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ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
OF TORONTO CANADA. LTD.THE MACM1LLAN COMPANY NKVV YORK PAII. LONDON LIMITKU HOMBAY CALCUTTA MELUCK'KNK THE MACMILLAN CO.AS  BOSTON CHICAGO SAN FRANCISCO MACMILLAN & CO. .
HIH SCHOOL OF COMMERCE. NEW 1 ORK CUT THE MACMILLAN COMPANY 1917 All rights reserved . PH.ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA BY ARTHUR SCJBULIi/TZE. NKW YORK ITNIVEKSITT HEAD OF THK MATHEMATICAL DKI'A KTM EN T. FORMERLY ASSISTANT PROFESSOR OF MATHEMATICS.D.
1915. Published Set up and electrotyped. . September. . . May. Cushlng Co. 1917.. Norwood. Mass. 1910. Reprinted 1913. 1911.' February. January. 1910 .A. Berwick & Smith Co. IQJS January. July.COPYRIGHT. 1910. J. 1916. BY THE MACMILLAN COMPANY. August. September. 8. U. May.S.
All parts of the theory whicJi are beyond the comprehension of the student or wliicli are logically unsound are omitted. The entire study of algebra becomes a mechanical application of memorized rules. manufactured for this purpose. Typical in this respect is the treatment of factoring in many textbooks In this book all methods which are of and which are applied in advanced work are given. Until recently the tendency was to multiply as far as possible. owing has certain distinctive features. however. " While in many respects similar to the author's to its peculiar aim. shortcuts that solve only examples real value. in order to make every example a social case of a memorized method.PREFACE IN this book the attempt while still is made to shorten the usual course in algebra. and conse . not only taxes a student's memory unduly but in variably leads to mechanical modes of study. All unnecessary methods and "cases" are omitted. etc. omissions serve not only practical but distinctly pedagogic " cases " ends. Elementary Algebra.. are omitted. and ingenuity while the cultivation of the student's reasoning power is neglected." this book. but "cases" that are taught only on account of tradition. Such a large number of methods. All practical teachers know how few students understand and appreciate the more difficult parts of the theory. giving to the student complete familiarity with all the essentials of the subject. specially 2. chief : among These which are the following 1.
the following may be quoted from the author's "Elementary Algebra": which "Particular care has been bestowed upon those chapters in the customary courses offer the greatest difficulties to the beginner. enable students who can devote only a minimum This arrangement will of time to algebra to study those subjects which are of such importance for further work. TJie exercises are slightly simpler than in the larger look.vi PREFACE quently hardly ever emphasize the theoretical aspect of alge bra. may be used to supplement the other.g. differ With very few from those exceptions all the exer cises in this book in the "Elementary Alge bra". and it is hoped that this treatment will materially diminish the difficulty of this topic for young students. etc. Topics of practical importance. as quadratic equations and graphs. there has been placed at the end of the book a collection of exercises which contains an abundance of more difficult work. This made it necessary to introduce the theory of proportions . e. two negative numbers. however. Moreover. The presenwill be found to be tation of problems as given in Chapter V quite a departure from the customary way of treating the subject. a great deal of the theory offered in the avertextbook is logically unsound . all proofs for the sign age of the product of of the binomial 3. all elementary proofs theorem for fractional exponents. In regard to some other features of the book. The best way to introduce a beginner to a new topic is to offer Lim a large number of simple exercises. For the more ambitious student. especially problems and factoring. " The book is designed to meet the requirements for admis sion to our best universities and colleges. hence either book 4. are placed early in the course. in particular the requirements of the College Entrance Examination Board.
and hence the student is more easily led to do the work by rote than when the arrangement braic aspect of the problem.PREFACE vii and graphical methods into the first year's work.' This topic has been preit is sented in a simple. physics. " Graphical methods have not only a great practical value. elementary way. but they unquestionably furnish a very good antidote against 'the tendency of school algebra to degenerate into a mechanical application of memorized rules. of the Mississippi or the height of Mt. and commercial are numerous. such examples. Moreover. are frequently arranged in sets that are algebraically uniform. But on the other hand very few of such applied examples are genuine applications of algebra. an innovation which seems to mark a distinct gain from the pedagogical point of view." Applications taken from geometry. the student will be able to utilize this knowledge where it is most needed. in " geometry . and they usually involve difficult numerical calculations. nobody would find the length Etna by such a method. but the true study of algebra has not been sacrificed in order to make an impressive display of sham life applications. based upon statistical abstracts. The entire work in graphical methods has been so arranged that teachers who wish a shorter course may omit these chapters. McKinley than one that gives him the number of Henry's marbles. viz. and of the hoped that some modes of representation given will be considered im provements upon the prevailing methods. is based principally upon the alge . while in the usual course proportions are studied a long time after their principal application. By studying proportions during the first year's work. to solve a It is undoubtedly more interesting for a student problem that results in the height of Mt.
however. 1910. edge of physics. William P. genuine applications of elementary algebra work seems to have certain limi but within these limits the author has attempted to give as many The author for simple applied examples as possible. pupil's knowlso small that an extensive use of The average Hence the field of suitable for secondary school tations. desires to acknowledge his indebtedness to Mr. . is such problems involves as a rule the teaching of physics by the teacher of algebra. NEW YORK.viii PREFACE problems relating to physics often offer It is true that a field for genuine applications of algebra. ARTHUR SCHULTZE. Manguse for the careful reading of the proofs and many valuable suggestions. April.
. and Hoots Algebraic Expressions and Numerical Substitutions .. AND PARENTHESES 15 15 10 ....CONTENTS CHAPTER INTRODUCTION Algebraic Solution of Problems Negative Numbers I PAGB 1 1 3 Numbers represented by Letters Factors. Numbers Monomial Monomials 31 31 Multiplication of a Polynomial by a ... III 22 27 Signs of Aggregation Exercises in Algebraic Expression 29 CHAPTER MULTIPLICATION Multiplication of Algebraic Multiplication of ....... Powers.. SUBTRACTION. ......... II 6 7 10 CHAPTER Addition of Monomials Addition of Polynomials Subtraction ADDITION. 34 35 36 Multiplication of Polynomials Special Cases in Multiplication 39 CHAPTER IV DIVISION Division of Monomials 46 46 47 Division of a Polynomial by a Monomial Division of a Polynomial by a Polynomial Special Cases in Division ix 48 61 . ..
Quadratic Trinomials of the Quadratic Trinomials of the 78 .. Type III.. The Square of a Binomial x 2 Ixy The Difference of Two Squares Grouping Terms of Factoring . Type V.. Type II.... HIGHEST COMMON FACTOR AND LOWEST COMMON MULTIPLE 89 89 91 CHAPTER VIII 93 93 97 FRACTIONS Reduction of Fractions Addition and Subtraction of Fractions Multiplication of Fractions Division of Fractions 102 104 * . * . Type VI.X CONTENTS CHAPTER V PAGE LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS Solution of Linear Equations Symbolical Expressions Problems leading ... ... Type Polynomials.. Complex Fractions 105 CHAPTER IX FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS Fractional Equations Literal Equations . .. . 108 108 112 Problems leading to Fractional and Literal Equations . Type IV. 80 83 84 86 87 Summary CHAPTER Common Factor Lowest Common Multiple Highest VII . Form x'2 f px f q Form px 2 f qx + r f .. .63 55 67 to Simple Equations 63 CHAPTER VI FACTORING 76 I. /^ .. All of whose Terms contain a mon Factor Com77 .114 .
171 CHAPTER XV QUADRATIC EQUATIONS INVOLVING ONB UNKNOWN QUANTITY Pure Quadratic Equations Complete Quadratic Equations Problems involving Quadratics Equations in the Quadratic Character of the Roots . 148 164 Graphic Solution of Equations involving One Unknown Quantity Graphic Solution of Equations involving Two Unknown Quantities 168 160 CHAPTER INVOLUTION Involution of Monomials XIII 165 165 166 Involution of Binomials EVOLUTION ... 1*78 178 181 189 191 Form 193 ...CONTENTS XI RATIO AND PROPORTION Ratio . ....... Evolution of Polynomials and Arithmetical Numbers . Two Unknown 129 130 133 138 Quantities Problems leading to Simultaneous Equations ... CHAPTER XI CHAPTER X PAGE 120 120 121 Proportion SIMULTANEOUS EQUATIONS OF THE FIRST DEGREE Elimination by Addition or Subtraction Elimination by Substitution Literal Simultaneous Equations Simultaneous Equations involving More than .. Evolution of Monomials 170 . 140 143 CHAPTER XII GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS AND EQUATIONS Representation of Functions of One Variable .. CHAPTER XIV 169 ... ....
xii
CONTENTS
CHAPTER XVI
PAGK 195
THE THEORT OP EXPONENTS
Fractional and Negative Exponents Use of Negative and Fractional Exponents
....
195
200
CHAPTER XVII
RADICALS
Transformation of Radicals Addition and Subtraction of Radicals
Multiplication of Radicals Division of Radicals
205
206 210
.212
Involution and Evolution of Radicals
.....
214
218
Square Roots of Quadratic Surds Radical Equations
219
221
CHAPTER
THE FACTOR THEOREM
XVIII
227
CHAPTER XIX
SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS
I.
......
.
.
.
.
232
232
II.
Equations solved by finding x +/ and x / One Equation Linear, the Other Quadratic
.
.
234
III.
Homogeneous Equations
Special Devices
236
237
IV.
Interpretation of Negative Results
and the Forms
i
,
.
.
241
Problems
243
CHAPTER XX
PROGRESSIONS
Arithmetic Progression Geometric Progression
Infinite
.
246
24(j
251
Geometric Progression
263
CHAPTER XXI
BINOMIAL THEOREM
.
.
.
.
.
.
..
.
.
255
BEVIEW EXERCISE
.
268
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
CHAPTER
I
INTRODUCTION
1.
Algebra
it
may
arithmetic,
treats of
be called an extension of arithmetic. Like numbers, but these numbers are freletters,
quently denoted by problem.
as illustrated in
the following
ALGEBRAIC SOLUTION OF PROBLEMS
2.
Problem.
'
The sum
x
is five
times the smaller.
Let
two numbers is 42, and the greater Find the numbers. the smaller number.
of
Then
and
Therefore,
5 x = the greater number, 6x the sum of the two numbers. 6x
= 42,
and
3.
x = 7, the smaller number, 5 x = 35, the greater number.
A problem
An
is
a question proposed for solution.
4.
equation is a statement expressing the equality of
two
quantities; as,
5.
6 a?
= 42.
In algebra, problems are frequently solved by denoting numbers by letters and by expressing the problem in the form of an equation.
6.
Unknown numbers
;
are usually represented
as, x, y,
z,
by the
last
letters of the alphabet
but sometimes other letters
are employed. B
1
2
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
EXERCISE
The sum
1
Solve algebraically the following problems
1.
:
of two
times the smaller.
2.
numbers is 40, and the greater Find the numbers.
is
four
twice as
and a carriage for $ 480, receiving for the horse as for the carriage. much did he receive for the carriage ?
sold a horse
A man
A
much
How
3.
and
B own
a house worth $ 14,100, and
capital as B.
A
has
in
vested twice as
invested ?
4.
much
How much
is
has each
The population
of
South America
9 times that of
Australia, and both continents together have 50,000,000 inFind the population of each. habitants.
and fall of the tides in Seattle is twice that in and their sum is 18 feet. Find the rise and fall Philadelphia,
5.
The
rise
of the tides in Philadelphia.
6.
6 times as
7.
Divide $ 240 among A, B, and C so that A may receive much as C. and B 8 times as much as C.
A pole 56 feet high was broken so that the part broken was 6 times the length of the part left standing. .Find the length of the two parts.
off
8.
The sum
If
two
of the sides of a triangle equals 40 inches. sides of the triangle are equal, and each is twice the A remaining side, how long is each side ?
A
9.
The sum
triangle is are equal,
of the three angles of any 180. If 2 angles of a triangle and the remaining angle is 4
times their sum,
there in each ?
how many
degrees are
is
G 10. The number of negroes in Africa 10 times the number of Indians in America, and the sum of both is 165,000,000. How many are there of each ?
B
INTRODUCTION
11.
3
twice as
12.
Divide $280 among A, B, and C, so that much as A, and C twice as much as B.
B may
receive
twice as
13.
Divide $90 among A, B, and C, so that B may receive much as A, and C as much as A and B together.
A
is
which
14.
line 20 inches long is divided into two parts, one of long are the parts ? equal to 5 times the other.
How
travels twice as fast as B, and the tances traveled by the two is 57 miles.
A
sum
of the dis
How many
miles did
each travel ?
15.
4
A, B, C, and
does
A
take, if
B
D buy $ 2100 worth of goods. How much buys twice as much as A, C three times as
much
much
as B,
and
D
six times as
NEGATIVE NUMBE
EXERCISE
1.
2
Subtract 9 from 16.
2.
3.
Can 9 be subtracted from 7 ?
In arithmetic
why
cannot 9 be subtracted from 7 ?
"*
\
4.
The temperature
is
What
5.
noon is 16 ami at 4 P.M. it is 9 the temperature at 4 P.M.? State this as an
at
at
of subtraction.
The temperature
4 P.M.
is
7, and
at 10 P.M.
it is
10
less.
6.
What is the temperature at 10 P.M. ? Do you know of any other way of
below zero) ? What then is 7 10?
(3
expressing the last
answer
7.
8.
Can you think
of
any other
practical examples
which
require the subtraction of a greater
number from a smaller
one?
7.
Many
greater
number from a smaller
practical examples require the subtraction of a one, and in order to express in
a convenient form the results of these, and similar examples,
4
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
it becomes necessary to enlarge our concept of number, so as to include numbers less than zero.
8. Negative numbers are numbers smaller than zero; they are denoted by a prefixed minus sign as 5 (read " minus 5 "). Numbers greater than zero, for the sake of distinction, are fre;
quently called positive numbers, and are written either with a prefixed plus sign, or without any prefixed sign as f 5 or 5.
;
The
fact that a
thermometer falling 10 from 7 indicates 3
be expressed 7 10
below zero
may now
= 3.
is
loss of $ 60,
Instead of saying a gain of $ 30, and a loss of $ 90 we may write
equal to a
$30
9.
$90 = $60.
number
is
The
absolute value of a
the number taken
without regard to its sign. 5 is The absolute value of
10.
6,
of f 3 is 3.
It is convenient for
many
discussions to represent the
positive
a line
numbers by a succession of equal distances laid off on from a point 0, and the negative numbers by a similar
series in the opposite direction.
,
I
I
lit
4
to
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
6
5
3
2
1
+\
4,
+2
+
3
+4
45
+6
y
Thus, in the annexed diagram, the line from
the line from
4 represents
etc.
to 4 6 represents 4 5,
resented by a motion of "three tion of 8 by a similar motion toward the
The addition of 3 is repspaces toward the right, and the subtracleft.
Thus, 5 added to
1
equals 4, 5 subtracted from
1 equals
6, etc.
EXERCISE
1.
3
If in financial transactions
we
indicate a man's income
by
a positive sign, what does a negative sign indicate ?
2. State in what manner the positive and negative signs may be used to indicate north and south latitude, east and west
longitude, motion upstream
and downstream.
INTRODUCTION
3.
5
If north latitude
is
indicated by a positive sign, by what
is
south latitude represented ?
4.
If south latitude
is
indicated by a positive sign, by what
?
is
north latitude represented
5.
the meaning of the year 6 yards per second ? erly motion of
is 6.
What
20 A.D. ?
Of an
east
A
his total gain or loss ?
7.
merchant gains $ 200, and loses $ 350.  350. (b) Find 200
(a)
What
is
higher, is 8
 +7? 8. A vessel
(6)
If the temperature at 4 A.M. is 8 and at 9 A.M. it is 7 what is the temperature at 9 A.M. ? What, therefore,
starts
sails
38 due south,
(a)
from a point in 25 north latitude, and Find the latitude at the end of the
journey.
9.
Find 25 38.
A
22
sails
vessel starts from a point in 15 south latitude, and due south, (a) Find the latitude at the end of the
(b)
journey,
10.
Subtract 22 from
15.
18.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
From 30 subtract 40. From 4 subtract 7. From 7 subtract 9. From 19 subtract 34. From subtract 14. From 12 subtract 20. 2 subtract 5. From 1 subtract 1. From
19. 20.
21.
22.
23.
24. 25.
To 6 2 To To 1 From 1 To  8 To 7 From
add add add
12.
1.
2.
subtract 2.
add add
9. 4.
1 subtract 2.
Add
1 and 2.
26.
the one of
Solve examples 1625 by using a diagram similar to 10, and considering additions and subtractions as
motions.
27.
(a) 28.
Which is the greater number lor 1? (b) 2 or 4?
:
By how much
is
7 greater than
12 ?
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
29.
Determine from the following table the range of tempera:
ture in each locality
NUMBERS REPRESENTED BY LETTERS
11. For many purposes of arithmetic it is advantageous to express numbers by letters. One advantage was shown in 2 others will appear in later chapters ( 30).
;
EXERCISE
1.
4
is
If the letter
t
means 1000, what
the value of
5t?
a=
2.
3.
What is the value of 3 6, if b = 3 ? if b = 4 ? What is the value of a + &, if a = 5, and 6 = 7?
if
6,
and
b
=
4?
is
4.
5.
What
If a
the value of 17
c,
if c
= 5?
ifc
= 2?
marbles,
many
6.
boy has 9c? marbles and wins 4c marbles has. he ?
Is the last
how
7.
How
8.
9.
merchant had 20 much has he left ?
A
answer correct for any value of d ? m dollars and lost 11 m
dollars.
What
is
the
sum
of 8 &
and G
b ?
Find the numerical value
If c represents a certain
of the last
answer
if b
= 15.
10.
number, what represents 9 times
that
number ?
INTRODUCTION
11.
1
From 26 w
subtract 19 m.
12.
if
What is the numerical
From 22m
if
value of the last answer
if
m = 2?
m = 2?
13.
subtract
1
25m, and
find the numerical value
of the answer
14.
m=
2.
Add
13 p, 3p, 6p, and subtract 24 p from the sum.
15.
16. 19.
From
10 q subtract 20
q.
17.
18.
Add lOgand +20 q. From 22# subtract 0.
7 a=
From subtract 26 Add  6 x and 8 x.
x.
20.
From
Wp subtract 10^).
is
What sign, therefore, 140. 21. If a = 20, then understood between 7 and a in the expression 7 a ?
FACTORS, POWERS, AND ROOTS
12.
The
and equality have the same meaning
in arithmetic.
13.
signs of addition, subtraction, multiplication, division, in algebra as they have
If there is no sign between
two
is
letters, or
a letter and a
number, a sign of multiplication
6
is
understood.
written win.
x a
is
generally written 6 a
;
m
x n
Between two
(either
figures,
x
or
)
however, a sign of multiplication has to be employed as, 4x7, or 4 7.
;
4x7 cannot be
14.
written 47, for 47
means 40
f 7.
A product is
=
the result obtained by multiplying together
two or more
Since 24
Similarly,
quantities, each of which is a factor of the product. 3 x 8, or 12 x 2, each of these numbers is a factor of 24.
7, a, 6,
and
c are factors of 7 abc.
15.
A
power
is
thus,
aaaaa
6 aaaaaa, or a ,
is the product of two or more equal factors called the " 5th power of a," and written a5 " the 6th is power of a," or a 6th.
;
;
The second power is also called the square, and the third 2 power the cube; thus, 12 (read "12 square") equals 144.
8
16.
ELEMENTS OF ALQEBEA
The
base of a
power
is
the
number which
is
repeated
as a factor.
The base
of a 3
is a.
17. An exponent is the number which indicates how many times a base is to be used as a factor. It is placed a little above and to the right of the base.
The exponent
of
m
6
is
6
;
n
is
the exponent of an
.
EXERCISE
1.
5
find the numerical value of the square of 7, the cube of 6, the fourth power of 3, and the fifth power of 2. Find the numerical values of the following powers :
2.
3.
Write and
72
.
6.
42
.
10.
11.
.
8
(i)
.
14.
15.
2
.
25 1
.
2*.
7.
8. 9.
2*.
O
9
.
.0001 2
.
4. 5.
52
83
.
10 6
I 30
.
12.
(4)
(1.5)
16.
.
l.l 1
.
.
13.
2
17.
22
+3
2
.
If
a=3, 6=2, c=l, and
18. 19.
3
ci
.
d=^
22.
a*.
find the numerical values of:
24.
2
.
20.
21.
c
10
.
3
(2 c)
ab.
.
26. 27.
2
at).
b2
.
d\
23.
(6cf)
25.
(4 bdf.
28.
If
29.
30.
= 8, what is the value of a? If m = what is the value of m ? = 64, what is the value of a ? If 4
a3
2
jJg,
In a product any factor product of the other factors.
18.
is
called the coefficient of the
In 12 win 8/), 12
19.
is
the coefficient of
is
mw 8p,
12
m is the coefficient of n*p.
A
17
numerical coefficient
a coefficient expressed entirely
in figures.
In
aryx,
17
is
the numerical coefficient.
is
When
stood ; thus a
a product contains no numerical coefficient, 1 1 a, a Bb 1 a*b.
under
=
=
INTRODUCTION
9
20. When several powers are multiplied, the beginner should remember that every exponent refers only to the number near which it is placed.
3 9
2
means 3
3
aa, while (3
2
)
=3ax
3 a.
= 9 abyyy. 2* xyW = 22.2.2. xyyyzz.
afty
1 abc*
7 abccc.
EXERCISES
If
a
= 4, b = 1, c = 2, and x = ^, find the
numerical values of
:
21. root is one of the equal factors of a power. According to the number of equal factors, it is called a square root, a cube root, a fourth root, etc.
3
is
A
6
is is
the square root of 9, for 32 = 9. the cube root of 125, for 6 8 = 125. the
fifth
a
root of a 5 the nth root of a".
,
The nth
Va,
is
fifth root of a,
indicated by the symbol >/""; thus Va is the is the cube root of 27, \/a, or more simply the square root of a.
root
is
A/27
Using
this
(Va)
22.
n
= a.
The
symbol we
may
is
express the definition of root by
the
index of a root
number which
indicates
what
root is to be taken.
sign. In v/a, 7
23.
It is written in the opening of the radical
is
the index of the root.
The
[ ]
;
signs of aggregation are
:
the parenthesis,
.
( )
;
the
bracket,
the brace,
j
j
;
and the vinculum,
6. 3. 10. to indicate that the expres* sions included are to be treated as a whole. A polynomial is an y. c = 1. are trinomials. AND NUMERICAL sym SUBSTITUTIONS An algebraic expression is a collection of algebraic bols representing 25. separated by a sign (6 + c + d} is o c ^and (6 + a monomial. V^a6. 2 . 6. + c). 10 x 4"+T indicates that (a b) is sometimes read "quantity a b. is 28. 14. since the parts are a . + M f c 4 f d 4 are polynomials. 8. some number is . Val \fi?. 27. 17. V3 . V36". 4(a 6(6 + &). 5Vl6c. e. A trinomial a polynomial of three terms. d 7.10 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA They are used. 9. Each 10 is of the forms 10 to be multiplied x (4 f 1). 4V3~6c. 11. + 1]. 15. aVc^. expression containing more than one and a 4 term. b = 3. x 9. a polynomial of two terms. !^f\/03 3 ft. 0. A binomial is 62 . A monomial or term f an expression whose parts are not as 3 cue2. V2a. 13. or 9 Vx. c f d). 2. 7 = 2. ALGP:BRAIC EXPRESSIONS 24. a2 + and   \/a are binomials. 26. find the numerical value of: Vff. 10 x [4 by 4 + 1 or by 5.g. \/c. 6 a26 7 Vac ~* 2 f 9. [6c] 3 . 12. v'Ta. as in arithmetic. 16. (cfd) 4." EXERCISE If a 1.
2 3a& 2 + 3a2 6a&c2 . .19 a 2 bcd = 6 5 32 .5 ax 50 a6cd. 5. 5a2 2 a2 46cf2^^ + 3 a& +. (a (a f b) 7. c=l. 10. subtraction. 5=3. 5.e. l 13. Ex. and division are to be performed in the order in which they are written all from left to right. a 2 6. 4. 5c +d 2 . 52 . . b = 3.9 a& 2 c + f a 6 .9 5 32 2 + ^ 5 8 3 . __ E. 11 if it In a polynomial each term is treated as were con tained in a parenthesis.2 + I126. 2.INTRODUCTION 29.g. i. = 32 + 4527 = 50.19 a 6cd 3 2 3 find the numerical value 6 aft 2 .810 + 150 = . Ex. d = 0. 4a6fVaV2^. a2 11. 6. EXERCISE 8*  . a2 f + (a + 6)c 6+ a (2 2 c 2 . find the numerical value of: 9. 6. Otherwise operations of addition. multiplication.30 = 270 . .390. 16.9. + 26+3 c.4 6^9 ad. each term has to be computed before the different terms are added and subtracted. 3 2 If 1. 8. 3 4 . 6a2 +4a62 ~6c' 27 c 3 +12a(i *15.9 aWc + f a b . 2 of 6 ab If a = 5. 2 ). a=4.19 = 6. 14.. Find the value of 4 28 +5 32  *^. 1. c = 2. * For additional examples see page 268. 12. . 4 . 3. 5 means 3 4 20 or 23. x=^. d=Q.99. 3a + 56 a 2 . ' f & f c 3 8 d s . 2. 5c6 2 +6ac3 a 3 17c3 hl2o.
27. if : a = 2. 6 = 4. . 1014 The representation of numbers by letters makes it posvery briefly and accurately some of the principles of arithmetic. Read the expressions of Exs. 6 = 5. 29. 25. 6 = 3. 6 = 1. physics. a = 2. a = 4. a a=3. Six times the square of a minus three times the cube of Eight x cube minus four x square plus y square. 6. 6 = 7. 6 = 2. geometry. = 3. Six 2 . Twice a3 diminished by 5 times the square root of the quantity a minus 6 square. 35. sible to state Ex. Six times a plus 4 times 32. a = 4. and the area of the is triangle S square feet (or squares of other units selected).6 . of this exercise? What kind of expressions are Exs. a =4. 23. a. 38. 28. 6 = 5. 34. 24. Express in algebraic symbols 31. and If the three sides of a triangle contain respectively c feet (or other units of length). The quantity a 6 2 by the quantity a minus 36. a = 3. 6. 12 cr6 f 6 a6 2 6s. 6 = 6. then 8 = \ V(a + 6 + c) (a 4. 33. : 6.c) (a . 30. 30. 6 = 6. 6=2.6 f c) (6 a + c). a =3. and other sciences. 26 of the exercise.12 17 & * ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 18 ' 8 Find the numerical value of 8 a3 21. 37. 22. 26. w cube plus three times the quantity a minus plus 6 multiplied 6. a = 3.
b. An electric car in 40 seconds. . How far does a body fall from a state of rest in T ^7 of a (c) A second ? 3. 13. count the resistance of the atmosphere. if v : a.16 centimeters per second.) Assuming g . and 15 feet. (c) 4. A body falling from a state of rest passes in t seconds 2 over a space S (This formula does not take into ac^gt 32 feet. 84 square EXERCISE 1. A carrier pigeon in 10 minutes. (b) 5. S =  V(13hl4fl5)(13H1415)(T314i15)(1413f15) = V421214. if v = 50 meters per second 5000 feet per minute. and c 13 and 15 = = = . 2. b 14. By using the formula find the area of a triangle whose sides are respectively (a) 3. and 13 inches. then a 13. c. the three sides of a triangle are respectively 13.seconds. if v .16 1 = 84. d. 15 therefore feet. Find the height of the tree. 12. the area of the triangle equals feet. 9 distance s passed over by a body moving with the uniform velocity v in the time t is represented by the formula The Find the distance passed over by A snail in 100 seconds. and 5 feet.e.g. A train in 4 hours. if v = 30 miles per hour.INTRODUCTION E. i. 14. = (a) How far does a body fall from a state of rest in 2 seconds ? (b) * stone dropped from the top of a tree reached the ground in 2J. 4.
14 square meters. the area etc.14 is frequently denoted by the Greek letter TT. to Centigrade readings: (b) Change the following readings (a) 122 F. . of this formula : The The interest on interest $800 for 4 years at ty%.). the 3. (c) 10 feet. $ = 3.). square units (square inches. If the diameter of a sphere equals d units of length. 32 F.14 4. diameter of a sphere equals d feet. Find the area of a circle whose radius is It (b) (a) 10 meters. If the (b) 1 inch. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA If the radius of a circle etc. (c) 5 miles. 2 inches. If cated on the Fahrenheit scale. : 8000 miles. then =p n * r %> or Find by means (a) (b) 6. fo If i represents the simple interest of i p dollars at r in n years. 6 Find the volume of a sphere whose diameter equals: (b) 3 feet. denotes the number of degrees of temperature indi8. then the volume V= (a) 10 feet. on $ 500 for 2 years at 4 %. the equivalent reading C on the Centigrade scale may be found by the formula F C y = f(F32). meters. 5. This number cannot be expressed exactly. (The number 3.) Find the surface of a sphere whose diameter equals (a) 7. ~ 7n cubic feet. (c) 8000 miles. is H 2 units of length (inches. (c) 5 F.14d (square units). and the value given above is only an surface $= 2 approximation.
.CHAPTER II ADDITION. of $6 and a gain $4 equals a $2 may be represented thus In a corresponding manner we have for a loss of $6 and a of loss $4 (.$6) + ( $4) = ( $10). Since similar operations with different units always produce analogous results. SUBTRACTION. the fact that a loss of loss of + $2. however. we define the sum of two numbers in such a way that these results become general. in algebra this word includes also the results obtained by adding negative. we call the aggregate value of a gain of 6 and a loss of 4 the sum of the two. Or in the symbols of algebra $4) = Similarly. In algebra. but we cannot add a gain of $0 and a loss of $4. AND PARENTHESES ADDITION OF MONOMIALS 31. or positive and negative numbers. While in arithmetic the word sum refers only to the result obtained by adding positive numbers. or that and (+6) + (+4) = + 16 10. Thus a gain of $ 2 is considered the sum of a gain of $ 6 and a loss of $ 4. In arithmetic we add a gain of $ 6 and a gain of $ 4.
6 6 = 3. + (9). = 5. . find the numerical values of a + b f cjc?. 19. (always) prefix the sign of the greater. is 0. the one third their sum. 22. 12. of 2. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA These considerations lead to the following principle : If two numbers have the same sign. d = 5. d = 0. subtract their absolute values and . '. 24. add their absolute values if they have opposite signs. 10. of: 20. EXERCISE Find the sum of: 10 Find the values 17. 4 is 3 J. (17) 15 + (14). Thus. the average of 4 and 8 The average The average of 2. (_ In Exs. 18.3. 2326. 5. 23.  0. and the sum of the numbers divided by n. lf(2). 4. c = 4.16 32. + 12. The average of two numbers is average of three numbers average of n numbers is the is one half their sum. 5. if : a a = 2. c = = 5. 33. 21. is 2.
2.5. : 34.ADDITION. affected by the same exponents. = 22. . if his yearly gain or loss during 6 years was $ 5000 gain. 3. 4. 40. ' 1? a 26. 27. 41. 3 and 25. 35.3. and 3 yards. 7 a. and 4. 7 yards. . 7 a. 10. .7. 38.. 25.5.. What number must be added to 9 to give 12? What number must be added to 12 to give 9 ? What number must be added to 3 to give 6 ? C* What number must be added to 3 to give 6? **j Add 2 yards. and 3 F. sets of numbers: 13. 66. 4 F. or and . and 8 F. 34. . & = 15. 74. ^ ' 37. 43. 42. 33. 31. : Find the average temperature of Irkutsk by taking the average of the following monthly temperatures 12.4. 5 and 12. 30. 10. : 48. 29. 32. : and 1. are similar terms. $1000 loss. 32. 6. 55. Find the average gain per year of a merchant. $500 loss. 12. . $7000 gain. AND PARENTHESES d = l. 0. Similar or like terms are terms which have the same literal factors. 37. . which are not similar. 72. and $4500 gain. or 16 Va + b and 2Vo"+~&. 10. 5 a2 & 6 ax^y and 7 ax'2 y. = 13. 2.. and 3 a. 6. and 3 a.7. SUBTRACTION. $3000 gain. Dissimilar or unlike terms are terms 4 a2 6c and o 4 a2 6c2 are dissimilar terms. . \\ Add 2 a. 1. 60. 09. & 28. 6. c=14. c = 0. }/ Add 2 a. . 36. 39. d= 3. 11 (Centigrade). 13. Find the average of the following temperatures 27 F. = 23. ' Find the average of the following 34. Find the average temperature of New York by taking the average of the following monthly averages 30.13.
13 rap 25 rap 2. 5 a2 .18 35. 9(af6). 2 . The indicated by connecting and a 2 and a is is f a2 . 12Vmfn. 5l 3(af6). 13. . 11 2 a +3a 4o 2. Vm f. 12(af b) 12. 2 a&. in algebra it may be considered b. 12 2 wp2 . EXERCISE Add: 1. 5Vm + w. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA The sum of 3 of two similar terms x2 is is another similar term.sign. or a 6. b a f ( 6). either the difference of a and b or the sum of a and The sum of a. f 4 a2. The sum The sum of a of a Dissimilar terms cannot be united into a single term.ii. 7 rap2. : 2 a2. + 6 af . 3a . While in arithmetic a denotes a difference only. b wider sense than in arithmetic. ab 7 c 2 dn 6. In algebra the word sum is used in a 36. 12 13 b sx xY xY 7 #y 7. and 4 ac2 is a 2 a&  4 ac2. The sum x 2 and f x2 . 11. 2(af &). sum of two such terms can only be them with the f. 1 \ f 7 a 2 frc Find the sum of 9. 14 . Algebraic sum. 10.
+m """ 20. 2/ : Add.ADDITION. It convenient to arrange the expressions so that like terms may be in the same vertical column. 2 7 1 26. 1 27. 21. + / + 3 Va. l^S 25. 30. 6 23. is . SUBTRACTION. 5x173 + 6x1733x1737x173. n x* 2 22. a a8 ZL **. "Vx + y Vaj + y 2 2 Vi + + 2 Va. 33. 4x9' 10x38 ADDITION OF POLYNOMIALS Polynomials are added by uniting their like terms. Simplify : AND PARENTHESES 19 15. 37. without finding the value of each term 34. 35. m n ^ 2 Add: 18. 17. c 2 ^24. xyz + xyz 12 xyz + 13 xyz + 15 xyz. 36. 2a 4a4 + 6a 7a 9a2a + 8. 17c + 15c8 + 18c + 22c3 +c3 3 3 . 3a76 + 5a + 2a3610a+116. + y. ra 19. 32. 2 2 2 31. and to add each column. i xyz co* mn mri Simplify the following by uniting like terms: 29.
f 110WS: 26 aft. ft any convenient and c. . c = 1. 2 025. Numerical substitution offers a convenient method for the addition of checking the sum of an addition.41 = 3.3 a f 4 the sum a = 1. and J 2 s. to add 26 ab .6a& 7 6ca a5c + 4 be 6c 4 26 ca c' 9a& 38. 6 a7 4 5 x"2 + 7 x* 4 5 7a &+4a fi 5 4 is 6c 8 arranged according to ascending powers 4 7 a&<d? + 9 6 5 4 e 7 is arranged ac aW a.3 s.12 a& 4. .4 6c + c 2 we proceed as . s. of that letter. While the check is almost certain an absolute test e. 7 4. the following polynomials : 2a 3646 t c. 3 a f 4 1) 4. 9 q 4. 2c. the erroneous answer equal 7. to show any error. f 5 c f But 7 = 10 .8 abc . 46 4z 7 c. it is convenient to arrange the terms according to ascending or descending powers 39.20 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA . a 4. x of x. 2 . 4a46 12 q 5 2 a.c= 2.10 6c 6 c 2 and 7 a&c 4.2z and 0^9 z * For additional examples see page 259.7 2 . NOTE. 5 . therefore the answer is correct. 4 2.3 + 8 + 5 = 1 0.15 abc . 3. 5. 4 = 7. 2 Thus.2 6 + 4 c = 1 +4 a.g.2 a 26 To check c assign numerical values to then . 3a 2? . cording to descending powers of EXERCISE 12 Add 1. e.15 6c. 2 Sum. . 2z2 4?/ 2 f2z 2 5 3ar 22/2 4 4 3 /. V3.8 & c~15&c 12a&4l5a&c 20c2 flO&c . and 2 . It is not also a406 4c would In various operations with polynomials containing terms with different powers of the same letter.o c and 4. 6=2.g.20 c 5 ab 4. = .
56 w. .7v/if.ADDITION.1. 6 # 2 2 2 2 2 2 .2n 2 2 3 rz . e a4 /. 4 3 3 ^* f h <l.12(a 4. m 4 6. 7(a + 5) 4 2 and 6 4 a. a) y ^/. 4 Vc. 3 2 tf 2 l 2 ^_. 11. 2 ?ft ?/z.1 a 4 1 0. a.5 c ll& 7c 6 4. and v 15. 2 ?/.VS 4 2 Vc.a. SUBTRACTION.(b + c) 1.10 Vc. 6a 5a &47a& 4& and 7. . .3 ay 6 afy + 6 ay/ 4 10 and . in 8 3 m n 4. 18/+6y + d.a 4 a 4 1. 10a +lOa 6ll& 10. + 50 + 62 . 16e + 17/90. 4 8 3 4 4 .2 #?/ 4 5 a + 4 aft . 3 ?/ 3 ? 2 j and a 2 4. xy3xz + yz. . a 4ar ! byb 8 c^c 8 .9(a + &) . . + a + 1.a. . and and 13. 2 a.6. 7 4 5 x*y 2 y?y* 3 xf. d. a 4 a . a2 2 14. 4 3 . w* 4 3 m n 4 3 m?i 4 2w .a . 7ar + 3B 5.Ga 43x45.a 3a 9 y\ 3 afy . . v/20. and 1 4 a . a4 6(a a a2 f a f 1. </ AND PARENTHESES 2i 14d15e + 2/. 3 2 2 3 9 . 4 ajy 17.4 Va . and 12a 4 15& 20c . ?/ . 4 + 6)  5 (a + 6) + 3. 6 # 4 5 z 4 2 7. 4(a .4:xy xz 6yz. a + 1> 8 2 2 . . 2 2 . 4. 8 2 2 3 s 2 3 .8 m 2m 12.Va 4 2 V& 4 6 Vc.3 mn 2 2 n8 . ^2 1 e. 2 2 and . a 4 a .5a^6 f 6) .7m . and . 2xy + 4:XZ}5yz. 19. 4 o^?/ 4 y\ and a. d and / 3 ? 12. 2 and 9m 48m 4. 16.15 5.5 cr& + 7 6 9. . 2 3(c f a). 8. .12 6 ~5 a .3 5 Va 2 2 3 3 2 . 2(6 + c) + (c f a).12. and 5 Vb 18. and 8 3 .and 6.6) + 14(a 4 6) 4 10. a2 a.7^ 2iB 8 + 2y + 2 8 8 .
. a 6 2 c. 45a6 2 . 2 a3 a 4 3 af^.4 2tn* Sic 2 . 13 1. c 3 3 3 2 3 . + 1. does he thereby become richer or poorer ? . 22. What is therefore the remainder when 3 is taken 5? Instead of subtracting in the preceding example. f 1. If you diminish a person's debts. 1/ . m 3 3 5y 3 8 . What away is the value of the sum if two neg ative units are taken ? If three negative units are taken away 4. and 6 + 9 x + 12 26. f 1.17 + 4 ?nfy . 8 .m 4m ?/?/ d. T8a. is 2. 5 3 f 4 ?n 4 2m+2m e. . f number may be added 3. many negative units re main ? from 2. 12 xyz. and e + 6y . a s f3o $ xy and 5+a\ ^ "27. .5< 3 2 s 4^4. and 3^2 SUBTRACTION EXERCISE 1. If from the five negative units three negative units are taken. SM/Z + 2 a:?/ f x y bxyz~lx.. 1.3^* 2n 2 . 16m 7/12my d+e a 6.9aj 2. 1. 2fa 3 4 a +7a. s . What is therefore the remainder is when 2 is taken from 2? When . 1. The sum and ? 1. how 1. + n*. 1. 6 f c 2 23. +d a. 5 } and 3 m 3 7 m. What other operations produce the subtraction of a negative number? same result as the 6.11 xy + 12.3 taken from 2 ? 5. 2 8 n + <w 2 . what to obtain the same result ? total of the units f 1. 1. and 2 24.22 21.ra + m. 4^ + 3t*n l2aj 2 a. and 25. 8 f3f a n2<w +n . 1. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 4 w + 3 m + 2 m.
Ex. From 5 subtract to . Subtraction is the inverse of addition. The student should perform mentally the operation of chang8 2 6 from 6 a 2 fc. may be stated in a : 5 take form e. the given number the subtrahend.ADDITION. 6 (3) = 8. +b 3. State the other practical examples which show that the number is equal to the addition of a 40. 1. ing the sign of the subtrahend thus to subtract 6 a 2 6 and 8 a 2 6 and find the sum of change mentally the sign of . ab = x. In subtraction. change the sign of the subtrahend and add. This gives by the same method. Or in symbols. 3 gives 3) The number which added Hence. a. To subtract. 3. From 5 subtract to The number which added Hence.g. Therefore any example in subtraction different . the algebraic sum and one of the two numbers is The algebraic sum is given. and their algebraic sum is required. SUBTRACTION. NOTE. ( 6) ( = . 7. 2. and the required number the difference. From 5 subtract + 3. AND PARENTHESES 23 subtraction of a negative positive number. called the minvend. the other number is required. 41.3. In addition. 3 gives 5 is evidently 8. two numbers are given. from What 3. Ex. may be stated number added to 3 will give 5? To subtract from a the number b means to find the number which added to b gives a. if x Ex. 5 is 2.2. . The results of the preceding examples could be obtained by the following Principle.
From _6ar3 3z + 7 2 6ar3 3o2 +7 2 or3 .5 x + 8. To subtract polynomials of the subtrahend and add. Ex.24 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA we change the subtract 2 x sign of each term 42.3 r*5o. Check.3 x* . If x = l = 2 t .f 8 .
56.6)f. AND PARENTHESES from 14 a 25 Subtract the sum of 2 m and 7 m c 10m.5 #?/ 2 and check the answer. of x2 4x f 12 and 3 a2 3 # 3 sub From a3 + 2 a2 4 a subtract the sum of a 3 } a2 2a and a 2 + 4.2.a 2 j. From 5a(>& + 7c From 2 x2 8 a?y + 2 From mn f ??/> 8d 11 cf 17 d.ADDITION. +3x f & f 12 take 3 f ar f 4 x + 11.a From 3 or 2 a:// + 2 subtract 2 1. 43. From From $ a 3 7 x 2 ?/ 5 a/ + ?/ subtract f ar f 7 a 2 ?/ .w>t. c f d. 50. SUBTRACTION. 4v From 6 subtract lt2af3& + 4<7. 57. f 2 aa 7a 2 ?/ 2 subtract a3 take 11 a 2 :c + 2 a . 42. From a3 subtract 2 a3 f. and 3 7/ . From 6(af.4 a*& + 6 a & . 49. 44. 53. 2. 58.5(6 + c) 4(c + a) subtract 7(af&) REVIEW EXERCISES 1. 55. 52. check the answer. f 12 b f From 10 a 12 & f 6 subtract 5 c. take 2 8 o# + qt c mt subtract a2 f mn f wp f. 51.c. tract 4 x 3. 47. 6 6 2 2 ?/ . From 2 a take a & j. + a the 2 a. From 5 a 2 2 ab ?/' subtract 2 a 2 + 2ab . From a3 From 6a 1 subtract f a + b 3 1.7 a . 46. From 16 + a3 subtract 8 2 a + a2 f a3 From a 4 .& 4 subtract a 2 2 4 +4 8 6 6 a& 59. .b h c and a & f c subtract a _ 6 _ 2 c. 2y 2 . ?/ 3 #?/ 2 y2 . 6 4 a. 96 subtract 10 b 2 From From 1 f & take 1 f b f & s . 45. 48. 54. From From x2 the sum sum 7.4 a^ 4. of a 4. 41. 2 + 4 a& 3 f 6 4 .
10 a + 5 b sum of9ci66 + c and 11. +4 and 4 a +1 +a 2 and a2 a. 16. + 2. a a + c. A is n years old. n years hence ? A c How old will he be 10 years hence ? a +b is 2 a years old. 2 m 21. a + 6. 6. of # 2 8. 20. Subtract the sum s of 6 m +5 m +6m 8 4m* 5 m +4m 2 from 2 ra + 7 m. What expression must 8a3 2a7? What What be added to 7 a 3 +4a 2 to pro expression must be added to 3a + 56 cto pro duce 14.15. sum of Subtract the x2 + 2 and 6 a iE 3 2 from x3 + a^ 4 6. a 2y + z. + 6 + c. to produce find : 0? = x +g c =x 18. 4 6 2 c add the To the 3 sum a3 4 a2 3 between 5 a 12. 9. Subtract the difference of a and a Subtract the sum + f and + 6 + c from a + b + c a +2 y from 2 2 2 ar* 2 */ 10.26 4. Subtract the sum of 5 a2 + 2 7 and 2a2 + 3a and from 2 a2 + 2 a 7. years ago ? How old was he a b years ago? . 6 17. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA From the difference between a? a? 3 j +5 a: 2 + 58+1 + cc and 4 a? 2 +4x 5. +a add the difference duce 13. To the sum of 2a + 66 + 4c and a 2 c. subtract # + 1. 19. ~2a6 + 2c? expression must be subtracted from 2 a to produce a+6? v . What must be added to b 4^ + 4^ + 2 z.
4a{(7a + 6&)[6&f(2&. SUBTRACTION.g.b c = a a & f f. changed. a+(bc) = a +b . II. The beginner will find it most convenient at every step to remove only those parentheses which contain (7 a no others. tractions By using the signs of aggregation. the sign is understood. Ex. 46.& c additions and sub + d) = a + b c + d. AND PARENTHESES 27 SIGNS OF AGGREGATION 43. .a^6)]  } . may be written as follows: a f ( 4. Hence the it is sign may obvious that parentheses preceded by the f or be removed or inserted according to the fol: lowing principles 44. I.a f = 4a sss 7a 12 06 6. 66 2&a + 6 4a Answer.c. (b c) a =a 6 4 c. 45. & f c. Simplify 4 a f + 5&)[6& +(25. 6 o+( a + c) = a =a 6 c) ( 4. If we wish to remove several signs of aggregation.c.2 b .6 b f (. one occurring within the other.a~^~6)]} = 4 a {7 a 6 b [. A moved w may be resign of aggregation preceded by the sign inserted provided the sign of evei'y term inclosed is E. A sign of aggregation preceded by the sign f may be removed or inserted without changing the sign of any term. If there is no sign before the first term within a paren* f thesis.ADDITION. we may begin either at the innermost or outermost.
m f ft) a. last three Inclose in a parenthesis preceded by the sign terms of the See page 260.+ 6)f (a2 b).)]. 9. a(3b a3 3 2 2 2c). 3 3 f 7.1422) J ] . (m a2 f. 19.[271 47. 6) 2.28 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 15* Simplify the following expressions 1.(a + 6). 4. 21. : x + (2yz). . Ex. a a c) + [3 a {3c (c 26 a)} 6a]. 6. may be inserted according to 43.y (60. 2a 2 + 5a(7f 2a )f (55a). 18. 8. 7 6)+ {a [a: 22.: Ex. find the numerical value of { 1422 . 16. 2 2a. a (a + 26 c ). By removing parentheses. a (a + 6). + (2a 6 + c ). 14. 2m 4af 2 2 2 10. 2 2 2 a(. 15. 271 + (814 . [36+ (a 2c].7i h jp) (m ?*. m+n + [# (6 (m (r + M> + w n p) ___ ( m~n\p. ? 11. Signs of aggregation 1. a f (a a . 2a (4a 26 +c ). 13. the fourth and fifth terms respectively in parentheses. 17. In the following expression inclose the second and third. 3.) 5 . 5. 2.
1. EXERCISE AND PARENTHESES 16 29 In each of the following expressions inclose the last three terms in a parenthesis : 1. 2mn + 2q3t. m x 2 4. 4 xy 7 x* 49 x + 2. In each of the following expressions inclose the last three in a parenthesis preceded by the minus sign : 27i2 3^ 2 + 4r/. and the subtrahend the second. 8. SUBTRACTION. 7. 10. Nine times the square of the sum of a and by the product of a and b. The minuend is always the of the two numbers mentioned. m and n. of the cubes of m and n. 12. 5^2 _ r . 6 diminished . a\l> > c + d. first. p + q + rs. difference of the cubes of n and m. 3. ' NOTE. 4.4 y* . 9. z + d. 5 a2 2. II. 3. 5. 7. The difference of a and 6. EXERCISES IN" ALGEBRAIC EXPRESSION 17 : EXERCISE Write the following expressions I. terms 5. . The sum of tKe squares of a and b. 6. The square of the difference of a and b.ADDITION. The sum of the fourth powers of a of and 6. The sum^)f m and n. )X 6.2 tf . The product The product m and n. Three times the product of the squares of The cube of the product of m and n. 13. The product of the sum and the difference of m and n. y f 8 . 2.7fa. The The difference of the cubes of m and n.
difference of the cubes of a and b divided by the difference of a and 6. 16. b. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA The sum x. 18. The difference of the squares of two numbers divided by the difference of the numbers is equal to the sum of the two numbers. x cube minus quantity 2 x2 minus 6 x plus The sum of the cubes of a. (Let a and b represent the numbers. 6. d. and c divided by the ference of a and Write algebraically the following statements: V 17. dif of the squares of a and b increased by the square root of 15. a plus the prod uct of a and s plus the square of 19.30 14. The sum The of a and b multiplied b is equal to the difference of by the difference of a and a 2 and b 2 .) . 6 is equal to the square of b.
If the two loads balance. If the two loads balance. two loads balance. By what sign is an upward pull at A represented ? What is the sign of a 3 Ib. what force is produced by the Ib. weights. force is produced therefore. and forces produced at by 3 Ib. A A A 1. If the two loads what What. is by taking away 5 weights from A? 5 X 3? 6. 3. weight at B ? If the addition of five 3 plication example.CHAPTER III MULTIPLICATION MULTIPLICATION OF ALGEBRAIC NUMBERS EXERCISE 18 In the annexed diagram of a balance. 2. applied at let us indicate a downward pull at by a positive sign. 5. 4. therefore. weights at A ? Express this as a multibalance. let us consider the and JB. what force 31 is produced by tak( ing away 5 weights from B ? What therefore is 5) x( 3) ? . weight at A ? What is the sign of a 3 Ib. is 5 x ( 3) ? 7. what force is produced by the addition of 5 weights at B ? What.
9 x ( 11). (5)X4. 4x(3)=12. such as given in the preceding exercise.4)(. Multiplication by a negative integer is a repeated sub traction. . a result that would not be obtained by other assumptions. (. In multiplying integers we have therefore four cases trated illus by the following examples : 4x3 = 412.4)(4) = + 12. 4 multiplied by 3. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA If the signs obtained by the true. make venient to accept the following definition : con 49. 5x(4).32 8. Thus. NOTE. examples were generally method of the preceding what would be the values of ( 5x4. This definition has the additional advantage of leading to algenumbers which are identical with those for positive numbers. 9 9. or 4x3 = = (_4) X The preceding 3=(4)+(4)+(4)=12. or plied by 3. becomes meaningless if definition. and we may choose any definition that does not lead to contradictions. however. x 11. 4 x(8) = ~(4)(4)(4)=:12.4) x braic laws for negative ~ 3> = (.9) x 11. 4 multi44444 12. Multiplication by a positive integer is a repeated addition. times is just as meaningless as to fire a gun tion 7 Consequently we have to define the meaning of a multiplicaif the multiplier is negative. 48. the multiplier is a negative number. ( 9) x ( 11) ? State a rule by which the sign of the product of two fac tors can be obtained. To take a number 7 times. ( (. thus. Practical examples^ it however.
6.2 f+x 2 . x. etc. +5. 1. 3. 8 31. 4 a2 . c = 25.3.2.MULTIPLICATION 50. . 6 2. 9. (4)'. (4)X(15). (10) 4 . tors is no misunderstanding possible. 17. b = 3. 5. . 24. 3 a2?/2 . _2^ 3. 4. _3. 16. 14. 27. . (7) X (12). and y = 4. 2a6 c . . 33 We shall and negative integers the assume that the law illustrated for positive is true for all numbers. 12. 19. Formulate a law of signs for a product containing an odd number of negative factors. 8. 13. 15.a)( =+ a&. . 5x3. Formulate a law of signs for a product containing an even number of negative factors. Law Thus. 11. 8 4 . (c#) . the parenthesis frequently omitted. z s 11 aWcx.2f 18. of Signs: TJie positive. 29. EXERCISE 19 : Find the values of the following products 1. x= 0. If a cal = 4a6c. 6. 7. 20. (2)x9. 22.7. 3. 2a 2 6c. _2.(4J). 10. 4 .4. is 6x7. and obtain thus product of two numbers with like signs in signs is negative. 2. 23.(a&c) 2 2 . Ua b 28. (2) 8 (. 32. NOTE. about fac (2)X If 6. 26. 4a f26 2 2a + 3&2 6c* .3) (1) 7 2 . find the numeri values of: 21. the product of two numbers with unlike &) (a)(+6) = a&. 3 aW. X(5). 1. (. 30.
m*. if =2 a a to  2 2 x2 2 2. 14. 5(711. MULTIPLICATION OF MONOMIALS 51. 3 2 . Ex. 5. 9 . 10.(7). 2(14..2). 4 x (2 25) =8 25.  2 2. 4. a 5 (a) (^ + 14 8 2/) (a? + 4 2/) (aj . 2 x (2* 5 7 2 )= 26 5 7 2 . a = 2. . 6 = 1. This 52. 6 = . a 2 2 . am Xa n = (a =aa is m (a a to n factors) (m X fl w = fl /w +w . 7. 53. 2(7. & = 3. In multiplying a product of several factors by a number.503).(12) . 34. 2. .<?.257). 5 . 78 . fl*" integers. known as of Multiplication : The Exponent Law The exponent of is the product of several powers of the same base the exponents equal to the 8 (ft sum oj Ex. 127  127 9 7 . EXERCISE 20 : Express each of the following products as a power 1.1 2 a 6 f 6 aW . . of the factors.. (a6) (a5) 9. 12 U U . 2 3 . 2 2 3 6 . 3.  and 2 25 8 .2 2 23 + 5 . 6 aWc x . 17.3). . + 2/). IB. a = 3. 13. 200.12 Perform the operation indicated 12. By 3 definition. or 2 . =2 a *.6 if 35. 2 2 2 . 36. B. 4. 3 3 4 . 4. only one of the factors is multiplied by the number. a 23 =2 Hence 2 x 2 general. = 2. . 16. 3. 6" 127 U .35). 5 3 5 3 2 . &*) c d*.34 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA of 8 Find the numerical value 33. : 3a7abc. i.m a 3  4 . Or in m and n are two positive to factors) f n) factors. Ex. 2. a8 a=2. a= 1. 11.7. 5 = 2.e.7 &*# =(6  7) (a 2 a8 ) .(2. 50(112. 100. 6. 1.
3(124342). 29. = (a + 26)+(a + 2 ft) f (a 4 2 ft) + (a + 2 ft) 55. This principle. and then adding : 1.3 win ) . c(4a ftc ). . 2 19 ' mV 2 ft 5  2 ran4 30. 5 2 aft (6 e 8 C a 2ftc). 25. 4. 26. multiply each by the monomial.6. 2(645410). 35. 20. 4 aft 5 aft 2 . Similarly the for quadruple of a 4 2 b would be 4 a f 8 54. 11(3. 21. 4 9 afy 2 a3 ?/ ).5 xy 19 aW lla ( 3 3 tfy 2z*. (. . 7.A). . 3. EXERCISE 21 Find the numerical values of the following expressions. 22. (. If results ft. 7p*q r*. by first multiplying. 17(10041042).7pqt.M UL TIPLICA TION 18. the would obviously be 6 yards and 9 inches. .7 w'W (8 n^W). 23. 5. 31. 2(5fl5f25). called the distributive law. 6(10420430).6 a2 62c f 8 a2 6. 6. /).3 a2 6(6 a*bc + 2 be  1) = 18 a 4 6 2 c . but we shall assume it for any number. ax /) 2 4 1 (. 6 e/ a ( ( 2 a2 ) 3 . 2. _4aft. 23(10004100420).4 (2 a 2 ft 3) 2 3 . 28. Thus we have in general a(b 56. ) 2 33. tet^m f c) = ab +ac. . 19. 27. 2 32. . 5 aft 3 ( ftc ( 2 2ac). 24.4a#. is evidently correct for any positive integral multiplier. 12( + 1 4 i).f 2). 35 4 7(6. To multiply a polynomial by a monomial. 34.2 3 aft ). MULTIPLICATION OF A POLYNOMIAL BY A MONOMIAL we had to multiply 2 yards and 3 inches by 3.
~2mn(m +n p ).^ c + 2 . 22. 19. By what 25. 28.asa product.6 a6).2 mn(9 mV . 11. 2 4 %Pq\ 14. ofy 2 4 +8 2 4 a. Find the factors of 5 a 6 .6) (x f y z) = x(a = (ax b) + y(a b) z(a (az b) bx) f (ay by) bz) by az + bz. Find the factors of 6 ary .we b) (x law. 5 x\5 pqr + 5 pr 5 x2 . Thus to multiply a write (a + y z) and apply the distributive z. 5). . 4 13 (4 9 4 5 4). . 12.60 a& 10 aft. : expression must 24. Find the factors of 6 Find the factors of 2 or* f 3 x* f arty 3 a4 . 20. Express 3a^ Find the factors of 3x + 3 y + 3z. 7 a 6 c(. 30. 26. f7a. 5 aW( 3 2 2 aW + 3 a 2 2 ?/ 6 c 2 . 2 2 16. MULTIPLICATION OF POLYNOMIALS 57. 23. 7 3 (7 3 f7 +7 10 ). Any it closing x +y (a polynomial may be written as a monomial by inb by within a parenthesis.3 aftc). 2 27. 6 (6 2 +6 +6 10. 29.36 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA : Express as a sum of several powers 8. Perform the multiplications indicated: 13. . be multiplied to give 4o. 2 m(mhn \p). 5(5 + 52 + 2 2 5 7 ).5 x 7). 17. .5 w*V f 7 wn). 21.3 x2y 2 + 3 xy. 9. 3 ).
The most convenient way of adding the partial products is to place similar terms in columns. Multiply 2 + a a.M UL TIP LICA TION 37 58.1. multiply each term of one by each term of the other and add the partial products thus formed. are far more likely to occur in the coefficients than anywhere else. 59. a2 + a8 + 3 . the student should apply this test to every example.3 a 2 + a8 . 1 being the most convenient value to be substituted for all letters. Check. Multiply 2 a . however. 2a3b a66 2 a . If Arranging according to ascending powers 2 a . If the polynomials to be multiplied contain several powers of the same letter. the work becomes simpler and more symmetrical by arranging these expressions according to either ascending or descending powers. Since all powers of 1 are 1. Ex. Since errors.a .4.3 ab 2 2 a2 10 ab  13 ab + 15 6 2 + 15 6 2 Product. . 2.3 b by a 5 b. this method tests only the values of the coefficients and not the values of the exponents.3 a 3 2 by 2 a : a2 + l.a6 4 a 8 + 5 a* . To multiply two polynomials.3 a 2 + a8 a a = = I 1 =2 f 2 a 4. as illustrated in the following example : Ex.2 a2 6 a8 2 a* *  2" a2 7 60.a6 =2 by numerical Examples in multiplication can be checked substitution.
40. 12. 20. 15. 8. 41. (2w 19. (6a~7) 2 . 24. a 5c)(2a6c). (6p (2 f 21. l)(raf 2). (2 x* x 2 . 29. (2s 3y)(3a? + 2y). 18. ^ 2 . 3. 9. 36. 2) (3 A: 1). 2.4) (x + 1).1 . 30. 3<7). 12)(a?^2l). 28. (4a 2 33. 4. . 17. 6. I (mfn)(m4. 3n)(7m f6<7)(5^) + 8n). 6 2 (6a&c5) 3a6f2)(2a6~l). 2  37. 22. (8r7*)(6r39. 32. * For additional examples see page 261. 2 . 11. 2 (a al)(2a?fl). (6xy + 2z)(2xy 27. . 26. (a 2a + 2)(a3). 16. 2 . OQ OO. (ajf6y)(aj 23. QQ O7.n)(m 8 n)(m n).4) (mnp 4. 4 2). 25. 7y). 7. 31. (6i7n)(llJn). 1).2m)(l m). + & + 1f a^faj 1). (a&c 2 + 7)(2a&c3). 10. 2 (m?n?p (x (a //)4 lA/ //j. 5. 36). (9m2n)(4m + 7tt). 13. (4af 76)(2tt (4ra fra (5c2d)(2c3d). (13 A. 36) I) 14. (a^26) .2 ^/ ' 2 mnp f. (llr + l)(12r (rcya (2m (a (4 a 2 .2).38 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 22* Perform the following multiplications and check the results 1. 35.
X 102. 8. . 12. 3 (a 7) 3 (a 8). 28. (J 23. (1001) (100 (1000 + 2). 1) (10 + 2). 6. 25 a 2 . i. plus the sum of the two unequal terms multiplied by the common term. 13. (a 102 x 103.25)(y+4). + 3) (a 7).!!)( (a + 21). 17.e. 21. 10. ( 2 Hence the product equals 25 a'2 54 ft 2 .2 6) (a f 6). 22. 14. 7. 15. 27. 20. 99 (a + 2 6) (a 6). 19. + 2) (a f 3). 25. (a 9) (a + 9). plus the product 62. i. (100 +2) (100 + 3). 9. + 5) (1000 + 4).e.MUL TIPLICA TION SPECIAL CASES IN MULTIPLICATION 61. 75 ab f 54 ft . .13). 2) (1000 + 3). in of the two unequal terms. + 60)(f2). : 23 2. = + EXERCISE Multiply by inspection 1. The product of two binomials which have a common term equal to the square of the common term. (p12)(p + ll).n)(wf w). (ofy* f 3) (tfy* (a5 2 ). 11. (a3)(a + 2).4). 1005x1004. _3)(a _4). (10+ (1000 (2. 2 a? 29. 3. (!)(* 5). (5 a plus the sum of the unequal terms multiplied by the common terms. 24. plus the product of the two unequal terms. 18. 26. + 9)(m+9). (6 12) (6 f. 39 The product of two binomials which have a common term. 2 6) (a 3 6). ft 16. Find two binomials whose product equals 3x + 2. (ra. 6 ft) (5 a 9 ft) is equal to the square of the common term. (wi 2^*12)(ajy 6. . 2 5 b z) (a2 f 4 (a 2 4. (a (a (a. 16 ft) (5 a) 75 ab. (*.
32. i. 37. second. plus twice the product of the first and the second. 8j/ 2 + 49 y4 first . is The product of the sum and to the difference the difference of two numbers equal of their squares. Ex. m2_ 3m _ 4 2 36. a2 2 w + 2 w . (a26) 2 . (II) is only a The student should note that the second type special case of the first (I). (a2) (p a .15. 8.30. + 3) 2 . 31. (ain general language : Expressed is equal to tlie square I. plus the square of the second. 3. 9.e.40 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA of each. EXERCISE Multiply by inspection 1.15. 2 (a (*5) 2 . w 2 ro . and the second. 49 y*. oft x 3 y'2 plus the square of the Hence the required square equals 16 xP f. i. + 6) (a + 2) a) 2 . 2 5. 33. 34.e. minus twice the product of the first and the 71ie second. of the following expres Find two binomial factors sions 30. 35. + 6 a + 8. p 2 p. 7. . of the second. 6. : ar'Sz + a 2 G. <J>7) J . 4. plus sum of two numbers the square II. . 77ie square of the of the first. (4 x3 + 7 2 i/ 2 is )' equal to the square of the first. Some special cases of the preceding type of examples : deserve special mention II. 63. 7 a + 10. n2 10ii+16. square of the difference of two numbers is equal to the square of the Jirst. (x+3i/) 2 . 16 y* t plus twice the product of the i.e. : 24 (a 2.66 s. . III. III.
2 2 5c ) 2 2 19. 33. 23. 17. two binomials whose corresponding terms are similar. 2 2 (5 (a r*2t ) 2 5 (cd 5)(c d 2 . . 7)(a 2 2 f 7). 34. 25 a 9. (m f 2 tt n)(ra w ) 26  (^ (2m + 3)(2m3). (^. 46. 104 2 37. 2 (4a36) 2 13. ( 27. (2x3yy. 54. 51. 16aW25. (100 + 2) (100 2). + 5). .998 39. + 1) (100 + 2) 2 . By actual multiplication. : Extract the square roots of the following expressions 43. 24. 2 . 41 16. 998x1002. 29. I) 2 . 2 2 . 2 . 40. 28. 21. 11. 2 (2a6c) (2a# (4 a 6 2 2 . 49. (20 f 1) . 99x101. 48.MULTIPLICATION 10. 47. 2 . 31. 62 25n 2 . 45. 32. a2 9. we have 3x 5x + 2y 4y 2xySy* . 2 + 11 2 (5 r 2 2 2/ ) 2  Z ) 2 2 (5 r f 2 2 . 4 53. 14. a 2 8a6+166 2 . a 2 + 10 ab f 25 b\ Pind two binomial sions 50. 9 a2 . 2 9a 496 2 56. (6afy 2 5) (a. 44. . (3p 9) (6a 2 2 2 . 38. 15.ll^X^+lly (100 30. (a 3) 2 2 2 . n*6n+9. 7& ) 25. 103 36. 22 2 . : factors of each of the following expres y?f. m 2 16. 12. The product of 57. 55. 991 2 2 . 42. 2 J ).30 ab + 25 6 64. + 3z) 2 2 . 52. G> +5g)*. ). 2 11 # ) 2 20. 41. (m 27i )(m + 2n 2 5 ). . 22. 18. x*+2xy+y\ a 2 2a6 + & 2 m 2 2mhl. 35. + 5)(5+a). n 2 f4n+4. (1000 2 .
6. ((5a? (10 12.& + c) = a + tf + c . 2 10. ) (2 of a polynomial. (5a64)(5a&3). 3. the product of two binomials whose corresponding terms are similar is equal to the product of the first two terms. . 13. plus the product of the EXERCISE Multiply by inspection 1. 8. sum of the cross products. (2a3)(a + 2). 7%e square of a polynomial is equal to the sum of the squares of each term increased by twice the product of each term with each that follows it.42 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA of the result is obtained product of 5 x follows: by adding the These products are frequently called the cross products.f 2 a& f 2 ac + 2 &c. 2 (2m3)(3m + 2). The middle term or Wxy12xy Hence in general. (100 + 3)(100 + 4). 14. : 25 2. 2 (2x y (6 2 2 + z )(ary + 2z ). 9. (x i 5 2 ft x 2 3 6 s). (3m + 2)(ml). or The student should note minus signs. that the square of each term is while the product of the terms may have plus always positive. 5. The square 2 (a 4. 2 2 + 2) (10 43). (5a4)(4al). 7. 11. (4s + y)(32y). plus the last terms. 2 2 2 2 (2a 6 7)(a & + 5). 65. and are represented as 2 y and 4y 3 x. 4.
4) . (2a36 + 5c) (3 (.8 x + 15] .3) . Hence. (u4& + 3c'. + 65) . and check the answers !. the beginner should inclose the product in a parenthesis. = .[a? .29. (a (. 6. 3. of z : 10. 12. Find the square root 11.i2&c) 2 . Ex. 4. + 6 )2(6 + &)~(&4& ). 5.(m 2 6.(>.4) . = 10 x . n). (  2 4) =  20 a.24] . + 6)( . 7.3) (x . 2 2.M UL TIPLICA TION EXERCISE Find by inspection 1.X2 + 2 x .3)(z.24 . (mf n)(m+2)3m(n + m). (xy+z)*. : 43 26 (mf n+p) 2 2 . 4y sf n) 2 .y? + 8 .39. 8. Simplify (x + 6) (a . 3. 5. 6~2(a + 7).(= [ Xa + 2 . In simplifying a polynomial the student should remem. 7. 4(* + 2)5(3). after multiplying the factors of a term.(x .39. 13. 4(aj2)h3(7). (a2)(a3)~(al)(a4). EXERCISE 27 : Simplify the following expressions.1 5 = 10 . If x = 1. 2)6.5) = (7 . 66. 8 2(m 3(6 3 n) 2 3(m + n)H.5). s? + y + z + 2xy + 2yz + 2 xz. 2 m 2 + n2 2 "f jp f 2 mn 2 ?wp 2 np. 8. ber that a parenthesis is understood about each term. 9.r _ 2 . Check. 6(a 2. . a. 4.
44
9.
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
10. 11. 12.
13.
4(m + 2)
(a?
+ 5(w
3)
5)(oj2)
(a;
(n f 5) (w
 2) + (n  7) (n + 4)  2 (n*  2)
14.
15.
6(p+2)7(p9)2(i> + l)(pl).
16.
17.
x 2 y)(3 x f 2 y)  (4  y) (a3 (a f 6)  4 (a + &) (a f 2 6) + (a (5
2
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
2
(a
faf
1)
(
a  1)
 (a + 1) (a  1).
8
CHAPTER
DIVISION
IV
is the process of finding one of two factors and the other factor are given. The dividend is the product of the two factors, the divisor the given factor, and the quotient is the required factor.
67.
Division
if
their product
is
Thus
by
f
to divide
12.
12
by
+
3,
we must find
is
the
;
number which
3 gives
But
this
number
4
hence
_
multiplied
12 r +3
=4.
68.
Since
f
a

f b
fa
_a
and
it
f
a
= f ab = ab b = ab b = ab,
b
f
follows that
4a
=+b
ab
a
ab
a
69.
Hence the law
:
of signs
is
the same in division as in
multiplication
70.
Like signs produce plus, unlike signs minus.
Law
of
,
a8 5 a5
=a
3
for a 3
It follows from the definition that Exponents. X a5 a8
=
.
Or
in general, if
greater than
m n, a
f
and n are positive integers, and m ~ n an = a m a" = a'"", for a
<
m
m
is
45
46
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
71. TJie exponent of a quotient of two powers with equal bases equals the exponent of the dividend diminished by the exponent
of the divisor.
DIVISION OF MONOMIALS
7 3 72. To divide 10x y z by number which multiplied by number is evidently
2x y
6
2
,
we have
z
to
find
the
2x*y
gives 10 x^ifz.
This
Therefore,
the quotient
*
,
=  5 a*yz.
is
Hence,
sign,
of two monomials of their
part
coefficients,
is the
a monomial whose
coefficient is the quotient
preceded by the proper
literal
and whose
literal
found
in accordance with the
quotient of their law of exponents.
parts
73. In dividing a product of several factors by a number, only one of these factors is divided by that number. Thus (8 12 20)?4 equals 2 12 20, or 8 3 20 or 8 12 5.


.

.

.
EXERCISE
Perform the divisions indicated
'
:
28
'
2
.
76H15.
39* 3.
2
15
3"
7
7'
3.
4*
'
4.
5.
j2
12
.
4
2
9
5 11
68
3 19 j3
5
10.
(3
38

2 4 )^(3 4 .2 2).
56
'
11.
3
(2
.3*.5 7 )f(
2
'
12
'
2V
14
36 a
'
13
''
yfflg
35
5.25
12 a
2abc
15
42^
'
56aW
'
UafiV
DIVISION
lg
47
^1^. 16 w
7
20>
7i
9
_Z^L4L.
22.
10 iy.
132 a V* 14 1
*
01
240m
120m
40
6c
fl
/5i.
3J)
c
23.
2 (15 25. a ) = 5.
25. 26.
(18
(
.
5
.
2a )f9a.
2
24.
(7 26 a
2
)
f
13.
DIVISION OF POLYNOMIALS BY MONOMIALS
To divide ax} fr.ef ex by x we must find an expression which multiplied by x gives the product ax + bx J ex.
74.
But
TT
x(a
aa?
Hence
+ b e) ax + bx + ex. + bx f ex = a 4 b +
\.
,
.
c.
a?
To divide a polynomial by a monomial, cfc'wde each term of the dividend by the monomial and add the partial quotients thus
formed.
3 xyz
EXERCISE
Perform the operations indicated
1.
:
29
2.
5.
fl
o.
(5*
_5* + 52)
5.
52
.
3.
97
.
(2
(G^G^G^iG
(11 2
4.
(8 3
+
11 3
+ 11
5)* 11.
18 aft 27 oc
Q y.
9a
4
25 2 )^2
<?
2
.
+8 5 + 8
7) *8.
5a5 +4as 2a
2
a
14gV+21gy
Itf
15 a*b

12
aW + 9 a
2
2
3a
48
,
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
22
4,
m n  33 m n
4
s
2
f
55
mV
 39 afyV + 26 arVz 3
 49 aW + 28 a W  14 g 6 c
4 4
15. 16.
2 (115 afy f 161 afy
 69
4
2
a;
4
?/
3
 23 ofy
3
4
)
5
23 x2y.
(52
afyV  39
4
?/
oryz
 65 zyz  26 tf#z)
5
13 xyz.
f
,
17.
(85 tf
 68 x + 51 afy  34 xy* f 1 7
a;/)
 17
as.
DIVISION OF A POLYNOMIAL BY A POLYNOMIAL
75.
Let
it
be required to divide 25 a
 12 f 6 a  20 a
3
2
by
2 a 2 f 3 a, divide
4
a, or, arranging according to
2
descending powers of
6a3 20a
f
25a12
2 by 2a 
The term containing the highest power of a in the dividend (i.e. a 8 ) is evidently the product of the terms containing respectively the highest power of a in the divisor and in the quotient.
Hence the term containing the highest power
of a in the quotient is
If
the product of 3 a and 2
2
4 a
+
3, i.e.
6 a3
12 a 2
f
9 a, be sub
8 a 2 f 16 a tracted from the dividend, the remainder is 12. This remainder obviously must be the product of the divisor and the rest of the quotient. To obtain the other terms of the quotient we have
therefore to divide the remainder,
8 a2
f
16 a
12,
2 by 2 a
4 a
+
3.
consequently repeat the process. By dividing the highest term in the new dividend 8 a 2 by the highest term in the divisor 2 a 2 we obtain
,
We
4,
the next highest term in the quotient. 4 by the divisor 2 a2 4 a Multiplying
I
+ 3, we
obtain the product
8 a2
16 a
12,
which subtracted from the preceding dividend leaves
the required quotient.
no remainder. Hence 3 a
4
is
DIVISION
The work
is
49
:
usually arranged as follows
 20 * 2 + 3 0a 12 a 2 +
a3
25 a
{)

12
I
2 a2 8 a

4 a 4
a
_
12
+3
I

8 a? 4 16
a
76. The method which was applied in the preceding example may be stated as follows 1. Arrange dividend and divisor according to ascending or
:
descending powers of a common letter. 2. Divide the first term of the dividend by the first term of the divisor, and write the result for the first term of the quotient.
3.
Multiply this term of the quotient by the whole divisor, and
subtract the result
4.
from
it
the dividend.
the same order as the given new dividend, and proceed as before.
Arrange
the
remainder in
as a
expression, consider
5.
until the highest poiver
Continue the process until a remainder zero is obtained, or of the letter according to which the dividend
is less
was arranged
the divisor.
than the highest poiver of the same
letter in
77.
Checks.
Numerical substitution constitutes a very con
venient, but not absolutely reliable check. An absolute check consists in multiplying quotient and divisor. The result must equal the dividend if the division
was
exact, or the dividend diminished by the remainder division was not exact.
if
the
Ex.
1.
Divide 8 a3
f
8 a
 4 + 6 a  11 a
4
2
by 3 a
,
 2.
^ _ _
,
Arranging according to descending powers,
6 a4 6 a4
,
,
+ 8 a8 4 a3
12 a 8
11
a2 a2
f
8a
4
I
3 a
2 a8
2
f
=
a _+ 2
.
7rl,
4 a2
=
7
+
11

3 a2
3
a'
2
+ +
8 a 2 a
4 + 6a  4
50
Ex.
2.
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
Divide a4
 46 6a6
4
3
f
9
2
6
2
2 l by 26 3a& + a
.
Arranging according to descending powers of
a,
we have
a<a4
6 a36
fr
f
f
9 a2 6 2
2 a2 6 2
2
2
46*
I
a2
a*

8 ab 3 ab
 3 a8


+ 2 6^  2 62
46*
 3 a^ + 9a 2 6  6 ab 8
+ 6 a& a  4 6 4  2 a^a + 6 aft  4
Check.
ft*
The numerical
it
substitution a
=
1,
&
=
1,
cannot be used in this
either to use
example since
larger
renders the divisor zero.
Hence we have
a
number
for a, or multiply.
2  8 ab + 2 & 2 ) ( a _ 3 ab  2 6 2 ) (a = [(a2  3 aft) + 2 62 ] [(a2  3 a&)  2 62 ] = (a 2 3 aft) 2 4 6* = a2  6 8 6 + 9 a2 6 2  4 5*.
EXERCISE
30 *
:
Perform the operations indicated and check the answers
2. 3.
(jf_2y15)i<y6).
2 (15 a
2
4.
5.
6.
 46 a# f 16 ) _ 26 mn 4 5 n ) (5 m
2
i/
5
(5
a5 w).
2
*
(m
7.
(6^53^ + 40)^(6^5).
(56
2 a; f
8.
19 x
15) (8
3).
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
2 (25 a
 36
2
ft
)
j
(5
a
f
6
6)
* See page 263.
l. EXERCISE Write by inspection the quotient 31 of : 2 x 1 c 2 6 ' 3 ^. 18. 20.11 a + 9 a .2) (3 a .e. . . a I.DIVISION 14. (8xy + lo22x' y)+(2x y3). (81 m + 1 .2). + 23a& + 20)*(2a& + 6). (aj 3aj2)^(oj2). b f b by the difference or by the sum Ex. . (a f b) (a V) Since =a a 2 b 2 .81 c8 f ' ISVftQc 8 64 ' a2 166 2 ' a? 10 1 . (3 a 13 m + 47 m + 35 w (1 (5 m f (6a 2 & 2 2 2 3 2 f 2 3 f ) 5 1) . the difference of the squares of two numbers is divisible of the two numbers. 51 15. c + 3* ' v7 169 a<6 2 ' . Division of the difference of two squares. (a? s 8) 4 *( 2).18 m 2 ) f (1 G m f 9 m 2 ). SPECIAL CASES IN DIVISION 78. 16. 19. v/17.
f 13.000. 36 a4 ?/ 4 . 1. . : the following w a 4 !.0001. 14. 12. 4 b. r/ 1. 15. 10. aW 12 a. 121a a 16 100 11. 9& 2 .49.52 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA of Find exact binomial divisors of each expressions 9. 16 . . 100ry. 16.
ber equation is employed to discover an unknown num(frequently denoted by x. ond member or right side is that part which follows the sign of equality. . =11. . in Thus x 12 satisfies the equation x + 1 13. y = 7 satisfy the equation x y = 13. hence it is an equation of condition. (rt+6)(aft) = 2  b' 2 . the first member is 2 x + 4. Thus. second member is x + 4 x 9. An identity is an equation of the letters involved. The first member or left side of an equation is that part The secof the equation which precedes the sign of equality. the 80. 82. y y or z) from its relation to 63 An known numbers. An equation of condition is an equation which is true only for certain values of the letters involved. (a + ft) (a b) and b. 81. 83. A set of numbers which when substituted for the letters an equation produce equal values of the two members. which is true for all values a2 6 2 no matter what values we assign to a Thus.CHAPTER V LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS 79. The sign of identity sometimes used is = thus we may write . is said to satisfy an equation. . in the equation 2 x 0. x 20.r f9 = 20 is true only when a. An equation of condition is usually called an equation.
54 84. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA If value of the an equation contains only one unknown quantity. 4. 2 = 6#f7. one member to another by changing x + a=. A linear equation or which when reduced first to its simplest an equation of the first degree is one form contains only the as 9ie power of the unknown quantity. (Axiom 2) the term a has been transposed from the left to thQ right member by changing its sign. Transposition of terms. the divisor equals zero. NOTE. the sums are equal. If equals be added to equals. the quotients are equal. Axiom 4 is not true if 0x4 = 0x5.g. A numerical equation is one in which all . To solve an equation to find its roots. 90. A term may be transposed from its sign. 87.e. If equals be multiplied by equals. called axioms 1. but 4 does not equal 5. 3. 5. If equals be divided by equals. 89. 2. Like powers or like roots of equals are equal.2. the products are equal. an^ unknown quantity which satisfies the equation is a root of the equation. 85. The process of solving equations depends upon the : lowing principles. the known quan x) (x f 4) tities are = . Consider the equation b Subtracting a from both members. A 2 a. = bx expressed by a letter or a combination of c. x I. expressed in arithmetical numbers literal is as (7 equation is one in which at least one of the known quantities as x f a letters 88. 9 is a root of the equation 2 y +2= is 20. If equals be subtracted from equals. . . E.b. fol A linear equation is also called a simple equation. a. 86. the remainders are equal.
91. and divide both members by the coefficient of the quantity. if a x = b. (Axiom 1) The result is first member to the same as the right we had transposed a from the member and changed its sign. = 2 (11 3 y) + #*. Hence the answer. Uniting similar terms. Check. Dividing by Check. x = 93.6 y f y\ . Uniting. is correct. if 55 x members. To solve a simple equation. SOLUTION OF LINEAR EQUATIONS 1. y) (5 y) unknown Ex.y) = C4 + })(5f The second member. 3 y . Ex. a= a 6fc. The sign of every term of an equation without destroying the equality. Unite similar terms.3 y) + y 2 = 2(11 + i)^ V= 2) 1 4 = 26 i +  = 26 f f = 26$ JI . Transposing. (Axiom 4) When x = 3. a? Adding 5 to each term.8. (4y)(6. f If y 20 . Dividing both members by 2.2. x = (Axiom 3) 92. The second member. Solve the equation (4 Simplifying. b Adding a to both + a. . and the known terms to the second. may be changed Consider the equation Multiplying each member by x\1. The first member. 6a5 = 185 = 13. Solve the equation Qx 5 = 4 f 1. Qx 6# = 4x + l + 6. The first member. x = 3. transpose the unknown terms to the first member. Subtracting 4 x from each term.2 y= f . 4x 1 + 6. b c.9 y + 6 y = 20 f 22. 2 x = 6.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS Similarly. 2(11 .9 y + y2 = 22 . 4fl = 12fl = 13 3.
Uniting. and check the answers 9. 6. J. 15.56 Ex. 7. 3. etc. Instead of dividing by \ botli members of the equation \ x would be simpler to multiply both members by 0.7a: = 394a. 32 = 264. x = 18. Dividing by Cfcecfc. = 60 7 = 16 + 5 : Xx 7 = 14. a? a?. = 7. 4y 10. 14y = 59(24y + 21). 19. : 5# = 15+2a. . 4. 3)= 9(3 7 a. 50. 3. {(x (x The The member right member left . If x = 18. 87 9(5 x 3) 6(3 a? = 63. 14..4) = + 3) = \ x 14 x 21 = 7. . 12. + 7(3 + 1) =63.17 + 4y = 36. + 22. = 3. v23. it NOTE. 24. 11. 3 = 17 3 a? a?. \x x 2^xfl. 17 7 a.. 7a? 5. 7 (6 x 16). + 24) = 6 (10 x + 13). 3 7 a. = 2 ?/. =2 = 3. 11 ?/ a? 18. 16. BXEECISB 32* Solve the following equations by using the axioms only 1. a. + 16 = 16 + 17. 22.69. a. 17 + 5a. 21. 2. x x 1 . Transposing. 20. f Simplifying. 8.7. a?. 13a? 3a?. 4a + 5 = 29. 247y = 68lly. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Solve the equation  (x 4) = \ (x + 3). aj * See page 264. Solve the following equations by transposing. 9 9a? = 7 13. 13 y 99 = 7 y. = 5a?+18. 17 9 x + 41 = 12 8 17.
Suppose one part of 70 to be a?. and apply the method thus found to the algebraic problem.4) + 4 w . or 70 a?. . this question. + 1) 8(75 a?) +24 = 12 (4 . . + 4). 2 2 * Jaj. (aj 37. 34. Evidently 45. 7(7 x y 26. and let it be required to If the student finds it difficult to answer find the other part. 35. (a. .32. : One part is of 70 is 25 . 25. he should first attack a similar problem stated in arithmetical numbers is only. is the other part. . 40.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS 25.7) (7 x + 4) .5) = (a. 42. he should formulate a similar question stated in arithmetical numbers only. WJienever the student is unable to express a statement in algebraic symbols. + 7) (.5)5(7a>8)=4(123a5) + l.3) + 14. 41. . 27.3) .(2 + 6) (4 . find the other part. (6 u =5 44. 31. SYMBOLICAL EXPRESSIONS 94.4) (x + I) + (x + 2) = (x 2(* + l) (2J3)( + 2) = 12.12) (2 + 5) . 5) (as (a.1 0) = 0. 29. a? 28.2) (M . 7) (a. 39.g. 33. .  +6= aj (4 t t t 1 (5 x (a? 2 2 2 2 2 2 (a? .5) + 199. .5(2 u . . a? 43.(14 x + 1) + 7) = 285 + 21 a* (z + 2) (a5) :=2. .7. 30.14 = 0. Hence if one part the other part 70 x. 38.1) (u . 36. 57 734* = 13*~2(5*12).1) (a (a? + 3) = . 6(6a. e.3) + .
7. and the smaller one parts. is a? 2 is c?. is b. so that one part The difference between is s. 10. $> 100 yards cost one hundred dollars. What number divided by 3 will give the quotient a? ? What is the dividend if the divisor is 7 and the quotient ? . is d. Find the greater one. 14. Divide 100 into two 12. 6. Divide a into two parts. 6. greater one is g. Hence 6 a must be added to a to give 5. 4. 1. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA What must be added to a to produce a sum b ? : Consider the arithmetical question duce the sum of 12 ? What must be added to 7 to pro The answer is 5. a. so that of c ? is p. 3. one part equals is 10. EXERCISE 1. so that one part Divide a into two parts. 5. one yard will cost 100 dollars. smaller one 16. find the cost of one yard. If 7 2. 15. By how much does a exceed 10 ? By how much does 9 exceed x ? What number exceeds a by 4 ? What number exceeds m by n ? What is the 5th part of n ? What is the nth part of x ? By how much does 10 exceed the third part of a? By how much does the fourth part of x exceed b ? By how much does the double of b exceed one half Two numbers differ by 7. two numbers and the and the 2 Find the greater one. one yard will cost  Hence if x f y yards cost $ 100. x f y yards cost $ 100 . Ex. or 12 7.58 Ex. 17. The difference between two numbers Find the smaller one. 11. 33 2. 13. 9.
find the of their ages 6 years hence. b dimes. feet wider than the one mentioned in Ex. A feet wide. Find 21. A room is x feet long and y feet wide. sum If A's age is x years. How many cents are in d dollars ? in x dimes ? A has a dollars. The greatest of three consecutive the other two. is A A is # years old. 34. and B has n dollars. How many years A older than is B? old. find the has ra dollars. A man had a dollars. 26. 33.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS 18. What What What What is the cost of 10 apples at x cents each ? is is is x apples cost 20 cents ? the price of 12 apples if x apples cost 20 cents ? the price of 3 apples if x apples cost n cents ? the cost of 1 apple if . How many cents has he ? 27. ?/ 31. 59 What must The be subtracted from 2 b to give a? is a. and B's age is y years. 28. Find 35. and B is y years old. square feet are there in the area of the floor ? How many 2 feet longer 29. 19. 32. smallest of three consecutive numbers Find the other two. and spent 5 cents. amount each will then have. and c cents. If B gave A 6 25. y years How old was he 5 years ago ? How old will he be 10 years hence ? 23. A dollars. 22. rectangular field is x feet long and the length of a fence surrounding the field. Find the area of the Find the area of the feet floor of a room that is and 3 30. 28. and 4 floor of a room that is 3 feet shorter wider than the one mentioned in Ex. numbers is x. 24. 20. How many cents had he left ? 28. Find the sum of their ages 5 years ago.
The two digits of a number are x and y. Find a. 48. A cistern is filled 43. as a exceeds b by as much as c exceeds 9. % % % of 100 of x. b To express in algebraic symbols the sentence: " a exceeds much as b exceeds 9. miles does will If a man walks r miles per hour. . find the fraction.60 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA wil\ 36. Find x % % of 1000. . c a b =  9.50. a. If a man walks n miles in 4 hours. What fraction of the cistern will be filled by one pipe in one minute ? 42. and "by as much as" Hence we have means equals (=) 95. 49. of 4. The numerator If of a fraction exceeds the denominator by 3. per Find 5 Find 6 45. how many how many miles will he walk in n hours 38. Find a 47. A cistern can be filled in alone fills it by two pipes. What fraction of the cistern will be second by the two pipes together ? 44. Find the number. 46. how many miles he walk in n hours ? 37. How many x years ago miles does a train move in t hours at the rate of x miles per hour ? 41. How old is he now ? by a pipe in x minutes. If a man walks 3 miles per hour. he walk each hour ? 39." we have to consider that in this by statement "exceeds" means minus ( ). in how many hours he walk n miles ? 40. The first pipe x minutes. If a man walks ? r miles per hour. and the second pipe alone fills it in filled y minutes. of m. A was 20 years old. m is the denominator.
equal to the sum and the difference of a and b sum of the squares of a and gives the Twenty subtracted from 2 a a. 9. 80. The excess of a over b is c. c. The product of the is diminished by 90 b divided by 7. EXERCISE The The double The sum One 34 : Express the following sentences as equations 1. a is greater than b by b is smaller than a by c. 4. of x increased by 10 equals x. 80. thus: a b = c may be expressed as follows difference between a : The and b is c. a exceeds b by c. by one third of b equals 100. of a and 10 equals 2 c. same result as 7 subtracted from . In many word There are usually several different ways of expressing a symbolical statement in words. 6. double of a is 10. of a increased much 8.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS Similarly. cases it is possible to translate a sentence word by in algebraic symbols in other cases the sentence has to be changed to obtain the symbols. c. 2. = 2 2 a3 (a  80. Four times the difference of a and b exceeds c by as d exceeds 9. 8 b ) + 80 = a . 3. the difference of the squares of a 61 and b increased } a2 i<5  b' 2 ' by 80 equals the excess of a over 80 Or. The double as 7. third of x equals difference of x The and y increased by 7 equals a. etc. 5.
3 1200 dollars. symbols B.62 10. B.. 6 % of m. and C's age 4 a. the first sum equals 6 % of the third sura. a. first 00 x % of the equals one tenth of the third sum. B's. 5x A sum of money consists of x dollars. amounts. 12. (d) In 10 years A will be n years old. the sum and C's money (d) (e) will be $ 12. 50 is x % of 15. is If A's age is 2 x. as 17 is is above a. In 10 years the sum of A's. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Nine is as much below a 13. a third sum of 2 x + 1 dollars. and C have respectively 2 a. 11. a second sum. and (a) (6) A If has $ 5 more than B. (c) If each man gains $500. #is5%of450. >. express in algebraic symbols : 700. they have equal of A's. of 30 dollars. B's age 20.*(/) (g) (Ji) Three years ago the sum of A's and B's ages was 50. x 4 If A. B's. . A is 4 years older than Five years ago A was x years old. 16. express in algebraic 3x : 10. pays to C $100. A gains $20 and B loses $40. the first sum exceeds b % of the second sum by first (e) % of the first plus 5 % of the second plus 6 % of the third sum equals $8000. A If and B B together have $ 200 less than C. a. they have equal amounts. 18. (e) In 3 years A will be as old as B is now. m is x % of n. In 3 years A will be twice as old as B. 17. Express as : equations of the (a) 5 (b) (c) % a% of the second (d) x c of / a % of 4 sum equals $ 90. 14. (a) (b) (c) A is twice as old as B. sum equals $20.000. and C's ages will be 100. x is 100 x% is of 700.
In order to solve them. 15.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS 63 PROBLEMS LEADING TO SIMPLE EQUATIONS The simplest kind of problems contain only one unknown number. be 30 . denote the unknown 96. The student should note that x stands for the number of and similarly in other examples for number of dollars. x = 20. verbal statement (1) (1) In 15 years A will may be expressed in symbols (2). 1. 3z40:r:40z. Transposing. Ex. the required . number of yards. 2. Dividing. . Let x The (2) = A's present age. 6 years ago he was 10 . In 15 years 10. 3 x + 16 = x x (x  p) Or. Transposing. Check. x= 15. the . A will Check. Simplifying. Uniting. NOTE. In 15 years A will be three times as old as he was 5 years ago. = x x 3x 40 3x 40 Or. The equation can frequently be written by translating the sentence word by word into algebraic symbols in fact. much as 40 exceeds the number. Ex. Uniting. Find A's present age. 3 x or 60 exceeds 40 + x = 40 + 40. by 20 40 exceeds 20 by 20. number. 4 x = 80. Three times a certain number exceeds 40 by as Find the number. Let x = the number. exceeds 40 by as much as 40 exceeds the no. number by x (or another letter) and express the yiven sentence as an equation. be three times as old as he was 5 years ago. x + 15 = 3 x 3x 16 15. 23 =30. x+16 = 3(35). Three times a certain no. but 30 =3 x years. equation is the sentence written in alyebraic shorthand. The solution of the equation (jives the value of the unknown number. Write the sentence in algebraic symbols. etc.
exceeds the width of the bridge. 14. What number 7 % of 350? Ten times the width of the Brooklyn Bridge exceeds 800 ft. How many miles per hour does it run ? . twice the number plus 7. How long is the Suez Canal? 10. Six years hence a 12 years ago. by as much as 135 ft. Hence 40 = 46f. then the problem expressed in symbols W or. EXERCISE 1. Find the number whose double exceeds 30 by as much as 24 exceeds the number. Find the width of the Brooklyn Bridge. 47 diminished by three times a certain number equals 2. Four times the length of the Suez Canal exceeds 180 miles by twice the length of the canal. Uldbe 66  x x 5(5 is = *. Find 8. 11. 3. 35 What number added to twice itself gives a sum of 39? 44. 120. A train moving at uniform rate runs in 5 hours 90 miles more than in 2 hours. 14 50 is is 4 what per cent of 500 ? % of what number? is 12. How old is man will be he now ? twice as old as he was 9.2. 4. to 42 gives a sum equal to 7 times the original 6. Let x 3. . Find the number. Forty years hence his present age. Dividing. A number added number. 13. 5. Find the number whose double increased by 14 equals Find the number whose double exceeds 40 by 10. Find the number. % of 120.64 Ex. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 56 is what per cent of 120 ? = number of per cent. 300 56. A will be three times as old as toda3r .
two verbal statements must be given. B will have lars has A now? 17. B How will loses $100. If A gains A have three times as much 16. how many acres did he wish to buy ? 19. x. 97.000.000. Vermont's population increased by 180. F 8. The sum of the two numbers is 14. The problem consists of two statements I. is the equation. then dollars has each ? many have equal amounts of money. How many dollars must ? B give to 18. Find the population of Maine in 1800. 14. One number exceeds the other one by II. statements are given directly. and Maine had then twice as many inhabitants as Vermont. and as 15. which gives the value of 8. five If A gives B $200. In 1800 the population of Maine equaled that of Vermont. numbers (usually the smaller one) by and use one of the given verbal statements to express the other unknown number in terms of x. while in the more complex probWe denote one of the unknown x. Ex. A and B have equal amounts of money. The other verbal statement. . and another which lacked 25 acres of the required number. How many dol A has A to $40. 1. times as much as A. Maine's population increased by 510. If a problem contains two unknown quantities. 65 A and B $200.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS 15. the second one. During the following 90 years. One number exceeds another by : and their sum is Find the numbers. If the first farm contained twice as many acres as A man number of acres. Ill the simpler examples these two lems they are only implied. and B has $00. make A's money equal to 4 times B's money wishes to purchase a farm containing a certain He found one farm which contained 30 acres too many. written in algebraic symbols.
and Let x = the Then x +. If we select the first one. The two statements I. terms of the other. 26 = A's number of marbles after the exchange. < Transposing. consider that by the exchange Hence. 8 = 11. 2x a? x j = 6. . Another method for solving this problem is to express one unknown quantity in terms of the other by means of statement II viz. 25 marbles to B. = 3. A has three times as many marbles as B. x = 8.66 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Either statement may be used to express one unknown number in terms of the other. the greater number. Let x 14 I the smaller number. Then. x 3x 4 and B will gain. the smaller number. = 14. which leads ot Ex. . Uniting. If A gives are : A If II. = A's number of marbles. 2. expressed symbols is (14 x) course to the same answer as the first method. / . = B's number of marbles.= The second statement written the equation ^ smaller number. + a f f 8 = 14. Dividing. unknown quantity in Then. x x =14 8. to Use the simpler statement. Statement x in = the larger number. o\ (o?f 8) Simplifying. A gives B 25 marbles. I. has three times as many marbles as B. B will have twice as many as A. Let x 3x express one many as A. B will have twice as viz. although in general the simpler one should be selected. . A will lose. in algebraic i symbols produces #4a. 8 the greater number. To express statement II in algebraic symbols. 26 = B's number of marbles after the exchange. the sum of the two numbers is 14.
. . The number of coins II. 6 times the smaller. 3 x = 45. by 44. then. x = 15. cents. Uniting. 3. but 40 = 2 x 20. 60. 2. Eleven coins. 40 x . The sum of two numbers is 42.240. 67 x f 25 25 Transposing. Check. dollars and dimes is $3. we express the statement II in algebraic symbols.25 = 20. 15 + 25 = 40.5 x . . Dividing. x x + = 2(3 x = 6x 25 25). Never add the number number of yards to their Ex. Find the numbers. greater is . Simplifying. How many are there of each ? The two statements are I. have a value of $3. (Statement II) Qx . 45 . of dollars to the number of cents. A's number of marbles.10. 50 x Transposing.75. 6 dimes = 60 = 310.$3.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS Therefore. B's number of marbles. w'3. 6 half dollars = 260 cents. The value of the half : is 11. Check. 11 x = 5.. Selecting the cent as the denomination (in order to avoid fractions). the price. and the Find the numbers. Simplifying. the number of half dollars. 1. * 98. x = the number of half dollars.10. x from I. 50(11 660 50 x )+ 10 x = 310. the number of dimes. Find the numbers. Two numbers the smaller. * ' .. The numbers which appear in the equation should always be expressed in the same denomination. Let 11 = the number of dimes. Uniting. 50. differ differ and the greater and their sum times Two numbers by 60. consisting of half dollars and dimes.10.550 f 310. x = 6. their sum + + 10 x 10 x is EXERCISE 36 is five v v. etc. Dividing. is 70.
and B's age is as below 30 as A's age is above 40. How many hours does the day last ? . McKinley. and the greater increased by five times the smaller equals 22. 6. of volcanoes in Mexico exceeds the number of volcanoes in the United States by 2. the number.68 4. would contain three times as pints does each contain ? much 13. Two numbers The number differ by 39. On December 21. and twice the greater exceeds Find the numbers. What are their ages ? is A A much line 60 inches long is divided into two parts. McKinley exceeds the altitude of Mt. What is the altitude of each mountain 12. United States. and in Mexico ? A cubic foot of aluminum. 2 cubic feet of iron weigh 1600 foot of each substance. A's age is four times B's. cubic foot of iron weighs three times as much as a If 4 cubic feet of aluminum and Ibs. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA One number is six times another number. 5. and in 5 years A's age will be three times B's. 7. and twice the altitude of Mt.. it If the smaller one contained 11 pints more. How many volcanoes are in the 8. How many 14 years older than B.000 feet. 3 shall be equal to the other increased by 10. Find Find two consecutive numbers whose sum equals 157. tnree times the smaller by 65. 11. the larger part exceeds five times the smaller part by 15 inches. Twice 14. How many inches are in each part ? 15. 9. Find their ages. Everest by 11. the night in Copenhagen lasts 10 hours longer than the day. one of which increased by 9. ? Two vessels contain together 9 pints. and four times the former equals five times the latter. Mount Everest is 9000 feet higher than Mt. find the weight of a cubic Divide 20 into two parts. as the larger one.
then three times the sum of A's and B's money would exceed C's money by as much as A had originally. B. number had. The solution gives : 3x 80 Check. Let x II. are : C's The three statements A. and C together have $80. 1. times as much as A. number of dollars of dollars B C had. number of dollars A had.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS 99. first According to 3 x number number and according to 80 4 x = the express statement III by algebraical symbols. they would have 3. x = 8. Ex. . If A and B each gave $5 to C. then three times the money by I. let us consider the words ** if A and B each gave $ 5 to C. and 68. 5 5 Expressing in symbols Three times the sum of A's and B's money exceeds C's money by A's 3 x ( x _5 + 3z5) (904z) = x. 19. sum of A's and B's money would exceed much as A had originally. The third verbal statement produces the equation." To x 8x 90 = number of dollars A had after giving $5. and C together have $80. has. original amount. III. and B has three as A. three One of the unknown num two are expressed in terms by means of two of the verbal statements. 69 If a verbal statements must be given. and the other of x problem contains three unknown quantities. B. A and B each gave $ 5 respectively. If A and B each gave $5 to C. Tf it should be difficult to express the selected verbal state ment directly in algebraical symbols. or 66 exceeds 58 by 8. I. has. B has three times as much as A. 8(8 + 19) to C. = number of dollars B had after giving $5. = 48. bers is denoted by x. If 4x = 24. the the number of dollars of dollars of dollars A B C has. try to obtain it by a series of successive steps. II. 4 x = number of dollars C had after receiving $10.
sheep. and. number of cows. 185 a = 925. A and the number of sheep was twice as large as the number How many animals of each kind did he buy ? of horses and cows together. III. + 35 x 4. according to III. = the number of dollars spent for cows. The number of cows exceeded the number of horses by 4. + 8 90 x and. x Transposing. number of cows. and the sum of the .140 + (50 x x 120 = 185. first. and the difference between the third and the second is 15 2. 9 cows. Let then. and Ex. 9 5 = 4 . 28 x 15 or 450 5 horses. cows. according to II. the third five times the first. 28 2 (9 5). The number of cows exceeds the number of horses by 4. each cow $ 35. The total cost equals $1185. x j = the number of horses. 37 Find three numbers such that the second is twice the first. = the number of dollars spent for horses. and each sheep $ 15. = the number of dollars spent for sheep Hence statement 90 x Simplifying. 90 may be written. 85 (x 15 (4 x I + 4) + 8) = the number of sheep. 2 (2 x f 4) or 4 x Therefore. each horse costing $ 90. 90 x f 35 x + GO x = 140 20 + 1185. Dividing. and 28 sheep would cost 6 x 90 f 9 + 316 420 = 1185. number of horses. Find three numbers such that the second is twice the 2. three statements are : IT. + 35 (x +4) f 15(4zf 8) = 1185. Uniting. 1 1 Check. x = 5. The number of sheep is equal to twice tho number of horses and x 4 the cows together. x f 4 = 9.70 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA man spent $1185 in buying horses. number of sheep. 2. x 35 f + = + EXERCISE 1. first the third exceeds the second by and third is 20. The I. 4 x f 8 = 28.
13. 9. what is the population of each city ? 8. Find three consecutive numbers whose sum equals 63. If the population of New York is twice that of Berlin. v  Divide 25 into three parts such that the second part first. equals 49 inches. and the third part exceeds the second by 10.000 more inhabitants than Philaand Berlin has 1. the second one is one inch longer than the first. The gold.000.  4. women. v . men. and the pig iron produced in one year (1906) in the United States represented together a value .000.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS 3. and 2 more men than women. increased by three times the second side. the first Find three consecutive numbers such that the sum of and twice the last equals 22. and children together was 37. A is Five years ago the What are their ages ? C. and the third exceeds the is second by 5. In a room there were three times as many children as If the number of women. 71 the Find three numbers such that the second is 4 less than the third is three times the second. what is the length of each? has 3. first. A 12. 7. is five numbers such that the sum of the first two times the first. "Find three is 4. If the second angle of a triangle is 20 larger than the and the third is 20 more than the sum of the second and first. and the sum of the first and third is 36. the third 2. how many children were present ? x 11. If twice The sum the third side. the copper. what are the three angles ? 10. and of the three sides of a triangle is 28 inches. New York delphia.000 more than Philadelphia (Census 1905). The three angles of any triangle are together equal to 180. first. twice the 6. and is 5 years younger than sum of B's and C's ages was 25 years. twice as old as B.
of 3 or 4 different kinds. Hence Simplifying. together. number of hours. 14. and quantities area. and A walks at the rate of 3 miles per hour without stopping. Since in uniform motion the distance is always the product of rate and time. has each state ? If the example contains Arrangement of Problems.e. B many miles does A walk ? Explanation. Find the value of each. = 35. width. Let x = number of hours A walks. After how many hours will they meet and how E. i. 3z + 4a:8 = 27. we obtain 3 a. 8 x = 15. number of miles A x x walks. but stops 2 hours on the way.000 more than that the copper. statement "A and B walk from two towns 27 miles apart until they meet " means the sum of the distances walked by A and B equals 27 miles. or time. 3 and 4. how many 100. start at the same hour from two towns 27 miles walks at the rate of 4 miles per hour. and 4 (x But the 2) for the last column. such as length.g.000. Dividing. it is frequently advantageous to arrange the quantities in a systematic manner. 3x + 4 (x 2) = 27. 7 Uniting. California has twice as many electoral votes as Colorado. A and B apart.000.72 of ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA $ 750. speed. and distance. of arid the value of the iron was $300. The copper had twice the value of the gold.000. and Massachusetts has one more than California and Colorado If the three states together have 31 electoral votes. then x 2 = number of hours B walks. First fill in all the numbers given directly. . = 5.
Check. Cancel 2 # 2 (a 10) = 2s 100. l.04 8. 2 a = 40. or 700. What brings the same is the capital? in Therefore Simplify. Find the dimensions of the field. x . A sum invested larger at at 5 % terest as a sum $200 4%. 2   and transpose. .053. $ 800 = 800. $ 1000 x ." gives (2. Multiplying. x . $ 800 = required sum. original field has Check. + 8. If the length The length " The area would be decreased by 100 square yards.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS Ex. were increased by 30 yards.06 = $ 40. + 10 x 300 = 2 z2 100. 70x10 Ex. x + 200).x + 00) 2 x2 Simplify.05 x x . But 700 certain = 800 2.01 = = . the area would be 100 square yards less.M(x . and the width decreased by 10 yards. The an area 40 x 20 =800. 10 x = 200. . Transposing and uniting.04 = $ 40. fid 1 The field is 40 yards long and 20 yards wide. the second 100. z = 20. 73 of a rectangular field is twiee its width.
of coffee for $ 1. How much did each man subscribe ? sum walking at the rate of 3 miles per hour. paid 24 ^ per pound and for the rest he paid 35 ^ per pound. sions of the field. A man bought 6 Ibs. each of the others had to pay $ 100 more. together bring $ 78 interest. Six persons bought an automobile. mobile. were increased by 3 yards. twice as large. A sets out later two hours B . A of each. A sum ? invested at 4 %. and in order to raise the required sum each of the remaining men had to pay one dollar more. Twenty men subscribed equal amounts of to raise a certain money. but four men failed to pay their shares. Ten yards $ 42. 3. sum $ 50 larger invested at 4 brings the same interest Find the first sum. A If its length rectangular field is 2 yards longer than it is wide. and the cost of silk of the auto and 30 yards of cloth cost together much per yard as the cloth. After how many hours will B overtake A. Find the share of each. What are the two sums 5. How many pounds of each kind did he buy ? 8. and the sum Find the length of their areas is equal to 390 square yards. and its width decreased by 2 yards. The second is 5 yards longer than the first. Find the dimen A certain sum invested at 5 % %.55. the area would remain the same. If the silk cost three times as For a part he 7. and follows on horseback traveling at the rate of 5 miles per hour. and a second sum. 1. invested at 5 %.74 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 38 rectangular field is 10 yards and another 12 yards wide. and how far will each then have traveled ? 9. 2. but as two of them were unable to pay their share. as a 4. how much did each cost per yard ? 6.
A and B set out direction. The distance from If a train starts at . traveling by coach in the opposite direction at the rate of 6 miles per hour. walking at the same time in the same If A walks at the rate of 2 far miles per hour. but A has a start of 2 miles.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS v 75 10. and B at the rate of 3 miles per hour. Albany and travels toward New York at the rate of 30 miles per hour without stopping. and from the same point. After how many hours. A sets out two hours later B starts New York to Albany is 142 miles. and another train starts at the same time from New York traveling at the rate of 41 miles an hour.will they be 36 miles apart ? 11. how must B walk before he overtakes A ? walking at the rate of 3 miles per hour. how many miles from New York will they meet? X 12.
which multiplied together are considered factors. An expression is integral and rational with respect and rational. expression is rational with respect to a letter. f db 6 to b. 6. if. \ V& is a rational with respect to and irrational with respect 102. An expression is integral with respect to a letter. at this 6 2 . + 62 is integral with respect to a. The prime factors of 10 a*b are 2. An after simplifying. if it contains no other factors (except itself and unity) otherwise . 5. The factors of an algebraic expression are the quantities will give the expression. vV .CHAPTER VI FACTORING 101. as. stage of the work. it is composite. a factor of a 2 A factor is said to be prime. consider 105. J Although Va' In the present chapter only integral and rational expressions b~ X V <2 Ir a2 b' 2 2 ?> . if this letter does not occur in any denominator. 76 . if it is integral to all letters contained in it. a. 104. a + 2 ab + 4 c2 . we shall not. it contains no indicated root of this letter . irrational. a. but fractional with respect 103. a2 to 6. if it does contain some indicated root of . this letter.
for this result is a sum. 1.g. Divide 6 a% . 77 Factoring is into its factors.62 + &)(a 2 . Ex. It (a. or that a = 6) (a = a .3 6a + 1). E. ?/. y. or Factoring examples may be checked by multiplication by numerical substitution. Hence 6 aty 2 = divisor x quotient. 2. 01. POLYNOMIALS ALL OF WHOSE TERMS CONTAIN A COMMON FACTOR ( mx + my+ mz~m(x+y + z). An the process of separating an expression expression is factored if written in the form of a product.62 can be &). . 2.9 x2^ + 12 sy* = 3 Z2/2 (2 #2 . 2. in the form 4) +3. x.3 sy + 4 y8). x. factors of 12 &V is are 3. Factor 14 a* W 21 a 2 6 4 c2 + 7 a2 6 2 c2 7 a2 6 2 c 2 (2 a 2 . Factor G ofy 2 . it follows that a 2 .) Ex. Since factoring the inverse of multiplication. it fol lows that every method of multiplication will produce a method of factoring. dividend is 2 x2 4 2 1/ . 109. 55.9 x2 y 8 + 12 3 xy f by 3 xy\ and the quotient But. TYPE I. 107. 8) (s1).FACTORING 106. The factors of a monomial can be obtained by inspection 2 The prime 108. since (a + 6) (a 2 IP factored.9 x if + 12 xy\ 2 The greatest factor common 2 to all terms flcy* is 8 2 xy' . 110. . 2 4 x + 3) is factored if written (x' would not be factored if written x(x and not a product.
17. : 6 abx . 3. in factoring a trinomial of the form x f/>#f q. the y factored expression is (x }m)(x + n). 16. 3x*6x*. 7i 13. 15 2 7. a a 'Ja . 13.4.45 afy . 32 a *?/ . a(mf7i) + & ( m + 3 (a + 6) 3 /(a + 6). 34 a^c 8 .6. . (as 3) and (ccf5). 2 Or. e. 18.51 aW + 68 21. 14a 4 5. . two numbers m and n whose sum is p and and if such numbers can be found. ) 22  2. 8. 7a & 10. we had to add tain the coefficient of x.30 aty. q*q*q 2 a.5 + 13 8.5 + 2. x2 f2 x = 15 we have. a6c.12 cdx.3.8 c a 15 ofyV . 2 2 . 2. 2 6. and to multiply 3 and 5 to obtain the term which does not contain x or (x 3)(x f 5) 15.2. 3 3 5 6. 2 23.4.g. &{20a 6 4 &3 2 . 4 8 . 4 tfy f. 12.51 x4 2 6 xy s . QUADRATIC TRINOMIALS OF THE FORM 111. TYPE IT. 15. 3 2 . In multiplying two binomials containing a common 3 and 5 to obterm. 14.5 x*y 2 17 a? .3. obviously. to find two numbers whose product is 15 and whose sum is f. 2 + q. 4.78 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 39 Resolve into prime factors 1. 19. f In factoring x2 2x we have to find whose product is g. in general. 20. 11. Ilro8 9. + llm llm.16 a'V f 48 ctfa^ 2 s 4 : + 34 X 8 a*b f 8 6V . 5f 2 .
of this type.77 = (a. but only in a limited number of ways as a product of two numbers. 2 6. Factor a2 . Ex. + 30 = 20. as p.a).4 x . is The two numbers whose product and 6. 2 11 a?=(x + 11 a) (a. 3.11 a 2 .5) (a .11) (a + 7). but of these only a: Hence 2 . EXERCISE Besolve into prime factors : 40 4. 11 a2 and whose sum The numbers whose product is and a. 4.4 . determine whether In solving any factoring example. If q is negative. . 79 Factor a2 4 x . Since a number can be represented in an infinite number of ways as the sum of two numbers.G) = . Hence fc f 10 ax is 10 a are 11 a  12 /. Factor + 10 ax . + 112. and (a . the student should first all terms contain a common monomial factor. the two numbers have both the same sign as p. 11 7. a 2 . tfa2  3. . 77 as the product of 1 77. or 11 and 7 have a sum equal to 4.5) (a 6). can be factored..FACTORING Ex.30 = (a . Therefore Check. We may consider 1. m 5m + 6. . however. or 77 l. If 30 and whose sum is 11 are 5 a2 11 a = 1. Hence z6 ? oty+12 if= (x 3 y)(x*4 y ). the two numbers have opposite signs.11 a + 30.11. and the greater one has the same sign Not every trinomial Ex.1 1 a tf a 4. Ex. 2. Factor x? . 5. If q is positive.6 = 20. it is advisable to consider the factors of q first. or 7 11.1 afy 8 The two numbers whose product is equal to 12 yp and whose sum equals 3 8 7 y are 4 y* and 3 y*.
x2 23. 6 8 8 4 2 a. 11. ra + 25ra + 100. 13. 2 2 . . a 7 a 30. 2 . 14. 2 ?/ 5?/14. 18. 12. 16. 6 is the product of + 3 and 2. + 30. 8. 31. . ^ </ 2 2 7p8. + 2xS. 35. 24. 15. ay 11 ay +24.2) = 20 x2 + 7 x . a2 . + 44. factors of 6 x 2 and 5 . 17.70 x y . x*y ra 2 2 4xy 4 wia 2 2 21y. ITT. + 5<y 24. 33. 2 . 19. . 2 ?/ 28.48 + + 446 200. 2 2 a' 34. 9. + 4?/21.17 + 30. or . and 5 x. a 2 +11 a a? 16. 29.180 a. a? + 5 + 6 a. a 2^ 2 a2 + 7ax 18. 100 xr . 26. 17a& + 7(U 9a&226 + 8 a 20. 36. 21 a 2 2 . 4 2 . TYPE 113. 20. 4 3 2 . 30.80 7.6. y_ 6y +6y 15?/ 2 ?/ 10. +7 Hence a? is the sum of the 13 x cross products. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBEA x*2x8. in factoring 6 x2 + 5. 21. 2 ?/ 22. QUADRATIC TRINOMIALS OF THE FORM According to 66. 25. 27. we have to find two bino mials whose corresponding terms are similar. and the sum of the cross products equals 13 x. 32. such that The The first last two terms are factors of 6 x 2 two terms are factors of 5. 16. 3?/4 + a' 2a&24& n + 60+177> a + 7 a 30. By actual trial give the correct we find which of the sum of cross products. 2 . 10 x y 2 200 x2 . (4 x + 3) (5 x 20 x2 is the product of 4 a. 6 a 18 a + 12 a 2 2 ?/ . + 400 x aft a4 4 a 2 .500 x + 600.
64 may be considered the : product of the following combinations of numbers 1 x 54.17 x 2o?l V A 5  13 a combination the correct one. or G 114. 3 x and x. but the opposite sign. If the factors a combination should give a sum of cross products. Ex. 54 x 1. a.13 x + 5 = (3 x . the signs of the second terms are minus. and that they must be negative. none of the binomial factors can contain a monomial factor. 6 x 9.e5 V A x1 3xl \/ /\ is 3 a. we have to reject every combination of factors of 54 whose first factor contains a 3. 18 x 3. all it is not always necessary to write down combinations. all pos combinations are contained in the following 6xl x5 . and r is negative.1). . exchange the signs of the second terms of the factors.FACTORING If 81 we consider that the factors of f 5 as must have is : like signs. viz. 11 x 2x. 3.5) (2 x .83 x f 54. If py? \qx\r does not contain any monomial factor.5 .31 x Evidently the last 2 V A 6. The and factors of the first term consist of one pair only. the second terms of the factors have same sign as q. Factor 3 x 2 . 27 x 2. . the If p and r are positive. and after a little practice the student possible should be able to find the proper factors of simple trinomials In actual work at the first trial. If p is poxiliw. 9 x 6. 2. The work may be shortened by the : follow ing considerations 1. sible 13 x negative. Since the first term of the first factor (3 x) contains a 3. which has the same absolute value as the term qx. Hence only 1 x 54 and 2 x 27 need be considered. then the second terms of have opposite signs. X x 18. 2 x 27.
29. EXERCISE Kesolve into prime factors 1. 15. 6.19 a f 6. arranged according to the ascending or the descending powers of some letter. IV) are special cases of In all examples of this type. + 2/3. 2 ar* 2 i/ . 5. 2 2 2 . 4a2 9tt + 2. 3a + 13a.2) (x . 30. 144 x . and the monomial factors should be removed. SoJ + llay 15 aj* 40*. .y + 172/9. 3x*Sx + 4. 2x* + 9x5. Sar' + SaG. 12. 10a?2 2 33. 4. 2 2 2 23.260 xy .163 x 2 . 100^200^ + 100^. 20. .290 xy f 144 y* 4x 8 ofy + 3 y 2 2 4 2 4 f . + 11 or 2 + 12 a. 35. 2 f3y 4y 40a 90aV + 20aV. 13. 6n + 5?i4. 24. 17. 2i/ * 2 2 x 27. 3. 90 a 8 2 . 9 y + 32^16. 22. 2 .10 4a? + 14oj + 12. 2 26.179. 2 . f go.83 x . Therefore 3 z + 64 The type pa. h r is 2 the most important of the trinomial types. 7. the expressions should be it. x54 a. 6n 2 f 13w + 2. . 10a2 G a2 2 .30 y 6 4 . 14. : 41 2. 2 28. 19. + 4. X 27 . 9a. 18.27). 11. 2.2 a 90 x*y . 2m t7w + 3. 5 a6 2 2 9 a .77 xy + 10 y 23afc + 126 . 10 a . 25. 10. 5m 26m f 5. 8. 12y 2/6. 14 a fa 4. 9.82 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 3xl 3s2 x X 115.13 xy + 6 y2 12 x 7 ay. since all others (II.7. 34. 12^17^16.83 x = (3 .300 ab 2 f4 250 . 16. 2 fc . 32. 21. 2 31.
2 2 . 9 +6a6 2 2 f a4 . 8. x* . 2 . 10. a flOa&46 4 wi f 2 2/ 2 . 13. 116. 5. . 12. must have a positive sign. 4.  2 xy + if = (x 2 ?/) . 6. for + 9 y2 = (4 x . form are special cases of the preceding type. m 14ww + 49n 2 16 a . EXERCISE 42 per Determine whether or not the following expressions are feet squares. and a perfect square. 2 9 10gf25. connect the re square roots of the terms which are squares by the sign of the indicate the square of the resulting binomial. 9 10a625. Expressions of this to factor them according a2 to 65. it is a perfect square. 24 xy + 9 y' 2 is Evidently 10 & 24 xy a perfect square. x> 2 a 2_4 a & a 2 + 462.20 xy f 4 y\ . THE SQUARE OF A BINOMIAL 2 Jr 2 xy +/. 2. 14. 25 7. square. 11.3 y) 2 is 2VWx 2 x V0y2" = 24 xy. of its terms are perfect squares. 9.10 x f 16.FACTORING 83 TYPE IV. To factor a trinomial which maining term. and may be factored according to the method used In most cases. 3. .26 ab + 9 6 2 . it is more convenient for that type.e. m + 2mn + n c 2cdd 2 2 . and the remaining equal to twice the product of the square roots of these in order to be a perfect terms. i. and factor whenever possible : 1. 4 6 m*ti f 9 n*. A term when two is trinomial belongs to this type. however. 16 y? The student should note that a term.
27. !Gar 9 ( )+25. 2 . * 2 . ). 2 . 6.20 ab + 10 b a . 10 a 2 4 2 . According to 65.6 m* + 9 m. 18.60 a# + 4.9 z* = (2 ary + 3 z ) (2 1G a . 2 20.e. +( )f816 30.6 = (a 4 b) = (a* + b*)(a + b)(ab). 4 2 23. 2. 29. 6 2 .64 6 = 16(a . 3. 225 ofy . 100a2 68 a2 & 2 121.9& 2 3<> 4 2 . THE DIFFERENCE OF TWO SQUARES JT 2 /. prime. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 16a 2 24a&4. ). m 4a + 12a + ( 2 4m 2 20 f ( ). a4 a2 2 f 6 is .84 15. V. Ex. x*Sx + ( 64 a 4 100w +( )+49. : 43 tfy\ a 9. 48 a +( ). u2 6& + 2 ( ). 16&*. 19. . 3.3 * ). a. TYPE 117. product i. 3 Make the following expressions perfect squares by supplying the missing terms : 21. difference of the squares of two numbers is equal of the sum and the difference of the two numbers. aV .4 6 = lG(tt +2Z> )(a 26 ). + GO + 25. 7. ^//c to the Ex. 17. 36 2 4. 2 . 1. . a2 24. . 16. 4 3 4 ^ 3 8 10 8 10 ) 4 5 4 5 Ex.  + 6a + ( 9a ( ) + 144 a 2 28. 25.2 ofy + ofy m . EXERCISE Resolve into prime factors 1. 26. 4a2 l. 2. a. ). 9. 5. 149 a 81 8. 2 f b 2 2 2 ) (a NOTE. 9a2 . 22.
Resolve into prime factors and simplify EXERCISE 44 Resolve into prime factors 1.(I) . 2 2 : (mfn) _p 2 . a2 . 6. 2 . 9. 14. One or both terms are squares 1. 2. (m f # 2 2 n) 42:) 10. 5. (?/ 2 cc (x y)*. 36> . (m 3n) 2 ( 2 2 . 11. T. 13. Factor a 2 . 2. a:) 12. (m7?) y. (x f 3 9 2/ 2 . 8. 25a (&c) (mh2n) 2 2 . 16p 2 . (a x? f 6) 6 2 . (2a (2s + 5) (3a4) 2 2 . 2 ?/) 16 2 (y f 2 . (2a5&) (5c9ef) 2 3.c .(c + d) 2 = (a + c + cZ) (a . Ex.d) 2 .FACTORING 85 118. 2 . 4. of polynomials.(c 4. Ex.
Ex.4 6 x f 3 a y 2 4.2 ) (3 x .ab + bx. 4:cx . 5. . GROUPING TERMS By the introduction of parentheses. After grouping tain a the terms.y + 2 2). the expression becomes the difference of two squares. 9. x8 .14.r. 1. Factor 9 x*y*4:Z 2 f 4 yz.7 c + 2c . a 26 2 2 3 .6z2 + 5 = z2 (. + x + 2x + 2. By grouping. 119.and trinomials. polynomials can frequently be transformed into bi.VI. a? 11.1. raV + nV 3 a 2ic 2 m ?/ 2 n 2an3&n + 2ag3&?. 4 B. ma ?*a + m& nb. a3 c 3 10ax5ay6bx + 3by. + bx + ay + by = x(a + &) + y(a + 6) Ex. 7. A. = (3 x + y . 3. . 5) . Ex. a5 + ab 6 . + 4cy5dx 2 5dy. which may be factored according to types I. 2. Factor or 5 5 x2 x x f 5.(x  5) EXERCISE Resolve into prime factors 1. 12. ive find that the new terms con common factor.86 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA TYPE VI. 6. 2.a a . : 45 ax + bx + ay+by. 8. Factor ax ax f bx f ay f by. 10.
Arranging the terms. 4.62 + 9 _ 4 _ 12 ax + 4 6y 2 = 4 a 2 .FACTORING Ex. l~a 2a56 2 2 . + 2xy + y*q*. 87 f Factor 4 a2  6 2 + 9 tf . : 46 x* 2. 8. 3. 6 6. 2a3/ 7. 3. EXERCISE 47 MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES* Resolve into prime factors !.10 xy + 4 y\ 2 . IV. 36 9 m . although frequently the particular cases II and IV are more convenient. 6a4 12a2 + 6. w m 2. 2.6 ww + n 2 2 < a 2 4a6 + 46 25.9 a2 4 v* 2 .12 aaj 4 6y. $ a8 .12 z + 9 x2)_ (&2 _ 4 ty + 4 ^2) a. 2 7. . 4. : m 2 2 16. Trinomials are factored by the method of cross products. 2. a 2 10a6 4 2 + 256 2 x ar 2a.4 f . Polynomials are reduced to the preceding cases by grouping terms. . II. 8. Binomials are factored by means of the formula a 2 6 2 III.* */2 ft EXERCISE Kesolve into prime factors 1. First find monomial factors common to all terms.12 ax + 9 a2 + 4 &t/ 4 y2 = (4 a 2 . 5. 6a4 + 37a2 + 6. SUMMARY OF FACTORING I. m Gw + 9n * See page 266. = (a + 6)(a6). 6. 8ra 2 + 16.l. 4 a2 . +c+ 2 2 2/ .
6 :J 2 2 ft 2 16. 2 17.13 c . or 3 7#2 . 27. 3 a2 23. 40. 80 a 2 ft 38. a3 156.85 xy + 42 y 10 w 43 w 9. 5a' 20. 4 a. 11. 14. 4 8 tt 2 z . 2 3#4 3a2 36. 3 25. 256 4 2 2 ?/) .156. 35. 13. 4 2 2 ft ft 2a + a*l. + 6 aft + 3 . a + a + a + l. 28. 19. a. 32 aft + 6 4ft 4 . 42 s 2 . 13 c .24.88 10. 24. 32. 49 a 4 4 42 a + 9 a 20a 90a 50. 5 a. 42 x . 2 a 128. 18. 10 a 2 4a 4 26. 48. a6 36. 20 >r + 2 ?<s __ G4. 22. 29. any V 2 ( 51 xyz + 50. 12. (a. __ ft)2 n Qy 2 . (^ 34. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA x*xif. 3 41.310 x .40. 30. 25 a + 25 aft . + 14. a5 a 1 4 2 39. 2 ft . 3 2 . 50^ + 45. . 1 ?v _w 8 2 33.
C. of the algebraic expressions. EXERCISE Find the H. F. F. 122. are prime can be found by inspection. The highest is common factor (IT. 5 7 34 2s . F. C. of 6 sfyz.CHAPTER VII HIGHEST COMMON FACTOR AND LOWEST COMMON MULTIPLE HIGHEST COMMON FACTOR 120. F. of two or more monomials whose factors . C. 24 s . 12 tfifz. expressions which have no are prime to one another. 8 . 2. F. the algebraic factor of highest degree common expressions to these expressions thus a 6 is the II. of : 48 4. 33 2 7 3 22 3 2 . F. C. The student should note H. C. 5. The H. 3. 54  32 .  23 3 . 2 2 . 13 aty 39 afyV. C. Two common factor except unity The H. find by arithmetic the greatest common factor of the coefficients. F. of a 4 and a 2 b is a2 The H. 121. and GO aty 8 is 6 aty. C. . F. 25 W.) of two or more . 89 . aW. The H. 3 . 15 aW. of (a and (a + fc) (a 4 is (a + 6) 2 . 5 s 7 2 5. 5 2 3 . of a 7 and a e b 7 . of aW. F. C. and prefix it as a coefficient to H. F. is the lowest that the power of each factor in the power in which that factor occurs in any of the given expressions. Thus the H. 6. If the expressions have numerical coefficients. C. II 2 . + 8 ft) and cfiW is 2 a 2 /) 2 ft) . C.
10. 75 a&X 15 bed 11 . aWd. 65 zfyV. of polynomials. F. 6 a2 y? . 4a f 4a2 2 2 a 2  . 12. 8(?/ifl) 14. C. a2 ar* 4. 2 .3 xy + 2 y* = (x .y) . 2 . 8. 4 ?io. 2 . 9. 4 a3 6 4 8 a663 . 57 a>V. 3.7 xy + 10 2 = (x . 24 a 2 . 9 aj*(a? . 12. . 225 4a 9 . To find the H. 2a f5af 2. F.5 + 6. 11. .5 y).?/ . 6(m+l) (m+2). 3^ 2 4 . . a 3a4. (a7 ?/) .6 . ^707 + 12. 5.y + y42. 13. a2 . 6 mx . ELEMENTS OF ALGEBEA 6 rarcV. 8.6. ^a + 5^ + 6. resolve each polynomial into prime factors. C.6 a&.2 y) (a. 9.y)\ O+ 0^(0. of: . = x 2 y. 38 #y. ^f a. 0^80:416. 7. 2. Ex. 13. F. 4 7/i 3 n2 10 4 mV. 12 .^9.12 as 66 . a2 + 2a3. y + 3y64. 14. x* x2 Hence the H. x2 ^4^ and tf 7 xy + 10 f. 3 .5 x3?/ 2 6. 1. ^2 2 . 49 C.# 4 afy f 4 . 12 w*nw 8. 6 3 a. 7/ EXERCISE Find theH. 15. 25 m27i. 16.8 a + 16.2 ?/) (x . F. 4(m+l) 3 . a. 8 a 10 . 2 . .90 7.y) 123. Find the H. 52 oryz4. a3 16 a. 95 2/V. 3). 1. C. 8 6. 10. and apply the method of the preceding article. . 15 xy^ 2 10 arV . a3 9a. a2 + 7af!2. 11. 16 a . of + 4 if. . 30 mu\ 39 afyV. 5 a6 5^ 2 a. 15 3ao. 4(m f ?i) 3 3 5(w + w) 5 7(m + n}\m 2 ri).6 a' + 2 a& + 6 .
of 12(a + ft) and (a + &)*(  is 12(a + &)( .6)2. 60 x^y' 2 . 126.C. M. of 4 a 2 6 2 and 4 a 4 4 a 68 2 . &) 2 M. but opposite .M. C. of 3 aW. A common remainder. C. M of the algebraic expressions. M. 1. 127. 2. The L. ory is the L.) of two or more expressions is the common multiple of lowest degree. M. L. =4 a2 62 (a2 . Common 125.LOWEST COMMON MULTIPLE 91 LOWEST COMMON MULTIPLE multiple of two or more expressions is an which can be divided by each of them without a expression 124.M. M. Obviously the power of each factor in the L. M. a^c8 3 . 300 z 2 y. To find the L. 2 multiples of 3 x and 6 y are 30 xz y. C. Find the L. M. thus. resolve each expression into prime factors and apply the method for monomials. C. find by arithmetic their least common multiple and prefix it as a coefficient to the L. C. Ex. Find the L. of the general. If the expressions have a numerical coefficient. C. Hence the L. NOTE. L. etc. C. of tfy and xy*. M. 6 c6 is C a*b*c*. 128. of as &2 a2 + 2a&f b\ and 6a.(a + &) 2 (a have the same absolute value. Ex. two lowest common multiples.C.6 3 ). C. which also signs. 4 a 2 &2 _ Hence. = (a f last 2 &)' is (a  6) . M. . is equal to the highest power in which it occurs in any of the given expressions. 2 The The L. C. C. of several expressions which are not completely factored. The lowest common multiple (L. each set of expressions has In example ft). .
a. T a 3 a 2 . + 2 7i) . x2 2 + 5 a + 6. 2(m 2 . a?b. 2 . (For additional examples see page 268. 3(a + b). 5 a? 5 a? y. Find the L. 14. f b. xy\ . of: 4.f 6. ax {ay ~ 3 a 3 b. 8 d 5 . a& 4 +& 2 . 2 ic 3 4a 8 a. 2 a. a2 ~ab 1. a f 2 19. 2 a . b 2 . 2 x \2 y. a 2 fa6. a { a~b. a 1. 2 10. 3 . x2 + 4 a f 4. 20 9 a. a2 4. a^1.92 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 50 C. + 2. 3 ab. 4 a 5 6cd. a. G a. 30 a. 2 . 7. 3 (a2)(a3) ( a 3)(a4) 2 2a?b'2ab 2 a. x* ~5a. 8. a 2 f 4 a +4. afy. 11. x 2 5 a. 17.1. 21. ) . 18. 8 afy. by. 4 a . a 2 a3 . 15. ic 2 ?/. #. + 6. x2 5 f 2 3# 5 + 2. ic 23. 3 6 xif. 13. 3. 20. 16. 22. 3 Z> . 24. a !. 2 a?b\ a + 2ab + b' 2a2b. a f 3.1. 2 . 3 f2. 24 x. . afc'cd 2 . 6 y. . 5. or f 3 a 15 #. 2. 1. 2 a . M. 40 abJ. bx a? 8 2 lOajflfi. 6. 2 7ic+10. a. y*. 5 a 2 ^ 2 15 . 4 a f 2. 3(m + n) 4 m 2 . 6b 2 . (a 4)(a2) 12. 3. 6 a. 9.
fraction is in its lowest when its numerator and its denominator have no common factors. common 6 2 divisors of numerator and denomina and z 8 (or divide the terms . rni Thus 132. an indicated quotient. TT Hence 24 2 z =  3x . and denominators are considered. the value of a fraction is not altered by multiplying or dividing both its numerator and its denominator by the same number. however. a b = ma mb . The dividend a is called the numerator and the The numerator and the denominator are the terms of the fraction. 130. as 8. Ex. Thus. Reduce ~ to its lowest terms. 131. and i x mx = my y terms A 1.CHAPTER VIII FRACTIONS REDUCTION OF FRACTIONS 129. A f fraction is b. only positive integral numerators shall assume that the all arithmetic principles are generally true for algebraic numbers. Remove tor. F.ry ^ by their H. etc. the product of two fractions is the product of their numerators divided by the product of their denominators. but we In arithmetic. All operations with fractions in algebra are identical with the corresponding operations in arithmetic. If both terms of a fraction are multiplied or divided by the same number) the value of the fraction is not altered. a?. thus  is identical with a divisor b the denominator. C. successively all 2 j/' .
. _Q 2 6 EXERCISE 51* Reduce i to lowest terms 3 : 95 2 *' o 3 * 3T5"** T^ 12a4 " 3 K 6 ' 32 78 ' ' 2. cancel factors only.94 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 133. tf a*  n2 + 8 a 24 a* _ ap 2 . and cancel all factors that are common to both. 2. 3. Ex. Never cancel terms of the numerator or the denominator.6 a + 8) 6 d\a* . Keduce a* ~ 6 a' 4 *8a 6a qs _. resolve numerator and denominator into their factors. Keduce 62 ~ 2 62 a2 to its lowest terms.4) Ex.33 7 a 36 arV 18 x2^' 39 a2 6 8c4 * See page 268. 6 24 a2 to its lowest terms. To reduce a fraction to its lowest terms.
3a ^ ^ "^ 2 9 . ^' rt ^  31. 'M 3 ??i 2fi 25. LJZJ^JL. 19. 23.FRACTIONS 7 95 22 a 2 bc 1 4 ^. 9x + "a" 10.' 32.7 . . * OQ 3 a3 _6a a/i 2 2 5 ?tt +6 ^. ~__ 9n _ 22 9.n 8 + T> ? wn + n 2 ?i 2 m " *7 . . 5^10 y 30.*. ^" a. """. 11 ^ Mtr f . x1 15 ' ft< 4 xy //(/ _. ny 4 18. ^+3*. g J 21.10 a + 3 2 14. nx 17. 16. ' ^ . 12 15 m m 2 2 7 w. 04 !l 9 or 2 6 it*?/ +y 2 12. _ 3 7i rt< 26. 29. . + ' 4 2 ?/ 27.. n h ' m11 2 m 3 8.
r 2 2 . ^ to their lowest com The L.96 134.~16 (a + 3) (x. and the terms of ***. 1.3) (!)' = . 2> . Divide the L.M. To reduce to a fraction with the denominator 12 a3 6 2 x2 numerator ^lA^L O r 2 a 3 ' and denominator must be multiplied by Similarly. we have M^. Reduce ^. and 135.C. =(z (x + 3)(z. . mon T denominator.3)O  Dividing this by each denominator. TheL.by 3 ^ A 2 ' . we have (a + 3) (a 8) (!)' NOTE. and (a 8). . Multiplying these quotients by the corresponding numerators and writing the results over the common denominator. C. by any quantity without altering the value of the fraction.1^22 ' . . we may use the same process as in arithmetic for reducing fractions to the lowest common denominator.M. of the denominators for the common denominator. we may extend this method to integral expressions.C. M. Since a (z 6 + 3)(s3)Ol)' 6a.  by 4 6' .  of //* 2 . we have the quotients (x 1). take the L. ELEMENTS OF 'ALGEBRA Reduction of fractions to equal fractions of lowest common Since the terms of a fraction may be multiplied denominator. and Tb reduce fractions to their lowest common denominator. Ex. multiply each quotient by the corresponding numerator. 1). Ex  Reduce to their lowest common denominator. multiplying the terms of 22 . C. by the denominator of each fraction. and 6rar 3 a? kalr . 3 a\ and 4 aW is 12 afo 2 x2 . + 3).D.
74).FRACTIONS EXERCISE 52 97 . ?y2" m^ S? m 2 7^ m S* **.T n"> ^' 5c 3 26 o atf o> 5 77" ' . 2. 5a 3 zl ' _ 2al n. 3. 7i 2 ab* ". they must be reduced to equal fractions which have the lowest common denominator before they can be added (01 subtracted). . .Reduce the following to their lowest 1.^1.. .. . 18. 5?. common denominator 6. JL. fractions having a common denominator are added or subtracted by dividing the sum or the difference of the numerators by the common denominator. 2aj ~ .oj o* or / . If the given fractions have different denominators. a? 1 5 > ^* . 137. 22 a2 5a * . o o a. i.a+2 ' a 2 3af 2 ADDITION AND SUBTRACTION OF FRACTIONS 136. 2 ay IB. j y 3. 2 3 9a ~l' 3al 6 8 a ' 2 a8 * 5 4a 8' ' a jj + 6 a 9 ^ . 8 i i. . Since {c c = 5L^ c (Art. bxby g ! a 5 ' a f5 a2 25 ?.T 3y Ga1 ax 9 ' 2a .
(2 ~ a ft) a(a  + 7 ft)fa ft)(a 2 ft)  ft) a(a 2 ft) NOTE. 4(2 a 3 ft).. and adding.. in the beginning.aft  _ 3 ab + 2 = ( a _ ft)( _ 2 a 2 2 aft :=(. ^ is 2^JT) .3 ft)(2 a f + : Ga6 + 3 ft). ft). The results of addition and subtraction should be re duced to their lowest terms.20 aft 3ft) f 3 ft 2 4(2a3ft)(2af 4 aft f 21 2 138.3 ft 2).aft) Ca2 . Multiplying the terms of the first fraction by 2(2 a the second by (2 a .3 . 2. (a8ft)(a~ft) 8 2 2ft) 2 =a 4 2 + 2 (2 a 4.4 aft + ft ft ) a(a  ft)(a 2ft) 2 =a . the student should remember that parentheses are . understood about terms ( 66) hence he should. L.(a 2 6). D.2 = a(a . C. (a ft). 2 ^. as 4 aft f. ft) ft ft a(a ~ 3 aft + 2 ft2 a2  2 aft _(a + 2ft)(a2ft) +a (2q + a(a . (a 3 ft) In simplifying a term preceded by the minus sign. D.ft) (a ft ft)~. T? Ex.ft)(a .98 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA  Ex ' Sim C.3 ft). cr \t Simplify _T__ r* + . write 2 the product in a parenthesis.g. ^ _ ^ a3b ft). 4 6 + 2qg+6~agf4a&8 a(aft)(a 2ft) ft 2 a2 a(a + 5 aft . we obtain 2 a the terms of 2(2 a +3 3 ft 6 a f ft _ 2(2 a + ft) 3 ft) (2 a ft) 4(2 a 3 4(2 a ~~ + 3 ft) f (2 a . (a . e. The L.7 . a 3 2a + "~ a2 ft). a2 ab ft2 Hence the a a2 f 2 6 a2 .3 ft)(2 a + 3 ft) ft ft) (6 a ft) _ 8 a 2 f 24 aft 20 a 2 f f 18 2 + ft 12 a 2 .2 ' 2 _.
18 v 19. t3 m2* a _2 6 a 4. 36 3u 2v v 5 wv 8v 12 uv 13. 15. 46 2a 4a 12. a2 a + 3* 2 a 7 af1 ' 2) * See page 270.FRACTIONS EXERCISE 53* Simplify : 99 2a4 5 3. a 36 ++. 6 c 3a 7.5 18 ^4f25. 30 u +? + i _H_ + _*_. + . j>0 i> 21. 1 f q * 1 m m . 5a76 4a 106 9. a+6 a 6 2 14. 1 1 f w 16. 6a116 13 a 15a26 116 e ' 6 2 10. 1* 1 + mf 3 1 M. 20. 2. 9m + 7n 3 6m 5n 2x + 3y 3x 15 y x + 2y 45 8. + a "" 2 6 ' . 2L + 2a 1 17. A+2_3. 23. 24.
^2^+6m 3 45 ' 44. a 2 ^> 2 x2 7x+12~x l7x + 4:~ ' } . a. ic 1 + 1. 41. / IIlNT: Let a 1  39. _ ' a +b +a= ( 38. x2 Q 3 /Yl Qfi ou L "I "I \_ L I * 7 ITi ~T~ 7 TTo O :_ ' i 37 _ 9 <1  1 i 1 '> a2 .LOO ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 26  x*3x + 2 x2 5x 27 ' ~. _ + a? ?/ + y. ! n. 3a 9 +. 42. 43. 1 34.9. 2 af1 32. a ?^ 40. a 30. a 4 31. _m & 2 i +m 6 i _w 36 a2+ a ^_2&2 35. af 1f /j. x + 3y x3y Gx x2 2x .9 79 6 2 i.
. .17 (2^ + 2x f 53 (2x.6 + 4x 4 x2 . 1.'3) 2 EXERCISE expression 54 to a Keduce each of the following fractions : mixed or integral a a +1 9a2 6a + 2 3a m 2 * 5 m f 6 4 m 7 n 2 + 7n + 14 fi . To reduce a fraction to an integral or = + ceo 2 * * (S74) v ' Hence 5a2 15a7 = 5 a2 oa 5a 15a oa 7 5a =a 3 . T.  . Reduce . 2 x2 + 2 g 4. 101 mixed expression. .7 5a v Ex. 2x 4 x3 to a mixed expression.  4 or 3 2a.FRACTIONS 139.6 x + 10x4 x2 17 Therefore x y 3g . 2 + 4tf 3 17 .
(In order to cancel common factors. Common factors in the numerators and the denominators should be canceled before performing the multiplication. multiply the 142. Since  = a.g.102 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA MULTIPLICATION OF FRACTIONS 140. x b c = numerator by To multiply a fraction by an that integer. expressed in symbols: c a _ac b'd~bd' principle proved for b 141. 2. fractions to integral numbers. each numerator and denomi nator has to be factored. or. 2 a Ex.) Ex. F J Simplify . Simplify 1 J The expreeaion =8 6 . Fractions are multiplied by taking the product of tht numerators for the numerator. and the product of the denominators for the denominator. we may extend any e. integer. !.
. . 6) 12 ot 2 ab + 2 fc a b* o. 14. 53 *38 " ' 4 ' 14 b* ' 10 a 8 ' " 4af86 76 5c 36C2 10 (a 7a216 a2 2 q~. 5# 56 / c& 4.6 12 d6 4. aj 5 1 a? 18.. _G x 7 a2 5a6 a. 5n a2 43a4 a2 3 a 4 a 2 5ah4 <  x2 + x (x 2 I) 17. 50 . 4 8. 2 25n 2 1 3m +&n 15.FRACTIONS EXERCISE Find the following products ' 103 55 : 2!v! 2 4 5 8 a2 " ' ^ ' 36^ 21m* ' 17 ab ' ' 2 48 as b*' 34 ab 2 14m4 .20 3a 2 6 ' GoA ai> 56 2c " ar " ' 4 ac2 V V 3m " " +1 " " o?f 2 ~ ' _ 9m JO. 2 f 5 a.
144. The The reciprocal of a is a 1 f reciprocal of J is  . The reciprocal of a number is the quotient obtained by dividing 1 by that number. invert the divisor and multiply it by the dividend. and the principle of division follows may be expressed as 145. The reciprocal of ? Hence the : +* x is 1 + + * = _*_.104 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA DIVISION OF FRACTIONS 143. Divide Xn?/ . To divide an expression by a fraction. 1. : a 41 ab * See page 272. Integral or mixed divisors should be expressed in fractional form before dividing. x a + b obtained by inverting reciprocal of a fraction is the fraction.y3 + xy* x*y~ f y 8 y f 3 2/ x3 EXERCISE 56* Simplify the following expressions 2 x* '""*'*' : om 2 a2 6 2 r  3 i_L#_i17 ar J 13 a& 2 5 ft2 ' u2 +a . * x* f xy 2 by x*y +y x' 2 3 s^jf\ = x' 2 x* . 8 multiply the Ex. expression by the reciprocal of the fraction. To divide an expression by a fraction. .
T ?/ 4 2 a*?/ 15 #4.FRACTIONS 105 . Simplify <! c a a2 c 4 L 4. c ab 2 4 &c* & a .6 s + 064.5 ??i 80 50 . are fractional. Ex. or both. ga2 4 8 5 a . A complex fraction is a fraction whose numerator or denominator.6 COMPLEX FRACTIONS 146.' ' * ' ^5^+4 ._ # ~ y ' 45 14 in^o 2 ?/ ^y "xy 15 a2 + (Jf fr a b . t ' a^3^4 ? 4* ' a?~ab > a 2 a 4a 4 4 a: +3 m 12 2 f.&c 2 ~ a 4 a2c 4.^c 2 2 . a 6 _6 c c ac a6 2 4.afr 4. mm 5 a a2 6 2 4g2 2a 2 4g20 25 .10 ?/ _.1 5 w + 56 a 2 w a2 2 4. a a2 4. l.
i. Simplify x }. 2. a m "" . Ex. B If the numerator and denominator of the preceding examples multiplied by a&c. c +6. 6. M. the answer is directly obtained. many examples the easiest mode of simplification ia multiply both the numerator and the denominator of the mplex fraction by the L. the expression becomes (x EXERCISE Simplify : 57 x 2.y 32 . x* 4. JL. . 9.a ^c c _^ a . 7i+~ 7.16 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA In 147. 10. n a 8. of their denominators. .?/ x y _x^_l X ~V x+y . C. y X 4* 2 y 3. & . xy x +y Multiplying the terms of the complex fraction by (x y). . .
m^n* n L a 17. 1 i 1 2 5 .~l (For additional examples see page 273. i ~T" * ~ 1 y 19 4 ' !^5n a "~ 12. o 15. : .FRACTIONS 107 1 i m 11. 2 & a 20  a46 13. 1 +2 1 i " f " ( a + 1 /*_i_i 4 14.) . sy 18. 1 + 1+ 1 ti flgfl a?l ic+1 a.
28 x + 42 = .l)(z + 3) = . + 1) (a + 3) .1. each member is reduced to 1. 4 4)  x. tions.28 a = 5 x2 . each member is reduced to Ex. Bx 12 Qx. Uniting. M. Multiplying each term by 6 (Axiom 89). Uniting. 14 z 2 + z 2 + 20 x . = 6. x = 6. Solve ^2^ = 63 2 x 12 * + **. a. Clearing of fractions. C.48. of the denominator. 2 3. 2z2a.14 (a. .f3# + C:E=6f7212. Solve 5 I 14 x +1 x +3 I). 6 = = 72 72 3 (a. these Ex. Transposing. 2x Transposing. 5(3 85 Check. = 6. 5 x2 + 20 x + 15 15 . Multiplying by (x Simplifying.8 x = .CHAPTER IX FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS FRACTIONAL EQUATIONS If an equation contains fracbe removed by multiplying each term by the may L. !)(&+ 1) (x + 3).9(se + !)( 14 x 2 .  2(x 2 + 3) Removing parentheses.9 x2 + 9. 9x x Check.42 + 9. 108 . 148. If x 6. 2. 1. If = 64.
+1 = 5. 15. +4 14. 1 *> = 2. 16. 18. a. .FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS EXERCISE Solve the following equations : 109 58 ^ 4 3 _ +7 a? 32 3 10. o ""~TiT" ' 3 12. '  4 13. = xx a? a? hi x +^ + 3 = 11.= 2. 4 y 2 ^ 16 20 +2 334 y2 y3 == on . a/  5 a/ = 12. ^' 2. 3 a? '2 4 "  2 a? "T"" 4 4. . 1+5 & ^0 ^ a? = 19 1 11.1 _77 a. a: 7 a. ^1 = 9.
 38 = 40.  2  13 _J_ = _J3 . 25. . 26 26. and after simplifying the resulting equation to clear of all denominators. ^^ ' 39 7 ' x. 31 31. y+3~2 29. 27 . 3 3x2 51 3x*2x 23 x 3x2 22 36. and" the remaining one a polynomial. 2^12 = 2 = 34. If two or more denominators are monomials. it is advisable first to remove the monomial denominators only. 2 20 x+3 x3 3 o^ 28 . J_. . . + 26 2^43 1 4^9 1 2a?3 A* 37._ _ .110 ELEMENTS Of ALGEBRA 24. 33. ?_=_.11_4 x 149. 32 6 . 4a4l4* + l~. 3x 35. .
. 5 = 20 g 5 a: ~ Jff 1 . C. 26 a. Dividing. 5# 10. Solve 111 10 Multiplying each term by tors. M. f 13 8#f 2__ 2x 5 7 15 ~~716* 6a? 44. the 1 5 L.2 42 9 43.FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS Ex. each member is reduced to ^. 60. = 9. .2 3 ~  == 7a. Transposing and Multiply ing by 6 uniting.29 50712' 9 18 . Solve the following equations 41 : 5a. If a. of the monomial denomina~ &Q =: n 16 x 2( +3~ x 16 x  2.1. Check.  5 = 20 x 45. 10 x f 6 __ 4a. a.r7 5 +l 6afll~~ 3 6xflO ' 5 2a?~25 15 17a?~9 14 28 6414 . Transposing and uniting. 5x x : = 9. 24 a. 1.
Dividing. they are united by factoring. Thus.3 6 2 = a' . bx f 6)z = 3 & 2 ab.be. When the terms containing the unknown quantity cannot be actually added. Ex. = = 6 6c 7 6c. = 2 f b 2 . f ~ 5c. y. b a a a z Clearing of fractions. to Transposing all terms containing a 6 ab 6 ac one member.1.& . 3(ac) c) Multiplying by 3 (a . It frequently occurs that the x. ax + bx ax (a f IP Transposing.2 62 2 ab. ax f x f.m bx 2 mn) x. Literal equations ( 88) are solved by the same method as numerical equations.2 ac + 3 aft . a. l to = !=?_=^6? a f 6. find a in terms of b and c. and multiplying by a(9 b 4 c 4 c) = 7 &c. =a 2 151. 4 ac 1. If 3ac L= = a ? . .m 2* = (a f 6) mnx = (1 4.c) (3 a ac 6(rtfc)(ac) 6 a2 6 a& +6 6c = (2a + &)(3ac). Uniting. + 2 ac 9 a& 3 ab Simplifying. unknown letter is not expressed by or z. fr Reducing lowest terms.112 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA LITERAL EQUATIONS 150. Ex. = 6 a2 . 2. jr. Uniting the Dividing. 5> a. = l^ 9 b 4 .
q solve for/. in terms of other quantities. 6. rate. 14. = 3 (6 a). a. 34. 3(* 8. .i l . 5) is t =^. 4. ^ ax a^ 26. Ex. mx = n. + xx = 1.a. m a? x . 9. iw 21. i The formula for simple interest ( 30. and n the number of years. 17. 11. + 3a. 1 f. 3. If s (wi n) x =px + q. solve for . _ 2. . = 6 (m f n) = 2 a + (m?i)a?. s = Vt solve for v. 31. If s If 16. 3(2a + aj) 25 ?+l '~~ a/ 1 = 2L .= c a Z> . 12. = vt.FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS EXERCISE Solve the following equations : 113 59 *. a + 26+3aj=2o + 6 + 2a?. c. c 18. If * 33. 15. solve for a. If ^^ = a 1 32. . IIL n b + &o. * Solve the same equation for^). Find the formula for: () The (6) (c) principal. 4. f ^o.= n. = 2(3a = aajffta? + 7^ = 0*+^ 4 (a x) 1 a). The The i time. r the number of $>. 10. 30. . 13. = 5. co?. p the principal. = rt. t.= H. 2 solve for y a. f P =+!. 29. = 8 4 #. denoting the interest. a? x!7  a ITo x T _ ~ 2 8.
In how many days can both do it working together ? If we denote then / the required number by 1. ~^ = 15 11 x ' !i^=15. A can do a piece of work in 3 days and B in 2 days. 2. 1. then = 2 TT#.180. Ex.114 35.20 C. Ex. of minute spaces the hour hand moves Therefore x ~ = the number of minute spaces the minute hand moves more than the hour hand. x Or Uniting. 100 C. 2 3 .minutes after x= ^ of 3 o'clock. = the number of minute spaces the minute hand moves over. When between 3 and 4 o'clock are the hands of a clock together ? is At 3 o'clock the hour hand 15 minute spaces ahead of the minute : hand. . and 12 = the number over. is 36. 12. Multiplying by Dividing. . = 16^.. A would do each day ^ and B j. hence the question would be formulated After how many minutes has the minute hand moved 15 spaces more than the hour hand ? Let then x x = the required number of minutes after 3 o'clock. C is the circumference of a circle whose radius R.. PROBLEMS LEADING TO FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS 152. Find R in terms of C and TT. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA (a) Find a formula expressing degrees of Fahrenheit terms of degrees of centigrade (<7) by solving the equation (F) in (ft) Express in degrees Fahrenheit 40 If C. days by x and the piece of work while in x days they would do respectively ff ~ and and hence the sentence written in algebraic symbols ^.
= 100 + 4 x. the rate of the express train.FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS A in symbols the following sentence 115 more symmetrical but very similar equation is obtained by writing ** The work done by A in one day plus the work done by B in one day equals the work done by both in one day. or 1J. Clearing. Explanation : If x is the rate of the accommodation train. what is the rate of the express train ? 180 Therefore. hours more than the express train to travel 180 miles. 4x = 80. Ex." gives the equation /I). then Ox j 5 a Rate Hence the rates can be expressed." : Let x  = the required number of days. the required number of days. But in uniform motion Time = Distance . u The accommodation train needs 4 hours more than the express train. and the statement. The speed of an express train is $ of the speed of an If the accommodation train needs 4 accommodation train. 3. 32 x = . = the x part of the work both do one day. 180 Transposing. Solving. in Then Therefore. fx xx* = 152 +4 (1) Hence = 36 = rate of express train.
3. The sum 10 years hence the son's age will be of the ages of a father and his son is 50. ex What 5. ceeds the smaller by 4. length in the ground. A man lost f of his fortune and $500. money and $10. and one half the greater Find the numbers. Find a number whose third and fourth parts added together 2. and found that he had \ of his original fortune left. and of the father's age. Find A's 8. by 6. its Find the number whose fourth part exceeds part by 3. by 3. are the The sum of two numbers numbers ? and one is ^ of the other. Two numbers differ l to s of the smaller. to his daughand the remainder. make 21.  Find their present ages. A man left ^ of his property to his wife. is oO. Find two consecutive numbers such that 9.116 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 60 1. of his present age. one half of What is the length of the post ? 10 ter. and J of the greater Find the numbers. fifth Two numbers differ 2. 9 its A post is a fifth of its length in water. Twenty years ago A's age was  age. a man had How much money had he at first? . which was $4000. How much money had he at first? 12 left After spending ^ of his ^ of his money and $15. J of the greater increased by ^ of the smaller equals 6. to his son. How did the much money man leave ? 11. and 9 feet above water. is equal 7.
2.) ( An express train starts from a certain station two hours an accommodation train. . and it B in 6 days. At what time between 4 and ( 5 o'clock are the hands of a clock together? 16. what is the 14. 1. 117 The speed of an accommodation train is f of the speed of an express train. At what time between 7 and 8 o'clock are the hands of ? a clock in a straight line and opposite 18. A can A can do a piece of work in 2 days. what is the rate of the express train? 152. and after traveling 150 miles overtakes the accommodation train.) At what time between 7 and 8 o'clock are the hands of a clock together ? 17. 152. Ex. Ex. 3. In how many days can both do it working together ? ( 152. and losing 1* ounces when weighed in water? do a piece of work in 3 days. A man has invested J of his money at the remainder at 6%. and an ounce of silver fa of an ounce. If the accommodation train needs 1 hour more than the express train to travel 120 miles. at 4J % and P> has invested $ 5000 They both derive the same income from their How much money has each invested ? 20. How much money $500? 4%. and has he invested if his animal interest therefrom is 19.) 22. air. after rate of the latter ? 15. investments. If the rate of the express train is f of the rate of the accommodation train. ? In how many days can both do working together 23. A can do a piece of work in 4 clays. ounces of gold and silver are there in a mixed mass weighing 20 ounces in 21. and B In how many days can both do it working together in ? 12 days. Ex. A has invested capital at more 4%.FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS 13. ^ at 5%. and B in 4 days. An ounce of gold when weighed in water loses fa of an How many ounce.
and n = 3. . B in 12. e. Then ft i. . is 57. by taking for these numerical values two general algebraic numbers. 3. A in 6. 26. To and find the numerical answer. make it m 6 A can do this work in 6 days Q = 2. A in 4. it is possible to solve all examples of this type by one example. Ex.414. The problem to be solved.009 918. Find the numbers if m = 24 30. is 42. n x Solving. and apply the method of 170. B in 5. Hence. 25. B in 30. 6 I 3 Solve the following problems 24.= .g. B in 16. Find three consecutive numbers whose sum equals m. they can both do in 2 days. A in 6. Find three consecutive numbers whose sum Find three consecutive numbers whose sum last : The two examples are special cases of the following problem 27. we obtain the equation m m .e. if B in 3 days.118 153. In how in the numerical values of the : many days If can both do we let x = the it working together ? required number of days. therefore. Answers to numerical questions of this kind may then be found by numerical substitution.= m f n it Therefore both working together can do in mn f n days. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA The last three questions and their solutions differ only two given numbers. 2. m and n. : In how many days if can A and it B working together do a piece of work each alone can do (a) (6) (c) in the following number ofdavs: (d) A in 5. . is A can do a piece of work in m days and B in n days.
squares 30. is (a) 51. and the rate of the second are. respectively (a) 60 miles. : (c) 64 miles. same hour from two towns. (d) 1. 119 Find two consecutive numbers the difference of whose is 11. (b) 149. . 2 miles per hour. if m and n are. Find the side of the square. (b) 35 miles. 34. last three examples are special cases of the following The difference of the squares of two consecutive numbers By using the result of this problem. 2 miles per hour. 33. If each side of a square were increased by 1 foot. and how many miles does each travel ? Solve the problem if the distance. After how many hours do they rate of n miles per hour. by two pipes in m and n minutes In how many minutes can it be filled by the respectively. 3 miles per hour. two pipes together ? Find the numerical answer. solve the following ones Find two consecutive numbers the difference of whose squares : find the smaller number. (c) 16.721.FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS 28. The one: 31. meet. 3J miles per hour. A cistern can be filled (c) 6 and 3 hours. (a) 20 and 5 minutes. squares 29. the Two men start at the same time from two towns. is ?n .001. the rate of the first. After how many hours do they meet. 5 miles per hour. Two men start at the first miles apart. respectively. and the second 5 miles per hour. d miles the first traveling at the rate of m. the area would be increased by 19 square feet. the second at the apart. Find two consecutive numbers the difference of whose is 21. and how many miles does each travel ? 32. 88 one traveling 3 miles per hour. (b) 8 and 56 minutes. 4J miles per hour.000.
a ratio is not changed etc. A ratio is used to compare the magnitude of two is numbers. The first 156. " a Thus. Thus the written a : ratio of a b is . the denominator The the 157. etc. antecedent. In the ratio a : ft. The ratio  is the inverse of the ratio .5. : : 155. . terms are multiplied or divided by the same number. all principles relating to fractions if its may be af)plied to ratios. : A somewhat shorter way would be to multiply each term by 120 6. E. b. Simplify the ratio 21 3. the second term the consequent. 6 12 = . 158. instead of writing 6 times as large as ?>. is numerator of any fraction consequent.CHAPTER X RATIO AND PROPORTION 11ATTO 154. The ratio of first dividing the two numbers number by the and : is the quotient obtained by second.or a * b The ratio is also frequently (In most European countries this symbol is employed as the usual sign of division.g. b is a Since a ratio a fraction. term of a ratio a the is is the antecedent.) The ratio of 12 3 equals 4. Ex." we may write a : b = 6. b is the consequent. b. the symbol being a sign of division. 1. the antecedent.
8^ hours. two  ratios. either mean the mean proportional between the first and the last terms. 17. 159. b. 27 06: 18 a6. AND PROPORTION ratio 5 5 : 121 first Transform the 3J so that the term will 33 : *~5 ~ 3 '4* 5 EXERCISE Find the value of the following 1. 9. equal 2. proportional between a and c. 16 x*y 64 x*y : 24 48 xif. 16a2 :24a&. extremes. 3 8. J:l. and c. : is If the means of a proportion are equal. 16. The last first three. 3:1}. The last term d is the fourth proportional to a. 3:4. Transform the following unity 15. : 1. 4:5f : 5. b is the mean b. 18. 7:4 T T 4 . 11. term is the fourth proportional to the : In the proportion a b = c c?. 1. 5 f hours : 2. terms. and the last term the third proportional to the first and second 161. 61 : ratios 72:18. 6. 7f:6J. In the proportion a b : = b : c. a and d are the extremes.RATIO Ex. $24: $8. : ratios so that the antecedents equal 16:64. Simplify the following ratios 7. and c is the third proportional to a and . the second and fourth terms of a proportion are the and third terms are the means. b and c the means. 12. A proportion is a statement expressing the equality of proportions. 62:16. 4. 3. 10. : ay . = or:6=c:(Z are The first 160.
163. is equal to the ratio of the corresponding two of the other kind. then 8 men can do it in 3 days.122 162. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Quantities of one kind are said to be directly proper tional to quantities of another kind. " we " NOTE. Instead of u If 4 or 4 ccm.30 grams.) mn = pq. if the ratio of any two of the first kind is equal \o the inverse ratio of the corresponding two of the other kind. Hence the number of men required to do some work.) b = Vac. If the product of two numbers is equal to the product of two other numbers^ either pair may be made the means. If 6 men can do a piece of work in 4 days. 6 ccm. : : directly proportional may say. ad = be. pro portional. of a proportion. !. and we divide both members by we have ?^~ E. and the time necessary to do it. of iron weigh 45 grams. of iron weigh . briefly. if the ratio of any two of the first kind. i. ccm.__(163. In any proportion product of the extremes. : c. 3 4. = 30 grams 45 grams. and the other pair the extremes. The mean proportional of their product.'* Quantities of one kind are said to be inversely proportional to quantities of another kind. If (Converse of nq. a b : bettveen two numbers is equal to the square root Let the proportion be Then Hence 6 =b = ac. Clearing of fractions. then G ccm. are : : : inversely proportional. t/ie product of the means b is equal to the Let a : =c : d. Hence the weight of a mass of iron is proportional to its volume. 163. 2 165. 164. or 8 equals the inverse ratio of 4 3. q~~ n .e.
1. I. 12x Hence a? = 42. hence the proportion true.) a b b=c b = c)d:c d. (Division. By inversion 5 : 4 =6 : x. is Ex.) a + b:a = c + d:c.PATIO Ex. I. These transformations are used to simplify proportions. = 35 . 166.) II. a:c=b:d. d d.) d 167. bd bd. if 6 : 7. Or IV.) (Called Alternation. V. a+b a (Composition and : : : Division. 2.) Any is of these propositions may be proved by example : a method which illustrated by the following To prove This is b if d true ad  Or if But Hence ^ =^' o = be = be. If 6 : a a : 6 =c : : d. a III. Determine whether the following proportion 8:6 = and 5 x 7 7 : true rn 8 x t: 4. + b:b = c + d:d. then =d c. is 4$ = 35.) = f f = 3 J. Change the proportion 4 5 = x 6 so that x becomes the : : last term. . ad ( 163. (Frequently called Inversion. (Composition. (163. AND PROPORTION x = 12 : 123 Find x. ad = be.
= 12 5ft. : 3 = 5 f x : x. 5 5. A parenthesis is understood about each term of a proportion. = 7:2f 3J. . To simplify the proportion 8 Apply division. mx tin Apply composition and division. 120:42 2 2 7. = 180:125. : x. the consequents by 7. 9. Or III. 3:3 1:1 divide the antecedents by 16. IV. V. To simplify m 3n ? = + *. = 20:7. i. 5. . 10. To simplify the proportion 11 : 5:6 =4 x : x.e.124 IT. 8. 4. Simplify the following proportions. 3. its ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Alternation shows that a proportion is not altered when its consequents are multiplied or divided by antecedents or the same number. Apply composition. = ^2x x Or Dividing the antecedents by m. 1 : 3 3 Divide the antecedents by : = = 5 1 : jr. to simplify 48:21=32:7x. and determine whether they are true or not : 6. 3n JJ =n x NOTE. E.g.!=!*. 8ajy:17 = i^:l^. 6 =4 : x. = 2:x. EXERCISE 5^:8 = 2:3.:J 62 : Determine whether the following proportions are true 1. 2. = 2:3. 13 = 5f llf : : n 2. x = 2. 72:50 m n (m n) = (m + rif m 2 : 18:19 6 2 : = 24:25. 11 : 5 : 15:22=101:15.
31. ra + landra 1. 1 and a. b. (a : : 45.6 : : Find the fourth proportional 19. 4 a*:15ab = 2a:x. mx = ny. . 35.RATIO AND PROPORTION Determine the value of x 11. terra 2:3 = 4. x:5 = y:2. a 2 and ab. 33. 3t. a. 21 : 4z = 72 : 96. 16 and 28. 23. : 53. 2 a and 18 a. ra. 9 x = 2 y. 43.8:1. 52. 03:a?=135:20. 1. y : b y : =x 1 =x : a. rag. x m = y n. : : Transform the following proportions so that only one contains x: 48. 21. 2 3 = y #. w. = 3 43 + x. : a2 . 6x = 7y. 112:42 = 10:a. 4 and 16. 16. 5. 47. 22. Find the mean proportional 30. 39. Find the third proportional 24. 2. 50. = l^:18. 3. 46. 7iy = 2:x. 27. 34. 26.j>. 20. 17. 2= 5 x x. 38. rap. ratio of y. to: = 35:*. : 125 40:28 = 15:0. 25. 28. 8 a 2 and 2 b 2 Form two x 10 If ab proportions commencing with 5 from the equation 6 36. 18. = 5 x 12. 16 n* x = 28 w 70 ra. 51. 22: 3 19 2 : : 49. 4. 42. 3. 44. + fyx = cy. : . Find the 37. 6. 29.x: 6:5 a : x. f. 14 and 21. 41. ra 2 . a?:15 15. if : 40.  32.. 12. = 15o. form two proportions commencing with x : = xy.:ff. 2. 5= 18 a? : a?. 14. 6 x = y. = 2 + x: x. 13. to : a and 1. to : 9 and 12. and 2/.
(d) The sum of money producing $60 interest at 5%. and the area of the smaller is 8 square inches. 1 (6) The circumferences (C and C ) of two other as their radii (R and A"). and the time necessary for it. (c) of a rectangle of constant width. 57. the squares of their radii (e) 55. What will be the volume if the pressure is 12 pounds per square inch ? . what 58. and the area of the rectangle. and the : total cost. State whether the quantities mentioned below are directly or inversely proportional (a) The number of yards of a certain kind of silk. and the speed of the train. and the time. the area of the larger? the same. The number of men (m) is inversely proportional to the number of days (d) required to do a certain piece of work. areas of circles are proportional to the squares of If the radii of two circles are to each other as circle is 4 : 7. (e) The distance traveled by a train moving at a uniform rate. (b) The time a The length train needs to travel 10 miles. (c) The volume of a body of gas (V) is circles are to each inversely propor tional to the pressure (P). under a pressure of 15 pounds per square inch has a volume of gas is A 16 cubic feet. A line 7^.inches long represents map corresponds to how many miles ? The their radii. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBEA State the following propositions as proportions : T (7 and T) of equal altitudes are to each. the volume of a The temperature remaining body of gas inversely proportional to the pressure. A line 11 inches long on a certain 22 miles. (d) The areas (A and A') of two circles are to each other as (R and R'). othei (a) Triangles as their basis (b and b'). 56.126 54.
is A line AB.000 168.RATIO AND PROPORTION 69. . 11 x f 7 x = 108. 4 inches long. = the second number. Then Hence BG = 5 x. When a problem requires the finding of two numbers which are to each other as m n. Let A B AC=1x. Therefore 7 = 14 = AC. 4 ' r i 1 (AC): (BO) =7: 5. Hence or Therefore Hence and = the first number. 11 x = 66 is the first number. x = 6. so that Find^K7and BO. Divide 108 into two parts which are to each other 7. produced to a point C. as 11 Let then : 1. x=2. it is advisable to represent these unknown numbers by mx and nx. : Ex. AB = 2 x. 127 The number is of miles one can see from an elevation of very nearly the mean proportional between h and the diameter of the earth (8000 miles). 2. 2 x Or = 4. 7 x = 42 is the second number. 11 x x 7 Ex. What is the greatest distance a person can see from an elevation of 5 miles ? From h miles the Metropolitan Tower (700 feet high) ? feet high) ? From Mount McKinley (20. 18 x = 108.
How many 7. and 15 inches. m in the ratio x: y % three sides of a triangle are 11. Water consists of one part of hydrogen and 8 parts of If the total surface of the earth oxygen. Divide 44 in the ratio 2 Divide 45 in the ratio 3 : 9. of water? Divide 10 in the ratio a b. How The long are the parts ? 15. what are its parts ? (For additional examples see page 279. : Divide 39 in the ratio 1 : 5. : 197. 12.128 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 63 1. How many grams of hydrogen are contained in 100 : grams 10. 7. The total area of land is to the total area of is water as 7 18. The three sides of a triangle are respectively a. A line 24 inches long is divided in the ratio 3 5.) . and the longest is divided in the ratio of the other two. If c is divided in the ratio of the other two. 3. Brass is an alloy consisting of two parts of copper and one part of zinc. consists of 9 parts of copper and one part of ounces of each are there in 22 ounces of gun metal ? Air is a mixture composed mainly of oxygen and nitrowhose volumes are to each other as 21 79. find the number of square miles of land and of water. 11. : Divide a in the ratio 3 Divide : 7.000 square miles. 6. How many gen. 14. 13. Gunmetal tin. and c inches. Divide 20 in the ratio 1 m. 9. What are the parts ? 5.000. 2. cubic feet of oxygen are there in a room whose volume is 4500 : cubic feet? 8. : 4. 12. How many ounces of copper and zinc are in 10 ounces of brass ? 6.
y = 5 /0 \ (2) of values. which substituted in (2) gives y both equations are to be satisfied by the same Therefore. etc. y = 1.CHAPTER XI SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS 169. expressing a y. the equation is satisfied by an infinite number of sets Such an equation is called indeterminate.L x If If = 0. Hence 2s 5 o = 10 _ ^ (4) = 3. =.e. is x = 7. If satisfied degree containing two or more by any number of values of 2oj3y = 6. y (3) these unknown numbers can be found. Hence. An equation of the first unknown numbers can be the unknown quantities. However. From (3) it follows y 10 x and since by the same values of x and to be satisfied y.. such as + = 10. x = 1.y=. if there is different relation between x and * given another equation. 2 y = . the equations have the two values of y must be equal. values of x and y. there is only one solution. The root of (4) if K 129 . a? (1) then I. if .
Any set of values satisfying 5 x + 6 y = 60 will also satisfy the equation 3 x f. for they cannot be satisfied by any value of x and y. E. and 3 x + 3 y =. Therefore. cannot be reduced to the same form. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA A system of simultaneous equations is tions that can be satisfied a group of equa by the same values of the unknown numbers. The process of combining several equations so as make one unknown quantity disappear is called elimination. Independent equations are equations representing different relations between the unknown quantities such equations . 30 can be reduced to the same form f 5 y Hence they are not independent. 26 y = 60. By By Addition or Subtraction.X.3 y = 80. Substitution.26. 21 y . The first set of equations is also called consistent. to The two methods I. y = 2. 172. ELIMINATION BY ADDITION OR SUBTRACTION 175. = . ~ 50.130 170. 6 and 4 x y not simultaneous. x H 2y satisfied 6 and 7 x 3y = by the values x = I. for they are 2 y = 6 are But 2 x 2. 6x . 3. A system of two simultaneous equations containing two quantities is solved by combining them so as to obtain unknown one equation containing only one 173. of elimination most frequently used II. for they express the x f y 10. 174. 4y . the last set inconsistent. are simultaneous equations. Solve y=6x 6x f Multiply (1) by 2. viz. (3) (4) Multiply (2) by  Subtract (4) from (3). unknown quantity. y I 171.24. same relation.
3. Transposing.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS the simpler one (1). = 406. 10 . 64 x = 040. 60 . 25 x . Therefore Check. Hence to eliminate Multiplyy if necessaryy the equations by such will make the coefficients of one unknown quantity equal.3 1 = 47. coefficients If the signs of these if unlike. 3y = 3. EXERCISE answers: 64 Solve the following systems of equations and check the ' . y = 1. subtract the equations. x = 10. 10 + 5 1 = 135.3 y = 47. Multiply (1) by Multiply (2) by 5.14 =8. are like. whose coefficients In general. y = 2. by addition or subtraction : numbers as (3) (4) (6) 176. 37. eliminate the letter have the lowest common multiple. + 2.2 = 9 + 4 = 13.2 = 6.15 y 39 x + 15 y Add (3) and (4). preferably 3x Therefore + 4 = 13 x = 3. x = 10. add the equations. Check. 5 13 . 8 2. 3. = 235. Therefore Substitute (6) in (1). 131 Substitute this value of y in either of the given equations.
9 *.ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 5.4. v ^ = ll. ' 12. = 41. I . f 3X 7x 14. I i 3 a. I oj 5y = 17. + 2/ 17. i 3.3.v 23. 9 1 r 20. 13. f 3# ?/ = 0.1ft is 1 fl<>* r A + 22/ = 40. * + 3 y = 50. O t K 8. I ~ y~~> 22. _. 7 ' 1fi fl . J I y = 1U. = 24. + 3?/ { 3 x f 2 y = 39. ' 94 ^4 ' 15 ' ^  25 * 60. . [2o.3. ] ^ . x 11. 19< I a. = 6.5 y = 2. 13 61 l7a.f2/ ' = 50.
and solve the resulting equation. 3. = 2. 21 y 24 Therefore y = 26. = 13. (1) (2) Transposing 2. I3ar + 2y and dividing by . This value substituted in either (1) or (2) gives x 178. = 2y + 10. x ) ^"" 13. 8. = 4#8. 133 Solve 7 y in (1) (27. = 60.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS ELIMINATION BY SUBSTITUTION 177. Substituting this value in (2) 3 7 ( ?/ t " 8 +2y= + 4 y 25 y Clearing of fractions. Hence to eliminate by substitution : Find in one equation the value of an unknown quantity in terms of the other. tity in the Substitute this value for one unknown quan other equation. EXERCISE Solve by substitution : 65 f5aj l3a. .
21z6y=9.3. + 212y4 = 14. f8(z8)9(y9) = 26. (7) (7) (8) . however. Solve 2 7 (2) Multiplying (1) by 12 and (2) by 14. (4). Substituting in (6) .134 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 179. 29 x = 29. \ \6(a. 7 y = 6. 2 y = .6)7(y7)==18. Whenever one unknown quantity can be removed without clearing of fractions. (3) (4) (6) (6) Multiplying (6) by 2 and (6) by Sx + 6y = Adding and 3S. 4* + 3y = 19. 7x_2y=3. 43 + 8f3y + 7z From (3). the equation must be cleared of fractions and . (4t(x\) ' ""^IT 3. simplified before elimination is possible. 3. . it is advantageous to do so in most cases. (8) 1 +8 2 _ 7 EXERCISE 66 Solve by any method. 3 (1) Ex. x = l. From 9 = 36. and check the answers: + 5(y + 5) = 64.
= 3.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS 3x 4. 10. . a. 4 11. yM a.f2 2. J 9. +y 2 . a. 2 4^ ~ 3 = 13. ff "*" _13 ~ 4 2' 15. 12. 4(5 x l2(315 8 8. . 135 "25 ' 6 ' tsjj ' r4(5. 14. 16.1) + 5(6 y . 10 2a?5 17. .1) = 121. 4~2v 3a?2^4 3 1 18.
and x y . e. <X + 20. ?~y .Q ^ 4 21. f y .136 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 4_1 2' 19. but some expressions involving x. and y. {. l_3 4' 2/41 2 a. In many equations it is advantageous at first not to consider x and y as unknown quantities. 3x\" 1 23 24. 180.#. 22. . * ((* (( .
4 x = 4 xy. however. y 4. x 3. (2) (3) a. etc. 2* * x 2. 1. (4) + (G). 33 = 11 x. by the regular Clearing (1) and (2) of fractions. . Clearing of fractions. Substituting x = 3 in (1). x 2x(2).3 xy. 15 y + 8 x . Dividing by 11 3 = #. y 1. (4) (6) (6) (7) 2x(5). 137 Solve y y (1) . .SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS x Ex. Therefore y=4. can also be solved Examples method. EXERCISE Solve : 67 2' 1. of this type. y.
x y 331 9. 1.= 5. x y 5. LITERAL SIMULTANEOUS EQUATIONS 181. 253 7.= o 6. n. bmx = en anx anx + bny (3) (4) ftp. 10 " 12 25 U y 6. 21 9 . 6w3 + bny = 6p. y MOi y a. x 8. Ex. = en. 6. . Solve (1) (2) (1) (2) (8) x x (4). 4 13.138 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 4 6 K .
f 5. x 12. and I. ap. x a. s in 11. ax + by = 2 a&. a Find a and terms of n. From and L the same simultaneous equations find d in terms of a. f 6^ [ nx f my == m. 139 (an bm)x = en bp. d. amx + bmy amx f any = any (an cm. apan cm. . bmy bm}y ap cm.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS Uniting.y = = 9a + 46. W . ny = fy/ I sc 1. . (1) (2) (7) an bm (6) (7) x w. From the same equations find s in terms of a. .cm y= EXERCISE 68 bm f 6y = c. 14. x f my = 1.W. Dividing. Uniting. w. . fax f = l. 6. d. and I if 13.
1+4.9z =11 x (6) Eliminating x from (4) and (5). 3. Solve the following system of equations: = 8.8 = 1. 6. y =* 2. 1.3=4.13. Multiplying (1) by Multiplying (2) by 4. by 3. ties are Similarly. 8 x . = 30.25. x + 12 y . l.2 + 3. etc. 4. .12 y + 6 z = . 20.15z=12 Adding.16. 1. 4.140 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA SIMULTANEOUS EQUATIONS INVOLVING MORE THAS TWO UNKNOWN QUANTITIES three unknown quantities three simultaneous independent equations must be given. 182. 17 x 100 z Therefore Substitute this value in (4). eliminating one and is the unknown quant iff/ from any pair of equasame unknown quantity froni another pair.by 2. 3. (6) + 3 Therefore Substituting the values of x and z 2 x = (7) in (1). 3y = Hence Check.2 + 4. (8) 2. four equations containing four unknown quantireduced to three equations containing three unknown quantities. To solve equations containing By tions. the to the solution problem reduced of two simultaneous equations containing two unknown quantities.lf> z . = 3. f 3y 12 =s 8. 8B12y + 17 x 16z z = 32 Oa + 12?/. Ex. (4) (5).3 = 8. Multiplying (2) + = 20 12 2 10 (4) Multiplying (3) Adding. (1) (2) (3) Eliminate y.
+ 2 y f 2 = 35. == 6. f 2 i/ f z = 14. a? 11. + y f z = 15. k 2/ f 2 x a.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS EXERCISE 10 x 69 141 1. 2z = 40. 2 4. 7. 15 2 = 45. 12. 4 = 42. ~6?/ 5. y f ?/ M 2? = 4. a? + 709 = 26. 8. x 13. 2 . 49. 14. 10.
16. 84 21.2 a. ? = llz. =s 20. ^ = 2. .6 2. = 8*. (3 _. .3 y + . 1510 4 17. 4. 19. 27.. .42 = 2. 60. ?/ 3x = 0. x _2 3 ' 0742! J 18.142 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 15. 22. 23. 32. = 5.
either directly or implied. and if 396 be added to the number. 2 = 6.2/ 2/ PROBLEMS LEADING TO SIMULTANEOUS EQUATIONS 183. symbols: x + y +z 8. 1 digit in the tens place. ( 99. Simple examples of this kind can usually be solved by equations involving only one unknown every quantity. . 1 = 2. z + x = 2 n. (1) 100s + lOy + z + 396 = 100* + 10y + x. + 396 = 521. = 2 m.) it is advisable to represent a different letter. +2+ 6 = 8. y 31. as many verbal statements as there are unknown quantities. however. y * z 30. M=i. the first and the last digits will be interchanged. = l.y 125 (3) The solution of these equations gives x Hence the required number is 125. Obviously of the other . 2 = 1(1+6).SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS 143 x 29. The sum of three digits of a number is 8. x : z =1 : 2. Problems involving several unknown quantities must contain. and to express In complex examples. Find the number. The digit in the tens' place is  of the sum of the other two digits. . 1. Let x y z = the the digit in the hundreds' place. # 4. + z = 2p. The three statements of the problem can now be readily expressed in . to express it is difficult two of the required digits in terms hence we employ 3 letters for the three unknown quantities. Check. unknown quantity by every verbal statement as an equation. the number. Ex. and Then 100 + 10 y +z the digit in the units' place.
= 8. 3 xand y I 1 (2) 5. 4 x = 24. 5_ _4_ A. 3. By expressing the two statements in symbols. direction. 3+1 5+1 4_2. = Hence the fraction is f. the fraction is reduced to  and if both numerator and denominator of the reciprocal of the fraction be dimin ished by one. From (3) Hence xy Check. x 3x4y = 12. (3) C4) = 24 miles. 2. x y = the = the x denominator . x 3 = 24. who travels 2 miles an hour faster than B. C. B. and C travel from the same place in the same B starts 2 hours after A and travels one mile per hour faster than A. (1) (2) 12. Since the three men traveled the same distance. we obtain. y = 3. the distance traveled by A. xy a: 2y 4y 2. ELEMENTS OF ALGE13KA If both numerator and denominator of a fraction be .144 Ex. starts 2 hours after B and overtakes A at the same How many miles has A then traveled? instant as B. . 6 x 4 = 24. the fraction Let and then y is reduced to nurn orator. 2. + I 2 (1) and These equations give x Check. increased by one. Ex. Or (4)2x(3). = the fraction. Find the fraction. 8 = xy + x xy = xy f 3 x 2 y = 2.
5. A fraction is reduced to J. Four times a certain number increased by three times another number equals 33. The sum of the first sum of the three digits of a number is 9. and four times the first digit exceeds the second digit by 3. Five times a certain number exceeds three times another 11. 1. . Find the numbers. Find the numbers. Half the sum of two numbers equals 4. If the denominator be doubled. and the second one increased by 5 equals twice number. Find the numbers. if its numerator and its denominator are increased by 1. Find the number. and its denomi nator diminished by one. 6. the last two digits are interchanged.}. to the number the digits will be interchanged. both terms.) added to a number of two digits. fraction is reduced to \.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS EXERCISE 70 145 1. number by the first 3. If 27 is 10. If the numerator of a fraction be trebled. ? What 9. 7. If 9 be added to the number. Find the fraction. added to the numerator of a fraction. the Find the fraction. Find the number. and the numerator increased by 4. part of their difference equals 4. and twice the numerator What is the fracincreased by the denominator equals 15. and the second increased by 2 equals three times the first. the value of the fraction is fa. the fraction equals . to L <> Find the If the numerator and the denominator of a fraction be If 1 be subtracted from increased by 3. the digits will be interchanged. it is reduced to J. 183. its value added to the denominator. tion ? 8. If 4 be Tf 3 be is J. and the two digits exceeds the third digit by 3. and the fourth 3. the fraction is reduced fraction. the number (See Ex. The sum 18 is is and if added of the digits of a number of two figures is 6. 2.
and 5 years ago their ages is 55. . the annual interest would be $ 195. Find their present ages. and the 5% investment brings $15 more interest than the 4 % investment. A man invested $750. a part at 6 and the remainder bringing a total yearly interest of $260. the rate of interest? 18. much money is invested at A sum of money at simple interest amounted in 6 years to $8000.000 is partly invested at 6%. Find the rates of interest. respectively ? 16. If the sum of how old is each now ? at invested $ 5000. and in 5 years to $1125. Three cubic centimeters of gold and two cubic centimeters of silver weigh together 78 grains. partly at 5% and partly at 4%. 13. bringing a total yearly interest of $530. 19. What was the amount of each investment ? 15. the rate of interest ? What was the sum of A sum of money at simple interest amounted in 2 years to $090. in 8 years to $8500. What was the sum and rates est The sums of $1500 and $2000 are invested at different and their annual interest is $ 190. Ten years ago the sum of their ages was 90. and The 6 investment brings $ 70 more interest than the 5 % % 4% investments together. If the rates of interwere exchanged. Ten years ago A was B was as as old as B is old as will be 5 years hence . Twice A's age exceeds the sum of B's and C's ages by 30. and 4 %. 14. 5 %. now. and B's age is \ the sum of A's and C's ages. 12.grams. Two cubic centimeters of gold and three cubic centimeters of silver weigh together 69 J. partly at 5 %. and money and 17. How 6 %. Find the weight of one cubic centimeter of gold and one cubic centimeter of silver. and partly at 4 %. What was the amount of each investment ? A man % 5%. A sum of $10.146 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 11.
If one angle exceeds the sum of the other two by 20. and GE = CF. If angle ABC = GO angle BAG = 50. and $15 for each sheep. and sheep. c. The sum of the 3 angles of a triangle is 180. what are the angles of the triangle ? 22. A farmer sold a number of horses. and angle BCA = 70. respectively.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS 147 20. Find their rates of walking. the three sides of a triangle E. An C touch ing the sides in D. the length of NOTE. 23. and AC = 5 inches. . and their difference by GO . and angle e angle/. . A r ^ A circle is inscribed in triangle sides in D. It takes A two hours longer 24 miles. The number of sheep was twice the number of horses and cows together. and F '(see diagram). In the annexed diagram angle a = angle b. three AD = AF. and CF? is a circle inscribed in the 7<7. How many did he sell of each if the total number of animals was 24? 21. then AD = AF. BE. for $ 740. cows. angle c = angle d. what is that = OF. is the center of the circum scribed circle. 24. triangle Tf AD. and e. $ 50 for each cow. E. and CE If AB = G inches. BC=7. BD = HE. 1 NOTE. andCL4 = 8. but if A would double his pace. receiving $ 100 for each horse. and F. he would walk it in two hours less than than to travel B B. 25. Find the parts of the ABC touching the three sides if AB = 9. BC = 7 inches. B find angles a. are taken so ABC. On /). and F. points. ED = BE.
The abscissa is usually denoted by line XX' is called the jraxis. Thus the points A. PN. and point the origin. then the position of point is determined if the lengths of P P3f and 185. 186. The of Coordinates. * This chapter may be omitted on a 148 reading. first 3). (2. PN are given. . hence The coordinates lying in opposite directions are negative. (3. the ordinate by ?/. is the abscissa. the ordinate of point P. 2). lines PM the and P^V are coordinates called point P. or its equal OM. two fixed straight lines XX' and YY' meet in at right angles.. B. YY' theyaxis. and r or its equal OA is . PM. and PN _L YY'. and whose ordinate is usually denoted by (X ?/). Abscissas measured to the riyht of the origin.CHAPTER XII* GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS AND EQUATIONS 184. and PJ/_L XX'. ?/. It' Location of a point. 3). is The point whose abscissa is a. and respectively represented Dare and by (3 7 4). (2. and ordinates abore the xaxis are considered positive . jr. (7.
4).and(l. 3). (4.e. 0). Plot the points: (4. 1). (2. What Draw is the distance of the point (3. (See diagram on page 151. 2.2).) EXERCISE 1. the mutual dependence of the two quantities may be represented either by a table or by a diagram. (4. 2). Graphs. 8. (4. (4. 2). 71 2). (5. 1). What are the coordinates of the origin ? If 187. Draw the triangle whose vertices are respectively (l. 12. 4). 6. !). (4. 0). (3.GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS The is 149 process of locating a point called plotting the point. 4) and (4. 0). 0). 11. all all points points lie lie whose abscissas equal zero ? whose ordinates equal zero? y) if y 10. 3).1). two variable quantities are so related that changes of the one bring about definite changes of the other.(!. 4). (1. 4. Where do Where do Where do all points lie whose ordinates tfqual 4? 9. i. and measure their distance. . 3. 4) from the origin ? 7. 2J). (4. Graphic constructions are greatly facilitated by the use of crosssection paper. . 3). whose coordinates are given NOTE. 6. (0. =3? is If a point lies in the avaxis. the quadrilateral whose vertices are respectively (4. which of its coordinates known ? 13. paper ruled with two sets of equidistant and parallel linos intersecting at right angles. Plot the points (6. What is the locus of (a?. Plot the points : (0.3). (0. Plot the points: (4.
we obtain an uninterrupted sequence etc. Thus the first table produces 12 points. ABCN y the socalled graph of To 15 find from the diagram the temperature on June to be 15 . D. we meas1 . representation does not allow the same accuracy of results as a numerical table. in like manner the average temperatures for every value of the time. . 1. from January 1 to December 1. B. By representing of points. A graphic and it impresses upon the eye all the peculiarities of the changes better and quicker than any numerical compilations. ure the ordinate of F. may be found on Jan. ically each representing a temperature at a certain date. and the corresponding number in the adjacent column the ordinate of a point. C.. may be represented graphby making each number in one column the abscissa. 188. A. however. but it indicates in a given space a great many more facts than a table. 15.150 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA tables represent the average temperature Thus the following of New volumes 1 Y'ork City of a certain to 8 pounds. Thus the average temperature on May on April 20. and the amount of gas subjected to pressures from pound The same data. 10 . or the curved line the temperature.
and to deduce general laws therefrom. (d) November 20.GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS 151 i55$5St5SS 3{utts33<0za3 Graphs are possibly the most widely used devices of applied matheThe scientist uses them to compile the data found from experiments. the merchant. EXERCISE From the diagram questions 1. the matics. as the prices and production of commodities. uses them. Whenever a clear. The engineer. the rise and fall of wages. concise representation of a number of numerical data is required. the graph is applied. . : 72 find approximate answers to the following Determine the average temperature of New York City on (a) May 1. (b) July 15. (c) January 15. physician. Daily papers represent ecpnoniical facts graphically. etc.
During what month does the temperature decrease most rapidly ? 13.152 2.. ELEMENTS OF ALGEKRA At what date (a) G or dates is New York is C. Which month is is the coldest of the year? Which month the hottest of the year? 16. (c) the average temperature oi 1 C.? is is the average temperature of New York 6. 15. From what date to what date does the temperature increase (on the average)? 8. How much warmer 1 ? on the average is it on July 1 than on May 17. is ture we would denote the time during which the temperaabove the yearly average of 11 as the warm season. How much. is 10. from what date to what date would it extend ? If . (freezing point) ? 7. During what month does the temperature change least? 14. (1) 10 C. When What is the temperature equal to the yearly average of the average temperature from Sept.. 1 to Oct. June July During what month does the temperature increase most ? rapidly 12. 1 ? does the temperature increase from 11. on 1 to the average. During what months above 18 C. (d) 9 0. At what date is the average temperature highest the highest average temperature? ? What What is 4. ? 9. 1? 11 0. ?  3. At what date is the average temperature lowest? the lowest average temperature ? 5.. When the average temperature below C.
Construct a diagram containing the graphs of the mean temperatures of the following three cities (in degrees Fahren heit) : 21. Draw . transformation of meters into yards. Hour Temperature . From the table on page 150 draw a graph representing the volumes of a certain body of gas under varying pressures. 153 1? When is the average temperature the same as on April Use the graphs of the following examples for the solution of concrete numerical examples. Represent graphically the populations : (in hundred thou sands) of the following states 22.GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS 18. NOTE. 20. in a similar manner as the temperature graph was applied in examples 118.09 yards. One meter equals 1. Draw a graph for the 23. a temperature chart of a patient. 19.
) T circumferences of 25.50 per copy (Let 100 copies = about \. etc. 9. 29.inch. if he sells 0..154 24.5 grams. amount to $8. 4. to 27. If dealer in bicycles gains $2 on every wheel he sells. then C irJl.. represent his daily gain (or loss). gas.g. function If the value of a quantity changes.50. if x assumes successively the tively values 1. etc. 2 8 y' + 3 y is a function of x and y. 1 to 1200 copies. 2 x f 7 gradually from 1 to 2. from R Represent graphically the = to R = 8 inches. 2 is called x 2 xy + 7 is a function of x. x 7 to 9.. 26. the daily average expenses for rent.50. 2 . (Assume ir~ all circles >2 2 . and $. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA If C 2 is the circumference of a circle whose radius is J2. +7 If will respec assume the values 7. binding. e. Represent graphically the cost of butter from 5 pounds if 1 pound cost $. A 10 wheels a day. An expression involving one or several letters a function of these letters. if each copy sells for $1. if 1 cubic centimeter of iron weighs 7. to 20 Represent graphically the weight of iron from cubic centimeters. Show graphically the cost of the REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS OF ONE VARIABLE 189. The initial cost of cost of manufacturing a certain book consists of the $800 for making the plates. x increases will change gradually from 13. 2. 28. 3. the value of a of this quantity will change. x* x 19. 190. . books from for printing. Represent graphically the distances traveled by a train in 3 hours at a rate of 20 miles per hour. 3.) On the same diagram represent the selling price of the books.
9).1). (1. it is In the example of the preceding article. 2 (1. J). and join the points in order.e. 2. Thus the table on page 1G4 gives the values of the functions x 2 x3 and Vsr.GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS 191. to x = 4. is A constant a quantity whose value does not change in the same discussion. may . to con struct the graph x of x 2 construct a series of 3 points whose abscissas rep2 resent X) and whose ordi1 tions . To obtain the values of the functions for the various values of the following arrangement be found convenient : . Graph of a function. however. x a variable. may.0). If a more exact diagram is required. 4). ( 2. values of x2 nates are the corresponding i. (1^.1).g. Ex. a*. is supposed to change. 3 (0. while 7 is a constant. and (3. 155 A variable is a quantity whose value changes in the same discussion. 1 the points (3. 9). as 1. 2).2 x may 4 from x = 4. 3 50. . The values of func192. for x=l. hence various values of x The values of a function for the be given in the form of a numerical table. etc. Draw the graph of x2 f. 4). be also represented by a graph. (2. construct '. E. Q. plot points which lie between those constructed above.
A Y' function of the first degree is an integral rational function involving only the power of the variable. 4J. . (To avoid very large ordinatcs.156 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Locating the points( 4. 2. j/=3.. or ax + b f c are funclirst tions of the first degree. (3. (2. It can be proved that the graph is a straight of a function of the first degree line. straight line produces the required graph. Ex.2 x . and joining in order produces the graph ABC. hence two points are sufficient for the construction of these graphs.. 5). etc. 1).20). and join(0. = 4. 7 . Thus 4x + 7... 194. 4).. if /* 4 > 1i > > ?/ = 193. 2 4 and if y = x f.4). y = 6. the function is frequently represented by a single letter. = 0. rf 71 . Thus in the above example. Draw y z x the graph of = 2x3. (4. r */ +* 01 .) For brevity. the scale unit of the ordinatcs is taken smaller than that of the x. If If Locating ing by a 3) and (4. as y.
4a? I. 2. from x VlO'S". 19. 1J. ?/ a. 1J. fa 17. 2. (If) Va25. Draw the graph ofy=2j2# and from the diagram determine : #2 from # = 2 to a?=4. a?.8)'. 7. 15. (/) Vl2^ (0) V5. 2 a. the diagram find (a) (e) (3. (</) The roots of the equation x2 4 x f 2 = 2. if a. y = 2x = 4. The values of a?. The values of a*. 2 4 x f 2 = 0. 16.or. J. xz + x. 23x. = The values of a*. 18. 2 2. The smallest value of the function. = 4. The roots of the equation 2 f 2 a a*2 = 0. 2 a. (a) (6) (c) (d) (e) The values of y. a. 1J. l. 8. (ft) (_ 1. The values of x that make 2 4 a? + 2 = 0. 9. a ar. 5. 6 fa. and (a) (6) (c) (d) The values of the function if x = \. (7i) (c) 23. Draw the graph of or from the diagram determine: 4 a? +2 a. 2J.5)2. 21. . 2J. (/) The roots of the equation x The roots of the equation a2 4 x f 2 = 1. the function. (C ) (2. The value of x that produces the smallest value it* of the function. a? 2 4. 2x + 3x a?. if"a.GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS EXERCISE 73 157 Draw 1. 22. 11. 4 a. a? 1. 3 a 8. i. Jar . xl. 1. if y = 2. a* 13. 1 8 10. 2 or 2 20. 2 2 a. 12.e. if the function equals zero. (d) (^) 1 to and from 2 . 3. The roots of the equation 2 {2x a*2 = l. a? the graphs of the following functions: + 2. 14. Draw the graph of : from #= 4 to 05 = 4.5)2.2 4 # + 2 equals 2. + 4. . x+1. 6. 3.
Show any convenient number).24. 1 C. 25. then y = .where x c is a constant. A body moving with a uniform t velocity of 3 yards per second moves in this seconds a distance d =3 1. 14 F.24 or x = P and Q.158 24. the abscissas of 3. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Degrees of the Fahrenheit (F. if c Draw the locus of this equation = 12.. . we have to measure the abscissas of the intersection of the 195.. Therefore x = 1. it is evidently possible Thus to find to find graphically the real roots of an equation.. that the graph of two variables that are directly proportional is a straight line passing through the origin (assume for c 27.. If two variables x and y are directly proportional. Represent 26. 32 F. y= formula graphically. i.) scale are expressed in degrees of the Centigrade (C. If two variables x and y are inversely proportional. that graph with the o>axis. what values of x make the function x2 + 2x 4 = (see 192). 9 F.) scale by the formula (a) Draw the graph of C = f (F32) from to (b) 4 F F=l. to Fahrenheit readings : Change 10 C. GRAPHIC SOLUTION OF EQUATIONS INVOLVING ONE UNKNOWN QUANTITY Since we can graphically determine the values of x make a function of x equal to zero.. then cXj where c is a constant. From grade equal to (c) the diagram find the number of degrees of centi1 F. C.e.
tion x 2 159 To +2x solve the equa4 1. and c represent \3 2 1 1/2 known quantities. (a) (6) 9. and determine the abscis 1 sas of the points of intersection with the graph. 2 and 1. (a) x2 = 0.f 9 = 0.GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS 196.7 2 a 5 = 0. 7. the points may be found otherwise by inspection. 4. de = termine the points where If the function is 1. crosssection paper is used. An equation of the the form ax2 bx c 0. 6. 0. 11. Y' EXERCISE 4x_ 7 74 : Solve graphically the following equations 1. a: (a) (6) (c) 6a. 12. or 5 2. 14. 197. 3. draw through 1) a line parallel to the #axis. viz. + + = where a. 6. Such equations in general have two roots. a2 2a. is called a quadratic equation. . (0. = 0. 8. 13. z 2 4x 6 a2 6. 10.
fc = 3. ?/ =4 AB. Hence we may join (0.160 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA GRAPHIC SOLUTION OF EQUATIONS INVOLVING TWO UNKNOWN QUANTITIES 198. Equations of the first degree are called linear equations. Hence if if x x  2.1. 4) and them by straight line AB (3. solve for ?/. If x = 0. first degree. Draw the locus of 4 x + 3 y = 12. we can construct the graph or locus of any Since we can = equation involving two to the above form. Represent graphically Solving for y ='"JJ y. == 2. i. = 0. and joining by a straight line. If the given equation is of the we can usually locate two y. y= A and construct x (  graphically. produces the 7* required locus. 0). 199. Ex. Hence. because their graphs are straight lines. Thus If in points without solving the equation for the preceding example: 3x s . unknown quantities. Ex. y y 2. 4) and (2. that can be reduced Thus to represent x   L^ \ x =2  graphically. represent graphically equations of the form y function of x ( 1D2). (f . 2). Graph of equations involving two unknown quantities. ?/. X'2 Locating the points (2. 3x _ 4 . 1) and 0). if y = is 0. and join the required graph. T .2. y = l.2 y ~ 2. . NOTE. locate points (0.e.
57. The every coordinates of point in satisfy the equation (1).15. (2) . By the method of the preceding article construct the graphs AB and and CD of (1) (2) respectively. Solve graphically the equations : (1) \xy\.GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS 161 200. Since two straight lines which are not coincident nor simultaneous Ex. parallel have only one point of intersection. viz.1=0. The coordinates of every point of the graph satisfy the given equation. and every set of real values of x and y satisfying the given equation is represented by a point in the locus. P. equation x= By measuring 3. 202. we obtain the roots. 201. AB but only one point in AB also satisfies (2). the point of intersection of the coordinate of P. AB y = . 203. Graphical solution of a linear system. To find the roots of the system. The roots of two simultaneous equations are represented by the coordinates of the point (or points) at which their graphs intersect. and CD. linear equations have only one pair of roots. 3.
x2 . P graphs meet in two and $.g.162 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA graph. . 3x 2 y = 6. if x equals respectively 0. Since the two  we obtain DE. obtain the graph (a circle) AB C joining. and . i. they are inconsistent. the point we obtain Ex.e. the graph of points roots.5. 4. 0. 4. and joining by a straight line.9. This is clearly shown by the graphs of (1) arid (2). (4. 2. and + 3). 0) and (0. 4. parallel graphs indicate inconsistent equations. Inconsistent equations. 5.  4. There can be no point of and hence no roots. there are two pairs of By measuring the coordinates of : P and Q we find 204. The equations 2 4 = 0. (1) (2) C. 5. (1) (2) cannot be satisfied by the same values of x and y. intersection. which consist of a pair of parallel lines. 4. 3.. we of the + y* = 25.0). 2 equation x 3).0. y equals 3. 4. Solving (1) for y. e. 1. 4. (2. 4. 1. 0. Locating two points of equation (2).5. 3. Using the method of the preceding para. = 0. 4. In general. V25 5. 3. Locating the points (5.y~ Therefore. 3). Measuring the coordinates of P. 2. AB the locus of (1). etc. construct CD the locus of (2) of intersection. Solve graphically the : fol lowing system = = 25. (4.
GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS 205. 5. 10. a+r/=6. 1 6* + 7 y = 3. 19. 17. x~y=0. 7. the graphs of the following systems. vice versa. 6. state reasons. \ 2x + 3^ . y=x + 5. y= a2 2x y6. '163 Dependent equations. 9. y 2 4.. a. 16 22. . idengraphs indicate dependent equations. if possible. 8. 16 23. EXERCISE 75 Construct the loci of the following equations: 1. Draw system. 3. 2. y = 4. as 2^3 and 3x f ==l 2y =6 tical have identical graphs. 4. and. 2x 3?/=6. 20. and solve each If there are no solutions.
28. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA "~ U # . 25. 30.164 24.8. 4 a = 3(6 . AND SQUARE HOOTS . CUBES.y). Show that the same values of x and y cannot satisfy the : three equations x f 5y = 5. 26. 29 . TABLE OF SQUARES. 3 31.14 y = .
on to in factors 4. is may be by 207. ( 2 aft ) 9 is negative. etc. . powers of a positive quantity are positive. All odd powers of a negative quantity are negative.a2 . INVOLUTION OF MONOMIALS 208. ( 3 a268 ) ( a 8 = _ (2m ) (8 ____ 16 *)"" 27 n 165 . To find (#(**&)" is a problem of involution. = 6+ 5 + +fi = fi 62. 52. Involution is the operation of raising a quantity to a Since a power effected positive integral power. ( 3 2 6 3 )* = ( 3 a2 6 8 ) . 2. 3 f a = f a = +. According to 1. ( a) is positive. a2 6 6 = ?> 2+2 5 5 + 2 = a.faa a a a Obviously 1.CHAPTER XIII INVOLUTION 206. Law of Signs. follows that 3. 8. fa. ^4/? it According to 50. = a2 5 =6 (5 )* n m n (a ) = a (a 2 3 ) a2 b5 . involution repeated multiplication. a = a3 . a special kind of product. All even powers of a negative quantity arc positive. 2.
(^^) 2 . amVy) 3 . V V/ 13.6 (a 8 8 . (277171 )*. ^/2?n?A 4 ' 30. 16. ' 27 ' / _4_ _4_V ' 11. 2 11 (afc ) . The square of a binomial was discussed in 63. \ 3 J '  MW 10. 15. 5. . V 3xy )' INVOLUTION OF BINOMIALS 209. 4. (a ) 2 5 . a product to a given power. the required power. 76 : (>y. The & cube of a binomial (a 3 3 _j_ we obtain by multiplying (a 2 2 + 6) 1 by + and = a + 3a 6 + 3a6 + * 6) . 24. 210. raise its terms to the required EXERCISE Perform the operations indicated 1.6) = a .166 To find To To power. 3 2 2 8 . raise a fraction to a power.3 a 6 f 3 a6 . multiply tht raise each of its factors to given exponents. 6. (2ar). (a ) 2 4  3. 4 /2mV. 2. raise ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA the exponent of the power of a power.
1. 2 a8 3a2 + 3al. + 3a 6 + 3a& f& ^Sx^ + S^ ^ 3 2 2 3 . (5 (1 a) 3 . TJie exponent of a in the first term is the same as the expo2. 8. as follows : + 6) = o + 3 d'b + 3 a6 + + 6) = a + 4 a?b + 6 a & + 4 a6 + b (a = a + 5 a 6 + 10 a*b + 10 a 6 f 5 aM + 6 (a + 6) 8 8 2 (a b*. 211. a. 2 . 16. 8 (a??/) 3 . 5. 1 f 3 2 3 . . +5a) 22. 5 5 4 2 2 3 s . (3a (a (4 62 l) 3 . The higher powers of binomials. (3 x . 3 . (afl) . pansions. (3 (l I) 2 8 . + 4aj) 3 . (a + &)8 . 15.27 ay + 9 x y2n 2 EXERCISE 77 Perform the operations indicated: 1. An 1. 6. (aj7) . or*  Find the cube root of 19. 3.3 y. (m2) 8 (w+w) 3 8 10. 4. Find the cube 2 6 n of 3 x* . 7. 3 3 + 3(2aO*(Sy) + 3(2aj)(3y)> + 36 z2y + 54 xy* + 27 y3 . 2. frequently called ex. 4 4 2 2 3 4 . 12. Ex. (3af26) 8 . are obtained by multiplication. 13. 23. = s= (2s) 8 a. + a 2 a. examination of these results shows that : The number of terms is 1 greater than the exponent of the binomial. (6m+2w) (3 8 .INVOLUTION Ex.  lx  (7 a (1 I) 3 17. 2.6 2 8 ft) .y . .y) = (3 y?y .3(3 a*)a(y = 27 a . 21. 9.) 14. 18. 3 8 . nent of the binomial. etc. 86 3 w + 3 w + ra8 126 + G6l. : a 20. 167 Find the cube of 2 x f. and decreases in each succeeding term by L .
TJie coefficient of any term of the power multiplied by the exponent of a. mn 5 2 5 ) . 17. 6.4(2^(3 ^'+(3 y . (2 a 4 . (m 5 I) 2 22. 3.81 y 2 8 9 8 4 ) . 4 (1for) 5 .a) 3 19. Expand <? 2 (2 #  3 y3 ) 4 2 . 25. 10 x*y* + 2 5 xy* + y5 . 2. 24. . (l 8 . (lfa 6 2 ) 5.168 3. ( &) 5 . of the second term equals the exponent of the binomial 6. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA T7ie exponent ofb is 1 in the second term of the result. (a~^) 5 . . 23. (?/i~w) : 16. (?>i?i f c)*. Expand (a??/) x5 5 x4 y + 10 x'2 (and odd + 212. The minus. 1. 5. 15. (2w 2 2 fl) 4 . .4(2 * )'(3 *f) f 6(2 ^) (3 y ) 8 .216 a^ 4. (1 + 4 ?/) .96 ^y f 216 o?y . Ex. . 18. (w 4 ?i) 4 . 8. (2 4. 4 . 13. (mJ) 4 11. 14. (af 5) . (la&) 4 12. (m 2 + n) 8 . since the even powers of signs of the last answer arc alternately plus y are positive. 78 s . and increases by 1 in each succeeding term. * 2 4 ) 16 ic 8 . . and the result divided by 1 plus the exponent of b. . The The coefficient coefficient of the first term is 1. (p + q) 4 * 7. 3. Ex. 21. Expand (x = ic 5 f 5 x*y + 10 ^V + 5 . 5. 4. . (tff1) (cfd) . 10. (3a f5) 5) 4. and the powers negative. (mnp 5 I) 5 .2. (2a5c) (1 f 2 4 a:) 4 . 9. (m fl) 2 20. Ex. 12 EXERCISE Expand: 1. is the coefficient of the next term.
which can be simplified no further. It follows from the law of signs in evolution that : Any even root of a positive. 27 =y means r' = 27. tity . a) 4 = a4 . V9 = + 3. \/"^27=3. 1. it is evidently impossible to express an even root of a negative quantity by Such roots are called imaginary the usual system of numbers. and all other numbers are. for (f 3) 2 ( 3) equal 0. or x &4 . quantity may the be either 2wsitive or negative. Thus V^I is an imaginary number. Since even powers can never be negative. etc. 109 . Evolution it is is the operation of finding a root of a quan the inverse of involution. \/a = x means x n = y ?> a. for (+ a) = a \/32 = 2. Every odd root of a quantity has same sign as and 2 the quantity. numbers.CHAPTER XIV EVOLUTION 213. V \/P 214. = x means = 6. (_3) = 27. 2. 215. or 3 for (usually written 3) . for distinction. or y ~ 3. called real numbers. 4 4 . and ( v/o* = a.
8. 7. for (2 a 2 6c4 ) 8 = Ex.1. 79 2 v/2 5 . for (a")" a = a mn 3. V36 9 4. fy 5 3 .9 = 136.for(*Siy = 3 3 6 c* \ c*J 2 2 b' ?*243 ft^c20 216.125. for (a 3 )* = a 12 . 6 7 = 030. Find (x/19472) Since by definition ( v^)" = a. 3i . extract the and denominator. VT8226 = V25 2 729 . we have (Vl472) 2 Ex. 5. 9. . V?. 2.170 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EVOLUTION OF MONOMIALS The following examples root : are solved by the definition of a .64 5 4 . 3. V25 9 16. 3 33 53 . 6. V5 v/2 7 2. Ex. 7 . 6. 3/0** = am . 14 63 25 = V2 3* = 2 32 6 . 8. Ex. = 19472. Ex 5 a" . To extract the root of a power. To extract a root of a fraction. Ex. 9.(. v/^i2 = a*. EXERCISE 1. divide the exponent by the A root of a product equals the product of the roots of the factors. v/2^. Ex. = 199 + (_ 198) . Ex.200 . \/2 4 9 . index. 62 = V2* . 7. . v^SjW 3 = 2 a ^/gL^g = * c* A 82 &c*. 4 v.4. 2 . 10. 82 . Ex.  100 a 2 . 7 . = V26TIT81 = 53.lL. roots of the numerator \/18 .201) = 2. . 2.
3. 2 f ( V240) 3 .) by inspection./). . ( VH) + (Vl9) 2 2 .3. 30. In such a case the square root can be found ( 116. 2yh2/ 4  9^ + 60^ + 2 2/ . V20 .6 tfif + 9 y = O . ( VI5) x ( VT7) 2 2 2 2 x ( V3) 35. 2 . 6. 29. 5. 32.EVOLUTION 171 28. 34. 2.75. (Vl24) { 2 EVOLUTION OF POLYNOMIALS AND ARITHMETICAL NUMBERS 217. 2 .(V200) f ( VI5) 2 . 1. a f2 l 2 + l.98. (V2441) ~(V2401) 36. A trinomial is a perfect square if one of its terms is equal to twice the product of the square roots of the other terms. 45 V5184. V9216.4/. Find the square root of a2 .) 4 3 EXERCISE 80 : Extract the square roots of the following expressions 1. 31. Hence _ 6 ary f 9 y = (s . Ex. 116.6 ofy 2 f 9 y4 . a* 4 8 2 .3 .3 y2) ( vV . ^40^4. V8. 33. \/d \Vab r + b\ 9.
8 .72 aW + 81 & 4 . The term a' first 2 . #2 a2  16.172 7. 12.2 &c. and b (2 a f b). 2 49a 8 16 a 4 9. 14. mV14m??2)f 49. + 6 + 4a&. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBEA 4a2 44a?> + 121V2 4a s . 2 . 15. a2 + & + c + 2 a& .b 2 2 to its square. 11. 2ab . let us consider the relation of a f. a\b is the root if In most cases.2 ac . . a f. term a of the root is the square root of the first The second term of the root can be obtained a.2 ab + b . and b. the given expression is a perfect square. 10. second term 2ab by the double of by dividing the the socalled trial divisor. The work may be arranged 2 : a 2 + 2 ab + W \a + b . In order to find a general method for extracting the square root of a polynomial. it is not known whether the given expression is a perfect square. 2 2 218.e.> 13. i. multiplied by b must give the last two terms of the as follows square. the that 2 ab f b 2 = we have then to consider sum of trial divisor 2 a. however.
24 a + 4 12 a + 25 a8 s . Arranging according to descending powers of 10 a 4 a. 6 a. is As there is no remainder. 1. . As there is no remainder. 2. 24# 2 y 3 by the trial divisor Dividing the first term of the remainder. 8 /. 2 Subtracting the square of 4x' from the trinomial gives the remainder '24 x'2 + y. double of this term find the next is the new trial divisor. . we obtain the next term of the root 3 y 3 which has to be added to 2 the trial divisor. by division we term of the root. . The square . 1. First trial divisor. and so forth. By doubling 4x'2 we obtain 8x2 the trial divisor. Second trial divisor. \ 24 a 3 4f a2 10 a 2 Second remainder. First complete divisor. and consider Hence the their sum one term. */'' . Explanation. 8 a 2 . 8 a 2 Second complete divisor. 8 a 2  12 a +4 a f 2. Extract the square root of 16 a 4 . Arrange the expression according to descending powers root of 10 x 4 is 4 # 2 the lirst term of the root. 8 a 2 2. 173 x* Extract the square root of 1G 16x4 10 x* __ . . The process of the preceding article can be extended to polynomials of more than three terms. 219. the required root (4 a'2 8a + 2}. 4 x2 3 ?/ 8 is the required square foot. Multiply the complete divisor Sx' 3y 3 by Sy 8 and subtract the product from the remainder. We find the first two terms of the root by the method used in Ex. . of x.  24 a 3 + 25 a 2  12 a +4 Square of 4 a First remainder. Ex. the first term of the answer.24 afy* f 9 tf.EVOLUTION Ex. 10 a 4 8 a.
16. 25 x 4 f 40 afy 446 x 2 if 4 24 a^ 8 4 9 4 i/ .4 x 4. 16x6 4. 1 4. 16.6 .174 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 81 : Extract the square roots of the following expressions 2. 3 a2 a4 4 2a + a4 2 or 41 3 2 a3 + 1.9. 6 6 2 49 a 4 . x 6 4 4 0^4.V430^425^ 4m 4.20 o 4. 15. 18.54 a 40 a 6 4 9 a4 . 729 4. 12.73a4 440^436^460^.12m 5 4.37 a ^ . 19. 5 4 16 4 iK . 3. 4 . 436^?/469a. 17.24 or . > 7. 20. 14. 9. + 81 a 454 a + 81. 8.73 a8 . 6.40 a 22 . 2 x2 3 2x.14^44 ic 4^ 3 12^. 10.25 x 4 4. 4 4?/ 42x 4 3 j/ 2xif 6 a5 4.9m 4 20m3 30m 4. 13#4 413ar 44a. 25 m 20 w + 34 m . 4 36 a 2 12 4 4 16 a4 4 46 a 4 4 44 a 8 f 25 a h 12 a 4 4 25 a6 4. 6 11. 16 _^ + 2 JX XT 4a. a? 2 .162 a2 60 a10 4.a 6 x*y 2 . 5.42 a f 49 a 6 16 a4  24 a3 4 J 2 3 3 4 4 . 36it.25.10 x2 4.20 J or 2 16 x 4. 2 4. 36a 460a 473a 440a 416a 3 2 13.2^43^42^ 46 5 4 a.12 a6 2 2 3 4 4 64 . 24.12 m 4. l 4. . 412 a& f 37 a' 6 .42 a*& 4.
the first of which is 4. a 2 = 6400. of a number between 100 and 10..1344. the preceding explanation it follows that the root has two digits. of 10. 1. the consists of group is the first digit in the root. Hence if we divide the digits of the number into groups. 175 The by a method very similar expressions. of 1. The is trial divisor = 160. the first of which is 8. Find the square root of 524. and we may apply the method used in algebraic process. 7744 80 6400 1 +8 160 + 8 = 168 1344 1344 Since a 2 a Explanation. 2.000 is 100. From A will show the comparison of the algebraical and arithmetical method given below identity of the methods. Find the square root of 7744. the square root of 7744 equals 88. and the complete divisor 168. etc. etc. and the first remainder is. the first of which is 9 the square root of 21'06'81 has three digits. which may contain one or two). Therefore 6 = 8.000 is 1000. Ex. = 80. the integral part of the square root of a number less than 100 has one figure.000. As 8 x 168 = 1344.EVOLUTION 220. first . then the number of groups is equal to the number of digits in the square root. Thus the square root of 96'04' two digits.176. beginning at the and each group contains two digits (except the last. and the square root of the greatest square in units. square root of arithmetical numbers can be found to the one used for algebraic Since the square root of 100 is 10. two figures.000. Hence the root is 80 plus an unknown number. a f>2'41 '70 6 c [700 + 20 + 4 = 724 2 a a2 = +6= 41) 00 00 1400 + 20 = 1420 4 341 76 28400 = 1444 57 76 6776 . Ex.
and if the righthand group contains only one digit. 3. in . The groups of 16724. Find the square root of 6/. places.1T6 221. ELEMENTS OF ALGEKRA In marking off groups in a number which has decimal begin at the decimal point. annex a cipher. or by transforming the common fraction into a decimal. 12.1 are Ex.10. Roots of common fractions are extracted either by divid ing the root of the numerator by the root of the denominator. we must Thus the groups 1'67'24.GO'61.0961 are '.7 to three decimal places.688 4 45 2 70 2 25 508 4064 6168 41)600 41344 2256 222.70 6. EXERCISE Extract the square roots of : 82 .
JT . Find the mean proportional between 2 and . J. 1. 30.) 40. 37. 13. 39.4 square when R = radius and 11. = 3. 36. 31. 1.1410. feet. . Find the side of a square whose area equals 96 square yards. 5. whose area equals 48.EVOLUTION Find 177 to three decimal places the square roots of the follow ing numbers: 29. 33. TT Find the radius of a (Area of a circle circle 1 equals irR . 35. 32.58 square 38. 34.01. Find the side of a square whose area equals 50.22. feet.53. T\.
x 2 7. 178 . = 4. A pure. A pure quadratic is solved by reducing it to the form and extracting the square root of both members. quadratic equation contains only the square of the axt unknown quantity. Extracting the square root of each member. = 7^ + 5. x = + 2 or x =2. 6 y2 = 17. This answer Check. The 7 equation. x f 12 = the absolute term PUKE QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 227. 2 ic = a. absolute term of an equation is the terra which / does not contain any In 4 x 2 unknown quantities. 1. is A quadratic equation. is 12. or incomplete. ax 2 + bx + c = Q. 2. is frequently written x 13( 2)2 = 7(  19 = 33 . 225. Ex. quadratic equation is one which contains both the square and the first power of the unknown A quantity. or equation of the second degree. complete. 224. or affected. an integral rational equation that contains the square of 4x the unknown number. Solve 13 x2 19 etc..g.CHAPTER XV QUADRATIC EQUATIONS INVOLVING ONE UNKNOWN QUANTITY 223. 6#2 = x* 24. Dividing. + bx f c r= is a complete quadratic ax 2 = m is a pure quadratic equation. 2)* + 5 = 33. but no higher power e. Transposing. . 226.
7. ax Transposing and combining. 0^ + 1 = 1. 8. 10. s3 ? + oj x +3 = 4. 5. 2 2 a. 4. EXERCISE Solve the following equations 1. . : 83 2. . o. 4 ax. 2. or Therefore. Solve 179 . (a? 9. + 4 ax = ax + 4 a 2 + x2 f 2 x2 = 8 a 2 4 a2 x2 = x = V 4 a2 x= x = .25. 15^5 = 6.QUADRATIC EQUATIONS Ex. 3. 19 + 9 = 5500.2.=g x2 4 a2 Clearing of fractions. 2 4fc 5' 18. Dividing by Extracting the square root. 7 = 162. 6(2)=10(ajl). ' =: y? b* b . 16^393 = 7.
its area contains =a 2 f b2 . 3. Three numbers are to each other as 1 Find the numbers. 228. r. may be considered one half of a rec square units. 2 . 9 & { c# a x +a and c. 28. . and their product : 150. opposite the right angle is called the hypotenuse (c in the diagram). solve for r. The sides of two square fields are as 7 2. solve for d. ' 4. 108. EXERCISE 1. = a 2 2 (' 2 solve for solve for = Trr . and the sum The sides of two square fields are as 3 : 5. If 22 = ~^.b 2 If s If =c . 2. A number multiplied by ratio of its fifth part equals 45. and they con tain together 30G square feet. A right triangle is a triangle. then Since such a triangle tangle. 2a f 1 23. find a in terms of 6 . Find the numbers. 22 a. 29. 26. 27. 2 . 25. 84 is Find a positive number which equal to its reciprocal ( 144). is one of _____ b The side right angle. If 2 f 2 b* = 4w 2 f c sol ve for m. solve for v. Find the side of each field. 4. and the first exceeds the second by 405 square yards. and the two other sides respectively c 2 contains c a and b units.180 on __!_:L ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA a. . is 5(5. 24. Find is the number. If G=m m g . If s = 4 Trr ' 2 . If the hypotenuse whose angles a units of length. Find the side of each field.) of their squares 5. If a 2 4. 2 : 3. : 6. The two numbers (See is 2 : 3.
2 7 . in how many seconds will a body fall (a) G4 feet. x* 7 x= 10. . 2m.) 13. let us compare x 2 The left the perfect square x2 2 mx f m to 2 . . Method of completing the square. Solve Transposing.QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 7. 8 = 4 wr2 Find 440 square yards. The area : sides are as 3 4. Two circles together contain : 3850 square feet. add () Hence 2 . its surface (Assume ir = 2 .7 x f 10 = 0. (b) 100 feet? = . (b) 44 square feet. radii are as 3 14. is and the other two sides are equal. and the third side is 15 inches. To find this term. member can be made a complete square by adding 7 x with another term. A body falling from a state of rest. 4. of a right triangle Find these sides. 9. sides. The hypotenuse of a right triangle is 2. passes in t seconds 2 over a space s yt Assuming g 32 feet. the radius of a sphere whose surface equals If the radius of a sphere is r. and the other two sides are as 3 4. and the two smaller 11.) COMPLETE QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 229. Find these 10. make x2 Evidently 7 takes the place 7x a complete square to to which corresponds m 2 . we have of or m = . The following ex ample illustrates the method or of solving a complete quadratic equation by completing the square. Find the unknown sides and the area. Find the radii. 8. 181 The hypotenuse of a right triangle : is 35 inches. Find the sides. 7r (Assume and their = 2 7 2 . The area $ /S of a circle 2 . 24. J = 12. the formula = Trr whose radius equals r is found by Find the radius of circle whose area S equals (a) 154 square inches. . The hypotenuse of a right triangle is to one side as 13:12.
2 ax f 2 o) s a . Simplifying. = \ # = ff. 22 7 2 + 10 =0.2 a2 . or x = 2. 62 x 5 = f. = . Or (*i) x Extracting square roots. Uniting. Complete the square by adding the square of one half the coefficient of x. 15 x 2 Dividing by 9. a. Hence Therefore Check.1. Hence to solve a complete quadratic : Reduce the equation to the form x*\px==q..e. 7 5 + 10 = 0. Ex. Therefore. J. 2  .a. (*~8) a = at . Transposing. . or J.  x Q) 2 to each Completing the square (i. = 6. x x2 x x2 + 2 a2 x f a = 2 ax. Transposing. adding member). 80^69^2 = 9 x2 sc Transposing.x(l = . 2 a* a. Extract the square root and solve the equation of the first degree thus formed.182 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 2 Adding ( J) to each member. a Clearing of fractions.  \.2. Extracting square roots. = x\ = 2. Ex. 230.
1+2?= "*"   Vl . x = l+ * a = 1 +2 <* V IT * Therefore * Vl < EXERCISE 85 . x . Extracting square root.QUADRATIC EQUATIONS Completing the square.4 ~ a2 Transposing. 183 Simplifying.
ao. and c in the general answer. \bx\. article. 231. any quadratic equation may be obtained by 6. Solving this equation we obtain by the method of the preceding 2a The roots of substituting the values of a. Solution by formula.184 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 45 46. x la 48. =8 r/io?. . 49. 2x 3 4. 2 Every quadratic equation can be reduced to the general form.c = 0. =0. o^ or } 3 ax == 4 a9 7 wr . = 12.
6. b =  + 20 == = 0. a.25 x.  . 16. 2. ?i 2 . = 64120?. TIO. 185 Solve 5 x2 = 26 x5. 4. = 12 . 1. 2or } 5o. Solve 2 j>o? p*x x px* a 2 p. V^tT)* . 21. c p..QUADRATIC EQUATIONS Ex.4 4 5 . 14. 20. 15. 3. 5 x2 Transposing. 6 . 26. c = 5. 9. 12. 19. 2. 6^+5^ 56. 18. 8. : 86 + 2 = 0. 6 Ex. 2# 11 + 15 = 0. Reducing to general form. 10. 7^ + 9 x 90. 2 a? = 44 x . Hence Therefore =p 1 t b = (p 2 + 1). 2 o. 3 x 11 + 10 = 0. 6m = 7 m + 12 = 64 7 x2 2 2 a.  P + VQ^+T? ^4^ EXERCISE Solve by the above formula 1.15 x9 25x* = 21 . 2 . 13. 6 10 2024 =6or 10 l. 11. 2 a. 6. 20 x Hence Therefore a = 5. 7. 17.
ar>8o. 5) = 0. Bx 1 1.5) =0. if either of the uct is zero. 24. transposing terms to one member. Therefore the equation will be satisfied 5x _. any degree. orz roots. 233. (5 a? !)(. =7 x se 2 2 + 16 x. x(x <2 . 25. 3x?+x = 7. Solve a*= 7a? + 15x 2 2* . .5 Solving (1) and (2). = 0. 0.4) = . 1. or # 5 is zero. member can be Ex. a=:i^^. Factoring. the prodif x has (1) (2) such a value that either or a?. Eesolving into factors. Evidently this method can be applied to equations of if one member of the equation is zero and the other factored.2. Clearing for fractions. 2S3x 1 2 . Let it e(l uation: 5^ + 5=26*. = 0. 23. 26.x. we x obtain the roots =^ or x = 5. }. Hence the equation has three + 3) (x 2xf3=0. = 14. a? 28  7al=7s be required to solve the 232. = 0. and 6. 27 x== 42a. factors Now. Solution by factoring. 5 = 0. x2 = 1 . 2a^7x sc(2 16rc Therefore a = 0. all or. Transposing.186 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA to Find the roots of the following equations places : two decimal 22.
a* 10a=24.e. : 87 = 0.  3) 2 4 (x = 0. 3^ 25^ + 28 = 0. 3. 5 = 0.24 = 0. 4)(z3) = 0. 12. 3) Factoring. evidently (x Or 4)(x . for a: . } 2 2 (5 .g. members by x But evidently the value x 3 3. 3) = 0. (aj4)(a. + 6)=0. and the equation thus formed be solved. 2o3 f9a. 4.QUADRATIC EQUATIONS Ex. 3^ = 0(1106). 7. Ex. 16. a?. + 10 a = 24. In order If both to obtain all roots of the original equation.3)(x + 3 3. + 100. 8. Therefore x =3 = 2. 2. 0^ ar> 11. 0^ + 21 = 10 10. + 8=s: 7. let it be required to solve If or x we divide both = 2. + 9 f 20 x = 0. is 5) = 0. members of an equation are divided by an involving the unknown quantity. the resulting expression equation contains fewer roots than the original one.6)) = 0. a?10a=:24. 2. 14.= 24. 187 Solve x? 3x x*(x 2 4x + 12 = 0. 5. 13. Or Hence the 234.3 =5 or = 2 3 obtained from the 5 (x or x equation x (x = is also a root.:=0. 0(02) = 7(02). aj( 15. we 9 obtain x 4. 3 or 2 a. E.(. Form an equation whose roots are 4 and 6. O roots are 2. EXERCISE Solve by factoring 6 2. 9. (*2)(x + 2)(a3)=0. The equation I. 3# y 5 = 0. 4or + 18a f 8a. 3. such a common divisor must be made equal to zero. ar'Sa^ 12. 6. x2 f 2 x .
(a + 1) (a. a 2 =(x a)b. w(w x2 2 w)=6tt. 25. f ELEMENTS OF ALGEKRA tt(3tt + 7tt)=6tt. 18. ara + ft + c*. 27. 23.188 17. or 3 a 2 2 a? 26. (2a? 3) (a 24. 22. 20. '3a!J  . 50.3) = (s + l) (3 a). 2. + 2)= (y( j_ ? (+ 3)(a?+2). uz + u 21. 19.
7. Find the number.9. 4. 2. Find the numbers. 189 the equations whose roots are 53.1. its sides of a rectangle differ by 9 inches. The sum of the squares of two consecutive numbers 85. feet. 58. and consequently many prob 235. and equals 190 square inches. area A a perimeter of 380 rectangular field has an area of 8400 square feet and Find the dimensions of the field. 2. Find two numbers whose difference is 40. two numbers is 4. 1. 2. 3. 5. The difference of . and whose product 9. 0. Divide CO into two parts whose product is 875.0. . Problems involving quadratics have lems of this type have only one solution. What are the numbers of ? is The product two consecutive numbers 210. 54. EXERCISE 1. number by 10. is Find two numbers whose product 288. Twentynine times a number exceeds the square of the 190. 1.2. of their reciprocals is 4. PROBLEMS INVOLVING QUADRATICS in general two answers. 2. 56.QUADRATIC EQUATIONS Form 51.3. 5. and the difference Find the numbers.3. 6. G. 55. 52. 3. 57. : 3.0. 2. The 11. Find the sides. 2. Find the number.3. but frequently the conditions of the problem exclude negative or fractional answers. 8. 88 its reciprocal A number increased by three times equals 6J. and whose sum is is 36. Find a number which exceeds its square by is .
At what rates do the steamers travel ? 18. had paid $ 20 less for each horse. a distance One steamer travels half a mile faster than the two hours less on the journey. he would have received two horses more for the same money. 17. What did he pay for each apple ? A man bought a certain number of horses for $1200. and the line BD joining two opposite vertices (called "diagonal") feet. What did he pay for 21. The diagonal : tangle as 5 4. one of which sails two miles per hour faster than the other. 14. sold a horse for $144. exceeds its widtK AD by 119 feet. A man cent as the horse cost dollars. other. If a train had traveled 10 miles an hour faster. he had paid 2 ^ more for each apple. . and Find the sides of the rectangle. 13.190 12. Find the rate of the train. 19. as the 16. A man bought a certain number of apples for $ 2. watch for $ 24. he would have received 12 apples less for the same money. ABCD. Two steamers and is of 420 miles. vessel sail ? How many miles per hour did the faster If 20. start together on voyages of 1152 and 720 miles respectively. c equals 221 Find AB and AD. 15. watch cost sold a watch for $ 21. and the slower reaches its destination one day before the other. ply between the same two ports. and lost as many per cent Find the cost of the watch. and lost as many per cent Find the cost of the watch. of a rectangle is to the length of the recthe area of the figure is 96 square inches. dollars. If he each horse ? . it would have needed two hours less to travel 120 miles. A man A man sold a as the watch cost dollars.10. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA The length 1 B AB of a rectangle. and gained as many per Find the cost of the horse. Two vessels.
27.) 25. Find the side of an equilateral triangle whose altitude equals 3 inches. of the area of the basin. (tf. =9 Therefore x = \/8 = 2. EQUATIONS IN THE QUADRATIC FORM An equation is said to be in the quadratic form if it contains only two unknown terms. 30 feet long and 20 feet wide. how wide is the walk ? 23. . and the area of the path the radius of the basin. or x = \/l = 1. the two men can do it in 3 days. B AB AB 2 191 grass plot. A rectangular A circular basin is surrounded is  by a path 5 feet wide. By formula. Find and CB. Solve ^9^ + 8 = ** 0. and the unknown factor of one of these terms is the square of the unknown factor of the other. is On the prolongation of a line AC. as 0. Ex.I) 4(aj*l) 2 = 9. 24. ^3^ = 7. In how many days can B do the work ? = 26. 1. constructed with and CB as sides. A needs 8 days more than B to do a certain piece of work. and working together. is surrounded by a walk of uniform width. so that the rectangle. 23 inches long. Equations in the quadratic form can be solved by the methods used for quadratics.QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 22. 237. If the area of the walk is equal to the area of the plot. a point taken. Find TT r (Area of a circle . How many eggs can be bought for $ 1 ? 236. contains B 78 square inches. The number of eggs which can be bought for $ 1 is equal to the number of cents which 4 eggs cost.
2 (^Z)  "3 14. 18. = 13. or y = 8. 16. a? 15 1=2*. 7. (a: +aj) 18(x2 +a. 6. 2 16 a^40 11. = 1. 4 6. >. 8. 2. aV+9o 4 =0.192 238. y8)=0. 4 2 4 37aj 2 = 9. EXERCISE Solve the following equations 1. a 21or=100. 4. 10. Solving.2 =4. T 17. 3 a4 44s + 121=0. a4 5o. 2 h9:=0. Ex. 4 8 = 2 a* 2. 436 3.T 2 2 . 12.)+72=0. Hence Le. stitute ELEMENTS OF ALGEBEA In more complex examples it is advantageous to sub a letter for an expression involving a?. 4 a. 19. ^^ ~ 28 (a? ^ 2:=Q> . 4 : 89 10a. Let x + 15 = J < Then or or rf 15 = 0. 9. a.
Determine the character of the roots of the equation 4 x2 .12 x + 9 = 0. Since ( 12) 2 4 4 9 = 0. Ifb 2 Jfb 2 is zero. Relations between roots and coefficients. is 4ac not zero. and unequal. . 241. 2 4 ac 2a Hence / 1 4r2 = a Or . 3. rational. 240.QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 193 CHARACTER OF THE ROOTS 239. the roots are equal. and equal.2) 2 4 3 (. Ex. Hence the roots are real. rational.Vfr 2 4 ac T* b Vi . the roots are rational. the roots are real.f> = 0. are denoted __ Tl If the roots of the equation ax2 4. Ex. b 4. the roots are imaginary.bx 4 by ' i\ and r2 then . the roots are irrational. it 2a follows 2 : 2. The quadratic equation oa/* 2 f bx f c = has two roots. c the roots are real.c 4 ac is called the discriminant of = 0. kac 4 ac is 'not a perfect square.2 z . The discriminant =(.bx 4. If b Ifb* 2 If b Iflr 4 ac is is is 4c 4 ac a positive or equal to zero. The expression b 2 the equation ay? 4. ( 2a Hence 1. Determine the character of the roots of the equation 3 a 2 .5) = 04. 1. the roots are unequal. negative. 2. a perfect square.
23. 2 : 3. Sa^ + 2 Ooj 2 Solve the following equations and check the answers by forming the sum and the product of the roots 19. 21. 10 x = 25 x + 1. ar + ^ + 2^2 = 0. 60 2 = 0. 22. = 0. x2 !i>x + 2 z2 2 16. 18. the sain of the roots of 4 x 5 x 3 =: is j. The sum of the roots equal is to the coefficient of x with the sign changed. x2 7 10. EXERCISE 89 a Determine without solution the character of the roots of the following equations 1. = 0. (b) The product of the roots equal to theubsolute term. 2. 4. = 5x. = 0. : a 2 . 5oj aj + l = 0.194 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 2 a? these results If the given equation is written in the form may be expressed as follows : x +a += a 0. lla. ^12. + 2a. = Q. x2 4 x 0^ or j + 205 = 0.. 17. 24. tfmx+p^Q. 12. 6. 5a 26a? + 5 = 0.g. o. 9a3 = 0. 2 7. 12~x = x 2 .19 # 20.2 + 4a: + 240 = 0. 9x2 ~ the In each of the following equations determine by inspection sum and the product of the roots: 13. or + 10 + 4520 = 0. If the (a) coefficient ofx 2 in a quadratic equation is is unity. 14. 2 a. 5aj 9. their product isf. 3a. 15. n a?3 ' ~ == l 5. 2x* + 6x + 3 = 0. 2a 4z5 = 0. + 12 2  . + 18 2 8. f 2 E. + 2a15 = 0.
must be *The symbol smaller than." means "is greater than" 195 similarly means "is . for all values 1 of m and n. the direct consequence of the defiand third are consequences FRACTIONAL AND NEGATIVE EXPONENTS 243.a" = a m n mn . It is. m IV.* III. very important that all exponents should be governed by the same laws. 4~ 3 have meaning according to the original definition of power. (a m ) w . ~ a m f. we let these quantities be what they must be if the exponent law of multiplication is generally true. II. = a"" < . (a ) s=a m = aw bm a . provided w > n.CHAPTER XVI THE THEORY OF EXPONENTS 242. that a an = a m+n . The following four fundamental laws for positive integral exponents have been developed in preceding chapters : I. Then the law of involution. hence. we may choose for such symbols any definition that is con venient for other work. 244. > m therefore. while the second of the first. We assume. however. (ab) . and . instead of giving a formal definition of fractional and negative exponents. no Fractional and negative exponents. such as 2*. a m a" = a m+t1 . The first of these laws is nition of power.
Hence Or Therefore Similarly. laws. Assuming these two 8*. or zero exponent equal x. a . since the raising to a positive integral power is only a repeated multiplication.  we find a? Hence we define a* to be the qth root of of. 28. fractional. as. m$. at. 245. a\ 26. 4~ . = a. n 2 a. a?*.196 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA true for positive integral values of n. etc.g. '&M A 27. ml. Let x is The operation which makes the fractional exponent disappear evidently the raising of both members to the third power. (bed)*. To find the meaning of a fractional exponent. 30. 25. . 0?=^. ^=(a^) 3* 3 . 23. 3*. 29. 31. a*. Write the following expressions as radicals : 22. (xy$. disappear. e. we try to discover the let the meaning of In every case we unknown quantity and apply to both members of the equation that operation which makes the negative. 24.
46. the base is zero. 42. ty?. a . Let a = a. 64* + 9* + 16* + (32)*. a.THE THEORY OF EXPONENTS Express with fractional exponents 32. 37. a * a2 Or a=l.g. To find the meaning of zero exponent. If. 40. equal to unity. 49. hence is . Solve the following equations 39. 5 a* = 10. 45. v'mT 36. Vo5 . 44. a* * = 3. : 4* + 9* + 16* + 25* + 36*. 38. e. : 2' 4* = 4. however. 3* = 27. 50. \/xy \/m. is The operation which makes the zero exponent disappear 2 evidently a multiplication by any power of a. \fi?. 27* = 3. : 197 33. 43. 41.g. 5L is indeterminate Indeterminate. = 49. is Therefore the zero power of any number NOTE. 48. 35. v/o&cT 34. 7z* Find the values of 47. = 2. = 2.\/n. e. 246.
Factors may be transferred from the numerator to the denominator of a fraction. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA To find the meaning of a negative exponent. etc. in which obtained from the preceding one by dividing both members by a. . consider the following equations. or the exponent. an x = a. 248.198 247. each is The fact that a if = we It loses its singularity 1 sometimes appears peculiar to beginners. Multiplying both members by a". vice versa. by changing the sign of NOTE. a a a = = a a a a1 1 a. Or a"# = l. e.g. Let x= or". cr n.2 = a2 . a8 a 2 = 1 1 .
2 . 44. : * 31 l> ' <W* arV 8 30.THE THEORY OF EXPONENTS EXERCISE Find the values of: 91 199 Express with positive exponents 21. m . a. 1 L ?>i""i 3 cci . 3 a. 6 or 2 ^^ ^."* 38. 39. : mi m~^. 36. 22. 2 . 66 45. ^?2 y' 34. 7~ l a 2b 2 . 3 a? * 42. ^L. 25. * 24. c 32. . f (2w)~i 1 . 2m~i 43. . rfS. 40. ""^T"*' Write without denominators 29. 27. : or 5 . Write with radical signs and positive exponents 35. a^ 41. 37.
(81)* + (3f)*(5 TV)*3249 + 16 * .008)* + A. 47.(. 55. + 1~* f 21 . (. Ex. ar = i. = 5. 250. 10* Find the values 56.200 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA : Solve the equations 46. = ^. and we shall hence assume that all four laws are generally true. 1. 17' 2 51. (a*&~*)* + (aVM = a*&~* + V ' = '*&* Ex 2 . It can be demonstrated that the last three laws for any exponents are consequences of the first law. It then follows that: Fractional and negative exponents may be treated by the same methods as positive integral exponents.26)* 1 (I) 2 . 10* 5* = . of: 3ll4~* 60.343)* + (. 5  75 USE OF NEGATIVE AND FRACTIONAL EXPONENTS 249. 2 =f 3* = f x~ l 50. = . Examples relating to roots can be reduced to examples con taining fractional exponents.9*. 54. 48. + A_.001. z 5or*=10. 58.1.6). z* = 1.81 f (a . . 53. = l. 61. 57. 49. 59. 52.
&. 79 . 26. 18.7i. 16. 13. OA 20.THE THEORY OF EXPONENTS 251.^/5^5. 25 26  2~ 8 2~ 9 22.4 2 a? 2 ar 1 . EXERCISE Simplify : 92 2. 3sVS. NOTE. 8 ' 9.. Negative exponents should not be removed until all operations of multiplication^ division.$*. 10.7W. 14. 16. 7~ 6 .4 . 12. 3. . 4 x^. Perform the operation indicated. (d) If required. 7*. 17. 72 .7*. remove the fractional exponents. 27  28.5.6 *' 6 *25. &. 201 Expressions containing radicals should be simplified as : follows (a) (6) (c) Write all radical signs as fractional exponents. 23. a.5a.3 aj" a.4 a8 . 6 *. . S'sS8. 6. 4 5. 3 a. 95 ^9i 5**.&. 7. #* a. Remove the negative exponents. are performed. 14an (4**(Va) 4 . . 6a. etc. / 7fv 7. __ 29 /m '=V a9 ia. 7~ 5 27  .$". ' 11. V5.
1. Divide by ^ 2a 3 qfo 4. 34. 40. powers of x arranged are : Ex. Arrange in descending powers of Check. 1.202 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 32. The 252. we wish to arrange terms according to descending we have to remember that. 6 35. the term which does not contain x may be considered as a term containing #.2 d . If powers of a?. 2. V ra 4/ 3 \/m 33. 1 Multiply 3 or +x 5 by 2 x x. lix = 2xl =+1 Ex.
THE THEORY OF EXPONENTS
EXERCISE
93
203
Perform the operations indicated:
2.
3.
4. 5. 6.
(7r8Vr + r>)(9 Vr7). 2  1 ). (a + a f 1) (a~ + a
2 2 2
7.
8. 9.
10.
11.
(4
a 3
 24 a  9  3 a~ )
1
2
r
1
(a"
 3).
12.
13.
14.
+ + 47i) + 35V5?)*(5Vp + l). VS" ^ ( Vo Vft) H (a~ f 7 a ^a~ + 1C a*b~  33 a 6~ + 14 a(3 a _&)*. (^? + ^/^ + */fr^ 15. 16. (a6 + 2V6c c)^(Va+V6 Vc). 17. y^TTOa; f 13  12 * + 4 aF*.
(13Vp
5
l
(Va^f aV^&Va
l
3
)
3
2
2
^>~
3
2
1
1
)
(
1
18. 19.
Vor
2
2 x h or
2
2 or
1
f
3.
V25 #
 2()"ar r+ 34  12 x f 9 x*.
20.
^^
l
21. 22.
23. 24.
25.
+2
a?
8
(l+4^flO^ + 20oTf 25^T f24\/i?f 16
(1+V2)V2. (2+V2)(V22). (5+V3)(52V3).
26. 27.
)*.
(13VS)(2 + V5).
(VU  V2)(Vn~3V2)
204
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
:
Find by inspection
28.
29.
(x*
+ 3)(tf*f 2).
35.
36.
8 (a;*
yi)
.
a*
+ 3l5.
V2
(5*2*
2
.
30.
31.
32.
38. 39.
(3^
(#* ^
(fl
2*)
f
.
33. 34.
5) (x*
5).
40.
(m
n)
f
(m*
11
f
n 5 ).
CHAPTER XVII
RADICALS
253.
A
radical is the root of
a quantity, indicated by a
radical sign.
254.
The
radical is rational, if the root can be extracted
exactly; irrational, if the root cannot be exactly obtained. Irrational quantities are frequently called surds.
^9
4^
\/2,
(*
+ V) *
are radicals.
= 2, V(a + 6) 2 are rational.
V4af
b are irrational.
255.
root.
The
order of a surd
is
indicated by the index of the
va
\/2
/
.
is
is is
of the second order, or quadratic. of the third order, or cubic. of the fourth order, or biquadratic.
Vc
256. A mixed surd is the product of a rational factor and a surd factor; as 3Va, a;V3. The rational factor of a mixed surd is called the coefficient of the surd.
An
257.
factor.
entire surd is
one whose coefficient
is
unity; as
Va,
Similar surds are surds
3v/2 and 6
which contain the same irrational
are similar.
av^
3V2 and
3 V8 are dissimilar.
206
206
258.
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
Conventional restriction of the signs of roots.
All even roots
e.g.
may
be positive or negative,
VI = + 2
or
2.
Hence
6. which results in four values, viz. 14, 6, To avoid 14, or this ambiguity, it is customary in elementary algebra to restrict
the sign of a root to the prefixed sign.
Thus
5 V4 4 2 V4
= 7 VI = 14.
If the object of an example, however, is merely an evolution, the complete answer is usually given thus
;
=
(oj 2).
259.
Since radicals can be written as powers with fractional
exponents, all examines relating to radicals
may
be solved by the
methods employed for fractional exponents.
Thus, to find the nth root of a product ab we have
T
1
1
(a6)"==a"6"
I.e.
(242).
to extract the root of a product, multiply the roots of the
factors.
TRANSFORMATION OF RADICALS
260.
Simplification of surds.
A radical is simplified when the
expression under the radical sign is integral, and contains no factor whose power is equal to the index.
Ex.
1.
Simplify
= \/25~a~ Vb = 6 a*VS.
4
Ex.
2.
Simplify
v/16.
J/lB^^.
4/2
= 2^.
RADICALS
.
207
261 When the quantity under the radical sign is a fraction, we multiply both numerator and denominator by such a quantity as will make the denominator a perfect power of the same
degree as the surd.
Ex.
3.
Simplify V.
Ex.
4.
Simplify
EXERCISE
94
208
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
/s
37.
39.
j
*x+y
38.
n
\ 2m
262.
An
same manner
imaginary surd can be simplified in precisely the as a real surd thus,
;
42.
V16a
:
,
2
.
44.
2\
Simplify and find to three decimal places the numerical
values of
47.
48.
VJ.*
49.
50.
Vf.
VJ.
VA
263.
Reduction of a surd to an entire surd.
Ex.
Express 4 a V& as an entire surd.
EXERCISE
Express as entire surds
1.
:
95
4V5.
3.
2\/lL
5.
6.
7.
2.
3V7.
4.
3^5.
a VS.
8.
* See table of square roots on page 164.
RADICALS
264. Transformation of surds to surds of different order.
209
Ex.
1.
Transform \/uW into a surd of the 20th order.
Ex.
2.
Transform
\/2,
V3, and
\/5 into surds of the
same
lowest order.
V2 = 2* = a* = '#64. ^ = 8* = 3A= ^gi. ^5 = 6* = 6* =^125.
1
Ex.
3.
Reduce the order of the surd tyaP.
Exponent and index bear the same relation as numerator and denominator of a fraction ; and hence both may be multiplied by
same number, or both divided by the same number, without changing the value of the radical.
the
EXERCISE
Reduce
1.
96
:
to surds of the 6th order
2.
Va?.
fymn.
3.
\/ v
4.
v'c?.
5.
\
z
\
^3
6.
mn.
Reduce
7.
8.
to surds of the 12th order
9.
:
V2~a.
\/a4 6 2c.
\/3ax.
11.
12.
\/oP6.
13.
14.
a.
^v/mV
10.
\/5a5V.
Express as surds of lowest order with integral exponents and indices
:
15.
v/o
5
.
16.
\/oW.
17.
v/IaT .
2
18.
\/
20.
A/^
22.
VSlmV.
24.
^2. 5V2. To add or form. I VJ + 3VT8 . 38. 31. ^4. v/3. v^S. Simplify V + 3 VlS.210 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA : Express as surds of the same lowest order 25. </3. 34. ^2.10 V2 =  V2.2 V50. signs.2. 3: \/=^8 v~ 8ft 2 s/a. 4^/4. ^3. 3  s/ / 3ft 2  3 ^y Ex. A/2. ^2. ADDITION AND SUBTRACTION OF RADICALS 265. Arrange 35.e. Ex. v/4. 36. V3. 2\ 3*. 40. A/3. 27. V3. reduce them to their simplest add them like similar add their coefficients) . 32. 39. V2. Simplify V~ . 28. ^/IT. (i. subtract surds. connect them by proper 1. Simplify/a35 ~ o . v/3. ^5. 29. V5. ^30. </2. ^4. VS. 33. V2. if dissimilar. ^7. 3. V2. in order of magnitude : \/7.2 V50 = V2 + 9 V2 . 30. terms their If the resulting surds are similar. ^126. + . 26. </20.3\ . Ex. \/5. s!/3. 37. ^6. \/7.
4. 2V87Vl8f5V72V50.J a6 V4 aft. 11. 8. VJ+V8V1 + V50. 12. 14.3V20 + 6V5. 8VT8J2V32 7. + 3V835V2. 13. 6. V18+V32VT28+V2. V175V28+V634V7. 3. 10. VT2 + 2V27 + 3V759V48. .RADICALS EXERCISE 97 : 211 Simplify the following expressions 2. V45c3 3 abv'ab V80~c~3 f V5a c + c 2 + 3 aVo^ 3 Va^ . 9. 4V805V45. 6.
212 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA . Ex. Dissimilar surds are reduced to surds of the same order.2 VS by 3 Vf + 10 VB. Multiply 3\/25^ by 5\/50Y 3v / 2 . Multiply 5 V7 8\/7 6\/7. 2. 98 ab ^" fab 1 " . Multiply V2 by 3\/l. the Surds of the same order are multiplied by multiplying product of the coefficients by the product of the irrational factors. 3. 26^ . 5 4/6072 = 16^6272.6V35 106 460V35100 . and then multiplied. 23.100 = f 44 VS6 6 + 44\/36. .fab V \~\ jab FW MULTIPLICATION QEJRABIQALS 266. y* = Ex. 1. for a~\/x b~\/y ab^/xy. .2v/6 + IPV6 105. 6*. Ex.
38. 3. aVa. 9. 28 . 2 . (V2+V3+V4)V3. V2 V50. 7. (VmVn)(Vm+Vn> 33. 40. (3 20. V3 Vl2.RADICALS EXERCISE 1. 18. (VmVn) (V3V2) 8 . + VB)(2V5). 213 98 11. 27. \/3 \^). 13. V20 V30. V5 Va VaV?/ V Vr 16. 21. v/18 v"3. 40 10 30. 39. 41. 6. 10. 12. ( Vm \ 1 Vm) (Vmf 1 6(Vaf Va { Vm). v/4. 34. (2V3) 8 . 8. . 6 V4 5. 15. (5V58V2)(5V5 + 8V2).^/2. (Va Va 36.VSS. (6V23V3)(6V23V3). (V6 + 1) 1 . (5V22V3CVS)V3. V42. V3 V6. V2aV8^. 2. 4. VlO V15. 14. a?. 6. VTO. 19. 37. 25. fWa 17. Vll.
(5V2+V10)(2V51). (2 45. the quotient of the surds is If. 47.y. 60. (V50f 3Vl2)4V2== however. (3V52V3)(2V3V3). 51. it more convenient to multiply dividend and divisor by a factor which makes the divisor rational. 53. (5V72V2)(2VT7V2). v/a  DIVISION OF RADICALS 267. 49.214 42.V5) ( V3 + 2 VS). E. 52. Ex. Ex. is 1 2. a VS f a?Vy = \/  x*y this Since surds of different orders can be reduced to surds of the same order. 43. all monomial surds may be divided by method. (3V32Vo)(2V3+V5). 48. 44. 46. . 268. ELEMENTS OF ALGEHRA (3V55V3) S . a fraction. Va v/a. Monomial surdn of the same order may be divided by multiplying the quotient of the coefficients by the quotient of the surd factors. V3 .
Divide VII by v7. To show that expressions with rational denominators are simpler than those with irrational denominators. 1.RADICALS This method. however. the by 3 is much easier to perform than the division by 1. called rationalizing the the following examples : 215 divisor.57735. 3. e. Divide 4 v^a by is rationalizing factor evidently \/Tb hence. Hence in arithmetical work it is always best to rationalize the denominators before dividing. the rationalizing factor x ' g \/2. Evidently. + 4\/5 _ 12v 3 + 4\/5 V8 V8 V2 V2 269. is illustrated by Ex.by the usual arithmetical method.. . we have V3 But if 1. /~ } Ex.g. . by V7. 4\/3~a' 36 Ex. we have to multiply In order to make the divisor (V?) rational.73205 we simplify JLV^l V3 *> ^> division Either quotient equals . Divide 12 V5 + 4V5 by V. The 2. arithTo find. metical problems afford the best illustrations. VTL_Vll ' ~~" \/7_V77 . . is Since \/8 12 Vil = 2 V*2.73205.
To rationalize the denominator of a fraction whose denom inator is a binomial quadratic surd. find to four decimal places the numerical values of: 19. 21. 23 . 14. A.7320. V48 25. 271. 7. . if 4=V50 Two binomial quadratic surds are said to be conjugate. ^/H . Vn V7 ' * 8. The product of two conjugate binomial surds is rational . A. multiply numerator and denominator by the conjugate surd of the denominator. V2 22 . V3 = 1. V8 JL. Vll 212*. V8?^ V7 xy T 13 11 n V7 ~ VH 5 2. 20.216 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 99 Simplify : 1. i. and Given V2 = 1. Va + Vb and Va Vb are conjugate surds. V8 12. V3 24 . .4142. V5 = 2.. VffV?.2361. 272. they differ only in the sign which connects their terms. V5 270. 2V5 ' 2 V3 o vfi* ' ^ Va 12.
s Simplify a. 1. 217 Simplify 2V3V2 ' V3V2 ~ = 4 + V5.Vs2 . V2+2 _ V2+2 2\/2+l_6 + 6\/2.2.1 xVtf a.RADICALS Ex. . Ex.vffi^T _ . 3.= 18. Ex. Find the numerical value of : V2 + 2 2V21 e . .07105 = 7 7 2V21 2V21 2V2 + 1 EXERCISE Eationalize the denominators of : 100 . V82 2V3 1fVS .
four places of decimals 23 . V3 + 1 1+V5 _ 3V5 ' V5+2 31. 24. it can easily be shown that VcT = ( V) w Hence 3 V25~ = ( V25) 3 . find to _!_.2361.5 3 = 125. v 2V3 28. 2V5V18 mVm Va 22.218 6 .W3. V21 = 25 . Vo1 26. . V5V7 18> ^SVg. 27. INVOLUTION AND EVOLUTION OF RADICALS 273. By the use of fractional exponents . Given V2 1. 6V7. V52 17 1Va? Vg+v/2 5V77V5 ' V3V2 15. J?_. V32* to 1 Find the third proportional + V2 and 3 f 2V2. 19.4142. = V3 = 1.7320. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 13 ~3 V51 14 A 16. : and V5 = 2.
\/l6*. 9. ( V5 + V3) = 5 + 2 V5~^3 + 3 2 = 8 + 2 VIS. SQUARE ROOTS OF QUADRATIC SURDS 275. introduce fractional exponents : Ex. 1. \/125" . 5. In other examples of involution and evolution. V255 .RADICALS 219 274. 8. the If. on the other hand. we must find 8 and whose product is 15. To find the square root of a binomial square by inspection. 4. we had to find problem would be quite simple if presented in the form v52V3 5 + 3. 3 (V2~u)  7. According to G3. : 101 (3Vmw) 2 . it to this form. . Find the square of EXERCISE Simplify 1. 3. viz. 11. 2. To reduce is two numbers whose sum 5 and 3. V643 . v8f 2\/15. 2 12. Simplify Ex. 2.
220 Ex.6\/2 = ^9 . These Ex. is Find two numbers whose sum numbers are 10 and 2. 12 and whose product is 20.2 A/2 = V9A/2 = 3 .A/2.6 A/2 = Vll Find two numbers whose sum numbers are 9 and 2. coefficient of the Irrational Write the binomial so that the term is 2. EXERCISE 102 : Extract the square roots of the following binomials . ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA l. Find Vll . Find V4 + VJ8. ^TT.2 \/20. 3. The Hence ^11 . is 11. Find Vl2 4. 2. and whose product is 18. 2 \/18. +2 Ex.6 V2.
by raising both members equal powers.1. examples to simplify the equation as it is necessary in most as possible. : 221 Vl32V22. Dividing by Check. member to 2. (2x xrf 1. V48 23. If all radicals do not disappear through the the process must be repeated. +=. Solve vVf!2a = 2. r 22. a. = xa + 4 x f 4. are radical equations. Before performing the involution. The value x =2 reduces each . Transposing and uniting. A radical equation is an equation involving an irrational root of an unknown number. i. 4. 277. 8. they are transto formed into rational equations. V4 + V12 RADICAL EQUATIONS 276. 19. VT .. . * 4 * 2 V6 VT 4.e. first involution. \/x Vx = + 3 = 7. Transposing Vsc2 + f 12 12 Squaring both members.RADICALS Simplify the following expressions 18. x2 = x f 2.V48 4 20. Ex. 5. much and to transpose the terms so that one radical stands alone in one member. Radical equations are rationalized. 4x x = 2.
an equaSquaring both members we obtain or 1. a. tion which has two roots. Vitf 4x f 25 f 25 4x f 1 25. \/4 jc~+~l = 5. 2. 2 Vx^ Dividing by 2. the first member = V2. 5. = 9 x2 18 x + 8x 2 25xf3 = 0. 278. (x 3) (8 x x = 3. Factoring. 3. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBltA Solve V4 x + 1 f V4 f 1 . 24 \/4 # Transpose V4 x Squaring both members. It = 3 x . Transposing and uniting. = 12 = 144 24\/4# + 1 = 120. viz. a socalled extraneous root. x = J. Dividing by 24. Ex. Solve Vx f Squaring both members. f 25 = 12. the roots found are not necessarily roots of the given equation 279. Extraneous roots. V24~+~l = 0. radical equations require for their solution the squaring of both members. at . . member =\/2 + jV2=v^. . V4afT~l. Therefore CftecAr. f V/2TT25 = 5 + x 7 = 12. Transposing and uniting.1) = 0. Therefore Check. . x + 1 + 2 Vx'2 + 1 x + (. one root. Transposing. 4#f 4 = 9. 5 and The squaring of both members of the given equation introSince duced the new root 1. viz. or = VzMx2 7 x f f 7 x + 9.222 Ex. Squaring both members. The results of the solution of radical equations must be substituted in the (jlren equation to determine ivhether the roots are true roots or extraneous roots.3. they may be extraneous roots. Squaring both members. tion usually introduces a new Squaring both members of an equaThus x 2 = 3 has only root.
4 VxT~0 = \/8 x f 1. NOTE. V2x' 8 42x43 Transposing. Solve the following equations : = G. x root of the preceding equation. If the signs of the roots were not restricted. Factoring. 223 x = 3. 2 Clearing of fractions.3) (2 x .RADICALS Hence x If a. Check. (x x = 3. * Exclude all solutions which do not satisfy the equation or which make the given radicals imaginary. . Therefore.12 . Solve Vz+T + V2aT+3 = + "b"x f A5_ 15. = } would be a VaT+T Ex. or x *j. and to 5.48 x + 2 x2 53 f 141 = 0. for it satisfies the equation . If If x 3 = 3. \ does not satisfy the given. 2 z 2 4 6 x 4 3 = 144 .47) = 0. Squaring. . tlie Jeft both members reduce member = 12T V2. = 3. viz. Hence x = the only root. . ViTie 4 z2 .2 r. is x V. equation it is an extraneous root. + 6~ieT~3 . both members reduce to 5. Hence there is only one root. 4. Transposing. the right member = V2.
Ex. Therefore .33 af* + 32=0. radical equations may be solved by the method of 238.224 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 280. Many 1. Factoring. Solve af*.
i~24 = 0. for 6 and 3 are the roots of the may 2 equation Vx' 8x it positive values. 412a* = 16.f40= 5.8 z40 = 7. 3. x Since both =9 or 1. This can be seen without substituting. o. or y or Therefore 2 y = 5.8 x + 40 = 36.*2a. 225 x = 32~* or 1"* = ^ or 1. = 7. members of the equation were squared. x + Vx a? = 6. 3 6. + 40 = 6.RADICALS Raising both members to the  power. Q . 2. y then x2 . = 0. Let 8 x f 40 . 2. Ex. while 6 and 3 are extraneous roots. 4. 5. 45 14VJB = . = 26. EXERCISE 104* its Solve the following equations: 1. make the given radicals * Exclude extraneous roots and roots which imaginaries. x =6 or 3. 2Va.35 = 0. Vi 2 8a. some of the roots be extraneous. But as the square root is restricted to cannot be equal to a negative quantity. . Substituting.8 x 2 Hence y' 2y = 35. it will be found that 9 and 1 satisfy the equation. 2_8z 440 = 49. Solve x* 8x x* Adding 40 to both members. _ 2 y . + 40 = Vz2 $x + 40 = y.
+x . 14. a^x2 5 2 13. 2 7a?HV^ 3 7a. 15. 2.226 11.f 18 = 24. 16. 17. +3= 6. 4 V SB* 4 a. 6 Va?~3o~ = y? 3 x f . 19. 20. 12. a. 18. ar fll x 3x 12 V5l? +1 1^7^30 = 1 ^ + G V2^"^I + 2 = 4.a 440 = 35. or 2 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 8a f 40 2 V* 2 8.
Ex. then or* 2 and there is a 3 x2 f.3 x~ + 4 x + 8 is divided by x remainder (which does not contain a?). by dividing 3 x* f.3 x + 4 + 8 As 72 (a? . even if Q is unknown. 2. find the remainder when m. however. assign any value whatsoever and would always obtain the same answer for R.2 + 80 = 12. if Q was known. R = am* + 6m3 + cm2 + tZw + e. ^ = 381+2.CHAPTER XVIII THE FACTOR THEOREM 281. If x* . Hence. we make a? what the value of Q.360 = 244." transposing. " Or. Let then find the remainder obtained z = 3. does not contain a?.2 x 5 by x 3. Without actual division.4 a. could. = 2. then (x 2)Q 0. ax4 4.<fo f e is divided by x Let then 2 4 8 ca: f (to + e (x = w. E = ax + &z + m) Q. a? R = x* .2 + 4. to x we # = 2 3. substituting Q " and ani^ ^ 2 respectively for Quotient " and Remainder. we can find the value of R by making x = 2.bx? + ex2 4.2) Q . f 8 = (a? 2) x Quotient f Remainder. 3 2 Ex. 1. no matter If. Without actual division. 227 .
3 x2 4) is a factor of x    00 *.g.4(. fora?. x*x + 4x Tx + 2\)y x + 2. 43 3 E.3)f 11 =. the divisor is a factor of the dividend.949. 8. ing x becomes zero x8 3 x2 2 4 when 2 x If a rational integral expression involvm is a is written in place of x. The Factor Theorem. Only factors of the absolute term need be substituted . if 8 42  .4x411)^0 + 4 ( 3) . a f b 7 by a ^14y ~132/  283. + 7 = 632. The remainder obtained by dividing (x + 4)4 _ (3 + 2) ( X  1) +7 by x  1 is 6* 3 .228 282.8'= 0. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA The Remainder Theorem. 3. x5 a^ 7 b 5 by x 6. 5. of the division 3) is m in place of x. } 2 by a1. x m is factor of the expression. + ^by x + b. EXERCISE Without actual division dividing : 105 find the remainder obtained by 2. 5 (4x . + 3x3 2x* 32x12 by a?3. + 6. a100 50 a47 4 48 a2 b.g. x* s 2 4. x is divided by x The remainder 6 sion involving If an integral rational expresm. 2 j 7.8. the remainder is obtained by substituting in the given expression E. If the remainder is zero. hence (x divided by x 4. the remainder equals 8 2 x .
we obtain 7  7 x2 + x + 16 = (x + l)(x 2  8 a. a? 19. 1. m f m n 14. 8. oj 5x2 f3a. factors of the absolute term. a 5x 6. + 27 + 27. x8 By dividing by x a?8 f 1. 23. 2m 5m .7 x + 15 = 0. Resolve into factors 4. 7 46 = 0.r6 = 0.49 = 0. _ .7 f 5a 18 divisible by x 2. & p*. 1ft : ar*f 6aj 2 o?5ar 3 l + lla. 3. a^8^ + 19a. i. 3 2 : 7. Let x = 1 then 7 x + 7 a.12 = 0.13m + 30 10. a. Let x = . or x 4. 8. is a factor. x* 34 ar 5 225 is divisible by x 5. 6.1. + 15. 5 Solve the following equations by factoring 15. a 2a + 4. a + 32. m 4 n4 25 mV + 19 ran 13. f 5. The 5. 1. 7 2 a? 2 f 7a?f 15.9^ + 23^15.e. f 16) EXERCISE Without actual 1. x 4o8 + 2a^ + 4a?~3 =0 4^ or* f 9 or* 2 a? aj? a? a? 2 4 3 . 4m p~m p + 16m^ 12. 17. 9. or 5 4 + 3^ . p 5^ + 8p 4. 2o? m 6ra fllm 6. 20. Factor a? 15. 18. ^10^429^20=0. 25. are f 1. 5. 8 }3 3 2 3 s 2 3 4 8 2 2 4 s 3 t .12. f 3. 229 1. 21. 2 2. f 15 does not vanish. a 8a f 19 a 12. Therefore x ( 1).TEE FACTOR THEOREM Ex.1. then x8 7 x'2 4. ^ + 7y + 2y40 = 0.7 + 16 . 24. + ttt15 = 0. 2. show that divisible 4x 2 j +3x 2 a? 2 2 as 5 is or 2 by is a. . 106 division. 11. 15.
if n is even. 1. Ex. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA positive integer. Two special cases of the preceding propositions are of viz. actual division n.230 285. 286. Factor 27 a* f 27 a 6 8.  y 5 = (x  can readily be seen that #n f either x + y or x y. 2 Ex. The difference of two even powers should always be considered as a difference of two squares. if w is odd. : importance. 2. If n is a Theorem that 1.xy +/).y n is divisible by x f ?/. if n For ( y) n f y n = 0. xn f. 2 8 (3 a ) +8= + 288. It y is not divisible by 287. 2. We may 6 n 6 either a difference of two squares or a dif * The symbol means " and so forth to. xn y n y n y n = 0. For substituting y for x. x* f/ = (x +/)O . and have for any positive integral value of If n is odd." . is odd. By we obtain the other factors. ar +p= z6 e.g. Factor consider m m 6 n9 . it follows from the Factoi xn y n is always divisible by x y.
26. f n)(m 2 mn f w 2 )(wi . 28. since it more directly to the prime factors.THE FACTOR THEOREM ference of two cubes. as 27=0. y 3 +8=0. x3 8=0. Factor a 12 EXERCISE Resolve into prime factors : 107 Solve the following equations: 25. a. 3. however. 27.= .i mn f w 2). leads 231 is The first method. Hence = (m Ex. preferable.
xy are given. Squaring Solve (1). (4) Hence. The degree of an equation involving several unknown quantities is equal to the greatest sum of the exponents of the unknown quantities contained in any term. Hence " /  X y = =} 4. * A I. 2 2/ (1) (2) (3) (2) x 4. + 6 a?V . xywe have 3. & + 2 xy + = 25. however.CHAPTER XIX SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 289. 290. the third one can be found by means of the relation (ojjy) 2 4 xy Ex. can be solved by the methods degree. in general. 232 . (5) Combining (5) with (1). EQUATIONS SOLVED BY FINDING x +y AND xy 291.y4 is of the fifth degree. 4 xy = 16. = 6. xy x*y f y = 4 is of the second degree. to equations of the fourth few cases. x y. Simultaneous quadratic equations involving two un known quantities lead. *The graphic solution of simultaneous quadratic equations has been treated in Chapter XII. If two of the quantities x f y.1. ==5 > 1^ = 4. of quadratics.
but can be found. 12.SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 292. x and xy are not given.g. " "' "' { r 8. b=3. I I x + y=7. the answers of the last example are : r*=2. 108 2. ' 10. 233 y. ^. roots of simultaneous quadratic equations must be e. 1. The arranged in pairs. In many cases two of the quantities x f y. EXERCISE Solve: 1. = . r (" 1 = 876. F* Lx ' 2 (1) ' (2) (3) (4) 2 + 3 = 293. 3.
Solve 2 x + 3y = 7. 9 y2 17 y 2 + ) 8 (y  40 y (17 y 1 Hence Substituting in (3).a. EXERCISE Solve : 109 47/ = 0. . I x+y = a.i/ = r 13.  42 y + Transposing. can be solved by eliminating one of the unknown uantities by means of substitution. 7 . 4 y = 20. 5. or JJ. ( \ ~^V\ + 2 / 2y 2 ?/' . I* Jj ^ [. la. Factoring. one linear and ne quadratic. r^ 2 as ] f. aj = 2. THE OTHER QUADRATIC 294. or y = 1 .  .4 [ ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA x 4. + 29 = 0. 2 (1) From (1) we have. Ex. 3.20) = 0.o 18. . ' ' . 6 "I 14. 19. ^ f or* f 4 xy = 28. A system of simultaneous equations. Substituting in (2) Simplifying. x " (3) 49 etc..  f J.~ y = 5. =^ 18* ONE EQUATION LINEAR.?/ i = 6.
1. (1) (2) 7 xy + G if = 0. one equation of two simultaneous quadratics is homogeneous. 3 y2 Substituting in (1). the example can always be reduced to an example 296. 4 f + 2 y = 3. = 1 3 3. HOMOGENEOUS EQUATIONS homogeneous equation is an equation all of whose terms are of the same degree with respect to the unknown 295. III. ':il e :) . If of the preceding type. 3y) : Factor (2). 4^ 3 x 2 y 3 y3 A and # 2 2 xy 5 y2 are homogeneous equations. 235  > ' 1 lla 8 12~ 10 13. 9. ' x*.SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS y 7. y* + 2y = 3. quantities. 10. x2y. Solve . (x to solve the 2t/)(2 x = ( Hence we have two systems (3) (1) From (3). 8 V~80 Hence y =1 y .3 2x 2 Ex.
15 x2 . = Ex. 2 .20 xy + 15 y 2 = 2 x 5. Solve 2. the problem can be reduced to the preceding case by eliminating the absolute term.236 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 297. If both equations are homogeneous with exception oi the absolute terra. y = 110 f 10^370^ + 7^ = 16^7^ . = 0. } VI09. 109 a. (1) (2) x x 5. = 0. 11 a2 Factoring. (3) (4) Subtracting. j Substituting y in (2). 2. (rc2/)(llx5y) 16 xy f 5 y 2 (3) Hence solve : (2) From (3). (1) Eliminate 2 and 6 by subtraction.2 ^ EXERCISE Solve: 6ar 7aK/427/2 ==0.
2 xy + y2 = 10. Bxy9. 298. can be solved by special devices. which in most cases must be left to the ingenuity of the student. and others not belonging to them. Division of one equation by the other.!. A. f 1 150 a?. Some of the more frequently used devices are the following: 299. 150 */2 .175 ay = 12.xy 4. (4) (3). Solve * + '* { Dividing (1) by (2).125 ay = . SPECIAL DEVICES Many examples belonging to the preceding types. " IV. ' <"" =m _ 14 ' &.y = 7. y? a? f . ' ^ 15.3^42^=43. E. Equations of higher degree can sometimes be reduced to equations of the second degree by dividing member by member.SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 237 m U.6. . 2 (3) (4) Squaring (2).
2. i ^ *>. quadratics can be solved by ?/. we have from (1). x 2 . y = 3. Vx y 4 or V^^y = 3 x 4 or But the negative roots being extraneous. B. Solve Ex. i" <Vx f ' unknown 6.. In more complex examples letter for advisable to substitute another such expressions. x +y y etc. (1 > (2) 1. we obtain by squaring. y . * ' 300. from (2). xy. = 12 J. = 189.238 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 111 Solve * : fajy=152. f^ + 3 7/ = 133. Therefore x = 16. Considering V# + y and y as quantities and solving. Some simultaneous ?/. at first it is unknown quantities. jc~ y = 9. considering not x or but expressions involving x and as the as x .
7. Hence we have 7 x 4 to solve the two systems U) : x ! + */ = 17. 4. 2. Hence = V or = 4.SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS . Solve (1) (2) Let Then r __ 17^ + 40. The solution produces the roots EXERCISE Solve : 112 5. M6. 239 Ex. F+y+ . I e. 6. [2x + : y= 17. 36* 2. .
. = 198. = y 1 y* .21 ^ = 15. 16. * .240 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Solve by any method : far' 9 + a^lSG. ' ** 5x+ 7y = 13 ' ' 1 f. + o5)(6hy) = 80. ( xy (7 m 2 n*. f 18. 2 or 5 CCT/ + 3 f + 3 . 19 ' 26. . ' x2 1 6 xy = 15. 25. x 1 20' = 41 400' =34.4 y = 47 a. 27.
Interpretation . etc 302. . 25 34. 33. or ~ indeterminate. ~\ OK OO. Q 7.  But this equation is satisfied by any is value of a?. y % 9 f*K 36. 203): ix y Solve graphically (see 40. as a . 30. . 32. 3 a2 38. 31. . etc. = 48201. ^ oo . hence may be any finite number.SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS i 241 y . oo 301. . The results of problems and other examples appear sometimes in forms which require a special interpretation. INTERPRETATION OF NEGATIVE RESULTS AND THE FORMS OF 5 . 7' j/ 39.of  According to the definition of division. finite  =x y if = x.
be the numbers. Hence such an equation identity. creases. TO^UU" sufficiently small. and becomes infinitely small.x'2 2 x = 1. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Interpretation of ? e. customary to represent this result by the equation ~ The symbol 304. cancel. is satisfied by any number. x f 2. Hence any number will satisfy equation the given problem is indeterminate. the answer is indeterminate. or infinitesimal) This result is usually written : 305. The solution x = indicates that the problem is indeter If all terms of an minate.e. or that x may equal any finite number. I. great. however x approaches the value be comes infinitely large.e. ToU" ^100 a.000 a. i. = 10.decreases X if called infinity. (1) = 0. .i solving a problem the result or oo indicates that the all problem has no solution. Let 2. while the remaining terms do not cancelj the root is infinity. the If in an equation terms containing unknown quantity cancel. (a: Then Simplifying. 306. (1) is an identity. . oo is = QQ. 1.increases if x de x creases.242 303. (1). i. The ~~f fraction . and . By making x any * assigned zero. it is an Ex.g. as + l. without exception. Interpretation of QO The fraction if x x inis infinitely large. Or. equation. 1. + I) 2 x2 ' f 2x + 1 x(x + 2)= .can be If It is made larger than number. of the second exceeds the product of the first Find three consecutive numbers such that the square and third by 1.
2. The sum of two numbers Find the numbers. The sum is of squares 2890. Solve . Solve (aj + 1) : (x + 2) = ( + 3) 114 : (a? + 4). = oo. Solve x a.2 y = 4. Solve ~o 3 x v ~K 6 x r x 6 4. 1=0. . no numbers can satisfy the given system. * 6. Find three consecutive numbers such that the square of 2. EXERCISE 1. Solve  9 7.SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS Ex. 42 and' their product is 377. the second exceeds the product of the first and third by 2. and a. two numbers is 76. 113 is One half of a certain number equal to the sum of its Find the number. (2).8 x + 15 6. 4 3 x x5 a2 . Hence /. and the sum of Find the numbers. is their 2. y finite QO. 3.e. third and sixth parts. z = 1 Substituting. EXERCISE PROBLEMS 1. 243 Solve the system : (1) (2) From Or.
Find the side of each square.) 53 yards. Two cubes together contain 30 cubic inches. The sum of the areas of two squares is 208 square feet. The volumes of two cubes differ by 98 cubic centimeters. . Find the edges. of a right triangle is 73. Find these sides. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA The difference between is of their squares 325. and the side of one increased by the side of the other e. the The mean proportional between two numbers sum of their squares is 328.244 3. and the sum of ( 228. equals 4 inches. Find the numbers. and is The area of a rectangle remains unaltered if its length increased by 20 inches while its breadth is diminished by 10 inches. and the edge of one exceeds the edge of the other by 2 centimeters. of a rectangular field feet. 9. and the hypotenuse is 37. is is 17 and the sum 4. two numbers Find the numbers. To inclose a rectangular field 1225 square feet in area. and its The diagonal is is perimeter 11. 14. The hypotenuse is the other two sides 7. and the edge of one. Find the sides. 10. rectangle is 360 square Find the lengths of the sides. 146 yards. Find the dimensions of the field. Find the sides of the rectangle. the area becomes f% of the original area.quals 20 feet. is 6. 8.) The area of a right triangle is 210 square feet. 13. Find the edge of each cube. Find two numbers whose product whose squares is 514. The area of a nal 41 feet. Find the other two sides. 12. 6. and the diago(Ex. p. But if the length is increased by 10 inches and 12. 255 and the sum of 5. increased by the edge of the other. 103. 190. 148 feet of fence are required. is the breadth diminished by 20 inches.
(Surface of sphere If a number of two digits be divided its digits. the quotient is 2. and the equal to the surface of a sphere Find the radii. is 20 inches. differ by 8 inches. Find the radii. their areas are together equal to the area of a circle whose radius is 37 inches.) 17.) (Area of circle and = 1 16. Find the number. . by the product of 27 be added to the number. and if the digits will be interchanged. 245 The sum of the radii of two circles is equal to 47 inches. The radii of two spheres is difference of their surfaces whose radius = 47T#2. irR *.SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 15.
The progression is a.... 15 is 9 f. : 7. The common differences are respectively 4. series 9. 3. to produce the 4th term. The first is an ascending.7. progression. (n 1) d must be added to a.. except the first. to produce the 3d term. 10. The terms ARITHMETIC PROGRESSION 308. P. a + d. + 2 d. 3 d must be added to a. a.11 246 (I) Thus the 12th term of the 3 or 42.. To find the nth term / of an A. a f d. An arithmetic progression (A.) is a series. the second a descending.. 19..1) d. the first term a and the common difference d being given. The common Thus each difference is the number which added an A.. 4. of the following series is 3. to A series is a succession of numbers formed according some fixed law. a + 2 d. a 3d. P. 12.CHAPTER XX PROGRESSIONS 307. 17. added to each term to obtain the next one. 16.. . to produce the nth term. . 11. to each term produces the next term. P. 309.. each term of which. Hence / = a + (n . . of a series are its successive numbers. 2 d must be added to a. a 11. and d. . Since d is a f 3 d. is derived from the preceding by the addition of a constant number. f .
Find the 10th term of the series 17. 24..4. . 8. 4^.' cZ == .. 1. = 2. 3. 3. 19. d . series .16. 5. ? (a) 1. .. 99) = 2600. 2. (a + + (a + l) l). first 2 Write down the (a) (6) (c) 6 terms of an A. 5.8. 6..... 7. 9. Or Hence Thus from (I) = (+/). 8. 4. 2*=(a + Z) + (a + l) + (a + l) 2s = n * . 5. = 99. the last term and the common difference d being given. 7. 3. 5. 247 first To find the sum s 19 of the first n terms of an A. 2 EXERCISE 1. 10. = I + 49 = *({ + . P. 6 we have Hence . of the series 10. 1. 9. Find the 101th term of the series 1. 2J... = a + (a Reversing the order. Adding. a = 2. 8. the term a. 2. .. 115. . d = 3. 6. 2 sum of the first 60 I (II) to find the ' ' odd numbers. (d) 1J.. . Find the nth term of the series 2. 21.. . 3. P. Find the 5th term of the 4. if a = 5. 5. 3.... series 2. 7.. .. 6. Which (6) (c) of the following series are in A.3 a = l.PROGRESSIONS 310. Find the 12th term of the 4. P. 1J.. Find the 7th term of the Find the 21st term series ..
. Jive quantities are involved.(# 1 2) f (x f 3) H to a terms. . to 8 terms. 23. 7. 8.248 Find the 10. 33. . How much does he receive (a) in the 21st year (6) during the first 21 years ? j 311. 21. $1 For boring a well 60 yards deep a contractor receives yard thereafter 10^ more How much does he receive all together ? ^S5 A bookkeeper accepts a position at a yearly salary of $ 1000.7 f to 12 terms. hence if any three of them are given. . 12. 16. 1+2+3+4H Find the sum of the first n odd numbers. 16.1 f 3.. (i) (ii) . 13. . 4. . 19. to 7 terms. to 10 terms. 15. and for each than for the preceding one. 22. 2. 1J. Sum the following series 14. 11. : 3. 15. + 3. In most problems relating to A. to 15 terms.5 H + if f to 10 terms. 11. Q^) How many times in 12 hours ? (&fi) does a clock. 31. > 2f 2. striking hours only. to 20 terms. . P. 11. strike for the first yard. (x +"l) 4. 7. 15. '. 1. 18. 11. 29. 2J. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA last term and the sum of the following series : . the other two may be found by the solution of the simultaneous equations . 3. \n. . 12. 17. and a yearly increase of $ 120. 1. 6. 20. to 20 terms. rf. 1. + 2f3 + 4 H hlOO. to 20 terms. to 16 terms. 7.
a = 12. 111. 6. = 144. x=  4 the arithmetical mean between two numbers is equal to half their sum. 78. 45.e.1) . Findn. = 13. l)e?. hence n = 6. 89. #. or 11 J. P.1). P. 204 = ^ (a + 49). From (1). But evidently n cannot be fractional.PROGRESSIONS Ex.~n~\ 408 6). n = 6. s 24ft last term 144. 100. The series is. . the and the sum of all terms 1014. Substituting in (2). 2. d = 6. 144.6 n). 78 n Substituting in (1). P. 122. 2 (2) From Hence (2). 49 (1) (2) Substituting. 12. The first term of an A. = 1014. the second one mean between the other two. = 1014. 6 n2 . When is called the arithmetic three numbers are in A. 1. if a. n d. = a + (w. I Substituting in (I) and (II). 34. 56.. 67. a = 49 6(71 . (1) 1014 = ^(12 + 144). J = 49.6. 133. and b form an A. is 12. Ex. 23. 3 n2 52 n + 204 = 0. is Thus x the arithmetic mean between a and a=b x. .. if s = 204. or if x Solving. 312.104 w + 408 = 0. = n(104 . I. or 144 = 12 + 12 d=ll. Find the series. Solving. 204 = ^ (98 .
n = 4. Find n. Find d. has the series 82. n. . 17. produced. a x f b and a b. = 17. Given a = 4. 11.250 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 116 : Find the arithmetic means between 1.3. = 83. a+ and b a b 5. and s. s = 70. Given a = . How many terms How many terms Given d = 3. How much did he save the first month? 19. Between 4 and 8 insert 3 terms (arithmetic is means) so that an A. 12. 78. A $300 is divided among 6 persons in such a way that each person receives $ 10 did each receive ? more than the preceding one. n = 16. 10. ceding one. Find a and Given s = 44. Given a = . n = 20. How much . man saved each month $2 more than in the pre 18. = 52. 15. Find d and Given a = 1700. = 16. = 45. = ^ 3 = 1. = 1870. n has the series ^ j . f J 1 1 / . y and #f5y. 4. and all his savings in 5 years amounted to $ 6540. 13. 74. T? ^. 6? 9. I. Find d. n = 17. P. n = 13. f? . of 5 terms 6. 8. 16. 3. Find a Given a = 7. Given a = 1. m and n 2. s == 440. Find?. Find w. d = 5. 14. 7. Between 10 and 6 insert 7 arithmetic means . I Find I in terms of a.
36. is it (G. . a?*2 To obtain the nth term a must evidently be multiplied by . and To find the nth term / of a G. I. (I) of the series 16. 2. 4 (1) .arn ~ l . . of a G.. ... 24. the first term a and the ratios r being given... the first = a + ar for ar f ar Multiplying by r. is 16(f) 4 . . called the ratio. <zr .. NOTE. the following form 8 nf + q(lr") 1 r .. or.) is a series each term of which. 12. 108. fl lg[(i) l] == 32(W  1) = 332 J. (II) of the 8 =s first 6 terms of the series 16. . or 81 315. If n is less : than unity. ratios are respectively 3. 2 arn (2) Subtracting (1) from (2). rs = s 2 . 36. 4. P.. 2 a. s(r 1) 8 = ar" 7* JL a. r n~ l . 36. The 314.. g== it is convenient to write formula' (II) in *. ar8 r. Hence Thus the 6th term l = ar n~l . 4. ar. P.. The progression is a. To find the sum s of the first n terms term a and the ratio r being given. except the multiplying derived from the preceding one by by a constant number. P.g. A geometric progression first. Therefore Thus the sum = ^ZlD.PROGRESSIONS 251 GEOMETRIC PROGRESSION 313. E. +1. . 24.
I = 670. . r^2. if any three of them are given. is 3. Find the 6th term of the series J. To insert 5 geometric means between 9 and 576.. Find the 5th term of a G. whose and whose common ratio is 4. 8. i 288. P.4. +f%9 % .72.54. 36. 2 term 3. whose and whose second term is 8. 9.*. 72. l.5.5. (d) 5. 144. hence. 576. . first 5. series 6. Write down the first 6 terms of a G. or 7. Hence n = 7.252 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 316. . 20. 288. .. ? (c) 2.18. Jive quantities are in... 144. . 676.. 3. 25. 36.. 676 t Substituting in = r6 = 64. Find the 7th term of the Find the 6th term of the Find the 9th term of the ^. 4. . 7.. 4. + 5. 9. In most problems relating to G. Hence the or series is 0. EXERCISE 1.18. . P._!=!>. Write down the first 5 terms of a G. the other two be found by the solution of the simultaneous equations : may (I) /=<!/'.. . 18. fa. (it. first term 4. volved . . 144.l. 9.. (b) 1. .6. P. \ t series .. Evidently the total number of terms is 5 + 2.288. series Find the llth term of the Find the 7th term of the ratio is ^.. . 6. 117 Which (a) of the following series are in G. Ex. first term is 125 and whose common . P.. a = I. And the required means are 18. whose . fa. f. is 16. series 5. . P. . series . 1. 36. 72. f. . 10. 80. 0...
Find the sum to infinity of the series 1. 23. s = 605. 24. Find a and n = 4.. 14. + 4 . . 12. to 5 terms. may be than any assignable number. a. Find a and Given r = 3. 72. to G terms. Find a and 4. 25S series : 32. n = 5. 22.PROGRESSIONS Find the sum of the following 11. to 7 . 15. 27. 48. is less than unity. and hence ~ r . . >"> . 16 . 126.. .. Prove that the geometric mean between a and b equals Vo6. a^.J and 270. M. Find the geometric mean between 7. . Therefore 8^ = 1 i =1 1 '. n = 5. to 8 terms. J. INFINITE GP:OMETRIC PROGRESSION 317. 12 terms. = 3. 19. the value The formula for the sum may if n increases* = _ fl flf made taking n sufficiently large. 243. r . 81. be written If the value of r of a G. J. Given r = n Z 5..nV> i*> !718.i a9 . of r n decreases... Find a and Given r = Given r = 2. 36. 21. 4. 1. . 42. 14. 13. J. P. J. I. 20. s = 310. 2.. to 6 terms. to 6 terms. 54. . to 6 terms. Consequently the sum of an infinite decreasing series is By n less r^Ex. to 7 terms. = 3. == 160. 1. Z s. 81.
.99 .. 2. .. .. 100. is J. 9.3121212... = . of all squares ? .. 14.. 1. 3. 65 = 1L 110 EXERCISE Find the sum to 1. 5. 1. . 2. 118 : infinity of the following series 3. P.27777 . ratio 15. If a = 40.37272 . ..555. 1.1..00072 f .. 13. P. 12.= .072...)7?7272 . Find the value 9. Find the sum to infinity.. i. 4. 7.3727272 . .. = . 4. 1. If the side of the first square is 2 inches. 12. 16. =A+ 10 i. 1 r = . . what is (a) the sum of the areas. is 16. . and the first term is Find 17. P.01 ^ .191919. 66 Therefore .. . of an infinite G. I. 6. 250.. 16.Ql.. . ..72. 10. = a . .3 + .272727..= _4Z* .. i i J.072 + .254 Ex. 40.. . (6) the sum of the perimeters. . . 6. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Find the value of . 8.. r = j.. Given an infinite series of squares. Hence . of: 11... . The sum Find the of an infinite G.. 8. is 9. 9. The sum r. .. first and the common term.717171.. The terms afteAhe first form an infinite G. . 5. the diagonal of each equal to the side of the preceding one... = 990 ...
11.b ). a4 b 12 in (a f 6)16 Find the coefficient of a5 b 15 in (a . Find the middle term of f f x }\8 : ) 27. Find the coefficient of a?V" in (a Find the coefficient of 23. 21. 10. : (1 + xy. Find the 3d term of fa f V ^Y Va/  19. 17.BINOMIAL THEOREM EXERCISE 119 257 Expand the following 3. Find the Find the u 13 coefficient of a?b in (a f 5) . (xy) : 6 . (a2) 6. 29. 2 2 24. Find the 4th term of (w Find the 5th term of 12 ri) 11 . 25. 4. . 20. 22.6) 20 . 26. (z2 ^ Simplify 9. 7 . Find the 5th term of Find the 3d term of + b) . Find the 6th term of (x . (\ 9 . coefficient of . (a + b) . 15. 14. + a) Find the 4th term of 7 (a f 2 b) . 13. a6 8 16 in . /2a+Y\ 8. .a2) 25 Find the 5th term of f Vx + ^r 18. (a 100 . . . 12. l 2. (s + i).6) . Find the middle term of (m ri) 16 Find the 99th term of (a + b) m im Find the 1000th term of . 4 7.b) w (a (a f (1 . 28. 5. 4 (1+V#) + (1 Va) 4 . Find the middle term of (x + y) 4 Find the middle term of (a b)\ . 16.
 a)(a 1. 2.  2. of : 27 x* ~ 27 xy or f 9 xy~ 1 # 8 . 5. + 2. 3. 1. 2. . 3. (ca)(cft)' 4. 1. 1. y 3. 5. 5J lj 2j 3} 8 4j y 8 . 5. 3. 2. 3. 3.  8 ^ 2. 2. 4. 4 ft  c) 2. 3. 3. 5. 2. if x^l. if = = = 2. 2. 1. 3. 6. 2. 2. 5. 2J 4J 16 x* 32 afy 24 afya 1.f ac 1. 2. 1. 3. 4. 2. 2 . ft 4 ) 5. 1. 3. 1. 1. 3. 2. 4. 1. 2. 2. i (aft)(ac) a 6 (ft. 4 (2 a  13 a a b + a ft 31 a 2 ft 2  38 3. 1. 4. 2. ^+^ 3. 3.c )(fta) 1. 3. 6. 4. + 1. 3. 1. 6. a8 + ~T 3 2 ft' a2 + + 3T r C + + c2 + 2 . 2. 2. 3. 1. c if 7 . 3. 4 *2  4 xy  4 ^+ a: ?/ 2 ?/ + 2 3. 24 4. 2. 4 2. 3. 5. 3. 3. 4. *=M  M 3J f 2 2 ] 2 ] 2 1 3 1 3 1 M. 3. aft 3 + 4. 1. 4.258 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA REVIEW EXERCISE Find the numerical values 1. 4. + 2. 2 (2 a  3 aft f 4 2 ft ). 5. 4. if = = 2. 6. 2.] a 2^ aft + r 3 a l} 2 be 4. 4. 2. 2. (c 3. l. a ft c = = 2. 4. . 1. 2. 7. = 2. 2. 2. 5. 3. + c(a  c). if y=2j 2. 1. 3. 1. 3. 2. 2. 2. 1. (ft c)(c 4 ) 3. c = = = 2. ft) . 3. 1. 5. 2.a(a 4. 1. 6. if a ft c = = = 4. 2. 4.  2. 5.
17. 7y 4 .2. 9.8 3 + 7 x4 .x 5 4 . 6 a4 4 a8 .2 z8 4 x. r> .2 x?/. 1. 2. a. + 2. 16.2 x2 . 2. x3 2 a2 . 41. (5. 25.  a) (c 2. a /> 3.' 4 x2 2  5 z3 8 .10. 8. x = 4. f 8.4 xyz + 4 xy'2 . + 3 y 2* . + 4 ?y . a 4 + 11 a . 9. 40. 21. 6 y4 y 4 + 3 z8 . 26. c)(x a} . x 3 11. .8 + 2 // .4 x'2 f 12 x and 5 2 + 7 x8 . 18. 15. 21. 20. 12.\ yz + xz.  2 x 2// + 3 2 x?/  7 y3 . 1 + 3 x + 2 x 8 . 4. + 4. ~c)(b. 4.3 xyz.a) . . . 3. 2 .7 ys.1.x 2 + 4 2 ~ 10 z 2 + z 2 + 11 yz + 8 2:2 . 8 . + 1. 11 x 8 + 14 x^ij .11 z 3 4 4 ?p 2 .2 a?y + 3 aty . by The and c is represented radius r of a circle inscribed in a triangle whose sides are by the formula Find r. x C 4 4x y + . xy 2 12 xy* + G y4 4 xy*  zy + 12 xy*  4 y4 . or . + x/y 2 + + y'2z + 2 3 x 10 y'2 + 5 z2 . 4. 4a + 9 a2  3 a5 .4.5. 5.259 x c) . 2. c = 3.c' 2 4 / . 2 x 8. 4 y 13.a8 . 2 a3 7 y4 3 // f ax'2 . 5. 2  + 12 a 8 .11 x 5 12 z 7/ 3 ary.a 5 a .7 + . 3. 5. a. 6.3 a?y . 2 2 x2 + and 9 2:2 y' xy. a: . 4 z . c(x (c g)(x 6) = 1. 29. x3 f 3 ax'2 . x 2 +  2 ax* f a zx + 2 ?/ a8 . 10. Add the following expressions and check the answers : 10.5 xy 3 + + 4 .r 6 x  4 xy . 15. 5. b(x (b 1. 7.8 y y 5 4 * 8y. 24. ' b) + 3. and 3 y 8 f 12 z 8 . 4 a 5 9 4 2 */.4 yz\ 7xy* + z 3. = 2. 4 x 4 . x 3 x' 14. 1. if a 6 = = c = 3.2. 11 z 4 x4 12 17.a 4 . 7 xy 3 . + 8 x4 *y . . 10 z 8 12  6 2 8.7 y 2* 4. 2.
6 VI ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 4X5V14.n/ 4 4 12 x 5 4 4 x?y 4 2 x6 f 4 x 4 ?/ x// 5 ?/ . 4 .#48.(5 c . and a 2 ft 4 ft 3 c take sum  2 c 4 2 a and 2 a 5 x c.4 Vl 4. 35.(4 x 2 .3 x . x8 x2 2 a'2x. a  ft + c. 4 3 From 44 the 3 // and G x 4y 2 x2 2 . 2 xy 4 the ^V 4 G x5 From take 4 sum sum 2 c of . c =x y }~ z.(x* . 7 12 . Take the sum 4x 4. 29. and . .5 10 b 3 \ G 11 = ft x4y42. = x y ft z. . : a x . 34.(5 y . 2 c  2 a  and 2 a 3 x2 28.. (*) a  c.260 19.2 a . ft 25.8 3 4.5 .x 4.] 26. 5 4 7 12 .4) . 3 x2 133ft[l7a5ft^[7fl3ft{4fl~4ft(2a3ft)}]].2) . c 4. f ft. and 4 4 2 xs 4 and 5 x 3 y 5 .x . 7 x x the ft 4 x2 11 x.x . 2 x2 + 2 y5 24.3 .2 . 33.6 x ] . [4 I 2a47c(7ft44c)[6a3ft4 2~c44c{2a(ft2T2)}].c 3 a. and 7 x a 2x 2 ax'2 4. 4 3 5 y/ .6T . / x5 2x 4 # 3 y5 G x a 4 3 5 x*.(x 4. 542 x 2 and . 4 2 x2 23. 4vTT~y 3. .3 .5. 36.(7 x 4. . From of 2 the 4. sum of .{2 x 2 .4 ft) 4. ft. and a ft 4 ft 3 c take  6 a.3 x 3 from G a 8 2 a 2x  4 x8 22.2 .1 and x 8 G 11 4 3 x2 +  from G x2 4 x. .2 _[5ft{^ 2 8 4 x* .?> x 4 20. 0" 30. x'2 .c 4 3 a.3. 5 10 4 G 11 4.[4 x 4.4\/i + x 3Vl 4.{G * 2 . 3 4 5 10 2  7 12 . 3 x Subtract the difference of x 8 4 . Take the sum of G a8 4 4 4 a 2x 4 .[4 z 8 .4 x from the sum of 9 x 2.c. (/) a +  ft 4 6 +  rf.1)}] .a ft.27~~7)}].[3 if  (3 _^ ft 6 ft f c)}] a: . .7. of 2 x 8 4 4 x2 4 9 and 4 x .2 x 8y2 44 .(4 * . 2 x 32.c. the From sum of 2 1 sum 2 c of ft 4. of a. take the sum of G x 5 . 3 ft. 5 10 + 7 . and 2 Vl 4*/ 2VT+7 .1). find (a) a (ft) (c) a 4(</) 4. 4 4 4.x2 .x 2 4. Find what expression added the ft to 3 x 2 2 x 4 3 will give 27.4. Add 9 Ifcc 2 7 12 . 4 2 x8 x 4 4. Simplify 31.(a .2 3 ax 2 . and d= c c 4 x4#4z </.4 x 8 from ax 2 4 6 x8 4 21. c 4ft. Take the sum of 3 x 4.
6c) (a + f c).2 zz .2)(1 .3). 'J 44.3~ft f 2 c + 4 ^ . . 4 + 2 2 + 1). (.3)(*5)(* 7). 2 2 x + !)(* . 49.[7 a 36 {4 a 46 (2 a 3 ft)}]].[2 .4 a 2 + a 4 ).56.(2 . 54.6 xy .3 *). 51.{2 a . 63. . 2 52. (2 x 2 3 ar+ 1)(3 z 2 x+ 1). (ar + 7)(ar + 5)(a: + 3).(7 a.(2 x2 .3 yz)(2 a (* 2 ft ft ft ft ft ft ?/ ft ft ft ?/ a: 61. 2 a) (2: + 7/ a)(x 2 2 66.{3 c .a~^~c)K].3 a + 3 + aft)(a + 3). (/> 4 .12).be) (a 58. 57.3 z 2 ). (a 2 + 2 + c 2 . + *+!){> + 2).2a . 68. (1 55. (x . . 56.2x + 3).(2 a + 5 a . (x 2 + 4 y 2 + 3 z 2 ) (. (x.rf)} + a [.(7 i + 4 r:) .REVIEW EXERCISE 37. 46. a {.c 2 . a .3T~2~s)} + 5 2].(4 d . 45.ab . (a:2)(r4)(a:9).e '/)}] (2a + 2b . 3 x 42. 2 ft 41.[4 x  5 .2 2 . (r (1 (a. .96 [17 a. 5a(7ft+4c) + [6 a.c). 67. . 62.r 2 + !>ar + 3)(^ 2 .5)} + (3 a 2 . 2 53. (a 2 + 2 + 9 . 59.[3 y [2 ft 2 z + {4 (3 a ar 40.(2 a 2 . 60.r 2:c+ l)(ar.4 a .5 )}] + {4 c . 64.{2 a (ft . .3c). + 4x + 5)(j.1). 48.2c(V/ .  2 a  {3 2x a . (4 + 3a 2 . (a 2 + 2 + c 2 + aft + ac . 2 f [3 c 7 a .3 c)]. 50.* 2 + (x + x + l)(a: (z 1). 7 a 2 261 {5 2 a2 2 a + (2 a 2 i j 38.& + {. )(lz a ).ary + 2) (^ 4 ?/ *V + *)(! + ar)(l + ^ 2 )(1 + **). (5 a 39.ac .Z . 2 : 7e)a}].0)} . (.2 <?)} 13 ft ft _[&{2c(3d + Perform the operations indicated 47. 43.[0 a 5a + 2 c + 4 c . .JT^T+1)} + (2 .(5 y . . + 2)  (4 x 2  2 x 7)}]. +  ^+ y)(x 2 ) (x + a 2 )(a: 4 + a 4 ). 13 a . 65. . (4 z 2 + 9 2 + ^ 2 .6)}]. (1 ar+a.(6 .2 2 + 1)(7.b (c .7).6 x + 5 x'2) (2 .
90. 88.am&t 4 A 2 *).5 . 2 (x 2 .ft) + 4(2 .:y)( a. 3[a{2 a (a 4ft 4 2 2 ^>) c) 44 a2 a8 4 2 4. 8 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA (a 2  z 3) (a 8 2 a + z 3 )(a 6 2 + a: 6 ) (a 12 a (a  + l)(a 2 f 2a + l)(a + + ( a: 12 ).c)} . (a 2 ft 2n 4. 77. 73. . a (a 2 2a + + " 4 l)(u 2a n f (:r a. 85. 87. xy y 2 ). ft /.(a 48 8 8 4.3 a . 1).262 69. 4 (a + ft)(a 2 81.2 (a .c) .2 (y 4.y + z)(x + y .9y2).b 4. by multiplying out each 4 side of the equality. 74.a) 2 .r 2 . p(p + ?) + 4 A) (a . 70.<f(p .2y)(.c) 4) (ft 4. _ ft) (a: + a)(x + b) + (bc)(x + ft) (a: 4.(a 2) (s 4 ft.y)\x y).(a? 4 y)*(x  y). 93.3 (ft . 79.(/>  3 v)^(.6*y . (x 4 2 y) (2 ^ 3 y)2(/ y) (^ 3 V)  . O (x (a 2 + 4 y y) 2 a J 4 .(c 4.q).c 8 4 3(6 c)(c 4 a)(n + 2 ft).c) j. ft 8 ft) 4 ft 8 4.a) (2 + 7(7> ~ 'y) 2 4. (a (2 b)*(a 4. (a) (a (ft) a8 4 ft 8 4. 83.z)(x y + z)(.2 ft}) f (3 a .z) . 91.c c 2 4 2 am 20 (??2 + : n 6 f p ) (w . 89. .c) .(^ 4 y 2 )  4 ^/(.c) rr identities.c)].(4 . (p 2 .{3 a . 71.z\x 4. 82. 92. 2 + a 2 ).c .c . ft 95. a(2 + 4 3ft) 2 (2a 4 4 8 ^) . 86. ft 78.r3y)4l)y( a :y)^2y)418 // (2ry)46 8 // .v) 4. 75.y). ar . (x (x ( + *) . b 4. ft" l Simplify 80.y'*4y 2m )OK y I)(a m ). 4 4 .(x 42 y) O 2 4 y) (^ 44 y ).c) 2 . 1). 4.2ft) 8 ( + 2 ft).a) (a? 4(c 4 y) (y c)(ar 2 ft + 8 a). 76. f 72.ac b + n~ + /? 2c n ft n an b c)(a"* ?n + + c).(ft 4. 84. 94.x + y + z).O (a 4(a 4. + (rtP+i 4 2 6)(a^+ . .m np c .> 2 2 + 2 3 9).ft) 4 . ft ft ft a}.n pc).3y) a (* 2 4. Prove the following 8 4. (.
r . 120.35 x 2 2 ) . (2< 107. (x* 4 9 ax 8 44 12 . 106. (2 y 44 2 y 2 4 02 y 23 a 4 3 16 y a 50 4 48) 2 111. . 117. 2 4 41 x 4a.16 a 6 4.6 ) (a** (a (x 10 3 J 1 a  1). 102. 3*.y 4 .y 2 ) 4 a 2// 2 /> 8 a.5 a 21 (10 a 4 5 a*) Qafl^ = 5 a*. 25 4 .(a 1 2 8 . 20) * (3 a* 4 4 a? + 5).) . 2 (a+ .c 4 6 afo) f + ^ 4 ).6 y 4 4. Cr (z 27y l9a:y) (a:3yy 6 ) r 2 (a: 4 xy 4 y 2 ). 113.(y 2 ~ (a 2 ) 5 y 6 a  12).y 2 4.27 x* .5 xy).(2 a 2 .2 2% 4.xy 4. a*. 123. 4 (6 x 4 23 x s 33 z 43 42 a.REVIEW EXERCISE Simplify : 263 96.9 x 2 .2 y 2 ) 3 xy (25 .3 a"+ 4. 108. 99 100. 105.40 />) .r 4 4. 118.4 aft .1). . 110. 124.'30) ~ (4 ^  5 x 4 10).2 xy 8 . 1).*) (x 8 . O3a n O2a 4~ i O4a 2a T (3' 3m n ~*~ 3 3n 3") 3". (8 x* 115. 121.v/ ~ // = a: . [10( 4. (a 8 ^4 + 8 & 8) (  2 2 119. ( y 8_o7)^^2 + 3 y + 0). 109.2y 2 4.(x 2 .5 b*). 4 (a 8 44 16 a 2 4 4 256) s ~4 2 (a 4 4a ^ 4 16). (4 4 3 a  4  5 a 3 .b) 98. 10). 1O4. (80 a 112.y 4 ) .a". (.&). (a 8  8 68 8 4.21 x*if) (4 ^ 2 . 26 (a 4 c). 103. 114. 122. 116. (20 x*  4 72 x 2  35 4.&) 8  5(a n 4 2 6) ] 5(a 4 &) 6 (a 4.(7 xi/ .
4) . 149.r>) . remainder when a 4 3 a b B + 12 a 2 6'2  b* is divided By what expression must a: f 3 be multiplied to give 4 x*7 8 a*b + 4 a 131.3 a (1 + * l l 1 3 f 2 &). By what expression must x* + G x2  4 a: 1 be divided to give x2 + 5 # 9 as quotient.(x + 3) ] .(1 .3 a:). (*+ + . 148.19) + 5 = 4 .9) 4.2 {3 8)} ^ 5(13 4(j = 5{2 x .2(5 .3) (3 x 4. 1) .7) = 4 .1) .2 7^~5] + 1).7(4 * .n .4) . 3(2 x 134.3).2(4 . 2 4(ar . 7(2 x .22.27 a 3" . . . 42(3ar 145.G) .3(2 z .3(* + 4) + 9} .2(j: . By what expression must 3 a 2 ab + & 2 ? be divided to give the quotient 3 a 2  2 6 2  8 ttfc 8 + 2187? . y (* l x.8 6 . 1 o + 5 + 1=15. 127. . 3) a: a: a: +?+4= o 13.5). .3 x). .18 *&) (1 .l)(ar + 2) (a: (ar (2ar 2 4} = 2(3 x .2) = 3 .3). o o 140.5) = 12(4 x . 129.a:)]}. 5(2 x .2) (a: + 3). (4 x . x 147.r + 7[or . 139. 143. 128.264 125.5{. (1 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA + a8 3  G ax z8  8 z 8) 5 (1  a  2 x).  9)  7(0 x a?  32) + 5 = 4x  3(2 j  3). 138. 5 146. with 8 as remainder? Solve the following equations and check the answers: 133.3) = 12 .4(0 x .(9 x + 10) (a:  3) . 10(2 x 141. . 2(3 x + 4) 8 [2 (a: .(3 a? 2 [2 x + (x 4. 126.(x f 9). 142.(x . (5a: 150. . 136. 137.3 a#z) (ar + y + s). What is the 2 by a*ab + 26 ? 130.x+ + x a ) ~ (x a + + x).7) = (7 x  1 1) (3 x . 10(2 x 5 x + 3(7 x .12 M 132.2) + 2(ar + 4). 3) = x\x . 135.(j a? 144.2(10 x . 1) = 2(* .9) + 3.1) (a? .
There are 63 sheep in three flocks. sheep are there in eacli flock Y The second of the three angles of a triangle is 180. Find five consecutive numbers whose sum equals 100. these two angles would be equal. The formula which transforms Fahrenheit (F. 2 4 . . 156. How many 170.2 x) (4 . (a) If C. If the area of the frame inches.6 x) (3 . 164. how wide is the picture ? surrounded 108 square is 172. = 2 C. a: ar a. angle of a triangle is twice as large as the first.l)(z .a:) + 229.5*) + 47.1) O + 4) = (2 * .. + 2) + (5 . (b) At what temperature do the Centigrade scale and the Fahrenheit scale indicate equal numbers? (c) How many degrees C.8) = (2 x 4. 163. . + 10) (ar . . The sum What 171. . (7 14 . 154. (2 . By how much does 15 exceed a ? How much must be added to k to make 23? 167.3) (3 .3) (a: . (a .T)O .9) + (a. (a. will produce F.5) = (3 . 166. 155. (x (x a.29) 2 = 1.(5 x .2) a + 7(x .(* + 2)(7 z + 1) = (* . find the value of F. and the third twice as many as the first. 160.2 x) = (1 . sheep more than the 169. =  (F 32). 158.4) (a .17) 2 + (4 x . + 4) (2 x + 5). ^ + ?=13 + 2o 10 o . and if 15 were taken from the third and added to the first. The second contains 3 first. 162.3) = (3 x . (3 O + . . + 5) = (9 . 157.REVIEW EXERCISE 151.2) (j? + 1) + (x . + 5) 2 (4a:) 2 =r21a:. 265 152. are the three angles? is A picture which is 3 inches longer than wide by a frame 2 inches wide.3) (j.1) (s + 3).5)(.7) (a.3) (3 .z) (4 .? .3)(* (ar 2 7)  113.24.2). 159.j Write down four consecutive numbers of which y is the greatest. 165.5(x . = 15.76. f^ + ^sO.) readings of a thermometer into Centigrade readings is C.2(x ~ 1) + 12 = 0. transformed into F.7) (1 x .25) 2 . A man is 30 years old how old will he be in x years? 168.5 x) = 45 x . 153.19) + 42. 5(ar x .14) (a: + 3).2) (7 *) + (*. 161.r + 3) .
if each increased 2 feet. A the boy is as old as his father and 3 years sum of the ages of the three is 57 years. What is the distance? if square grass plot would contain 73 square feet more Find the side of the plot. Four years ago a father was three times as old as his son is now. Find the dimensions of the floor. 4 a 2 yy 42. Find the number.266 173. 188. 176. 10x 2 192. side were one foot longer. younger than his Find the age of the father. 187. is What are their ages ? Two engines are together more than the of 80 horse 16 horse power other.56. 6 in each row the lowest row has 2 panes of glass in each window more than the middle row. 2 2 + a _ no. A house has 3 rows of windows. sister .36. 12 m. ll?/102. z 2 + x . + 11 ~ 6. + a. The length is of a floor exceeds its width by 2 feet. 13 a + 3. 181. two boys is twice that of the younger. was three times that of the younger. the ana of the floor will be increased 48 square feet. 178. The age of the elder of it three years ago of each. 3 gives the same result as the numbet multiplied by Find the number. dimension 182. the sum of the ages of all three is 51. train. and 5 h. aW + llab2&. and the father's present age is twice what the son will be 8 years hence. 190. 180. respectively. 3 gives the 174. 186. 7/ 191. x* 185. power one of the two Find the power of each. father. How many are there in each window ? . and  as old as his Find the age of the Resolve into prime factors : 184. same result as the number diminished by 175. z 2 92. and the middle row has 4 panes in each window more than the upper row there are in all 168 panes of glass. Find the age 5 years older than his sister 183. 15 m. . A each 177. A boy is father. +x 2. . number divided by 3. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA A A number increased by 3. An The two express train runs 7 miles an hour faster than an ordinary trains run a certain distance in 4 h. 179. . 189.
(13z 2 5# 2) 2 2 2 (a 6 (12 c 2 ) 2.22 z + 48.(a + z2 ) 2 (a 2 3 (x (r + y + a. + G *2#2 + 9 x*y\ 6 x* + 5 a:y . 12 x +4. 2  5 xy 13 y a. 224.12 * . y 2 194.3 c/> + 6 cq. a. 218. . a: .x + 1.8 6 2. 3 ap 2 . 215. 2 x 2 . + 2 .3 xy. 206. 267 199. 208.6 y2 + 4. 14x 2 25ary + Gy 2 3 x* x 2 . 6 197. 217.3 xf + 3 * 2y . 210. x* + 8 2 + 15. a. 2a te 3% ly 247. 3 x V . 16x 4 81. 244. 7x 2 225. 202. . 8 a. 227.10 y a x* .(b + rf) 2 . + 8. x*y 223. 2 2 y f 1.a 2/A 214 12 x*y .10.6 aq .77 y + 150. .1. z + 5x 2 .y) y) 6 a 2 + 5 a . 212. z 2 2.10 xy. 2 . . + 3a 196.19 z 4 204.6s.c) 2  (a . 15 x 2 + 26 x a . a: 4  a: 2 a: V 2 . 2 200. wiy + la mx + aw. 3y 2 + ary . 222. 3 x 2 . a. 235. 203.28. 11 2 + 10 20 x 4 .14 2 . 5 ?/ + 1 1 a*b . a+a* + o a +l. 7a 228. 4 f yx* + z*x + z*y.c) 2 . *2 234. 232.xm y + xym  + (a c)  (c rf) 242. a 2 . # 2  29 y + 120. ifWy+b. a: 236.6 2 ?/ . 8 a: ar. 238. 60 a 2  a: // 205. 4 m +^. + 30 x. 239. 221. 213. a^a 226. 233. 5 x 2.r?/f y 2 9. 246. . 245. .19 a . 2 + x 2 ) 2 . a. 230. 229. 23 12. 3y 248. 209. 2 a 2 .64. x 5 .REVIEW EXERCISE 193. (a + . 195. 216. 207.6.20 z 8 a: 220.21 a:  54. a a: a: 237. x 219. 2 afy 13 28 a: ary + 66 y. 2 a 8 . 4a 2& 2 241. 211. a: 231. . 201. 2 a: 2 + 4y2) 2 + 240. xm+l 243. 24 2 + 2 . 9a4a6 (a 2 + b . + 198.
252. _ 40 y 2 272 f f 2 !8a: . x*y* 4.11 x f 28. x* . 251.&z. F. 10 a. ft a. 7 ax 250.13. a 3 a 2 2 . x 2 f 9j: + 20. : x2 4 a: ~ + a. 22x2 a. of: 253. 2 a.12.23 x f 20.10 a 4.73 xy .9 x + 14. 270.23 + 12. x 2 .36.2 ax 2 + 2 for 2 . of: 266. 2 2 + 39 xy 4.4 ab + 1. * 2 . ^27/7 + 12 2?6 28 x 2 12 Jr 2__7^/_ J/ 2 + 3 . + 3 x + 2. 18 x 2 .18 xy + 5. + 8.3 x .G7 x f 33. 2 z 2 f 13 x + 1 5. 8 xf < 3 xy + a.2 z . * 2 . 2 x2 . 15 # 2 z/ /.8. 28 2 f 71 x . 259.91. z 2 267. 3 a% 2 .ry . x* . x 2 4. Reduce to lowest terms 271.15 + 30.a + 2 4. C.6 by. + 23 x f 20.3 abc .r + a# + az f 2 6z fry 4. I Find the II.2/ 2 .15.9. 260. x 2 + 2 x .9 xy + 14 y 2 ar ar a: .16 x .3. a. a? a: a: // 262.1 9 . + 20 x 4.a 2 />c 2 f 3. 264.268 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 249. 258. x 2 + 5 f . G(x+  l)'\ 9(x 2  1). a: .C.(55. x 2 + 4 + 3.4.2 aft*. 2 8 . 257. 2 . 10 x 2 . 30 ^ .10. * a .14 bx a%% 8 .18 ry + 32 y 2 2 .ry 21.48 afy 2 . . 3 #2 255. 265.x .17 x + 6 * 14 273 P a 5y>+4. z 2 268. 269.80.9 x . 254. 5 x 2 256. * 2 . a 4. 6.r . 3 ay 4.5 ab f 2. 7 12 2 2 . 2 + 7 r f 2.M.120.11 a 2 . x 2 263. 8 2 + 10 x . 1 x ar Find the L.7 f 5. 261. + 8 x + 5.77 + 77 ' 2?5 5 ' 2 5 a: 2 7 .
_ "* m ~n w 4 + 2 7w% 2 f sa .2 22 + 2 2 yz 4 2 zx 2 + ary _ _ 22 _ 292 ^  ?/. 285 z4 n* + a.2* + 3 x* 280.ar 1 279.(y 2 z) * t (j. y)' z2 283 t 290 ' x'2 2 y* + z2 + 2 0:2 291 *2 + y 2 + 0.. fr 293 ' y <? 294 2 2 2 + 2 cV + 2 a 2^ 2  4  ft* ~ c4 295 296 ' 297 ' . *2 " 2 + Oge.REVIEW EXERCISE 277 8 agg 269  6 a. z2 (a 2 + c)a. 289 ' .!/.n 2 )P * 287 " 281 2 q^( 2  a: 2 ) m 288 ' .2c a: 282.  9 ' 2Q4 4 *2 ' 8x+8 ' 278. a. 9 286 1 1 + 2* 3 x f *2 ar + a . m 4. 8 . + ac .rL.J' 4 2 2 w mp ..
X2 (ca)(ai) 1 x2 4 (a +9 i_ 20 a .270 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA : Find the value of 298 23. ^_2*(m 308. x x ~~ +^ i ^ ~ ''^ . * 19 23 19(23 23. + 19) 2Lz + 3 x " 2 99 ' i x +4 *3 a +7 300. ^. a? __ + *_ + + la?la? * a l 303. (a: 1 + l)(ar + 2) (x + l)(ar + 2)(* + 3) 302. 6) _ ~ i 305. x 7. ^n m+n "*" + n) 2 g 309. _L + 12 x 1 + 35 1 307. Lnl + ar 2 a. 4 3 301. 2 + 7 _ 44 3. x + 3 ^ "" 310 x a: 2 a: 2 2 a:  17 a:2 ar3 x 2 5a:i6" . (a 1 1 + a b c) (a + ^ ct) (a + a c)(a f e) 304. a (: a) (x 2. O(ca) 306.
ft) 2 322. _ x8 . 1 x2 + + a. Dx x(l *) * 8(1*) 4(1 +*) 2 8(1 + 4(1 ._ '(a6)*(a:r)a 323.BE VIEW EXERCISE 311. } . . 1 _.(a . a: 1 313. nl g(jL+ 2 ) ^^^_ 318.+ a 10 z 2 2 *2 9*+ 20 *2  8* + 15 315.*) + * 2) 321  c) 2 .2 1 f 1 + : *2 1  2 x' 316. 2 + y 2 319. . i 271 + b a2 + ft 2 312. 2ft 2 a8 3 314. (a? 4 2) 317. 1a: + y a. (1 .. ( ftc g~ft ( 6_ c) 2_ (a.
.5 a .4 x?/ 2 ^_ G x 2 + 13 gy_+ .ll. 20 44 333. 2 ?/ 4g~0yg 10 o# 2 ~ x 6 a* x' 2 24 y 2 1 . 2 x* 8 x2 4 r8 i + 2 a.a: ' 2 + 0^ + ^2^7 a. 2 lOx 5x./  3 y  6 ( 331 g gy ' f a 3y ~ 6 q  9 G 2 y/ + 5 ?/ 6 G fl y~4y+ 15 ^e  10 6y 332 3 a: +lly10 4 xy 8 2  a.V  + y  x 3y a .19 xy + 6 y 2 8 x* a: ?/ ' ~" 6 y 333... . a: 2 x* .2 +lOar 2 a.272 Simplify: ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA ~ 324.9 *// + 27 . ' a: 2 2 5 sy a: f zy + 4 y* . z2  4 x  ^ "" 12 *.15 33 . 4 y2 2 5 x8 2 z6 3 y 10 a: 2 + 8 2 . * 3a.7 xy + 12 x .y20  2y + 4 2 .6* t 328. 2 a2  2 a  ' 03 i^+^T 42 ^2 _ l5rt~+~54* 327 8 ' ^ .B ~ 1037  329 4 a.28 8 2  11 2 + J?_ x fl^^ffjje _ 2 12 a 4 a + a  4 6~7** 27^12^7 .7 acy + 12 y2 + 5 a:y + y 2 .2 y2 ' 334 *2 ' + 2 y 8 a. 250 5 10 2 325.y 2 x (a?4y) 3(2 x  ' _ ^/ 3 y) 2 8 330 . 2 ^ "" 1B x + 40 y *2 + 5 x  3.
1 345.y.1V. (ar \ 346. + l + IV. ' ~ ~ x2 + 8 + 76 2" 350. (af2/. +^ a: y x . : 1+ i. ** i. 352. 344. \x yj 340. a>74 . ?_2 ^ . ' 2 "l 5 .r 5 2 .REVIEW EXERCISE 336. (aWi + iJ.) 2 . ( 342. f V. 348. Simplify : 353 ^3 * 2 L pE+1 a /2x~l V 5a:~2 10 4 354. 5 343. a: 349 _ o. 338. + ni + . fl.. xi 347. 278 C  ~ a c* \ c* ~ b a2 q2 h c 5 5 ~ a c b q  q c 6 * \ : f 1 \  { 337. w \. 7 ( ?f!?. \5yl 341.13 13 s 11 Find the numerical values of 351. if a = 3.+ r . aj 339. (a \ + lV.
a2 4 . I  I f 366. i+5 1+1 9 x2 f 363.274 355 f 5 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA U<>3) 356 fl V ___ _/ 2(*l)J + ya xl x 1* YTx 2 110*W*1 1** JUal + xy 357. (a a b yx c yabc 361. W?* (* + 1 + 2x) \3a _ 1 + 2x \3a 1 365. (~ 364. 1+2 362. ar xy + yl x* 358. _ + l a 359. y360. + x x a .
(1 +ab)(l+bc) 369. 2  m 373 "1*7 374. b c 368. \b* + c* b + b b*c*)^ c ^\ b (b* f c*) } c 4 c a b . . a + . 6 a c b a b b 1 ' ~ _^ . 370 ' 1 (/')(&o) 1 a 372.REVIEW EXERCISE 2 275 f 367.
__4 2x 3_ = !. 20 iLf5 + !*=! = 2 J. 1 + 16ar_63 24 g 2T~~~ia 7 12f a 8 a' 389 5  14(arl) 18 105 390. r 1  3(* + 1)} ! ' .*2 = 15. <3 378. 379. 8  376. 5*8. a: r ~ 2 + 5"^  10 xf x  382. 4(* . 3 Solve the equations : or a: 2 (a. # k 1 _j j a: 2 a: 3 383. + 1) 45 O 377. 2(3 x (x + 4) + 10) + 1 (x + 7) = 0.276 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 375. . """ 2J 7 ' + 2 28 ear7 + i3JTo^ . + 6)+  (* + J = _j_ j(* v/ O + 5)10 ^\:) / 380. 5 3 vC 7 a: 385 10 17 387 * L*J> _ 14 1 7ar = (5 ar 10ar + 15 . . J !__7.^^ + x f o 51) +2J = 0. ^ . 5 {2 x 381.
. 396.REVIEW EXERCISE 391.  8 9* x ~r.5 x =r f . 277 x 4 _x 5 _ _ a: ar. JLg:== 7wa: c c } q. 40. f 1 1 + a 403. n a 4O5 b b x f (a:  a) + a(a.  J).6~a: 7 _ x 8~a. "i 2 37370 ^ x i x x + 1 a?  R  7 ~r * 1 a. a: a)(a:  &)(>: + 2a +2&) = (a: + 2 a) 408. 3* 177. + 4 a.* 2 + *2 " 2 ~ ^ H.5 1 f 1 x  2 = x .75 x f .1 .2 a:  1. 399. 397.8 = . 6 7 7 ^ 2 1(5 a. l)(x  a) (a:  3) 42 3(4 *  2)(ar + 1).147. (x ~ a)(x f 6) f c = ^ (z a: + 2 a)(a: a: 5 i). y ~ rt ^= & ~ 402.. (8 x  3) (x 2  1) = (4 x a: 1) (4 x  5). 400.. _____ . ^ (a .5 ^ ~ a: a.25 x + . b 404. u '2 a.6  . . a.25. c . m x 398.  ft) = 2(ar  ) (a. 401.
278 410.a)(x b b) (x b ~ ) 412. and was out 5 hours. mx ~ nx (a ~ mx nx c d d c)(:r lfi:r a b)(x . x 1 a x x1 ab 1 1 a x a c + b c x a b b ~ c x b 416 417. 18 be subtracted from the number. (x f ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA a)(z  b) = a 2 alb = a (x f b)(x 2 . In a if and 422. 420. 411. f a x f x f c 1 1 ab b x 415.c) . (x . and at the rate of 3^ miles an hour. A in 9 hours B walks 11 miles number of two digits the first digit is twice the second. A man drives to a certain place at the rate of 8 miles an Returning by a road 3 miles longer at the rate of 9 miles an hour. a x ) ~ a 2 b 2 ar a IJ a.(5 I2x ~r l a) . down again How person walks up a hill at the rate of 2 miles an hour. 4x a a 2 c 6 Qx 3 x c 419. 2 a x c x 6 f c a + a + a + 6 f walks 2 miles more than B walks in 7 hours more than A walks in 5 hours.(c rt a)(x  b) = 0. Tn 6 hours . 418 ~jo. the order of the digits will be inverted. 421. he takes 7 minutes longer than in going.  a) 2 6 2a. a x a x b b x c b _a b f x 414. How long is each road ? 423. far did he walk all together ? A . Find the number. hour. Find the number of miles an hour that A and B each walk.
b. if . 428.46 2): (15a 2 . A line 10 inches long divided in the ratio m:n. 2 2 8 2 . a + 5. 430. a. If a b : =5 n : 7. When will the second steamer overtake the first? 425. 5 7 or 151 208? 437. Find the mean proportional to 429. (a + 6 ) (a + ft) = (a (3a 2 2 : : fc : : : . 279 A in 2 lowed steamer which goes at the rate of 264 miles a day is foldays by another which goes 286 miles a day. 3 and 1J. 8 8 5 ~ a*b + a*b* . Which of the following proportions are true? (9 c.6 8 ). ax is \ by  ex + dy. Prove that the number of miles one can see from an elevation of h feet is very nearly equal to ^  miles.iand 22 22 I a . a8 f 2 ab f 6 2. + 4ft):(Oo + 86)= (a26):(3o46). z 2 y.& 5 ) (a 8 . 433. a  t>. of the sixth and ninth parts of the less. Find two consecutive numbers such that the sum of the fifth and eleventh parts of the greater may exceed by 1 the sum.a 2^ 8 + aft* . : If is one equal 434. Which ratio is greater.49 63). 431. 432. . d. Solve 436. Find the ratio x 5x : = 7y .REVIEW EXERCISE 424. angle of a triangle is to another as 4 5 and the third angle to the sum of the first two. Find the fourth proportional 426. . z2  y\ x* xy + y*. 438. . Find the length of the parts. : m n(n x) =p : m n(p : x). wi* + y= ny. 435. x 427. find the angles of the triangle. The sum of the three angles of any triangle is 180.2 (a + &*) (a h & ) = (a ) (a 6). and : b : c = 14 : 15. : i. y.31 afc + UV ) = (15 a 2 + 31 ab + H 6) (25 a2 . find : a : c.
7 442. a: a: + 5y). ax + ly = 2 a*x + & 2# = a + b.. 7 a: . 457. of two spheres are to each other as the cubos of a sphere 2 inches in diameter weighs 1:2 ounces. 4 = 5 y + 29. 1(3  a.3 y = 3 5 f 7 . 7a?y = 3.11 7. c. x + 5 y = 49 3 x . 42 = 15y + 137. 5j + 7 7 = = 2. 9ar7# = 71. if 2 ft : 439. 459. 448.280 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA x. /) ar a. . 21 7 = 27 + Op. . 458. ?/ 447. 20y + 21 18a = 50 + 25y.55 y = .*. 449. Find the value of a. 5x+4y=lQ.89 = q. 8 .35. a: 2y= = 1 . 444. 456. ft. 446.11 y = 95. = 25. 443. 8 x + y = 19. a. 2 (3 a + 2 ab  8 ft) : 2 (5 a f 4 ai  12 ft 2 ) = a? : (5 a  6 ft).59 = 3 z. The volumes If their diameters. 29(a + &) : x = 551 (a 3  ) 19(a  &). what is the weight of a sphere of the same material having a diameter of 3 inches ? 440. 28 = 5 a . ft.7 y = 25. 5 2 = 7 . 7jr9y = 17. 5z4:# = 3. . 451.4 12 . 450. x + 17 # 53. 453. Solve the following systems: 441. 452. + 5y = 59. 455. 56 + 10y = 7a. 445. 3 a. 5#+ 10 = 27 a. 16. 454. 9/> = 2 . . 15ar = 20 + 8y.rf2# = l. />(. 33 x + 35 y = 4 55 * . ox f &// = 2 + y) = a + 8a + 21+3ft = 0.(or l(*2y)=0. 3 . .
^ + i^ = 7. 4 g ~ 2 7g + 3 .2y) (2 = 2J. 475. _ 469. 8 461. ax by = c \ 472. 3 x 28i + 7 ~~~^ = 5.. 468. + eyn.  = 2.REVIEW EXERCISE 460. x y 474.?/ + 1 . (or . ' a: + 2 g + 3 y _ 467. 473. _ & +y 3 dx+frj c\ .c=563y.7. i 47O _ 3~12 } 4* 471. 465. ax cx by = m. 3 a? _ y 7 a? 3 y _ 1 12 15 ~~10 4 __ 10 "10 463. car = 4 rf cte  ey =/.+ =2. i = 5.
and the other number least. and a fifth part of one brother's age that of the other. the Find their ages. Find the numbers. 485. There are two numbers the half of the greater of which exceeds the less by 2. to . had each at first? B B then has J as much spends } of his money and as A. In a certain proper fraction the difference between the nu merator and the denominator is 12. Find the numbers. Find their ages. 477. Find the number. Find the sum and the rate of interest. 483. and if each be increased by 5 the Find the fraction. by 4.282 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 476. if the sum of the digits be multiplied by the digits will be inverted. . What is that fraction which becomes f when its numerator is doubled and its denominator is increased by 1. and in 18 months to $2180. Of the ages of two brothers one exceeds half the other by 4 is equal to an eighth of 482. Find the principal and the rate of interest. least The sum of three numbers is is 21. half the The greatest exceeds the sum of the greatest and 480. also a third of the greater exceeds half the less by 2. thrice that of his son and added to the father's. A sum of money at simple interest amounted in 10 months to $2100. 481. and in 20 months to $275. whose difference is 4. age. and becomes when its denominator is doubled and its numerator increased by 4 ? j 478. 486. A sum of money at simple interest amounts in 8 months to $260. years. A number consists of two digits 4. A spends \ of his. Find the fraction. If 1 be added to the numerator of a fraction it if 1 be added to the denominator it becomes equal becomes equal to ^. and 5 times the less exceeds the greater by 3. How much money less 484. 479. fraction becomes equal to . Find two numbers such that twice the greater exceeds the by 30. 487. If 31 years were added to the age of a father it would be also if one year were taken from the son's age . latter would then be twice the son's A and B together have $6000.
and the difference of their Find the numbers. *i. 498. 2a:f 7. . Find two numbers whose sum equals is s and whose difference equals d. of two the sum of the digits also if number. 8. 7. 7 4#+ 3z = 35. * + 425  = . 493. 490.? + 2y = 8. The sum of two numbers squares is b. 3 a: + 5=84. 494. 7 + 2 z . : Solve the following systems 491. x y f z = 13. 2y + 3a = ll. 30 2^ 3^ = ' ' 4r=9. a: 499. \ . 495. 2 a. 496. x f y f z 29 . 4 506. 2 2 = 41./ 504. There is 283 digits which is equal to seven times the digits be transposed the new number Find the will exceed 10 times the difference of the digits by 6. 5 + a. 4z+3z = 20. + y 5 y = 101 . a. a: + ?/ 2z = 15. + # +z= 35. = 15. 492. 4 497. z y x 25 .z = 12. . = 209. z y ifi = z x 502. a: + // = 11. a. 2 ar + 3 y 2 z = 8 . . . 3ar 503. 489. a number . 1./ f z =a.5#+2z = $x a: G.z = 20. 3 x 500. ~ 507. ifi = x a. . 2 e. x s + y z = 18J . a: f z = 79. 1+1 = 6. f + 3 y 62 4 y 4a. 2y + 2z = a: 2. 5^ 9z = 10. y Solve : x +z= 5.REVIEW EXERCISE 488. = 20. 2/>3r = 4.
+ + 3579 2+?. z z =3a&c.284 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 516. ll" . !f == 2800. i=a + 6 c. 523. + : = 1472. 36 + c. 517. ra? + y 2 + 524 x \ +y + = + t jx [y + 9 = 3af& + r.
90. if the number be increased by Find the number. the first and second digits will change places. they would have met in 2 hours. When weighed in water. 530. A can do a piece of work in 12 days B and C together can do the same piece of work in 4 days A and C can do it in half the time in which B alone can do it. and one overtakes the other in 6 hours. M. In circle A ABC. sum of the reciprocals of of the reciprocals of the first of the reciprocals of the second and the sum 528. and B together can do a piece of work in 2 days. 37 pounds of tin lose 5 pounds. if and L. it is filled in 35 minutes. B and C and C and A in 4 days. 532. and CA=7. Tf and run together. 527. (a) How many pounds of tin and lead are in a mixture weighing 120 pounds in air. An (escribed) and the prolongations of BA and BC in Find AD. AB=6. A boy is a years old his mother was I years old when he was born. and 23 pounds of lead lose 2 pounds. in 28 minutes. touches and F respectively. . What are their rates of travel? . and third equals \\ the sum third equals \.REVIEW EXERCISE 285 525. his father is half as old again as his mother was c years ago. BC = 5. N. it separately ? 531. E 533. L. Tu what time will it be filled if all run M N N t together? 529. and losing 14 pounds when weighed in water? (b) How many pounds of tin and lead are in an alloy weighing 220 pounds in air and 201 pounds in water ? in 3 days. CD. Two persons start to travel from two stations 24 miles apart. Find the present ages of his father and mother. How long will B and C take to do . A number of three digits whose first and last digits are the same has 7 for the sum of its digits. if L and Af in 20 minutes. . In how many days can each alone do the same work? 526. If they had walked toward each other. and BE. Throe numbers are such that the A the first and second equals . AC in /). Find the numbers. A vessel can be filled by three pipes.
542. formation of dollars into marks. x 2 + x. How is t / long will I take 11 men 2 t' . b.  3 x. x*  2 x. Draw the graph of y 2 and from the diagram determine : + 2 x x*. The value of x that produces the greatest value of y. a. of Draw a graph for the trans The number in of workmen Draw required to finish a certain piece the graph work D days it is from D 1 to D= 12. 548. 545. z 2  x x  5. x*. x *x + x + 1.e. to do the work? pendulum. 2.286 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA : 534. The roots of the equation 2 + 2 x x z = 1. AND BRITISH ISLES 535. Draw the graphs of the following functions : 538. + 3. 536. x 8 549. i. 547. d. FRANCE. . c. 550. then / = 3 and write = 3. from x = 2 to x = 4. The values of x if y = 2. 2 x + 5. The greatest value of the function. Represent the following table graphically TABLE OF POPULATION (IN MILLIONS) OF UNITED STATES. the function. GERMANY.  3 x. the time of whose swing a graph for the formula from / =0 537. e. . The values of y. 3 x 539. 543. 546.10 marks. if x = f 1. 2. One dollar equals 4. x 2 544.  7. 540.3 Draw down the time of swing for a pendulum of length 8 feet. If to feet is the length of a seconds. 2  x  x2 . 2 541.
+ 5 . 558. j. 563.3 x . Represent meters. Find the value of m that will make two roots equal if y = m. g. x 4 . .4 = 0. 565. 2 a.0. a.) How In far does a how many body fall in 2^ seconds? seconds does a body fall 25 meters? Solve graphically the following equations : x*"2x7 = Q. a: 559.REVIEW EXERCISE 551. 2 567.r a: a: x a.11 = 0.4 x 2 + 4 . 556.17 = 0. Which negative value of x produces the greatest value of y ? : Solve graphically 570 ' 571. // Solve y Solve y = 5. 572. Find the greatest value which ?/ may assume for a negative x.4 . h. 553. 555. . c. x 5 . = 5. ' = 8.= 0.= 0.3 = 0. z 2 . \ to t = 5. 3 x* . a? 4 x .15 = 0.7 = . and make the unit of the b. e. r?.1 = 0. x 2 ~ 2 . z 4 . 3 .G . 2 x 2 560. f. 287 by a falling body is The formula 2 ] f/f for the distance traveled a. a. If y +5 10. + 10 x .3 x . graphically from t = (Assume g = 10 scale unit of the t equal to 10 times the scale ^ 2 . i. 15.11 x* + + 2 8 569. 564.r . Solve// = 0. 2. . Determine the number of real roots of the equation y Determine the limits between which m must lie. 2 ~0a: + 9 = 0.13 = 0.r 1 561. 557.5 x .9 = 0. 568.  2 1 a: a.6 + 3 . c. 2 554.3 . 18 x  4 = 0. 562. 2 8 . Solve 552. 3 x . J. 566.' 2* + Z  4 = 0.10 x 2 + 8 = 0. x* . a. if y =m has three real roots. 3 + 3 z .
x + z2) 8 . 1 . a: f 2 2 aAa: + 2 ?/ . x [ ?/ 577. a: f ~+ x [ 10 ^i  1 V 6x + 4 + 610. 2 (2 a ft 6 + + 4 a 6& 2 + x f 13 2 . {f_7l j? 2* + ''. 2  100 aW + 100 aW.4 x*y* + 3 4 6 . 585 594. a 612.a:) 6 (1 2 2 (2 + 3 x + 4 ) f (2 3 x + f. j^f = 3. 2  2 aa: 2 .4. (a  8 ft) . 608.4 + 4 a 8^6 + 9 a a^e _ 6 aW + 8 9(5 a: 7 // fe . 6 + 1) . 9  4 fSb 607. + + 4 . 579.5 xy = 0.(1 .2 2 + y. a:. 5 a*. 596. + jf:ji f590> (2 (3 (1 Perform the operations indicated 584. 592. Extract the square roots of the following expressions: 602. 588. xY. + . 64 a 12 603. (# 2) . 48 xf + a: 4  04 aty 6 a: // 16 2 605. 4 (1a:) 3. 2 943 ++ ~bx. (a. 609.4 8 f 4 4 + i 2 ) 2 f (a 1 . 593. fMV  586 ' ^ (a + 6)T ' 587. f ?>) 3 591. (1 + x a. (aiy. jj+.frf : 583. 597. 2 + f 9 6 + 25 c 2 10 ac  a6. 598. = 2 \*> + a: [ ^ = 4' = 581.2 & 2 ) (4 a: ?/ 14 a: 1 2 2 ?y 4 a: 10 2 + x^f . a 8 606.2 6a: + 30 &c a. 2 611. 3 (f. 589. a: . .288 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 4. <r)3  2 3 a:) . + ^) + (air%)8. .x + 2 )'2 601. 599. : y* or 25. a 2a.  128 a 10 6 30 3 a: + 2 ?/ ' 100 a 8 /. 600. + %) (a* + *) 5 . [ y =10. 582.o 2 [ ?/ > 3'  578. 4 .%) 4 (aa. + + 4 x) (l 2 ^) .48 a*h + 6 a: ?/ 10 6. a. 604. (1 (1 (1 . f ^s_ 14 a 4/. 4 a. 595.128 a*^ + 04 aty 10 3 5 zy . 3 . 2 2 a:' ) + x' )'2 .
191209. 624. 3a. 637. x 2 f x ~  16 = 0. 636. 44352. : 5.1024 x + a: 256. 25023844. 49042009.*. 7) 2. 2. 9g. the cubes of the distances of the planets from the sun have the same ratio as the squares of their periods of revolution about the sun. 625 : 621. + 2 21 x = 100. 494210400001. 651. 634. 942841. According to Kepler's law. If the distances of Earth and Jupiter from the sun are at 1 days. 49.\/4090. 645. 623.49. 32 631. 2 2) 2 +x = 14. Find to three decimal places the square numbers : roots of the following 627. ft . 620. 10 a 4 32 fe 2 + 81.15174441.448 z + 1120 a: 4  1792 x* + 1792 2 . 2 + 189 z = 900. = 87. 0090.30.V250 .12 a?y + y*.2410. 638. 626. 40.REVIEW EXERCISE Find the fourth root 613. 035. V 635. Find the square root of 619.2. 647t x 2 648 649. (x 9 x 646. f 4 aft 8 + 4 ft . + 112 a 8 . 629. = . a 8 of:  8 tvb + 28 a 6 //2  50 a c ft 8 + 70 a 4 ft 4  50 a 8 ft 6 + 28 a 2ft 618. x2 + 9x _ 5x _ 22 66 ? * + 9 . 628. 4J. GGff. 2 + 21Ga. = 0. 633. 21.8 aft 6 + 8 21G. 615. 4 289 of : 4 4 a*b + a2 2 /. f (x + 5) 2 = (x + . 639. 622. 630. x 2 .53 x ~ . VOIOOD + V582T09. *+* = 156. a 8 10 a* 8 aft 7 + ft 8 . 644.871844. 9a. + 54 'x*y* . 10:r 4 + 9G* 3 + HI x s  108 afy 616. 371240. 650. = 70. find Jupiter's period. 632. and the Earth's period equals 3G5J Solve the following equations : 640. x 2 641. 643. + 24 a 2 4 . 614.150. 4370404. /. 210. V950484 . a 642. Find the eighth root 617. 8*' + 24* = 32.
290 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA """ ar a x b ab .
706. . 2 (:r + :r)O 2 + :cf 1) = 42.a a )jr . 2 2 697. 693. 1 + V* 2bx + a 2 + 2 ax .c = 0. 4 a: + 4 ^^ 6a:x2 8 701. 2 ' 3 2 a:)  28 + 21 + 5 '^ = 0. 2 ft 2 2 fi 2 = 0. a.bx . 696. 692. = 0. 1 __ : )'*' _i. 2 2 . 708.REVIEW EXERCISE ~ 291 X+ x 1> a +c ~ a i~ i c ~ b  ~ " x 690. 695. .ax . + ~T~ * a + b x = rj* 2 4(5 4 x + + Ox + 4 691. ax 2 698. (x 2 +3a:) 2 2a. 694. 707. ex abc= fx 0. 699. 2 702.2 a(l + & )z fa 2 (1 ax + to f ru: 2 . 7^^ ^3" ^^ ^T 704.2V3:r 2 V5 a: f + fa + 1 = 0. 2(4 :r 7r\O /'r'S = a: 0.
721. Find the altitude of an equilateral triangle whose side equals a. If a pound of tea cost 30 J* more than a pound of coffee. 722. 727. sum is a and whose product equals J. . The area the price of 100 apples by $1.292 709. 725. A equals CO feet. Find two consecutive numbers whose product equals 600. if 1 more for 30/ would diminish 720. ___ _ 2* 5 3*27 715. what is the price of the coffee per pound ? : Find the numerical value of 728.40 a 2* 2 + 9 a 4 = 0. 16 x* . **13a: 2 710. 724. of a rectangle is 221 square feet and its perimeter Find the dimensions of the rectangle. Find four consecutive integers whose product is 7920. in value. Find two numbers whose 719. 12 4*+  8.44#2 + 121 = 0. 723. needs 15 days longer to build a wall than B. What two numbers are those whose sum is 47 and product A man bought a certain number of pounds of tea and 10 pounds more of coffee. 729. The difference of the cubes of two consecutive numbers is find them. 714 2 *2 ' + 25 4 16  25 a2 711. 217 . he many 312? he had waited a few days until each share had fallen $6. paying $ 12 for the tea and $9 for the coffee.l + 8 8 + ft)' (J)* (3)* + (a + 64 + i.25 might have bought five more for the same money. a: 713. 3or i 16 . What number exceeds its reciprocal by {$. Find the price of an apple. and working together they can build it in 18 days. 717. 2n n 2 2 f2aar + a 5 = 0. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA +36 = 0. 716. In how many days can A build the wall? 718. How shares did he buy ? if 726. A man bought a certain number of shares in a company for $375.
+ a*x* x*)(a* /^ (a* (rrr + c^ s M ' + x*). (x* 2 a M+ f a8) (x*  2 aM" a). + &2)( a 2_ 1 j2).)(ai + &. . (4 x~* + l 3 ar 2 + 2 2 ) a. 37. 39. 43. (^ (a* (a^ ary* + x^y f y*) * + * (x*  y*). + a^ 1 + a 26" 2 )(l .2? 50. (v/x).X .1 + c. 293 (y* (a* + f y* + y*+l)(y*. 41. 34. 40.1 + x. (4 a: 2  12 x* 28 x + 9 x*  42 x* + 49)*. f + M 6* f 6) (a* U*") 4 a*6^ (<i* &*). 38. 33. 42.aft* 1 + a 2*. 48 ^i? x T ^ ^2? x sT~ x .1 f c" ). 46.REVIEW EXERCISE implify : 30. . 31. +w 5 n* +w n 3 + n )(m* 3 n^).2 d*m* + 4 d)(w* + 2 rfM + .1 f ^ 2). +   c* + 2 + ^ + cbf 44. 1 + l)(>r 2  i + 1). (64 x~ + 27 y r (4 x~^ + 3 y"*).aM ?n^n^ f ft*c*)(a* + 6* + c*). n. 52. (x* (i* (a2 (a(1 1 4 d*). 35.l).2 ). 32.2)(x2 4. 1 6. 36.
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 755. 754. 2^3(^2^21 + 4^3^:0. 761. 759. [1r^ T 1 i . vff + V^~ 4^ 2^/2 776.294 753. JU..1+J 756. ~ r* x . \/G86 v/lGv/128. 757. 2V2 2V3 . 768. 4\/50 4 SVlOOO. + V22 + + 12 V2b8  760. 758._ 1 4j "r O/lf * ^ ^ II r* 4"*" 1 A "1 1.
+ 2V21.IIEVIEW EXERCISE y/a 295 f 780. x 782. f x Va z Va f x + Va a.12VIT. 3J . 790. 13 799. 786. 10 785. 806. 92VI5. 789.2 V30. y/a + Va Va x x + x 781. . Va 809. a 9442V5. c 792. 103 788. 7512V21. 794. 16 + 2V55. 783.4 V(j. 7 + 3 V5 ( 7 7  3 V'5 ( 2 4 73V5 + 3V5 + V3 + V3 4  5 . . 87 ac + 6t  12 ^ + 2 Vab Simplify 801. . 14 791. 787. 3812VIO. Find the square roots of the following binomial surds: 784. 793.2V3* ^ 807.VlO. .
811. = 1.13 = 0. 836.1 V* + 60 = 2 Vx~K5 + V5. + Vx . \/12 a.79. f 2 VaT+1 1 a: 832. 829. V2a: Va: + 3 + ar 2 Vx f 1 834.g.4 = 0.f 5 = V5x + 4.  5 + V3 f 12 817.V? = 813.296 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA . (x a: 2 ) 4 . 833. 831. 816. V14 a. 814. 830.Vc^lJ . Find the sum and difference of (ar + V2yx 2)* and 1. 3 x + 2 . 820. 818. Va: + 28 f + V9 x . + ViTli + V7 . + 103Var.V2 ar 10.28 = 4 V2 ar 14. \/2(r+ /3 a: 1) + v/2 x + a: 15 = 13. /9ar a: = 17. 9 7 3 + V3a:+ = 0. x/aT+l . V3 f 1 V4a. VaT+lJ f ^l .\/2y  810. Va: . 815. 819. 812. 2\/^"+~5 + 3Vor7 = V25 .
a. 40 x 2 7 f 49. 840. 6 2 f 3 6 s. a. 64 a 866. 9.7x + 3 = 3ar(a.3 Va: 2 . 8 4a: 8 a. a. 4 a. + 216 rt aty a 10 . 861. 5 x* f 297 9) 11 x . 4o. 855. 8 2a. 64. 870. 8 . a. a 8 850. 876. a 18 4. . 4 x* 847. y 4. 852. z*y 8 l64a. a 8 869. x 11 a^ J 13 854.ab9 ft*. 5 a 4 7 a8 .1)+ + Vo: 2 + 3 x f 5 = 7 .a. + .28 a 4 xy 8 80. 2 x 3. .12. x 8 2 857. 8 860. 875.10 = 118. 2 a: 64 y*. 845. V4 x 2 .10 x f 1 = 10 x + L * 2 . a l0m . a: 2 + 4\/3^~. a*" & 6n . a 8 873. + 512 y8 874. a* * 1 + a8 8 a. 6.x*y + 3x f 2.1000 6. 8 8  13 a. 2 f" + a/ 15. 27 862.  3x a. 2 f 2 18a: f + 16. 8 + 4 4 ar 2 2 a. 8 8 848. 846. a: : Resolve into prime factors 843. 8a: 2 4 f 8 a: + 2 19a. 275 8 l. a. 839. 868.3 . +3 4 +  4. a: 849. x 4 + f 2 a. 4 a: 2 842. 8 + a: 5 8 a. a: . x* 8 ^ 8 2 a#* a. . 853. 16 859. 851. a.12\/(ar44)(5z~ = 36. 865. a 872. f 12.1. 8 a. 729 867. 844. x 6 x4 f + + a: x f 1.3 a:. .KEVIEW EXERCISE 838. 8^27^. 27 y 8. 864. f b**. . f 841.3 x . 856. 19 x 14. 863. 871. + 1. 4 x 8 858.
2 + 2 f = 17. 2 . 4 2 2 + afy 2 + f ary + y = 37. 887.298 877. y(a:2 + y 2 ) = 25 x. y y 2 y 2 1121. 8 8 + y y 9 9 a: = = 37 a: 152.5 xy + 4 f = 13. a# f + xy = 126. a. 2 + ary = 8 y + 6. +y f y = 7.Vi' + 1 1_3. a:y . 2 . M1 891 1 . y 2 4.y 2 + V(j. 883. What must be the value of m and n to make 8 + mx 2 + nx f 42 exactly divisible by 2 2 and by a. 878. 900. y 2 2 8f. y*+ xy . a. x 8 3 = 13:3. f a: a: 4 ?y = 481. 3 x 2 . a: 1 1 _ 5 892. a: 2 897. 2 + xy = 28.sy = 198. 885. 2 3 2 z3 xy + y = 7. 2 = 2 + 5.xy + y 2 = 19. 895.y 2 = 2 y + 2. x a: lI = xz . a. xy 2 a: a: ?/ a. 901. 886. xy(a:y + 1) = 6. ar(ar + y ) 2 2 2 2 xy . + ary + 2 = 37.15. 2 f ary = 8 + 3.18. a: + y 2 = 34. 2 2 = 16 y. 890. a: 888. f ?/ a: a: . y = 28. 5. . 896. . x*xy. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Show Show 3 ? that 99 + 1 is divisible by 100. + 2y=\2. 899. 5x 3 exactly divisible 879. . = ? + p"iaL+L=13. that 1001 79 of 1 is divisible by 1000.1 = 2 a#. 2 + 3 y 2 = 43. . 1 x 893. . : x 3? Solve the following systems 881. For what value m is 2 #3 mx* by x  880. z 2 898.35. x 882. 889. a: a.y 2) = 20. 2 + y 2 . 2 + xy = 10. 894. . a: 884.y = 2 ay + a a# = 2 aa: + 6 a. xy + y = 32.
3 :r(3 . a: a. 2 924. 2 y 2 f ay/ = 16. 2 913. + ary = a*. x f 2 a:y = 32.y = a(ar + y). ny ft ma: = * a 2 m*. 2 2 f 4 a: ar// or f a. or or a? a: a: . 7 y . + 2 a:y + = 243. x + y}(x + y) = 273.y2 = 22.r a.16 y 3 8 = .6. 2 5 xy = 11. y . y 3 2 2 922. ^ 2 + 2 a:y = a a 2 3 a: a: a. f y 2 x 2 y = 1. # + xy + y = 7. 2 2 2 916. x + y 2 = aar. + y)(a. 923. 914.y) (3 y . x 2 ry + y = 3. + ?/) . xy + 2 y 2 = 65.#y + 2 = 27.3(* + y) = 6. 907. .V + y 2 = + xy + y a = (a? . + y 8 = 189. 2 * 2 ~ g. = 8.y). y x 2 = by. 9 f 8 y f 7 ay/ = 0. y 49(x 2 2 = 6 2 (x 2 + y 2). xa 903. * + y = 444.x) = 21. y 2 + 3 ary = 2. 23 x 2 . a: * a: a: ar 928. 3 y 8 ) =1216. *y . . (* 918.3) 2 f (y . 910. a:y xy 929. 2 915.23 = 200. 911. 920. x 4 299 xy z 904.y) = 33. 912. (!) * . yz = 24. 906. 921. 917. a. 908. + a. a: y zx 12. y # 2 2 f f y = 84. Vary + y = 6. xy + x= 15. a o o 2 j + a:y = 2. y + a:y = 180.3)2 = 34. 905. 2 + y = 2 a 4. ?/ ^: ^f!i^2. 4 (a. L/ay = a: + 5? + g = ^ + g. ^ 2 .y)^ 03 926 12 +y +y 927. (0 Vx f 10 f v^+T4 = 12. ary y = 8. (o. (a. .2 y) = 49 2 919. + 2 ary = 39. 909. + 2 y) (2 + ?/) = 20. y 2 + xy = b 2 925. xy 2 2 x 2y 2 = 0.REVIEW EXERCISE 902. + y = 9. (3 x . 7 + 4 y f 6 ary = 0.y) (a? . 3 y 2 + xy = 1. x* + ary f y 2 = 9.
A is 938. 942. 2240. The sum of the circumferences of 44 inches. Assuming = y. y(x + y + 2) = 133. 152. feet. The diagonal of a rectangle equals 17 feet. feet. = ar(a? f y + 2) + a)(* + y 933. two squares is 23 feet. two numbers Find the numbers. 34 939. The difference of two numbers cubes is 513. s(y 932. and 10 feet broader. Find the length and breadth of the first rectangle. and B diminishes his as arrives at the winning post 2 minutes before B. Find the numbers. much and A then Find at what increases his speed 2 miles per hour. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA (*+s)(* + y)=10. Find the sides of the rectangle. A plantation in rows consists of 10. 937. Find the side of each two circles is IT square. z(* + y + 2) = 76. Tf there had been 20 less rows. is 3. there would have been 25 more trees in a row. and also contains 300 square feet. the The sum of the perimeters of sum of their areas equals 617 square feet.102.000 trees. A and B run a race round a twomile course. a second rec8 feet shorter. two squares equals 140 feet. is 20. 931. If each side was increased by 2 feet. In the first heat B reaches the winning post 2 minutes before A. In the second heat A . and the sum of their areas 78$. the area of the new rectangle would equal 170 square feet. diagonal 940. How many rows are there? 941. + z) =108. is 3 . *(* + #) =24. 944. y( 934. rate each man ran in the first heat. (3 + *)(ar + y + z) = 96. .300 930. the difference of their The is difference of their cubes 270.square inches. find the radii of the two circles. 935. and the sum of their cubes is tangle certain rectangle contains 300 square feet. (y (* + y)(y +*)= 50. and the Find the sides of the and its is squares. The sum of two numbers Find the numbers. and the difference of 936. (y + *) = . The sum of the perimeters of sum of the areas of the squares is 16^f feet. The perimeter of a rectangle is 92 Find the area of the rectangle. 943. + z)=18.
unaltered. Find the width of the path if its area is 216 square yards. 951. Find the number. overtook miles. If the breadth of the rectangle be decreased by 1 inch and its is length increased by 2 inches. The area of a certain rectangle is 2400 square feet. and its perim 948. Find its length and breadth. A and B. the digits are reversed. A certain number exceeds the product of its two digits by 52 and exceeds twice the sum of its digits by 53. The diagonal of a rectangular is 476 yards. Find the number. its area will be increased 100 square feet. 953. distance between P and Q. and travels in the same direction as A. 949. was 9 hours' journey distant from P. A rectangular lawn whose length is 30 yards and breadth 20 yards is surrounded by a path of uniform width. the difference in the lengths of the legs of the Find the legs of the triangle. The area of a certain rectangle is equal to the area of a square side is 3 inches longer than one of the sides of the rectangle. the area lengths of the sides of the rectangle. and if 594 be added to the number. and the other 9 days longer to perform the work than if both worked together. 952. P and Q. . Find in what time both will do it. is 407 cubic feet. sum Find an edge of 954. When from P A was found that they had together traveled 80 had passed through Q 4 hours before. Two starts travelers. Two men can perform a piece of work in a certain time one takes 4 days longer.REVIEW EXERCISE 301 945. Find two numbers each of which is the square of the other. each block. at Find the his rate of traveling. The sum of the contents of two cubic blocks the of the heights of the blocks is 11 feet. if its length is decreased 10 feet and its breadth increased 10 feet. and that B. . that B A 955. . 950. The square described on the hypotenuse of a right triangle is 180 square inches. the square of the middle digit is equal to the product of the extreme digits. whose 946. set out from two places. A number consists of three digits whose sum is 14. What is its area? field is 182 yards. at the same time A it starts and B from Q with the design to pass through Q. Find the eter 947. triangle is 6.
= 4. Find the Find the common 977. 5. 969.. to n terms. Sum to 20 terms. to 7 terms. 1G series .4142 ..  2.>/) to infinity. 16 962. !Ll^ + n . Sum Sum to infinity. 18th terms of an A. 961. difference.. are 29 and 53. the first term being Find the sums of the 960.. 964. 3 + 5 7 + .454. '. ^1 + Vj 1 2  . 972...1 4 f j$V . *" 968.141414. are 1 and sum of 20 terms.. fourth of the unity. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Sum to 32 terras. f + 1 .V2 . the terms being in A. Find n f (ft) . P. 958. 9th and llth terms of an A.302 956.. . 974. n to n terms. ^ Vfirst five 959. 975.. 966.3151515. : + f 24 21 24 4f 32 36 1G 10. Find n. P. Sura to 24 terms. . + (iiven a +  4 d .321? 965. such that the sum of the 1 terms is one sum of the following five terms. 4.. 5.. Sum Sum Sum to 10 terms. s  88. P. Find the sum of 4.. How many Sum Sum terms of the series 1 + 3 + 5 + amount to 123. Find the difference between the sums of the series 5 n + !Lni n " 4 4. 3 ... 957. P. and 976. first ? n+l(n + l) The 10th and The term and the T + ( + +!) V (to J' infinity). 1 to n terms. (x 4 to n terms. 970.x*(x 3 f 8) + y) + (2x + f) + (3 x + y 8 ) 4. (x + O 2 4 y 2 ) + O 8 + y*) + y) + x(x 2 4 y 2} 4.v 973... J. 12434+ j I 967..to infinity. 4 4 to 7 terms . 36 963. Evaluate (a) . . . \ .. 971. to infinity. Find an A. ^ 1 . x(x to 8 terms. (to 2 n terms).
Find the value of the infinite product 4 v'i v7! v^5 . Find four numbers in A. 0. who rewarded the inventor by promising to place 1 grain of wheat on Sessa for the the 1st square of a chessboard. to oo. 980. . 5 11.04 + . named Sheran. v/2 1 + + + 1 4 + + 3>/2 to oo + + . Find the number of grains which Sessa should have received. How many sum terms of 18 + 17 + 10 + amount . 990. of n terms of an A. then this sum multiplied by (Euclid.2 . 985. and so on. and the sum of the first nine terms is equal to the square of the sum of the first two. to 105? 981. Find the sum of the series 988.001 4. The 21st term of an A.REVIEW EXERCISE 978.. and of the second and third 03. doubling the number for each successive square on the board.) the last term the series a perfect number.1 + 2.. 987. 986. "(.. Find n. 1. Insert 8 arithmetic means between 1 and . is 225. of n terms of 7 + 9 + 11+ is is 40.+ lY L V. 992. Insert 22 arithmetic means between 8 and 54..01 3. If of 2 of integers + 2 1 + 2'2 by which is it is the sum of the series 2 n is prime. such that the product of the and fourth may be 55.. Find the first term. 989. 4 grains on the 3d. What 2 a value must a have so that the sum of + av/2 + a + V2 + . The term.3 ' Find the 8th 983. 2 grains on the 2d.. all A perfect number is a number which equals the sum divisible..001 + . to infinity may be 8? . P. and the common difference. to n terms. The Arabian Araphad reports that chess was invented by amusement of an Indian rajah. P. : + 9   V2 + . The sum 982. first 984. P.. Find four perfect numbers. 303 979.
areas of all triangles. of squares of four numbers in G. and so forth to infinity. ABC A A n same sides. are unequal. are 28 and find the numbers. Two travelers start on the same road. inches. c. and G. (a) after 5 strokes. many days will the latter overtake the former? . is 4. find the series. The sum and sum . Insert 3 geometric means between 2 and 162. in this circle a square. P. are 45 and 765 find the numbers. 1003. Find (a) the sum of all circumferences. 997. and the fifth term is 8 times the second . P. The fifth term of a G. 995. the sides of a third triangle equal the altitudes of the second. The sum and product of three numbers in G. The sides of a second equilateral triangle equal the altitudes of the first. In a circle whose radius is 1 a square is inscribed. third circle touches the second circle and the to infinity. after how strokes would the density of the air be xJn ^ ^ ne original density ? a circle is inscribed. 998. Insert 4 geometric means between 243 and 32. 994. Each stroke of the piston of an air air contained in the receiver. (6) the sum of the infinity. The side of an equilateral triangle equals 2. The other travels 8 miles the first day and After how increases this pace by \ mile a day each succeeding day. at the same time. and so forth to Find (a) the sum of all perimeters. Under the conditions of the preceding example. AB = 1004. 999. in this square a circle. P. P. . 1000. 512 996. P. and if so forth What is the sum of the areas of all circles. 1001.304 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 993. In an equilateral triangle second circle touches the first circle and the sides AB and AC. (I) the sum of the perimeters of all squares. (6) after n What strokes? many 1002. ft. prove that they cannot be in A. pump removes J of the of air is fractions of the original amount contained in the receiver. If a. One of them travels uniformly 10 miles a day.
l) w f . Find the fifth term of (1  a:) 1015. 1014. Find the coefficient a: X  \88 1 in 1019. Find the 9th term of (2 al 1010. (12 #) 7 . Write down (x the first four terms in the expansion of + 2 #). 1009. . Find the middle term of ( . 1012. x) 18 .o/) 14 . coefficient of x 9 in (5 a 8 7 . Find the two middle terms of (a *2 x) 9 . Find the two middle terms of ( ( 9 . Find the middle term of (a + b) 1016.REVIEW EXEHCISE 1005.ft) 19 . Write down the 1 5a  6 V .iV 2i/ 5 . Find the middle term of 1020. Write down the expansion of (3 1007. . 1011. Expand  2 a. + lQ . ) 1021. Find the middle term of (a$ bfy. 2 ) 5. 1006. Write down the (a first 305 three and the last three terms of  *)". (1 1018. Find the two middle terms of 1013. Find the eleventh term of /4 x >> . 1008. a: 8 7.
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9... 123 . . Brace Bracket Character of roots . .... 160 in quadratic form 191 . graphic tion of representa .. . . . .. 8 . 37. . . 246 91 " multiple. . 158. 232 mean progression . . . Constant Coordinates Cross product 155 148 41 " Alternation 123 Antecedent Arithmetic *' 120 Degree of an equation Difference .. . .. linear literal Common ** * difference ... . 49 Clearing equations of fractions 108 8 ' graphic solution. 97.Base of a power Binomial " theorem 54 8 45 130 10 255 9 Elimination Equations ' 63 consistent fractional . 148 178 Conditional equations Conjugate surds .108 160 " ... .. . 112 54 54 251 .. . ... 129. 232 169 807 ... .] Abscissa Absolute term .241 45 45 Dividend Division Divisor Axiom . Checks Coefficient 20. Discriminant Discussion of problems Arrangement of expressions Average ... simple simultaneous . . . 19..INDEX [NUMBERS REFER TO PAGES.....181 105 " Complex fraction " Evolution Composition . quadratic ..130 .193 11 .. .. 54. . sum Consequent Consistent equations 210 27 10 18 . 129 54. numerical .. .210 130 " Addition value 4 15... . signs of Algebraic expression .178 Completing the square . . 9 ** . . lowest ratio " '* . . 249 246 20 10 23 193 .. t 53 120 .. . Aggregation.... ..
common factor Homogeneous equations Identities . . 253 28 70 1. . 109 102 .. inversely 122 numbers . Known numbers .31. 91 . . 34.. . .105 Monomials 03 Multiple. INDEX 8 .808 Exponent Exponents.. . . . 205 148 148 27 86 Ordinate Origin . . law of Extraneous roots . . . . 45 Laws of signs . 180. 241 123 geometric . 45. Graphic solution of simple equations Graph of a function Grouping terms Highest . Mathematical induction .. Imaginary numbers . 195 Extreme Factor " theorem " II. 212 . 195 4 13 ous equations 100 158 . . 17 65. Fourth proportional Fractional equations u Fractions. G. 205 . 246 251 121 Inversion Involution Irrational Proportion 105 Proportional. 120 Lowest common multiple 70 . 112 . 178 45 221 205 Law of exponents . directly. . 227 . Integral expression Interpretation of solutions Progressions..154 Order of operations " of surds .. addition of " square of . 45. 243 7 . 42 7 Independent equations Index . . numbers .. 114. 189.108 Minuend .C Multiplication . Like terms Linear equation . . 120 Member. .. Product '* 76 Infinite. 184 54. . Mean " 81) proportional Mean. arithmetic . 23 10 91 102. 130 9 Power Prime factors Problem. . 89 235 Parenthesis Perfect square 53 . 9.... Negative exponents 11 . . . first and second . 227 geometric . arithmetic 346 120 338 341 53 70. 83 10 19 Polynomial Polynomials. Geometric progression . Insertion of parentheses . P ..251 Graphic solution of simultane. 84. 1 Quadratic equations Quotient Radical equations Radicals .. .. . 195 33.. 143. 63. exponent . . . Inconsistent equations . . . . L. C Factoring 222 Literal equations .. .
INDEX Ratio national Rationalizing denominators 76. binomial Third proportional Transposition ..... 193 Rule of signs Series Signs of aggregation Similar and dissimilar terms Similar surds 33. 45 Trinomial 240 . 309 171 133 120 Square root Substitution 205 Real numbers Reciprocal 215 Subtraction 169 Subtrahend 104 22 Remainder theorem Removal of parenthesis Root Roots of an equation " character of " . algebraic Surds . .... 255 120 54 10 sum and product of ... .. 1 Simple equations Simultaneous equations Square of binomial 205 Value.. . 232 Vinculum Zero exponent 40 42 197 Printed in the United States of America. 4 155 9 " of . . 129. Sum.... absolute 54 Variable . polynomial . 9..... .... 23 18 228 27 9 205 10 Term " absolute 54 193 178 Theorem... .. 27 17 Unknown numbers . . .
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MANGUSE STrtn gork THE MACMILLAN COMPANY 1918 All rights reserved .ANSWERS TO SCHULTZE'S ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA COMPILED BY THE AUTHOR WITH THE ASSISTANCK OP WILLIAM P.
Berwick <fe Smith Co. 1917. U. December. Set up and electrotypcd. 1916. Mass.S. 1913.COPYRIGHT. Published September. Reprinted April. 1910. . NorfoooS J.A. Norwood. 1910. 8. BY THE MACMILLAN COMPANY. Gushing Co. August..
(a) (/>) 1. loss. 6 yd. 12. 10. 8 13. in. 10. 10. B $20. T . 7. 3* 7. A 15. 30?. 14. 19. . 7.1. 1. 2.. 12. 9. 49. 8. Page 1. 25. 16. 1. C $60. 12. 13 d. Page 13. 22.000. 5. 16. 16. $160. 27. South America 46. 27. 1. 2. 1. 2 ~ 15. 2. 7.  2 p. 2. B 10 mi. 20. 13. 3. 13. in 12. 6. V 23. 3. b. 15. 12.ANSWERS Page phia 8 in. 14. 23. Yes. = 5 81. A $90. 32. B $4700. 1. 6. 3.2. 128. 4.  22 20. A . 9. 4. 20 B. 5. 17. 0. 16. C $1(50. 20. 10g. 2. 512.000 negroes. 8 ft. 6* 16. i . 9 14. 10.3. 9. 3. C $ 16.000. 20 jo. 11.150. 6. }. 6. 2. B $ 128.00000001. 9.12. 27. 20 \. c.. 5000. Page 8. 4. $ 1 50 10.000. 7. 4. 14. . 13. 2. 6. 16. 10. 11. ^. 24. 3. 4. 3.000. 12. 2.$9400. 7. 4. 32. 7m. 16f 2. B $80. Seattle 12 Philadel 9. 22. 2 5. 10. 15. 13. 49. Ot 15. 1. sign.000. 28. 11. 6. 37. westerly motion. 12. 106. 7. 14. 5. 5. 13 V. 26. 19. 2  Page 8. $40. 7. 9. 3. 1 16. 18.C. 3. 16. A Bl 7. 14 11. 9 = 4. 8. 59. 3 m.21 24. ft. 1. 6. + 1.  1. 12. 7. 9. 89. A 38 mi. 12. Page?. per sec. 32. 15.. 7. 8. 15. 18. in. 5. 2..  13. 17. Page Page Ilis expenditures. . 32. 12. 3. 10.8. 1. 3. 48 ft. sign. 3. 16 in. 576. 9. 0. 24. 21. 1. 21. 13. 9 16  larger than 7. 13 S. 3. Multiplication. _ 32.. 3. 85. 24. 2.. . $100.000. 3. 73. 9. 6. 126. 1.000. 36. 19.000. 17. 64. 17. 16. 29. 18. . 1. 37 S. 29. Not 5. 5.000 Indians. 6. 1. x. 26z. 8.. 1. 144. 9 m.. 17. 28. 9. 14. 256. 16 in. 6. 3. 14.  1. 115. 2. 11. 72 = = 216. 25. 210. 16. 6. 14. 2. 15. 8. 8. 8. 2. 25. 16. 4. 3. 150. 18. 20. 18. Page 4. 5. 5. 20. 25. is $10. 14. 192. 6. 12. 3 below 0. 2. 30. 19 4. arithmetic. 21. x. 1. 1.. 10. Australia ft. 3. 11. 18.
27. 31. 25.94(>. 3rf 27. a2 4 15^44. 2oVmf?i. 28.GOG. 2. 12. 22. arty 1 20. 13. WIN + wiw. r+l. . r/ \(\xyz. = ()501. (<7) (a) 314 sq. yyz+xyz*. 104.  xV 3 y. ^. 18. + ft). 0. 31.3 * 10 r5 <3 . 6. . 4. (c) S(i. 26.ft. 6. Page 7. in. 2ftx. 23. 5. 4. 1. ??i??. :J!>r'. 29. 14. 15. (ft) $40. 12yd. 0* Page 3 w" 0. 36. 1. 21 a 3 4 10. . (ft) 12.  3. #1111. (r) 2000 m.32 c2 > ft 3 .  11. //'.. 13. 25. 51 f. Polynomial. Binomial.r~ f 34.r 2 . 20. m 24. 1.  40. 3 . 32. 0. 36. 11. = 81. 16. ft' 3 . 4. 18. 30. 34. f  5e 35. 42. (a) r>23ifcu. 1. ft)  3 /A  8x :i (/* 4 ft)(X 36 2 "'* ~ 5V (a ft). . ft. 19. 13. 8.5 (ft) sq.4  2ft 2 33.'JO ft. 15. (r) 78. 7. $80. 3. 14. 26. 5x+3. 21. 21. 7. 37. 22.q 4. .900. 10. 20. 22( 19. 14. (V) (rf) (ft) 50.6) 38. 4<> 2 ?t Vc. 12. 11. ]*. (a 4 4.. 33. 20(. 2. 5. 1. II. 8. 13. 9. Page 18. 2V^4^/ 8 x* 6. 4. 15a. 19. 16. Va'+Y2 8^2 ..  12. 12. 3. a3 a2 4 a 4 1. 18. (a) 50. 13. 32. 14. Page 31. 3. 16. ft. 0. 0. 19. 9. 34. $3000 Page 6. 2. 4 y/ . 20. rt. 16. 237.ii ANSWERS Page 11. 3 a* + 2 at*. _ 4 . 25. 5.r f 15. 1. 11. in. 12. 17. 8. 12 a. 0. 4 9/^/rl 2. c. 57. 1. 32 2 ftc. (ft) Page 2. ft. 29. . 6. 9. 7. +/2(/. o^ft. 6<t. (ft) 7. 10. ft. r:A 29. 3 y v> <Mft 3* 2. 11. (c) 8. 24. 39. w. in..  2 4 13 ft 2 .'J. ^).1. 49. . 240. 28.. 22. 8. (a) 200. v'ft a4 4 a a 41. 14. 4. vi 14. mi. 3. 3. Monomial. 5. (ft) mi. 8. + v> 2 . 30. 92.ab. 7. 35. m + 3(a. 314 sq. 27.ft) 4. 2. Page 21.000 .. .. 35. 17. 18. 8. in. 41. Pagel4r. 27. 27. 2x' 2 5 . 7 7. <i~ 26. i:5.~4. Polynomial. y. 00 24 04 ft.. \'\ 4. 17. 27. 2. 10. 28. 38 ab. 9.9?/2 8. 15. 31. x^ 20. 1. t. 15. 35. $r*y 4 3x?/ 4 m* run  . 2. sq. 173. 18. Page 23. a 32.x. 0.  0. 33. 27. . 16. 23. ft. I. 7. 15.a . 14:). 15. 3a. :. (r) 2G7.. 9.4 ft.14 sq. 22. (59. (b) 135 mi. 3.  1. 3. It.. (a) <> sq. 0. 17. 8. 3.5f> sq. 12. jrif 4 9. 5. a ft c.000 sq.<>Gq. 5. (r) 2. 17. 50.. 0. (a} 100 1(5 cm. 3(c4a). 24. + 5. 38. 1. 14. 8. 3. 04. 5. ft f 19. 21. Trino inial. 43w//2 17. 30. 12. 58. 13 cu. 13. 4. 0..rty8. 14. 21^. 5. ft n..
(yz~d}. ( 7. 18. Page 7. .1. ?/i 13. 2 4.. 2m + 2w. 25 47. a2 9. 16. ri\ 18. 34 39. 3 m. 2// 16. 13. ti. a + (ftc4df). 11. 6.a*. 2 .  4 b 17 y*. 3.(2 x2 . 26. . a a. + 2y.5 z?/ + 3 y .r. + 4 m4 4 8 7?i 8  G m. a' 4ab + ?/. f ft 9. .c. 16. 2 2 2 6. c. a.2 . c. w 17. s_r>a5. 10 m. 1. . G. 20. 25. 10 x. Page 44. 2. 2 + a4l). 2 3. . 40. 10. + a 2 f 2 a 4.3x 2 2 tf. . Page 8. 29. 9. 3 a3 & 41. 22.(7x2 Ox2). 3.2 ft 2 r2 10.3 6. a2 4 2 ft 4 Ve. 2m. ft Exercise 17. &. lOrt 15w4.  1.ws 2 ft) . . 7  # + 12. 2 17. a 4 + ft. ii\ 22. 5 2 Page 29.5.  a: 2. G a bd. 3. 2 a 37. . 56. _5a<>&43c. 35. 18. 37. 8. 2 .5 4 2 3 ?/ . 19. 2. _ Page 30. 4.4 d. a 6 2 . 4. j)(g1. 6. 2a: 2 4x. 34. 7  a + 2 + c.r' 2 z2 2 4 a 1.  b. 20. a4 4 4. :5 41. a 3& . 21. M + 10. + 8. Page 28. 5. . 8. 33. 22. 3 nv> w 3 a 24 npy .AXSH'EJtS Page 23. ?>4tl 53. 14. 26. r. 1. 25.8(c + a).h. 8. !  </ . a). 17. 2.a f 54. w* ( . 18. 4r 2 .aft. x a8 1. \ :{ 2 a 48. a 10w. mn. 10. a2 24.  b* 4 r 1 . 5x 2 rt ft. 7. a 52. 21. 15. ar. 2 6. 4. 17. + 6. 7.6 x + 0) 16.a'2 . 6. .  G J8 r  4 a <?. 11. 2. ?> 22. 24. 12.abc. /> Zmn + qt G/ 4 . 12. x3 . 1.l.r 2. 0. . 32. 2 2. 6. 31. 2 3x f z. 13.4c 3 8 8 J. 12. 8 + 2 a . 1 4. a 3 . 28. ab a.Oa: + 10. 19. . 36.2 a. 4 21. ' 12 m?/'2 27. _2?> 2 + 3 x 9. 8 b. 14. 5.2 a2 2m 2 4. c2 . 25. 1 + 45.x f 1 2 . 2m(4? 2 4ir#(2. 14. a  ISjfat. .  17. 43. 2 4 5 2 a3 1. 32 w 2 w. 364c. 42. 38. . 4wipg>' 27. 26. a f 2 f 2 9. 20. 2. 1. a + a. 2. 1.'U4j>. 3 Ji 8 . 2. t). 2a. a 3a 4 2 &. 5. 30. a  49. 0. 15.a~. '  .  14 afy . 2.. 10. 50. (5x47 3.(a f 6) + 4(1 + c) .  23.r 2 + 4?/ 4l). 14. 8a*b8<tb'\ a + /> fc + 4 r.a . 5. 59. 12. 4. Exercise 16. 15. . 21. + 4 c.7. x  + 3z.11. (mn} 11. + c 4 d x + 6 e. 11.  12.2 57. (w4w)(ww). 814. 2x 4 a 13.4. 7 a5 1 . 8 8 . 1. 3 a . 36. 2 a f 6 414.4x. ^ <. n*. 8 . 51. 3m2 n 9 (a + $) 2 . 4. 31. 2.2. (2n' 43p 47 ). . 2. 4ft ~. 4. 0. 24. 2 y' 4 . ?/.1 . m*  n*. 58. 24 b 46. 24. 7. 19. f 2 ?/  2. 55. 7.
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(r ?/) (x 6 (b + 5 ?i)(& 50. n + 2. +4 34.000.2 6 + 13. ( 5) O5)(w + 3). 45. (m + 6)(m3). 37.. . a2 >2 2 2  84 a a + 49. 40.r .2.10 35. 999.2 x + 2 x. p4 + . ' 46. 24. 11.996. w'n 2 //^ + 25. .000. 4 x2 13. 2 (6 a + 3) (3a66)(3a6&). .404. 8 a W . 5. .+ l5J x// + 9 2 2 4 ^ 4 ()Or 2 20. Page 12. a + 25. 10. Om2 4 6m 6. (w4)(w + l). 7> . 44. 23. + <z 22 2 4 20 rt2 32. 990. 2. .5 ~ 81. 484. 19.16 a3 f 50. 29. . x4 28. 35. 41. 6 2 + 6lf>0. fo*. G a6 2. 8.. +  m' 1. 7. 38.r . 2).3. 4 m'2 40 (i V2 c 2 + 25 r 4 22. 3. 22 x 2 ?/ 2 y + 121 x4 29. . 30 x + 19 x3 . 10. 27. x4 4 121 4 ?/ . . 57. 36. 34. 2 a 2 + a ./ .m 30 6 4 1. 9999. 55. 30. 2 12. + 4 a +4. 39. 36. + 10 + 121 y*.020. 2 . ^/> 8 4 . 35. 2 a' + 2 ?/ 5 + a 3. 4 . (x  2) (x Page (rt2). 33. 1. r*d< x/2 ?/'2 18. 5. 15. 19. 998.<* &2 + 106 + tt + . 33. 10. 1. . 4. 14. 2xV+6x2y2^2 +22. + 2 9.ANSWERS 28. 15.004. 36. x2 GiC+5. 9. a 2 . 32.8. 1. 2 0)(p + 5).p132.r* 2 30. r. 2 +10s281. 8. 26. . 10 p 2 g ?> 2 ?/ + 49 & 4 2 16. 2 4 2 2 64 . 2 62 V2 132. 2 1: 21. 26.500. 7 .4 a&+ 4 &*.098. ^' J  7 f 12.1. 10. 32. 9. 8 38. 4.6.6 xy . 6 x6 + 13 x3 . +   5). 17. 33. + 4 t*. 7. x* .84 a' 9. (a (3 54. 1. 40. 10. 3wi2 m Page 42.15. 51. 34. 36 a 4 . 53. .994. . 24.712. 2 m3 + 4m2 . .^V"' . 41. + 7 6)(3a~76>.810. 25 a 2 6 2 . 4 2 //. x 4 ?/4 + ab . ?/H)0.^. 40. ^V^4 . 9990. 7.49. x*2^f I. I/). ft' 11. 10.54 p 2 + 81. 10. a + 56. 2 fr . 2 4 a + 4. 3.25. x 48. Page 39. 10. a2 ' + 48Z100. (a + 4) (a + 2).009. 31. 16. 2 a4 6 4 +8 a2 6 2 2x4 +7x 2 6 2 15 6 4 36. (n 2 5. a + 25. 12 x2 . m 2 . 25 r 4 ?/i 30. x 2 f xy + 9 41. 4 a&c + c2 30 x 4 ?/ 23. 2 (5 a 3). 21 2 .001. . a4 4 ?/ . 9 4 /> .ri 17. m'2 +18?rt 2 ' + 81. 6. 4 . ~ 6 20 . lflrt 2 8 + l. 4 + 25 q*. 2 6' .6 x2 13. ab . V + o ft . 441. 10. 2. 29. 30 /><.009. .x2 + 6 x2y 2 . 56.606. 4 21.2 y*. + 3)(3). (w+4)(m4).ab . p 2 . 11. 8. 2 a' y' . 25 25. 8)(?i (x2)(x3). 166. 4x21. 10 a' 2 . 20a 2 21a + 4. 25. 18. 39.20.6 y4 10. 1. 31. 24 ab + 9 & 2 . 2 j3 Z . ab.201. + 2 fz& + 2 i> + p + 9. 4. . m 3 j) 3 . n2 a4 6. 37.x2y22. 14. 42. 6. 10. 28. 14. 1).00 + 37.10 x + 25.4 12. 9801.5 ?i m #2 4 ?7i%'2 4 .4 n. 52.^ + a? + 1.35 ab 9. 1. (p 2. + a2 12 ab 2 8 0. + 12.  12 xy +9 2 >2 ?/ 2. 10 a 4 ?. (46c + 5) (4 abc 43. ) 4' 6/ 49. 2 . a3 0. s rc 47. 31. 10. 27. y.020.008. . a' .14 jp + 49.
14. 2. 19.r' ~ 16.34. 9. 9. 1.2 ac . .+ 77 15.1. 2 ft 2 ?nc w . 46. 9w 2 + 0m+ 1.r'^ 15.27 x 2 4. 8. + 3.1.000. .3 a 41. aft.VI ANSWERS 43. 2. 2 . 4. 5 aft 4 ft 2 4 8. a 2 44 a2 ft' 4 ft 2 2 4. *3 y 4 . a 2 ft 4 9 c3 . 3 l48m47?n 2 20. . 8. 8 x5 ? + 4 1. 50. ft* ft / . 12.rw f 8 .8 y. 5. 15.n. 11. 5^418(7. 4 x. 4x43?/. c 12. ft ? ft' ft ft. . abc 7. 75 a 2 29. Osy. 6. 6 <z 2 4 ft 3 . G. c3. 13. 8. yfl. 3 aft 20. 4. 5.2 wZ 4. 6x 3.25 c . 12. 6. 5 a  (5 ft.2 . 13. Page 51. 3. 1. ti'jry1 7. as _ 10 16. w 2 . 10. 17. x 2 + 2r f J. 1. 2 4 3 9. 11 4. . Page 7.25. 2. 12. . 8 r<ft 4 2 . 26.1. sr 11.10 xy*. 2 a 3 ft. 8. a 10. 6. . 6. 5. Page 11. .  11. .8. aft 12. 3. .21 2 2 f + . aftc 52. 11. 14.5 mp. 14. 2 ?/ ft Page 2. 2 4 2 x 4.9 d. 4. 2 .8 <r 2 2 ?/' .1.5 n*.7. 47. r/2 4.2 ar. 2. 13.2 aft 4. 4. 13. 14.8. ?/2. . 21. . 2 ?/' . r ft. 6. 8. a2 x 8 4 ft 8 .24 . 7a3ft.r?/ j/. 12. 4 x y 2 7 x + 5. 2.10 2 + z 2 410. a 4 4 ft. 13. 3 a.3 3. 2 4. l 4 . 1/*. i 9. // 19.2 . a r'43 ll'a^S 15. a 2 410 + 9 r 8 + w2l ftc. 3 5 a4  4 a2 4.4. .y3.2. 4 n2 4 +p ft 2 42 2 aft 2 mn + 2 mp 4 10 a ft \ x* 4 4 2 z2 + 2 jrz a2 2 2 f 25  2 np. 23. aft 4 tt ac 2 ftc. Exercise 27. /r .29. 4. 1.2 2 2 8 . 4xy + 13 <) .8 yn . 2 ? 14 . 3.  5 z* . Page 48. 13.  10. + 4. 8 ?/ . 4 ac. r 7.3 ry. 4. 10 ft. 12.11 _ 5x _ _ o 18. 5. 9. _ 2 a . . r//. 2 ^r ???' 2 . 5. 8 x .1.r ?/ ??i ?). 5. a 2 .9 4. ft 17. :r !>. + 16 r 4 + 12 a'2 //2 .1*5 2 r 2 .2 <</.yar 4 */ ?/ Page 50. 7a 2 ftc 4 4c42a.2 .x^. 1. 44. 24. 5. 16. 21. 20 15. 2 ?/ 4.  . m L 4.15 21.15.r?/. a. j) . a 8 4. m'2 3.6 :rs 4. 1000 1000 . 9 5 4a' 2 ft 6. + c 2 4 aft2 ac + 4 ftc./ 4. 18. . 14. . 4 a 2 4. 2 m2 4 2 w2 7.3 5.30 ftc.1.lit x + 4. 4. 15. +w . x 4.r .23. 14 r 2 . 7 r . 4 a* 4 9 11.3 w 4*7 m 2 3 mn . 2 1.2 1 //. 5. 4. 7. 4 c m .3 x 2 2 4. 01. 1. x' u' 2 2 z~ 4.r" 20 S? . z. 16.rw. 17. f>r* 4. 5 4 a Oft. Exercise 2 a:// 26. 3. 2 2 + 2 a. 49. 4 d 2 4. Page 13. 135.  3 c. x4. ft. + x?/ 2 1. 8. 10.  12 y 25. 3.7 arty 4 4 x 2 //V2  3 Z2 3 1. 8 ?/ .1. 2 12. y 7. 125. 9.c ft*/ 1  ft' ?/ .2 ftc .> 10. 2. '.12 aft 4 20 ac . ??. i 2 tji. 1. w .w. 18. 20. Page 22. 4ft. 4 pq. 19. 22. 9. 3.5 a .3^V.2 2 . 10. 3*y2 w + 1. 5. 6 x 2 t/ 2 4 . 17. 16.
+ f + b 2. 35. + (d) 2 x + (3 sc 700) = (x f 1200)  x. d + !. <>. 100 14.7). ( a f 4. ft. f (I. 1. y yr. 10. b. 10) (6) 2 zf 20 3^740. lOx 10 + w. 5. . 15.10) 100. 10) + = (a) 2 x . 50= L 100 15. 16. (2 a. m=  100 2x=2(3x~10). 59. 32. + 10 b + c ct. 28. 5. 6. !). 2=10. 29. x y $ 6 yr. ct.x700. m+ 11. 2. Page 13. (c) 2x. 12. I. 3x  1700) = 12. iL*. (d) 2a + 10 = n.. 38. f = eZ 2 x. 6. 33. 15. 10 a. '^ . 2. 3. 11. 0. 60 25 1. v (6) 2x. 3. . a 8.rr2. "mi. 16. y 50. lO. 39. 20. 25.. / + y + a// 12 yr.000. ? 43. . }f. 7. x 49. 2. 24. 100 d ct. 42.100. . 20. 1. 2b. 7. 43. . 1&. 100 2. s. . 6. Page 6. 36. 30. ct. 13. 2b 22. 10 x sq. ) 2^ x 20 =a 7. 17. = 5 ?i x 460. 31.(3x+ = rraxlO. 4. 27. (c) (2zf 600) (3 =4. 4^ = 100. 57. Page 61. y 100 a 24. 1.  />) a = all. rn mi. f 6)(o 62. 8.  1$. 16. </ 20.  9 = 17 a. 41. 1. % 4. 34. n M. 46. Page 31. 18. 12. 3 9. 19. vil 56. y 2z p= 3 (a c. r tx mi. 45. 9. 10 yr. 17. 4 f 39.ab a. 00.6 = *. Jj12. 30.r ct. Page 40. 4. 14. 11. 26. 25. 6. x 48. + 3x + 2y + 32. 5. 33. 8 n  10 yr. 18. l. 20. (c) 2a? + 3 (/) (2fl58)h(8aria)=60. x = m. 10.r1. 90 7 2 + 10 = c. 3. b. # + 20yr. (> 27. 10. a 10. 5.. 44. 3x2. ft. 2. " lir. 37. ] 2 ri 42.  6 10. (A) 3 x f (4 x . 100= ^. 2.(3x  700) = 5. (>. 5. m +~m 3. + 3 = 2(3* . 2. 38. 4. . 21 2. 9. 14. ^ 12 sq. 8. 22. 6. fix. ft. 37. 2x + 35. 17. 13. 7.p+7. 44. 'nj 100 a 28.ANSWERS Page 9. 7. x 2y 10 act. (</) 2a. 11. 7. 10 >_&. 7x 2 Page 21.. 4(a ft) c = 8. 58. X 60. 22. d. 41.  2\. 0. r>?imi. 7. 40. 2 ct. 13. 47. 7. I. 10. 5. y ?>i x + 26. x + 1=a.200) f(^ + (e) 200. 29. (a) ' 12. 1. xy ft. 23. 4. x. sq. 19. ct. 23. 800 = x + 1300. 36. + 4x 3y 34. 4.
7. 6.000. 5.000. 3. 4.411.000 ft. 1313. 11. 11 w(w' + wi . ~=90. 2.. 50. 7 hr.. 1250.7.000 ft. (e) i* + A. 12. 2 2 ?/ 21. 13. 45 in. 1. 13. 12. 7. 1200. 20 yr. 250. a 12. 8 2 19..000. 28yr. 72. 9.3. $40. 25.. 10. 8. 1. (p + 7)(3a5&).. 8(a6 2 +6c2 c2 a2 ). 20. 12. 2... 8. 3. 11. 30. (a + 6) (a + 3).1). . (2a63?2_4 a /^) 16. (c) ^ v ' . 18. 200.0. 2. 13. ^ . 200. 25. 6. 11. 5. 18. 30. 10.000 N. Pace 65.5. 30 yr. 13 a 8 4 * 5 (53 xyz + x y'W). 9. 52. 15 in. 14.3aftc + 4).2). Page 5. (y7)(y + 2).y").13. 9. 480. Page 79. 13.000.0. Page Page 4. 1. w (/) 64.000 gold. 12 mi. 9. 17 7>c(2 a'^c2 . 25 yr.24. 9 in. 10 Cal. 2. 11 pV (2 p8 . 20. 8 12. 85 ft. Page Page 4. (a5)(a4). (a + 5)(a + 6). 5. 3. 300. 10 yd. 17.000. Y.. (m + n)(a + 6). 10 yr. 6. 8. 10 Mass. 180.. 4. 15.. 3x (3r.vili ANSWERS (a) V J^. 160 lb. 3. 42yr. 150. 9. 82 mi. Page 7. a a (a 8 a+l). 6.5. 30 mi. 3 hr. 90. 10. 10. 11 in. 14. 20. 9. 55. 4. 23. 68.  PageSO.. 6.11. 70^.21.210^. 2$. 19. 20 yd. 5 Col. '2 > 10aVy(2a 2 ay43y 2 ). 5. 15 yd. . 13. 71. 1. 3.. Ib.79. 5.000 copper. 12. Page Page 480 12. 14.6). (y8)(y + 2). 6 aty (3 + 4 6) 2. (yll)(y4). (6) (6 a 30) =20. 4.3.8.(5z .5p + 7 g ).. 14. 3. 2. 74. 6rt 2 11. 17. 10 yr. (*4)( + 11. ?(g ? g+ 1). 8. 16. 2. 15. Oaj(o62cd).000. 15. 29.3). 8. 8. z?/(4^ + 5xy . 67. 90 mi. 14. 2 3 6 7. . (z5)(z2). 80 A. (a 4) (a. MOO HXT 100 100 ^~ (5z30) =900.10.000 Berlin. 24J. (a + 4)(a + 8).000 Phil. 18.000 pig iron. 7a*fe(2a & l).000. ( + 4)(*2).. 6. 3. ? 2  = SJL+J10 13. 1. (ro3)(w2). 1200. 21. 3 (a +&)(*. 5pt. . (y 13. (y + 8)(y2). 10. 2). 100 1. 75. 14. 15 mi. 70. 78.22. 12. 8. 10. 7. 7.. 4. + 7)(y3). 1. 1 lb. 5$ hr. 600. 8 in. by 12 yd. = _?_(2ar + 1). 15. 15. 78. 7. 05. 2 2 2 5. 11. 5 lb. 7. 22.16. 6. Page 7. 20 yr. 8. 9..30) + (2s + 1) v v ' ' 5 18. 17z8 (l3z + 2x'). 2. 12. 10. 1. 40 yr.2. 100. k ' _ ft v J (d) 100 100 ' V ' ' 100 100 100 =^8000. 6. 4pt. 4.
6) 2 2 . 3)(3a. (9y4)(y + 4). + 2 )(a + ft)(aft). y) 2 29. 16. x(x +y)(x y). (7 ay + 8) (7 ay 2 2 13. 2(2s + 3)(a: + 2). 21. 17. (y8) 2 2 . (ay8)(ay3). Page 82. 8. Yes. (y + 4)(yl). 23. (13a +10)(13a 10). 9. 31. 2 2 15. 17. 33. 3a. 36.+4 y)(3x4 y). . .7)(2z f 1). 4 (a . 31.4 6). (0 + 6)(66). 5. (x + y4 )(x . 22. 24. 2(9a:8y)(8a:0y). (m + n +p)(m + wp). 18. 15. 3. 11. (m7n) (a. 2 No 4. + 5) a. 8) (a.8). (3a. 34. 100 (a. 2 3 by2 Yes. 7. (10 aft + c 2 (10 aft . 23. (10a + ft)(10aft).y (6x + 4)(5x4). 26. 2 y(ll x 2 + 1)(11 x2 . (3#y)(+4y). 16. 23. Yes. (a (p8)0> + l). (w + 20)(w + 5). (3 n + 4) (2 (3x+l)(x + 4).* (2 y + 3)(y. (15a + 46*)(16a46).1). 2. 7. . 8. Yes. x (z + 2)(x + 3). (g . ( 2 4 19. (2yl)(y + 9). 27. 13x7. 35. (5a4ft)(2 a~3 ft). (a*& + 9) (aft + 3) (aft 3). + 3)(c44). + 9^)(oxy . 32.1). (m + w) 2 5. (a 4 10) (a 4 + 3). 10 y2 (\) x + l)(x~ 3). 19. . 4. 11.ANSWERS 16. (5wl)(m5). 23. (2o + l)(2l). (n2 + 12)(n 2 + 5). 26. 4. a 2 (w7)(w + 3). 10 a 2 (4 . No. 9. 27. + 0(90 Page 85. 10.y4 ). 6. 33. 13x(a + ft)(aft).3)(z2). .9*). 28. 28. + 8)(g3). 15.r2).2 y). 10. 7. 10. a(2u. 24 9. Page 83. (a 3 + 10)(a. 14. (2 *+!)(* 9). Yes. (l + x )(l + x )(l + x)(lx). (m + n + 4p)(w + . 25. (2xl)(x + f>). (w* (3a26). Yes. Yes. 25. 24. (6n + l)(+2). 13. 11. . Yes. . 26. x\x 24. 28. + 4) (a. 22.1). 9. 18. 3. 27. (6 a. 216 aft. (5a +l)(5a l). (a 6 6) (a 4. 2.6) 2 1. (15z2y)(x5y). Oa 2 (a2)(al). No. 19. 9. 8. (4 18. . f 2). (5xy ) 3 ft 8 B 2 (12+ y 2 )(12y 2 ). 3. . 1. 40 x.2). (2w+l)(ro + 3).y) 2 aft. (<7 20. a. 9.2 by2 6. (5 a 2) (2 a 3). 26. 200 (x + l)(x + 1). 25. 10(3 5 6) 2 .2).1).4p). 29.2 ft)..11 6) (a 4. + 2y). 1. Page 84. 103x97. Yes. 10(2 30. (ft + ll)(aftll). (* + y)(zy). a*(5a f l)(flr . 2 y' (2y3)(2yl). 25. 22. 29. (4a. 10x2 (y9)(y + 2). No. 14. 25.c 2 ). 6. 16. ix 18. . (a. 32. 34.11 ft)(a6). Yes. 35.4. a . 21. 24. y(x. No. 9ft w(?3) 140 w 2 27. 7 6) (a 10 6). 12. 5. 2). 1. 30. (0 (l+7a)(l7a).5y)(3a. (5x . Yes. 14. 12. (4y3)(3y + 2).3 y 2 )(2 a: 2 f y'2 )2 3 Yes. + y + . y) (a.   . (a a: 19.7) (a. (15ay2) 2 . Yes. + 3). + 3?i) 2 (5x2y) 2 .3). (2 a? 4. . 10. 100(x. . 21. 2 17. Yes. (:52y)(2a!3y). 20. 10(a . (3*2)(. 20.w*)(l 2 n 2 ). (a + 8)(a3). (7 a + 4) (2 a . (4al)(a2). 30. (w ~ n (x . No.  x (5 a. 3(x + 2)(zl). 10(a + ft)(aft). 21. 2. 12. (4 13. 20. . (az + 9)(ox2). 17. (a2 + 10) (a2 2). 22.
(f> + fo 7. 2(m4l)' . 11. (x. (5^4. 2 . 4. 14. 14.3.y '2 2). 19 13> (7rt3)(7a~3).. (x//. 10(2 (3 4. (2x7)(x 2 2). 3x(x?/) 4. 36. . l. a 2_rt4l)(a rt 1). 6. a(a 2 + !)(+ !)( .8) n 43*). a 4. 2 k (wi 4. 20.1). n  r)(5a 10. .4). ( rt 23.) j). 7. (5 26. 8. ( (<> r4y3 . 7. 18. (!__/>). x  1). 5  (2 2 .2). 24x sy s 9. 9. 12. a (a + 2 6). 3.1) 3. 6 f c). (w4w) 2 1. 7. y )(.n).  (m3n + a + b)(m 3nab). 2 8(w . 40. 28. (. (xf!/)' 3 4 w)(m. 6. 39. 8. 5 x8 3. 2 (a 4. 2 2 3 . 3p (^9)(j) 4). Page 90. y(2x?/). 42).>*)(:> 4 lj 4. 19. 4 3.  (w' 4. 8.  29. ( { &). y). (2 a ~ f> b 4. 4. r x 2 */3 . (m  I)' 6. 8.r(3x' 2 4 (14. 8). 4. 17(x43//)(x2y). 5. 27.?50)(xt/z.?/).?>) H.& (a 5 & 4#  2 y) (a 1.'J)(' . . 12 m 2 (m n) 2 . 13 x 8 2 . 13. Gp). 4  9.5 <:  9 </) (2 a 12. . 4. 41. 1(V/ 88.^46) a?/ 2 /> + o) (ff n 2 T>).  WIM. x43. 3(47>44)(^4'> 22/)((3x). 1.i4l)(x4l)(x~l). (5a+l)(9a). 12. (Ox  7 ?/)(7 x4 y/).w )(l 4 w 2 )(l 3 + ( y) r)(x ( . 16. x 4. 15 M.4)(?  5 (6a 4l)(a +)2( 2x2/)(x2?/). 7. 8x.1). 16.^ c)((> 4 3 (3 w 2 w 4 m  ). ( a ^)(^3. ANSWERS r)(4x (4x 4.y.3)(x 4. 13. 2 2 10. 12.//)(5y x(x4ti<0. ( y). 4. (r420(4 10.&). x(x f y)(jr . 450. 2. Page 12. fi(c426).9).'/)('< 4. Page 86. 5. c 5 b 5 + 9 iZ) .4. Exercise 47.y). (14. 30. a 41. 5. (> 1. ^ . 38. + 3. 8 4 15 ?>)(a 34.8). 2(5 a  ft) (a 3 ?>). (a />. 3 x4 . 14. Page 87. 4 6. Page 89. 4. + 2 //). ( 4 1 ) (2 m . ah}. (7/1 2) (m 41). .))(x  ^OC 1 1). 42a 3 x. 15. 4).l)( a 25. 11. 22.5 m2 x2. (5 31.&).42 x 4. 7. 2. 37. 2. 6.7)(^ {I 12. a8 . 2. (a &4. 7. 11. a + a b. 3(. (^ 7.^ 48.a + (< (3 7>)(3  a l fo). a 4. 6. Exercise 46. ofc)( fid).2).y)(fi a .0+ 12). b) (r 4. 8. 13. 13( 33. 17. 4& 2 )(tt4/>)('e 62 2 2 4l)(a' & &) 5). 6. 6. a x 3 10. (^ + ?>_8). (a 4.e 4. 8. x . 2 21.7s) (2 a. (16 4  2(5 n .b.2 y). 4.3. 35. (a + (2a3fc)0*+ tf)Or 41) (^42).4. 9. 32. 2 y) ^ .y (m + 2 u + (\p)(m + \ . 5.X 5. 4 a s &8 . 2. ?i(w 4y) . a 2 (a9). 2 + . y6. (a 9.!) (x42)(x2). 4. 10(8x' 4l) 4. 2 2 (3a 4// )(x4>/).2)(x 1. O + ?/4<?)O ?> 4 q). 10. (5 al) 3) (f> a/> 15 ?>). (w * . 2 5 a 2 6c 2 3. 11. . 4 a8 . 14.8) ( (16. 15.36).4). 24.'})(c . 8. Page 92. ?>). (* _ 2 )(a 4. (c. K + l) a (a 5 />z 9. 2 a 2 13x 3 y. 80a6 4 40 aV>*>c >d\ !)&(<* 4. 2 1.
ANSWERS 10. (a2)(a + 2)2. +8b a 4 3 / ^. 1). x 12. 2(2al) + l). a 23. (a2y2 (a3) 2 (a4) 2 14. 18.6). 30(3 2 (a 15. 11. x 22. 13. 6a2&(rt6). ?_!&. // m+1 !+*?. b ! 21. w 2 ^ (!L 5 +2 3 i + 63 3^1 rr Pace 991 20 .  1). a 10 25. + y) (a: y). x 24. + &)(&) ( . +5 1. + &) 2 ( .
' 2 7. 30.50 ~ 1/2 . _*^p5_^^_.2g ftc 46 ?t ~ 30 y . + 2H 1 ^. ^iie^+JoJ^^ilOa bc 9 11 92 aft  1>*  10 12 + qc + ab ' 238 . w + _ i + _J? a w+4+ ? 3 8. xy 43.  **/* + 84 _.Xll ANSWERS 21 2 . i^. ab121 12 ft 2 8 a 2 196 a2 8. 7. 11. A^. ^i 2n a 22 9x * T 94 4<i ^ 33 9 ^ 37 (a 2 b)' (a + ft) a 42. + lH + . 26. + ^8 1 a 2 1 ~ 41. c 8. 4 L 8 2 . 4. . 1. 4c 10. 6. ^~ 29. 28. 3a 2 2) ' i (x ' t+3) 5x (wi8)(w go a 3ffl + 13 + *2)(x + 3)' 19 ' rtv+Ji:'. a 5. 6a5f^.y~ z ' ] 5 x2 y + :j y. rt 3a2 + ~3a a 3. 6.. 6. 2 a. 0. a 2 ft 2 + 21 ft' 1 4m m2 26 9 fi 7 . i. r > 'a2 f an f ft' ' 2(czft) (x 2. 2x1 + 5x 12 + ^.80 MP 2 30 ?/ r + t S ^ 2ft "' 180 wv 15. Page 100. w1 + ac w 4 7. Page 101.
1. n 16. 2) 19. 38. 29. 2 re +3y mn 10 lo. (y + (z 12. 33. I) 2 3z 1. 14.ft . 1. 4. 20. 3. 1.^_. 27. pf n 6 1. 14. y(x + x ?/). . . 45. 11. 41. J. m 9. b 2. ft 2 f 1 + a + 1 Page 109. 4.L+ft. 4. 14. ?+_!?>. 1. 21. 36. 15. x 05m ' 5. 6 . flf. 24. Of. 5. 35. 7. 25. 2ft a i m x. 5. 11. 1. 3. 4. 17. 3. 3.  10 X + u. A. 46. 5 be _J_. 3. j L . 40. f 7. 11. 6. 4. Page 110. +3 ( + 15. 12 28. 5. + f. 23. ' 6. 2 47. 42. 39. ?. 5 6 Q 5 a 12. 31. 37. 19. 9. 10. 6. Page 106. ^_. 9. 15. 7. 30. b a f +c 14. 4a3ft. 8. Page 111. 12. 3. Page 113. xiii in <l ~ 2b 18.  V o 4. 15. 1. 6. 26. 32. 5. ac mp lf> n 12. 0. 17. 8. 6. 4. 21. 44. w^x 2 b Page 105. 7. ft.y 7. x 1. . 16. ! 4 20. a2 2. an 18. f Page 107.^U\WF### X<6. 4. (>. x\. 0. a. 1. n . 3 7 i o. n m a + 13. 7. 10. 11. 18. 12. 1. c 8. . 13. ^i 11. 34. 1. 6. (a + y) 2 Page 104. 11. 21. 16. 8j_m 7 3. J. J. 1. a 17. 1^)2 ' 2 1) 2 13. 9. 43.
1. 2.000. after 20. 15. 11 hrs. 10.15. w 44.000.002. 74. (a) 4 min. IV s. :2. (d) 500.138. Yes. 9. $30. 1. 18. n 32. Yes. 21. Yes. 4. 14. $00. silver. (ft) 28.000 If da. _JL. .  C . 10. 0.. 1:1 = 1:1. 9J oz. 11. 7. 300. 300. Page 121.} da.9. 17. after $12. min. a 4 ft. 30ft. 30. 31. * 7:9. (c) 8300. ^?i min. 30 yrs. 7.  + . $0. 17. b 25 ' mft 26 ' w 27 ^ ' ~i~ ^ . 10. Yes. 4. 14.10. 40 yrs. 10. 2:1. 10^ oz. 14. a 4 ft 3 T 29 30 ' 5T (a) ^ 10 (ft) 31. 15. 4. J ^'. 1.. Yes. = A's. 3. 24 mi. 11. (c) 2 hr. 10. [>> ^ a . 7} 18. 26 mi. f .0 & . 21. 16. Yes. jj. 12. f. 19. Page 118.. (a) 25. 6. 1: ~. 2 20. 8. " 0. ^p^ r ~ 7. 18. 10. 00. 26 30. 16. .000 1 = 23. 2x:3y.2. 75 . 14. 8. 55 mi. ~m . $40. 20. dn ~ mi. ft. 40 mi.0. 5 25. 1:1=1:1. (ft) 104. 40wn. 16. 3.. w 18. 26. 9. 13. 19. 22.. 5 2. 5.000. (r) 3^ da.. 6.. 275:108. 15. 17. (a) 30. (d) 4 da. 1:4. 1:1 = 1:1. 10. ANSWERS 16. Page 125. 1 da. No. 1^'. 9$./hr. 33. 8. #V ~~ 34. 8. . 8301 hr. gold. 15. . (ft) 5 hr. 9ft. 6. 1:1 = 1:1.XIV '/ . 4. 15. 300. 19. 19. () 2. 15. 13. Yes. 38ft min. . min. 23< &n b ' . 7. 12. 8. 12. r/ i  PM xx HXH />/ Page 114. 32. 17. 4fl M_. 20.004. w 21.2. 10. 4x'2 :3?/ 2 1 . 5.11. 30 mi. 24.. ^m . 11.137. 3 da. 7. 81. $45. 3. 13.  29. 4~r~ n . 5. 2. 3:2. nm. 10 yrs. 28. 5. .. 1 : 12. xy. Page 117.x + y. (ft) 5 da. 36. 5ft 30mi. 500. (a) 12 hr. 7T 2 Page 116. after 18. No. 20./hr. 9. 3 : 19 = 4 : 25. 1:3. J. P+ ^ 33.003. 7. 9.001. '"I 22. 24.000. 27. Yes. 3. 3.139. 212. . 33. 21ft min. (ft) (r) 8 hr. 4. 34. Page 119. 7. Page 124. 15. 1. 3. 7 . 10. 13. 18.. 35.
"2:1.3. 6. ig 6. 31J.1. 32  <>' 33  4 <^: 34 : : . 11. 3  24. 2. 16. 24 1 (e) Directly. *. 6. 20.160.840. b x 37.4. 10. 21. 9.4. 1. + b 7 .. x +y x + 74 7 \.8 oz. . 12. 2.9. 26. 29. 3. 11. ft. 141.7.3. + 7>i//  ft 1 .  28.2 x. lo mi. x 42. 1 1 : : : : : : (I. 20 cu. 5. jc:y = n:m. 6*. () Directly. 4. () 7 Page 126. : 23. 32j. . 57.57. 4. 8.000 sq. 7.15 x. 2. J.3. 41. . 4. 1. a~. copper. . 41. 3. 3.3. 10. 44. . 19.3. 2. : : . 2. 5. 8. 47.C ?/ a . 1.36. : : : ?/ : tf : ?/ : : : : : : : : : sr.5.12. 4. Page 136. + W. 10. = R~ R>'\ V V = P> P. 8.5. 38. 7. 2. 5. 17. 9  15. 4.46. 6. 945 11 10 .J 3. 138.3. 21.r. 5.1. 13. Page 131. 1 rt * vm^1. 2. Page 5. 4.000 sq.1. 23.7. 13. 5 2. 48. (I. ~ 1. (b) Inversely. 22.^ 0?j ' gms. 2. 4. 13. x:y a: b. 7. 4. $.3. 3. 7. 3.5. 35. (</) ft.5. 31. "lO. 2. 3. Page 132. 13J. 3. 2. x y = 1 = 3 2. 19.  19. . 25. 15. . 6. 2. : />. t 5.5. 174+ Page 128.. 43. 3.' : : : : <>. . 9. 3}." ^ 2. 7^. 18.*. Page 9.5. 4. 8. 54. in n. 7. 39. 28. 1. J.12.20. 10. 2.  ?. 14. 5:0 = 10:12. 40. 20 20 J ^. ' 55.ANSWERS 22. cu. 3. 24. . /. 14.2 oz. 59. 11 w a 13. 30. 5.3. i. . = 7 b'.22. 52.1. a +b 1. (b) C C' = fi JR'. y a y = 7 0.4.2. 5:3 = 4: x. \\. 8. 16. mi. 3.3. 7. 49. 56.15. 11 5 . 6. 16. 36. . 26. 55. y . 7. 17. 5. 2. 40. 8. 6 10 = 12.5. (<l) A A (e) m m = d> (.li. OJ. 9. s<i. 20. 1(5. 200 mi. 3. in. y 1. ini. 7. 30. 24. 19. 1. 4. 19 OJ. 2. 19 3 . 4. 7. 5. Of. 12. 7. J pq. 2. 14.]. 9. a 3.3. 1. (a) Directly. 15> 9. w. .5. 9.17. 11.x a. 127. 11. : XV 27. J. 2. mi. 53. 2 n . 3. 22. 2. 5. 1. 5. . OJ. 7. Page 134. 45. 4. 1. land. 27. 15.5. 1 18 = 3 51. 4. 50. 2. . 7. 17. 7.a. x y y . 2. : .) 31. : : T 1' : /> : . tin. 3. 7.4. 25. 23. w 8. 2.3. 1. Page 133. 2.2.2. 9. 25. 1. l.1. y :y =. 9. + m* <7^' 10 7)C 14. 13. 5. \. 3 2=3 x. 8.. 2. 12. a f 2 2 = 5 x. 3. 7. 46. water.2. 14. 36. 58. 5. 32+ mi. 2. 7. 2. +m ' 12 3_a ' 7^ 10 ' 1 . 11. Page 137.J. 4. 9. Page 135.6. I. 2. Inversely. 12.4./':</ c a f :y=2:9. 4. 2.
25. 16.. B's 15 yrs. 7. 5. = ^ a Page 141. (a) 12. 4. through point (0. 2. 40. 4. 1. 5%. . u 2ft. . 4. 1. 17. Page 153. 21. 15. 7. 3. 5. yrs. 13. A's 50 13. 18. 16. 8. 7. . m . Page 146. 30.l. 20. July. 9. 26.. 20 & Oct.9. m f 9. (ft) 20. 20.1J. 6. 3. 7. SL=J o ft r^2. 1. 6. 21. Apr. 3. 1. 9.7. 3. 10. 17. 20. 2. 0.4. 16 to July 20. J. Page 142. parallel to the x axis 0. A's 30 18.2. 10 sheep. 15. 16.$2000. . 11. 0. Nov. 5. On 11. July 20. 3. 20. 1. C's 10 yrs. 4. 25. 1. 1. 14. 4. 10.4. . 3. 3. 1. . 6. a =J (n  1) rf. 1 (c) Jan. 8. 90. 23f .  11. 10.3. 13. 23. 16. C's 30 yrs. . . 5. (5. 4. & part of Feb. 12. 26. ft 3. 10. 18.33. 12. Page 152. 3. 3. 2. 2. 25. 24. 9. 3). 4. Oct. (a) Apr. 4. 1. 100. 0. B's 40 yrs. 4. ^. 14.3.& w_ i ae 22 5 L=. July. 5.10.  17. 2. 4. 11.. 8. 2. at 15. 11. (c) . 12. $500. 3. Jan.1. 3.XVI Fagel39. ad _(?jrJL. 3. 32. 30. 20. 7. 6. 2. 4. Aug. 2. 28. 1. Nov. 18. $900 5%.4. May 5.1. 5. 11. 14. 6%. 18. 7. 2 a. Jan. 2. 6 cows.. 40.. 3. 2./hr. Apr.^. About 12f. . 2 horses. 2. 423. 12. $3000. 19. Nov. 24. afcd ae ftd 8 ft. be 10. The ordinate. 5.n + p. 19 gms. 11. Page 22. 11. 10. Jan. 4. 4 mi. 16. 6. 6. ' . <*ft/ bd 1. 9. 4. 1. Feb. 4. 12.8. Page 145. Jan. 5. a. 5. ad AzA. 00. 25. 23. .$5000.  Zn  "(^ll 14. ' 6 3 a. m f 8. &. 15. m + n p. ' w_i 7 fr^ m w ' 2 m+w . 24. 147. 3. 4 ' q. A a parallel to the x axis. 24. 3.3. 9. 9. 2t2. . 6. 22. 3. 2. $250. 17. $4000. 7. Nov. 3. 20 to Oct. 10^ gms. 2. & part of Sept. $6500at3Ji%. 2. (<f) 13.65. 2. 7. Page 143.2. 2. . 29.0. 13. 72.. 7. . 27. On the y axis. 8. $ 1000. 30. 1. (ft) 23 J. yrs. 3. 7. 1 (d) Apr. 2. & May. Page 151. 3. 3. 6. Jan. be 7. 5. Apr. 16. M 2. Page 149. 31. 19. 4. June. On the x axis. 2.0.
a 10 ' a ll V&. 2. 1. xy. 13. Page 164. (a) 5. Page 158.83. 2. . 2. 8 1 f f g*. . .34F. 5 and 2. 3. 4. 8. 2. 2.7. H. 3. 27a 3 27 343 a 6 27 2 +9al.64.59. (a) 12. (ft) (ft) 2. 10. (ft) and (d) 2. 10 C. 5.24. 3.1. (gr) 21. 11. 44 + 6t/2 m4 4m8 H6m2 4m4l. 3.41 and . 27 a6 ft  9a 2 1. 13. 2. 1.6. xg . m + 8 m% f 60 win2 4.79. 1. Inconsistent. 3. 0C. 4 ) 21.67.75. SlstyW 7. . 5. Page 163. * 16. m.5 (ft) 3. 64_ a 12 ft 27 ' a 121 81 a 4) ft 44 a 4TO a3 l.75. ' :=_!.59 . .25.73.83. . . a + ft. 11. 3. +3 4. 24. (/) 3. 2.73. 15. ft 2 4. 27 19. 5.AN WE US 'S xvii Page 157. 2. 2ft4 Page 168. 15. 2. Inconsistent. 10. 8. 14. 3. 19.4 aft h a 2 ft 2 .3.24 . 1. . . 20. 16. 3. + a 4 ft* . 12. 11. 3. Page 159. 1. 1. (c) 7.73. 3. f. 3. 9.75 (ci) 3^. 5. 9. . i/* 25 a8 343x30 ' 1 125 29. (ft) (d) 2. . 4. .8 n 27 a 4 ft 4 f 8. 2.  1. 4.27. 4. 125a 28. . 9 and Page 166. 4. 22. f 10. 3. 25. 2.  1. 1. 1. 6. 3. 14. . (<?) 2. (c) 2. 3. 28. 2. 26. 2. a 6o&i85 c i5o . 1. 2. 3. 2. 14. 1 + I5a 3 + 75a6 + 150 126a 9 ft . (e) 3. 125 16.73 ami . G. ." 23.. 125 a 8 12. 0. m4 1/ m%+6 w2 n f 2. 10. () (rt) 3. Indeterminate. 27 27 81.24. .25. 3. (e) 2. ImW. 2. 13 . (/) 3. 15 . . (ft) 2. 1. . 2. 4wn8 + n4 5. . ft .. 1. 2 a&m Page 167.75. 8. 3 .17 (ft) (c) 2. (a) 4. 18. x*f 4x 8 + 6x2 f4 xf 1. 30.4 a^ft 4*/ 3 + t/*. 32F.2 (ft)  1. 30. . 1. 147 a 4 ft 21 a 2 12. 2 2 22. 4. 5. 1 4.4. 1. 20.41 and 23. H. 2 l. I21a 4 ftc 2 18. . 7. 12. f. 24. 8mW.64.25. 04 x 12 */ 1 '^ 1 2 t  9 11. 2. 81 ".25. Indeterminate. (c) 14 F. 3.3 aft 2 + 8 ft .13. 5. _ 9 x ^27 1 .84. 3. 17. \ft) 5. 14.5. 1. 8 a1. . 1.3. 3. 6. 1 23. .25. 1. aH64 a2 + 36 aft 2 +8 8 27a135a2 ft4225aft2 125ft8 . 13C. . f12 wi 9. 21. (a) 2. 22. 1^. 5. 83. 27. .. f4p 7+6p g f4pg 6. . jgiooyiio 17..1. 1. 1. a 29. 4}.5.  12 ft xW  26 31.79. 2. x3 3x2y + 3x?/2 2 a 3 +3a 2 +3a + m8 6w _ i. 19.  . 1. 13. 15. 18C. xW.87 (0) 3 (c) and and 1 2. 4.
a b 22. 0. (Gx + (i + 2a. 32+ 80 a +80 a* +40 a 3 + 10 a 4 fa 5 14.5 a 4 + 10 a9 . 22. Page 172. 420. wi 8 + 3m 2 . 2. (x + y\ 90. 2038. 2 4 8 2 . 11.10 a~ + 5 a . w w + 5 W w c + 10 19.1000 ac 3 + (J25 c 4 24. 16. 26. (a 2. 5. f 21 rt'6 + 7 f 6 13. 35. ? . 1 w + 5 m' G 7 w. 17. 6. 81 + 540 + 1360 a 4 + 1500 a 2 + 025. 6 (\x 3. 1 + 8 z + 24 2 + 32 r + 10 x 4 25. 9.3 ab + 2 2 ). 5 5 8. 8. 90.x ). 12. 16. ^i. Page 170.r 2 + 6jt). . 10 x G a 4 . (7 (2 2 3 2 16. 8 4 se 1 1 :J .  x. (1 (x2y).r 2 + S:r2/2 ). 76. 31.5). 3M. m 13. (a + y+l). +3 + 5 4.1. 71. (6a + 4a + 3a + 2). 9. 19. 2. (ab + c). ?7i 1 1 3 1. . 30. 237.  +X '. (a + 2 +l). (48 + 6.i c 6 15. 19. 15. a: l . Zll. ). 16. 2 49 . (rt' (2 a (7 4 10. 25 19. 1. 2. 20. 12. 1.037. 13. 15. 5. (4a2 9& 2 13. 40. 9. (Gn + 5 a + 4 a). 8. 25.f 1 m 9 16. 99. Page 176. 2 2 4. 32 r^ 10 + 80 w 8 + 80 wt c + 40 m 4 + 10 m'2 + 21.2). 101. . a ). + l). 978. 6. 18.5. 72. 70. (l + x + . 00. . 3 6 23. 15.y2 ). 28. AN S WE no . + (win . 9. Page 171. 7. 4. I 8x2). 9. 8. . 1. . 300. 7. 24. 27. 14. 3. 6. a 2 . 5. 1 1 ?>). m* m*>n + 16 w 4 2 +5 c*d+ 10 c 3 tf2 + 10 c 2 d+6 c<74 + d5 20 in s + 15 w 2 w 4 G mw 6 + w 6 11. ( x + 2 x 2z + 4). 6. 10. 16 6 w . a. 3.6. 11. . 18.+ 50 m*w* + 70 w 4 4 + f>6 ?n *w 6 +28 >/* + 8 mn + w 8 17. 90. (3a. 23. ( Page 174. 2 2 7. 11. r> 4 : 1 . 21. (2 a + ft). fe *?>' ?> fi . + 29. . 13. 10. 20. 11. 36. 14. +(^ 2 3^ + 2). 4. 33. 6. (5^ + 4x?/ + 3?/ ). 763. 98. 34. 14. 57. 5. 8 /. 119. 2 12.XV111 7. +35. 2.83. 30. /> 4 ). 10*. 8. l lV (l+? + & + x J x V s 24. 1247. (ly). rt . 18. 17. 2. ??i ?i .1. .+3^ + 4. 10. fr ft i/ /> ^  23 . a. 12. a 7 + 7 b + 21 + 36 4 & 8 + 35a 3 & 4 6 6 7 . 17. 2(> + ( 2 7>). 100 *6 + GOO x 1000 2 + G25. 14. ro 12 + 4 m+ w + 4 w + l. 20. 3.GO a c + 23. 32.94. 309. 3 w 2 H2 + 3 4 n 4 . + 4 x2 + Ox4 +4^ + x8 10. GOO 2 c 2 . w 8 + 8 in n + 28 5 5 4 4 3 8 2 w c + 10 w 2 2 c 3 + 5 mwc 4 + r5 18. 4. 3 2 ^. (27 + 3 a xy 8 21. j/^/t^/' wi n 4 p*+ 10 w 8 w y 10 wi 2 w 27> 2 +6 w/ip. 7. 5. 84. 247. 2 ?>i?< >2 10. 1 + 5 a?b* + 10 a 4 b* + 10 a& + 5 a/> + a 10 10 i c5 . . 3. + Z). c 10 6 :l 20. 8. 1. 180 . 20.7 /)). 15. 4. 64.^). (:' + (2a3a: 2 + a. + i)). 21. (6 a + 5 a + 4 a ). (23 alt + 7 (4rt +3 (5m 2 Cm + 3). 9. (x' l). ? : 1 . + + ?V 22. 3 2 8 3 12. + y).
8. 10. 12. 12. Page 180. 28 in. 4. 24.6. 22. Page 177. 1.  5.18. 4.690. 3. 5. vV'TA 24. 3. 3J.  14. 4 TT M 28. l~8.  3. 10. a. 2. V2. 5f. 11. 12. 10.}. Page 184. 9. 2. ~ V^3. 6. 50. 5. 18. (6) Vl4 3. 4J. 21 in. 25 J. 35. Page 183. . Page 181. 17. 2 sec. 8.645. . 9. 5. 13. 16.  43. 2. 7. v 17. 7 in. 16. 30. 25. 21yds. m. 4. ft. 20. 4.. a + 61. 21 28 ft.ANS WERS 22. 7}. 7.Sn.236. 10. 15. 24. 15. 6 f !. 5. 48. 5. 6.. 6. 6. 1&. 4.6. 34.1. 7.4. 14. 33. 4. 16. 4. 10. 17. 7. 14. 8. 6V'2J. 23. V17. 11. 3. 39. 9 15 ft. 6. 21.w 18. 2. (< + ?>). 1.6. . 15. 7. 19. /. 21. 1. 5. 3.i. 29. 6yds. 2. 1. 49.?. 33. 20. 9. 34. 40.6. 28. Af^. 1.V 8j. 17. 32. 36 in. . Page 185. 3. 4 a. 4 W**. 12. 42. 15. 31.4. 46. {. 12. 37. ^^7m. . . 3. 5.798 yds. V. 9. i ^. 11. 11. 1. 1. (afl). 35. 15 1 10. 9. 4. 15. 2] see.925 ft. 31.005.367.a. 6. 7. f 3. 8. 4. 1 7. / 11. 37. Page 179. 13. 3. 18. V35 1. or 5. f . J.237. >i 27. f ^ is. vYb. _ iVaft. 5. 1.6. 8. 16n. 13. V J l.. 5.. 29. or 3. 1. 1 38.. . 9. ^. 5083. 7563. 7. 40.. 270 sq. 13. 2. 4. 13. }.522 38. 2. 9. 12. ii :J _7..*. 6561. i. JJI. . 27. 5. 1. 2. 7. 10. 2. 3. . 6. w. If ^. ft.4. 7. > w ft. 4. 3. 3.  f. 12. 29. 47. 26. 8. 39 in.13. 21. ^.742 in. 6J.5.  f. 2. 12.1. V2. 20. 5. 19. 5. 14. 14.243. 1. 6V21. . 4. f. m. 3. 32.. 5. 2.60.. 10. 4. xix 26. ft. 6. 44. 36.469. 23. 39. ZLlAiK 19. >TT 26. 7. 4 n. f. *. 30. 3. 11. 10.935.  2. 7. " ^_ 22. 25. 14. 2. \/3. 28. 41. 3. .916 yds. . () 2. * 1. 9. 23. 3. 27. f f V. 2. 1 f Vl3.  1. 10. 5.. 36. 7 45.5. 16.
31. 2. AB = 3. 13. V2.a. f 6 52 a.23.2. 19.1. 6. 6^2 in. 47. 6. . 38.  13. 28. 3. 20 eggs. 0. 10. t is. 3. 16. 55. 5.10. . 26. 20 nii. V^l. ^l/>> = 85 ft. a. 8. 4. 9. 0.  i.  Page 194. '  f 5. 23. s 11. 3if. 0. 24. (5 10. V2. 0. 2. $30 or $70.02.4. 12. 24.XX Page 186. 7. . 41.1. 3./hr. 1. irrational. 0.37.2./hr.  6. #<7=3. 0. 19 in.2. a. 2. 18. 14. 8\/2 17. 12. V^~2. 36.41. equal. 21.4. 43. %. H.5.1. 45. 0. 22. 2. 11. 1. 25.5 x + 6 = 0. = 0. 6. 7. 3. 40. 2. 20. 17. Imaginary.2. 3.l. 3. 34. . Real. 10. 1. 64. 2. in. unequal. unequal. 0. $ 120.  1. 3. 9. 44. 3. 2. 23.  2. 8. 52. 2.2. Real. unequal. V7. i. 4 da. Real. . 2.3. 15. 19. 2 V3 in. V ~ 16 4 2. 3. 7. 27. unequal. 7. 11. 27. 1. f. 3. Real.3. 2.7. 4. unequal.12 = 0. v^^fcT"^. 7. f./hr. 7. VV11. 12. If. 25. 21. 1.  1. *'' 12. 26. unequal. 1 . 2.  5. Page 188. 35. . 3. 1. 25. 32.6. 1. 2 . 15 ft. 2.* 2. Page 190. 5. 3. 6. .  2. 28. rational. 3.  1. 18. 4.12. 4.3. 35. 49. r* i.59. 1. 18. Page 189. 3.6 = 0. .  1. rational. ' 1. 53. 5 ft.48 3. 10 mi.a 3 a.Oa. 6V64.$40 or $60. 3. 1. .4. 1 3. 0.7. 3. a + 1. 2. 3. . 8. $80. x* 51. 3. Page 187. 4. 9. 21. 10 mi. x2 + B . 13. Real.. 48.48. 8. . Real.2. 30. 2. 3. . 0. 0. . rational. 12. 2. Page 192. 24. 6. 15. 20. 1_^L ft 14. jr .'. 15. 0.2. 4..74. unequal.. Real. ft. 2. 9. a8 . 1. unequal. 1. . 10. 1. 28. 2..70. 58. 1. 6. 20. 4. 22. 4. + 11 x./hr. U.2. 7. 12. 5. Page 191. . . equal. 6. 2. 29. 10 or 19. 14. 1).  24.  5.0*8. 16. 56.5^.7. 1. 27. 3.  1.4. 16. . 57. irrational. i .. 4. . 6. 2 ft. 2 4jr + x2 8 3 = 0. AB = 204 ft. Imaginary. Imaginary. 70 ft. ANSWERS 22. 6. . 1. 2. 25. 2. unequal. 3. 26. + 7 x + 10 = x*x 2 6x = or . 2. 33. 64c. 1. rational.62. 42. 4. 50. 0. 1. orf.2. x 14. 46.17.].4. 120 ft. V^l.2 x2 . 3. 10 in. 23. 1.  9x <). 0. Real. x*4x=0. a + 6. 7. equal. .. 1. 3.2. _ 19. 5. Imaginary. 6. . 39. 0. 2. . 5.23. 8 or 12 mi. 1. 2.a. 26. 37. rational. 0.
vV. p. 7V7. v. 5. fx'^z'l 23. 17. 53. 10. 8. 14. x/25. r*. 6  AAf. 38. 24.  f. 3. 14. 47. 16. 25. 27. 6. 23. 33.17. \. 1. 3. 4. 1. \/3. 49. 52. 125. 54. JV37. z + 22. 12*2 61. 41.6. 44. Jb \. 51. 29. 55. 1. 8. 3. 2. J. 9. 13. 20. 16. 25. \/. 14. 20. 3 4 11. y. 7. 48. 8. \a\ \/^. 84. 3. 10. 57.1 5 15. 1. 3. 23. 15. 4. 22. 0. 3. 16. v'frc 18.  f .  5. 2 L ( V. aW\ 40. 28. V^ 34. 16. xxi 15.2. 1. _! V3. jV 10. a. 1. 12." 17. : . ar 1 . 3. 13. J. 4. 2. 3. . a 18 . Vr. 8. 18. 59. 11. 2. 25. . 15. 1. 30 a. 24. Page 201. 27. 43. 2. 'J. 12. 10. . 40. 39. \/r\ 11. 21. 4. I. ifa. . 7.  48. 13. l  5 12. 29. wA 46. 17. 21. 1. 14. 20.//^. . 46. 31. 4. 9. 45. 49. 20.  J j. 17. $7. 3. n\/* Page202. 13. i. ). 1V1. 2. 35. 19. 36. ^49. v^T4 m. J 3. 1 39. ^Sf 3 38. 8. 8. 5. ? . &. 32. 1. 56. 9. v'frW. J. m'. Page 200. 3. 31. 9. 58. . y . 32. Page 197. 19. *V. 5\/5. 49.. 5. 5. 2. m. x$. 19. \. 33. 21. . vm. 30. 5. . 26. 50. 3.32. 0.^7. Page 199. . 7. 1. . 0. (m 26. J. 29. 4. 2. Page 196. 37. 8. 1. 19. 2. 15. 33. 3.ANtiWEUS rational. 50. 42. 11. 24. 30. x. 9.  a'2 . 47. 5. 18. 18. 4. 60. 49. 28. 2. ) 2 >J i 10. 4. v/3. \ . 243. 6. 10. 7 . 2. 8. 2V a. 1. 22. r. 2. 9.
31. 30.'\ 14. x 7  34. (x' (l 1+x). 32. 3 a~ 3 (x (.  a Vft 2 121 b. 1.2 18. 195V3. V80. 2 '"V5. . 41. + 2 Vzy + y 1. 3^2. (o* 2. x y. 135V6. 9. a 3. 13 a. 101 1. 34. 11. 13. 18.yl : . 25. 5 ( . ^: V2c. 26. 1+2 v/i + 3\/!^ + 4 x.Vxy 35. Page 203.707. 24. l 5. 2.12 *^ + x 7/> x  a** + or " 2 + 1.r^ 5 a~ 2 ft~ 1 + Vft. 20&V6. 21. 45. a^ + 2^+1. + Vic + 25. Vr 8. k/2. V2 + 4 V22. 21. 29. 16. 8. . x + 5 x3 + 0. 31. . 26. 11. 62V(J. . 4 or + 3 9 <r + 12. 3 42. + 2). 3. 5. 15. 22. 2v (T 2aVf. 3V5. a2 4. 28. 37. 6.rV:r. x. v^. Va a + 2 a^b* 14. ). 5.f. + 1. 51. 49. . 13. 2 x* 15. 37. 2. 20. (a 27. r 17  Page 204. 2 4 z2 l 3. 2>X2. 36. 7. 29. 32. m* n*. 30. 8a6V5. 13 35. ^7 \AOx. 34 r 6. + . 6. 4. v/^r 5  A/^~. 17. 17. y (a + ft) V2. 10. Page 207. 3 4\/2. 3V^T. T. 4aV^J 16. 9 . Vz2 ?/ 2 44. yV35. 40. r c .3 + 40 3 . . 38. 9. 3 \ 39.648.692. ^88".XXii ANSWERS 1. V63. 1 2 or 1 ?. Va 2 "ft. 7. 2. 33. / V3.x^y* + y%. 20. x%  3 ^+ 1. 3 x^y 33. ?tV?w.577. 19. y.  2 3:r. 4. + 2 V22. V 5 47. ftV 46. 24.r.2 VlO. 43.). abVab. 1) 3V3. 3. 16. (Va (5xJ Vft+Vc). 2\/7. x^ . 2 a?>V2 a. x 25. 2.. V. 8V/) 15. 5 22. 40. a 4 +* + !. 39. 2. + + ft. 10. 03r* 7. JIV6. 48. 2. . 9. Page 208. 19. 27. 28. 3. . 11V3. 23. V. 10. 3^ + 2).632. 12. 8. v'TM. 50. + 2 ar 1 ).
44. 11. 24. v"5. 50. 1. 1. 17. 5 \/2. 14. 6. 23. 7. 22. v^lf. \/8. 14c 4 V5. V8. 38. V3. v/l2. 21. + 20. 42. 6. 17. 22. 16. 4VO. 32. 18. x/3. m ?i2Vm/t. a^\/a7>. \^r^bVabc. 27. .. 2yV2?/. 5. D 45. 23. V2. 37. 46. . 51. 36. 5v/2. 34. 3. 19. 33. v7^. 36. 2. x/8L v/27. 2. 10. 18. v/9. w?i. 35. VT5. \/abc*. 3\/2. V2. '. Vdbc. x/8. 37. 31.ANSWERS _ Page 209. 3 V2. 24. "v/wi ??. v 25^4714 V2"a. \/128. 3. 6x2?/. rtv/5. a2  b. 39. Page 211. 40. 2. 53. . x/27. 13. 6aV2\^. xx 1. 6 2\/0. 34. 3 Vl5 30. V/. 6+2V5. v^a. a\/5c. __ rw 3 \~s~' ] * . "^8000. 26. 74\/Jl 120 46. ab 4. 2 28. v/lO. 7. v/i). \^6. 3\/15  6. \V3. 30. 38. VJla. 4. 10V(). 7\/(l 7VTO. 7. 12. r)\/(l Vrtr. 17. b. 19. ^9. ^v 7 15. 13\/3. 5V2. v^O. 13. 4\/5. 8V73\/IO. 30 Vl4. 4 >/3. 1. 28. / \/w/t 4 13. % 29.T*. 2 1. x/4. 41. 16. 2. 21 23. 6V2. fl^Vac. 11. W). 2 V'3. 15. 9. 21. \/a6c. VLV/ ^i?i= a: . 2. aVa. vT). 6. Vn. 6. 8. 3\/wi. v^4. 14. 5. 1V5. 26. : ^32. v^f. . Page 213. + VlO  v y (5. 0. 0. x/w^ 8. 39. V5. \XOfl6Vi5. V3. 3. v^30. 3. ^ 3 b 5 24. 40.r v/^ v^fr*. 32m27n. 52. 5. Page 214. 3v^2. . x/125. 20. 27. 43. 35. V3"m. 2 \/2. 2 ate. V5. 31. 14. 2\/7. 10. 11. 6. 25. ^27. \^6. 4 a*. 9 VlO + 4.J Page 212. 29. 5V2. x/8l.  3. 48. 15. 3 V15  47. 3. 8v2T 12. 10. . \/04a. 9. Vtf +3+ 33. 32. Vat. 8  \/15. . 12. 16. v"3. v/8. ^\/3. Page 216. Page 210. 4. 9. 8V2.30 2. 25. \/2. 49. 8. 18.
7 Page221. 11.13. 6. 26. 7. 12. 5. 23. 4. 7. 2. m f. 3. .3. (VllV2). 16. V. . 14. 11. 9. 13. 5 V65.6. Page 219. 13. 18. 3V23. (3+ v/2). 28. + 6) 2 . 25. 23. 1. 18. (2f V"5). 19.w 6. f. 25. 11. 3. 15. .2. i(Vf Vft). 15 f 3 V2L 4. (V5f 5. 26. 4. 10. 19. j. 10. 1. Page 225. 24. 35. 512. V3. fV2. 9. V3. xy 2. 4. 12. 11. ^. 16. 21 ' Vob 26.  f. 14. \. 14. 14. 1. Page 226. 15. 1. 7. 4. * 3. 2. 4. 17.389. Page220. 4. (V51). 19.2828.1805. 2. 3. (2V2). 21. 8.  2. 24. . 23. 20. 2V2. 81. 8 V3V2. + 5V2. 7. 29. 1. 9 mn.1. 25. 3.4142. 10. 32. i^Lzi. (V21).^ (\/22 4. 12.625 10. 15. nVTl.3. 2. 16. 9. . . 11.5530. 8. 4. Page217. 2x^2^.6 V3. Va. 1.3535. (\/3f 1).7071. 17. 5 + 2 vU 17. 8.4722. 4.464.W + 12 v/7  3 \/15 . 4. 27. ^. Page 28. 8. p 6 13. 16. A . 25. ^(VlO\/2). J. V3 . 7. V6c. 216. 20. \/3). 12. 13. 0. 25. 7. 27. 2V3. 2 . 5. 8.64. 7. 17.  .0606. 27. (2Vll). 3. 4. Page 218. {. 64. 3. 16. 7. 20. 1. 8. 33.5. V35. 7 f 5 4. 5. 18. 9. 36.XXIV 7. 12. 6. 16. 15. 5 f. 10. K>/0 + \/2). 19. 3(7+3V5). 1. 6 (V2 + 1). (a 1. 6. 4. . 8. Va. 4. 25. 2V3. 15. ' 22 i . . 125. 9. 34. 2. 16. 24. 5. (V6 + 2V2). 4. !^ 6 4. (2. 4. 21. . ^\/2. 37. 21. 12. 10. 4V3 + 6. 6 V. Page 223. Vf6fVtf. 9. 18. . 22. (\/5V2). 25. . V3. 22. 30. 2. (Vf + (4 V2). 31. 4.V3). V5. x 20..\/TO). i^ ~ 1 v ^.732. 2. V^TTfc. 10. 224.  13. 18. 2!5_. 9. 8.601. 5. \/57t. J. 17. (V8 + V2. 5. 22. j 15. 6. ^r. 5. 19. V2. 30. 23. 16. _^JflJ?. 3. 23.9.7083. 20. 11. 100. (VaT^v a). 1. 5. 24. 0.81. n*. ~ Vac _c 0. 4 14.2. 10. 5. ANSWERS 8. 9. +3 V2). 2ajV2*. 1. 1. 6. 9.1547.732. 29. 81.
2.  4. . 3. 4. 13. 3. (a. 11. 0. 30 . . 3. 2.2. . (a+&)( 2 14. 24. 9. 2.8a 18. 1 . 5. Page 234. 7. 4. (4 mn . 4 4. 2. 2 > 1. 3 . 3. 2. (wp)(w2p)(wi3p)(w*42p).12. 9. 4. =A^Z3. 3. 4. 100. 1. 3. 13. 1 . 20. 5. (63)(6' t 18. 5. a(l+a)(l_afa 2 ). t/ 23.  3. qpl. 4. 18. . . 25. (a + 2) (a Page 229. 12. 27(2 a 4fc)( 4 2 2 (a 4 &)(* + 4 & + !&*). 30. 4.2. 4. . J. 4. J.ANSWERS Page 228. 3.3.w 4 + 1). (2a + l)(4a*2a + l). 2. 2. (a2)(:iB2 f 2a44). . 5. 1. 3 5. 3. 11. 4 . 2. 9. 8. 4. //. 23. & + 6 2 ). 3.3. 1 6. 50. 2. 2. 6. (r. 2 . .  3. 20. 19.  3. 1. 2. 1 . 13. 1. 2 . a(.. (pl)(p3)(p6). 13. 15.2. (a + l)(a*a 8 + aa + l). 16. 12. (la&)(l46 + 2 & 2 ). 1. 4. . 7. 2.l)(z 2 + z + 1).  16). 2. o. 2.  1. f>.  2. 10. . 2. (1 +a 2 6 2 )(l a 2 6 2 +a 4 6 4 ). .0.  5. . P. 26. (a 4. 0. 87 . 10. f . 8. 2. 14. 5.4. 1. 0. 3. b . (w . 21. 15. 8. 3.Y. 7. 56l). 0. 6 2 2a + 2). 20. Page 236. 1. 1. . 3. 5. 14. 12. 3. 6. J 24. 3 . 15.r . 6. 2 6. (B43). 4. 5. 5. (8. (w2)(m3)(2m + 5). 1. 2. (a . 12 24 y . 2. 2. 4. XXV 4.1.1. 25. 5.l)(a 2 + a f 1). 2. 3 . 1. 1. 3. (s + l)(x2 :r + 1). 3. 5.l)(a3)(a . 4. 2 V^ . 13. 11. 18.4. . 11. 4. 16. 2. . (xy + 5) (x*y* . 4 20. 1. 1 .22. 17. 1. Page 233. 3. (&y2a#H4). a  . 4.3. 25. 0.7. 5. (+!)( 2) 10. a: :} . y. 11.1)(4 a + 2 a + 1). 10. .f 2)(sc 2 2 r + 4).  . . 73. 12. 7. 6. (rt. 2. 7. 3. (a.3). 2.  1. 3 9. 7. 7.5 xy + 25) 22.2)(m.l)(m . 3. 1 3. (pl)(p2)(p2).3. 5. 2 <? 4a2 . 5. 1 (?> x/^3.2)(* . 2 &. 25. . 4.4. + 6 4 )(a*a' 6 + a 2 6 2 a& 8 H6*). 1. 2 .3. 10.10. 3. ( 16.3 2. 6. 3. 8. 30 30. 8 6 & 0. 3. 2. 2. 3. a .a) (04 + 8 a + a 2 ). 1. (2 a. ~ f7. 3.nl^EI. 7.3. 30. 4 1. 17. .4). ' J. 73. 12. 1. 4 . 2 . \/0. 28. 8. 21.+ ^)( 4 a 2 6 2 h6 4 ). 10.2 + (row)(w4w)(w a + 6mw f w 2 ). 3. 19. 1. 2. .l)(a 4 + a + a 2 f a f 1). . 1. 1. 11. . . J Page 235. 24. 10. (10 #0(100 + 10^ + 4 ).  J.2 ) ( 10 w 2 n 2 f 4 winy 2 Page 231. 17. 4. 5.5. 8. 2.^a. V3. 4. 2. 0. 1. o& (3m 3 7)(9w 6 +21m*+49). (m 4 + l)(ro. 0. 1 . 4. 22. 6. 14. 6. 22. 2 6. 3.  f . l. 0. 19.
1. 3.. 1. 6. 4. tn 2. (a) $3400. 3 . 6. 2. 12 d. 21 30. 4. 1 . 1 2. Indeterminate. 1. 2 Y> V . 8. 17.3. n . 7. . 2>/3. 8. 12ft. 3.30. 12. 9. 1. 3. 8. 2 1. 5. 20 in. 12 ft. . 84. f. 2 . 4.y. ( 3. V3~. 1. 512. 1. 1J. 11. 12. 15.136. 2. 7. 15. }. in. 16. 4. 4. 30 13. 18. 12. in. 3 cm. 4. ft. 69. 125 125. 4.1. 37.4.3. 1 . 0. 12. } . 1. 2 ft. 31. 1. 10. 3. 3. 35^ 5. 48. Page 239. 45yd. . _ 7. 4. 5. 14. 1. 20. 2. 40 in. 6. 4. 5. m27. 3. 12. 2. . 2. . 6. jj. . 5 4. 24. 5. . 2. in. 1. Exercise 113. Page 248. . 5. 2. and _ 4. 3. 35 ft. 40 25 in. 3. 4. Page 245. 8. _ 10. . 8 . 5 cm. 3. .6. . 4. . 13. 2 . . '>. 18. 14.e. 2. 4. 1.1. 19. 19. i. 3. 3. 14. 1. 1. 15. 13. 26. 35 a. $.  1.. . 3. .4.13. _ 13 (0 6. 21. c.2. 11. 37. 1. 2. i j. ' j. Page 243.1. 40. 20. J. 5.18. 2 2. 23.3. 8. 1.. . 5 . 2. 4 34. 11. 3 3. oo . $VO. 1. 37. f*. 2n. GO .  . 2 10. 1. 7 3. 2. 16. . $. \. 11. 3 4. 9. 2. . 5050. 50. 1. 3.020. 7f solution. 9. 4 8.5. +  n. j. 4 6. 5. 15. 3 . = QO 6. 3. 2. 11. 14. 2 26. no co . i'ljVU.3. .0.xxvi Page 237. 4. 7.. 0.3. 3. 3 . 900. 35. 14. Exercise 114.. 1. 29. 2.3 . 1. 4. 30. 4. 5. 7. Page 238. 17. in. 6. 3. $46. 1. 15. 22. 3. 36. 40 1} 9 3 ft. 15. 2V7.  2 . 2.6. ^ }. 2 . 17. . 1 . 0. oo . 2. 55. . (a) 5. 3. 32. Page 241. 288. . 9. . 4.. 7. 1. 3. 14. . 2. 12. 13. 2. 8 3. 2. ri*. i i i . . 8ft. 78. 24. . 1 . 4 . 30. (>. _ 5. 15. 9. 3. f>. 17. 10. 1. V7. 1. 8. 3V5. ft. x 4. 5. 4. 5.4. 16. 50. 4. m + n. 1 . 1.  11. n. 3. 18. Page 240.200. (/>) "_. J. ^~2. 400. 11. 4. 38. 5. oo. 20 7. 8. (&) 2. 10. 2. 1. 3 2. 9. 1. ANSWERS 2. \/6. 201. 1. . co . 512. 22. J. Indeterminate.. 3. Page 244.4. 1. . 33. . 2. 5. 23. 1.. 7. 4. 4. 39. . 2.3. 10. . J. 14. . 12 1. . ft. 41. . 5. 28yd. 1.5. 8. 25. 5. in. 21. m28. 17. 4. .3.. 5. 5. 5. 3. 31.. Page 247. 2 16. 2. 1. . 17. 3. 3.0. 5. 7. 3.
in. . 70. 20. i 10. f r6 4  20 rV 42 15 xV 8 .2 45 a 8 /). 14. 16.r^  280 x 4 4i^S + 6. . 7. 27. 2. 21. 8. 500 x3 10 4 4 072 a? 3 . 4950 M 2 b y *. :r 4 4 8 x 28 x~ 60 . 11. 125. 8 1. 910. Page 252. 2.170.2 9. 2. 81. 16. 4. 12.5 x. 12. 28. 4. 12. . x + Vy. 8 4x' 2 . . 4. 0. 1000 aW. 15. 16. 327. Page 254. 304. 9. ?/i 6 x llj . 4. 35. and 1.6.1.K 4 4 50 x 5 4 28 x 4 4 ^8 1 g ! .920. 45.3 ays.5*7 + ^4 1 12 w 4 10 x' 2 //^.700. ~ an . 6. 3. 18. 27. 2 1 x 4 6x'2 12. 5. 9. 5. 48. w9  8. 405. 2. 16. 0. 8.5y 4 . .470. 3. 2i* 7f. A. 2. 15. 2. 1.12 x*y 16. 4. 16 11. \ w 4 .7 10. 9. Y11. 43. 21. B . 2. 8. 5.10 a 3 ?/2 10 4<J aW 4. 125. 7. 7 2 x 4 x8 . 4. d.r 4. (). 8. 6. (?>) 4 8(2 V2). 35. 0. 9. 4. 4. 0. 5 13. 3. 1 7 4. 6. ~v 9. 7. 6.^ 448 x a' 3 /') . 4. c. />*. 4. 10. 29.v Page 253. 5. 55. 120 aW. 9. 22. &' 14. 128. 2. 19. 11. 44.5. 410. 4. 1. .53. 10 14. 27. <. 3 4 15 a 8 11 4 14 a  1  2 y* . 50. 12. . 7. 8 . 343. 3. 6. a.r* 4 70 . 0. vy. 19. 27. 1. 8. . 22.4 &z x>&. ^a 8. 20. 8. 192. 04. ' 1. 5.120. 04. 495. 17. Jj? 45. 18. . 2. . 105. 8. r r j.  17. 15. 4 0. 3.x^ 4 x8 15 x 4. . 7 x4 17. 32. x r 4.13.<2 4. 13. 5. 15. 10. 13. % 4 20 ab* 42 330 x 4 15. 708. 5. x4 . 8J. 26. 3. 0. 1. G. I.5 M ' 41 fc 5 .130 x30 189 a 4 24.5 J4 10 47 d*b 6 4 4. 1.210. 2.r x>/ 7 3. 17.419. 7. 75. 2.x' 10 . 0. 45. 6i. 18.  20 flW. . 10. 3.680. 1. 1. 4. 8. 3. 2. 15. 53. 005. r 5 4. 3. a4 4 14. 3.4. } $ 50.  101. 4. 7. f y 8 + z* . '23. 19. 5. REVIEW EXERCISE . 16. 20. 05. 1820. . 10. 5. JSg. 4. 10. 4. 13. 10. xxvii 1.192. 3. 17. **+.6 . 343. Page 259. .^ ?>i 2412x4. 70. 6. sq. 0.^ x2 ^x w ^2 ? . 12. 7.384. . 1.870 m*n*. 6. 5. f 7 ^ 14 x 84 4 . 9. 1. 16. 6. 16. 70. 23. J 2 //2 25. 3. 1.5. 100. 4. . 12.504. 1. 18. 2. 1 14. 8. 12. 7.8. 5.0. 45 Page 257. 8. 25. 4.ANSWERS Page 250. 12. 6.15 x 4 //'?/ a5 4 J 5 4 Z> 4. 220 . 11. 280 53. 3. Page 258. 0. 1JH. Ja. y ^ 5  ^\ ).
/> 4 83.a 2 x 2a . _55_7c 48.a' 'ft 4. df. . 2 30 . . 3~ n 4. &p 84. x* . ft x6  3 x5 4 9 x4  27 x 3 1. . . 2 aft 3 4 3 ft 4 .4 ac. . 10 4. 5 42. 3a~2c. 16t/. az 4. . ?> . 4 15 x 5 . 109. x 3 41. as 20.1. . x8 x2 55.a6 2 4. x2 a2 1 . !! 71. 30. 2 2/' . 105.3 103.{ 54.2 x^.x4 + y'2 z 4.. + f 2 2 (/) 2 34. 6y 2 a2 _52 45 = 73(). 1 121. 76. . ft2ft 4 4l. +^ + ft W.2 c . 2 a. 70.ft). 40. 0. ft n .5 3 2 y2 5 a2 4 2 aft 4 ft. 4. 2 . 124. . x4 3 4 2 x 2 4 0.1. x2 3x2/?/ 2 112.  e +/. 4 115.x 2 4. 102. x } 4. .5x4. 104.4. 72. 38.2 x 4. 243x4729. 2 53. 5x 2 2x43.c.4. a4 x. x 4. 4 Page 264. 1 a"* 4 an .3 x 2 + 3 x . . 8 . x 3 4. x2 2 . 39.15 4 62 x  72. I 57. 132. x 8  a8 . 12 x. 1x 4 x3 xty6 a 24 3  Page 262. fc' 6 p'2 q  54 ? 3 .18 ?/ 5x4. 63.1w 77. 5 4 4. . 25. 125. 4 69. fi :ry 42 4  a 2 4 a 2 ft 2 3 119.3 a'ft.  + 3 x2 . . 3 y2 2z2 ~3xy?/. 6 8 j27 40 ab. 22.1. (a + ft)" 98. 0. 2 x'V2 90. 2 2 x2 ?/ 2 4 63 4 ?/ . ft /> 78. 2 . 10 a 12 b. 66.41. a~b 89. 13 + 2 s.c 3 4. 8x3 8x. 61.a'2 c. 3a'2 Page 261.  + 16 a/> 8  a*2a 2 6 2 +& 4 74. 100. 46.  .4.6 b.3 aftc. 93. 1 . 2 q. 88.3 x?/ 2 1/ 4a 3 a o_a 4 a2 +l.5. 36 + 9c9 a x3 4 + 8. 91.^a . 31. 6 a2 97.105. . 15 ab 4 Oac 4 6 be.9 b. ?/ 3. .xxviii ANSWERS 19.6 am b\ 129. 52.ac 44 aft. 2 a2 4 aft 5 116. 114.3 y. x' 79. ?/ . 1 x 45.a*ft 2 126. 21. a 4 .7. 107. x' . 12 a/. xyxzyz. 4 65. x 2 . 4 . 62. 4. . 131. f5+7. a2 2 aft 2 2. 5x + 2y~z.15 x 6 x4 ?/ Ilx 2 ft a8 4 8 y4 . 2 2 9 ^4 2 59.x 51. c3 4 58. x .2 xy + 4 y2 106. 122.5 a 2x8 x 3 . r 5 VFTx + vTfy + 1.2.1.a" xy 2 2/' 3 . 2 .  ft 3  13 a 4 + ll a 2 2. 16. x3  15 x 2 48 ?/ . 2 2a 2 2 2(a. 4 fee 4.  4 a3 85. 99. 2 x2 4. 35. a' 111. 9 2w 128. 2 2 *  3 2n 101. 1 + 4 xy. 3 r2 2 ?/ 2  ax .1 4 jry 4 x . x 8 + x 4 68. 24 a 2 6 3 x3 0.7 x   15.4 x y 87. 130. 28.18 x?/0.y*. 7 + 3 xf 2. x3  15 x 2 71 x  105.x. 23.x24 73. 4ft y3. 49.rty x2 4 123. * 60. 3 a 44.4 x?/2 3 4. 37.  12 a. 0. 82. .fee 2 4. a 3m 4. x 8 + x 4 y* 67.  3 x2 .x x*  f 2 ax 4. 3 c . 64. 94. Page 263. 32. x2 + 4 x7 9 y2 x4 4 4. 2 x2 108.4. (d) x  (a) 2 x 2 ?/ 4 ?/ (ft) 2 y 2 y 2 g (c) 3 x +y 11 a: y 4 3 2 .4 2 4 c2 42 . 127.3 mn p 2/ x 4 .+ 4 2 ft) (a 4. m " + n + P3c . 120.2. x?/ 2 2/V2 4 2 x2z2 4 92. + a 4. . 81 ?/ 4 108 xy 3 75.3 . a J . 4 4 4 ft*" 3 4 + 2'2 ~+ 2 81 x2 134. 86.36 xfy 2 a 8 ?* 3 4. 36. () 2 x 33. 3 36 b c . 9x.5 b + c . 8 x* + 27 y 2 x2 2 . 118.3 a 2 '6 w 4. 6a6c.2. 4. x2 5r*x ft 5 .5 3n 4. 6 c 47. 27. . 110. + 3 a?. . 2 113. x4 f + 23 . + 28 x2 13x 3 56.9 x . .c. 14 x . 4 2 . 133. a* a 8 a aftc. 43. + z. 24. . 26. ^ . 29. 50. 80. Page 260.3 b . 96. y 4 z* 0. a* 4.4 x 2 . . 3 a 5 a 5. x2 471x4. t 81. 4 ! .a. 3 a . .
195. (6) 40. 190. 10 ft. p. 159. 3..r . x(x + 6) 213.  1. 150. 230. 231. (y  17)(y + (>). 23 18. (?/+l)(yl). 216. 1.m)(x + a). 1.y2 ). 153. 2 xy(3 x . . 205. 218. (7 x + y +y+ 2)(x . 171.1). 6). 155. .3) (2/3y). 2 (4 x . 1. 136.r + 4). + 22). + 11) (a 10). 199. 232. (4 x 2 + 9)(2 x 4. 178. 164. (JT y 225. 4. 10 in. (ox + /)(5xy)(x+3 y)(x3 y). 2(x8)(x3). + 3) (x f f>) .9)(xf 2).l)(x8 + x2 . (x^ + x1) 234. HI. 167. +)(x2 x^+2. m. 20. 202. a 2 (15. 140. 1.y)(jc + 7 y). 2. (32)(2a ftc v?y(x + 223. (3a + 4?> + o(5crt). 214. 162. 219. (7x2//) 203. (y _ ft)(y 4. Page 267. . 215. 21. 185. 10).2. 5. 154. Or (a + 2)0el). 238. 137. 237. 176.l)(y + 1). 30. 2(d)(rt + + c+c2). 50.3 y).ANSWEKti 135.1). 226.6 . 244. 1. (x 227. 224. (y_24)(y5). (x  42 yr. 22. a(a.2). 186. 170. 218. 161. 147 mi. (xyX^+y" )1 243. 169.c2 )(a 2 2 +2a/) + c 2 ).2). 187. 183. ft. 177. 138. 175. ( jc // a 2 (a1). 8(ar}(/)27). ry(x (a (y + + * 221. (ab + 8) ( 7). 10). (8x + 3)(3x4). 20.6) (2 x + 1). 239. k. 210.r & (a + ary c)(a 1 2 + ) + 3y). 7.11) (5x 2)(2x + 3). 160.1). 142. 184. (5x + 2) (3 x yfory) +4). 189.y). 36ft. 163.l)(a 2 +3).. 157. 158. 217. 168. . 40 yr. (. 211. r>x 2 (4x. a + 2x2 ). y  y 165. 4. + 2) + 9a. 191. 151.. 2a(42ft)(2fo). (x . 30 yr. 12 6 panes. 222. a. 24. 152. 180. 174. 206.c) + or OB (2 + 4 y) Oe* + 2 s).1(5) 200.6)(4 + 6). x(x f 3)(x+ 2). 37 1. 208.2) (3 x . 3(x . (5 x . 2 2 (a. 1. 3. (y 7f))(y 196. (y + 1) a(3 + 26)(3a2ft). (7 c 2 ). 15. 75. p. 220. + y.I2y). 236. + 6 y) (x 2 y) . 18. 2. (3x2?/)(2. C3 y _l)(.3). + 7)(rt4). 212. (3x  . 179. . 10.2ac + 229. 12 yr. xxix 139. as 194..4xl). 201. (x + l)(xl)(y + l)(yl). (a} 59. y.y) (\r3y). (y7)(y + 188. fc'2a+62c)./_4). (r7y)(ai. 197. (c) 160 C. 148. 147. 172. 182. 166. 12 yr. (x + 2)(x . 8 204. 149. 12. z(x10)(xl).y + 3)(r (. (at (4 a +!)( + 3). Page 266. 6. 2. 4 2 ?/(x  ll)fx 3). 144. 193. 247. 181. 173. (a 2 +l)(a*+ 1). 2. 15  a. ?. 207. 209. 48 h. 12) (j. 235. 12. aft. (a& 192. 2. 1.2 )(x+y) 228. 32 h. (2a + l)(a . ( + 2y)(2x3y). (x + 6)(x6).3 y)(a . (2x3y) 3 xy(x.3. 19. (2 198. 30 + xyr. 143. 233. . 241. ? >2 ft ?) ft 242. y3. 2^. 15. . yr. y 245. Iff 145. 240. (r^x + 1). 1. (233). + 3). 156. 146. G7. (/ 246. Page 265. 6.y)(z . (a 2 + 2a6.
7^T 2 . (x 4 (x 4 1) 5) 275. 3).4) 1) (3 x . 0. 249. 301.  7. (a 4 A)(2 x 5. x 267. 305. 0. 3). 5. 2x(x)(x 4 3x44. 261. 3  262. 263. 7. 4 5. 306. + f.AN 8l\' Eli S Page 268. 266. &). (2 (x 4 (x 4 3) (x . 307. 4 II 4 )rt 5x42. ^^A^ + w^ n(w4 n) a 309. Ca&c 1)(M 253. x 283. o. 259. 269. 10. *. x . 268. 310. (x44)(x3)(?/47)  Page 270.^ ^^.1.2* i^^ !^. ?^ZLiZ 308. 250.  3xyf x// 257. \')(s x  5) (x 4 2)(x 4 . ^/>J. 279. 2. x12. 295. ? 1) 302. 4 11) (xJ^l^^J. x3y 4 1)( 4 2 252. 2 x  3. 251. (^4) (x x'2 13) 5x46 . 2 4 300. 264.4). ^ 299. (7 255. 3. 254. 298. o(x4l). 7 x 265.^^^^^^^^.   .. 258. a~ ' b*). *>). 43 '^rJ'. 303.(x  4) (x4 304. > 4. 260. x ?/ z 1. 256. a.
397.XXXI Page 272. S. a +6. 355. T+^. 407. 0. 325. ^ 3 // . 0. a) A^_. 7. 370. . 3. 3. 360. 366.1. 2 ab  a Page 276. c 402.!.H ' 2wi ^' /' . 2. l'j. + 4 & 4 \ b. m. 2(a i 403. 400. 339. 2. ?>*. . . ^_:r f> 331. 392. 2 ).J . l . 399. 389. ?/ + 3 332.".. 2 r36 384. <L 409.  1. + 335. (a + b + c\ . 4 A. 2(q. . 1. 11. 377. 20. ?=. 343 00 351. a 2 . 408. 2 327. 394. 0. 3. 0. A^izA??r+J!j/?_ *x 330. x 54 359. T\. * 357. 2 ?/ 363. y 4 I 340. . 387. 364. 390. 326. Page 274. 376. 4 rw.3. " 4 378. 382. 324.1 ')_ x'2 + 4x + 381.)Cr4)__ . A^L5L. 4. 395. 7/i ^ _ . 385. 365. _*L'L+. f. 1. 393. ^"" 4 s . If. 333. a + b + 6). j 328. Page 277. ab. 398. L . 379. 375. + x 362. 6a. 9^. 4. 12.. 386. 334.  1 356.7. 401. xa' 2 '2 7/ + 4 f Page 273. 404. 27 ^" li'oy 3 r J // J 341. 13 391. **" ~ 2 3 > + 8 x* f 2 y 4 1 ^ 350. 6 ?/+:>. 405. 396. 383. 361. 5 ^^K^+M^ AC^Ln?). 1. 1. 406.(5 a . 329. 380. 1 i 2 ^.vin a /r " 337. 1. . 336. 388.
0. (a  c). a* 424. not true. (&) true. 1. ^r?i 434. 5.}. 7. L2 a  6 . \ 1..7. ^. 461. + b ' + a __ b c ' 2 w f w 417. 22. A $ 3500. 419.  453. 447.2. 3a 4 5. Page283. 40. 6. .vz in.1. a + + ft c. 480. 21.0.0. 3. 17. 10. 468. . 501. 421. 20. 5. . 0. (a) 1. 6. 441. 5. 446.  505. .46. 1. 40 oz.7. 14 miles.  2f 504. ' $260 at 0%. 32. 502. 457. (d) true. 2. 12. c 6fc 10. 418. 439. 430. .7. $2000 at 0%. c. 6. 5. 492.. L (c) I. 4. 28 yr. 20 yr. 90.  2. 482. b 449. 10. 9. 84. 481.te + .12. 10. . fj. 51. m.4. 2. ^V. 490. 2. 4. 425. . 7. 7. 464. 10. 479. 10. . 2 438.2. 445. : />a.  . 2.rz Page 279. 411. 508. .. 452. 5. 63. 1. 7 : . 506. 32 yr.3. . ft 5. B 4 mi. 2. 8. z8 +?/ 3 431. 440. (c) not true. 435. />c c(f be.55. . 462. Page 281. 8.}. 467. . 0. 483.7. 412. Page 282. 484.  7. 423. 8. 2. 498. 18. 410. 499.5. 426. 2. 2. . 442. 463. \.  7. (&) 443. . . 455. 494.488.  1.  2. 1 a /?$+&?. 485. 1. 0. 42. * . A 5 mi . m 1 : wi. 460. 4. 53 yr.} ' c^acjd} ^ fcfZ a/ ?>rf + 86 (. 459.. 507. 0. 472. 2$. 3. + () 433. (d  6) f. 466. & 491. 427. *+. <L+ 6 (. 6. B $ 2500. 1. 487.XXX11 ANSWERS ab. !L=4.489. 3 . 2. 5J.  2.. 6. 497. 448. 495. 477. 50. 478. 5. . 1$. 8. I. 456. 6. 458. . 10. 2. 436. 0. 10. i. 450.  f>. 432. 454. 3. 6 f c a + ? & ~ a 0. 486. i a b 451. 429. 496. 7. 7. Page 278.  1.  10. Page 280.4. 0. 444. '. 420. 2 a 2. 33. fc. 493. 4. 465. 6. a 22 . 17. 503. 476. 24 days.m  m+ M in.7. 11. ISjmi. . 422. 413. 428. 500. 10$. ISJini.3.. .
1. 2 2.3. 0000. 2 1. 527.  4. 510.8. 2.  (a) (d) 1.05. . a f ft + c.  3.6 2.  J(a f + 2c). _ 4. 528.24.0.xV f +6 a2 &2  4 6.53.. 4. 115 Ib. tin. 578.% rr\* 585. Page 288. 1 600. or 8.30. 577. 6. 5. 576. 4 mi. 24 da. f.0. 574. 1. (gr) 10 1.4. 3. 512. 573. . . 603. . (c) 3. . 563.37. 0. 8. 2 imag.f 1. 550.0. 591. lead. If 572. 3f 4f. 515. 5. 1J. x8 .  1.3. <z ft 1.35. 4.3. .5+. 4. 562. H. 4. 571. 8 +3 x f 6 x2 2 a4 & 604. .8.56 sec.1. (c) 4. 2(4 602. 4. a*8a + 24tf 82a.03. 2(6 597. 1. 516. da.37. . 1.73.4.04.21 a2 + 3x + 3x2 rA 86 3 4 ft + 35 4 + 21 2&6 fts + 7 7 rt?> 6 a^ _ 8 +^ 57.83.4. 3 da.3. 2. 565. f ? a f ft __ + c C). 3.52. Page 287. + 6 tf f 3 . 554. a 7 687i 588i tt e a _ _3 7 ir 7 rt e & + 2 1 a 5 ft 2  rt 4^2 + i 3 ^254 590. . per hour.10. 1 580. y% Z * 586. 1. 1. 2. 3. . 2 a 8 x 8 + 6 ax&fy 2 x + 12 a 2xt2 b*y'2 + 2 6 4 ?/ 4 595. 575. 593. 40 Ib.ANSWERS Page 284. (a) 74 Ib.4..15.8 x3^.14.02. 583. 1. Roots imaginary.6. l+4x+0x 2 +4x 8 f x4 4 4 594.  2ft da. 568. 3.  . . .. 525. 553.51.88.3. 1. 532. (e) 570.1. 1 . (ft) Ill Ib. g(rc+ 6c).6. S82 c. lead. f.9.24 sec.5. 4. 4. 2. 3.75. 561. 531. 1. 599. 2. 14.78. 581. i _ 4 sc2 + 6 + 10a:8 + a6) . (d) 537. 1 1  2 x 7 2 f 3 2 x' 2 + x8 f x4 .7.12. 1. 5. . 559. M ft c 2 ft 3465.31. + 12 x . . 1. (6) .03. 530. (i) 3.2. 536. 4.10. 2$. 564. 1.15.8.21. + 26 + . 598. 2. 3. 1. a + ft  a  f c.1.5. 7. 1. 551. imag. 558. 8 a6 42x + 8x2 + 2x 8 4x4 601. 1. _ 3. 3. ^ ft 4.   (h) 8. > ^ . 526.7. o> . 518. 1.  2. ft 584. 21*_.00. 2.  2 a*b + 3 a6 3 . 2 10. Page 285. 2. 552. xxxin 511.25m.62.15.78.02.r8 596. 3 . 1. . . . . (6) 3.04. 27 y* f\4 . y 4.25. 1. .20..1.33. 556. 3.5. + 35 86 4 4 &8 3 + 589. .5. 6. 4* da.55. 1$.5. .  imag.75. 555. 582. 529. 3.62.24. 3. (/)  10 to 8. 1. 2.8.1.54. 2 . 567. (e) (c) 2.xj/ f xV . 4.4.  ft*. 31.38..4 x + . . 5._ ft 523 a 2 ftc 2 524. 513.1. a+ Page 286. 3.  (a) 2.54.31.83.  557. f36a28x8 592. J7] min. 1.0.3.02. 3. 4 0. T . . 1. 6435.  7. . 569. 566.2 xt/ a4 + x3 4 6 x4 3 xG fx.5 f. 4 8 x2 ?/4 605. 24. 514. 1 . 3. . 2 .6.02. 1. _^ 2754x . .3. + 26x2 + 10 x4 ).4.3. per hr.16. 560. 3. 509. . (ft) 4. 7^ da. tin. 8 mi.7.6. . 232. 533. 579. 2 1.  + + c.
 4. ix 2 .7/ ~ +w ( 7>) ^~ V3 ^' 3. 633. 677 680. 621. If b. 7003. + 2 A (i f Page 291.3. 634. 617. 2 ab + a  &. 648. 78.14 If 1. V"^TJ. 650. 1 V5 1. 5. 2 a  6*. 8 6 fo . 696. a. \+ab 699. 2. 635. 11. b. 2 a 688.c ) 697. 0. n^l +^. ^ 1. 4. b . 1$ 639. 5002. If 658. if 4/> 671. Page 289. + ~^'2 + a 1. 1 ~a . 3 x2 .  4. la6 2.04. 2 a: 4. 2092. 618. 624. 683. 679. 613. c. 628.3f l 668. 0. 2. 638. 1010. 12. 655. If f 667. 703. be ac \. 5.f 3 V^3). ab. 6. V^~3). 625. .001. . 2. 3 681. 670. 647. J^^. 632.y. 636.203.  2f r 659. . 5 3. 644. 2 / 2 4. 641. 651.XX XIV 606. 637. a 1J. o. 691. ' 674. ^^ 695. K 5 2 V2. 8 f 3. 706.  .43^4. 640.b 686. 620. 25. 612. 629.002. ab 689. If 665. ^. af6fc __ __ ( a 4. 643. 692.  13. 646. 608. 50. 652. 656. 3. 627.2f (5 4. V2. . 1 ^  7Q7> b j(_ (_ x/^15).25. 1 2. 2.. l/'3. 678< 682. 4330 da. 7. b 664. I}'/. 0. 5. 623. 645.  1.>A 610.3. (*_ + a: 611. 1m*. 607. 701. 703. 9*. 4 V 0. <T! . 10. a 673. 653. 2. 13. 649. 3. 2f. 2. 614. 7. /> 4. ft). 708. 2. 6.3. 4.3. 4. 3 a. 690. 654. . 616. 2. 1.702. 657. 4. . z  1.  684. 2&). 2 + 36 )K3 + ( 687. 0. 698. 210. 25. 661. \. a ' 2 + . 9.b. a 2. . ' fe 2 ). 0. 700.2f Page 290.049. 702.  3. 2 x 44 ^/. 662. V2.. 0. ^. a + b.a~ {Z 663. 6 685. If . 5. If. 615. ANSWERS ( 3 x 2 S 2 . . (a3&45rj. x3 4 3 x x ' 4 X* 609. 660. . 1.  a2  a (ab).  6. 1 704.001. 666. 1. 1. 4 676.  ft. 672. 009. 669. 642. fta a/> ^A. 2f. a 4. . 626.303. 11. V7. 8. 3. 622. 631.0. 971. 705. 4$. y  619. 14. 2. . 630. i. . fe + a. ^ _ \/3 +^~< 2 a a +^ 694. / V^+lO^M"^. . . 898.
y  1. 716. 3V72VO. 00. 727. 3 720. a 2  x2 .V/^ 741. 731. iv/Jj. 715. i^. 746.ANSWMHti Page 292. 756.r+y> 759. 8. 729. 769. > 748.11. a 5 . VIO\/3. 763. 1 I .9. 712. rt3 2 ^i^. 717. J(v'lO2V 791. 782 785. 776. Page 293. ^ . . . . 711. 4 x' 5 x 4 3 x~* ( 2 ar 1.1 . a db Va^T < 45da.^ 743. 796. 768. 34. 4 104 v/2. / 787. 25. 736.8. 740. . 47.~ . 59. "V313. 788. 7  3V5. + < 735. 1. T%.4 . 726. 3V72V3. 773. + 6 2 tf'c. VT14V5. 728. 751. 738. 13ft. 24V2. 732. 721. a". v/7 / . 39. ^7xy.12 af V^ 4 744.2 4 w" + 4 d" + Hid. 1^ _ 760. 342V3. 725. .. 778. 790 2v 3v 2. 794. 3 VlT 795.9.1 />f f + lr'~ + _L a 4 6. 713. 1 752. 718. 730. 758. 24. 723. 5.. a 2 6^. 733.10. 714. ^^ f ^3 _ r} t 2 i3x 4 rt + + 2u: 8'o'a +a2 3 . 1. 719. 33^2. 777. x\y. 789. 3^. 753. VV> L4V34.^. 5. 710. r. 793. 3. a + 6 +cx* 2 (t' 3 1 a*&M. 722. 1 [ + '> J. 2x3^ a. 300.4 . 17ft. cr*lr*. j 742. *+V( x 2 "r 2 )' ^ 786. 734. a:* .. 1. 15 shares.r.rJ w L 754. 792. 767. 3V52V3. 755. 709. 24 4 . ^ Ti i a*tj~ 4. 3V7.V2. i 2. 749. 739. 2 V2 .. 32>/2. Hi a. 29\/3. v'll. ^ ?>. 2\/53V2. 724. 750. 737. fyaw&cu. 8.257.2. mn. 30\/10 764. 1 747. Page 294. x i f^' .
826. Page 297. ^VG. 2 . 814. 816. n =  29. 823. 5..a 2m W" 4 ^ m f & 2m 870. +j!>. 4.+ m f ") (a* ). 6. %7 ?/ ( 2 >wt 2wt ft ft 4 rc f 1 '* Page 298. 858. a2 ^E*!. 4. 6. ( 869. ) (a' 874. 861. 19. (x*y*ryz + z*). 2.. Hoots are extraneous. Page 296. 2  2.1) (a 8 . 4. 851. 837. . 2. 896. ((' 1). 4 1)(4 x jc jr ::} ?> ?> . 1. 0. are extraneous. 16xyV2*/^~x2 .2w . 1 1.  839. a(ry + 864.f. 5. a(ft)( 873. 14. (3 862.l)(x .r?/ 50(i ( 2)(5 04. 830.om 441) (a 855. 3. 1. 1. . 3.4) 860. (2 x + 3 y} . \/2. 894. 879. 799. _ 3 ^ 860 r + 3) . 888. Va.l)(x + 3)(2x43). 876.7. 5). 3. (am l)(a m + 1) 4m . . 833. 48. 897. 2. .l)(x + 2). 849. 8.  + l(l^). 5. x . 811. X4 1). Va + 6 + Vtt"fc. 820.a 4 + 1). 4 . 4. (1 . $. (x 4. 7. 3.  1. 25. 900. 8.4. 838. Hoots . 887. (:r 11. 3. . 808. 825. 2 . '0 3 2 an 4 3(> n 6 ). (a 4 871. . 2/ 856. (2 a . 1 .  tt 815. (a + 2 ?>c)(a 2 2fl?>44 ?/V ). 7. 2. 2 (x 4*4. 872. 13. (xl)(^~3)(. 831.7)(4 x. ( 4 4. (2 4. (x 845. db 7.6 xy + 9 )(4 x 2 (9x 4l2x + 10). 892. 883. 801. 893. 3 . 5.l)(x . 4. o. 880. 6+V7. o 828. 886. 4. 11. 898. 4.1) . m = 2.y) 852.  ' .a 2 2 ). (a m . 819. 8 09. 0. 3.XXXVI 797. J V. . (3 b . 881.. (x 2 . (x . 2 . 800. (x + y) (x f y) (x + y) (x .7). ANSWERS 798. 4 885. 4. f. a* 4. 3. 3. 10. x. 804. 4. 829. 2 + 2)^ 3 + (a 4 5 f 8). 847. .1. 843. (x + 0X024. (x . 7. 1C. 0. 2 *x 807. (2x3?/^)(4x2 4Ox^ + 9//%2).1)(0 865.r .4)(1 f 4 a 4 10a 2 ). 2. 842. 4. 857. 6(a6)(o a + + &). 841. ^. . 882. 1. 840. 2 m . 812. 6. 2 854. 23. 5. \/5. Va 803. H. ^ V}. 834. 835. 17.5 b) 4 1). 2 2 . 813. 1. (x42?/)(x2y)(4x . (x3).1). f 3 866> (9 + 8 ) 81 ^3 _ 72 xy 4 04 ^). 6 $.7 4 1) 846. . (4 c 4. (.2) (x 4 2). V 3.1)(V 2 .25 ?>2).10 ab 4. 899. 891. 2. 3. b' 2 821. (  ?>) (a + ^> . 867. 0. 848. 2. 6 4 V&  e " X/^^+A^ + 2 *a o l V 2 802. 2 j 889.5) (x + * 853. 890.3)(x + 4). jV3 f 3. 824. (a 1) (x 4. 11.a 3 " 4.3. . a 42)(x . .rae) (4 . .r4). 810.2 ax 4. 822.3. $. a^*4l)(aa 4 + l). 884. 17. 863. 827. 2 806. 2. **. 836. (2x (r. 7. 4 818.0. 8(?/ + 2x2 ?/ ~ x 4 ). + d)*. 20). 844. 2. 817. m 875. 2. (x 2 f r ./>") (a'. 832. 859. 868. 4.7). 3. 895.4.
T 6. 111. 4. 2 i ' a V. 3. 7. 978. 935. 3 . i 8. 956.  1. 3. 6. 937. . 3. a.651. 3.760 sq. 6 a + 3 2 ft ' 4 3 & 928. dL 4. 960.2. . 2 1. . 4 . 5. 5. . ?/i 6. J. 100 rows. 8. .0./hr. 12. 12. . S07. 8. 11. 920. 917. 4 6 mi. 8. 4.. 911. 5. 939. 9 in... 248. 985. 6. 6.  26j. V5 fj.. 3 4 . $(l 4. 6. . v/(ai !)(&910. Z ^. ft. 954. 961. V^3). 923. .111. 932. 962. 2. 2 ft.1. 984. 4. 945. 6 da. 4.073. . 12. Page 301..446. i1" 913. 8. 959. 909. %* . . 983. I) v/Ca^T)^ 2 5.615. 964. 1 XXXVll ' a 1. 1. 925. 3. 15 16 ft. 944. tt2 19. 108. 982. Va926. 7. 952.. i 3. 4 in. 4. . w. 902. 1 _2 .ANSWERS oJV 41 6 901. '3 3 in. 4. . 933.. 1. 60 949.I. 1 2.744. 957. 56. . 905. 958..709. 950.. 979. ft. 8 . 3. . w 3. 903. 7 ft. 3. ft.  1 . 15 946.2. 73. 904. 930. 2. ft. 981. 28. 942. 8128. 955. 912. ft. . a + . 980. 28. 916. 6 . 2. 938. 7 or 30.. 2. 3). 922. 2. 20 19 ft. . 7. 987. 2. 931. 8. f ft 4 . 329. 6. 480 8 sq. . Page 302. 10.. 2 w 914. 0. 986. 10. 4. 936. ft. 919.V~~3). 7. 11. 4. 14 . 5. 1 1.1. 918. . 6. . 2 yd. 80. Y. 8.. 6. f. 2. r ft ' < Page 299. 40 16 in. 6 1 1. Page 300.. 921. 12 mi. i(6 in. 927. 963.. Page 303. 333. 12 in. T 6. 2. 1). 4. 948. i>. ft. ^y. 1 + V953. 66 924.1 = 9. =F J.01. 951. 941. 906. 5l4f. 28. 2. 977. 940. 6 a 915. 934. 1 .. 11. 333.' ifcVira^ 2 3. 0. V5 T 2 . 18. 943. T3. 5 . 4. 280. 5. 947. 2. 8. 496. 1. . J(_ ft. 115. yd. J. 0. 11. 908. 0. 8. ft.
1017. 1007. (Z>) 999. 12. 1005. 1009. (6) 8(1 . a a 13  13 ax + 78 a3 4y*> . 78 n+ a' x 2 t  13 .51. 24. 12.xxxviii ANSWERS 989. . ^f (2f3V2).378 <W and 92. 1010. 1012. 9 da.92. 2 . 988. 1018.  5&7 1021. ~ \. 9 /> l 6 /> 6 . X. 995. 2(2 v/2). () 12(2+V3). 1000. 994.. in. " 1710 rtV and 1710 252 35. 6 70 . 1006. 8. + v 2). ^Trsq. (5. 0. 1 8 8 2. 120 a.870 a 6 1011. . 1013. + 448 . r = 2. 32 13 (tx 4V3. 0. 192. 1014. (a) (6) ^ 1002. 4 and 1020.128 I. 108. 1(5. 1001. 992. 1008. 162. 997.'^^ } ( . 48. 3003.. Page 304. 243 ?/ 810 x 2 + y 1080 x* 4 5 ?/ 720 * 240 r 8 7 ?/ . 1019.870 z8 .192rt?)r 120 *. 72. 5 :J2 r 10  14 y + 84 y*  280 + 5(>0  72 C K 4 2 MJiy 8 r? " 8 . 120 i^l^. . 1 1004. 1003. Page 305. (J. 990. 991. 993. 996.  W1W JI + 1 / 1 _ _L\ a . 4. 1016. (a) 2^ + 1 \/2).18.378 1015.
which have been omitted from the body of the work Indeterminate Equahave been relegated to the Appendix. 6466 FIFTH AVBNTC. so that the Logarithms. without the sacrifice of scientific accuracy and thoroughness. book is a thoroughly practical and comprehensive textbook. Particular care has been bestowed upon those chapters which in the customary courses offer the greatest difficulties to the beginner.D. especially duction into Problem Work is very much Problems and Factoring. than by the . HEW TOSS . and the Summation of Series is here presented in a novel form. xiv+563 pages. THE MACMILLAN COMPANY PUBLISHERS. given. The author has emphasized Graphical Methods more than is usual in textbooks of this grade. The introsimpler and more natural than the methods given In Factoring.ELEMENTARY ALGEBRA By ARTHUR SCHULTZE. Half leather. comparatively few methods are heretofore. $1. great many work.10 The treatment of elementary algebra here is simple and practical. which has been retained to serve as a basis for higher work.25 lamo. $1. Ph. xi 4 373 pages. save Inequalities. but the work in the latter subject has been so arranged that teachers who wish a shorter course may omit it ADVANCED ALGEBRA By ARTHUR SCHULTZE. and commercial life. etc. Half leather. i2mo. but these few are treated so thoroughly and are illustrated by so many varied examples that the student will be much better prepared for further The Exercises are superficial study of a great many cases. The more important subjects tions. A examples are taken from geometry. physics. not The Advanced Algebra is an amplification of the Elementary. All subjects now required for admission by the College Entrance Examination Board have been omitted from the present volume. proportions and graphical methods are introduced into the first year's course. very numerous and well graded there is a sufficient number of easy examples of each kind to enable the weakest students to do some work. To meet the requirements of the College Entrance Examination Board. but none of the introduced illustrations is so complex as to require the expenditure of time for the teaching of physics or geometry.
especially duction into Problem Work is very much Problems and Factoring. xiv+56a pages. $1. Half leather. great many A examples are taken from geometry. but these few are treated so thoroughly and are illustrated by so many varied examples that the student will be much better prepared for further work. which has been retained to serve as a basis for higher work. All subjects now required for admission by the College Entrance Examination Board have been omitted from the present volume. bestowed upon those chapters which in the customary courses offer the greatest difficulties to the beginner. physics. book is a thoroughly practical and comprehensive textbook. but the work in the latter subject has been so arranged that teachers who wish a shorter course may omit it ADVANCED ALGEBRA By ARTHUR SCHULTZE. The author grade. etc. not The Advanced Algebra is an amplification of the Elementary. 6466 7HTH AVENUE.10 The treatment of elementary algebra here is simple and practical. has emphasized Graphical Methods more than is usual in textbooks of this and the Summation of Series is here presented in a novel form. $1. Ph. To meet the requirements of the College Entrance Examination Board. save Inequalities. HEW YOKE . HatF leather. In Factoring. and commercial life.ELEMENTARY ALGEBRA By ARTHUR Sen ULTZE. than by the superficial study of a great many cases. 12010. xi f 373 pages. so that the tions. there is a sufficient number of easy examples of each kind to enable the weakest students to do some work. THE MACMILLAN COMPANY PUBLISHBSS. but none of the introduced illustrations is so complex as to require the expenditure of time for the teaching of physics or geometry. without Particular care has been the sacrifice of scientific accuracy and thoroughness. The more important subjects which have been omitted from the body of the work Indeterminate Equahave been relegated to the Appendix. Logarithms.25 i2mo. The Exercises are very numerous and well graded. proportions and graphical methods are introduced into the first year's course.D. The introsimpler and more natural than the methods given heretofore. comparatively few methods are given.
7 he . Hints as to the manner of completing the work are inserted The Order 5. 80 cents This Geometry introduces the student systematically to the solution of geometrical exercises. guides him in putting forth his efforts to the best advantage. 4. $1. The Analysis of Problems and of Theorems is more concrete and practical than in any other distinct pedagogical value. of Propositions has a Propositions easily understood are given first and more difficult ones follow .10 L. These are introduced from the beginning 3. PLANE AND SOLID GEOMETRY F.10 By ARTHUR This key will be helpful to teachers who cannot give sufficient time to the Most solutions are merely outsolution of the exercises in the textbook. and no attempt has been made to present these solutions in such form that they can be used as models for classroom work. The Schultze and Sevenoak Geometry is in use in a large number of the leading schools of the country. Ph. 6466 FIFTH AVENUE. textbook in Geometry more direct ositions 7. Attention is invited to the following important features I. xii + 233 pages. Proofs that are special cases of general principles obtained from the Exercises are not given in detail. more than 1200 in number in 2. i2mo. SCHULTZE. aoo pages. izmo. wor.. Many proofs are presented in a simpler and manner than in most textbooks in Geometry 8. at the It same provides a course which stimulates him to do original time. Cloth. The numerous and wellgraded Exercises the complete book. THE MACMILLAN COMPANY PUBLISHERS.D. State: . 9. Difficult Propare made somewhat? easier by applying simple Notation . NEW YORK . $1. ments from which General Principles may be obtained are inserted in the " Exercises. iamo. under the heading Remarks". lines. 6. SEVENOAK. . Pains have been taken to give Excellent Figures throughout the book. Algebraic Solution of Geometrical Exercises is treated in the Appendix to the Plane Geometry . Preliminary Propositions are presented in a simple manner . Cloth.r and. Half leather. xttt PLANE GEOMETRY Separate. 10. KEY TO THE EXERCISES in Schultze and Sevenoak's Plane and Solid Geometry. By ARTHUR SCHULTZE and 370 pages.
. enable him to " The chief object of the speak with unusual authority." The treatment treated are : is concrete and practical. a great deal of mathematical spite teaching is still informational. 12mo. methods of teaching mathematics the first propositions in geometry the original exercise parallel lines methods of the circle attacking problems impossible constructions applied problems typical parts of algebra. . New York City. $1. . . and Assistant Professor of Mathematics in New York University of Cloth.25 The author's long and successful experience as a teacher of mathematics in secondary schools and his careful study of the subject from the pedagogical point of view. 370 pages. making mathematical teaching less informational and more disciplinary. Typical topics the value and the aims of mathematical teach ing . . THE MACMILLAN COMPANY 6466 Fifth Avenue. .The Teaching of Mathematics in Secondary Schools ARTHUR SCHULTZE Formerly Head of the Department of Mathematics in the High School Commerce. . Most teachers admit that mathematical instruction derives its importance from the mental training that it But in affords. " is to contribute towards book/ he says in the preface. causes of the inefficiency of mathematical teaching. New York DALLAS CHICAGO BOSTON SAN FRANCISCO ATLANTA . of these theoretical views. . and not from the information that it imparts. Students to still learn demon strations instead of learning how demonstrate.
The book deserves the attention of history teachers/' Journal of Pedagogy. i2mo. diagrams. and a full index are provided. is an excellent example of the newer type of school histories. Maps. Studies and Questions at the end of each chapter take the place of the individual teacher's lesson plans. THE MACMILLAN COMPANY 6466 Fifth Avenue. Topics. This book is uptodate not only in its matter and method. All smaller movements and single events are clearly grouped under these general movements.AMERICAN HISTORY For Use fa Secondary Schools By ROSCOE LEWIS ASHLEY Illustrated. but in being fully illustrated with many excellent maps. which have been selected with great care and can be found in the average high school library. $1. which put the main stress upon national development rather than upon military campaigns. The author's aim is to keep constantly before the This book pupil's mind the general movements in American history and their relative value in the development of our nation. supply the student with plenty of historical narrative on which to base the general statements and other classifications made in the text. " This volume etc. An exhaustive system of marginal references. diagrams.40 is distinguished from a large number of American textbooks in that its main theme is the development of history the nation. photographs. Cloth. New York SAN FRANCISCO BOSTON CHICAGO ATLANTA .
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