7. J 2 //2 25. 4. . . 6. 105. 10. 7 2 x 4 x8 . 8. 4. 9. 3. 10. 4. />*.K 4 4 50 x 5 4 28 x 4 4 ^8 1 g ! . 0.2 9. 6. 16. 2. 2. 0. 55. 16 11. 20. a4 4 14.210. 15. 2. 5. . ^a 8. 16. 27. 3. 5. 1. 4. 343.680.192. 45. r r j. x + Vy.5 x. . 04. r 5 4. 18. 25. in. f 7 ^ 14 x 84 4 . 1000 aW. 125. 7. 26.15 x 4 //'?/ a5 4 J 5 4 Z> 4. 3.5. 8. . 4. 45. 1820.r^  280 x 4 4i^S + 6. 7. 5.7 10. G.12 x*y 16. 15. 8. 27. 192. Page 259. 6. xxvii 1. 27. 3. 5 13. 48. 5. . 17. (). y ^ 5  ^\ ).870 m*n*. 1.r 4. . .v Page 253.0. 9. 0. 5. 6. and 1. 9. 75. 32. 20. 0. 4. 1. 0. 1 7 4. 3. 3. 16.
 + 3 x2 . 24. 22. 3 c . xyxzyz.c 3 4. .a 2 x 2a . 76. 4 Page 264. ft /> 78.3 mn p 2/ x 4 . . 1 a"* 4 an . x2 2 . x2 + 4 x7 9 y2 x4 4 4. 5x + 2y~z. + z. x3  15 x 2 71 x  105.x.3 . f5+7. 0.  4 a3 85. x 3 4. .41. Page 260. y 4 z* 0. 4. 2 x'V2 90. 49. 24 a 2 6 3 x3 0. 2 2 x2 ?/ 2 4 63 4 ?/ . . . 3 a 44. 63. 4 15 x 5 .a" xy 2 2/' 3 . a J . 3~ n 4.  . .  3 x2 . 27.2 xy + 4 y2 106.4 x y 87.2.1.ac 44 aft. 130. 6 a2 97. x2 471x4.a*ft 2 126.3 x?/ 2 1/ 4a 3 a o_a 4 a2 +l. x 3 41. 2 . az 4. 3a~2c. a* 4. a~b 89. 125. . 2 x2 4. 37. I 57. ?/ 3. . 2 . x 8  a8 .c. x4 3 4 2 x 2 4 0. . 30. . + 28 x2 13x 3 56. .3 aftc.2. !! 71. 3 a .xxviii ANSWERS 19. 88. ^ . 9 2w 128. df.7. x3  15 x 2 48 ?/ .36 xfy 2 a 8 ?* 3 4. . 4 115. 15 ab 4 Oac 4 6 be. 4 .x 51. t 81. +^ + ft W. 28. . 0. . 25. 122. 5x 2 2x43. fc' 6 p'2 q  54 ? 3 . 12 a/. 4 65. 6 c 47. x 4. r 5 VFTx + vTfy + 1. 91.15 x 6 x4 ?/ Ilx 2 ft a8 4 8 y4 . 4.. (d) x  (a) 2 x 2 ?/ 4 ?/ (ft) 2 y 2 y 2 g (c) 3 x +y 11 a: y 4 3 2 . . 127.3 b .1 4 jry 4 x . 1x 4 x3 xty6 a 24 3  Page 262.a6 2 4. 4 fee 4.4 2 4 c2 42 . . 93.3 a 2 '6 w 4. 104. 2 .  ft 3  13 a 4 + ll a 2 2.15 4 62 x  72.5 3 2 y2 5 a2 4 2 aft 4 ft. 6y 2 a2 _52 45 = 73().  + 16 a/> 8  a*2a 2 6 2 +& 4 74.105.x24 73. 2 113. 3 a 5 a 5. 36 + 9c9 a x3 4 + 8. 36. 62. &p 84. 4.1. ?/ . 29. ft2ft 4 4l. 72. fi :ry 42 4  a 2 4 a 2 ft 2 3 119.9 x . 3 r2 2 ?/ 2  ax . 66.a' 'ft 4. 43. 9x. 6 8 j27 40 ab. 13 + 2 s.4 x 2 . . 3 y2 2z2 ~3xy?/. 2 2/' . x 8 + x 4 68. 5 4 4. 16t/. .^a . 114. 2 a. ?> . x 8 + x 4 y* 67. 64. 124.{ 54. 5 42. 70. c3 4 58. 80.  e +/. 4 ! .1.18 x?/0.1w 77. ft x6  3 x5 4 9 x4  27 x 3 1. 96. x . 31. 110. a 3m 4. 102.4 x?/2 3 4. 2 x2 108.4. + f 2 2 (/) 2 34. 4 2 . 243x4729. 86.6 am b\ 129. 39. 1 x 45. 6a6c. a2 2 aft 2 2. a4 x.6 b. 32. 94. Page 263. 2 53. 2 30 . 107. a* a 8 a aftc.+ 4 2 ft) (a 4. 82. x?/ 2 2/V2 4 2 x2z2 4 92. 7 + 3 xf 2. 61. 10 a 12 b.ft). 132. (a + ft)" 98. 2 q.y*. 8x3 8x.x4 + y'2 z 4. 3 36 b c .7 x   15.4. 99. 4ft y3. 23.5 3n 4. 8 x* + 27 y 2 x2 2 .a'2 c. * 60. . 3a'2 Page 261. x' .5 b + c .x 2 4.2. 133. 2 a2 4 aft 5 116. m " + n + P3c .3 y.4. + 3 a?. 109.18 ?/ 5x4. 2 2 *  3 2n 101. 40. 81 ?/ 4 108 xy 3 75.rty x2 4 123. .  12 a. 0. /> 4 83.4. 4 4 4 ft*" 3 4 + 2'2 ~+ 2 81 x2 134. x4 f + 23 . 35. 1 121. 16. _55_7c 48. + a 4. 21. . x2 3x2/?/ 2 112. ft n . x8 x2 55.c. 14 x . x 2 .5 a 2x8 x 3 . 2 2a 2 2 2(a. a' 111.3 x 2 + 3 x . 105. . 120. .a. x2 5r*x ft 5 . 8 .3 a'ft. 38. a 4 .4 ac.2 x 4.1. as 20. 1 + 4 xy. 118. 2 2 9 ^4 2 59.2 x^.fee 2 4. 26.9 b. x* . 1 . 2 aft 3 4 3 ft 4 .5x4. () 2 x 33. 131. 10 4.x x*  f 2 ax 4.5. 50. 100. x' 79. 4 69. 12 x. 46. . x } 4. 52.3 103.2 c . x2 a2 1 .
r . 8(ar}(/)27).1(5) 200. 208. . 164. 238. 199. HI. 1. 1. 166.3). 226. 224. 240. Page 266. 161. ( jc // a 2 (a1). 10 in. (ab + 8) ( 7). 167. (a} 59. y3. 36ft. 183.2. 10).1). 2. 5. 1. (32)(2a ftc v?y(x + 223. p. 12 6 panes. 148. (x^ + x1) 234. 179. 75. 2 xy(3 x . 207. 15.3) (2/3y). 12. (/ 246. Page 265. xxix 139.y) (\r3y). 197.. 169.2). 12) (j. 48 h. (JT y 225. fc'2a+62c).l)(a 2 +3). (c) 160 C.6)(4 + 6). 172. (6) 40. (8x + 3)(3x4).y). G7. 2a(42ft)(2fo).6 . 1. 32 h. a. 202.4xl). + 22). 12 yr. k. 180. 184. 235.r & (a + ary c)(a 1 2 + ) + 3y). (r^x + 1). 15  a. 8 204. 157. . (y _ ft)(y 4. 209. 37 1. z(x10)(xl). 154. (?/+l)(yl). aft. (7x2//) 203. 147 mi. 160.y + 3)(r (. + y. y  y 165. 3(x . 140. (r7y)(ai.2ac + 229.  1. 144. yr. 10). 191.3 y)(a . 6. 189. 15. 220. 239.. 2 2 (a. (y7)(y + 188. 2. 158. y. 20. 136. 181. 205. (y + 1) a(3 + 26)(3a2ft). 20. 168. 138. ( + 2y)(2x3y). Or (a + 2)0el). 175. 178.y)(jc + 7 y).2) (3 x .m)(x + a). 2 (4 x . 241. 1. 230. 30 yr. 50.9)(xf 2). 19. 4 2 ?/(x  ll)fx 3). a 2 (15. 30. (3x2?/)(2.1). (233).3 y). 2. 151. m. 149.l)(y + 1).1). 18. 247. (7 x + y +y+ 2)(x . 163. (x + l)(xl)(y + l)(yl).. 24. 143. (y 7f))(y 196. 3. C3 y _l)(. 7. 2^. 4. . 12 yr. Iff 145. 170. (a 2 +l)(a*+ 1). p.I2y). 156. 146. Page 267. 2(x8)(x3). ft.c2 )(a 2 2 +2a/) + c 2 ). 190. 214. 210. (3x  . 185. + 2) + 9a. ?. + 6 y) (x 2 y) . (x + 2)(x ./_4). 162. 231. . 193.6) (2 x + 1). ? >2 ft ?) ft 242. (a 2 + 2a6. 212. (x 227.2 )(x+y) 228. 195. + 11) (a 10). 173. 12. (y_24)(y5). (5 x . 177.y2 ).l)(x8 + x2 . 22. 152. 182. (2x3y) 3 xy(x. 4. 1. 236. 142. 2. 176. (at (4 a +!)( + 3). 187. +)(x2 x^+2. 206. 216. 218. . (ox + /)(5xy)(x+3 y)(x3 y). (a& 192.r + 4). 30 + xyr. 171. ry(x (a (y + + * 221. (2 198. 244. 201. 2(d)(rt + + c+c2). 211.11) (5x 2)(2x + 3). a + 2x2 ). 155. x(x + 6) 213. (x  42 yr. (. 233. 2. 10 ft. 215. y 245. (2a + l)(a .ANSWEKti 135. 222. a(a. 159. + 3) (x f f>) . 232. (5x + 2) (3 x yfory) +4). as 194.3. .y)(z . 3. 186. (x + 6)(x6). + 7)(rt4).2). (3a + 4?> + o(5crt). 6).c) + or OB (2 + 4 y) Oe* + 2 s). 219. (7 c 2 ). 23 18. 1. 218. 21. 217. . 147.. r>x 2 (4x. 153. 40 yr. (y  17)(y + (>). (4 x 2 + 9)(2 x 4. 174. 237. 6. 10. x(x f 3)(x+ 2). 1. 150. 137. + 3). (x . (xyX^+y" )1 243.
0. + f.AN 8l\' Eli S Page 268. 310. 251. 258. 268.2* i^^ !^. 279. o. 250.. \')(s x  5) (x 4 2)(x 4 . (7 255. 4 11) (xJ^l^^J. (2 (x 4 (x 4 3) (x .  3xyf x// 257. ^^A^ + w^ n(w4 n) a 309. 256.   . 2 x  3. ?^ZLiZ 308. 305. 2. Ca&c 1)(M 253. 303.  7. 298. 4 II 4 )rt 5x42. a~ ' b*). 301. > 4.4). 3  262.^^^^^^^^. 307. 7 x 265. 263. ^ 299. 0. x . 260.^ ^^.4) 1) (3 x . 10. 43 '^rJ'. 249. (a 4 A)(2 x 5. (x44)(x3)(?/47)  Page 270. ? 1) 302. (x 4 (x 4 1) 5) 275. x3y 4 1)( 4 2 252. 3). 7^T 2 . 5. 269. *. *>). 266. 295. ^/>J. 3). 259. a. x12. &). x 283. 4 5.1. x 267. 2x(x)(x 4 3x44. 2 4 300. 3. x ?/ z 1.(x  4) (x4 304. 7. (^4) (x x'2 13) 5x46 . 306. 254. 264. 261. o(x4l).
 1. 407.3. 7. ?>*. 1. 360. 0. 27 ^" li'oy 3 r J // J 341. " 4 378. 2. . 404. 1. 1. 1 i 2 ^. 398. 20. 2 r36 384. 396.7. 7/i ^ _ . T\.. ^ 3 // . 377. 365. 0. Page 277. 392. 1. 380. a +6. c 402. 325. 336. 408. ?=. 394. xa' 2 '2 7/ + 4 f Page 273. .XXXI Page 272. 324. + 4 & 4 \ b. . 4. _*L'L+. 0. A^L5L. 5 ^^K^+M^ AC^Ln?).. 2 ?/ 363. 364. 405. 375. j 328.1 ')_ x'2 + 4x + 381. 406. 393. 13 391. ?/ + 3 332. A^izA??r+J!j/?_ *x 330. ab. l . (a + b + c\ . **" ~ 2 3 > + 8 x* f 2 y 4 1 ^ 350.(5 a . a + b + 6). T+^. 401. 333. . ^"" 4 s . 11. 4 A. y 4 I 340. 385. x 54 359. S. 2(q. 343 00 351. 3. 397. a) A^_. l'j. 386. 329. 4.1. 366. 6 ?/+:>. 334. 3.".vin a /r " 337. m. . 399. a 2 . 390. 12. 387. 0. + 335.H ' 2wi ^' /' . 382. L . 388. f. * 357. 2(a i 403. + x 362. Page 274. 9^. 379. <L 409. 4 rw. 6a. 389. 3. 361. . 2 327. 1.J . 2 ). If. 326. 355. 383. 2. 339.  1 356. 370.!.)Cr4)__ . 376. ^_:r f> 331. 400. 2 ab  a Page 276. 395.
482. ISJini. 20. (a  c). a 22 . 2$. 472.. . 478. 455. 33. .te + . 1. 0. 2. 506.}. ' $260 at 0%. 444. 463. Page 280. . 426.3. 2. 2. a* 424.0. 496. (&) true. A $ 3500. 7. .488. 7.4.2.7. 485. 468. 448.  f>. 4.  10. 507.2.  2. 465. 432. 436. 480. 0. 6. Page283. 24 days. 460. . fc. 427.. 5. 32. 84. z8 +?/ 3 431. + b ' + a __ b c ' 2 w f w 417. 484. not true. 429.4. 410.. Page 278. 10.  453. 0. 8. c.}. . . 10. 0. . 2.  505. 495. $2000 at 0%. 7. & 491. . 17.7. 446. 483. ft 5. *+. fj. 0. 32 yr. 462. \. 9. \ 1. 412. 2. !L=4. 10. * . 479. 12.XXX11 ANSWERS ab. . ISjmi. 6. 501. 7 : . 1. L (c) I. 439. 450. 6. (c) not true. '. 508. a + + ft c. 418. 5. 63.  2f 504.  7. 494. 8. . 466. 493. . 5. 5J. 3. 11. 6. i a b 451. <L+ 6 (. 2 a 2. L2 a  6 . 42. 422. 3a 4 5. 445. A 5 mi . 461. 499.vz in. 486. 481. 1. i. 5.55. 4.  1. 20 yr. 430.  .7.7.. 0. 1. Page 281. 18. 428. 452. : />a. 4. 497. 477. 2.. Page 282. 457.5. (&) 443. 10. 10. 420.  1. m 1 : wi. 22. 502.. . 90. c 6fc 10. 2 438. 51. 1$.7. 5. 454. 3. 425. 435. 423. . 8. 440. 467. m.m  m+ M in.  2. 10. 456. 6 f c a + ? & ~ a 0. 14 miles. 10. 413. 1. 487. 7.3.} ' c^acjd} ^ fcfZ a/ ?>rf + 86 (. 419. 5. 447. 40 oz. 476. . 17. 498. b 449. 441. 490. 2. 4. 3. 6. 442. 2. 411. 10$. ^. .  2. ^r?i 434. (a) 1.0. . (d) true. 53 yr. 6.489. (d  6) f. 2. 459. 3 .  7. 21. 458.rz Page 279. 492. 421. 6. . + () 433. 0. 40. 1 a /?$+&?. B $ 2500.1. 2. />c c(f be.12. 503. B 4 mi. 464. 500. ^V. I.46. 8. 7. 50. . 28 yr.
. . M ft c 2 ft 3465.53. + 35 86 4 4 &8 3 + 589. 563. ^ ft 4. Page 288. a*8a + 24tf 82a. T .02.  ft*.5+. da.9. 1. imag. 526. Roots imaginary. 1$. 516. .  2.  557. 3. 6435. .5. + 26 + . 3. 4. 4. 561. 1. lead.20. 2(6 597. (i) 3. 510. 550.35. 566. o> . 3.14. 1. 555. y% Z * 586. 512. 8.4. 4. 579. 574.1.56 sec.73. 591. 530. 552. 3. 556.4 x + . 1. . 1. (/)  10 to 8.   (h) 8. 529. x8 .24. . l+4x+0x 2 +4x 8 f x4 4 4 594. 2 a 8 x 8 + 6 ax&fy 2 x + 12 a 2xt2 b*y'2 + 2 6 4 ?/ 4 595. ft 584. 1. 576. S82 c.31.3.24 sec. J7] min. 582.7. 5. 518. 577.. 569. (ft) 4.83. 575.54.62. 2 imag. . 24 da. 1. 3. 554.  imag.8.  2ft da.1. 3. 583.4. 536.37. 1. . per hour. 1. 2(4 602. 1J.3.54.  . 2 2. 1.4.0. 3.15. 513.1.5.1.  + + c. 578.5 f. 40 Ib. _ 4.5.0.04. 232. 2. 27 y* f\4 . 564. 573. 6.25.  3.0.xj/ f xV .xV f +6 a2 &2  4 6.62. 4* da. 527. 3.4.6.f 1. a+ Page 286.  4. . 3. . 5. (6) 3. 2. .  (a) (d) 1. 115 Ib. 2. (e) (c) 2. 4 mi. 514. 2 . 3. 2. 2. 4 8 x2 ?/4 605. 4. 560. 4. lead. tin. 4..6.5.02. 525. . 565. 1. 2 10. per hr. 1.7.3. . a + ft  a  f c. 3. .7. 599. 6.10. 531. 7^ da. 1. . 4.10. (a) 74 Ib. 1.21 a2 + 3x + 3x2 rA 86 3 4 ft + 35 4 + 21 2&6 fts + 7 7 rt?> 6 a^ _ 8 +^ 57. g(rc+ 6c). 8 a6 42x + 8x2 + 2x 8 4x4 601. Page 287.05.75. 0000. f._ ft 523 a 2 ftc 2 524. 0.3.  2 a*b + 3 a6 3 . . . > ^ .  J(a f + 2c). f ? a f ft __ + c C).16. 551. 1. 533. 2.4. Page 285. 581.ANSWERS Page 284. a 7 687i 588i tt e a _ _3 7 ir 7 rt e & + 2 1 a 5 ft 2  rt 4^2 + i 3 ^254 590.5. 3 . 21*_. 593.4.78. 3. 4 0.55.0. xxxin 511.8. 1 1  2 x 7 2 f 3 2 x' 2 + x8 f x4 . 1.02. <z ft 1. 24. 2$. 571. 1. 2 1.8.33.12.83. (c) 4. 4. 1. 553. 598.6.00.30. 562. 31. . 509. a f ft + c.2. f36a28x8 592. 3 da..25m.3. tin.% rr\* 585. 1 600.24. (6) . 1 . 3.78. (e) 570.03. .31.8. 1. 3f 4f. 5. If 572. . 7. 528. or 8.51.  (a) 2. + 6 tf f 3 . H. 567. 5. 603.3. . 1. f.2 xt/ a4 + x3 4 6 x4 3 xG fx. .03. 4. 515.1.52. _^ 2754x . 1. 1 580. . _ 3.6 2. (ft) Ill Ib. 1. i _ 4 sc2 + 6 + 10a:8 + a6) . + 26x2 + 10 x4 ). + 12 x . (c) 3. . 8 mi.38. .3.04.  1. 568. 2 . . 559. 2.02. 1 . 2.1.6. 2 1.37. 2..88. 8 +3 x f 6 x2 2 a4 & 604. (gr) 10 1. 532.75.21. 558.3.15. . . . y 4.r8 596. 3.  7.8 x3^.15. (d) 537. 14.
666.y. 679.2f (5 4. If 658. ^ 1. 613.25. 4330 da. 625. ft). . 1 704.04. 50. 644. 652. 5. ^. 669. 11. 647. 25. 683. 672. / V^+lO^M"^. 648. J^^. 640. 621. 650. 4 V 0. be ac \. b 664.002. 3. 1010. 1 V5 1. 618. 1. 8 6 fo . 701. 009. 9. 608. 633. 5002. ANSWERS ( 3 x 2 S 2 . 2 / 2 4. 657. n^l +^. 696.  2f r 659. 626. 2. 6. 642. 2 + 36 )K3 + ( 687. 4$. . 631. 607. V7. 2 ab + a  &. I}'/. . a 2.  684. 2. 616.  13. 7. 660.b 686. 0. + 2 A (i f Page 291. 705. /> 4. b. b . 2f. 4. 2. 13. a 1J. 3. 7003. ^^ 695.001. y  619. (a3&45rj. + ~^'2 + a 1. .b. 7. 628. a + b.XX XIV 606. 11.3. 2.3. a ' 2 + . 25. 2092. 692. 0.14 If 1. 634. 1 ~a . Page 289. (*_ + a: 611. .203.303. If b. 670. 706. If . 2.f 3 V^3).001. . 627. 615. 8.  3. 653. 14. 703. 971. 3 a. . 645.>A 610.  ft.43^4. V"^TJ. 1$ 639. ^. If f 667. 630. a. 629.2f Page 290. 0. 677 680. 649.  . 2 x 44 ^/. 691. 6. 698. fta a/> ^A. ix 2 . 6 685. ab. 651.3. 4.  a2  a (ab).c ) 697. a 673. 646.7/ ~ +w ( 7>) ^~ V3 ^' 3. \+ab 699.. 10. ^ _ \/3 +^~< 2 a a +^ 694. ' 674. 656. 617. V^~3). 1 ^  7Q7> b j(_ (_ x/^15). af6fc __ __ ( a 4. 3. . 5. 5. 0.  4. i. la6 2. <T! . 0. 638. K 5 2 V2. . ab 689. 2 a  6*. 8 f 3. ' fe 2 ). if 4/> 671. If. 620. 2. o. V2. 4. 636. 655. 662. 641. . 654. 612. 1. 678< 682. x3 4 3 x x ' 4 X* 609.  6.3. 12. 3 x2 . 1. 5 3. l/'3. . 4. 1m*. 2 a: 4.  4. 635. 624. a 4. . 5. V2. 0. 2f.3f l 668. 702. . 4 676.049. 2.702. 78. 623. 703. 661. . If 665. 2 a 688. 210. 643. 3 681.a~ {Z 663. fe + a. 2. 690. 708. c. 2. 2&). 622.. 1 2.0.  1. 1. \. 614. 700. z  1. 637. 898. 632. 9*.
v/7 / . 773. > 748. 728. 15 shares. 32>/2. ^^ f ^3 _ r} t 2 i3x 4 rt + + 2u: 8'o'a +a2 3 . 768. 300. 1 752.2. a db Va^T < 45da. VV> L4V34. 24. r.1 />f f + lr'~ + _L a 4 6. 777.10. 2x3^ a. 769. i^. a". rt3 2 ^i^. x\y. i 2.257.. 1 [ + '> J. 739. y  1. 722.9. 789. "V313. 8. 342V3. 3^.12 af V^ 4 744. 33^2. 47. 750. 714. 716. x i f^' . . 3. . 29\/3. . 737.r. 719. + 6 2 tf'c. 3 720. 1 I . cr*lr*. 753. + < 735. 732. 3V72V3. 746. ^ .~ . 723. 4 104 v/2. j 742.ANSWMHti Page 292.. 34. 793. 788. Page 293. 17ft. T%. 00. 5. 1. Hi a. 711. VIO\/3.11. 717.2 4 w" + 4 d" + Hid. 715. 1. ^ Ti i a*tj~ 4. fyaw&cu. a 2  x2 . 1 747. ^7xy. 721. 724. 7  3V5. 713. mn. 24 4 . 749. VT14V5. a 2 6^. 778. a + 6 +cx* 2 (t' 3 1 a*&M. *+V( x 2 "r 2 )' ^ 786. a 5 . 725.. 2\/53V2. Page 294. 756. 736.1 . . 776. . 3V7. iv/Jj. 734. 731. 25. 3V52V3. 1^ _ 760. 2 V2 .^. 733. 59. 718. 767. 792. 24V2. J(v'lO2V 791. 709.r+y> 759. 755.rJ w L 754. 782 785. 730. 710.V2. 763. v'll.^ 743. ^ ?>. 13ft. 796. 5. 740. 30\/10 764. 726. 4 x' 5 x 4 3 x~* ( 2 ar 1.V/^ 741. 738. 712. 3V72VO. 758.. 3 VlT 795.4 . 39.8. 751. 8. a:* . 729. 794. 790 2v 3v 2. 1. / 787.9.4 . 727.
2 ax 4. 4 885. Hoots . $. 5. 1. .3. ) (a' 874. 17. 838. 2 m .4) 860. 834. . 3. 2. 814.l)(x . 872. 2. Va. 817. 4 1)(4 x jc jr ::} ?> ?> . 6. (2x (r. 7. (x 2 f r . .. 6 4 V&  e " X/^^+A^ + 2 *a o l V 2 802. 2 (x 4*4. 0. 17.1) . ^VG.7)(4 x.6 xy + 9 )(4 x 2 (9x 4l2x + 10). 2 j 889. (x 2 .r?/ 50(i ( 2)(5 04. 8. 899. 799. (1 . 810. a* 4.7).4. 3. 8. 808.  ' .5) (x + * 853. (3 b . ANSWERS 798. a2 ^E*!. ( 869. \/2. n =  29. 3 . 2. b' 2 821. 2. 895. (x*y*ryz + z*). ^. 801. 20). 863. ((' 1). 6(a6)(o a + + &). 1 1. (2x3?/^)(4x2 4Ox^ + 9//%2). Hoots are extraneous. 825. x.7 4 1) 846. 823. (x + 0X024. are extraneous. ^ V}. 800.rae) (4 .10 ab 4. 11. 847. 7. 883. 811. Page 297. 851. 1 . 2 . ( 4 4.3)(x + 4). 2/ 856. 4. Page 296.y) 852. jV3 f 3. 1C. 867. 2 + 2)^ 3 + (a 4 5 f 8). X4 1).+ m f ") (a* ). (a 1) (x 4. . 841.1)(0 865. 896. 2  2. 3. 840. (a + 2 ?>c)(a 2 2fl?>44 ?/V ). 8 09. 859. 2 *x 807. 48.l)(x + 3)(2x43). 897. 3. 4. 2. . 0. 11..  1. 0. 830. m = 2. 0. J V. (xl)(^~3)(. (4 c 4. (x3). . db 7.  tt 815. 6. 892. 3.4. (  ?>) (a + ^> . . . '0 3 2 an 4 3(> n 6 ). 3. 5.1).a 4 + 1). \/5.5 b) 4 1). 813. 804. 23. + d)*. 4. . (x . 2 . 6+V7. . 1. 1. 881. (x 4. 888.XXXVI 797. 4./>") (a'.1. 13. 858. 835. %7 ?/ ( 2 >wt 2wt ft ft 4 rc f 1 '* Page 298.7). 879. (a 4 871. a^*4l)(aa 4 + l).7. 832.r4). 25.l)(x .l)(x + 2). 890.1) (a 8 . a(ry + 864. **. 2. 4. 824. _ 3 ^ 860 r + 3) . 2 806. 14. .a 3 " 4.4)(1 f 4 a 4 10a 2 ). 842. 876. 7.a 2m W" 4 ^ m f & 2m 870. 4. 891. 826. 10. f. 893.  + l(l^). 8(?/ + 2x2 ?/ ~ x 4 ). 2 . o 828. (. 882. . m 875. 849. 5. 844. 2. a 42)(x . 4 . 1. $. 4. 812. (a m . 829.f. Va + 6 + Vtt"fc. 3. 6 $. o. Va 803. 4 818. 848. 5. 2. 822. 886.0. (3 862. 820. 833. 2. 857. 827. . 4. 837. 3. 5). H. 5. 894. 816. 6.25 ?>2). (2 a . f 3 866> (9 + 8 ) 81 ^3 _ 72 xy 4 04 ^).om 441) (a 855.1)(V 2 . 819.  839. 7. 880. 887. 1.r . 2. 836. 843. x . (x . +j!>. a(ft)( 873. 3. (x42?/)(x2y)(4x . (2 4. V 3. 3. (x + y) (x f y) (x + y) (x .. 861. 2 854. 4.2) (x 4 2). 831. (2 x + 3 y} . 2 2 . 4.a 2 2 ).3. 4. 16xyV2*/^~x2 . (:r 11. (x 845. 884. 900. (am l)(a m + 1) 4m . 898.2w . 19. 868.
.. 1.. f ft 4 . 14 . Y. 8128. 3. ft. 980. T 6. . 955. .709. 985. T3. 6. J. V^3). a. 961. . 0. 6. Page 303. 496. 2. ft. . 6. 944.V~~3). 1. I) v/Ca^T)^ 2 5. i 3. 40 16 in. 930. 938. 5. 979. . 6. 958. 2. Page 302. 4. . 956. 7 ft. 115. 5l4f. 952. 333. 3. 5. V5 T 2 . 984. 916. . . 920. 1 1.. %* . 4 6 mi. 28. 906. 983. 917. 939. 10. 11. 8. $(l 4.01. 8. 5. 987. yd. 904. 73. 7. v/(ai !)(&910. r ft ' < Page 299. 8. Va926. 3 . 943. 903. 60 949. 945. 8. 959.. 66 924. 4. J(_ ft. 6. 248. 18. 2. 2 i ' a V. 963. a + .0. 940. ^y. 4. 8. 15 946. 4 . 2 ft. 2 yd. 4. 3. 5. i>. 28. 4. 925. 2. 954.ANSWERS oJV 41 6 901. 986. 11. 935. f. 6 da. 1 . 908. .. 2. 10. 8 . ft. 937. 921. 7. ft. 3.1. 927. 12 in. 912. 4.. 2. 923. 4. ft.. 931. . 28.615.. 12. tt2 19.1. 951. 2. Z ^. 911./hr. 4. 56. 8.1 = 9. 11. .I. 6 a + 3 2 ft ' 4 3 & 928. . 936. 950. . 2 1.  26j. ft. 480 8 sq. 1 _2 . 280. 3. 918.. 978.744. 981. 4 in. 0. 11. 964.2. 6 a 915. J. 4. 100 rows. 5. '3 3 in. dL 4. 3. . 9 in. 0.073. 8. 111. i(6 in.651. ft. 902. 7. w 3. 919. 962. 941. 948. 7. 1 + V953.  1 . 333. 947. 933.. V5 fj.' ifcVira^ 2 3. 2 w 914. 1. 20 19 ft. 15 16 ft. 977. ft. 909. 108.. 80. 329. 12. w. Page 301. 4. 982. 932.. 957. S07. 3.2. . 2. 2. 2. 5 . 3). 12.111.. 6 . 0. =F J. 960.446. 1 XXXVll ' a 1. 1 2. . ?/i 6. 1).. 6. 905. 3 4 . 922. . 12 mi. Page 300. . 7 or 30. T 6. 942. i 8. 6.. 934. 6 1 1. . i1" 913.760 sq. 8.  1.
0. r = 2. 0.xxxviii ANSWERS 989. (5. 78 n+ a' x 2 t  13 . . 1000. 996.18. 1019. 990.. 1 1004. 108. 120 a. 2(2 v/2). 988. 12. (6) 8(1 . (J. 1018. 2 . 1006. 992. Page 304.378 <W and 92. 6 70 . 5 :J2 r 10  14 y + 84 y*  280 + 5(>0  72 C K 4 2 MJiy 8 r? " 8 . 1003. 9 da. 48. 4 and 1020. 243 ?/ 810 x 2 + y 1080 x* 4 5 ?/ 720 * 240 r 8 7 ?/ .192rt?)r 120 *. (Z>) 999. 9 /> l 6 /> 6 .. 192. 1007. 997. ^f (2f3V2). 120 i^l^.128 I.92. 32 13 (tx 4V3. . 8. . ~ \.  5&7 1021. 1(5. + v 2). 1 8 8 2. 993. 1010. 991. a a 13  13 ax + 78 a3 4y*> . 162. ^Trsq. 1008. 72. + 448 . 4.378 1015. 1009. 1013. 1014. Page 305. 12. 1017. 994.'^^ } ( . " 1710 rtV and 1710 252 35. 1016. 3003. 1012.870 z8 . () 12(2+V3).870 a 6 1011. 24. in. (a) 2^ + 1 \/2).  W1W JI + 1 / 1 _ _L\ a . 995. 1001. (a) (6) ^ 1002.51. 1005. X.
THE MACMILLAN COMPANY PUBLISHERS. which has been retained to serve as a basis for higher work. $1. without the sacrifice of scientific accuracy and thoroughness. 6466 FIFTH AVBNTC. xi 4 373 pages. but these few are treated so thoroughly and are illustrated by so many varied examples that the student will be much better prepared for further The Exercises are superficial study of a great many cases. i2mo. A examples are taken from geometry. xiv+563 pages. etc.10 The treatment of elementary algebra here is simple and practical. great many work. The more important subjects tions.25 lamo. save Inequalities. To meet the requirements of the College Entrance Examination Board.ELEMENTARY ALGEBRA By ARTHUR SCHULTZE. Ph. HEW TOSS . The introsimpler and more natural than the methods given In Factoring. not The Advanced Algebra is an amplification of the Elementary. All subjects now required for admission by the College Entrance Examination Board have been omitted from the present volume. physics. given. book is a thoroughly practical and comprehensive textbook. but none of the introduced illustrations is so complex as to require the expenditure of time for the teaching of physics or geometry. $1. comparatively few methods are heretofore. especially duction into Problem Work is very much Problems and Factoring. which have been omitted from the body of the work Indeterminate Equahave been relegated to the Appendix. Half leather. but the work in the latter subject has been so arranged that teachers who wish a shorter course may omit it ADVANCED ALGEBRA By ARTHUR SCHULTZE. Particular care has been bestowed upon those chapters which in the customary courses offer the greatest difficulties to the beginner. The author has emphasized Graphical Methods more than is usual in textbooks of this grade. than by the . and the Summation of Series is here presented in a novel form. very numerous and well graded there is a sufficient number of easy examples of each kind to enable the weakest students to do some work. and commercial life.D. Half leather. proportions and graphical methods are introduced into the first year's course. so that the Logarithms.
especially duction into Problem Work is very much Problems and Factoring. The introsimpler and more natural than the methods given heretofore.ELEMENTARY ALGEBRA By ARTHUR Sen ULTZE. book is a thoroughly practical and comprehensive textbook. but these few are treated so thoroughly and are illustrated by so many varied examples that the student will be much better prepared for further work. which has been retained to serve as a basis for higher work. than by the superficial study of a great many cases. proportions and graphical methods are introduced into the first year's course. etc. HEW YOKE . but none of the introduced illustrations is so complex as to require the expenditure of time for the teaching of physics or geometry. 6466 7HTH AVENUE. In Factoring.D. $1. there is a sufficient number of easy examples of each kind to enable the weakest students to do some work.25 i2mo. The Exercises are very numerous and well graded. great many A examples are taken from geometry. Ph. not The Advanced Algebra is an amplification of the Elementary. THE MACMILLAN COMPANY PUBLISHBSS. The author grade. The more important subjects which have been omitted from the body of the work Indeterminate Equahave been relegated to the Appendix. physics. All subjects now required for admission by the College Entrance Examination Board have been omitted from the present volume. has emphasized Graphical Methods more than is usual in textbooks of this and the Summation of Series is here presented in a novel form. so that the tions. comparatively few methods are given. but the work in the latter subject has been so arranged that teachers who wish a shorter course may omit it ADVANCED ALGEBRA By ARTHUR SCHULTZE. xi f 373 pages. and commercial life. save Inequalities. 12010. Logarithms. HatF leather.10 The treatment of elementary algebra here is simple and practical. xiv+56a pages. $1. without Particular care has been the sacrifice of scientific accuracy and thoroughness. To meet the requirements of the College Entrance Examination Board. bestowed upon those chapters which in the customary courses offer the greatest difficulties to the beginner. Half leather.
Preliminary Propositions are presented in a simple manner . guides him in putting forth his efforts to the best advantage. 6466 FIFTH AVENUE. Pains have been taken to give Excellent Figures throughout the book. Proofs that are special cases of general principles obtained from the Exercises are not given in detail. Many proofs are presented in a simpler and manner than in most textbooks in Geometry 8. ments from which General Principles may be obtained are inserted in the " Exercises. at the It same provides a course which stimulates him to do original time. 4. The Schultze and Sevenoak Geometry is in use in a large number of the leading schools of the country. State: . NEW YORK . more than 1200 in number in 2.. textbook in Geometry more direct ositions 7. Algebraic Solution of Geometrical Exercises is treated in the Appendix to the Plane Geometry . xttt PLANE GEOMETRY Separate.10 By ARTHUR This key will be helpful to teachers who cannot give sufficient time to the Most solutions are merely outsolution of the exercises in the textbook.10 L. aoo pages. 6. . By ARTHUR SCHULTZE and 370 pages. wor. Hints as to the manner of completing the work are inserted The Order 5. $1. Attention is invited to the following important features I. izmo. i2mo. 80 cents This Geometry introduces the student systematically to the solution of geometrical exercises. SEVENOAK. SCHULTZE. PLANE AND SOLID GEOMETRY F. 10. lines. Half leather. Ph. Difficult Propare made somewhat? easier by applying simple Notation . THE MACMILLAN COMPANY PUBLISHERS. Cloth. Cloth.r and. xii + 233 pages. of Propositions has a Propositions easily understood are given first and more difficult ones follow .D. These are introduced from the beginning 3. and no attempt has been made to present these solutions in such form that they can be used as models for classroom work. The numerous and wellgraded Exercises the complete book. iamo. The Analysis of Problems and of Theorems is more concrete and practical than in any other distinct pedagogical value. $1. 9. under the heading Remarks". 7 he . KEY TO THE EXERCISES in Schultze and Sevenoak's Plane and Solid Geometry.
methods of teaching mathematics the first propositions in geometry the original exercise parallel lines methods of the circle attacking problems impossible constructions applied problems typical parts of algebra.25 The author's long and successful experience as a teacher of mathematics in secondary schools and his careful study of the subject from the pedagogical point of view. and not from the information that it imparts. . . New York City. causes of the inefficiency of mathematical teaching. $1. of these theoretical views.The Teaching of Mathematics in Secondary Schools ARTHUR SCHULTZE Formerly Head of the Department of Mathematics in the High School Commerce. enable him to " The chief object of the speak with unusual authority. . a great deal of mathematical spite teaching is still informational. and Assistant Professor of Mathematics in New York University of Cloth." The treatment treated are : is concrete and practical. making mathematical teaching less informational and more disciplinary. . THE MACMILLAN COMPANY 6466 Fifth Avenue. Students to still learn demon strations instead of learning how demonstrate. . Most teachers admit that mathematical instruction derives its importance from the mental training that it But in affords. New York DALLAS CHICAGO BOSTON SAN FRANCISCO ATLANTA . " is to contribute towards book/ he says in the preface. 370 pages. . . Typical topics the value and the aims of mathematical teach ing . . 12mo.
i2mo. THE MACMILLAN COMPANY 6466 Fifth Avenue. which put the main stress upon national development rather than upon military campaigns. diagrams. supply the student with plenty of historical narrative on which to base the general statements and other classifications made in the text. New York SAN FRANCISCO BOSTON CHICAGO ATLANTA . An exhaustive system of marginal references. and a full index are provided. $1. This book is uptodate not only in its matter and method. Studies and Questions at the end of each chapter take the place of the individual teacher's lesson plans. Maps.40 is distinguished from a large number of American textbooks in that its main theme is the development of history the nation. Topics. diagrams. photographs. which have been selected with great care and can be found in the average high school library. The author's aim is to keep constantly before the This book pupil's mind the general movements in American history and their relative value in the development of our nation. is an excellent example of the newer type of school histories. " This volume etc. Cloth. but in being fully illustrated with many excellent maps. All smaller movements and single events are clearly grouped under these general movements. The book deserves the attention of history teachers/' Journal of Pedagogy.AMERICAN HISTORY For Use fa Secondary Schools By ROSCOE LEWIS ASHLEY Illustrated.
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