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ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
. OF TORONTO CANADA.THE MACM1LLAN COMPANY NKVV YORK PAII. LONDON LIMITKU HOMBAY CALCUTTA MELUCK'KNK THE MACMILLAN CO.AS  BOSTON CHICAGO SAN FRANCISCO MACMILLAN & CO. LTD.
NKW YORK ITNIVEKSITT HEAD OF THK MATHEMATICAL DKI'A KTM EN T.ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA BY ARTHUR SCJBULIi/TZE. FORMERLY ASSISTANT PROFESSOR OF MATHEMATICS.D. PH. HIH SCHOOL OF COMMERCE. NEW 1 ORK CUT THE MACMILLAN COMPANY 1917 All rights reserved .
BY THE MACMILLAN COMPANY. . . 1917. 1911. August. Berwick & Smith Co. J. January. 1915. 1910. Norwood. .A. July. U. May. 1916. 1910 .. IQJS January. September. Reprinted 1913. Published Set up and electrotyped. Mass. September.COPYRIGHT. 8.S. May. 1910. Cushlng Co.' February.
and conse . and ingenuity while the cultivation of the student's reasoning power is neglected. but "cases" that are taught only on account of tradition. Typical in this respect is the treatment of factoring in many textbooks In this book all methods which are of and which are applied in advanced work are given. Such a large number of methods. The entire study of algebra becomes a mechanical application of memorized rules." this book. All parts of the theory whicJi are beyond the comprehension of the student or wliicli are logically unsound are omitted. Elementary Algebra. omissions serve not only practical but distinctly pedagogic " cases " ends. owing has certain distinctive features. All unnecessary methods and "cases" are omitted. not only taxes a student's memory unduly but in variably leads to mechanical modes of study.PREFACE IN this book the attempt while still is made to shorten the usual course in algebra. " While in many respects similar to the author's to its peculiar aim. giving to the student complete familiarity with all the essentials of the subject.. are omitted. specially 2. Until recently the tendency was to multiply as far as possible. however. chief : among These which are the following 1. shortcuts that solve only examples real value. All practical teachers know how few students understand and appreciate the more difficult parts of the theory. manufactured for this purpose. in order to make every example a social case of a memorized method. etc.
In regard to some other features of the book. the following may be quoted from the author's "Elementary Algebra": which "Particular care has been bestowed upon those chapters in the customary courses offer the greatest difficulties to the beginner. For the more ambitious student. enable students who can devote only a minimum This arrangement will of time to algebra to study those subjects which are of such importance for further work. there has been placed at the end of the book a collection of exercises which contains an abundance of more difficult work. The best way to introduce a beginner to a new topic is to offer Lim a large number of simple exercises. may be used to supplement the other. in particular the requirements of the College Entrance Examination Board. all elementary proofs theorem for fractional exponents. and it is hoped that this treatment will materially diminish the difficulty of this topic for young students. however. Moreover. The presenwill be found to be tation of problems as given in Chapter V quite a departure from the customary way of treating the subject.vi PREFACE quently hardly ever emphasize the theoretical aspect of alge bra. This made it necessary to introduce the theory of proportions . differ With very few from those exceptions all the exer cises in this book in the "Elementary Alge bra". all proofs for the sign age of the product of of the binomial 3. e. etc. " The book is designed to meet the requirements for admis sion to our best universities and colleges. Topics of practical importance. a great deal of the theory offered in the avertextbook is logically unsound . two negative numbers. TJie exercises are slightly simpler than in the larger look. hence either book 4.g. as quadratic equations and graphs. are placed early in the course. especially problems and factoring.
" Graphical methods have not only a great practical value. an innovation which seems to mark a distinct gain from the pedagogical point of view. to solve a It is undoubtedly more interesting for a student problem that results in the height of Mt. Moreover. and hence the student is more easily led to do the work by rote than when the arrangement braic aspect of the problem." Applications taken from geometry. such examples. are frequently arranged in sets that are algebraically uniform.' This topic has been preit is sented in a simple. nobody would find the length Etna by such a method. physics. McKinley than one that gives him the number of Henry's marbles. and they usually involve difficult numerical calculations. of the Mississippi or the height of Mt. The entire work in graphical methods has been so arranged that teachers who wish a shorter course may omit these chapters.PREFACE vii and graphical methods into the first year's work. But on the other hand very few of such applied examples are genuine applications of algebra. but the true study of algebra has not been sacrificed in order to make an impressive display of sham life applications. and commercial are numerous. but they unquestionably furnish a very good antidote against 'the tendency of school algebra to degenerate into a mechanical application of memorized rules. is based principally upon the alge . based upon statistical abstracts. elementary way. the student will be able to utilize this knowledge where it is most needed. and of the hoped that some modes of representation given will be considered im provements upon the prevailing methods. in " geometry . By studying proportions during the first year's work. while in the usual course proportions are studied a long time after their principal application. viz.
William P. is such problems involves as a rule the teaching of physics by the teacher of algebra. genuine applications of elementary algebra work seems to have certain limi but within these limits the author has attempted to give as many The author for simple applied examples as possible. however. April.viii PREFACE problems relating to physics often offer It is true that a field for genuine applications of algebra. edge of physics. desires to acknowledge his indebtedness to Mr. . Manguse for the careful reading of the proofs and many valuable suggestions. NEW YORK. ARTHUR SCHULTZE. pupil's knowlso small that an extensive use of The average Hence the field of suitable for secondary school tations. 1910.
.... Numbers Monomial Monomials 31 31 Multiplication of a Polynomial by a .. 34 35 36 Multiplication of Polynomials Special Cases in Multiplication 39 CHAPTER IV DIVISION Division of Monomials 46 46 47 Division of a Polynomial by a Monomial Division of a Polynomial by a Polynomial Special Cases in Division ix 48 61 .... ....... .. III 22 27 Signs of Aggregation Exercises in Algebraic Expression 29 CHAPTER MULTIPLICATION Multiplication of Algebraic Multiplication of . Powers.. AND PARENTHESES 15 15 10 ... II 6 7 10 CHAPTER Addition of Monomials Addition of Polynomials Subtraction ADDITION..CONTENTS CHAPTER INTRODUCTION Algebraic Solution of Problems Negative Numbers I PAGB 1 1 3 Numbers represented by Letters Factors... and Hoots Algebraic Expressions and Numerical Substitutions ... SUBTRACTION.
.. . 80 83 84 86 87 Summary CHAPTER Common Factor Lowest Common Multiple Highest VII ... Type IV.. Type Polynomials.114 . Type II. Quadratic Trinomials of the Quadratic Trinomials of the 78 . 108 108 112 Problems leading to Fractional and Literal Equations . /^ .63 55 67 to Simple Equations 63 CHAPTER VI FACTORING 76 I.. Type VI.. . HIGHEST COMMON FACTOR AND LOWEST COMMON MULTIPLE 89 89 91 CHAPTER VIII 93 93 97 FRACTIONS Reduction of Fractions Addition and Subtraction of Fractions Multiplication of Fractions Division of Fractions 102 104 * .. Form x'2 f px f q Form px 2 f qx + r f . All of whose Terms contain a mon Factor Com77 . Type V. Complex Fractions 105 CHAPTER IX FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS Fractional Equations Literal Equations . .. * .X CONTENTS CHAPTER V PAGE LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS Solution of Linear Equations Symbolical Expressions Problems leading .. Type III. .... The Square of a Binomial x 2 Ixy The Difference of Two Squares Grouping Terms of Factoring ..
.. ...... Evolution of Monomials 170 ..CONTENTS XI RATIO AND PROPORTION Ratio .. ... 148 164 Graphic Solution of Equations involving One Unknown Quantity Graphic Solution of Equations involving Two Unknown Quantities 168 160 CHAPTER INVOLUTION Involution of Monomials XIII 165 165 166 Involution of Binomials EVOLUTION .. 171 CHAPTER XV QUADRATIC EQUATIONS INVOLVING ONB UNKNOWN QUANTITY Pure Quadratic Equations Complete Quadratic Equations Problems involving Quadratics Equations in the Quadratic Character of the Roots .. 1*78 178 181 189 191 Form 193 . Two Unknown 129 130 133 138 Quantities Problems leading to Simultaneous Equations .... CHAPTER XI CHAPTER X PAGE 120 120 121 Proportion SIMULTANEOUS EQUATIONS OF THE FIRST DEGREE Elimination by Addition or Subtraction Elimination by Substitution Literal Simultaneous Equations Simultaneous Equations involving More than .. CHAPTER XIV 169 ... Evolution of Polynomials and Arithmetical Numbers . 140 143 CHAPTER XII GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS AND EQUATIONS Representation of Functions of One Variable .
xii
CONTENTS
CHAPTER XVI
PAGK 195
THE THEORT OP EXPONENTS
Fractional and Negative Exponents Use of Negative and Fractional Exponents
....
195
200
CHAPTER XVII
RADICALS
Transformation of Radicals Addition and Subtraction of Radicals
Multiplication of Radicals Division of Radicals
205
206 210
.212
Involution and Evolution of Radicals
.....
214
218
Square Roots of Quadratic Surds Radical Equations
219
221
CHAPTER
THE FACTOR THEOREM
XVIII
227
CHAPTER XIX
SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS
I.
......
.
.
.
.
232
232
II.
Equations solved by finding x +/ and x / One Equation Linear, the Other Quadratic
.
.
234
III.
Homogeneous Equations
Special Devices
236
237
IV.
Interpretation of Negative Results
and the Forms
i
,
.
.
241
Problems
243
CHAPTER XX
PROGRESSIONS
Arithmetic Progression Geometric Progression
Infinite
.
246
24(j
251
Geometric Progression
263
CHAPTER XXI
BINOMIAL THEOREM
.
.
.
.
.
.
..
.
.
255
BEVIEW EXERCISE
.
268
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
CHAPTER
I
INTRODUCTION
1.
Algebra
it
may
arithmetic,
treats of
be called an extension of arithmetic. Like numbers, but these numbers are freletters,
quently denoted by problem.
as illustrated in
the following
ALGEBRAIC SOLUTION OF PROBLEMS
2.
Problem.
'
The sum
x
is five
times the smaller.
Let
two numbers is 42, and the greater Find the numbers. the smaller number.
of
Then
and
Therefore,
5 x = the greater number, 6x the sum of the two numbers. 6x
= 42,
and
3.
x = 7, the smaller number, 5 x = 35, the greater number.
A problem
An
is
a question proposed for solution.
4.
equation is a statement expressing the equality of
two
quantities; as,
5.
6 a?
= 42.
In algebra, problems are frequently solved by denoting numbers by letters and by expressing the problem in the form of an equation.
6.
Unknown numbers
;
are usually represented
as, x, y,
z,
by the
last
letters of the alphabet
but sometimes other letters
are employed. B
1
2
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
EXERCISE
The sum
1
Solve algebraically the following problems
1.
:
of two
times the smaller.
2.
numbers is 40, and the greater Find the numbers.
is
four
twice as
and a carriage for $ 480, receiving for the horse as for the carriage. much did he receive for the carriage ?
sold a horse
A man
A
much
How
3.
and
B own
a house worth $ 14,100, and
capital as B.
A
has
in
vested twice as
invested ?
4.
much
How much
is
has each
The population
of
South America
9 times that of
Australia, and both continents together have 50,000,000 inFind the population of each. habitants.
and fall of the tides in Seattle is twice that in and their sum is 18 feet. Find the rise and fall Philadelphia,
5.
The
rise
of the tides in Philadelphia.
6.
6 times as
7.
Divide $ 240 among A, B, and C so that A may receive much as C. and B 8 times as much as C.
A pole 56 feet high was broken so that the part broken was 6 times the length of the part left standing. .Find the length of the two parts.
off
8.
The sum
If
two
of the sides of a triangle equals 40 inches. sides of the triangle are equal, and each is twice the A remaining side, how long is each side ?
A
9.
The sum
triangle is are equal,
of the three angles of any 180. If 2 angles of a triangle and the remaining angle is 4
times their sum,
there in each ?
how many
degrees are
is
G 10. The number of negroes in Africa 10 times the number of Indians in America, and the sum of both is 165,000,000. How many are there of each ?
B
INTRODUCTION
11.
3
twice as
12.
Divide $280 among A, B, and C, so that much as A, and C twice as much as B.
B may
receive
twice as
13.
Divide $90 among A, B, and C, so that B may receive much as A, and C as much as A and B together.
A
is
which
14.
line 20 inches long is divided into two parts, one of long are the parts ? equal to 5 times the other.
How
travels twice as fast as B, and the tances traveled by the two is 57 miles.
A
sum
of the dis
How many
miles did
each travel ?
15.
4
A, B, C, and
does
A
take, if
B
D buy $ 2100 worth of goods. How much buys twice as much as A, C three times as
much
much
as B,
and
D
six times as
NEGATIVE NUMBE
EXERCISE
1.
2
Subtract 9 from 16.
2.
3.
Can 9 be subtracted from 7 ?
In arithmetic
why
cannot 9 be subtracted from 7 ?
"*
\
4.
The temperature
is
What
5.
noon is 16 ami at 4 P.M. it is 9 the temperature at 4 P.M.? State this as an
at
at
of subtraction.
The temperature
4 P.M.
is
7, and
at 10 P.M.
it is
10
less.
6.
What is the temperature at 10 P.M. ? Do you know of any other way of
below zero) ? What then is 7 10?
(3
expressing the last
answer
7.
8.
Can you think
of
any other
practical examples
which
require the subtraction of a greater
number from a smaller
one?
7.
Many
greater
number from a smaller
practical examples require the subtraction of a one, and in order to express in
a convenient form the results of these, and similar examples,
4
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
it becomes necessary to enlarge our concept of number, so as to include numbers less than zero.
8. Negative numbers are numbers smaller than zero; they are denoted by a prefixed minus sign as 5 (read " minus 5 "). Numbers greater than zero, for the sake of distinction, are fre;
quently called positive numbers, and are written either with a prefixed plus sign, or without any prefixed sign as f 5 or 5.
;
The
fact that a
thermometer falling 10 from 7 indicates 3
be expressed 7 10
below zero
may now
= 3.
is
loss of $ 60,
Instead of saying a gain of $ 30, and a loss of $ 90 we may write
equal to a
$30
9.
$90 = $60.
number
is
The
absolute value of a
the number taken
without regard to its sign. 5 is The absolute value of
10.
6,
of f 3 is 3.
It is convenient for
many
discussions to represent the
positive
a line
numbers by a succession of equal distances laid off on from a point 0, and the negative numbers by a similar
series in the opposite direction.
,
I
I
lit
4
to
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
6
5
3
2
1
+\
4,
+2
+
3
+4
45
+6
y
Thus, in the annexed diagram, the line from
the line from
4 represents
etc.
to 4 6 represents 4 5,
resented by a motion of "three tion of 8 by a similar motion toward the
The addition of 3 is repspaces toward the right, and the subtracleft.
Thus, 5 added to
1
equals 4, 5 subtracted from
1 equals
6, etc.
EXERCISE
1.
3
If in financial transactions
we
indicate a man's income
by
a positive sign, what does a negative sign indicate ?
2. State in what manner the positive and negative signs may be used to indicate north and south latitude, east and west
longitude, motion upstream
and downstream.
INTRODUCTION
3.
5
If north latitude
is
indicated by a positive sign, by what
is
south latitude represented ?
4.
If south latitude
is
indicated by a positive sign, by what
?
is
north latitude represented
5.
the meaning of the year 6 yards per second ? erly motion of
is 6.
What
20 A.D. ?
Of an
east
A
his total gain or loss ?
7.
merchant gains $ 200, and loses $ 350.  350. (b) Find 200
(a)
What
is
higher, is 8
 +7? 8. A vessel
(6)
If the temperature at 4 A.M. is 8 and at 9 A.M. it is 7 what is the temperature at 9 A.M. ? What, therefore,
starts
sails
38 due south,
(a)
from a point in 25 north latitude, and Find the latitude at the end of the
journey.
9.
Find 25 38.
A
22
sails
vessel starts from a point in 15 south latitude, and due south, (a) Find the latitude at the end of the
(b)
journey,
10.
Subtract 22 from
15.
18.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
From 30 subtract 40. From 4 subtract 7. From 7 subtract 9. From 19 subtract 34. From subtract 14. From 12 subtract 20. 2 subtract 5. From 1 subtract 1. From
19. 20.
21.
22.
23.
24. 25.
To 6 2 To To 1 From 1 To  8 To 7 From
add add add
12.
1.
2.
subtract 2.
add add
9. 4.
1 subtract 2.
Add
1 and 2.
26.
the one of
Solve examples 1625 by using a diagram similar to 10, and considering additions and subtractions as
motions.
27.
(a) 28.
Which is the greater number lor 1? (b) 2 or 4?
:
By how much
is
7 greater than
12 ?
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
29.
Determine from the following table the range of tempera:
ture in each locality
NUMBERS REPRESENTED BY LETTERS
11. For many purposes of arithmetic it is advantageous to express numbers by letters. One advantage was shown in 2 others will appear in later chapters ( 30).
;
EXERCISE
1.
4
is
If the letter
t
means 1000, what
the value of
5t?
a=
2.
3.
What is the value of 3 6, if b = 3 ? if b = 4 ? What is the value of a + &, if a = 5, and 6 = 7?
if
6,
and
b
=
4?
is
4.
5.
What
If a
the value of 17
c,
if c
= 5?
ifc
= 2?
marbles,
many
6.
boy has 9c? marbles and wins 4c marbles has. he ?
Is the last
how
7.
How
8.
9.
merchant had 20 much has he left ?
A
answer correct for any value of d ? m dollars and lost 11 m
dollars.
What
is
the
sum
of 8 &
and G
b ?
Find the numerical value
If c represents a certain
of the last
answer
if b
= 15.
10.
number, what represents 9 times
that
number ?
INTRODUCTION
11.
1
From 26 w
subtract 19 m.
12.
if
What is the numerical
From 22m
if
value of the last answer
if
m = 2?
m = 2?
13.
subtract
1
25m, and
find the numerical value
of the answer
14.
m=
2.
Add
13 p, 3p, 6p, and subtract 24 p from the sum.
15.
16. 19.
From
10 q subtract 20
q.
17.
18.
Add lOgand +20 q. From 22# subtract 0.
7 a=
From subtract 26 Add  6 x and 8 x.
x.
20.
From
Wp subtract 10^).
is
What sign, therefore, 140. 21. If a = 20, then understood between 7 and a in the expression 7 a ?
FACTORS, POWERS, AND ROOTS
12.
The
and equality have the same meaning
in arithmetic.
13.
signs of addition, subtraction, multiplication, division, in algebra as they have
If there is no sign between
two
is
letters, or
a letter and a
number, a sign of multiplication
6
is
understood.
written win.
x a
is
generally written 6 a
;
m
x n
Between two
(either
figures,
x
or
)
however, a sign of multiplication has to be employed as, 4x7, or 4 7.
;
4x7 cannot be
14.
written 47, for 47
means 40
f 7.
A product is
=
the result obtained by multiplying together
two or more
Since 24
Similarly,
quantities, each of which is a factor of the product. 3 x 8, or 12 x 2, each of these numbers is a factor of 24.
7, a, 6,
and
c are factors of 7 abc.
15.
A
power
is
thus,
aaaaa
6 aaaaaa, or a ,
is the product of two or more equal factors called the " 5th power of a," and written a5 " the 6th is power of a," or a 6th.
;
;
The second power is also called the square, and the third 2 power the cube; thus, 12 (read "12 square") equals 144.
8
16.
ELEMENTS OF ALQEBEA
The
base of a
power
is
the
number which
is
repeated
as a factor.
The base
of a 3
is a.
17. An exponent is the number which indicates how many times a base is to be used as a factor. It is placed a little above and to the right of the base.
The exponent
of
m
6
is
6
;
n
is
the exponent of an
.
EXERCISE
1.
5
find the numerical value of the square of 7, the cube of 6, the fourth power of 3, and the fifth power of 2. Find the numerical values of the following powers :
2.
3.
Write and
72
.
6.
42
.
10.
11.
.
8
(i)
.
14.
15.
2
.
25 1
.
2*.
7.
8. 9.
2*.
O
9
.
.0001 2
.
4. 5.
52
83
.
10 6
I 30
.
12.
(4)
(1.5)
16.
.
l.l 1
.
.
13.
2
17.
22
+3
2
.
If
a=3, 6=2, c=l, and
18. 19.
3
ci
.
d=^
22.
a*.
find the numerical values of:
24.
2
.
20.
21.
c
10
.
3
(2 c)
ab.
.
26. 27.
2
at).
b2
.
d\
23.
(6cf)
25.
(4 bdf.
28.
If
29.
30.
= 8, what is the value of a? If m = what is the value of m ? = 64, what is the value of a ? If 4
a3
2
jJg,
In a product any factor product of the other factors.
18.
is
called the coefficient of the
In 12 win 8/), 12
19.
is
the coefficient of
is
mw 8p,
12
m is the coefficient of n*p.
A
17
numerical coefficient
a coefficient expressed entirely
in figures.
In
aryx,
17
is
the numerical coefficient.
is
When
stood ; thus a
a product contains no numerical coefficient, 1 1 a, a Bb 1 a*b.
under
=
=
INTRODUCTION
9
20. When several powers are multiplied, the beginner should remember that every exponent refers only to the number near which it is placed.
3 9
2
means 3
3
aa, while (3
2
)
=3ax
3 a.
= 9 abyyy. 2* xyW = 22.2.2. xyyyzz.
afty
1 abc*
7 abccc.
EXERCISES
If
a
= 4, b = 1, c = 2, and x = ^, find the
numerical values of
:
21. root is one of the equal factors of a power. According to the number of equal factors, it is called a square root, a cube root, a fourth root, etc.
3
is
A
6
is is
the square root of 9, for 32 = 9. the cube root of 125, for 6 8 = 125. the
fifth
a
root of a 5 the nth root of a".
,
The nth
Va,
is
fifth root of a,
indicated by the symbol >/""; thus Va is the is the cube root of 27, \/a, or more simply the square root of a.
root
is
A/27
Using
this
(Va)
22.
n
= a.
The
symbol we
may
is
express the definition of root by
the
index of a root
number which
indicates
what
root is to be taken.
sign. In v/a, 7
23.
It is written in the opening of the radical
is
the index of the root.
The
[ ]
;
signs of aggregation are
:
the parenthesis,
.
( )
;
the
bracket,
the brace,
j
j
;
and the vinculum,
10. v'Ta. 0. V3 . + c). 27. (cfd) 4. 15. 14. d 7. 26. V36". 12. 17. 11. A monomial or term f an expression whose parts are not as 3 cue2. aVc^. b = 3. 6 a26 7 Vac ~* 2 f 9. or 9 Vx. A binomial is 62 . 2. e. + 1]. AND NUMERICAL sym SUBSTITUTIONS An algebraic expression is a collection of algebraic bols representing 25. 13. a polynomial of two terms. 2 . 10 x [4 by 4 + 1 or by 5. find the numerical value of: Vff. Val \fi?. 9. !^f\/03 3 ft. ALGP:BRAIC EXPRESSIONS 24. are trinomials. separated by a sign (6 + c + d} is o c ^and (6 + a monomial. as in arithmetic. 3. A trinomial a polynomial of three terms.g. c = 1. to indicate that the expres* sions included are to be treated as a whole. c f d). 16.10 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA They are used. + M f c 4 f d 4 are polynomials. Each 10 is of the forms 10 to be multiplied x (4 f 1). V^a6. [6c] 3 . 6. A polynomial is an y. a2 + and   \/a are binomials. 4(a 6(6 + &). 7 = 2. 4V3~6c. since the parts are a . 5Vl6c. 6. 8. is 28. expression containing more than one and a 4 term." EXERCISE If a 1. some number is . 10 x 4"+T indicates that (a b) is sometimes read "quantity a b. \/c. x 9. V2a.
10. 52 . 5c6 2 +6ac3 a 3 17c3 hl2o. 4. find the numerical value of: 9. 2 3a& 2 + 3a2 6a&c2 .g. a 2 6. l 13. each term has to be computed before the different terms are added and subtracted.e. 2.5 ax 50 a6cd. .. 5c +d 2 .99. 8.19 = 6. 3. d = 0. (a (a f b) 7. 3a + 56 a 2 . Find the value of 4 28 +5 32  *^. 6a2 +4a62 ~6c' 27 c 3 +12a(i *15.9.390.2 + I126. * For additional examples see page 268. b = 3. a2 f + (a + 6)c 6+ a (2 2 c 2 . 4 . subtraction. c = 2. Ex. multiplication.9 5 32 2 + ^ 5 8 3 . 5a2 2 a2 46cf2^^ + 3 a& +. 5. Otherwise operations of addition. a2 11. 14.810 + 150 = . 2 of 6 ab If a = 5. + 26+3 c. 5=3.INTRODUCTION 29. ' f & f c 3 8 d s . 5. EXERCISE 8*  . 4a6fVaV2^. i. = 32 + 4527 = 50. 6. 2 ). 16. 1.19 a 6cd 3 2 3 find the numerical value 6 aft 2 .9 a& 2 c + f a 6 . __ E. 2.30 = 270 . d=Q. 3 4 . . and division are to be performed in the order in which they are written all from left to right. Ex. a=4. 5 means 3 4 20 or 23. 11 if it In a polynomial each term is treated as were con tained in a parenthesis. . c=l. 6. .4 6^9 ad.19 a 2 bcd = 6 5 32 .9 aWc + f a b . x=^. 3 2 If 1. 12.
and If the three sides of a triangle contain respectively c feet (or other units of length). if : a = 2. a = 4. 37. Express in algebraic symbols 31. a = 4. a = 2. 30. 26. a. 12 cr6 f 6 a6 2 6s. Six times a plus 4 times 32.12 17 & * ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 18 ' 8 Find the numerical value of 8 a3 21. The quantity a 6 2 by the quantity a minus 36.6 . Six times the square of a minus three times the cube of Eight x cube minus four x square plus y square. 29. 34. sible to state Ex. a =4. 6 = 4. 6 = 3. a = 3. 33. and other sciences. 23. 26 of the exercise. 6 = 5. 1014 The representation of numbers by letters makes it posvery briefly and accurately some of the principles of arithmetic. 6 = 7. . 6 = 6. 27. a a=3. 28. Six 2 . 24. 6 = 6. = 3. 25. of this exercise? What kind of expressions are Exs. Read the expressions of Exs. 30. physics. 6. 22. a =3. geometry. 6 = 1. : 6. a = 3. 6=2.6 f c) (6 a + c). Twice a3 diminished by 5 times the square root of the quantity a minus 6 square. then 8 = \ V(a + 6 + c) (a 4. 6 = 5. w cube plus three times the quantity a minus plus 6 multiplied 6.c) (a . 38. and the area of the is triangle S square feet (or squares of other units selected). 6 = 2. 35. 6.
and c 13 and 15 = = = .g. By using the formula find the area of a triangle whose sides are respectively (a) 3. b 14.INTRODUCTION E. A carrier pigeon in 10 minutes. = (a) How far does a body fall from a state of rest in 2 seconds ? (b) * stone dropped from the top of a tree reached the ground in 2J. 12. d. 84 square EXERCISE 1. A train in 4 hours. and 13 inches.seconds. i. Find the height of the tree. 4. 15 therefore feet.16 centimeters per second. and 15 feet. . An electric car in 40 seconds.e. b. 13. c. the area of the triangle equals feet. (c) 4. S =  V(13hl4fl5)(13H1415)(T314i15)(1413f15) = V421214. if v = 30 miles per hour. if v = 50 meters per second 5000 feet per minute. if v : a. and 5 feet. How far does a body fall from a state of rest in T ^7 of a (c) A second ? 3. if v . 9 distance s passed over by a body moving with the uniform velocity v in the time t is represented by the formula The Find the distance passed over by A snail in 100 seconds. (b) 5. 2.16 1 = 84. count the resistance of the atmosphere. A body falling from a state of rest passes in t seconds 2 over a space S (This formula does not take into ac^gt 32 feet.) Assuming g . 14. the three sides of a triangle are respectively 13. then a 13.
If cated on the Fahrenheit scale.14 4. 5. : 8000 miles. diameter of a sphere equals d feet.14 square meters.14 is frequently denoted by the Greek letter TT. denotes the number of degrees of temperature indi8. If the diameter of a sphere equals d units of length. $ = 3. (The number 3. the 3. meters. then the volume V= (a) 10 feet. 32 F. If the (b) 1 inch. (c) 5 miles. to Centigrade readings: (b) Change the following readings (a) 122 F. 2 inches. then =p n * r %> or Find by means (a) (b) 6. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA If the radius of a circle etc. This number cannot be expressed exactly.) Find the surface of a sphere whose diameter equals (a) 7. the equivalent reading C on the Centigrade scale may be found by the formula F C y = f(F32). and the value given above is only an surface $= 2 approximation.). 6 Find the volume of a sphere whose diameter equals: (b) 3 feet. fo If i represents the simple interest of i p dollars at r in n years. . of this formula : The The interest on interest $800 for 4 years at ty%. (c) 10 feet. the area etc. (c) 5 F. ~ 7n cubic feet.).14d (square units). on $ 500 for 2 years at 4 %. (c) 8000 miles. square units (square inches. Find the area of a circle whose radius is It (b) (a) 10 meters. is H 2 units of length (inches.
$6) + ( $4) = ( $10). Or in the symbols of algebra $4) = Similarly. the fact that a loss of loss of + $2. SUBTRACTION. or that and (+6) + (+4) = + 16 10. we call the aggregate value of a gain of 6 and a loss of 4 the sum of the two. In algebra. of $6 and a gain $4 equals a $2 may be represented thus In a corresponding manner we have for a loss of $6 and a of loss $4 (.CHAPTER II ADDITION. but we cannot add a gain of $0 and a loss of $4. AND PARENTHESES ADDITION OF MONOMIALS 31. Thus a gain of $ 2 is considered the sum of a gain of $ 6 and a loss of $ 4. In arithmetic we add a gain of $ 6 and a gain of $ 4. we define the sum of two numbers in such a way that these results become general. While in arithmetic the word sum refers only to the result obtained by adding positive numbers. however. Since similar operations with different units always produce analogous results. or positive and negative numbers. . in algebra this word includes also the results obtained by adding negative.
 0. 33. (_ In Exs. Thus. The average of two numbers is average of three numbers average of n numbers is the is one half their sum. 24. 5. c = = 5. add their absolute values if they have opposite signs. 12. = 5. (always) prefix the sign of the greater. 5. 4 is 3 J. of: 20. . 22. + 12. of 2. the one third their sum. 4. EXERCISE Find the sum of: 10 Find the values 17. + (9). the average of 4 and 8 The average The average of 2. (17) 15 + (14). lf(2). 6 6 = 3. find the numerical values of a + b f cjc?. 21. is 0. 18. 10. 2326. 23. is 2. d = 5. and the sum of the numbers divided by n. c = 4. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA These considerations lead to the following principle : If two numbers have the same sign. '. subtract their absolute values and . if : a a = 2. d = 0.16 32. 19.3.
7. 7 a. . Find the average temperature of New York by taking the average of the following monthly averages 30. 72. 37.3. 27. 30. 5 and 12. Dissimilar or unlike terms are terms 4 a2 6c and o 4 a2 6c2 are dissimilar terms. . 11 (Centigrade). 55. and 3 a. 09. 32. . 0. 4 F. & 28.5. affected by the same exponents. What number must be added to 9 to give 12? What number must be added to 12 to give 9 ? What number must be added to 3 to give 6 ? C* What number must be added to 3 to give 6? **j Add 2 yards. 32. which are not similar. . 29. 38. sets of numbers: 13. ' Find the average of the following 34. 10. 31. $7000 gain. Find the average of the following temperatures 27 F. 13. = 23. 36. c = 0. and 3 yards. : 48. 10. $500 loss. 2. 40. and 8 F. $3000 gain. : 34. . ' 1? a 26. and 3 a. 34. 42. 3 and 25. Similar or like terms are terms which have the same literal factors. 39.7. Find the average gain per year of a merchant. 6. and $4500 gain. 7 yards. AND PARENTHESES d = l. 3. 7 a. d= 3. & = 15.ADDITION.. and 3 F. $1000 loss. = 13. 10. 5 a2 & 6 ax^y and 7 ax'2 y. 33. c=14. 6. 6.4. if his yearly gain or loss during 6 years was $ 5000 gain. 60.. . and 4. 2. ^ ' 37.. or 16 Va + b and 2Vo"+~&. 12. 66.5. or and . 1. 25. \\ Add 2 a. 4. 74. 43. = 22. .13. are similar terms. 35. }/ Add 2 a. : and 1. SUBTRACTION. 41. : Find the average temperature of Irkutsk by taking the average of the following monthly temperatures 12. .
Algebraic sum. 12 13 b sx xY xY 7 #y 7. 2 a&.sign. or a 6. in algebra it may be considered b. . f 4 a2. The sum x 2 and f x2 . either the difference of a and b or the sum of a and The sum of a. 11.ii. 10. The indicated by connecting and a 2 and a is is f a2 .18 35.13 rap 25 rap 2. The sum The sum of a of a Dissimilar terms cannot be united into a single term. 12Vmfn. 12 2 wp2 . : 2 a2. In algebra the word sum is used in a 36. 2 . EXERCISE Add: 1. While in arithmetic a denotes a difference only. 13. 9(af6). 14 . Vm f. 11 2 a +3a 4o 2. b a f ( 6). ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA The sum of 3 of two similar terms x2 is is another similar term. sum of two such terms can only be them with the f. 5l 3(af6). 5 a2 . + 6 af . 7 rap2. 5Vm + w. and 4 ac2 is a 2 a&  4 ac2. 1 \ f 7 a 2 frc Find the sum of 9. 3a . ab 7 c 2 dn 6. 12(af b) 12. 2(af &). b wider sense than in arithmetic.
17c + 15c8 + 18c + 22c3 +c3 3 3 . Simplify : AND PARENTHESES 19 15. 33. and to add each column.ADDITION. + y. without finding the value of each term 34. 36. 4x9' 10x38 ADDITION OF POLYNOMIALS Polynomials are added by uniting their like terms. 2 7 1 26. 1 27. 17. 5x173 + 6x1733x1737x173. 3a76 + 5a + 2a3610a+116. ra 19. 32. 21. xyz + xyz 12 xyz + 13 xyz + 15 xyz. m n ^ 2 Add: 18. l^S 25. 2/ : Add. 2a 4a4 + 6a 7a 9a2a + 8. +m """ 20. SUBTRACTION. c 2 ^24. 6 23. "Vx + y Vaj + y 2 2 Vi + + 2 Va. 30. is . It convenient to arrange the expressions so that like terms may be in the same vertical column. n x* 2 22. + / + 3 Va. i xyz co* mn mri Simplify the following by uniting like terms: 29. 37. a a8 ZL **. 2 2 2 31. 35.
it is convenient to arrange the terms according to ascending or descending powers 39. 5 .2 a 26 To check c assign numerical values to then . to add 26 ab . 3. e.7 2 .20 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA .15 6c. 7 4.g. x of x. 2 Sum. a 4.8 abc . = .c= 2. Numerical substitution offers a convenient method for the addition of checking the sum of an addition. 2z2 4?/ 2 f2z 2 5 3ar 22/2 4 4 3 /.20 c 5 ab 4. 5.3 s. 9 q 4. .o c and 4. NOTE. 2 Thus.3 a f 4 the sum a = 1.2 6 + 4 c = 1 +4 a. 4 = 7. 46 4z 7 c. 6=2. 2 . 4a46 12 q 5 2 a.15 abc . V3.12 a& 4. 6 a7 4 5 x"2 + 7 x* 4 5 7a &+4a fi 5 4 is 6c 8 arranged according to ascending powers 4 7 a&<d? + 9 6 5 4 e 7 is arranged ac aW a. and 2 . 2 025.2z and 0^9 z * For additional examples see page 259. cording to descending powers of EXERCISE 12 Add 1. 2c.3 + 8 + 5 = 1 0.6a& 7 6ca a5c + 4 be 6c 4 26 ca c' 9a& 38. 3a 2? . to show any error. f 5 c f But 7 = 10 . c = 1. It is not also a406 4c would In various operations with polynomials containing terms with different powers of the same letter.4 6c + c 2 we proceed as . of that letter. therefore the answer is correct. . 4 2. 3 a f 4 1) 4. .g. the following polynomials : 2a 3646 t c. ft any convenient and c. While the check is almost certain an absolute test e. and J 2 s. s.8 & c~15&c 12a&4l5a&c 20c2 flO&c .41 = 3.10 6c 6 c 2 and 7 a&c 4. f 110WS: 26 aft. the erroneous answer equal 7.
6 # 2 2 2 2 2 2 . 10a +lOa 6ll& 10. 2 ?/. and 5 Vb 18.15 5. 19. w* 4 3 m n 4 3 m?i 4 2w . 4 Vc. a. 2 a.7v/if. d and / 3 ? 12. SUBTRACTION.6. and 1 4 a . and 8 3 . d. 3 ?/ 3 ? 2 j and a 2 4. a4 6(a a a2 f a f 1. . 2 ?ft ?/z.4:xy xz 6yz.a 3a 9 y\ 3 afy .(b + c) 1. and v 15.5 cr& + 7 6 9.7^ 2iB 8 + 2y + 2 8 8 .7m . 7 4 5 x*y 2 y?y* 3 xf. 2xy + 4:XZ}5yz. .9(a + &) . 16e + 17/90. 2 and 9m 48m 4. ^2 1 e. a + 1> 8 2 2 . 4. 4 + 6)  5 (a + 6) + 3.1 a 4 1 0. m 4 6.3 ay 6 afy + 6 ay/ 4 10 and . v/20. 8 2 2 3 s 2 3 . 4 o^?/ 4 y\ and a. .12 6 ~5 a . . 4 ajy 17. a) y ^/. . . 2 2 . 6a 5a &47a& 4& and 7. .5 c ll& 7c 6 4.10 Vc. a 4ar ! byb 8 c^c 8 . . 18/+6y + d. and .12. a 4 a .3 mn 2 2 n8 . and and 13. and 12a 4 15& 20c .Ga 43x45. 6 # 4 5 z 4 2 7.6) + 14(a 4 6) 4 10. in 8 3 m n 4. + 50 + 62 . + a + 1.3 5 Va 2 2 3 3 2 .and 6. </ AND PARENTHESES 2i 14d15e + 2/.a .12(a 4. 4 3 . 56 w. a 4 a .VS 4 2 Vc. 16. a2 a. 3 2 2 3 9 . 4 3 3 ^* f h <l. 3 2 tf 2 l 2 ^_.ADDITION.a.1. 11. .a 4 a 4 1. 2 3(c f a). 4 8 3 4 4 . 2 2 and .4 Va .2n 2 2 3 rz . 2(6 + c) + (c f a). 4(a . 7(a + 5) 4 2 and 6 4 a.2 #?/ 4 5 a + 4 aft .5a^6 f 6) .8 m 2m 12.Va 4 2 V& 4 6 Vc. . 8. a2 2 14. e a4 /. ?/ . xy3xz + yz. 7ar + 3B 5.a.
5 } and 3 m 3 7 m. and 25.22 21. 8 f3f a n2<w +n . What is therefore the remainder is when 2 is taken from 2? When . 1. 1. What other operations produce the subtraction of a negative number? same result as the 6. what to obtain the same result ? total of the units f 1. and e + 6y . a 6 2 c. T8a. 2 8 n + <w 2 . is 2. If from the five negative units three negative units are taken. 13 1. f 1. f number may be added 3.5< 3 2 s 4^4. SM/Z + 2 a:?/ f x y bxyz~lx. 2fa 3 4 a +7a. 16m 7/12my d+e a 6. + n*. does he thereby become richer or poorer ? .11 xy + 12.ra + m. 1. 1/ . 2 a3 a 4 3 af^. +d a.3 taken from 2 ? 5. and 2 24. . ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 4 w + 3 m + 2 m. many negative units re main ? from 2. . 45a6 2 . 4^ + 3t*n l2aj 2 a. 1.9aj 2.4 2tn* Sic 2 . f 1. 5 3 f 4 ?n 4 2m+2m e. how 1. 6 f c 2 23. a s f3o $ xy and 5+a\ ^ "27.. If you diminish a person's debts.17 + 4 ?nfy . + 1. 1. What is therefore the remainder when 3 is taken 5? Instead of subtracting in the preceding example. 22. What away is the value of the sum if two neg ative units are taken ? If three negative units are taken away 4. 1. and 3^2 SUBTRACTION EXERCISE 1. s .m 4m ?/?/ d. . and 6 + 9 x + 12 26. 8 . m 3 3 5y 3 8 . The sum and ? 1. 12 xyz. c 3 3 3 2 3 .3^* 2n 2 .
from What 3. From 5 subtract to . and the required number the difference. 7. the algebraic sum and one of the two numbers is The algebraic sum is given. 41.g. if x Ex. Ex. 3. AND PARENTHESES 23 subtraction of a negative positive number. change the sign of the subtrahend and add. NOTE. a. the other number is required. two numbers are given. and their algebraic sum is required. Ex. 2. 5 is 2. 6 (3) = 8. SUBTRACTION.3. The student should perform mentally the operation of chang8 2 6 from 6 a 2 fc. may be stated in a : 5 take form e. ( 6) ( = . ab = x. +b 3. 3 gives 5 is evidently 8.ADDITION. called the minvend. This gives by the same method. The results of the preceding examples could be obtained by the following Principle. From 5 subtract + 3. the given number the subtrahend. . may be stated number added to 3 will give 5? To subtract from a the number b means to find the number which added to b gives a. State the other practical examples which show that the number is equal to the addition of a 40. Therefore any example in subtraction different . Or in symbols.2. 3 gives 3) The number which added Hence. From 5 subtract to The number which added Hence. In addition. Subtraction is the inverse of addition. 1. To subtract. ing the sign of the subtrahend thus to subtract 6 a 2 6 and 8 a 2 6 and find the sum of change mentally the sign of . In subtraction.
3 x* .5 x + 8. To subtract polynomials of the subtrahend and add.3 r*5o. Check. From _6ar3 3z + 7 2 6ar3 3o2 +7 2 or3 .f 8 . If x = l = 2 t .24 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA we change the subtract 2 x sign of each term 42. Ex.
56. 45. +3x f & f 12 take 3 f ar f 4 x + 11. From 6(af. 48.w>t.6)f. 41. From From x2 the sum sum 7.5 #?/ 2 and check the answer. f 2 aa 7a 2 ?/ 2 subtract a3 take 11 a 2 :c + 2 a . From 5 a 2 2 ab ?/' subtract 2 a 2 + 2ab .a From 3 or 2 a:// + 2 subtract 2 1. From 16 + a3 subtract 8 2 a + a2 f a3 From a 4 . f 12 b f From 10 a 12 & f 6 subtract 5 c. 52. 2. 42. 6 6 2 2 ?/ . 6 4 a. 50. 55.7 a . ?/ 3 #?/ 2 y2 . 2 + 4 a& 3 f 6 4 . From From $ a 3 7 x 2 ?/ 5 a/ + ?/ subtract f ar f 7 a 2 ?/ . 58. 46. of x2 4x f 12 and 3 a2 3 # 3 sub From a3 + 2 a2 4 a subtract the sum of a 3 } a2 2a and a 2 + 4. 96 subtract 10 b 2 From From 1 f & take 1 f b f & s . SUBTRACTION. 49. AND PARENTHESES from 14 a 25 Subtract the sum of 2 m and 7 m c 10m. check the answer. of a 4. take 2 8 o# + qt c mt subtract a2 f mn f wp f. 43.4 a^ 4. 57.4 a*& + 6 a & .ADDITION.5(6 + c) 4(c + a) subtract 7(af&) REVIEW EXERCISES 1.c. and 3 7/ . From a3 subtract 2 a3 f. 4v From 6 subtract lt2af3& + 4<7. 54. . 53. 51. + a the 2 a.2.& 4 subtract a 2 2 4 +4 8 6 6 a& 59. 44.a 2 j. 47. From a3 From 6a 1 subtract f a + b 3 1. c f d. From 5a(>& + 7c From 2 x2 8 a?y + 2 From mn f ??/> 8d 11 cf 17 d. tract 4 x 3. 2y 2 .b h c and a & f c subtract a _ 6 _ 2 c. From 2 a take a & j.
What expression must 8a3 2a7? What What be added to 7 a 3 +4a 2 to pro expression must be added to 3a + 56 cto pro duce 14. To the sum of 2a + 66 + 4c and a 2 c. +4 and 4 a +1 +a 2 and a2 a. years ago ? How old was he a b years ago? . a + 6. 4 6 2 c add the To the 3 sum a3 4 a2 3 between 5 a 12. a 2y + z. Subtract the sum of 5 a2 + 2 7 and 2a2 + 3a and from 2 a2 + 2 a 7. a a + c.15. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA From the difference between a? a? 3 j +5 a: 2 + 58+1 + cc and 4 a? 2 +4x 5. + 6 + c. 9. Subtract the sum s of 6 m +5 m +6m 8 4m* 5 m +4m 2 from 2 ra + 7 m. + 2. 19. subtract # + 1. of # 2 8. Subtract the difference of a and a Subtract the sum + f and + 6 + c from a + b + c a +2 y from 2 2 2 ar* 2 */ 10. 6 17. What must be added to b 4^ + 4^ + 2 z. n years hence ? A c How old will he be 10 years hence ? a +b is 2 a years old. A is n years old. +a add the difference duce 13. 6. ~2a6 + 2c? expression must be subtracted from 2 a to produce a+6? v . to produce find : 0? = x +g c =x 18. 2 m 21. 20.26 4. sum of Subtract the x2 + 2 and 6 a iE 3 2 from x3 + a^ 4 6. 16. 10 a + 5 b sum of9ci66 + c and 11.
6 b f (. 4a{(7a + 6&)[6&f(2&. A sign of aggregation preceded by the sign f may be removed or inserted without changing the sign of any term.a~^~6)]} = 4 a {7 a 6 b [. Hence the it is sign may obvious that parentheses preceded by the f or be removed or inserted according to the fol: lowing principles 44. changed. I. (b c) a =a 6 4 c. 66 2&a + 6 4a Answer. one occurring within the other.c. II. & f c.& c additions and sub + d) = a + b c + d. AND PARENTHESES 27 SIGNS OF AGGREGATION 43.a f = 4a sss 7a 12 06 6. 46. 6 o+( a + c) = a =a 6 c) ( 4. may be written as follows: a f ( 4.a^6)]  } .c.2 b . 45. the sign is understood. SUBTRACTION. The beginner will find it most convenient at every step to remove only those parentheses which contain (7 a no others. a+(bc) = a +b . If we wish to remove several signs of aggregation. Simplify 4 a f + 5&)[6& +(25. A moved w may be resign of aggregation preceded by the sign inserted provided the sign of evei'y term inclosed is E. Ex. tractions By using the signs of aggregation.b c = a a & f f.g. . If there is no sign before the first term within a paren* f thesis.ADDITION. we may begin either at the innermost or outermost.
9. ? 11. 15. In the following expression inclose the second and third. 16. 271 + (814 .: Ex.28 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 15* Simplify the following expressions 1. 18.)]. Signs of aggregation 1. may be inserted according to 43. 8. the fourth and fifth terms respectively in parentheses.(a + 6). 2m 4af 2 2 2 10. a a c) + [3 a {3c (c 26 a)} 6a]. 2a (4a 26 +c ).1422) J ] . 4. 2 2 2 a(. 19. 2. m f ft) a. 6.+ 6)f (a2 b). (m a2 f. . m+n + [# (6 (m (r + M> + w n p) ___ ( m~n\p. 14. 17. 7 6)+ {a [a: 22. a f (a a . last three Inclose in a parenthesis preceded by the sign terms of the See page 260. 21. 2 2a. 3. a(3b a3 3 2 2 2c).7i h jp) (m ?*. By removing parentheses. a (a + 26 c ). 3 3 f 7. Ex. : x + (2yz). 6) 2. 2a 2 + 5a(7f 2a )f (55a). [36+ (a 2c]. 5. a (a + 6). 13.[271 47. find the numerical value of { 1422 . + (2a 6 + c ).y (60.) 5 .
Nine times the square of the sum of a and by the product of a and b. 8.7fa. 3. 5 a2 2.4 y* . 2mn + 2q3t. 7. 10. of the cubes of m and n. z + d.ADDITION. . EXERCISE AND PARENTHESES 16 29 In each of the following expressions inclose the last three terms in a parenthesis : 1. Three times the product of the squares of The cube of the product of m and n. EXERCISES IN" ALGEBRAIC EXPRESSION 17 : EXERCISE Write the following expressions I. The sum of tKe squares of a and b. The difference of a and 6. SUBTRACTION. and the subtrahend the second. 7. The product of the sum and the difference of m and n. The minuend is always the of the two numbers mentioned.1. 3. The sum of the fourth powers of a of and 6. a\l> > c + d. 4 xy 7 x* 49 x + 2. 9. 6. m x 2 4. ' NOTE. The sum^)f m and n.2 tf . 5^2 _ r . 6 diminished . 12. 5. The square of the difference of a and b. difference of the cubes of n and m. terms 5. The product The product m and n. 2. y f 8 . )X 6. m and n. first. II. 13. In each of the following expressions inclose the last three in a parenthesis preceded by the minus sign : 27i2 3^ 2 + 4r/. 4. p + q + rs. The The difference of the cubes of m and n.
difference of the cubes of a and b divided by the difference of a and 6. x cube minus quantity 2 x2 minus 6 x plus The sum of the cubes of a. d. 18. (Let a and b represent the numbers. b.30 14. The difference of the squares of two numbers divided by the difference of the numbers is equal to the sum of the two numbers.) . a plus the prod uct of a and s plus the square of 19. 6 is equal to the square of b. and c divided by the ference of a and Write algebraically the following statements: V 17. 6. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA The sum x. 16. dif of the squares of a and b increased by the square root of 15. The sum The of a and b multiplied b is equal to the difference of by the difference of a and a 2 and b 2 .
weights at A ? Express this as a multibalance. is 5 x ( 3) ? 7. force is produced therefore. If the two loads balance. By what sign is an upward pull at A represented ? What is the sign of a 3 Ib. what force is produced by the addition of 5 weights at B ? What. weight at A ? What is the sign of a 3 Ib. two loads balance. 4. If the two loads balance. is by taking away 5 weights from A? 5 X 3? 6. and forces produced at by 3 Ib. let us consider the and JB. therefore. If the two loads what What. 2. 3. what force 31 is produced by tak( ing away 5 weights from B ? What therefore is 5) x( 3) ? . A A A 1. weights. applied at let us indicate a downward pull at by a positive sign.CHAPTER III MULTIPLICATION MULTIPLICATION OF ALGEBRAIC NUMBERS EXERCISE 18 In the annexed diagram of a balance. weight at B ? If the addition of five 3 plication example. 5. what force is produced by the Ib.
or plied by 3. (5)X4. and we may choose any definition that does not lead to contradictions. Thus. examples were generally method of the preceding what would be the values of ( 5x4. NOTE. 4 multi44444 12. however. This definition has the additional advantage of leading to algenumbers which are identical with those for positive numbers. times is just as meaningless as to fire a gun tion 7 Consequently we have to define the meaning of a multiplicaif the multiplier is negative. (. Multiplication by a positive integer is a repeated addition. 48. x 11. such as given in the preceding exercise. ( (. 5x(4). 4 x(8) = ~(4)(4)(4)=:12. becomes meaningless if definition. 9 x ( 11).4) x braic laws for negative ~ 3> = (. Practical examples^ it however. . make venient to accept the following definition : con 49. 9 9.32 8. 4x(3)=12.4)(4) = + 12. In multiplying integers we have therefore four cases trated illus by the following examples : 4x3 = 412. or 4x3 = = (_4) X The preceding 3=(4)+(4)+(4)=12. thus. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA If the signs obtained by the true.9) x 11.4)(. To take a number 7 times. the multiplier is a negative number. ( 9) x ( 11) ? State a rule by which the sign of the product of two fac tors can be obtained. 4 multiplied by 3. a result that would not be obtained by other assumptions. Multiplication by a negative integer is a repeated sub traction.
(2) 8 (. about fac (2)X If 6.(4J). 8 4 . 32. 20. 4a f26 2 2a + 3&2 6c* . NOTE. 14. 4. . 6. 16. Ua b 28. 3. 33 We shall and negative integers the assume that the law illustrated for positive is true for all numbers. 6 2. 5. Law Thus. 1. 23.2f 18. If a cal = 4a6c. etc. . z s 11 aWcx. 8. 17. EXERCISE 19 : Find the values of the following products 1. and y = 4.3) (1) 7 2 . and obtain thus product of two numbers with like signs in signs is negative. the parenthesis frequently omitted. x. 29.(a&c) 2 2 . _3. 2. 22.4.MULTIPLICATION 50. 3 a2?/2 . . _2^ 3. Formulate a law of signs for a product containing an odd number of negative factors. _2. 27. 19. 1. tors is no misunderstanding possible. X(5). 4 a2 . 15. 7. the product of two numbers with unlike &) (a)(+6) = a&. (4)'. (c#) . 6. 8 31. (2)x9. 26. (7) X (12).7. 4 .3. 30. 3. +5. of Signs: TJie positive. . 2a 2 6c. 5x3. . Formulate a law of signs for a product containing an even number of negative factors. 13. 24. 12. (4)X(15).2 f+x 2 .a)( =+ a&. 9. is 6x7. (. 2a6 c . c = 25. x= 0. 11. b = 3. (10) 4 . 10. find the numeri values of: 21. 3 aW.2.
m a 3  4 .2 2 23 + 5 . 6 = .e.503). 5(711. 4. a= 1. 11. (a6) (a5) 9. 2 2 2 . Ex. 12 U U . 127  127 9 7 .(12) . 50(112.. a 2 2 . . 5 = 2.35).2). a 23 =2 Hence 2 x 2 general.  2 2. 14. : 3a7abc. MULTIPLICATION OF MONOMIALS 51. 17.3). This 52. 2 2 3 6 . 16. fl*" integers. a = 3. am Xa n = (a =aa is m (a a to n factors) (m X fl w = fl /w +w . 2. 4. or 2 . 1. 2 x (2* 5 7 2 )= 26 5 7 2 .34 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA of 8 Find the numerical value 33. B.7. 2(7.7 &*# =(6  7) (a 2 a8 ) . + 2/). 4 x (2 25) =8 25. 2 3 . By 3 definition. Ex. 3 3 4 . 200. i.(2. = 2. 3.257). 13.6 if 35.(7).<?. 6" 127 U . of the factors. 34. Or in m and n are two positive to factors) f n) factors. . only one of the factors is multiplied by the number. 3 2 . EXERCISE 20 : Express each of the following products as a power 1.  and 2 25 8 . a = 2. 7. 53. . 6 = 1. 2(14. . 2. . m*. 78 .1 2 a 6 f 6 aW . 6. a8 a=2. &*) c d*. if =2 a a to  2 2 x2 2 2. known as of Multiplication : The Exponent Law The exponent of is the product of several powers of the same base the exponents equal to the 8 (ft sum oj Ex. 6 aWc x .12 Perform the operation indicated 12. 9 . 4. In multiplying a product of several factors by a number. IB. a 5 (a) (^ + 14 8 2/) (a? + 4 2/) (aj . 36. =2 a *. 5. 10. 3. 5 3 5 3 2 . 5 . & = 3. 100..
22.6. 2(645410).2 3 aft ). 24. = (a + 26)+(a + 2 ft) f (a 4 2 ft) + (a + 2 ft) 55.M UL TIPLICA TION 18.6 a2 62c f 8 a2 6.f 2). 3. 23(10004100420). 12( + 1 4 i). 7p*q r*. 17(10041042). 35 4 7(6. is evidently correct for any positive integral multiplier. 34. but we shall assume it for any number. 31. 3(124342). 35. 27.4 (2 a 2 ft 3) 2 3 . Similarly the for quadruple of a 4 2 b would be 4 a f 8 54. ax /) 2 4 1 (. 2 32. multiply each by the monomial. 5. 19. 20. . _4aft. EXERCISE 21 Find the numerical values of the following expressions. 6 e/ a ( ( 2 a2 ) 3 . (. 6(10420430). c(4a ftc ). . 5 aft 3 ( ftc ( 2 2ac). . /). . (. 23. 6.4a#. 5 2 aft (6 e 8 C a 2ftc). the would obviously be 6 yards and 9 inches. . 29.7pqt. tet^m f c) = ab +ac. MULTIPLICATION OF A POLYNOMIAL BY A MONOMIAL we had to multiply 2 yards and 3 inches by 3. To multiply a polynomial by a monomial. 25. If results ft. 2 19 ' mV 2 ft 5  2 ran4 30. 2. 26. 4 aft 5 aft 2 . 28. by first multiplying. ) 2 33. 4 9 afy 2 a3 ?/ ). 7.3 a2 6(6 a*bc + 2 be  1) = 18 a 4 6 2 c . 11(3. and then adding : 1.5 xy 19 aW lla ( 3 3 tfy 2z*.7 w'W (8 n^W). called the distributive law.3 win ) . . Thus we have in general a(b 56. 21. 4. 2(5fl5f25). This principle.A).
2 27. 11. 5 aW( 3 2 2 aW + 3 a 2 2 ?/ 6 c 2 . . 2 2 16.^ c + 2 . 2 m(mhn \p). 9. 29. 5). 21. Perform the multiplications indicated: 13. 3 ).6 a6). 28. 22. 7 3 (7 3 f7 +7 10 ). By what 25.60 a& 10 aft. Find the factors of 6 Find the factors of 2 or* f 3 x* f arty 3 a4 . 5 x\5 pqr + 5 pr 5 x2 . 2 4 %Pq\ 14.3 x2y 2 + 3 xy. Thus to multiply a write (a + y z) and apply the distributive z. 26. 30.asa product. : expression must 24. Find the factors of 6 ary .5 w*V f 7 wn). 20.5 x 7). ofy 2 4 +8 2 4 a. be multiplied to give 4o. . MULTIPLICATION OF POLYNOMIALS 57. Any it closing x +y (a polynomial may be written as a monomial by inb by within a parenthesis.3 aftc). f7a. 19. 12.2 mn(9 mV .36 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA : Express as a sum of several powers 8. Find the factors of 5 a 6 . Express 3a^ Find the factors of 3x + 3 y + 3z. 4 13 (4 9 4 5 4). 7 a 6 c(. . ~2mn(m +n p ). 23.6) (x f y z) = x(a = (ax b) + y(a b) z(a (az b) bx) f (ay by) bz) by az + bz. . 5(5 + 52 + 2 2 5 7 ).we b) (x law. 6 (6 2 +6 +6 10. 17.
this method tests only the values of the coefficients and not the values of the exponents.a6 =2 by numerical Examples in multiplication can be checked substitution. If the polynomials to be multiplied contain several powers of the same letter.a6 4 a 8 + 5 a* . the student should apply this test to every example. are far more likely to occur in the coefficients than anywhere else.2 a2 6 a8 2 a* *  2" a2 7 60. 2. . The most convenient way of adding the partial products is to place similar terms in columns.a . Multiply 2 a . the work becomes simpler and more symmetrical by arranging these expressions according to either ascending or descending powers.1. Check. Since errors.4. a2 + a8 + 3 . as illustrated in the following example : Ex.3 a 3 2 by 2 a : a2 + l.3 ab 2 2 a2 10 ab  13 ab + 15 6 2 + 15 6 2 Product. 59. If Arranging according to ascending powers 2 a .3 a 2 + a8 a a = = I 1 =2 f 2 a 4.3 b by a 5 b. multiply each term of one by each term of the other and add the partial products thus formed. however.3 a 2 + a8 .M UL TIP LICA TION 37 58. 1 being the most convenient value to be substituted for all letters. Since all powers of 1 are 1. 2a3b a66 2 a . Ex. Multiply 2 + a a. To multiply two polynomials.
10. 1). 3. OQ OO. 22. 18. (2w 19. 25. 15. 35. (6xy + 2z)(2xy 27. 2 . 20. 2 (m?n?p (x (a //)4 lA/ //j. 28. (llr + l)(12r (rcya (2m (a (4 a 2 . a 5c)(2a6c). 41. (6a~7) 2 . I (mfn)(m4. 2 (a al)(2a?fl). . 5. (a 2a + 2)(a3). 3<7). 16. 2. 2) (3 A: 1).2m)(l m). 7. 4 2). 29. (13 A. 12. 26.1 . l)(raf 2).2). 40. (a&c 2 + 7)(2a&c3). 32. (6p (2 f 21. 36. 31. 4. (6i7n)(llJn). 30. (4af 76)(2tt (4ra fra (5c2d)(2c3d). 12)(a?^2l). 11. 24. 36). 36) I) 14. 17.n)(m 8 n)(m n).4) (mnp 4. (a^26) . 13. * For additional examples see page 261.4) (x + 1). 9. (9m2n)(4m + 7tt). 2 . (2s 3y)(3a? + 2y). (ajf6y)(aj 23. (4a 2 33. 6 2 (6a&c5) 3a6f2)(2a6~l). 3n)(7m f6<7)(5^) + 8n). (8r7*)(6r39. 6. 7y). 2  37. 8. QQ O7. . (2 x* x 2 .38 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 22* Perform the following multiplications and check the results 1. ^ 2 . + & + 1f a^faj 1).2 ^/ ' 2 mnp f.
2 6) (a 3 6). 75 ab f 54 ft . (J 23. ft 16. . + 9)(m+9). 1005x1004. 25 a 2 . . 6 ft) (5 a 9 ft) is equal to the square of the common term. 21. _3)(a _4). 2 5 b z) (a2 f 4 (a 2 4. 28. 12. 13. (a3)(a + 2). 17. (ra. (a 9) (a + 9). (6 12) (6 f. 26. 9.e. plus the product of the two unequal terms. (p12)(p + ll).!!)( (a + 21). (10+ (1000 (2. 16 ft) (5 a) 75 ab. + 5) (1000 + 4). (a (a (a. 10.MUL TIPLICA TION SPECIAL CASES IN MULTIPLICATION 61. (5 a plus the sum of the unequal terms multiplied by the common terms. 3 (a 7) 3 (a 8). 2) (1000 + 3).n)(wf w). i. 6.2 6) (a f 6). : 23 2. ( 2 Hence the product equals 25 a'2 54 ft 2 . 14.e. (a 102 x 103. 25. 18.4). The product of two binomials which have a common term equal to the square of the common term.25)(y+4). + 60)(f2). 8. 20. 22. (wi 2^*12)(ajy 6. 99 (a + 2 6) (a 6). (1001) (100 (1000 + 2). = + EXERCISE Multiply by inspection 1. + 3) (a 7). 15. 24. 19. in of the two unequal terms. + 2) (a f 3).13). 39 The product of two binomials which have a common term. X 102. plus the product 62. plus the sum of the two unequal terms multiplied by the common term. Find two binomials whose product equals 3x + 2. i. 1) (10 + 2). (ofy* f 3) (tfy* (a5 2 ). (!)(* 5). 27. 3. . 11. 2 a? 29. 7. (*. (100 +2) (100 + 3).
. 35.40 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA of each. w 2 ro . 8j/ 2 + 49 y4 first .e. . 7. i. i. second. and the second.66 s. 33. plus sum of two numbers the square II. 4. Ex. + 3) 2 .e.15. (a2) (p a . m2_ 3m _ 4 2 36. Some special cases of the preceding type of examples : deserve special mention II. . 31. 63. 77ie square of the of the first. 3. 2 (a (*5) 2 . plus the square of the second.e. <J>7) J . p 2 p. square of the difference of two numbers is equal to the square of the Jirst. 49 y*. 2 5. 7 a + 10. 37. + 6) (a + 2) a) 2 . + 6 a + 8. (II) is only a The student should note that the second type special case of the first (I). (a26) 2 . (4 x3 + 7 2 i/ 2 is )' equal to the square of the first. 32. 6. oft x 3 y'2 plus the square of the Hence the required square equals 16 xP f. III.30.15. n2 10ii+16. (ain general language : Expressed is equal to tlie square I. : ar'Sz + a 2 G. 9. 34. is The product of the sum and to the difference the difference of two numbers equal of their squares. : 24 (a 2. of the second. III. 8. plus twice the product of the first and the second. 16 y* t plus twice the product of the i. EXERCISE Multiply by inspection 1. a2 2 w + 2 w . minus twice the product of the first and the 71ie second. (x+3i/) 2 . of the following expres Find two binomial factors sions 30.
G> +5g)*. 2 11 # ) 2 20. 21. 51. n 2 f4n+4. 40. 99x101. 62 25n 2 . 35. (m f 2 tt n)(ra w ) 26  (^ (2m + 3)(2m3). 18. two binomials whose corresponding terms are similar. 41. 2 (2a6c) (2a# (4 a 6 2 2 . (a 3) 2 2 2 . 4 53. 52. By actual multiplication. 49. (3p 9) (6a 2 2 2 . 2 2 5c ) 2 2 19. (6afy 2 5) (a. 32.ll^X^+lly (100 30. 42. 22 2 . 41 16. x*+2xy+y\ a 2 2a6 + & 2 m 2 2mhl. we have 3x 5x + 2y 4y 2xySy* . 29. ( 27. a2 9. The product of 57. . (20 f 1) . 15. 11. (1000 2 . : Extract the square roots of the following expressions 43. 46. 34. a 2 + 10 ab f 25 b\ Pind two binomial sions 50. 2 . 33. (m 27i )(m + 2n 2 5 ). + 3z) 2 2 . + 5)(5+a). 2 9a 496 2 56. : factors of each of the following expres y?f. I) 2 . 2 . n*6n+9.30 ab + 25 6 64. 14. 2 (4a36) 2 13. 17. 38. 16aW25. 48. + 5). 54.MULTIPLICATION 10. 2 + 11 2 (5 r 2 2 2/ ) 2  Z ) 2 2 (5 r f 2 2 . 55. (100 + 2) (100 2). (2x3yy. 22. 103 36. 23. 2 2 . 45. 2 . ). 104 2 37. 7)(a 2 2 f 7). 25 a 9. 31. . 44. . 998x1002. 28. + 1) (100 + 2) 2 . m 2 16. 2 2 (5 (a r*2t ) 2 5 (cd 5)(c d 2 . (^. . 24. 47. 991 2 2 .998 39. 9 a2 . a 2 8a6+166 2 . 2 J ). 7& ) 25. 12.
(2a3)(a + 2). 7%e square of a polynomial is equal to the sum of the squares of each term increased by twice the product of each term with each that follows it. 2 2 + 2) (10 43). sum of the cross products. 6. 13. 2 (2m3)(3m + 2). 4. ) (2 of a polynomial. (4s + y)(32y). 3. 2 (2x y (6 2 2 + z )(ary + 2z ). . 14.& + c) = a + tf + c . : 25 2. (100 + 3)(100 + 4). that the square of each term is while the product of the terms may have plus always positive. or The student should note minus signs. (3m + 2)(ml). (5a64)(5a&3).42 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA of the result is obtained product of 5 x follows: by adding the These products are frequently called the cross products. plus the product of the EXERCISE Multiply by inspection 1. (x i 5 2 ft x 2 3 6 s). and are represented as 2 y and 4y 3 x. The square 2 (a 4. ((5a? (10 12. plus the last terms. 11. 65. 2 2 2 2 (2a 6 7)(a & + 5).f 2 a& f 2 ac + 2 &c. 7. 8. The middle term or Wxy12xy Hence in general. the product of two binomials whose corresponding terms are similar is equal to the product of the first two terms. 9. 5. (5a4)(4al). 2 10.
8.3) (x .5) = (7 . 8 2(m 3(6 3 n) 2 3(m + n)H. (u4& + 3c'.(m 2 6. a. 6~2(a + 7). Hence. after multiplying the factors of a term.4) .24 . . ber that a parenthesis is understood about each term.29.(>. 7. 8. s? + y + z + 2xy + 2yz + 2 xz. + 6)( . + 65) .24] . 5. n).r _ 2 . = 10 x . 7.M UL TIPLICA TION EXERCISE Find by inspection 1. Ex. 4. Find the square root 11.[a? . 4y sf n) 2 .i2&c) 2 . 4(* + 2)5(3). 2)6.8 x + 15] . (mf n)(m+2)3m(n + m).4) . (a (.39. 6.X2 + 2 x .5).(x . (a2)(a3)~(al)(a4). and check the answers !. Check. (  2 4) =  20 a. In simplifying a polynomial the student should remem. : 43 26 (mf n+p) 2 2 . EXERCISE 27 : Simplify the following expressions.3)(z. 5. 66. 13. 9. of z : 10.1 5 = 10 .3) . 12. + 6 )2(6 + &)~(&4& ). 4. 3. = . 2 m 2 + n2 2 "f jp f 2 mn 2 ?wp 2 np. 4(aj2)h3(7). Simplify (x + 6) (a . (2a36 + 5c) (3 (.(= [ Xa + 2 .39. 3. the beginner should inclose the product in a parenthesis. (xy+z)*.y? + 8 . 6(a 2. 2 2. If x = 1.
44
9.
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
10. 11. 12.
13.
4(m + 2)
(a?
+ 5(w
3)
5)(oj2)
(a;
(n f 5) (w
 2) + (n  7) (n + 4)  2 (n*  2)
14.
15.
6(p+2)7(p9)2(i> + l)(pl).
16.
17.
x 2 y)(3 x f 2 y)  (4  y) (a3 (a f 6)  4 (a + &) (a f 2 6) + (a (5
2
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
2
(a
faf
1)
(
a  1)
 (a + 1) (a  1).
8
CHAPTER
DIVISION
IV
is the process of finding one of two factors and the other factor are given. The dividend is the product of the two factors, the divisor the given factor, and the quotient is the required factor.
67.
Division
if
their product
is
Thus
by
f
to divide
12.
12
by
+
3,
we must find
is
the
;
number which
3 gives
But
this
number
4
hence
_
multiplied
12 r +3
=4.
68.
Since
f
a

f b
fa
_a
and
it
f
a
= f ab = ab b = ab b = ab,
b
f
follows that
4a
=+b
ab
a
ab
a
69.
Hence the law
:
of signs
is
the same in division as in
multiplication
70.
Like signs produce plus, unlike signs minus.
Law
of
,
a8 5 a5
=a
3
for a 3
It follows from the definition that Exponents. X a5 a8
=
.
Or
in general, if
greater than
m n, a
f
and n are positive integers, and m ~ n an = a m a" = a'"", for a
<
m
m
is
45
46
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
71. TJie exponent of a quotient of two powers with equal bases equals the exponent of the dividend diminished by the exponent
of the divisor.
DIVISION OF MONOMIALS
7 3 72. To divide 10x y z by number which multiplied by number is evidently
2x y
6
2
,
we have
z
to
find
the
2x*y
gives 10 x^ifz.
This
Therefore,
the quotient
*
,
=  5 a*yz.
is
Hence,
sign,
of two monomials of their
part
coefficients,
is the
a monomial whose
coefficient is the quotient
preceded by the proper
literal
and whose
literal
found
in accordance with the
quotient of their law of exponents.
parts
73. In dividing a product of several factors by a number, only one of these factors is divided by that number. Thus (8 12 20)?4 equals 2 12 20, or 8 3 20 or 8 12 5.


.

.

.
EXERCISE
Perform the divisions indicated
'
:
28
'
2
.
76H15.
39* 3.
2
15
3"
7
7'
3.
4*
'
4.
5.
j2
12
.
4
2
9
5 11
68
3 19 j3
5
10.
(3
38

2 4 )^(3 4 .2 2).
56
'
11.
3
(2
.3*.5 7 )f(
2
'
12
'
2V
14
36 a
'
13
''
yfflg
35
5.25
12 a
2abc
15
42^
'
56aW
'
UafiV
DIVISION
lg
47
^1^. 16 w
7
20>
7i
9
_Z^L4L.
22.
10 iy.
132 a V* 14 1
*
01
240m
120m
40
6c
fl
/5i.
3J)
c
23.
2 (15 25. a ) = 5.
25. 26.
(18
(
.
5
.
2a )f9a.
2
24.
(7 26 a
2
)
f
13.
DIVISION OF POLYNOMIALS BY MONOMIALS
To divide ax} fr.ef ex by x we must find an expression which multiplied by x gives the product ax + bx J ex.
74.
But
TT
x(a
aa?
Hence
+ b e) ax + bx + ex. + bx f ex = a 4 b +
\.
,
.
c.
a?
To divide a polynomial by a monomial, cfc'wde each term of the dividend by the monomial and add the partial quotients thus
formed.
3 xyz
EXERCISE
Perform the operations indicated
1.
:
29
2.
5.
fl
o.
(5*
_5* + 52)
5.
52
.
3.
97
.
(2
(G^G^G^iG
(11 2
4.
(8 3
+
11 3
+ 11
5)* 11.
18 aft 27 oc
Q y.
9a
4
25 2 )^2
<?
2
.
+8 5 + 8
7) *8.
5a5 +4as 2a
2
a
14gV+21gy
Itf
15 a*b

12
aW + 9 a
2
2
3a
48
,
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
22
4,
m n  33 m n
4
s
2
f
55
mV
 39 afyV + 26 arVz 3
 49 aW + 28 a W  14 g 6 c
4 4
15. 16.
2 (115 afy f 161 afy
 69
4
2
a;
4
?/
3
 23 ofy
3
4
)
5
23 x2y.
(52
afyV  39
4
?/
oryz
 65 zyz  26 tf#z)
5
13 xyz.
f
,
17.
(85 tf
 68 x + 51 afy  34 xy* f 1 7
a;/)
 17
as.
DIVISION OF A POLYNOMIAL BY A POLYNOMIAL
75.
Let
it
be required to divide 25 a
 12 f 6 a  20 a
3
2
by
2 a 2 f 3 a, divide
4
a, or, arranging according to
2
descending powers of
6a3 20a
f
25a12
2 by 2a 
The term containing the highest power of a in the dividend (i.e. a 8 ) is evidently the product of the terms containing respectively the highest power of a in the divisor and in the quotient.
Hence the term containing the highest power
of a in the quotient is
If
the product of 3 a and 2
2
4 a
+
3, i.e.
6 a3
12 a 2
f
9 a, be sub
8 a 2 f 16 a tracted from the dividend, the remainder is 12. This remainder obviously must be the product of the divisor and the rest of the quotient. To obtain the other terms of the quotient we have
therefore to divide the remainder,
8 a2
f
16 a
12,
2 by 2 a
4 a
+
3.
consequently repeat the process. By dividing the highest term in the new dividend 8 a 2 by the highest term in the divisor 2 a 2 we obtain
,
We
4,
the next highest term in the quotient. 4 by the divisor 2 a2 4 a Multiplying
I
+ 3, we
obtain the product
8 a2
16 a
12,
which subtracted from the preceding dividend leaves
the required quotient.
no remainder. Hence 3 a
4
is
DIVISION
The work
is
49
:
usually arranged as follows
 20 * 2 + 3 0a 12 a 2 +
a3
25 a
{)

12
I
2 a2 8 a

4 a 4
a
_
12
+3
I

8 a? 4 16
a
76. The method which was applied in the preceding example may be stated as follows 1. Arrange dividend and divisor according to ascending or
:
descending powers of a common letter. 2. Divide the first term of the dividend by the first term of the divisor, and write the result for the first term of the quotient.
3.
Multiply this term of the quotient by the whole divisor, and
subtract the result
4.
from
it
the dividend.
the same order as the given new dividend, and proceed as before.
Arrange
the
remainder in
as a
expression, consider
5.
until the highest poiver
Continue the process until a remainder zero is obtained, or of the letter according to which the dividend
is less
was arranged
the divisor.
than the highest poiver of the same
letter in
77.
Checks.
Numerical substitution constitutes a very con
venient, but not absolutely reliable check. An absolute check consists in multiplying quotient and divisor. The result must equal the dividend if the division
was
exact, or the dividend diminished by the remainder division was not exact.
if
the
Ex.
1.
Divide 8 a3
f
8 a
 4 + 6 a  11 a
4
2
by 3 a
,
 2.
^ _ _
,
Arranging according to descending powers,
6 a4 6 a4
,
,
+ 8 a8 4 a3
12 a 8
11
a2 a2
f
8a
4
I
3 a
2 a8
2
f
=
a _+ 2
.
7rl,
4 a2
=
7
+
11

3 a2
3
a'
2
+ +
8 a 2 a
4 + 6a  4
50
Ex.
2.
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
Divide a4
 46 6a6
4
3
f
9
2
6
2
2 l by 26 3a& + a
.
Arranging according to descending powers of
a,
we have
a<a4
6 a36
fr
f
f
9 a2 6 2
2 a2 6 2
2
2
46*
I
a2
a*

8 ab 3 ab
 3 a8


+ 2 6^  2 62
46*
 3 a^ + 9a 2 6  6 ab 8
+ 6 a& a  4 6 4  2 a^a + 6 aft  4
Check.
ft*
The numerical
it
substitution a
=
1,
&
=
1,
cannot be used in this
either to use
example since
larger
renders the divisor zero.
Hence we have
a
number
for a, or multiply.
2  8 ab + 2 & 2 ) ( a _ 3 ab  2 6 2 ) (a = [(a2  3 aft) + 2 62 ] [(a2  3 a&)  2 62 ] = (a 2 3 aft) 2 4 6* = a2  6 8 6 + 9 a2 6 2  4 5*.
EXERCISE
30 *
:
Perform the operations indicated and check the answers
2. 3.
(jf_2y15)i<y6).
2 (15 a
2
4.
5.
6.
 46 a# f 16 ) _ 26 mn 4 5 n ) (5 m
2
i/
5
(5
a5 w).
2
*
(m
7.
(6^53^ + 40)^(6^5).
(56
2 a; f
8.
19 x
15) (8
3).
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
2 (25 a
 36
2
ft
)
j
(5
a
f
6
6)
* See page 263.
2) (3 a . the difference of the squares of two numbers is divisible of the two numbers. b f b by the difference or by the sum Ex. 16. c + 3* ' v7 169 a<6 2 ' .e. (a f b) (a V) Since =a a 2 b 2 . (aj 3aj2)^(oj2).18 m 2 ) f (1 G m f 9 m 2 ). 18. (81 m + 1 . 19. . a I.2).DIVISION 14. (3 a 13 m + 47 m + 35 w (1 (5 m f (6a 2 & 2 2 2 3 2 f 2 3 f ) 5 1) .11 a + 9 a .l. v/17. EXERCISE Write by inspection the quotient 31 of : 2 x 1 c 2 6 ' 3 ^. (8xy + lo22x' y)+(2x y3). Division of the difference of two squares.81 c8 f ' ISVftQc 8 64 ' a2 166 2 ' a? 10 1 . 20. SPECIAL CASES IN DIVISION 78. 51 15. . (a? s 8) 4 *( 2). + 23a& + 20)*(2a& + 6). .
49. . 14. r/ 1. 16 . 15.000. 9& 2 . 10. aW 12 a. 4 b. . 100ry. f 13. : the following w a 4 !. 36 a4 ?/ 4 .52 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA of Find exact binomial divisors of each expressions 9. 121a a 16 100 11.0001. 1. 12. 16.
(a + ft) (a b) and b. The first member or left side of an equation is that part The secof the equation which precedes the sign of equality. is said to satisfy an equation. 81. which is true for all values a2 6 2 no matter what values we assign to a Thus. (rt+6)(aft) = 2  b' 2 . ond member or right side is that part which follows the sign of equality. the 80. the first member is 2 x + 4. second member is x + 4 x 9. 82. An equation of condition is usually called an equation. y y or z) from its relation to 63 An known numbers. ber equation is employed to discover an unknown num(frequently denoted by x. A set of numbers which when substituted for the letters an equation produce equal values of the two members. =11. Thus.CHAPTER V LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS 79. An equation of condition is an equation which is true only for certain values of the letters involved. . y = 7 satisfy the equation x y = 13. 83. . x 20.r f9 = 20 is true only when a. in Thus x 12 satisfies the equation x + 1 13. An identity is an equation of the letters involved. in the equation 2 x 0. . hence it is an equation of condition. The sign of identity sometimes used is = thus we may write .
9 is a root of the equation 2 y +2= is 20. 2 = 6#f7. 3. a. 87. A term may be transposed from its sign. . the sums are equal. the known quan x) (x f 4) tities are = . Like powers or like roots of equals are equal. A linear equation or which when reduced first to its simplest an equation of the first degree is one form contains only the as 9ie power of the unknown quantity. To solve an equation to find its roots. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA If value of the an equation contains only one unknown quantity. A numerical equation is one in which all . the divisor equals zero. NOTE. 86. = bx expressed by a letter or a combination of c. Consider the equation b Subtracting a from both members. one member to another by changing x + a=. .b. If equals be added to equals. 90. A 2 a. 2. If equals be subtracted from equals. the products are equal. x I. E. the quotients are equal. If equals be multiplied by equals.g. 89. called axioms 1.2. 85. expressed in arithmetical numbers literal is as (7 equation is one in which at least one of the known quantities as x f a letters 88.54 84. The process of solving equations depends upon the : lowing principles. (Axiom 2) the term a has been transposed from the left to thQ right member by changing its sign. 4. If equals be divided by equals. the remainders are equal.e. 5. an^ unknown quantity which satisfies the equation is a root of the equation. Transposition of terms. Axiom 4 is not true if 0x4 = 0x5. but 4 does not equal 5. fol A linear equation is also called a simple equation.
LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS Similarly. 91. To solve a simple equation.y) = C4 + })(5f The second member. b Adding a to both + a. SOLUTION OF LINEAR EQUATIONS 1. Solve the equation Qx 5 = 4 f 1. if a x = b. Uniting similar terms. Unite similar terms. b c.6 y f y\ . x = (Axiom 3) 92. Dividing by Check. 4x 1 + 6. (4y)(6.8. 2 x = 6. Transposing. . transpose the unknown terms to the first member. Dividing both members by 2.9 y + 6 y = 20 f 22. may be changed Consider the equation Multiplying each member by x\1. a= a 6fc. f If y 20 . a? Adding 5 to each term.2. Ex. 2(11 . Subtracting 4 x from each term. Solve the equation (4 Simplifying. 4fl = 12fl = 13 3. The second member. Qx 6# = 4x + l + 6.3 y) + y 2 = 2(11 + i)^ V= 2) 1 4 = 26 i +  = 26 f f = 26$ JI . The first member.9 y + y2 = 22 . 3 y . y) (5 y) unknown Ex. if 55 x members. and the known terms to the second. Check. is correct. The sign of every term of an equation without destroying the equality. x = 3. (Axiom 1) The result is first member to the same as the right we had transposed a from the member and changed its sign. and divide both members by the coefficient of the quantity. Uniting. The first member. (Axiom 4) When x = 3. x = 93. Hence the answer. = 2 (11 3 y) + #*.2 y= f . 6a5 = 185 = 13.
3. + 7(3 + 1) =63. 14y = 59(24y + 21). = 7. : 5# = 15+2a. 14. 12.7a: = 394a. 32 = 264. BXEECISB 32* Solve the following equations by using the axioms only 1. 15. 8. 9 9a? = 7 13. Solve the following equations by transposing. + 16 = 16 + 17. x x 1 .. If x = 18. = 3. 7. 4. + 22. 247y = 68lly. 17 7 a.. . =2 = 3.4) = + 3) = \ x 14 x 21 = 7. 50. = 2 ?/. 11 ?/ a? 18. 3. it NOTE. 19. J. 4y 10.7. 20. f Simplifying. 6. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Solve the equation  (x 4) = \ (x + 3). a? a?. 17 9 x + 41 = 12 8 17. = 5a?+18. v23. 7a? 5. Dividing by Cfcecfc. 2. \x x 2^xfl.69. Uniting. + 24) = 6 (10 x + 13). 13a? 3a?. 21. 16. 4a + 5 = 29. etc. 3 7 a. 87 9(5 x 3) 6(3 a? = 63. Instead of dividing by \ botli members of the equation \ x would be simpler to multiply both members by 0. aj * See page 264. and check the answers 9. 3)= 9(3 7 a. 24.56 Ex. a.17 + 4y = 36. 22. {(x (x The The member right member left . x = 18. 11. = 60 7 = 16 + 5 : Xx 7 = 14. 7 (6 x 16). a. 17 + 5a. 13 y 99 = 7 y. . Transposing. a?. 3 = 17 3 a? a?.
or 70 a?. 29. a? 28.5(2 u .2) (M .4) (x + I) + (x + 2) = (x 2(* + l) (2J3)( + 2) = 12. 31.5) + 199. Suppose one part of 70 to be a?. + 1) 8(75 a?) +24 = 12 (4 .7. : One part is of 70 is 25 . .32. . 7(7 x y 26. 40. + 4).1) (u . . Hence if one part the other part 70 x. 27.12) (2 + 5) . this question. he should first attack a similar problem stated in arithmetical numbers is only. .(2 + 6) (4 .(14 x + 1) + 7) = 285 + 21 a* (z + 2) (a5) :=2. 7) (a.  +6= aj (4 t t t 1 (5 x (a? 2 2 2 2 2 2 (a? . . WJienever the student is unable to express a statement in algebraic symbols. 2 2 * Jaj. 41. . SYMBOLICAL EXPRESSIONS 94. 39. 34. and let it be required to If the student finds it difficult to answer find the other part. 6(6a. 38. e. (aj 37. (a. 5) (as (a.g. + 7) (. is the other part. . 25. he should formulate a similar question stated in arithmetical numbers only. 35.3) + .14 = 0.3) . and apply the method thus found to the algebraic problem. 42. .3) + 14.4) + 4 w . 30.7) (7 x + 4) . 57 734* = 13*~2(5*12).5)5(7a>8)=4(123a5) + l.5) = (a. find the other part. (6 u =5 44. .1) (a (a? + 3) = . Evidently 45.1 0) = 0.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS 25. 33. a? 43. 36.
greater one is g. 17. If 7 2. is d. The difference between two numbers Find the smaller one. EXERCISE 1. 6. $> 100 yards cost one hundred dollars. so that one part The difference between is s. is a? 2 is c?. 9. smaller one 16. Ex. Divide a into two parts. so that of c ? is p.58 Ex. 33 2. 3. one part equals is 10. What number divided by 3 will give the quotient a? ? What is the dividend if the divisor is 7 and the quotient ? . 15. 11. 5. 10. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA What must be added to a to produce a sum b ? : Consider the arithmetical question duce the sum of 12 ? What must be added to 7 to pro The answer is 5. 7. so that one part Divide a into two parts. a. 4. Find the greater one. find the cost of one yard. By how much does a exceed 10 ? By how much does 9 exceed x ? What number exceeds a by 4 ? What number exceeds m by n ? What is the 5th part of n ? What is the nth part of x ? By how much does 10 exceed the third part of a? By how much does the fourth part of x exceed b ? By how much does the double of b exceed one half Two numbers differ by 7. 13. two numbers and the and the 2 Find the greater one. Divide 100 into two 12. or 12 7. is b. Hence 6 a must be added to a to give 5. 1. one yard will cost 100 dollars. 6. one yard will cost  Hence if x f y yards cost $ 100. and the smaller one parts. x f y yards cost $ 100 . 14.
Find the sum of their ages 5 years ago. and B has n dollars. How many years A older than is B? old. and B is y years old. and c cents. y years How old was he 5 years ago ? How old will he be 10 years hence ? 23. and 4 floor of a room that is 3 feet shorter wider than the one mentioned in Ex. feet wider than the one mentioned in Ex. How many cents are in d dollars ? in x dimes ? A has a dollars. and spent 5 cents. 22. smallest of three consecutive numbers Find the other two. A dollars. sum If A's age is x years. 34. 19. 28. A room is x feet long and y feet wide. and B's age is y years. Find the area of the Find the area of the feet floor of a room that is and 3 30. If B gave A 6 25. rectangular field is x feet long and the length of a fence surrounding the field. What What What What is the cost of 10 apples at x cents each ? is is is x apples cost 20 cents ? the price of 12 apples if x apples cost 20 cents ? the price of 3 apples if x apples cost n cents ? the cost of 1 apple if . find the of their ages 6 years hence. find the has ra dollars. ?/ 31. How many cents has he ? 27. 33. 20. square feet are there in the area of the floor ? How many 2 feet longer 29. The greatest of three consecutive the other two. numbers is x. A feet wide. 59 What must The be subtracted from 2 b to give a? is a.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS 18. 32. 24. 28. Find 21. How many cents had he left ? 28. b dimes. Find 35. 26. A man had a dollars. amount each will then have. is A A is # years old.
how many miles he walk in n hours ? 37. % % % of 100 of x. A was 20 years old." we have to consider that in this by statement "exceeds" means minus ( ). . Find a. as a exceeds b by as much as c exceeds 9. The two digits of a number are x and y. he walk each hour ? 39. What fraction of the cistern will be second by the two pipes together ? 44. How many x years ago miles does a train move in t hours at the rate of x miles per hour ? 41. in how many hours he walk n miles ? 40. A cistern can be filled in alone fills it by two pipes. The numerator If of a fraction exceeds the denominator by 3. b To express in algebraic symbols the sentence: " a exceeds much as b exceeds 9. m is the denominator. how many how many miles will he walk in n hours 38. per Find 5 Find 6 45. If a man walks n miles in 4 hours. How old is he now ? by a pipe in x minutes. of 4. and the second pipe alone fills it in filled y minutes. Find a 47. 48. If a man walks ? r miles per hour. If a man walks 3 miles per hour. Find the number.60 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA wil\ 36. A cistern is filled 43. 49. miles does will If a man walks r miles per hour. and "by as much as" Hence we have means equals (=) 95. c a b =  9. . The first pipe x minutes. 46. of m. Find x % % of 1000. find the fraction. What fraction of the cistern will be filled by one pipe in one minute ? 42.50. a.
The product of the is diminished by 90 b divided by 7. double of a is 10. 80. etc. 6. c. In many word There are usually several different ways of expressing a symbolical statement in words. 80. a is greater than b by b is smaller than a by c. 3. c. 9. = 2 2 a3 (a  80. 2. a exceeds b by c. The excess of a over b is c. 8 b ) + 80 = a . EXERCISE The The double The sum One 34 : Express the following sentences as equations 1. third of x equals difference of x The and y increased by 7 equals a. of a increased much 8. the difference of the squares of a 61 and b increased } a2 i<5  b' 2 ' by 80 equals the excess of a over 80 Or. 4.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS Similarly. of x increased by 10 equals x. cases it is possible to translate a sentence word by in algebraic symbols in other cases the sentence has to be changed to obtain the symbols. of a and 10 equals 2 c. equal to the sum and the difference of a and b sum of the squares of a and gives the Twenty subtracted from 2 a a. thus: a b = c may be expressed as follows difference between a : The and b is c. by one third of b equals 100. same result as 7 subtracted from . Four times the difference of a and b exceeds c by as d exceeds 9. The double as 7. 5.
. and C's age 4 a. Express as : equations of the (a) 5 (b) (c) % a% of the second (d) x c of / a % of 4 sum equals $ 90. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Nine is as much below a 13. (c) If each man gains $500. they have equal of A's.62 10. B's.000. B's age 20. amounts. 18.*(/) (g) (Ji) Three years ago the sum of A's and B's ages was 50. and (a) (6) A If has $ 5 more than B. 6 % of m. 11. express in algebraic symbols : 700. B's. 14. A If and B B together have $ 200 less than C. A gains $20 and B loses $40. they have equal amounts. (d) In 10 years A will be n years old. . sum equals $20. x is 100 x% is of 700. and C's ages will be 100. 3 1200 dollars. #is5%of450. and C have respectively 2 a. (a) (b) (c) A is twice as old as B. 16. In 10 years the sum of A's. express in algebraic 3x : 10. 12. 17. a third sum of 2 x + 1 dollars. 5x A sum of money consists of x dollars. pays to C $100. a. a second sum. symbols B. x 4 If A. A is 4 years older than Five years ago A was x years old. m is x % of n. of 30 dollars. the sum and C's money (d) (e) will be $ 12. In 3 years A will be twice as old as B. (e) In 3 years A will be as old as B is now. the first sum equals 6 % of the third sura. as 17 is is above a. B. >. is If A's age is 2 x. a. first 00 x % of the equals one tenth of the third sum. the first sum exceeds b % of the second sum by first (e) % of the first plus 5 % of the second plus 6 % of the third sum equals $8000. 50 is x % of 15.
A will Check. 4 x = 80. Check. number by x (or another letter) and express the yiven sentence as an equation. denote the unknown 96. In order to solve them. NOTE. 23 =30. 1. verbal statement (1) (1) In 15 years A will may be expressed in symbols (2). = x x 3x 40 3x 40 Or. Write the sentence in algebraic symbols. the required . In 15 years A will be three times as old as he was 5 years ago. 3z40:r:40z. Ex. x+16 = 3(35). etc. be three times as old as he was 5 years ago. equation is the sentence written in alyebraic shorthand. The equation can frequently be written by translating the sentence word by word into algebraic symbols in fact. The solution of the equation (jives the value of the unknown number. 3 x + 16 = x x (x  p) Or. Transposing. number. In 15 years 10. number of yards.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS 63 PROBLEMS LEADING TO SIMPLE EQUATIONS The simplest kind of problems contain only one unknown number. . by 20 40 exceeds 20 by 20. Find A's present age. x= 15. Transposing. x = 20. x + 15 = 3 x 3x 16 15. much as 40 exceeds the number. 3 x or 60 exceeds 40 + x = 40 + 40. be 30 . 2. The student should note that x stands for the number of and similarly in other examples for number of dollars. Dividing. Three times a certain no. Simplifying. exceeds 40 by as much as 40 exceeds the no. but 30 =3 x years. Let x The (2) = A's present age. 15. Three times a certain number exceeds 40 by as Find the number. Let x = the number. Uniting. Uniting. the . Ex. 6 years ago he was 10 .
A number added number. A will be three times as old as toda3r . Find the width of the Brooklyn Bridge. to 42 gives a sum equal to 7 times the original 6. 14. 3. 300 56.64 Ex. 14 50 is is 4 what per cent of 500 ? % of what number? is 12. Find the number. . Four times the length of the Suez Canal exceeds 180 miles by twice the length of the canal. 47 diminished by three times a certain number equals 2. Let x 3. How old is man will be he now ? twice as old as he was 9. 35 What number added to twice itself gives a sum of 39? 44. 13. 4. Find the number whose double exceeds 30 by as much as 24 exceeds the number. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 56 is what per cent of 120 ? = number of per cent. Uldbe 66  x x 5(5 is = *. EXERCISE 1. 5. by as much as 135 ft. What number 7 % of 350? Ten times the width of the Brooklyn Bridge exceeds 800 ft. How many miles per hour does it run ? . twice the number plus 7. Six years hence a 12 years ago. Dividing. exceeds the width of the bridge. % of 120. then the problem expressed in symbols W or. Find 8. Forty years hence his present age. 11.2. Find the number. How long is the Suez Canal? 10. Find the number whose double increased by 14 equals Find the number whose double exceeds 40 by 10. Hence 40 = 46f. A train moving at uniform rate runs in 5 hours 90 miles more than in 2 hours. 120.
During the following 90 years. The sum of the two numbers is 14. How many dol A has A to $40. . Find the population of Maine in 1800. B How will loses $100. 65 A and B $200. How many dollars must ? B give to 18.000. five If A gives B $200. x. 97. 14. Ex. One number exceeds another by : and their sum is Find the numbers. Vermont's population increased by 180. make A's money equal to 4 times B's money wishes to purchase a farm containing a certain He found one farm which contained 30 acres too many.000. If A gains A have three times as much 16. One number exceeds the other one by II. while in the more complex probWe denote one of the unknown x. Ill the simpler examples these two lems they are only implied.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS 15. then dollars has each ? many have equal amounts of money. 1. B will have lars has A now? 17. statements are given directly. A and B have equal amounts of money. Maine's population increased by 510. numbers (usually the smaller one) by and use one of the given verbal statements to express the other unknown number in terms of x. The problem consists of two statements I. If a problem contains two unknown quantities. and B has $00. F 8. the second one. is the equation. The other verbal statement. and as 15. and another which lacked 25 acres of the required number. which gives the value of 8. and Maine had then twice as many inhabitants as Vermont. how many acres did he wish to buy ? 19. In 1800 the population of Maine equaled that of Vermont. two verbal statements must be given. times as much as A. If the first farm contained twice as many acres as A man number of acres. written in algebraic symbols.
. = 14. x 3x 4 and B will gain. B will have twice as viz. and Let x = the Then x +.= The second statement written the equation ^ smaller number.66 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Either statement may be used to express one unknown number in terms of the other. B will have twice as many as A. I. has three times as many marbles as B. the greater number. Dividing. If we select the first one. + a f f 8 = 14. To express statement II in algebraic symbols. = A's number of marbles. o\ (o?f 8) Simplifying. in algebraic i symbols produces #4a. which leads ot Ex. the smaller number. = B's number of marbles. 8 = 11. consider that by the exchange Hence. < Transposing. x = 8. the sum of the two numbers is 14. to Use the simpler statement. A will lose. 26 = A's number of marbles after the exchange. 2x a? x j = 6. A gives B 25 marbles. 2. A has three times as many marbles as B. 26 = B's number of marbles after the exchange. = 3. 8 the greater number. Another method for solving this problem is to express one unknown quantity in terms of the other by means of statement II viz. terms of the other. / . Then. although in general the simpler one should be selected. Let x 3x express one many as A. x x =14 8. 25 marbles to B. . The two statements I. . Let x 14 I the smaller number. Statement x in = the larger number. unknown quantity in Then. expressed symbols is (14 x) course to the same answer as the first method. If A gives are : A If II. Uniting.
75. Dividing. the number of half dollars. 3 x = 45.240. 45 . Two numbers the smaller. dollars and dimes is $3. 50. (Statement II) Qx . the number of dimes. is 70. 50 x Transposing.10. by 44.10. then. the price. x = 15. 50(11 660 50 x )+ 10 x = 310. The value of the half : is 11. x = 6. cents. The numbers which appear in the equation should always be expressed in the same denomination. 60. Check. The number of coins II. greater is . . The sum of two numbers is 42.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS Therefore. Let 11 = the number of dimes. x from I. * ' . Eleven coins. 11 x = 5.10. A's number of marbles. Simplifying. their sum + + 10 x 10 x is EXERCISE 36 is five v v. Dividing. x = the number of half dollars. w'3. but 40 = 2 x 20.. Selecting the cent as the denomination (in order to avoid fractions). 15 + 25 = 40. Find the numbers.$3. Find the numbers. Check. we express the statement II in algebraic symbols. 3. x x + = 2(3 x = 6x 25 25). Never add the number number of yards to their Ex. 6 dimes = 60 = 310. differ differ and the greater and their sum times Two numbers by 60. B's number of marbles. of dollars to the number of cents. .. etc.550 f 310. have a value of $3. Uniting. 67 x f 25 25 Transposing. Uniting. Simplifying. 6 times the smaller.. consisting of half dollars and dimes. 1. and the Find the numbers.25 = 20. 2. How many are there of each ? The two statements are I. * 98.5 x . 40 x . 6 half dollars = 260 cents.
the night in Copenhagen lasts 10 hours longer than the day. How many 14 years older than B. as the larger one. would contain three times as pints does each contain ? much 13. ? Two vessels contain together 9 pints. A's age is four times B's.68 4. Everest by 11. and the greater increased by five times the smaller equals 22. and B's age is as below 30 as A's age is above 40. tnree times the smaller by 65.. Find their ages. 5. it If the smaller one contained 11 pints more.000 feet. one of which increased by 9. McKinley exceeds the altitude of Mt. McKinley. and in 5 years A's age will be three times B's. How many inches are in each part ? 15. 3 shall be equal to the other increased by 10. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA One number is six times another number. find the weight of a cubic Divide 20 into two parts. cubic foot of iron weighs three times as much as a If 4 cubic feet of aluminum and Ibs. and in Mexico ? A cubic foot of aluminum. and four times the former equals five times the latter. Twice 14. 2 cubic feet of iron weigh 1600 foot of each substance. Two numbers The number differ by 39. of volcanoes in Mexico exceeds the number of volcanoes in the United States by 2. 7. the larger part exceeds five times the smaller part by 15 inches. How many hours does the day last ? . What are their ages ? is A A much line 60 inches long is divided into two parts. United States. Mount Everest is 9000 feet higher than Mt. How many volcanoes are in the 8. On December 21. 11. and twice the altitude of Mt. 6. and twice the greater exceeds Find the numbers. the number. What is the altitude of each mountain 12. 9. Find Find two consecutive numbers whose sum equals 157.
I. 8(8 + 19) to C. try to obtain it by a series of successive steps. = 48. sum of A's and B's money would exceed much as A had originally. B. 69 If a verbal statements must be given. x = 8. number had. number of dollars A had. and the other of x problem contains three unknown quantities. The solution gives : 3x 80 Check. . or 66 exceeds 58 by 8. Let x II. B has three times as much as A. then three times the sum of A's and B's money would exceed C's money by as much as A had originally. are : C's The three statements A. three One of the unknown num two are expressed in terms by means of two of the verbal statements. number of dollars of dollars B C had. and B has three as A. 5 5 Expressing in symbols Three times the sum of A's and B's money exceeds C's money by A's 3 x ( x _5 + 3z5) (904z) = x. and C together have $80. = number of dollars B had after giving $5. the the number of dollars of dollars of dollars A B C has. If 4x = 24. original amount. The third verbal statement produces the equation. and 68. II. If A and B each gave $5 to C. 1. has. times as much as A.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS 99. let us consider the words ** if A and B each gave $ 5 to C. 4 x = number of dollars C had after receiving $10. first According to 3 x number number and according to 80 4 x = the express statement III by algebraical symbols. A and B each gave $ 5 respectively. they would have 3. Ex. bers is denoted by x. has. then three times the money by I." To x 8x 90 = number of dollars A had after giving $5. If A and B each gave $5 to C. 19. Tf it should be difficult to express the selected verbal state ment directly in algebraical symbols. B. III. and C together have $80.
140 + (50 x x 120 = 185. number of horses. + 35 x 4. 4 x f 8 = 28. the third five times the first. 90 may be written. + 8 90 x and. number of sheep. x j = the number of horses. Dividing. 1 1 Check. The I. x f 4 = 9. and the difference between the third and the second is 15 2.70 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA man spent $1185 in buying horses. 9 5 = 4 . Let then. = the number of dollars spent for horses. 90 x f 35 x + GO x = 140 20 + 1185. 28 x 15 or 450 5 horses. and 28 sheep would cost 6 x 90 f 9 + 316 420 = 1185. x Transposing. 85 (x 15 (4 x I + 4) + 8) = the number of sheep. 28 2 (9 5). x 35 f + = + EXERCISE 1. three statements are : IT. Find three numbers such that the second is twice the 2. The number of cows exceeded the number of horses by 4. 2 (2 x f 4) or 4 x Therefore. according to III. 185 a = 925. The number of cows exceeds the number of horses by 4. = the number of dollars spent for sheep Hence statement 90 x Simplifying. each horse costing $ 90. = the number of dollars spent for cows. Uniting. number of cows. and Ex. according to II. The total cost equals $1185. 9 cows. cows. and the sum of the . first the third exceeds the second by and third is 20. 2. x = 5. each cow $ 35. and each sheep $ 15. A and the number of sheep was twice as large as the number How many animals of each kind did he buy ? of horses and cows together. number of cows. + 35 (x +4) f 15(4zf 8) = 1185. and. sheep. III. first. The number of sheep is equal to twice tho number of horses and x 4 the cows together. 37 Find three numbers such that the second is twice the first.
A 12. what is the population of each city ? 8. and is 5 years younger than sum of B's and C's ages was 25 years. New York delphia. the first Find three consecutive numbers such that the sum of and twice the last equals 22. If twice The sum the third side. and children together was 37. the second one is one inch longer than the first. Find three consecutive numbers whose sum equals 63. and the third exceeds the is second by 5. The three angles of any triangle are together equal to 180.000 more than Philadelphia (Census 1905).  4. and the sum of the first and third is 36. and of the three sides of a triangle is 28 inches. twice the 6. 71 the Find three numbers such that the second is 4 less than the third is three times the second.000. first. If the second angle of a triangle is 20 larger than the and the third is 20 more than the sum of the second and first.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS 3. equals 49 inches. In a room there were three times as many children as If the number of women. how many children were present ? x 11. A is Five years ago the What are their ages ? C. 7. v  Divide 25 into three parts such that the second part first. v . what is the length of each? has 3. increased by three times the second side. and the pig iron produced in one year (1906) in the United States represented together a value . the copper. and the third part exceeds the second by 10. the third 2. men. 13. and 2 more men than women. women. 9.000.000 more inhabitants than Philaand Berlin has 1. what are the three angles ? 10. If the population of New York is twice that of Berlin. "Find three is 4. is five numbers such that the sum of the first two times the first. twice as old as B. The gold. first.
First fill in all the numbers given directly. Since in uniform motion the distance is always the product of rate and time. we obtain 3 a. width. 3 and 4. of arid the value of the iron was $300. or time.e. it is frequently advantageous to arrange the quantities in a systematic manner. Dividing.000. . The copper had twice the value of the gold. 14. 3z + 4a:8 = 27.000.g. 3x + 4 (x 2) = 27. but stops 2 hours on the way. i. Find the value of each. then x 2 = number of hours B walks. Hence Simplifying.72 of ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA $ 750. Let x = number of hours A walks. and A walks at the rate of 3 miles per hour without stopping. together. number of hours. A and B apart. such as length. number of miles A x x walks. After how many hours will they meet and how E.000 more than that the copper.000. 7 Uniting. = 5. California has twice as many electoral votes as Colorado. statement "A and B walk from two towns 27 miles apart until they meet " means the sum of the distances walked by A and B equals 27 miles. and distance. B many miles does A walk ? Explanation. = 35. speed. and 4 (x But the 2) for the last column. 8 x = 15. has each state ? If the example contains Arrangement of Problems. and quantities area. of 3 or 4 different kinds. and Massachusetts has one more than California and Colorado If the three states together have 31 electoral votes. how many 100. start at the same hour from two towns 27 miles walks at the rate of 4 miles per hour.
05 x x .04 = $ 40. 2   and transpose. and the width decreased by 10 yards. + 10 x 300 = 2 z2 100.x + 00) 2 x2 Simplify. or 700.04 8. x . original field has Check. A sum invested larger at at 5 % terest as a sum $200 4%. Cancel 2 # 2 (a 10) = 2s 100.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS Ex. z = 20.06 = $ 40. $ 800 = required sum. . the area would be 100 square yards less. $ 1000 x .01 = = ." gives (2.M(x . Check. 70x10 Ex. Find the dimensions of the field. 10 x = 200. l. The an area 40 x 20 =800. fid 1 The field is 40 yards long and 20 yards wide. What brings the same is the capital? in Therefore Simplify. Multiplying. If the length The length " The area would be decreased by 100 square yards. were increased by 30 yards. 73 of a rectangular field is twiee its width. x + 200). . 2 a = 40.053. + 8. $ 800 = 800. x . the second 100. Transposing and uniting. But 700 certain = 800 2.
74 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 38 rectangular field is 10 yards and another 12 yards wide. and in order to raise the required sum each of the remaining men had to pay one dollar more. After how many hours will B overtake A. but four men failed to pay their shares. each of the others had to pay $ 100 more. A man bought 6 Ibs. Find the dimen A certain sum invested at 5 % %. If the silk cost three times as For a part he 7. How much did each man subscribe ? sum walking at the rate of 3 miles per hour. Six persons bought an automobile. and the sum Find the length of their areas is equal to 390 square yards. but as two of them were unable to pay their share. twice as large. paid 24 ^ per pound and for the rest he paid 35 ^ per pound. how much did each cost per yard ? 6. and the cost of silk of the auto and 30 yards of cloth cost together much per yard as the cloth. 1. of coffee for $ 1. The second is 5 yards longer than the first. A of each.55. and its width decreased by 2 yards. together bring $ 78 interest. Twenty men subscribed equal amounts of to raise a certain money. were increased by 3 yards. invested at 5 %. Ten yards $ 42. and a second sum. mobile. as a 4. and how far will each then have traveled ? 9. the area would remain the same. sions of the field. How many pounds of each kind did he buy ? 8. and follows on horseback traveling at the rate of 5 miles per hour. A sets out later two hours B . 2. A If its length rectangular field is 2 yards longer than it is wide. sum $ 50 larger invested at 4 brings the same interest Find the first sum. 3. What are the two sums 5. A sum ? invested at 4 %. Find the share of each.
LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS v 75 10. traveling by coach in the opposite direction at the rate of 6 miles per hour. how many miles from New York will they meet? X 12. A and B set out direction. how must B walk before he overtakes A ? walking at the rate of 3 miles per hour. Albany and travels toward New York at the rate of 30 miles per hour without stopping. and from the same point. and B at the rate of 3 miles per hour. The distance from If a train starts at . walking at the same time in the same If A walks at the rate of 2 far miles per hour. A sets out two hours later B starts New York to Albany is 142 miles. After how many hours.will they be 36 miles apart ? 11. and another train starts at the same time from New York traveling at the rate of 41 miles an hour. but A has a start of 2 miles.
if it contains no other factors (except itself and unity) otherwise . a + 2 ab + 4 c2 . it contains no indicated root of this letter . a. The prime factors of 10 a*b are 2. An expression is integral and rational with respect and rational. we shall not. as. it is composite. if it is integral to all letters contained in it. if it does contain some indicated root of . An expression is integral with respect to a letter. 6. + 62 is integral with respect to a. irrational. if. if this letter does not occur in any denominator. f db 6 to b. a. The factors of an algebraic expression are the quantities will give the expression. a factor of a 2 A factor is said to be prime. J Although Va' In the present chapter only integral and rational expressions b~ X V <2 Ir a2 b' 2 2 ?> . but fractional with respect 103.CHAPTER VI FACTORING 101. vV . consider 105. expression is rational with respect to a letter. An after simplifying. 5. 104. a2 to 6. which multiplied together are considered factors. stage of the work. \ V& is a rational with respect to and irrational with respect 102. this letter. at this 6 2 . 76 .
or that a = 6) (a = a . 107. dividend is 2 x2 4 2 1/ .9 x2 y 8 + 12 3 xy f by 3 xy\ and the quotient But. y. 77 Factoring is into its factors. It (a. 2 4 x + 3) is factored if written (x' would not be factored if written x(x and not a product. 110. in the form 4) +3. it follows that a 2 . 2.62 can be &). An the process of separating an expression expression is factored if written in the form of a product. POLYNOMIALS ALL OF WHOSE TERMS CONTAIN A COMMON FACTOR ( mx + my+ mz~m(x+y + z). it fol lows that every method of multiplication will produce a method of factoring. . for this result is a sum. factors of 12 &V is are 3. Factor 14 a* W 21 a 2 6 4 c2 + 7 a2 6 2 c2 7 a2 6 2 c 2 (2 a 2 . Ex. Factor G ofy 2 . x.62 + &)(a 2 . x.9 x2^ + 12 sy* = 3 Z2/2 (2 #2 . or Factoring examples may be checked by multiplication by numerical substitution.) Ex. The factors of a monomial can be obtained by inspection 2 The prime 108. ?/.3 sy + 4 y8). TYPE I. 8) (s1). 1. E. 2.9 x if + 12 xy\ 2 The greatest factor common 2 to all terms flcy* is 8 2 xy' .g. 2. Hence 6 aty 2 = divisor x quotient. 55. .FACTORING 106. Since factoring the inverse of multiplication. 109. Divide 6 a% . 01.3 6a + 1). since (a + 6) (a 2 IP factored.
in factoring a trinomial of the form x f/>#f q. two numbers m and n whose sum is p and and if such numbers can be found. 2 23. 15 2 7. 11.45 afy . in general.30 aty.4. 2 + q. 4 tfy f. e.51 x4 2 6 xy s .4. to find two numbers whose product is 15 and whose sum is f. 2 2 .16 a'V f 48 ctfa^ 2 s 4 : + 34 X 8 a*b f 8 6V . . 13.5 + 13 8. and to multiply 3 and 5 to obtain the term which does not contain x or (x 3)(x f 5) 15. 32 a *?/ . 7a & 10. 8. 34 a^c 8 . 19. 4. 20. 17. In multiplying two binomials containing a common 3 and 5 to obterm. q*q*q 2 a. 14a 4 5. 16. we had to add tain the coefficient of x. 3 3 5 6. + llm llm. ) 22  2. a a 'Ja . 2 6. a(mf7i) + & ( m + 3 (a + 6) 3 /(a + 6). 2. 5f 2 . 3. &{20a 6 4 &3 2 .3. obviously.5 + 2. .51 aW + 68 21.3.g.12 cdx. : 6 abx . a6c. QUADRATIC TRINOMIALS OF THE FORM 111. 12. f In factoring x2 2x we have to find whose product is g. 3 2 . Ilro8 9. (as 3) and (ccf5). 14.78 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 39 Resolve into prime factors 1.5 x*y 2 17 a? . x2 f2 x = 15 we have.6. the y factored expression is (x }m)(x + n). TYPE IT.2. 7i 13. 3x*6x*. 4 8 . 15. 2 Or. 18.8 c a 15 ofyV .
. of this type. 11 7. and (a . 4. 77 as the product of 1 77. 3. and the greater one has the same sign Not every trinomial Ex. but only in a limited number of ways as a product of two numbers. the two numbers have opposite signs.11) (a + 7). can be factored.G) = . If q is positive. Hence fc f 10 ax is 10 a are 11 a  12 /. + 30 = 20. tfa2  3. Therefore Check. however. Factor x? . Since a number can be represented in an infinite number of ways as the sum of two numbers.11 a 2 .5) (a 6). . Factor + 10 ax . Ex. m 5m + 6. We may consider 1.a). 2 6.FACTORING Ex. but of these only a: Hence 2 . a 2 .6 = 20.30 = (a .1 1 a tf a 4. as p. Hence z6 ? oty+12 if= (x 3 y)(x*4 y ). EXERCISE Besolve into prime factors : 40 4.77 = (a. or 7 11. If q is negative.. Ex. determine whether In solving any factoring example.5) (a . Factor a2 . . the student should first all terms contain a common monomial factor. or 77 l.4 .11. 11 a2 and whose sum The numbers whose product is and a. 2. 79 Factor a2 4 x .1 afy 8 The two numbers whose product is equal to 12 yp and whose sum equals 3 8 7 y are 4 y* and 3 y*. 5. + 112. If 30 and whose sum is 11 are 5 a2 11 a = 1. is The two numbers whose product and 6.4 x .11 a + 30. 2 11 a?=(x + 11 a) (a. the two numbers have both the same sign as p. it is advisable to consider the factors of q first. or 11 and 7 have a sum equal to 4.
18. 2 2 a' 34. 2 2 . 4 3 2 . y_ 6y +6y 15?/ 2 ?/ 10. x*y ra 2 2 4xy 4 wia 2 2 21y. TYPE 113. + 44. 2 ?/ 22. 26. 6 a 18 a + 12 a 2 2 ?/ . 2 ?/ 28.500 x + 600. 16. +7 Hence a? is the sum of the 13 x cross products. 21. + 400 x aft a4 4 a 2 . a? + 5 + 6 a. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBEA x*2x8. 32. 21 a 2 2 .6. 14. we have to find two bino mials whose corresponding terms are similar. + 5<y 24. + 4?/21. 6 is the product of + 3 and 2. By actual trial give the correct we find which of the sum of cross products. 8. 2 . factors of 6 x 2 and 5 . or . 13. . 29. 100 xr . 3?/4 + a' 2a&24& n + 60+177> a + 7 a 30. QUADRATIC TRINOMIALS OF THE FORM According to 66. ay 11 ay +24. x2 23.180 a. 2 . and 5 x. and the sum of the cross products equals 13 x. 27. a 2 +11 a a? 16. ITT. 25. 35.80 7. . 31. 30. 36. a2 . 4 2 . ra + 25ra + 100.17 + 30. a 2^ 2 a2 + 7ax 18. 17a& + 7(U 9a&226 + 8 a 20. 16. 9.70 x y . 6 8 8 4 2 a. (4 x + 3) (5 x 20 x2 is the product of 4 a. 10 x y 2 200 x2 . . a 7 a 30. 24. such that The The first last two terms are factors of 6 x 2 two terms are factors of 5. 12. 20. 19.2) = 20 x2 + 7 x . in factoring 6 x2 + 5. 2 .48 + + 446 200. 17. 11. 33. ^ </ 2 2 7p8. + 30. + 2xS. 2 ?/ 5?/14. 15.
none of the binomial factors can contain a monomial factor. which has the same absolute value as the term qx. 3. Since the first term of the first factor (3 x) contains a 3. X x 18. we have to reject every combination of factors of 54 whose first factor contains a 3.31 x Evidently the last 2 V A 6. If py? \qx\r does not contain any monomial factor.83 x f 54. but the opposite sign. 18 x 3. The work may be shortened by the : follow ing considerations 1. the If p and r are positive. sible 13 x negative. . viz. 9 x 6. all pos combinations are contained in the following 6xl x5 . or G 114. The and factors of the first term consist of one pair only. Factor 3 x 2 . 6 x 9. the second terms of the factors have same sign as q. 27 x 2. .1).5) (2 x .17 x 2o?l V A 5  13 a combination the correct one. If the factors a combination should give a sum of cross products. a.e5 V A x1 3xl \/ /\ is 3 a.13 x + 5 = (3 x . and after a little practice the student possible should be able to find the proper factors of simple trinomials In actual work at the first trial. and r is negative. exchange the signs of the second terms of the factors. and that they must be negative. all it is not always necessary to write down combinations. 2.5 . 54 x 1. Hence only 1 x 54 and 2 x 27 need be considered. 64 may be considered the : product of the following combinations of numbers 1 x 54. If p is poxiliw. then the second terms of have opposite signs. 3 x and x.FACTORING If 81 we consider that the factors of f 5 as must have is : like signs. 2 x 27. the signs of the second terms are minus. 11 x 2x. Ex.
2 . 2i/ * 2 2 x 27. 14 a fa 4. 29. EXERCISE Kesolve into prime factors 1. 18. 144 x . 2 28. Sar' + SaG. X 27 . 3.2 a 90 x*y . 15. arranged according to the ascending or the descending powers of some letter. 14. 2 . 16. : 41 2. 25.2) (x . 10a2 G a2 2 .83 x = (3 . 11.27). 34. + 4.179. 12. x54 a. 2m t7w + 3. 9 y + 32^16. 2 2 2 23. . 6. IV) are special cases of In all examples of this type. 10 a . 32. 2 fc . 7. 8.77 xy + 10 y 23afc + 126 . the expressions should be it.290 xy f 144 y* 4x 8 ofy + 3 y 2 2 4 2 4 f . 3a + 13a. 19. 6n 2 f 13w + 2. 2 2 2 . . + 11 or 2 + 12 a. 5m 26m f 5. 12y 2/6.30 y 6 4 . 90 a 8 2 . 10. since all others (II. 2 ar* 2 i/ . 4a2 9tt + 2. h r is 2 the most important of the trinomial types.y + 172/9. 20. SoJ + llay 15 aj* 40*. 21. 35. 5. 2x* + 9x5. 2 31.10 4a? + 14oj + 12. 9a.83 x .7. 22. . f go. 10a?2 2 33. 5 a6 2 2 9 a . 30.13 xy + 6 y2 12 x 7 ay.19 a f 6. + 2/3.82 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 3xl 3s2 x X 115. 4. 2 26. 100^200^ + 100^. 6n + 5?i4. 24.163 x 2 . 2 f3y 4y 40a 90aV + 20aV. 2.260 xy .300 ab 2 f4 250 . 17. 12^17^16. 13. 3x*Sx + 4. 9. and the monomial factors should be removed. Therefore 3 z + 64 The type pa.
5. i. 3. 2 . and a perfect square. x* . 4 6 m*ti f 9 n*. 9.e. .10 x f 16. must have a positive sign.FACTORING 83 TYPE IV. a flOa&46 4 wi f 2 2/ 2 . of its terms are perfect squares. 9 10a625. 2. square. EXERCISE 42 per Determine whether or not the following expressions are feet squares. 16 y? The student should note that a term.26 ab + 9 6 2 . 11. and factor whenever possible : 1. 4. for + 9 y2 = (4 x .20 xy f 4 y\ . form are special cases of the preceding type. 6. and the remaining equal to twice the product of the square roots of these in order to be a perfect terms. 8. 25 7. it is more convenient for that type. 12. however.3 y) 2 is 2VWx 2 x V0y2" = 24 xy. THE SQUARE OF A BINOMIAL 2 Jr 2 xy +/. Expressions of this to factor them according a2 to 65. A term when two is trinomial belongs to this type. To factor a trinomial which maining term.  2 xy + if = (x 2 ?/) . 116. 10. and may be factored according to the method used In most cases. m + 2mn + n c 2cdd 2 2 . it is a perfect square. connect the re square roots of the terms which are squares by the sign of the indicate the square of the resulting binomial. 13. x> 2 a 2_4 a & a 2 + 462. . m 14ww + 49n 2 16 a . 14. 2 2 . 2 9 10gf25. 9 +6a6 2 2 f a4 . 24 xy + 9 y' 2 is Evidently 10 & 24 xy a perfect square.
10 a 2 4 2 . 19. 27.9& 2 3<> 4 2 . 29. . 16&*. ).9 z* = (2 ary + 3 z ) (2 1G a . 2 f b 2 2 2 ) (a NOTE. Ex. + GO + 25. m 4a + 12a + ( 2 4m 2 20 f ( ). a2 24. 48 a +( ).  + 6a + ( 9a ( ) + 144 a 2 28. 4a2 l. 4 2 23. * 2 . 6 2 .4 6 = lG(tt +2Z> )(a 26 ). 2 . 22. EXERCISE Resolve into prime factors 1. V.20 ab + 10 b a . +( )f816 30.6 m* + 9 m. difference of the squares of two numbers is equal of the sum and the difference of the two numbers. 2. ^//c to the Ex. TYPE 117. 3. x*Sx + ( 64 a 4 100w +( )+49. . aV . 6. product i. 4 3 4 ^ 3 8 10 8 10 ) 4 5 4 5 Ex. 149 a 81 8. 9a2 . 25. 7.3 * ). 26. 225 ofy .2 ofy + ofy m .e. a4 a2 2 f 6 is . ). ). 2 20. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 16a 2 24a&4. 3. a. 18.6 = (a 4 b) = (a* + b*)(a + b)(ab). 2. !Gar 9 ( )+25. 9. 2 . 2 . 3 Make the following expressions perfect squares by supplying the missing terms : 21. u2 6& + 2 ( ).60 a# + 4. 100a2 68 a2 & 2 121. 1. : 43 tfy\ a 9. 5. a. 17. THE DIFFERENCE OF TWO SQUARES JT 2 /. . prime.84 15. According to 65.64 6 = 16(a . 16. 36 2 4.
2 ?/) 16 2 (y f 2 . One or both terms are squares 1. 6.FACTORING 85 118. 8.c . 2. 11. 36> . 4. (x f 3 9 2/ 2 . 16p 2 . (m 3n) 2 ( 2 2 . (a x? f 6) 6 2 . Resolve into prime factors and simplify EXERCISE 44 Resolve into prime factors 1. 2 . 2.d) 2 .(c 4. a2 . 5. 2 . of polynomials. 13. Factor a 2 . (m7?) y. 25a (&c) (mh2n) 2 2 .(c + d) 2 = (a + c + cZ) (a . 2 2 : (mfn) _p 2 . Ex. Ex. 9. (2a (2s + 5) (3a4) 2 2 . T. (?/ 2 cc (x y)*.(I) . (m f # 2 2 n) 42:) 10. (2a5&) (5c9ef) 2 3. a:) 12. 14.
10.1. 12. 8. 3. the expression becomes the difference of two squares. Ex. + bx + ay + by = x(a + &) + y(a + 6) Ex.a a . 4 B. 9. Ex. + x + 2x + 2.86 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA TYPE VI. x8 . 5) .4 6 x f 3 a y 2 4.7 c + 2c . . Factor ax ax f bx f ay f by.y + 2 2). raV + nV 3 a 2ic 2 m ?/ 2 n 2an3&n + 2ag3&?. 4:cx . a3 c 3 10ax5ay6bx + 3by.and trinomials.r.VI. + 4cy5dx 2 5dy. a 26 2 2 3 . GROUPING TERMS By the introduction of parentheses. A.14. 7. a? 11. By grouping. : 45 ax + bx + ay+by. Factor or 5 5 x2 x x f 5.2 ) (3 x . 2. polynomials can frequently be transformed into bi. ma ?*a + m& nb. 119. 5. a5 + ab 6 . 2.(x  5) EXERCISE Resolve into prime factors 1. 6. After grouping tain a the terms. 1. ive find that the new terms con common factor.6z2 + 5 = z2 (. . which may be factored according to types I. Factor 9 x*y*4:Z 2 f 4 yz. = (3 x + y .ab + bx.
8.12 z + 9 x2)_ (&2 _ 4 ty + 4 ^2) a. SUMMARY OF FACTORING I. m Gw + 9n * See page 266. 3. 3. + 2xy + y*q*.6 ww + n 2 2 < a 2 4a6 + 46 25.12 aaj 4 6y. l~a 2a56 2 2 . $ a8 . although frequently the particular cases II and IV are more convenient. II.4 f . Binomials are factored by means of the formula a 2 6 2 III.FACTORING Ex.12 ax + 9 a2 + 4 &t/ 4 y2 = (4 a 2 . : 46 x* 2. 2. 5. 4 a2 .9 a2 4 v* 2 . . 6a4 12a2 + 6. Trinomials are factored by the method of cross products.* */2 ft EXERCISE Kesolve into prime factors 1. Arranging the terms. +c+ 2 2 2/ . = (a + 6)(a6). w m 2. : m 2 2 16. 4. 2a3/ 7.l. 8. IV. 6 6. 87 f Factor 4 a2  6 2 + 9 tf . a 2 10a6 4 2 + 256 2 x ar 2a. . 2. 6a4 + 37a2 + 6. 36 9 m . Polynomials are reduced to the preceding cases by grouping terms. First find monomial factors common to all terms. 4. 6. 2 7.62 + 9 _ 4 _ 12 ax + 4 6y 2 = 4 a 2 . EXERCISE 47 MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES* Resolve into prime factors !. 8ra 2 + 16.10 xy + 4 y\ 2 .
4 a. 25 a + 25 aft . 13. 27.24. 13 c . any V 2 ( 51 xyz + 50.13 c . 49 a 4 4 42 a + 9 a 20a 90a 50. (^ 34. 2 a 128.88 10. a. 19. 1 ?v _w 8 2 33. 18. . 80 a 2 ft 38. or 3 7#2 .85 xy + 42 y 10 w 43 w 9.40. 48. 3 a2 23. 30. 50^ + 45. 6 :J 2 2 ft 2 16. __ ft)2 n Qy 2 . 2 3#4 3a2 36. 4 2 2 ft ft 2a + a*l. a3 156. 35. 14. 28. 32 aft + 6 4ft 4 . 42 s 2 . 24. 2 ft . 4 8 tt 2 z . 22.156. + 14. + 6 aft + 3 . 5a' 20. a6 36. 2 17. 3 25. 256 4 2 2 ?/) . 3 2 . 3 41. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA x*xif. 5 a. 20 >r + 2 ?<s __ G4. 10 a 2 4a 4 26.310 x . 29. 40. a5 a 1 4 2 39. 42 x . (a. 32. 11. 12. a + a + a + l.
expressions which have no are prime to one another. C. 3 . of : 48 4. . 2. The student should note H. + 8 ft) and cfiW is 2 a 2 /) 2 ft) . C. C. and GO aty 8 is 6 aty.CHAPTER VII HIGHEST COMMON FACTOR AND LOWEST COMMON MULTIPLE HIGHEST COMMON FACTOR 120. of aW. aW. 24 s . F. EXERCISE Find the H. 121. F. C. of 6 sfyz. are prime can be found by inspection. 6. F. 15 aW. II 2 . Thus the H. 5 7 34 2s . F.) of two or more . of a 4 and a 2 b is a2 The H. 8 . Two common factor except unity The H. The H. 5 s 7 2 5. 3. If the expressions have numerical coefficients. C. F. find by arithmetic the greatest common factor of the coefficients. and prefix it as a coefficient to H. is the lowest that the power of each factor in the power in which that factor occurs in any of the given expressions. of two or more monomials whose factors . 5.  23 3 . F. 122. C. 12 tfifz. the algebraic factor of highest degree common expressions to these expressions thus a 6 is the II. 89 . F. The H. F. F. 2 2 . 5 2 3 . 54  32 . C. C. F. 13 aty 39 afyV. 25 W. C. of the algebraic expressions. C. of (a and (a + fc) (a 4 is (a + 6) 2 . The highest is common factor (IT. of a 7 and a e b 7 . 33 2 7 3 22 3 2 .
13. . x* x2 Hence the H.y) 123. 3. 75 a&X 15 bed 11 . 9 aj*(a? .5 x3?/ 2 6.y + y42. 8. C. a2 . 11. 10. F. F. a2 ar* 4. 57 a>V. 2. a2 + 2a3. 15. 3). a3 9a. 4a f 4a2 2 2 a 2  . 1. . a 3a4.# 4 afy f 4 . 6 mx . F. a. 6 a2 y? . 12. of + 4 if.?/ . 8(?/ifl) 14. 2 . Ex. 6(m+l) (m+2).y)\ O+ 0^(0. 25 m27i.3 xy + 2 y* = (x . 49 C. 2 . 2 . 7/ EXERCISE Find theH. 11. 12 w*nw 8. 10. .2 y) (a. 4 7/i 3 n2 10 4 mV. a2 + 7af!2. 225 4a 9 .7 xy + 10 2 = (x .6.90 7. 3 . a3 16 a. 12. C. 1. 95 2/V. 2a f5af 2. y + 3y64. 4(m+l) 3 . 24 a 2 . Find the H. and apply the method of the preceding article. x2 ^4^ and tf 7 xy + 10 f.5 + 6. 8.6 a&.12 as 66 . (a7 ?/) . 52 oryz4. F. To find the H. ^a + 5^ + 6. 9. resolve each polynomial into prime factors. . 16. C. 12 .6 a' + 2 a& + 6 . 5. 7. 0^80:416. of polynomials. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBEA 6 rarcV. of: . 9. 16 a . 6 3 a. 30 mu\ 39 afyV. ^f a.^9. 3^ 2 4 . aWd. 15 3ao.8 a + 16. = x 2 y. 4 a3 6 4 8 a663 . 8 a 10 . ^707 + 12. 5 a6 5^ 2 a. 4(m f ?i) 3 3 5(w + w) 5 7(m + n}\m 2 ri). 15 xy^ 2 10 arV . 2 . 38 #y. 65 zfyV. . 13.6 . 14.5 y). 4 ?io. . 8 6.2 ?/) (x .y) . ^2 2 .
C. The L. The lowest common multiple (L. C. 6 c6 is C a*b*c*.) of two or more expressions is the common multiple of lowest degree. M. &) 2 M. 128.M. Obviously the power of each factor in the L. C. of several expressions which are not completely factored. find by arithmetic their least common multiple and prefix it as a coefficient to the L. M. of 12(a + ft) and (a + &)*(  is 12(a + &)( . resolve each expression into prime factors and apply the method for monomials. 4 a 2 &2 _ Hence. Find the L. C. C. A common remainder. = (a f last 2 &)' is (a  6) . C. M. M. NOTE.M. M. L. 1. of 4 a 2 6 2 and 4 a 4 4 a 68 2 . of as &2 a2 + 2a&f b\ and 6a. two lowest common multiples. C. ory is the L. a^c8 3 . C.6 3 ). Ex. Common 125. of the general. =4 a2 62 (a2 .LOWEST COMMON MULTIPLE 91 LOWEST COMMON MULTIPLE multiple of two or more expressions is an which can be divided by each of them without a expression 124.C. M. If the expressions have a numerical coefficient. 2 multiples of 3 x and 6 y are 30 xz y. 126. which also signs. C. . thus.(a + &) 2 (a have the same absolute value. M. but opposite . 2. L. M of the algebraic expressions. of 3 aW. of tfy and xy*. 2 The The L. Ex. 60 x^y' 2 . 127. To find the L.6)2. M. . Find the L. C.C. 300 z 2 y. etc. each set of expressions has In example ft). is equal to the highest power in which it occurs in any of the given expressions. Hence the L.
24. a?b. + 2 7i) . a f 2 19. y*. 14. + 2. 4 a 5 6cd. 2 x \2 y. xy\ . Find the L. 17. ax {ay ~ 3 a 3 b. a2 4. afc'cd 2 .1. 8 afy. a. 6 a. a 2 fa6. 2 7ic+10. 2(m 2 . 3(a + b). a. x2 + 4 a f 4. a 2 a3 . bx a? 8 2 lOajflfi. 22. 20 9 a. a^1. 30 a.92 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 50 C. 13. 40 abJ. 2. 7. 2 10. T a 3 a 2 . 3. #. 2 a. 20. a. 3 f2. 6 y. 21. 2 a . . 16. 4 a f 2. 8. 3 6 xif. 2 a . ic 2 ?/. 2 . f b. 3. by. 3 (a2)(a3) ( a 3)(a4) 2 2a?b'2ab 2 a. 2 . 2 a?b\ a + 2ab + b' 2a2b. 24 x. 15. 4 a . 3(m + n) 4 m 2 . 6. 3 ab. x2 2 + 5 a + 6. a 1. x 2 5 a. a2 ~ab 1. 6b 2 . (For additional examples see page 268. a& 4 +& 2 . 2 ic 3 4a 8 a. a f 3. a 2 f 4 a +4. ic 23. 2 . 3 Z> . of: 4. 18. x* ~5a. b 2 . afy.1. 9. (a 4)(a2) 12. G a. 5 a 2 ^ 2 15 . + 6. . 1. 5 a? 5 a? y. ) . 11. 5. or f 3 a 15 #. a { a~b. a !. x2 5 f 2 3# 5 + 2.f 6. 3 . 8 d 5 . M.
fraction is in its lowest when its numerator and its denominator have no common factors. successively all 2 j/' . thus  is identical with a divisor b the denominator. a?. rni Thus 132. 130. and i x mx = my y terms A 1.ry ^ by their H. but we In arithmetic.CHAPTER VIII FRACTIONS REDUCTION OF FRACTIONS 129. as 8. C. Ex. Reduce ~ to its lowest terms. an indicated quotient. a b = ma mb . Remove tor. etc. All operations with fractions in algebra are identical with the corresponding operations in arithmetic. TT Hence 24 2 z =  3x . common 6 2 divisors of numerator and denomina and z 8 (or divide the terms . F. Thus. only positive integral numerators shall assume that the all arithmetic principles are generally true for algebraic numbers. If both terms of a fraction are multiplied or divided by the same number) the value of the fraction is not altered. A f fraction is b. The dividend a is called the numerator and the The numerator and the denominator are the terms of the fraction. and denominators are considered. the value of a fraction is not altered by multiplying or dividing both its numerator and its denominator by the same number. the product of two fractions is the product of their numerators divided by the product of their denominators. 131. however.
tf a*  n2 + 8 a 24 a* _ ap 2 . 6 24 a2 to its lowest terms.4) Ex. To reduce a fraction to its lowest terms.94 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 133. Keduce a* ~ 6 a' 4 *8a 6a qs _.33 7 a 36 arV 18 x2^' 39 a2 6 8c4 * See page 268. Keduce 62 ~ 2 62 a2 to its lowest terms. 2. Never cancel terms of the numerator or the denominator.6 a + 8) 6 d\a* . cancel factors only. and cancel all factors that are common to both. resolve numerator and denominator into their factors. 3. Ex. _Q 2 6 EXERCISE 51* Reduce i to lowest terms 3 : 95 2 *' o 3 * 3T5"** T^ 12a4 " 3 K 6 ' 32 78 ' ' 2. .
* OQ 3 a3 _6a a/i 2 2 5 ?tt +6 ^. .FRACTIONS 7 95 22 a 2 bc 1 4 ^. """. 12 15 m m 2 2 7 w.10 a + 3 2 14. ^" a. g J 21. . 9x + "a" 10. 5^10 y 30.. ^+3*. ~__ 9n _ 22 9. ny 4 18. 04 !l 9 or 2 6 it*?/ +y 2 12. 19. x1 15 ' ft< 4 xy //(/ _. 3a ^ ^ "^ 2 9 . 16. 11 ^ Mtr f . LJZJ^JL. nx 17. 29.n 8 + T> ? wn + n 2 ?i 2 m " *7 . 23. ' ^ .' 32. + ' 4 2 ?/ 27. 'M 3 ??i 2fi 25. n h ' m11 2 m 3 8. .7 .*. _ 3 7i rt< 26. ^' rt ^  31.
Ex  Reduce to their lowest common denominator. Since a (z 6 + 3)(s3)Ol)' 6a. Ex.C. take the L.1^22 ' .3)O  Dividing this by each denominator. C. and (a 8). mon T denominator. we have M^. To reduce to a fraction with the denominator 12 a3 6 2 x2 numerator ^lA^L O r 2 a 3 ' and denominator must be multiplied by Similarly. 1. 2> . we have (a + 3) (a 8) (!)' NOTE. . of the denominators for the common denominator.96 134. .  of //* 2 .3) (!)' = . ^ to their lowest com The L. 1).C. we may use the same process as in arithmetic for reducing fractions to the lowest common denominator. by the denominator of each fraction. we have the quotients (x 1).by 3 ^ A 2 ' . C.D. M. 3 a\ and 4 aW is 12 afo 2 x2 . Multiplying these quotients by the corresponding numerators and writing the results over the common denominator. and the terms of ***. and 135. . multiplying the terms of 22 .M. multiply each quotient by the corresponding numerator. and Tb reduce fractions to their lowest common denominator. Reduce ^. TheL. and 6rar 3 a? kalr .r 2 2 .M.  by 4 6' . we may extend this method to integral expressions. by any quantity without altering the value of the fraction. Divide the L. =(z (x + 3)(z.~16 (a + 3) (x. ELEMENTS OF 'ALGEBRA Reduction of fractions to equal fractions of lowest common Since the terms of a fraction may be multiplied denominator. + 3).
7i 2 ab* ". 3. j y 3.^1.FRACTIONS EXERCISE 52 97 . bxby g ! a 5 ' a f5 a2 25 ?. 2aj ~ . 18.oj o* or / . 2. 2 ay IB. fractions having a common denominator are added or subtracted by dividing the sum or the difference of the numerators by the common denominator. ?y2" m^ S? m 2 7^ m S* **. If the given fractions have different denominators.T 3y Ga1 ax 9 ' 2a . . 2 3 9a ~l' 3al 6 8 a ' 2 a8 * 5 4a 8' ' a jj + 6 a 9 ^ . 5?. 74).. i.Reduce the following to their lowest 1.a+2 ' a 2 3af 2 ADDITION AND SUBTRACTION OF FRACTIONS 136. .T n"> ^' 5c 3 26 o atf o> 5 77" ' . they must be reduced to equal fractions which have the lowest common denominator before they can be added (01 subtracted). 5a 3 zl ' _ 2al n. a? 1 5 > ^* . JL. . Since {c c = 5L^ c (Art. 137.. 8 i i. o o a. 22 a2 5a * . . . common denominator 6.
. a2 ab ft2 Hence the a a2 f 2 6 a2 .3 . and adding.3 ft 2). C. 2 ^. T? Ex. ft) ft ft a(a ~ 3 aft + 2 ft2 a2  2 aft _(a + 2ft)(a2ft) +a (2q + a(a .(a 2 6). the student should remember that parentheses are . 2. we obtain 2 a the terms of 2(2 a +3 3 ft 6 a f ft _ 2(2 a + ft) 3 ft) (2 a ft) 4(2 a 3 4(2 a ~~ + 3 ft) f (2 a . The L. D.3 ft)(2 a f + : Ga6 + 3 ft). ft). understood about terms ( 66) hence he should.7 . (a 3 ft) In simplifying a term preceded by the minus sign.2 = a(a . 4 6 + 2qg+6~agf4a&8 a(aft)(a 2ft) ft 2 a2 a(a + 5 aft .aft  _ 3 ab + 2 = ( a _ ft)( _ 2 a 2 2 aft :=(. ^ _ ^ a3b ft). (2 ~ a ft) a(a  + 7 ft)fa ft)(a 2 ft)  ft) a(a 2 ft) NOTE. (a8ft)(a~ft) 8 2 2ft) 2 =a 4 2 + 2 (2 a 4. (a . (a ft).98 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA  Ex ' Sim C. The results of addition and subtraction should be re duced to their lowest terms.4 aft + ft ft ) a(a  ft)(a 2ft) 2 =a .20 aft 3ft) f 3 ft 2 4(2a3ft)(2af 4 aft f 21 2 138..2 ' 2 _. ^ is 2^JT) .3 ft).3 ft)(2 a + 3 ft) ft ft) (6 a ft) _ 8 a 2 f 24 aft 20 a 2 f f 18 2 + ft 12 a 2 . cr \t Simplify _T__ r* + . write 2 the product in a parenthesis. D. L.ft) (a ft ft)~.g. a 3 2a + "~ a2 ft). as 4 aft f. in the beginning. Multiplying the terms of the first fraction by 2(2 a the second by (2 a .ft)(a . 4(2 a 3 ft).aft) Ca2 . e.
9m + 7n 3 6m 5n 2x + 3y 3x 15 y x + 2y 45 8. t3 m2* a _2 6 a 4. 36 3u 2v v 5 wv 8v 12 uv 13. 15. 20. 46 2a 4a 12. 6a116 13 a 15a26 116 e ' 6 2 10. a2 a + 3* 2 a 7 af1 ' 2) * See page 270. 1* 1 + mf 3 1 M. 1 1 f w 16. 6 c 3a 7.FRACTIONS EXERCISE 53* Simplify : 99 2a4 5 3. + a "" 2 6 ' . a 36 ++. 1 f q * 1 m m . A+2_3. 2L + 2a 1 17. 5a76 4a 106 9. 23. a+6 a 6 2 14. 30 u +? + i _H_ + _*_.5 18 ^4f25. 2. + . j>0 i> 21. 18 v 19. 24.
43.9 79 6 2 i. af 1f /j. a. ic 1 + 1. ^2^+6m 3 45 ' 44. 42. x + 3y x3y Gx x2 2x . a ?^ 40. ! n. / IIlNT: Let a 1  39.LOO ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 26  x*3x + 2 x2 5x 27 ' ~. 3a 9 +. 2 af1 32. 1 34. a 4 31. _m & 2 i +m 6 i _w 36 a2+ a ^_2&2 35. _ + a? ?/ + y. _ ' a +b +a= ( 38. a 30. a 2 ^> 2 x2 7x+12~x l7x + 4:~ ' } . x2 Q 3 /Yl Qfi ou L "I "I \_ L I * 7 ITi ~T~ 7 TTo O :_ ' i 37 _ 9 <1  1 i 1 '> a2 . 41.9.
2 + 4tf 3 17 .6 x + 10x4 x2 17 Therefore x y 3g . . .'3) 2 EXERCISE expression 54 to a Keduce each of the following fractions : mixed or integral a a +1 9a2 6a + 2 3a m 2 * 5 m f 6 4 m 7 n 2 + 7n + 14 fi .FRACTIONS 139. 2x 4 x3 to a mixed expression.  . Reduce . T. To reduce a fraction to an integral or = + ceo 2 * * (S74) v ' Hence 5a2 15a7 = 5 a2 oa 5a 15a oa 7 5a =a 3 .7 5a v Ex.  4 or 3 2a. 101 mixed expression. 2 x2 + 2 g 4.6 + 4x 4 x2 . 1. .17 (2^ + 2x f 53 (2x.
Since  = a. expressed in symbols: c a _ac b'd~bd' principle proved for b 141. Fractions are multiplied by taking the product of tht numerators for the numerator. multiply the 142. and the product of the denominators for the denominator. each numerator and denomi nator has to be factored. fractions to integral numbers. 2. we may extend any e. or.102 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA MULTIPLICATION OF FRACTIONS 140. (In order to cancel common factors. 2 a Ex.) Ex.g. F J Simplify . Common factors in the numerators and the denominators should be canceled before performing the multiplication. Simplify 1 J The expreeaion =8 6 . x b c = numerator by To multiply a fraction by an that integer. integer. !.
_G x 7 a2 5a6 a.6 12 d6 4.. 5n a2 43a4 a2 3 a 4 a 2 5ah4 <  x2 + x (x 2 I) 17. 5# 56 / c& 4.FRACTIONS EXERCISE Find the following products ' 103 55 : 2!v! 2 4 5 8 a2 " ' ^ ' 36^ 21m* ' 17 ab ' ' 2 48 as b*' 34 ab 2 14m4 .. 6) 12 ot 2 ab + 2 fc a b* o. 2 f 5 a.20 3a 2 6 ' GoA ai> 56 2c " ar " ' 4 ac2 V V 3m " " +1 " " o?f 2 ~ ' _ 9m JO. 2 25n 2 1 3m +&n 15. 4 8. 50 . 14. 53 *38 " ' 4 ' 14 b* ' 10 a 8 ' " 4af86 76 5c 36C2 10 (a 7a216 a2 2 q~. . aj 5 1 a? 18.
The The reciprocal of a is a 1 f reciprocal of J is  . The reciprocal of a number is the quotient obtained by dividing 1 by that number. Integral or mixed divisors should be expressed in fractional form before dividing. The reciprocal of ? Hence the : +* x is 1 + + * = _*_. and the principle of division follows may be expressed as 145. Divide Xn?/ . 1. To divide an expression by a fraction. 8 multiply the Ex. x a + b obtained by inverting reciprocal of a fraction is the fraction.y3 + xy* x*y~ f y 8 y f 3 2/ x3 EXERCISE 56* Simplify the following expressions 2 x* '""*'*' : om 2 a2 6 2 r  3 i_L#_i17 ar J 13 a& 2 5 ft2 ' u2 +a . . * x* f xy 2 by x*y +y x' 2 3 s^jf\ = x' 2 x* . expression by the reciprocal of the fraction. To divide an expression by a fraction. : a 41 ab * See page 272.104 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA DIVISION OF FRACTIONS 143. 144. invert the divisor and multiply it by the dividend.
are fractional.1 5 w + 56 a 2 w a2 2 4. ga2 4 8 5 a .6 COMPLEX FRACTIONS 146.' ' * ' ^5^+4 .5 ??i 80 50 . a a2 4.FRACTIONS 105 . A complex fraction is a fraction whose numerator or denominator. or both. t ' a^3^4 ? 4* ' a?~ab > a 2 a 4a 4 4 a: +3 m 12 2 f.afr 4. Simplify <! c a a2 c 4 L 4. c ab 2 4 &c* & a ._ # ~ y ' 45 14 in^o 2 ?/ ^y "xy 15 a2 + (Jf fr a b .6 s + 064. l. mm 5 a a2 6 2 4g2 2a 2 4g20 25 . Ex.^c 2 2 .10 ?/ _. a 6 _6 c c ac a6 2 4.&c 2 ~ a 4 a2c 4.T ?/ 4 2 a*?/ 15 #4.
10. x* 4.16 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA In 147. . JL. Ex. a m "" . Simplify x }. the answer is directly obtained. many examples the easiest mode of simplification ia multiply both the numerator and the denominator of the mplex fraction by the L.y 32 . . B If the numerator and denominator of the preceding examples multiplied by a&c.?/ x y _x^_l X ~V x+y . 2. xy x +y Multiplying the terms of the complex fraction by (x y). C. & . 9. . i. 7i+~ 7. 6. y X 4* 2 y 3. the expression becomes (x EXERCISE Simplify : 57 x 2. of their denominators. M. c +6. . n a 8.a ^c c _^ a .
1 + 1+ 1 ti flgfl a?l ic+1 a. sy 18. 2 & a 20  a46 13. m^n* n L a 17. i ~T" * ~ 1 y 19 4 ' !^5n a "~ 12.) .~l (For additional examples see page 273. o 15. 1 i 1 2 5 .FRACTIONS 107 1 i m 11. 1 +2 1 i " f " ( a + 1 /*_i_i 4 14. : .
Uniting. + 1) (a + 3) .CHAPTER IX FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS FRACTIONAL EQUATIONS If an equation contains fracbe removed by multiplying each term by the may L. x = 6.9(se + !)( 14 x 2 .f3# + C:E=6f7212. each member is reduced to Ex.9 x2 + 9. Clearing of fractions. 2x Transposing. Multiplying each term by 6 (Axiom 89). 5(3 85 Check. 2z2a. 1. Solve 5 I 14 x +1 x +3 I).28 x + 42 = . C. 148. !)(&+ 1) (x + 3). Uniting. Bx 12 Qx. M. 108 . If = 64. a.48. 4 4)  x.l)(z + 3) = . If x 6. tions. 2.28 a = 5 x2 . 9x x Check. of the denominator. 6 = = 72 72 3 (a. Multiplying by (x Simplifying.1. 2 3. = 6. 5 x2 + 20 x + 15 15 . Transposing. each member is reduced to 1.42 + 9.8 x = .14 (a. = 6. these Ex.  2(x 2 + 3) Removing parentheses. . Solve ^2^ = 63 2 x 12 * + **. 14 z 2 + z 2 + 20 x .
15. ^1 = 9. . 18.= 2. . 16. 1+5 & ^0 ^ a? = 19 1 11. '  4 13. a/  5 a/ = 12. 3 a? '2 4 "  2 a? "T"" 4 4. a: 7 a. +4 14. = xx a? a? hi x +^ + 3 = 11. o ""~TiT" ' 3 12. 1 *> = 2. a.FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS EXERCISE Solve the following equations : 109 58 ^ 4 3 _ +7 a? 32 3 10. ^' 2. 4 y 2 ^ 16 20 +2 334 y2 y3 == on .1 _77 a. +1 = 5.
^^ ' 39 7 ' x. 3 3x2 51 3x*2x 23 x 3x2 22 36. 26 26. . and after simplifying the resulting equation to clear of all denominators. 25.110 ELEMENTS Of ALGEBRA 24. and" the remaining one a polynomial. + 26 2^43 1 4^9 1 2a?3 A* 37. 2 20 x+3 x3 3 o^ 28 . . 27 .  2  13 _J_ = _J3 ._ _ . 2^12 = 2 = 34. 4a4l4* + l~. 32 6 . If two or more denominators are monomials. it is advisable first to remove the monomial denominators only. y+3~2 29. 31 31. 33.  38 = 40. ?_=_. .11_4 x 149. . 3x 35. J_.
1. 26 a. f 13 8#f 2__ 2x 5 7 15 ~~716* 6a? 44.2 3 ~  == 7a.29 50712' 9 18 . Solve the following equations 41 : 5a. 10 x f 6 __ 4a. M. Transposing and uniting. the 1 5 L.r7 5 +l 6afll~~ 3 6xflO ' 5 2a?~25 15 17a?~9 14 28 6414 . 5 = 20 g 5 a: ~ Jff 1 . Transposing and Multiply ing by 6 uniting.2 42 9 43.FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS Ex. 5x x : = 9. . Solve 111 10 Multiplying each term by tors. of the monomial denomina~ &Q =: n 16 x 2( +3~ x 16 x  2. 5# 10. 60. 24 a. C. 1. each member is reduced to ^. Dividing.  5 = 20 x 45. Check. = 9. a. If a..
they are united by factoring.1. Literal equations ( 88) are solved by the same method as numerical equations.& . = 6 a2 . Uniting.3 6 2 = a' . jr. f ~ 5c. ax f x f. 5> a. = 2 f b 2 . If 3ac L= = a ? . fr Reducing lowest terms.c) (3 a ac 6(rtfc)(ac) 6 a2 6 a& +6 6c = (2a + &)(3ac). =a 2 151. It frequently occurs that the x.be. Thus.m 2* = (a f 6) mnx = (1 4. 3(ac) c) Multiplying by 3 (a .2 ac + 3 aft . and multiplying by a(9 b 4 c 4 c) = 7 &c.112 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA LITERAL EQUATIONS 150. unknown letter is not expressed by or z.m bx 2 mn) x. y. b a a a z Clearing of fractions. = l^ 9 b 4 . When the terms containing the unknown quantity cannot be actually added. 2. + 2 ac 9 a& 3 ab Simplifying. l to = !=?_=^6? a f 6. . = = 6 6c 7 6c. a. bx f 6)z = 3 & 2 ab. ax + bx ax (a f IP Transposing.2 62 2 ab. to Transposing all terms containing a 6 ab 6 ac one member. find a in terms of b and c. Ex. 4 ac 1. Ex. Uniting the Dividing. Dividing.
31.a. a? x!7  a ITo x T _ ~ 2 8. 14. in terms of other quantities. 1 f. 4. Find the formula for: () The (6) (c) principal. a.= H. + 3a. 11. _ 2. 3. If s If 16. 10. If * 33. 12. 17. denoting the interest. i The formula for simple interest ( 30. t. 5) is t =^. rate.= c a Z> . * Solve the same equation for^). .= n. 3(2a + aj) 25 ?+l '~~ a/ 1 = 2L . f P =+!. . 30. r the number of $>. and n the number of years. The The i time. a + 26+3aj=2o + 6 + 2a?. 15. 4. = vt. IIL n b + &o. . . 2 solve for y a.i l . iw 21. 9. mx = n. = 2(3a = aajffta? + 7^ = 0*+^ 4 (a x) 1 a). = 6 (m f n) = 2 a + (m?i)a?. f ^o. + xx = 1. If ^^ = a 1 32. 34.FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS EXERCISE Solve the following equations : 113 59 *. = 5. p the principal. q solve for/. solve for . m a? x . Ex. 6. c. 29. s = Vt solve for v. co?. = 3 (6 a). If s (wi n) x =px + q. ^ ax a^ 26. c 18. = rt. = 8 4 #. 3(* 8. solve for a. 13.
then = 2 TT#. x Or Uniting. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA (a) Find a formula expressing degrees of Fahrenheit terms of degrees of centigrade (<7) by solving the equation (F) in (ft) Express in degrees Fahrenheit 40 If C. = 16^. days by x and the piece of work while in x days they would do respectively ff ~ and and hence the sentence written in algebraic symbols ^. PROBLEMS LEADING TO FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS 152. When between 3 and 4 o'clock are the hands of a clock together ? is At 3 o'clock the hour hand 15 minute spaces ahead of the minute : hand. . 2.180. C is the circumference of a circle whose radius R. of minute spaces the hour hand moves Therefore x ~ = the number of minute spaces the minute hand moves more than the hour hand. 100 C..114 35. In how many days can both do it working together ? If we denote then / the required number by 1. hence the question would be formulated After how many minutes has the minute hand moved 15 spaces more than the hour hand ? Let then x x = the required number of minutes after 3 o'clock.. . is 36. Multiplying by Dividing. and 12 = the number over. 2 3 . A would do each day ^ and B j.minutes after x= ^ of 3 o'clock. A can do a piece of work in 3 days and B in 2 days. 1.20 C. 12. Find R in terms of C and TT. Ex. = the number of minute spaces the minute hand moves over. ~^ = 15 11 x ' !i^=15. Ex.
180 Transposing. the rate of the express train. Solving. in Then Therefore. 3. Clearing. Explanation : If x is the rate of the accommodation train. 32 x = ." gives the equation /I). what is the rate of the express train ? 180 Therefore. the required number of days." : Let x  = the required number of days. and the statement. hours more than the express train to travel 180 miles. The speed of an express train is $ of the speed of an If the accommodation train needs 4 accommodation train. or 1J. 4x = 80.FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS A in symbols the following sentence 115 more symmetrical but very similar equation is obtained by writing ** The work done by A in one day plus the work done by B in one day equals the work done by both in one day. then Ox j 5 a Rate Hence the rates can be expressed. = 100 + 4 x. Ex. fx xx* = 152 +4 (1) Hence = 36 = rate of express train. But in uniform motion Time = Distance . = the x part of the work both do one day. u The accommodation train needs 4 hours more than the express train.
make 21.  Find their present ages. which was $4000. Two numbers differ l to s of the smaller. and J of the greater Find the numbers. is equal 7. its Find the number whose fourth part exceeds part by 3. by 3. How did the much money man leave ? 11. length in the ground. 3. ex What 5. and of the father's age. ceeds the smaller by 4. money and $10. 9 its A post is a fifth of its length in water. How much money had he at first? 12 left After spending ^ of his ^ of his money and $15. Find a number whose third and fourth parts added together 2.116 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 60 1. and 9 feet above water. to his daughand the remainder. J of the greater increased by ^ of the smaller equals 6. Find A's 8. The sum 10 years hence the son's age will be of the ages of a father and his son is 50. one half of What is the length of the post ? 10 ter. Find two consecutive numbers such that 9. of his present age. a man had How much money had he at first? . and one half the greater Find the numbers. fifth Two numbers differ 2. and found that he had \ of his original fortune left. by 6. is oO. A man lost f of his fortune and $500. Twenty years ago A's age was  age. A man left ^ of his property to his wife. are the The sum of two numbers numbers ? and one is ^ of the other. to his son.
what is the 14. A has invested capital at more 4%. If the rate of the express train is f of the rate of the accommodation train. 1. 3. A can do a piece of work in 4 clays.) At what time between 7 and 8 o'clock are the hands of a clock together ? 17. and after traveling 150 miles overtakes the accommodation train. . At what time between 7 and 8 o'clock are the hands of ? a clock in a straight line and opposite 18.FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS 13. after rate of the latter ? 15. ^ at 5%. and it B in 6 days. If the accommodation train needs 1 hour more than the express train to travel 120 miles. 117 The speed of an accommodation train is f of the speed of an express train. Ex. How much money $500? 4%. In how many days can both do it working together ? ( 152. An ounce of gold when weighed in water loses fa of an How many ounce. and an ounce of silver fa of an ounce. air. Ex. and B In how many days can both do it working together in ? 12 days. ounces of gold and silver are there in a mixed mass weighing 20 ounces in 21. and losing 1* ounces when weighed in water? do a piece of work in 3 days. and B in 4 days. at 4J % and P> has invested $ 5000 They both derive the same income from their How much money has each invested ? 20. A can A can do a piece of work in 2 days.) ( An express train starts from a certain station two hours an accommodation train. ? In how many days can both do working together 23. 2. Ex. and has he invested if his animal interest therefrom is 19. A man has invested J of his money at the remainder at 6%. 152.) 22. what is the rate of the express train? 152. At what time between 4 and ( 5 o'clock are the hands of a clock together? 16. investments.
g. 3.e. . 2. is 57. make it m 6 A can do this work in 6 days Q = 2. Hence. To and find the numerical answer. . they can both do in 2 days. A in 6. B in 12. . Ex. A in 6. if B in 3 days. Answers to numerical questions of this kind may then be found by numerical substitution. n x Solving. A in 4. m and n. Find three consecutive numbers whose sum equals m. e. : In how many days if can A and it B working together do a piece of work each alone can do (a) (6) (c) in the following number ofdavs: (d) A in 5. 6 I 3 Solve the following problems 24. and apply the method of 170. 26. by taking for these numerical values two general algebraic numbers. Then ft i. 25. B in 5. is 42. B in 16.118 153. it is possible to solve all examples of this type by one example.= m f n it Therefore both working together can do in mn f n days. In how in the numerical values of the : many days If can both do we let x = the it working together ? required number of days. Find the numbers if m = 24 30.009 918.414. therefore. we obtain the equation m m . and n = 3. Find three consecutive numbers whose sum Find three consecutive numbers whose sum last : The two examples are special cases of the following problem 27.= . The problem to be solved. B in 30. is A can do a piece of work in m days and B in n days. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA The last three questions and their solutions differ only two given numbers.
(a) 20 and 5 minutes. Find two consecutive numbers the difference of whose is 21. the area would be increased by 19 square feet.FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS 28. (c) 16. squares 30. . 4J miles per hour. After how many hours do they rate of n miles per hour. squares 29. and the second 5 miles per hour. the Two men start at the same time from two towns. After how many hours do they meet. Two men start at the first miles apart. (b) 149.000. 88 one traveling 3 miles per hour. the second at the apart. the rate of the first. The one: 31. 5 miles per hour. respectively. is (a) 51. last three examples are special cases of the following The difference of the squares of two consecutive numbers By using the result of this problem. (d) 1. 3J miles per hour. 34. by two pipes in m and n minutes In how many minutes can it be filled by the respectively. (b) 8 and 56 minutes. A cistern can be filled (c) 6 and 3 hours. respectively (a) 60 miles. 2 miles per hour. if m and n are. is ?n . two pipes together ? Find the numerical answer. Find the side of the square. d miles the first traveling at the rate of m. and how many miles does each travel ? Solve the problem if the distance. meet. 2 miles per hour. If each side of a square were increased by 1 foot.721. same hour from two towns.001. 33. 3 miles per hour. and the rate of the second are. and how many miles does each travel ? 32. : (c) 64 miles. (b) 35 miles. solve the following ones Find two consecutive numbers the difference of whose squares : find the smaller number. 119 Find two consecutive numbers the difference of whose is 11.
g. the symbol being a sign of division.) The ratio of 12 3 equals 4. Thus the written a : ratio of a b is . 158. the second term the consequent. E. terms are multiplied or divided by the same number. the denominator The the 157. all principles relating to fractions if its may be af)plied to ratios. the antecedent. a ratio is not changed etc. In the ratio a : ft. The ratio of first dividing the two numbers number by the and : is the quotient obtained by second." we may write a : b = 6. 6 12 = .CHAPTER X RATIO AND PROPORTION 11ATTO 154. b. b. term of a ratio a the is is the antecedent. is numerator of any fraction consequent. " a Thus. The ratio  is the inverse of the ratio . Ex. The first 156.or a * b The ratio is also frequently (In most European countries this symbol is employed as the usual sign of division. antecedent.5. etc. b is a Since a ratio a fraction. instead of writing 6 times as large as ?>. A ratio is used to compare the magnitude of two is numbers. : A somewhat shorter way would be to multiply each term by 120 6. b is the consequent. 1. : : 155. Simplify the ratio 21 3. .
proportional between a and c. = or:6=c:(Z are The first 160. two  ratios. The last term d is the fourth proportional to a. 7:4 T T 4 . The last first three. 11. 8^ hours. extremes. either mean the mean proportional between the first and the last terms. Simplify the following ratios 7. b is the mean b. 6. A proportion is a statement expressing the equality of proportions. and the last term the third proportional to the first and second 161. 4:5f : 5. the second and fourth terms of a proportion are the and third terms are the means. term is the fourth proportional to the : In the proportion a b = c c?. 3:1}. 16 x*y 64 x*y : 24 48 xif. 9. 10. 3:4. : ay .RATIO Ex. J:l. 4. AND PROPORTION ratio 5 5 : 121 first Transform the 3J so that the term will 33 : *~5 ~ 3 '4* 5 EXERCISE Find the value of the following 1. 16a2 :24a&. and c. 1. 16. 18. 17. 61 : ratios 72:18. 27 06: 18 a6. : 1. In the proportion a b : = b : c. and c is the third proportional to a and . 159. 5 f hours : 2. 3. : is If the means of a proportion are equal. 62:16. Transform the following unity 15. 7f:6J. b. terms. a and d are the extremes. : ratios so that the antecedents equal 16:64. equal 2. 3 8. b and c the means. 12. $24: $8.
briefly.__(163. pro portional. = 30 grams 45 grams. if the ratio of any two of the first kind. or 8 equals the inverse ratio of 4 3.30 grams. ccm. are : : : inversely proportional. Hence the number of men required to do some work. t/ie product of the means b is equal to the Let a : =c : d. If the product of two numbers is equal to the product of two other numbers^ either pair may be made the means. 2 165.e. i. and the other pair the extremes. 6 ccm. and we divide both members by we have ?^~ E. 163. then G ccm.122 162. and the time necessary to do it. 163. if the ratio of any two of the first kind is equal \o the inverse ratio of the corresponding two of the other kind.) mn = pq. " we " NOTE. is equal to the ratio of the corresponding two of the other kind. of iron weigh 45 grams. ad = be.) b = Vac. : : directly proportional may say. If 6 men can do a piece of work in 4 days. If (Converse of nq. In any proportion product of the extremes. 3 4. a b : bettveen two numbers is equal to the square root Let the proportion be Then Hence 6 =b = ac. q~~ n . The mean proportional of their product. then 8 men can do it in 3 days. Hence the weight of a mass of iron is proportional to its volume. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Quantities of one kind are said to be directly proper tional to quantities of another kind.'* Quantities of one kind are said to be inversely proportional to quantities of another kind. : c. 164. of iron weigh . Clearing of fractions. of a proportion. Instead of u If 4 or 4 ccm. !.
) Any is of these propositions may be proved by example : a method which illustrated by the following To prove This is b if d true ad  Or if But Hence ^ =^' o = be = be. . a:c=b:d.) II. (Frequently called Inversion. By inversion 5 : 4 =6 : x. 166. If 6 : a a : 6 =c : : d. (163. is Ex.PATIO Ex. = 35 .) a + b:a = c + d:c. a+b a (Composition and : : : Division. + b:b = c + d:d.) = f f = 3 J. ad = be. if 6 : 7. d d. hence the proportion true. Change the proportion 4 5 = x 6 so that x becomes the : : last term. AND PROPORTION x = 12 : 123 Find x. a III. I.) (Called Alternation. ad ( 163. is 4$ = 35. (Composition.) a b b=c b = c)d:c d. I. 2. (Division. These transformations are used to simplify proportions. 1. Determine whether the following proportion 8:6 = and 5 x 7 7 : true rn 8 x t: 4. Or IV. bd bd. then =d c. V. 12x Hence a? = 42.) d 167.
g. x = 2.124 IT. 9. A parenthesis is understood about each term of a proportion. 3. 5. 10. mx tin Apply composition and division. IV. i. EXERCISE 5^:8 = 2:3. 4. 72:50 m n (m n) = (m + rif m 2 : 18:19 6 2 : = 24:25. 120:42 2 2 7.e. 13 = 5f llf : : n 2. 2. 3n JJ =n x NOTE. = 2:x. = ^2x x Or Dividing the antecedents by m. 11 : 5 : 15:22=101:15. 1 : 3 3 Divide the antecedents by : = = 5 1 : jr. . = 12 5ft.!=!*. the consequents by 7. To simplify the proportion 8 Apply division. to simplify 48:21=32:7x. To simplify m 3n ? = + *. 6 =4 : x. 8ajy:17 = i^:l^. = 7:2f 3J. 8. : 3 = 5 f x : x. E. To simplify the proportion 11 : 5:6 =4 x : x. V. 5 5. Simplify the following proportions. = 180:125. and determine whether they are true or not : 6. its ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Alternation shows that a proportion is not altered when its consequents are multiplied or divided by antecedents or the same number. Or III.:J 62 : Determine whether the following proportions are true 1. 3:3 1:1 divide the antecedents by 16. = 2:3. = 20:7. Apply composition. : x. .
46. 6x = 7y. 22. 39. = 3 43 + x. 31. if : 40. 4 a*:15ab = 2a:x. x:5 = y:2. 1 and a. = l^:18. : : Transform the following proportions so that only one contains x: 48. 43.:ff. 44. : a2 . to: = 35:*. 7iy = 2:x. 8 a 2 and 2 b 2 Form two x 10 If ab proportions commencing with 5 from the equation 6 36. 13.8:1. 38. Find the 37. Find the third proportional 24. = 2 + x: x. x m = y n. a?:15 15. 50. 51. mx = ny. + fyx = cy. 5. to : 9 and 12. 2. 4 and 16. . 21 : 4z = 72 : 96. to : a and 1. form two proportions commencing with x : = xy. 112:42 = 10:a. and 2/. 9 x = 2 y. 41. y : b y : =x 1 =x : a. 3. (a : : 45.  32. a 2 and ab. w. rag. : 53. ratio of y. a. 03:a?=135:20. 3t. 2. ra + landra 1. : . 4. 16. terra 2:3 = 4. f. 6 x = y. 16 n* x = 28 w 70 ra. 20.. 33. 18. 14 and 21. 2 3 = y #. ra. 17. 16 and 28.x: 6:5 a : x. 28. 21. 1. 3.RATIO AND PROPORTION Determine the value of x 11. = 5 x 12. ra 2 . 25. 22: 3 19 2 : : 49. b. 47.6 : : Find the fourth proportional 19. 2 a and 18 a. 6. 42. 23. 27. 26. = 15o. : 125 40:28 = 15:0. 14. 12.j>. 2= 5 x x. 29. Find the mean proportional 30. 5= 18 a? : a?. 52. rap. 35. 34.
56. A line 11 inches long on a certain 22 miles. (e) The distance traveled by a train moving at a uniform rate. State whether the quantities mentioned below are directly or inversely proportional (a) The number of yards of a certain kind of silk. the area of the larger? the same. the volume of a The temperature remaining body of gas inversely proportional to the pressure. (d) The areas (A and A') of two circles are to each other as (R and R'). under a pressure of 15 pounds per square inch has a volume of gas is A 16 cubic feet. and the speed of the train. 1 (6) The circumferences (C and C ) of two other as their radii (R and A"). and the time. areas of circles are proportional to the squares of If the radii of two circles are to each other as circle is 4 : 7. What will be the volume if the pressure is 12 pounds per square inch ? . 57. and the time necessary for it. (c) of a rectangle of constant width. the squares of their radii (e) 55. (b) The time a The length train needs to travel 10 miles.126 54. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBEA State the following propositions as proportions : T (7 and T) of equal altitudes are to each. A line 7^. (d) The sum of money producing $60 interest at 5%. what 58. othei (a) Triangles as their basis (b and b'). and the area of the smaller is 8 square inches. (c) The volume of a body of gas (V) is circles are to each inversely propor tional to the pressure (P). and the : total cost. The number of men (m) is inversely proportional to the number of days (d) required to do a certain piece of work. and the area of the rectangle.inches long represents map corresponds to how many miles ? The their radii.
127 The number is of miles one can see from an elevation of very nearly the mean proportional between h and the diameter of the earth (8000 miles). 4 ' r i 1 (AC): (BO) =7: 5. 2 x Or = 4.RATIO AND PROPORTION 69. What is the greatest distance a person can see from an elevation of 5 miles ? From h miles the Metropolitan Tower (700 feet high) ? feet high) ? From Mount McKinley (20. it is advisable to represent these unknown numbers by mx and nx. 11 x f 7 x = 108. 11 x x 7 Ex. = the second number. AB = 2 x. When a problem requires the finding of two numbers which are to each other as m n. 4 inches long. Therefore 7 = 14 = AC. . produced to a point C. 11 x = 66 is the first number. 2. Let A B AC=1x.000 168. x=2. is A line AB. x = 6. 7 x = 42 is the second number. 18 x = 108. so that Find^K7and BO. : Ex. Then Hence BG = 5 x. Divide 108 into two parts which are to each other 7. Hence or Therefore Hence and = the first number. as 11 Let then : 1.
and c inches. 13. A line 24 inches long is divided in the ratio 3 5. Divide 44 in the ratio 2 Divide 45 in the ratio 3 : 9. and the longest is divided in the ratio of the other two.128 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 63 1. of water? Divide 10 in the ratio a b. How many ounces of copper and zinc are in 10 ounces of brass ? 6. What are the parts ? 5. 12. How many 7. 6. : Divide a in the ratio 3 Divide : 7. what are its parts ? (For additional examples see page 279. How The long are the parts ? 15. : 197. 14. m in the ratio x: y % three sides of a triangle are 11. 3. 11. : Divide 39 in the ratio 1 : 5. The total area of land is to the total area of is water as 7 18. 7. How many grams of hydrogen are contained in 100 : grams 10. find the number of square miles of land and of water. 2. 9. If c is divided in the ratio of the other two. and 15 inches.000. The three sides of a triangle are respectively a. 12. consists of 9 parts of copper and one part of ounces of each are there in 22 ounces of gun metal ? Air is a mixture composed mainly of oxygen and nitrowhose volumes are to each other as 21 79.000 square miles. : 4. Water consists of one part of hydrogen and 8 parts of If the total surface of the earth oxygen. How many gen. cubic feet of oxygen are there in a room whose volume is 4500 : cubic feet? 8.) . Divide 20 in the ratio 1 m. Gunmetal tin. Brass is an alloy consisting of two parts of copper and one part of zinc.
expressing a y. However. such as + = 10. values of x and y. if there is different relation between x and * given another equation. etc. y (3) these unknown numbers can be found. Hence 2s 5 o = 10 _ ^ (4) = 3. is x = 7. The root of (4) if K 129 .e. which substituted in (2) gives y both equations are to be satisfied by the same Therefore. If satisfied degree containing two or more by any number of values of 2oj3y = 6. a? (1) then I. x = 1..CHAPTER XI SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS 169. Hence. y = 5 /0 \ (2) of values. An equation of the first unknown numbers can be the unknown quantities.L x If If = 0. there is only one solution. 2 y = . if . y = 1. the equation is satisfied by an infinite number of sets Such an equation is called indeterminate. From (3) it follows y 10 x and since by the same values of x and to be satisfied y. the equations have the two values of y must be equal.y=. =.
174. By By Addition or Subtraction. = . 4y .3 y = 80. Therefore. 30 can be reduced to the same form f 5 y Hence they are not independent. 172. for they are 2 y = 6 are But 2 x 2. of elimination most frequently used II. E. and 3 x + 3 y =. viz. Solve y=6x 6x f Multiply (1) by 2. cannot be reduced to the same form. 6 and 4 x y not simultaneous. x H 2y satisfied 6 and 7 x 3y = by the values x = I. The first set of equations is also called consistent. The process of combining several equations so as make one unknown quantity disappear is called elimination. to The two methods I. ~ 50. 6x . for they express the x f y 10.130 170. same relation. 21 y . y I 171.26. ELIMINATION BY ADDITION OR SUBTRACTION 175.24. the last set inconsistent. Independent equations are equations representing different relations between the unknown quantities such equations . Substitution. (3) (4) Multiply (2) by  Subtract (4) from (3). ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA A system of simultaneous equations is tions that can be satisfied a group of equa by the same values of the unknown numbers. for they cannot be satisfied by any value of x and y.X. y = 2. 26 y = 60. Any set of values satisfying 5 x + 6 y = 60 will also satisfy the equation 3 x f. are simultaneous equations. unknown quantity. 3. A system of two simultaneous equations containing two quantities is solved by combining them so as to obtain unknown one equation containing only one 173.
= 235. 64 x = 040.2 = 9 + 4 = 13. 60 . are like. 10 + 5 1 = 135.3 1 = 47. 3. 37. y = 1. 8 2. x = 10. by addition or subtraction : numbers as (3) (4) (6) 176. 10 . Therefore Substitute (6) in (1). y = 2. 3.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS the simpler one (1). coefficients If the signs of these if unlike. 5 13 . EXERCISE answers: 64 Solve the following systems of equations and check the ' . subtract the equations.3 y = 47. preferably 3x Therefore + 4 = 13 x = 3. Transposing. + 2.14 =8. Check.2 = 6. 131 Substitute this value of y in either of the given equations. x = 10. 25 x . eliminate the letter have the lowest common multiple. whose coefficients In general. 3y = 3. add the equations. Multiply (1) by Multiply (2) by 5. = 406.15 y 39 x + 15 y Add (3) and (4). Hence to eliminate Multiplyy if necessaryy the equations by such will make the coefficients of one unknown quantity equal. Therefore Check.
' 12. f 3# ?/ = 0.v 23. 13 61 l7a.ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 5.4. + 2/ 17. = 41. i 3. f 3X 7x 14.1ft is 1 fl<>* r A + 22/ = 40. I i 3 a. = 24. 13. + 3?/ { 3 x f 2 y = 39. x 11. [2o.3. * + 3 y = 50. .3. 9 1 r 20. ] ^ . I . I ~ y~~> 22. O t K 8. 7 ' 1fi fl . _.5 y = 2. 19< I a. J I y = 1U. ' 94 ^4 ' 15 ' ^  25 * 60. v ^ = ll.f2/ ' = 50. = 6.9 *. I oj 5y = 17.
(1) (2) Transposing 2. I3ar + 2y and dividing by . This value substituted in either (1) or (2) gives x 178. 21 y 24 Therefore y = 26. 8. Hence to eliminate by substitution : Find in one equation the value of an unknown quantity in terms of the other. and solve the resulting equation. 133 Solve 7 y in (1) (27. = 2. x ) ^"" 13. EXERCISE Solve by substitution : 65 f5aj l3a. Substituting this value in (2) 3 7 ( ?/ t " 8 +2y= + 4 y 25 y Clearing of fractions. = 13. 3.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS ELIMINATION BY SUBSTITUTION 177. = 4#8. tity in the Substitute this value for one unknown quan other equation. . = 60. = 2y + 10.
From 9 = 36. 21z6y=9.6)7(y7)==18. and check the answers: + 5(y + 5) = 64. x = l. 7x_2y=3. Substituting in (6) . however. 43 + 8f3y + 7z From (3). (3) (4) (6) (6) Multiplying (6) by 2 and (6) by Sx + 6y = Adding and 3S. (4). Solve 2 7 (2) Multiplying (1) by 12 and (2) by 14. (7) (7) (8) . simplified before elimination is possible. 2 y = . 3 (1) Ex. the equation must be cleared of fractions and . 7 y = 6. 29 x = 29. (8) 1 +8 2 _ 7 EXERCISE 66 Solve by any method. 4* + 3y = 19. \ \6(a. 3. f8(z8)9(y9) = 26.3.134 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 179. it is advantageous to do so in most cases. Whenever one unknown quantity can be removed without clearing of fractions. + 212y4 = 14. (4t(x\) ' ""^IT 3. .
= 3.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS 3x 4. 2 4^ ~ 3 = 13. a. .f2 2. 135 "25 ' 6 ' tsjj ' r4(5. 4(5 x l2(315 8 8. .1) + 5(6 y . +y 2 . 16.1) = 121. 4 11. a. 14. 4~2v 3a?2^4 3 1 18. . 12. 10 2a?5 17. J 9. ff "*" _13 ~ 4 2' 15. yM a. 10.
f y . * ((* (( . but some expressions involving x. <X + 20. {.Q ^ 4 21. 3x\" 1 23 24. e. l_3 4' 2/41 2 a. 180. In many equations it is advantageous at first not to consider x and y as unknown quantities. .and x y . and y. ?~y . 22.#.136 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 4_1 2' 19.
(4) (6) (6) (7) 2x(5). (2) (3) a. y. 33 = 11 x. of this type. 2* * x 2. (4) + (G).4 x = 4 xy.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS x Ex. y 4. 15 y + 8 x . Dividing by 11 3 = #. Substituting x = 3 in (1). however. etc. 1. by the regular Clearing (1) and (2) of fractions. 137 Solve y y (1) . . EXERCISE Solve : 67 2' 1. . can also be solved Examples method. Clearing of fractions. y 1. Therefore y=4. x 2x(2).3 xy. x 3.
. x y 331 9. LITERAL SIMULTANEOUS EQUATIONS 181. n. 4 13. bmx = en anx anx + bny (3) (4) ftp. Ex. = en.138 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 4 6 K . 10 " 12 25 U y 6. 6w3 + bny = 6p. Solve (1) (2) (1) (2) (8) x x (4). 253 7. x y 5. x 8. 1. 6.= o 6. 21 9 .= 5. y MOi y a.
From the same equations find s in terms of a. ny = fy/ I sc 1.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS Uniting. and I.W. s in 11. (1) (2) (7) an bm (6) (7) x w.cm y= EXERCISE 68 bm f 6y = c. apan cm. ap. . f 6^ [ nx f my == m. d. ax + by = 2 a&.y = = 9a + 46. x 12. x f my = 1. From and L the same simultaneous equations find d in terms of a. fax f = l. . 6. . d. bmy bm}y ap cm. 14. . w. f 5. amx + bmy amx f any = any (an cm. and I if 13. 139 (an bm)x = en bp. x a. W . a Find a and terms of n. Dividing. Uniting.
12 y + 6 z = . 6. . 8B12y + 17 x 16z z = 32 Oa + 12?/.1+4. four equations containing four unknown quantireduced to three equations containing three unknown quantities. = 3. the to the solution problem reduced of two simultaneous equations containing two unknown quantities. 17 x 100 z Therefore Substitute this value in (4).lf> z .9z =11 x (6) Eliminating x from (4) and (5). = 30. 4.2 + 3. (4) (5). (8) 2. To solve equations containing By tions. Multiplying (2) + = 20 12 2 10 (4) Multiplying (3) Adding. f 3y 12 =s 8. 20. l. 3y = Hence Check. 3. Ex. etc.16. y =* 2. 8 x . (1) (2) (3) Eliminate y. (6) + 3 Therefore Substituting the values of x and z 2 x = (7) in (1). Solve the following system of equations: = 8.13. 3.3=4. 182.25.2 + 4. 1.3 = 8. Multiplying (1) by Multiplying (2) by 4. x + 12 y .15z=12 Adding. by 3. eliminating one and is the unknown quant iff/ from any pair of equasame unknown quantity froni another pair. ties are Similarly. 1.140 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA SIMULTANEOUS EQUATIONS INVOLVING MORE THAS TWO UNKNOWN QUANTITIES three unknown quantities three simultaneous independent equations must be given.by 2.8 = 1. 4.
x 13. + 2 y f 2 = 35. 2 . + y f z = 15. 49. ~6?/ 5. k 2/ f 2 x a. 14. f 2 i/ f z = 14. 2z = 40. a? + 709 = 26. a? 11. y f ?/ M 2? = 4. 8. 4 = 42. 10. 2 4. 12. 15 2 = 45. 7. == 6.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS EXERCISE 10 x 69 141 1.
. ^ = 2.6 2. ?/ 3x = 0.2 a. =s 20.42 = 2. 27. 84 21. 60. .. 19. (3 _. 16. x _2 3 ' 0742! J 18.3 y + . 22. = 5. 1510 4 17. .142 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 15. = 8*. 23. ? = llz. 4. 32.
and Then 100 + 10 y +z the digit in the units' place. to express it is difficult two of the required digits in terms hence we employ 3 letters for the three unknown quantities. Find the number. y 31. (1) 100s + lOy + z + 396 = 100* + 10y + x. 2 = 6. y * z 30. and if 396 be added to the number. + z = 2p. Simple examples of this kind can usually be solved by equations involving only one unknown every quantity. however. +2+ 6 = 8.2/ 2/ PROBLEMS LEADING TO SIMULTANEOUS EQUATIONS 183. 1. M=i. as many verbal statements as there are unknown quantities. Check. 1 = 2. Obviously of the other .SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS 143 x 29. z + x = 2 n. the first and the last digits will be interchanged. The sum of three digits of a number is 8. Problems involving several unknown quantities must contain. Ex. = 2 m. # 4. Let x y z = the the digit in the hundreds' place. The digit in the tens' place is  of the sum of the other two digits. and to express In complex examples. + 396 = 521. 1 digit in the tens place. either directly or implied. The three statements of the problem can now be readily expressed in . the number.y 125 (3) The solution of these equations gives x Hence the required number is 125. . = l.) it is advisable to represent a different letter. 2 = 1(1+6). . unknown quantity by every verbal statement as an equation. x : z =1 : 2. ( 99. symbols: x + y +z 8.
B. Ex. By expressing the two statements in symbols. + I 2 (1) and These equations give x Check. 2. 2. 3+1 5+1 4_2. From (3) Hence xy Check. x y = the = the x denominator . Or (4)2x(3). direction. the distance traveled by A. 3. y = 3. = 8. the fraction is reduced to  and if both numerator and denominator of the reciprocal of the fraction be dimin ished by one. the fraction Let and then y is reduced to nurn orator. ELEMENTS OF ALGE13KA If both numerator and denominator of a fraction be . 3 xand y I 1 (2) 5. xy a: 2y 4y 2. 8 = xy + x xy = xy f 3 x 2 y = 2. 5_ _4_ A. 6 x 4 = 24. = Hence the fraction is f. starts 2 hours after B and overtakes A at the same How many miles has A then traveled? instant as B. (3) C4) = 24 miles. x 3x4y = 12. 4 x = 24. who travels 2 miles an hour faster than B. .144 Ex. increased by one. Since the three men traveled the same distance. x 3 = 24. we obtain. Find the fraction. (1) (2) 12. = the fraction. C. and C travel from the same place in the same B starts 2 hours after A and travels one mile per hour faster than A.
183. If the denominator be doubled. Four times a certain number increased by three times another number equals 33. fraction is reduced to \. Find the number. tion ? 8. part of their difference equals 4. 1. to L <> Find the If the numerator and the denominator of a fraction be If 1 be subtracted from increased by 3. it is reduced to J. and the numerator increased by 4. its value added to the denominator. and the second increased by 2 equals three times the first. Half the sum of two numbers equals 4. and the second one increased by 5 equals twice number. The sum 18 is is and if added of the digits of a number of two figures is 6. If 27 is 10. the digits will be interchanged. The sum of the first sum of the three digits of a number is 9. A fraction is reduced to J. if its numerator and its denominator are increased by 1. Find the numbers. added to the numerator of a fraction. 5. ? What 9. 2.) added to a number of two digits. the fraction is reduced fraction. If 4 be Tf 3 be is J. the number (See Ex. and the fourth 3. Five times a certain number exceeds three times another 11. the fraction equals . Find the numbers. 6. and the two digits exceeds the third digit by 3.}. Find the numbers. and twice the numerator What is the fracincreased by the denominator equals 15. Find the fraction. Find the number. . number by the first 3. If 9 be added to the number. to the number the digits will be interchanged. the value of the fraction is fa. the last two digits are interchanged. both terms. and its denomi nator diminished by one.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS EXERCISE 70 145 1. 7. the Find the fraction. and four times the first digit exceeds the second digit by 3. If the numerator of a fraction be trebled.
19. Find their present ages. much money is invested at A sum of money at simple interest amounted in 6 years to $8000. Two cubic centimeters of gold and three cubic centimeters of silver weigh together 69 J.000 is partly invested at 6%. Ten years ago A was B was as as old as B is old as will be 5 years hence .grams. and 5 years ago their ages is 55. Ten years ago the sum of their ages was 90. Find the rates of interest. now.146 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 11. partly at 5% and partly at 4%. and in 5 years to $1125. respectively ? 16. . the annual interest would be $ 195. and the 5% investment brings $15 more interest than the 4 % investment. How 6 %. and The 6 investment brings $ 70 more interest than the 5 % % 4% investments together. 12. Three cubic centimeters of gold and two cubic centimeters of silver weigh together 78 grains. the rate of interest? 18. Find the weight of one cubic centimeter of gold and one cubic centimeter of silver. 5 %. If the rates of interwere exchanged. and partly at 4 %. a part at 6 and the remainder bringing a total yearly interest of $260. and 4 %. the rate of interest ? What was the sum of A sum of money at simple interest amounted in 2 years to $090. What was the sum and rates est The sums of $1500 and $2000 are invested at different and their annual interest is $ 190. What was the amount of each investment ? 15. Twice A's age exceeds the sum of B's and C's ages by 30. partly at 5 %. and B's age is \ the sum of A's and C's ages. and money and 17. in 8 years to $8500. A man invested $750. 13. 14. What was the amount of each investment ? A man % 5%. A sum of $10. bringing a total yearly interest of $530. If the sum of how old is each now ? at invested $ 5000.
and AC = 5 inches. The number of sheep was twice the number of horses and cows together. the three sides of a triangle E. respectively. and F. and F '(see diagram). the length of NOTE. and F. BC=7. $ 50 for each cow. Find their rates of walking. then AD = AF. A r ^ A circle is inscribed in triangle sides in D. 24. triangle Tf AD. and angle e angle/. for $ 740. three AD = AF. but if A would double his pace. Find the parts of the ABC touching the three sides if AB = 9. BC = 7 inches. E. and angle BCA = 70. and $15 for each sheep. . BE. points. . If one angle exceeds the sum of the other two by 20. On /). he would walk it in two hours less than than to travel B B. B find angles a. A farmer sold a number of horses. How many did he sell of each if the total number of animals was 24? 21. An C touch ing the sides in D. angle c = angle d. and sheep.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS 147 20. receiving $ 100 for each horse. andCL4 = 8. c. is the center of the circum scribed circle. and e. 25. 23. what is that = OF. The sum of the 3 angles of a triangle is 180. are taken so ABC. If angle ABC = GO angle BAG = 50. and CF? is a circle inscribed in the 7<7. It takes A two hours longer 24 miles. 1 NOTE. BD = HE. what are the angles of the triangle ? 22. ED = BE. In the annexed diagram angle a = angle b. cows. and CE If AB = G inches. and GE = CF. and their difference by GO .
and point the origin. Thus the points A. first 3). then the position of point is determined if the lengths of P P3f and 185. and ordinates abore the xaxis are considered positive . ?/. . Abscissas measured to the riyht of the origin. jr. two fixed straight lines XX' and YY' meet in at right angles. It' Location of a point. and PJ/_L XX'. PM. 186.CHAPTER XII* GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS AND EQUATIONS 184. lines PM the and P^V are coordinates called point P. is The point whose abscissa is a. (2. 2). and respectively represented Dare and by (3 7 4). and PN _L YY'. the ordinate by ?/. 3). B. the ordinate of point P. and whose ordinate is usually denoted by (X ?/). PN are given. or its equal OM. (7. and r or its equal OA is . (3. PN. (2. hence The coordinates lying in opposite directions are negative. The abscissa is usually denoted by line XX' is called the jraxis. * This chapter may be omitted on a 148 reading. YY' theyaxis. The of Coordinates. is the abscissa..
Plot the points : (0. 4) and (4. 2J). 3. (2. 0).and(l. (4. Draw the triangle whose vertices are respectively (l. 2). all all points points lie lie whose abscissas equal zero ? whose ordinates equal zero? y) if y 10. Plot the points: (4. 0).1). 6. 3). 12. which of its coordinates known ? 13. . 1). (See diagram on page 151. !). What Draw is the distance of the point (3. 2. Plot the points (6. 71 2).4).GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS The is 149 process of locating a point called plotting the point. i. 2). 0).) EXERCISE 1. 4).3). . Graphs. paper ruled with two sets of equidistant and parallel linos intersecting at right angles. (4. (0. two variable quantities are so related that changes of the one bring about definite changes of the other. 4) from the origin ? 7. 4). the quadrilateral whose vertices are respectively (4. 6. 3). (3. 8. 3). Graphic constructions are greatly facilitated by the use of crosssection paper. the mutual dependence of the two quantities may be represented either by a table or by a diagram. (0. =3? is If a point lies in the avaxis.(!. (1.e. (4. (4. (5. (4. What are the coordinates of the origin ? If 187. What is the locus of (a?. 0). Plot the points: (4. 11. 1). and measure their distance.2). whose coordinates are given NOTE. (4. 4. Where do Where do Where do all points lie whose ordinates tfqual 4? 9.
B. may be represented graphby making each number in one column the abscissa.150 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA tables represent the average temperature Thus the following of New volumes 1 Y'ork City of a certain to 8 pounds. A graphic and it impresses upon the eye all the peculiarities of the changes better and quicker than any numerical compilations. 188. and the corresponding number in the adjacent column the ordinate of a point. A. from January 1 to December 1. 15. we obtain an uninterrupted sequence etc. Thus the average temperature on May on April 20. or the curved line the temperature. in like manner the average temperatures for every value of the time. ically each representing a temperature at a certain date. ure the ordinate of F. representation does not allow the same accuracy of results as a numerical table.. but it indicates in a given space a great many more facts than a table. C. and the amount of gas subjected to pressures from pound The same data. 10 . may be found on Jan. Thus the first table produces 12 points. ABCN y the socalled graph of To 15 find from the diagram the temperature on June to be 15 . however. . we meas1 . 1. By representing of points. D.
the rise and fall of wages. the graph is applied. EXERCISE From the diagram questions 1. the merchant. (b) July 15. (d) November 20. The engineer. Whenever a clear.GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS 151 i55$5St5SS 3{utts33<0za3 Graphs are possibly the most widely used devices of applied matheThe scientist uses them to compile the data found from experiments. . physician. and to deduce general laws therefrom. as the prices and production of commodities. concise representation of a number of numerical data is required. the matics. Daily papers represent ecpnoniical facts graphically. : 72 find approximate answers to the following Determine the average temperature of New York City on (a) May 1. (c) January 15. uses them. etc.
1 to Oct. When the average temperature below C. How much warmer 1 ? on the average is it on July 1 than on May 17. Which month is is the coldest of the year? Which month the hottest of the year? 16. During what month does the temperature change least? 14.? is is the average temperature of New York 6. At what date is the average temperature highest the highest average temperature? ? What What is 4. 1 ? does the temperature increase from 11. When What is the temperature equal to the yearly average of the average temperature from Sept. During what month does the temperature decrease most rapidly ? 13.. June July During what month does the temperature increase most ? rapidly 12. ? 9. (freezing point) ? 7. is 10. 15. How much. At what date is the average temperature lowest? the lowest average temperature ? 5. ?  3. (c) the average temperature oi 1 C. (d) 9 0.. From what date to what date does the temperature increase (on the average)? 8. 1? 11 0. on 1 to the average.152 2. is ture we would denote the time during which the temperaabove the yearly average of 11 as the warm season. During what months above 18 C. ELEMENTS OF ALGEKRA At what date (a) G or dates is New York is C. (1) 10 C.. from what date to what date would it extend ? If .
NOTE.09 yards. 153 1? When is the average temperature the same as on April Use the graphs of the following examples for the solution of concrete numerical examples. From the table on page 150 draw a graph representing the volumes of a certain body of gas under varying pressures. Draw . Construct a diagram containing the graphs of the mean temperatures of the following three cities (in degrees Fahren heit) : 21. Represent graphically the populations : (in hundred thou sands) of the following states 22. 20. in a similar manner as the temperature graph was applied in examples 118. a temperature chart of a patient. Draw a graph for the 23. 19. transformation of meters into yards. Hour Temperature . One meter equals 1.GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS 18.
1 to 1200 copies. The initial cost of cost of manufacturing a certain book consists of the $800 for making the plates. x* x 19. 26. Show graphically the cost of the REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS OF ONE VARIABLE 189. If dealer in bicycles gains $2 on every wheel he sells. 3. Represent graphically the distances traveled by a train in 3 hours at a rate of 20 miles per hour. 2 8 y' + 3 y is a function of x and y. if x assumes successively the tively values 1. 9. gas. A 10 wheels a day.inch. the daily average expenses for rent. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA If C 2 is the circumference of a circle whose radius is J2. +7 If will respec assume the values 7. An expression involving one or several letters a function of these letters.50.5 grams.. . represent his daily gain (or loss). if he sells 0. e. function If the value of a quantity changes. 2 x f 7 gradually from 1 to 2.) T circumferences of 25. amount to $8.g. books from for printing.) On the same diagram represent the selling price of the books. to 20 Represent graphically the weight of iron from cubic centimeters. 29. 2.50. the value of a of this quantity will change. x increases will change gradually from 13... Represent graphically the cost of butter from 5 pounds if 1 pound cost $. etc. (Assume ir~ all circles >2 2 . from R Represent graphically the = to R = 8 inches.50 per copy (Let 100 copies = about \. binding. etc. 3. 4. x 7 to 9. then C irJl. to 27. 190.154 24. 28. if each copy sells for $1. if 1 cubic centimeter of iron weighs 7. and $. 2 is called x 2 xy + 7 is a function of x. 2 .
2 x may 4 from x = 4. 1 the points (3. plot points which lie between those constructed above. 9). is supposed to change.GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS 191. 4). it is In the example of the preceding article. E. x a variable. 2. 9). while 7 is a constant. 3 (0. and (3. etc. J). values of x2 nates are the corresponding i.e. Q. Draw the graph of x2 f. however. (1^. for x=l. To obtain the values of the functions for the various values of the following arrangement be found convenient : . The values of func192. to con struct the graph x of x 2 construct a series of 3 points whose abscissas rep2 resent X) and whose ordi1 tions . a*. is A constant a quantity whose value does not change in the same discussion. Thus the table on page 1G4 gives the values of the functions x 2 x3 and Vsr. to x = 4. 2). 4). may. . and join the points in order. 3 50. may .0).1). ( 2. 2 (1. be also represented by a graph. 155 A variable is a quantity whose value changes in the same discussion. (2. Graph of a function. Ex.g. (1. hence various values of x The values of a function for the be given in the form of a numerical table. construct '. as 1. If a more exact diagram is required.1).
.) For brevity. straight line produces the required graph. as y.20). and join(0. 4J. etc. (3. hence two points are sufficient for the construction of these graphs. if /* 4 > 1i > > ?/ = 193. 7 . rf 71 . and joining in order produces the graph ABC. Thus 4x + 7.2 x .. . r */ +* 01 . (2. j/=3.156 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Locating the points( 4. Thus in the above example. 5). (To avoid very large ordinatcs. 2. = 4.. or ax + b f c are funclirst tions of the first degree. If If Locating ing by a 3) and (4.. Ex..4). A Y' function of the first degree is an integral rational function involving only the power of the variable. y = 6. the function is frequently represented by a single letter. 2 4 and if y = x f. the scale unit of the ordinatcs is taken smaller than that of the x. (4. 4). It can be proved that the graph is a straight of a function of the first degree line. = 0. 1). 194. Draw y z x the graph of = 2x3.
fa 17. the function. ?/ a. (a) (6) (c) (d) (e) The values of y. 7. Jar . = The values of a*.GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS EXERCISE 73 157 Draw 1. 1J. 16. 2 2 a. 1. if y = 2. = 4. + 4.or. Draw the graph ofy=2j2# and from the diagram determine : #2 from # = 2 to a?=4. i. xl. 2x + 3x a?. 19. 2 or 2 20. (</) The roots of the equation x2 4 x f 2 = 2. 2. 21. 4 a. The smallest value of the function. 3. if a. a. 3. (/) Vl2^ (0) V5. 1J. The roots of the equation 2 {2x a*2 = l. 4a? I. if"a. 2J. the diagram find (a) (e) (3. (7i) (c) 23. 2 a. 6 fa. xz + x. . 1J. J.8)'. The value of x that produces the smallest value it* of the function. 23x. and (a) (6) (c) (d) The values of the function if x = \.2 4 # + 2 equals 2. The values of x that make 2 4 a? + 2 = 0. y = 2x = 4. 3 a 8. (/) The roots of the equation x The roots of the equation a2 4 x f 2 = 1. 11. (C ) (2. a* 13. Draw the graph of or from the diagram determine: 4 a? +2 a. 9. a ar. 2 2. 14. The roots of the equation 2 f 2 a a*2 = 0. 12. a? 1.e.5)2. 1 8 10. from x VlO'S". 5. a? the graphs of the following functions: + 2. 18. The values of a*. The values of a?. 6. 15. 8. 2 a. x+1. 2 4 x f 2 = 0. a?. (ft) (_ 1. 2. 2J. . Draw the graph of : from #= 4 to 05 = 4. l. (If) Va25. (d) (^) 1 to and from 2 . 22. if the function equals zero.5)2. a? 2 4.
32 F. GRAPHIC SOLUTION OF EQUATIONS INVOLVING ONE UNKNOWN QUANTITY Since we can graphically determine the values of x make a function of x equal to zero. then y = . we have to measure the abscissas of the intersection of the 195.24. to Fahrenheit readings : Change 10 C. 1 C..24 or x = P and Q. 9 F. the abscissas of 3. A body moving with a uniform t velocity of 3 yards per second moves in this seconds a distance d =3 1. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Degrees of the Fahrenheit (F. i. that the graph of two variables that are directly proportional is a straight line passing through the origin (assume for c 27. that graph with the o>axis. From grade equal to (c) the diagram find the number of degrees of centi1 F. If two variables x and y are directly proportional. Therefore x = 1. C.158 24.where x c is a constant. 25. what values of x make the function x2 + 2x 4 = (see 192).. If two variables x and y are inversely proportional... it is evidently possible Thus to find to find graphically the real roots of an equation.) scale are expressed in degrees of the Centigrade (C. Show any convenient number). Represent 26.) scale by the formula (a) Draw the graph of C = f (F32) from to (b) 4 F F=l. y= formula graphically.. .e. if c Draw the locus of this equation = 12. 14 F. then cXj where c is a constant.
(a) (6) 9. 10. z 2 4x 6 a2 6. is called a quadratic equation. (0. a: (a) (6) (c) 6a. tion x 2 159 To +2x solve the equa4 1. draw through 1) a line parallel to the #axis. Y' EXERCISE 4x_ 7 74 : Solve graphically the following equations 1. 4.7 2 a 5 = 0. An equation of the the form ax2 bx c 0. 6. 8. 13. viz. 2 and 1. 12. the points may be found otherwise by inspection. 6. or 5 2. 197. Such equations in general have two roots. 7. 11. and determine the abscis 1 sas of the points of intersection with the graph. 0. and c represent \3 2 1 1/2 known quantities. de = termine the points where If the function is 1. 3. + + = where a. . a2 2a.f 9 = 0. (a) x2 = 0.GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS 196. 14. = 0. crosssection paper is used.
i.e. == 2. 4) and them by straight line AB (3. T . represent graphically equations of the form y function of x ( 1D2). locate points (0. Ex. and joining by a straight line. Graph of equations involving two unknown quantities. (f . Equations of the first degree are called linear equations. If the given equation is of the we can usually locate two y.2. Hence we may join (0.2 y ~ 2. 0). Represent graphically Solving for y ='"JJ y. if y = is 0. Hence if if x x  2. 199. unknown quantities. Hence. 3x _ 4 . because their graphs are straight lines. 4) and (2. X'2 Locating the points (2. Draw the locus of 4 x + 3 y = 12. solve for ?/. 2). ?/ =4 AB. and join the required graph. fc = 3. = 0. we can construct the graph or locus of any Since we can = equation involving two to the above form. produces the 7* required locus. y= A and construct x (  graphically. y y 2.160 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA GRAPHIC SOLUTION OF EQUATIONS INVOLVING TWO UNKNOWN QUANTITIES 198. y = l.1. that can be reduced Thus to represent x   L^ \ x =2  graphically. NOTE. Thus If in points without solving the equation for the preceding example: 3x s . 1) and 0). If x = 0. . ?/. Ex. first degree.
P. 3. AB but only one point in AB also satisfies (2). and CD. 202. parallel have only one point of intersection. AB y = .15. To find the roots of the system. 203. Solve graphically the equations : (1) \xy\. viz. The every coordinates of point in satisfy the equation (1). equation x= By measuring 3.57. the point of intersection of the coordinate of P. The coordinates of every point of the graph satisfy the given equation. we obtain the roots. The roots of two simultaneous equations are represented by the coordinates of the point (or points) at which their graphs intersect. Since two straight lines which are not coincident nor simultaneous Ex. and every set of real values of x and y satisfying the given equation is represented by a point in the locus. (2) .1=0. 201. linear equations have only one pair of roots. Graphical solution of a linear system.GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS 161 200. By the method of the preceding article construct the graphs AB and and CD of (1) (2) respectively.
4.162 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA graph. 3x 2 y = 6. and joining by a straight line.y~ Therefore. 5. which consist of a pair of parallel lines. intersection. Solve graphically the : fol lowing system = = 25.5.5. = 0. (4. 2 equation x 3). This is clearly shown by the graphs of (1) arid (2). and . x2 . The equations 2 4 = 0. 2. parallel graphs indicate inconsistent equations. 3. 0) and (0. 1. (4.g. (1) (2) cannot be satisfied by the same values of x and y. (2.0. the point we obtain Ex. 4. Inconsistent equations. i. There can be no point of and hence no roots.9. P graphs meet in two and $. 1. Locating two points of equation (2). Since the two  we obtain DE. Using the method of the preceding para. In general. etc. construct CD the locus of (2) of intersection. 4. there are two pairs of By measuring the coordinates of : P and Q we find 204. Solving (1) for y. the graph of points roots. y equals 3. 3). 3. 0. . 2. obtain the graph (a circle) AB C joining. e. 4.e.0).  4.. if x equals respectively 0. V25 5. we of the + y* = 25. Locating the points (5. they are inconsistent. 3. 5. AB the locus of (1). Measuring the coordinates of P. 4. (1) (2) C. 4. 4. 4. 0. and + 3).
3. y=x + 5. 2. 19. as 2^3 and 3x f ==l 2y =6 tical have identical graphs. and solve each If there are no solutions. 5. '163 Dependent equations. y 2 4. 16 22. the graphs of the following systems.. 6. 9. vice versa. y = 4. EXERCISE 75 Construct the loci of the following equations: 1. x~y=0. a+r/=6. 10. 1 6* + 7 y = 3. 17. and. a. idengraphs indicate dependent equations. 20. 7.GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS 205. state reasons. Draw system. 16 23. . 2x 3?/=6. 8. \ 2x + 3^ . 4. if possible. y= a2 2x y6.
y). CUBES. AND SQUARE HOOTS . 30. 25.8. 29 . ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA "~ U # . 4 a = 3(6 . 28. TABLE OF SQUARES. 3 31. Show that the same values of x and y cannot satisfy the : three equations x f 5y = 5.164 24. 26.14 y = .
( 3 2 6 3 )* = ( 3 a2 6 8 ) . follows that 3. involution repeated multiplication. 52. on to in factors 4. fa. etc. 2. To find (#(**&)" is a problem of involution. Law of Signs. ^4/? it According to 50. is may be by 207. ( 3 a268 ) ( a 8 = _ (2m ) (8 ____ 16 *)"" 27 n 165 . 2. . = a2 5 =6 (5 )* n m n (a ) = a (a 2 3 ) a2 b5 . INVOLUTION OF MONOMIALS 208. 3 f a = f a = +. ( 2 aft ) 9 is negative. = 6+ 5 + +fi = fi 62. All odd powers of a negative quantity are negative. Involution is the operation of raising a quantity to a Since a power effected positive integral power. ( a) is positive. a2 6 6 = ?> 2+2 5 5 + 2 = a. 8.a2 .CHAPTER XIII INVOLUTION 206. According to 1. a special kind of product. All even powers of a negative quantity arc positive.faa a a a Obviously 1. powers of a positive quantity are positive. a = a3 .
166 To find To To power. V 3xy )' INVOLUTION OF BINOMIALS 209. raise a fraction to a power. (a ) 2 5 . (277171 )*. 4 /2mV. 210.3 a 6 f 3 a6 . multiply tht raise each of its factors to given exponents. 5. The square of a binomial was discussed in 63. 16. 15. 4. \ 3 J '  MW 10. 6. 2. 3 2 2 8 .6) = a . The & cube of a binomial (a 3 3 _j_ we obtain by multiplying (a 2 2 + 6) 1 by + and = a + 3a 6 + 3a6 + * 6) . amVy) 3 .6 (a 8 8 . raise its terms to the required EXERCISE Perform the operations indicated 1. 24. the required power. (a ) 2 4  3. . 76 : (>y. ^/2?n?A 4 ' 30. raise ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA the exponent of the power of a power. (^^) 2 . 2 11 (afc ) . (2ar). a product to a given power. ' 27 ' / _4_ _4_V ' 11. V V/ 13.
13. . 2. (afl) . 16. (6m+2w) (3 8 . 7. are obtained by multiplication. 8. 167 Find the cube of 2 x f. 1 f 3 2 3 . 2 a8 3a2 + 3al. TJie exponent of a in the first term is the same as the expo2. 4. (a + &)8 . 211. 15.) 14. (3 (l I) 2 8 . The higher powers of binomials. + a 2 a. 21.INVOLUTION Ex. (3a (a (4 62 l) 3 . : a 20.3(3 a*)a(y = 27 a . (m2) 8 (w+w) 3 8 10.27 ay + 9 x y2n 2 EXERCISE 77 Perform the operations indicated: 1. (3 x .  lx  (7 a (1 I) 3 17. 23. 1. 12. or*  Find the cube root of 19. 3 . (aj7) . (3af26) 8 . examination of these results shows that : The number of terms is 1 greater than the exponent of the binomial. and decreases in each succeeding term by L . etc. . = s= (2s) 8 a. as follows : + 6) = o + 3 d'b + 3 a6 + + 6) = a + 4 a?b + 6 a & + 4 a6 + b (a = a + 5 a 6 + 10 a*b + 10 a 6 f 5 aM + 6 (a + 6) 8 8 2 (a b*. nent of the binomial. frequently called ex. 86 3 w + 3 w + ra8 126 + G6l. 9. 18.6 2 8 ft) . (5 (1 a) 3 . 2 . 3 8 . +5a) 22. 6. + 4aj) 3 . 4 4 2 2 3 4 . 5.y . 8 (a??/) 3 . 3 3 + 3(2aO*(Sy) + 3(2aj)(3y)> + 36 z2y + 54 xy* + 27 y3 . Find the cube 2 6 n of 3 x* . 5 5 4 2 2 3 s .y) = (3 y?y . 2. An 1. pansions. 3. Ex. + 3a 6 + 3a& f& ^Sx^ + S^ ^ 3 2 2 3 . a.3 y.
(?/i~w) : 16.168 3. (mnp 5 I) 5 . 10 x*y* + 2 5 xy* + y5 . . of the second term equals the exponent of the binomial 6. (la&) 4 12. TJie coefficient of any term of the power multiplied by the exponent of a. * 2 4 ) 16 ic 8 . 25.a) 3 19. (3a f5) 5) 4. 17.4(2^(3 ^'+(3 y . (2 a 4 . . (tff1) (cfd) .96 ^y f 216 o?y . (m fl) 2 20. (2 4. (m 5 I) 2 22. 2. . 78 s . . 4. Ex. (a~^) 5 . Expand (x = ic 5 f 5 x*y + 10 ^V + 5 . and the powers negative. Expand (a??/) x5 5 x4 y + 10 x'2 (and odd + 212. 15. 13. and increases by 1 in each succeeding term. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA T7ie exponent ofb is 1 in the second term of the result. (2w 2 2 fl) 4 . The The coefficient coefficient of the first term is 1. Ex.2. 10. 8. The minus. and the result divided by 1 plus the exponent of b. .81 y 2 8 9 8 4 ) . 1. (1 + 4 ?/) . (?>i?i f c)*. (af 5) . 4 (1for) 5 . mn 5 2 5 ) . (lfa 6 2 ) 5. (mJ) 4 11. 9. 12 EXERCISE Expand: 1. . 5. (w 4 ?i) 4 . is the coefficient of the next term. 14. 23. (p + q) 4 * 7. ( &) 5 .216 a^ 4. 3. Expand <? 2 (2 #  3 y3 ) 4 2 . . 4 . 6. 21. 3. since the even powers of signs of the last answer arc alternately plus y are positive. 5.4(2 * )'(3 *f) f 6(2 ^) (3 y ) 8 . (m 2 + n) 8 . (2a5c) (1 f 2 4 a:) 4 . (l 8 . 24. Ex. 18.
which can be simplified no further. for (+ a) = a \/32 = 2. or 3 for (usually written 3) . or y ~ 3. etc. \/"^27=3. 109 . it is evidently impossible to express an even root of a negative quantity by Such roots are called imaginary the usual system of numbers. for distinction. Since even powers can never be negative. Evolution it is is the operation of finding a root of a quan the inverse of involution. and all other numbers are. numbers. and ( v/o* = a. 1. tity . or x &4 .CHAPTER XIV EVOLUTION 213. a) 4 = a4 . for (f 3) 2 ( 3) equal 0. (_3) = 27. V \/P 214. called real numbers. Thus V^I is an imaginary number. quantity may the be either 2wsitive or negative. 215. It follows from the law of signs in evolution that : Any even root of a positive. = x means = 6. 27 =y means r' = 27. 4 4 . Every odd root of a quantity has same sign as and 2 the quantity. 2. V9 = + 3. \/a = x means x n = y ?> a.
for (a")" a = a mn 3. fy 5 3 . Ex. Ex. for (a 3 )* = a 12 . \/2 4 9 . 9. 3i . Ex. = 199 + (_ 198) . 2 . 7 . 79 2 v/2 5 . 4 v. 7. v/^i2 = a*. 62 = V2* . To extract the root of a power.(. = V26TIT81 = 53. V25 9 16. . VT8226 = V25 2 729 . 82 .for(*Siy = 3 3 6 c* \ c*J 2 2 b' ?*243 ft^c20 216. Ex. 3 33 53 . 10.125.9 = 136. 6. 8. Ex 5 a" . = 19472. roots of the numerator \/18 . 8. 6 7 = 030.170 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EVOLUTION OF MONOMIALS The following examples root : are solved by the definition of a .201) = 2. we have (Vl472) 2 Ex. EXERCISE 1. Ex. 3/0** = am . 9. 2.4.64 5 4 . extract the and denominator. . divide the exponent by the A root of a product equals the product of the roots of the factors. for (2 a 2 6c4 ) 8 = Ex. 14 63 25 = V2 3* = 2 32 6 . 2. To extract a root of a fraction. V?.lL. Ex. 6. V36 9 4. index. v/2^. V5 v/2 7 2.1.  100 a 2 .200 . 3. v^SjW 3 = 2 a ^/gL^g = * c* A 82 &c*. 5. 7. 7 . Find (x/19472) Since by definition ( v^)" = a. .
3. 30.6 tfif + 9 y = O . 5.EVOLUTION 171 28.3 y2) ( vV . a* 4 8 2 . 33. 2 . 29. Hence _ 6 ary f 9 y = (s .(V200) f ( VI5) 2 .4/. (Vl24) { 2 EVOLUTION OF POLYNOMIALS AND ARITHMETICAL NUMBERS 217. 1. V20 . In such a case the square root can be found ( 116. 31./). \/d \Vab r + b\ 9. ( VI5) x ( VT7) 2 2 2 2 x ( V3) 35. Find the square root of a2 . Ex.) by inspection.3 . 2yh2/ 4  9^ + 60^ + 2 2/ . 6. 116. 32. (V2441) ~(V2401) 36. V9216. 2 f ( V240) 3 .98. a f2 l 2 + l. 34. 3. ^40^4.6 ofy 2 f 9 y4 . ( VH) + (Vl9) 2 2 . 45 V5184. V8. 2 .) 4 3 EXERCISE 80 : Extract the square roots of the following expressions 1. . A trinomial is a perfect square if one of its terms is equal to twice the product of the square roots of the other terms.75. 2.
12. 2 2 218. the given expression is a perfect square.2 &c.2 ab + b . let us consider the relation of a f. a\b is the root if In most cases. 10. and b (2 a f b).172 7.e.b 2 2 to its square. second term 2ab by the double of by dividing the the socalled trial divisor.72 aW + 81 & 4 . The term a' first 2 . The work may be arranged 2 : a 2 + 2 ab + W \a + b .2 ac . + 6 + 4a&. mV14m??2)f 49.> 13. term a of the root is the square root of the first The second term of the root can be obtained a. 14. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBEA 4a2 44a?> + 121V2 4a s . #2 a2  16. a2 + & + c + 2 a& . multiplied by b must give the last two terms of the as follows square. In order to find a general method for extracting the square root of a polynomial. 2 . it is not known whether the given expression is a perfect square. 2 49a 8 16 a 4 9. i. and b. 11. however. . the that 2 ab f b 2 = we have then to consider sum of trial divisor 2 a. a f. 2ab . 15. 8 .
of x. 6 a. . 219. The process of the preceding article can be extended to polynomials of more than three terms. First trial divisor.24 afy* f 9 tf. First complete divisor. . 8 a 2 . 2. Second trial divisor. The square . As there is no remainder. 10 a 4 8 a. 2 Subtracting the square of 4x' from the trinomial gives the remainder '24 x'2 + y. by division we term of the root. we obtain the next term of the root 3 y 3 which has to be added to 2 the trial divisor. 1. 8 a 2 2. 8 a 2 Second complete divisor. 173 x* Extract the square root of 1G 16x4 10 x* __ .EVOLUTION Ex. 4 x2 3 ?/ 8 is the required square foot. and consider Hence the their sum one term. We find the first two terms of the root by the method used in Ex. and so forth. Extract the square root of 16 a 4 . double of this term find the next is the new trial divisor. . By doubling 4x'2 we obtain 8x2 the trial divisor. the required root (4 a'2 8a + 2}. . is As there is no remainder.24 a + 4 12 a + 25 a8 s . . Arranging according to descending powers of 10 a 4 a. 8 a 2  12 a +4 a f 2. Multiply the complete divisor Sx' 3y 3 by Sy 8 and subtract the product from the remainder. 8 /. Explanation. 24# 2 y 3 by the trial divisor Dividing the first term of the remainder. 1.  24 a 3 + 25 a 2  12 a +4 Square of 4 a First remainder. \ 24 a 3 4f a2 10 a 2 Second remainder. the first term of the answer. Arrange the expression according to descending powers root of 10 x 4 is 4 # 2 the lirst term of the root. Ex. */'' .
12. 25 x 4 f 40 afy 446 x 2 if 4 24 a^ 8 4 9 4 i/ . 9.16.12 a6 2 2 3 4 4 64 .V430^425^ 4m 4. 4 . a? 2 . 6 11. .73 a8 .12 m 4. 25 m 20 w + 34 m .54 a 40 a 6 4 9 a4 . 8.25. 436^?/469a.9m 4 20m3 30m 4. 14. 4 36 a 2 12 4 4 16 a4 4 46 a 4 4 44 a 8 f 25 a h 12 a 4 4 25 a6 4. 36a 460a 473a 440a 416a 3 2 13.20 J or 2 16 x 4. 10.24 or .42 a*& 4. 19.40 a 22 . 13#4 413ar 44a.10 x2 4.9. 16. 20. 18.6 .73a4 440^436^460^.37 a ^ . 4 4?/ 42x 4 3 j/ 2xif 6 a5 4. 15. 16 _^ + 2 JX XT 4a. 16x6 4. 412 a& f 37 a' 6 . 17. 1 4.25 x 4 4. 3 a2 a4 4 2a + a4 2 or 41 3 2 a3 + 1. x 6 4 4 0^4.a 6 x*y 2 . + 81 a 454 a + 81. 2 4.14^44 ic 4^ 3 12^.162 a2 60 a10 4. 5. 6 6 2 49 a 4 . > 7.174 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 81 : Extract the square roots of the following expressions 2.2^43^42^ 46 5 4 a.42 a f 49 a 6 16 a4  24 a3 4 J 2 3 3 4 4 . 729 4. l 4.4 x 4.20 o 4.12m 5 4. 6. 3. 24. 2 x2 3 2x. 36it. 5 4 16 4 iK .
square root of arithmetical numbers can be found to the one used for algebraic Since the square root of 100 is 10. the square root of 7744 equals 88. Ex.176. 175 The by a method very similar expressions. a 2 = 6400. and the first remainder is. beginning at the and each group contains two digits (except the last.000. two figures. the first of which is 4. The is trial divisor = 160. = 80. 7744 80 6400 1 +8 160 + 8 = 168 1344 1344 Since a 2 a Explanation. of 1. 1. From A will show the comparison of the algebraical and arithmetical method given below identity of the methods. and we may apply the method used in algebraic process.. the preceding explanation it follows that the root has two digits.000.1344. the integral part of the square root of a number less than 100 has one figure. the first of which is 9 the square root of 21'06'81 has three digits. Hence the root is 80 plus an unknown number. 2. Hence if we divide the digits of the number into groups. Thus the square root of 96'04' two digits. of 10. etc. Ex. which may contain one or two). the consists of group is the first digit in the root. etc. and the complete divisor 168. the first of which is 8. Find the square root of 524. of a number between 100 and 10.000 is 1000. Find the square root of 7744.000 is 100. then the number of groups is equal to the number of digits in the square root.EVOLUTION 220. first . and the square root of the greatest square in units. Therefore 6 = 8. As 8 x 168 = 1344. a f>2'41 '70 6 c [700 + 20 + 4 = 724 2 a a2 = +6= 41) 00 00 1400 + 20 = 1420 4 341 76 28400 = 1444 57 76 6776 .
10.1T6 221. Roots of common fractions are extracted either by divid ing the root of the numerator by the root of the denominator. annex a cipher. 12.1 are Ex. or by transforming the common fraction into a decimal. The groups of 16724. 3. Find the square root of 6/. EXERCISE Extract the square roots of : 82 . ELEMENTS OF ALGEKRA In marking off groups in a number which has decimal begin at the decimal point.GO'61. in .70 6. we must Thus the groups 1'67'24.7 to three decimal places.688 4 45 2 70 2 25 508 4064 6168 41)600 41344 2256 222. places. and if the righthand group contains only one digit.0961 are '.
35.EVOLUTION Find 177 to three decimal places the square roots of the follow ing numbers: 29. 34.58 square 38. 39.) 40. 36. J.53. 1. . 32. 5.4 square when R = radius and 11. 37.1410. = 3. 30. Find the side of a square whose area equals 96 square yards. Find the side of a square whose area equals 50. whose area equals 48. 33.22.01. 13. feet. JT . TT Find the radius of a (Area of a circle circle 1 equals irR . T\. 31. feet. 1. Find the mean proportional between 2 and .
quadratic equation contains only the square of the axt unknown quantity.CHAPTER XV QUADRATIC EQUATIONS INVOLVING ONE UNKNOWN QUANTITY 223. is frequently written x 13( 2)2 = 7(  19 = 33 . 6 y2 = 17. 178 . The 7 equation. or equation of the second degree. x f 12 = the absolute term PUKE QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 227. absolute term of an equation is the terra which / does not contain any In 4 x 2 unknown quantities. quadratic equation is one which contains both the square and the first power of the unknown A quantity.. = 7^ + 5. This answer Check. x 2 7. 224. Extracting the square root of each member. is A quadratic equation. A pure quadratic is solved by reducing it to the form and extracting the square root of both members. Transposing. A pure.g. 6#2 = x* 24. 2 ic = a. 225. an integral rational equation that contains the square of 4x the unknown number. but no higher power e. x = + 2 or x =2. 1. is 12. 2. ax 2 + bx + c = Q. . = 4. + bx f c r= is a complete quadratic ax 2 = m is a pure quadratic equation. or affected. Dividing. complete. Solve 13 x2 19 etc. or incomplete. Ex. 2)* + 5 = 33. 226.
s3 ? + oj x +3 = 4. 5. 15^5 = 6. . 0^ + 1 = 1. 7. ax Transposing and combining.=g x2 4 a2 Clearing of fractions. . o. EXERCISE Solve the following equations 1. 10. 2 2 a. 4. 3. 4 ax.2. ' =: y? b* b . 7 = 162. 2. + 4 ax = ax + 4 a 2 + x2 f 2 x2 = 8 a 2 4 a2 x2 = x = V 4 a2 x= x = . 19 + 9 = 5500. 2 4fc 5' 18. 8. : 83 2. or Therefore.QUADRATIC EQUATIONS Ex.25. 16^393 = 7. (a? 9. Dividing by Extracting the square root. 6(2)=10(ajl). Solve 179 .
find a in terms of 6 . then Since such a triangle tangle. r. EXERCISE 1. 108. 4. is 5(5. 2. ' 4. Find the side of each field. If the hypotenuse whose angles a units of length. and they con tain together 30G square feet. Find is the number. 3. Find the side of each field. 29. and the two other sides respectively c 2 contains c a and b units. If G=m m g . A number multiplied by ratio of its fifth part equals 45. Find the numbers. If a 2 4. and the first exceeds the second by 405 square yards. solve for r. 2 . Three numbers are to each other as 1 Find the numbers. If 22 = ~^. and the sum The sides of two square fields are as 3 : 5. 26. A right triangle is a triangle. may be considered one half of a rec square units. and their product : 150. If 2 f 2 b* = 4w 2 f c sol ve for m. 22 a. The sides of two square fields are as 7 2. 9 & { c# a x +a and c. . 2a f 1 23. : 6. 25. 228. its area contains =a 2 f b2 . If s = 4 Trr ' 2 .180 on __!_:L ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA a. 2 .b 2 If s If =c . 2 : 3. The two numbers (See is 2 : 3. 27.) of their squares 5. 28. 24. opposite the right angle is called the hypotenuse (c in the diagram). is one of _____ b The side right angle. = a 2 2 (' 2 solve for solve for = Trr . . solve for v. 84 is Find a positive number which equal to its reciprocal ( 144). solve for d.
The area $ /S of a circle 2 . member can be made a complete square by adding 7 x with another term. Find the unknown sides and the area. . The hypotenuse of a right triangle is 2. Find the sides. Find the radii. 24. To find this term. 2m. the radius of a sphere whose surface equals If the radius of a sphere is r. make x2 Evidently 7 takes the place 7x a complete square to to which corresponds m 2 . Find these 10. is and the other two sides are equal. sides. 8 = 4 wr2 Find 440 square yards. . of a right triangle Find these sides. its surface (Assume ir = 2 . and the other two sides are as 3 4. A body falling from a state of rest. The hypotenuse of a right triangle is to one side as 13:12. x* 7 x= 10. . and the two smaller 11. we have of or m = . passes in t seconds 2 over a space s yt Assuming g 32 feet. Two circles together contain : 3850 square feet. 4. add () Hence 2 . 181 The hypotenuse of a right triangle : is 35 inches. let us compare x 2 The left the perfect square x2 2 mx f m to 2 . Solve Transposing. and the third side is 15 inches.) COMPLETE QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 229.2 7 . (b) 100 feet? = . radii are as 3 14.QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 7. Method of completing the square. 9.7 x f 10 = 0.) 13. (b) 44 square feet. The area : sides are as 3 4. The following ex ample illustrates the method or of solving a complete quadratic equation by completing the square. 7r (Assume and their = 2 7 2 . J = 12. in how many seconds will a body fall (a) G4 feet. the formula = Trr whose radius equals r is found by Find the radius of circle whose area S equals (a) 154 square inches. 8.
. 15 x 2 Dividing by 9. = 6. Hence to solve a complete quadratic : Reduce the equation to the form x*\px==q. 2  . (*~8) a = at . = . Hence Therefore Check. = \ # = ff. 230. Extracting square roots.x(l = . 2 ax f 2 o) s a . Complete the square by adding the square of one half the coefficient of x. Simplifying. 80^69^2 = 9 x2 sc Transposing. 2 a* a. 22 7 2 + 10 =0. x x2 x x2 + 2 a2 x f a = 2 ax.2 a2 . Extract the square root and solve the equation of the first degree thus formed. Ex.  \. a Clearing of fractions. Transposing. J. Or (*i) x Extracting square roots. 62 x 5 = f. = x\ = 2.e.a. or J.2. adding member). Ex. Transposing.182 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 2 Adding ( J) to each member. 7 5 + 10 = 0. Therefore. a.  x Q) 2 to each Completing the square (i. Uniting.1.. or x = 2.
4 ~ a2 Transposing.QUADRATIC EQUATIONS Completing the square. 183 Simplifying. Extracting square root. x . x = l+ * a = 1 +2 <* V IT * Therefore * Vl < EXERCISE 85 .1+2?= "*"   Vl .
=0. = 12. o^ or } 3 ax == 4 a9 7 wr .184 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 45 46. ao. x la 48. 2 Every quadratic equation can be reduced to the general form. 49. \bx\.c = 0. Solution by formula. 231. and c in the general answer. . Solving this equation we obtain by the method of the preceding 2a The roots of substituting the values of a. any quadratic equation may be obtained by 6. =8 r/io?. 2x 3 4. article.
?i 2 . Solve 2 j>o? p*x x px* a 2 p.  . : 86 + 2 = 0. 10. 3. 2 . 6^+5^ 56. 6 . Hence Therefore =p 1 t b = (p 2 + 1). 2or } 5o. 6 10 2024 =6or 10 l. 2.  P + VQ^+T? ^4^ EXERCISE Solve by the above formula 1. a. 26. 8. 2 a. 2# 11 + 15 = 0. 16. 11. 2.15 x9 25x* = 21 . 6 Ex. 2 a? = 44 x .. 3 x 11 + 10 = 0. 1. b =  + 20 == = 0. Reducing to general form. 14. 17. = 12 . 12. 9. 5 x2 Transposing.QUADRATIC EQUATIONS Ex. 21. 20.25 x. 4. 13. c = 5. 7^ + 9 x 90. 19. 15. 185 Solve 5 x2 = 26 x5. 7. 6. 6m = 7 m + 12 = 64 7 x2 2 2 a. 6. 20 x Hence Therefore a = 5. 2 o. 18. V^tT)* .4 4 5 . c p. TIO. = 64120?.
233. Eesolving into factors. x2 = 1 . a? 28  7al=7s be required to solve the 232. Let it e(l uation: 5^ + 5=26*. all or. 24. a=:i^^.2. x(x <2 . orz roots. or # 5 is zero. if either of the uct is zero. = 14.186 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA to Find the roots of the following equations places : two decimal 22. Clearing for fractions. = 0. 0. 5 = 0. (5 a? !)(. member can be Ex. Transposing. any degree. =7 x se 2 2 + 16 x. 27 x== 42a. 1. 23. Evidently this method can be applied to equations of if one member of the equation is zero and the other factored.5) =0. Hence the equation has three + 3) (x 2xf3=0.x. factors Now. 5) = 0. we x obtain the roots =^ or x = 5. ar>8o. the prodif x has (1) (2) such a value that either or a?. 3x?+x = 7. 25. and 6. Factoring. Solution by factoring. transposing terms to one member.5 Solving (1) and (2).4) = . 2a^7x sc(2 16rc Therefore a = 0. = 0. Therefore the equation will be satisfied 5x _. . Solve a*= 7a? + 15x 2 2* . Bx 1 1. = 0. }. 26. 2S3x 1 2 .
a?. Or Hence the 234. for a: . we 9 obtain x 4. 12.= 24. members of an equation are divided by an involving the unknown quantity.e.(. (aj4)(a. 4or + 18a f 8a. a?10a=:24. + 8=s: 7. 6. 7. 5. (*2)(x + 2)(a3)=0. 3) Factoring. let it be required to solve If or x we divide both = 2. 4. + 9 f 20 x = 0. EXERCISE Solve by factoring 6 2. Form an equation whose roots are 4 and 6. 3) = 0. x2 f 2 x . 0^ + 21 = 10 10. such a common divisor must be made equal to zero. members by x But evidently the value x 3 3. aj( 15.:=0. 2. 2. The equation I. Therefore x =3 = 2.QUADRATIC EQUATIONS Ex. In order If both to obtain all roots of the original equation. 3^ 25^ + 28 = 0.24 = 0. 14. 4)(z3) = 0. is 5) = 0. 16. 3^ = 0(1106). + 6)=0. } 2 2 (5 . 0(02) = 7(02). 3. and the equation thus formed be solved.3)(x + 3 3.3 =5 or = 2 3 obtained from the 5 (x or x equation x (x = is also a root. 9. ar'Sa^ 12. evidently (x Or 4)(x . + 10 a = 24. 8. E. 0^ ar> 11.g. the resulting expression equation contains fewer roots than the original one. Ex. 2o3 f9a. 3. 5 = 0. 3# y 5 = 0. O roots are 2. 13. 187 Solve x? 3x x*(x 2 4x + 12 = 0. : 87 = 0. a* 10a=24.  3) 2 4 (x = 0.6)) = 0. 3 or 2 a. + 100.
+ 2)= (y( j_ ? (+ 3)(a?+2). 25. 19. w(w x2 2 w)=6tt. 23. '3a!J  . f ELEMENTS OF ALGEKRA tt(3tt + 7tt)=6tt.188 17. (2a? 3) (a 24. (a + 1) (a. or 3 a 2 2 a? 26. 27. ara + ft + c*. uz + u 21. 18.3) = (s + l) (3 a). 22. 50. 20. 2. a 2 =(x a)b.
54. The sum of the squares of two consecutive numbers 85. 52. 3. 4.0. EXERCISE 1.3. Twentynine times a number exceeds the square of the 190. and the difference Find the numbers. two numbers is 4. Find the sides. The difference of . 55.2. Find the number.0. and whose product 9. 6. . 2. 2. and whose sum is is 36. Find a number which exceeds its square by is . and consequently many prob 235. 1. : 3. Problems involving quadratics have lems of this type have only one solution.3. 3. 7. Find the numbers. number by 10.3. Divide CO into two parts whose product is 875. and equals 190 square inches. 2. 88 its reciprocal A number increased by three times equals 6J. 1. 2. 56. 189 the equations whose roots are 53.1. What are the numbers of ? is The product two consecutive numbers 210.QUADRATIC EQUATIONS Form 51. 2. 5. but frequently the conditions of the problem exclude negative or fractional answers. G. of their reciprocals is 4. 8. 57. feet. 58. 0. 5. is Find two numbers whose product 288. Find two numbers whose difference is 40. The 11. PROBLEMS INVOLVING QUADRATICS in general two answers. its sides of a rectangle differ by 9 inches.9. 2. area A a perimeter of 380 rectangular field has an area of 8400 square feet and Find the dimensions of the field. Find the number.
10. ply between the same two ports. sold a horse for $144. and the line BD joining two opposite vertices (called "diagonal") feet. dollars. and lost as many per cent Find the cost of the watch. he had paid 2 ^ more for each apple. had paid $ 20 less for each horse. ABCD. other. 17. What did he pay for 21. start together on voyages of 1152 and 720 miles respectively. If a train had traveled 10 miles an hour faster. At what rates do the steamers travel ? 18. it would have needed two hours less to travel 120 miles. as the 16. vessel sail ? How many miles per hour did the faster If 20. . he would have received two horses more for the same money. watch cost sold a watch for $ 21. 15. exceeds its widtK AD by 119 feet. What did he pay for each apple ? A man bought a certain number of horses for $1200. he would have received 12 apples less for the same money. c equals 221 Find AB and AD. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA The length 1 B AB of a rectangle. 13. A man cent as the horse cost dollars. Two steamers and is of 420 miles. and the slower reaches its destination one day before the other.190 12. If he each horse ? . and gained as many per Find the cost of the horse. A man bought a certain number of apples for $ 2. A man A man sold a as the watch cost dollars. and Find the sides of the rectangle. Two vessels. 19. The diagonal : tangle as 5 4. 14. Find the rate of the train. watch for $ 24. a distance One steamer travels half a mile faster than the two hours less on the journey. of a rectangle is to the length of the recthe area of the figure is 96 square inches. and lost as many per cent Find the cost of the watch. one of which sails two miles per hour faster than the other.
a point taken. If the area of the walk is equal to the area of the plot. In how many days can B do the work ? = 26. and the unknown factor of one of these terms is the square of the unknown factor of the other. or x = \/l = 1. =9 Therefore x = \/8 = 2. B AB AB 2 191 grass plot. the two men can do it in 3 days. Find the side of an equilateral triangle whose altitude equals 3 inches. Find and CB. Equations in the quadratic form can be solved by the methods used for quadratics. is On the prolongation of a line AC. Solve ^9^ + 8 = ** 0. how wide is the walk ? 23. How many eggs can be bought for $ 1 ? 236. 237. A rectangular A circular basin is surrounded is  by a path 5 feet wide. Find TT r (Area of a circle .) 25.I) 4(aj*l) 2 = 9. as 0. By formula. ^3^ = 7. (tf. EQUATIONS IN THE QUADRATIC FORM An equation is said to be in the quadratic form if it contains only two unknown terms. A needs 8 days more than B to do a certain piece of work. 27.QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 22. The number of eggs which can be bought for $ 1 is equal to the number of cents which 4 eggs cost. and working together. 24. . 1. contains B 78 square inches. constructed with and CB as sides. of the area of the basin. Ex. and the area of the path the radius of the basin. is surrounded by a walk of uniform width. 30 feet long and 20 feet wide. 23 inches long. so that the rectangle.
stitute ELEMENTS OF ALGEBEA In more complex examples it is advantageous to sub a letter for an expression involving a?. aV+9o 4 =0. = 1. 16.T 2 2 . Let x + 15 = J < Then or or rf 15 = 0. 9. Hence Le. a 21or=100. 2 16 a^40 11. 2. Solving. T 17. >. 12. ^^ ~ 28 (a? ^ 2:=Q> . = 13. 2 h9:=0. 4 : 89 10a.2 =4. 18. a4 5o. or y = 8. 4 2 4 37aj 2 = 9. 436 3. EXERCISE Solve the following equations 1.192 238. 10. 2 (^Z)  "3 14. 19. 6. a. y8)=0. 8. (a: +aj) 18(x2 +a. 4 a. 4 8 = 2 a* 2. 3 a4 44s + 121=0. 4. Ex. 4 6. a? 15 1=2*.)+72=0. 7.
is 4ac not zero. the roots are irrational.5) = 04. the roots are rational. it 2a follows 2 : 2. The discriminant =(.f> = 0. Determine the character of the roots of the equation 3 a 2 .2) 2 4 3 (. . Ifb 2 Jfb 2 is zero. negative. the roots are equal. and unequal.c 4 ac is called the discriminant of = 0. If b Ifb* 2 If b Iflr 4 ac is is is 4c 4 ac a positive or equal to zero. a perfect square.bx 4. kac 4 ac is 'not a perfect square. Hence the roots are real.12 x + 9 = 0. 240. Relations between roots and coefficients. Since ( 12) 2 4 4 9 = 0. c the roots are real. The expression b 2 the equation ay? 4. 241. Ex.2 z . the roots are real.QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 193 CHARACTER OF THE ROOTS 239.bx 4 by ' i\ and r2 then . Ex. The quadratic equation oa/* 2 f bx f c = has two roots. rational. are denoted __ Tl If the roots of the equation ax2 4. 2. 3.Vfr 2 4 ac T* b Vi . b 4. Determine the character of the roots of the equation 4 x2 . 2 4 ac 2a Hence / 1 4r2 = a Or . rational. and equal. the roots are unequal. ( 2a Hence 1. 1. the roots are imaginary.
2 : 3. f 2 E.19 # 20. 3a. x2 !i>x + 2 z2 2 16. 14. 17.194 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 2 a? these results If the given equation is written in the form may be expressed as follows : x +a += a 0.. or + 10 + 4520 = 0. 2a 4z5 = 0. + 12 2  . 60 2 = 0. = 0.g. ^12.2 + 4a: + 240 = 0. (b) The product of the roots equal to theubsolute term. 18. 12. o. The sum of the roots equal is to the coefficient of x with the sign changed. + 2a. 5oj aj + l = 0. = 0. 5a 26a? + 5 = 0. 5aj 9. 21. 22. 2 a. x2 7 10. If the (a) coefficient ofx 2 in a quadratic equation is is unity. tfmx+p^Q. : a 2 . 2. 23. their product isf. = Q. 10 x = 25 x + 1. 12~x = x 2 . 4. + 18 2 8. 9a3 = 0. x2 4 x 0^ or j + 205 = 0. 6. the sain of the roots of 4 x 5 x 3 =: is j. 15. 9x2 ~ the In each of the following equations determine by inspection sum and the product of the roots: 13. n a?3 ' ~ == l 5. ar + ^ + 2^2 = 0. + 2a15 = 0. 2x* + 6x + 3 = 0. lla. 2 7. = 0. EXERCISE 89 a Determine without solution the character of the roots of the following equations 1. = 5x. 24. Sa^ + 2 Ooj 2 Solve the following equations and check the answers by forming the sum and the product of the roots 19.
" means "is greater than" 195 similarly means "is .a" = a m n mn . 244. II. 4~ 3 have meaning according to the original definition of power. (a ) s=a m = aw bm a . (ab) . and . that a an = a m+n . The following four fundamental laws for positive integral exponents have been developed in preceding chapters : I. must be *The symbol smaller than. The first of these laws is nition of power. provided w > n. m IV. a m a" = a m+t1 . we let these quantities be what they must be if the exponent law of multiplication is generally true. Then the law of involution.CHAPTER XVI THE THEORY OF EXPONENTS 242. (a m ) w . instead of giving a formal definition of fractional and negative exponents. = a"" < . We assume.* III. such as 2*. It is. the direct consequence of the defiand third are consequences FRACTIONAL AND NEGATIVE EXPONENTS 243. very important that all exponents should be governed by the same laws. > m therefore. however. ~ a m f. we may choose for such symbols any definition that is con venient for other work. no Fractional and negative exponents. for all values 1 of m and n. while the second of the first. hence.
3*.g. we try to discover the let the meaning of In every case we unknown quantity and apply to both members of the equation that operation which makes the negative. fractional. '&M A 27. a?*. . m$. at. 28. 25. or zero exponent equal x. disappear. e. Assuming these two 8*. Hence Or Therefore Similarly. n 2 a. 24. ^=(a^) 3* 3 . 245. a . ml.  we find a? Hence we define a* to be the qth root of of.196 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA true for positive integral values of n. since the raising to a positive integral power is only a repeated multiplication. Write the following expressions as radicals : 22. 29. a\ 26. as. 31. etc. = a. 23. 4~ . laws. a*. To find the meaning of a fractional exponent. 30. 0?=^. Let x is The operation which makes the fractional exponent disappear evidently the raising of both members to the third power. (bed)*. (xy$.
: 197 33. ty?. equal to unity. \/xy \/m. a* * = 3. Solve the following equations 39. = 49. 45. = 2. 7z* Find the values of 47. 64* + 9* + 16* + (32)*. a * a2 Or a=l. 27* = 3. 37. 40. 43. 49.g. e. e. 5L is indeterminate Indeterminate. 35. a . If. To find the meaning of zero exponent. \fi?. 46. = 2. v'mT 36. 41. 246.THE THEORY OF EXPONENTS Express with fractional exponents 32. 5 a* = 10. 3* = 27. is Therefore the zero power of any number NOTE. the base is zero. is The operation which makes the zero exponent disappear 2 evidently a multiplication by any power of a. however. : 4* + 9* + 16* + 25* + 36*.\/n. : 2' 4* = 4.g. hence is . 42. v/o&cT 34. 50. Vo5 . Let a = a. 44. 48. 38. a.
in which obtained from the preceding one by dividing both members by a. consider the following equations. cr n. an x = a. each is The fact that a if = we It loses its singularity 1 sometimes appears peculiar to beginners. Or a"# = l. or the exponent. 248.2 = a2 . by changing the sign of NOTE.198 247. a8 a 2 = 1 1 . etc. Multiplying both members by a". Let x= or".g. Factors may be transferred from the numerator to the denominator of a fraction. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA To find the meaning of a negative exponent. . vice versa. a a a = = a a a a1 1 a. e.
a. c 32. rfS. 36. m . : * 31 l> ' <W* arV 8 30. 66 45. a^ 41. * 24. 3 a? * 42.THE THEORY OF EXPONENTS EXERCISE Find the values of: 91 199 Express with positive exponents 21. ^L. 25. 22. 44. . 40. 6 or 2 ^^ ^. : or 5 . 1 L ?>i""i 3 cci . 2m~i 43. : mi m~^. ""^T"*' Write without denominators 29. 2 . 2 . f (2w)~i 1 . ^?2 y' 34. 39. . 37. 3 a. 27. Write with radical signs and positive exponents 35. 7~ l a 2b 2 ."* 38.
It then follows that: Fractional and negative exponents may be treated by the same methods as positive integral exponents. and we shall hence assume that all four laws are generally true.001.200 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA : Solve the equations 46. 2 =f 3* = f x~ l 50. It can be demonstrated that the last three laws for any exponents are consequences of the first law. ar = i. Examples relating to roots can be reduced to examples con taining fractional exponents. 17' 2 51. of: 3ll4~* 60. 49. 10* Find the values 56. Ex.6). + 1~* f 21 . 57. 61. 47. 59. = 5.343)* + (. (81)* + (3f)*(5 TV)*3249 + 16 * .008)* + A. 55. 58. = . z* = 1. 54. 5  75 USE OF NEGATIVE AND FRACTIONAL EXPONENTS 249.9*. + A_. .1. 10* 5* = . 52.81 f (a . 1. (a*&~*)* + (aVM = a*&~* + V ' = '*&* Ex 2 .(. = ^. 48. (. z 5or*=10. = l. 53.26)* 1 (I) 2 . 250.
Perform the operation indicated. OA 20. / 7fv 7. 95 ^9i 5**.7*. 79 . 4 5. 72 .4 2 a? 2 ar 1 .. 7~ 5 27  .$*. 7*. 8 ' 9. 4 x^. Negative exponents should not be removed until all operations of multiplication^ division.7i. 16. 6 *.3 aj" a. 13. 7. 3. remove the fractional exponents.&.4 a8 . 201 Expressions containing radicals should be simplified as : follows (a) (6) (c) Write all radical signs as fractional exponents. 6a. are performed.THE THEORY OF EXPONENTS 251. 27  28. .5. 18.4 . 25 26  2~ 8 2~ 9 22. 7~ 6 . . 10. . 12. 14an (4**(Va) 4 . EXERCISE Simplify : 92 2. 26.6 *' 6 *25. 23. 14. __ 29 /m '=V a9 ia. #* a. Remove the negative exponents. etc.5a. 16. ' 11.&.7W. a.^/5^5. NOTE. &. (d) If required. V5.$". 3 a. S'sS8. 3sVS. 17. 6.
Divide by ^ 2a 3 qfo 4.2 d . lix = 2xl =+1 Ex. 34. 1. 1 Multiply 3 or +x 5 by 2 x x. 1. 40. we wish to arrange terms according to descending we have to remember that. V ra 4/ 3 \/m 33. powers of x arranged are : Ex. The 252. If powers of a?. Arrange in descending powers of Check. the term which does not contain x may be considered as a term containing #. 2. 6 35.202 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 32.
THE THEORY OF EXPONENTS
EXERCISE
93
203
Perform the operations indicated:
2.
3.
4. 5. 6.
(7r8Vr + r>)(9 Vr7). 2  1 ). (a + a f 1) (a~ + a
2 2 2
7.
8. 9.
10.
11.
(4
a 3
 24 a  9  3 a~ )
1
2
r
1
(a"
 3).
12.
13.
14.
+ + 47i) + 35V5?)*(5Vp + l). VS" ^ ( Vo Vft) H (a~ f 7 a ^a~ + 1C a*b~  33 a 6~ + 14 a(3 a _&)*. (^? + ^/^ + */fr^ 15. 16. (a6 + 2V6c c)^(Va+V6 Vc). 17. y^TTOa; f 13  12 * + 4 aF*.
(13Vp
5
l
(Va^f aV^&Va
l
3
)
3
2
2
^>~
3
2
1
1
)
(
1
18. 19.
Vor
2
2 x h or
2
2 or
1
f
3.
V25 #
 2()"ar r+ 34  12 x f 9 x*.
20.
^^
l
21. 22.
23. 24.
25.
+2
a?
8
(l+4^flO^ + 20oTf 25^T f24\/i?f 16
(1+V2)V2. (2+V2)(V22). (5+V3)(52V3).
26. 27.
)*.
(13VS)(2 + V5).
(VU  V2)(Vn~3V2)
204
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
:
Find by inspection
28.
29.
(x*
+ 3)(tf*f 2).
35.
36.
8 (a;*
yi)
.
a*
+ 3l5.
V2
(5*2*
2
.
30.
31.
32.
38. 39.
(3^
(#* ^
(fl
2*)
f
.
33. 34.
5) (x*
5).
40.
(m
n)
f
(m*
11
f
n 5 ).
CHAPTER XVII
RADICALS
253.
A
radical is the root of
a quantity, indicated by a
radical sign.
254.
The
radical is rational, if the root can be extracted
exactly; irrational, if the root cannot be exactly obtained. Irrational quantities are frequently called surds.
^9
4^
\/2,
(*
+ V) *
are radicals.
= 2, V(a + 6) 2 are rational.
V4af
b are irrational.
255.
root.
The
order of a surd
is
indicated by the index of the
va
\/2
/
.
is
is is
of the second order, or quadratic. of the third order, or cubic. of the fourth order, or biquadratic.
Vc
256. A mixed surd is the product of a rational factor and a surd factor; as 3Va, a;V3. The rational factor of a mixed surd is called the coefficient of the surd.
An
257.
factor.
entire surd is
one whose coefficient
is
unity; as
Va,
Similar surds are surds
3v/2 and 6
which contain the same irrational
are similar.
av^
3V2 and
3 V8 are dissimilar.
206
206
258.
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
Conventional restriction of the signs of roots.
All even roots
e.g.
may
be positive or negative,
VI = + 2
or
2.
Hence
6. which results in four values, viz. 14, 6, To avoid 14, or this ambiguity, it is customary in elementary algebra to restrict
the sign of a root to the prefixed sign.
Thus
5 V4 4 2 V4
= 7 VI = 14.
If the object of an example, however, is merely an evolution, the complete answer is usually given thus
;
=
(oj 2).
259.
Since radicals can be written as powers with fractional
exponents, all examines relating to radicals
may
be solved by the
methods employed for fractional exponents.
Thus, to find the nth root of a product ab we have
T
1
1
(a6)"==a"6"
I.e.
(242).
to extract the root of a product, multiply the roots of the
factors.
TRANSFORMATION OF RADICALS
260.
Simplification of surds.
A radical is simplified when the
expression under the radical sign is integral, and contains no factor whose power is equal to the index.
Ex.
1.
Simplify
= \/25~a~ Vb = 6 a*VS.
4
Ex.
2.
Simplify
v/16.
J/lB^^.
4/2
= 2^.
RADICALS
.
207
261 When the quantity under the radical sign is a fraction, we multiply both numerator and denominator by such a quantity as will make the denominator a perfect power of the same
degree as the surd.
Ex.
3.
Simplify V.
Ex.
4.
Simplify
EXERCISE
94
208
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
/s
37.
39.
j
*x+y
38.
n
\ 2m
262.
An
same manner
imaginary surd can be simplified in precisely the as a real surd thus,
;
42.
V16a
:
,
2
.
44.
2\
Simplify and find to three decimal places the numerical
values of
47.
48.
VJ.*
49.
50.
Vf.
VJ.
VA
263.
Reduction of a surd to an entire surd.
Ex.
Express 4 a V& as an entire surd.
EXERCISE
Express as entire surds
1.
:
95
4V5.
3.
2\/lL
5.
6.
7.
2.
3V7.
4.
3^5.
a VS.
8.
* See table of square roots on page 164.
RADICALS
264. Transformation of surds to surds of different order.
209
Ex.
1.
Transform \/uW into a surd of the 20th order.
Ex.
2.
Transform
\/2,
V3, and
\/5 into surds of the
same
lowest order.
V2 = 2* = a* = '#64. ^ = 8* = 3A= ^gi. ^5 = 6* = 6* =^125.
1
Ex.
3.
Reduce the order of the surd tyaP.
Exponent and index bear the same relation as numerator and denominator of a fraction ; and hence both may be multiplied by
same number, or both divided by the same number, without changing the value of the radical.
the
EXERCISE
Reduce
1.
96
:
to surds of the 6th order
2.
Va?.
fymn.
3.
\/ v
4.
v'c?.
5.
\
z
\
^3
6.
mn.
Reduce
7.
8.
to surds of the 12th order
9.
:
V2~a.
\/a4 6 2c.
\/3ax.
11.
12.
\/oP6.
13.
14.
a.
^v/mV
10.
\/5a5V.
Express as surds of lowest order with integral exponents and indices
:
15.
v/o
5
.
16.
\/oW.
17.
v/IaT .
2
18.
\/
20.
A/^
22.
VSlmV.
24.
3.210 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA : Express as surds of the same lowest order 25. A/3. 31. 32.10 V2 =  V2. 3  s/ / 3ft 2  3 ^y Ex. Simplify/a35 ~ o . 40. terms their If the resulting surds are similar. ^2. ^5. Simplify V~ . \/5. 5V2. v^S. 28. 34. 38. Arrange 35. V2. ^4. 29. + . in order of magnitude : \/7. ^2. ^6. 26.2 V50. 39. reduce them to their simplest add them like similar add their coefficients) . 37. v/3. 30. To add or form.e. V5. VS. ^7. </2.2. ADDITION AND SUBTRACTION OF RADICALS 265. ^30. \/7. </3. signs. V2. connect them by proper 1. 27. ^4. if dissimilar. s!/3. 3: \/=^8 v~ 8ft 2 s/a. ^/IT.2 V50 = V2 + 9 V2 . V2. 4^/4. Ex. ^2. I VJ + 3VT8 . 36. v/4. v/3. Ex. (i. 2\ 3*. subtract surds. ^126. </20. Simplify V + 3 VlS. ^3. A/2. 33. V3. V3.3\ .
3V20 + 6V5.RADICALS EXERCISE 97 : 211 Simplify the following expressions 2. 12. VJ+V8V1 + V50. 13. 8. + 3V835V2. 4V805V45. 2V87Vl8f5V72V50. 14. V18+V32VT28+V2.J a6 V4 aft. 3. 10. VT2 + 2V27 + 3V759V48. 8VT8J2V32 7. 11. V45c3 3 abv'ab V80~c~3 f V5a c + c 2 + 3 aVo^ 3 Va^ . 9. . 6. 6. 4. V175V28+V634V7.
2. 98 ab ^" fab 1 " .fab V \~\ jab FW MULTIPLICATION QEJRABIQALS 266. 26^ . and then multiplied. 3.212 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA . 1. 23.2 VS by 3 Vf + 10 VB. 6*. . Multiply 3\/25^ by 5\/50Y 3v / 2 . Ex.100 = f 44 VS6 6 + 44\/36. y* = Ex. Dissimilar surds are reduced to surds of the same order. . the Surds of the same order are multiplied by multiplying product of the coefficients by the product of the irrational factors.6V35 106 460V35100 . Ex.2v/6 + IPV6 105. 5 4/6072 = 16^6272. Multiply 5 V7 8\/7 6\/7. for a~\/x b~\/y ab^/xy. Multiply V2 by 3\/l.
aVa. 6 V4 5. (VmVn) (V3V2) 8 . (VmVn)(Vm+Vn> 33. (5V22V3CVS)V3. v/4. 6. 18. (6V23V3)(6V23V3). 15. 7. 40 10 30. \/3 \^). ( Vm \ 1 Vm) (Vmf 1 6(Vaf Va { Vm). + VB)(2V5). V2 V50. Vll. 213 98 11. 10.VSS.^/2. 12. (Va Va 36. (V6 + 1) 1 . 19. 41. 28 . 13. 6. . 37. V2aV8^. V5 Va VaV?/ V Vr 16.RADICALS EXERCISE 1. VTO. 3. 39. 21. 14. 2 . V3 V6. 2. 38. 9. (3 20. (V2+V3+V4)V3. VlO V15. 8. V20 V30. 27. 40. V42. 25. fWa 17. 4. a?. (5V58V2)(5V5 + 8V2). 34. V3 Vl2. (2V3) 8 . v/18 v"3.
44. V3 . ELEMENTS OF ALGEHRA (3V55V3) S . (3V52V3)(2V3V3).214 42. (5V2+V10)(2V51). (5V72V2)(2VT7V2). is 1 2. a VS f a?Vy = \/  x*y this Since surds of different orders can be reduced to surds of the same order. . 52. Ex. 43. it more convenient to multiply dividend and divisor by a factor which makes the divisor rational. (V50f 3Vl2)4V2== however. 48.y. 47. (2 45.V5) ( V3 + 2 VS). 60. the quotient of the surds is If. 46. Ex. all monomial surds may be divided by method. E. Monomial surdn of the same order may be divided by multiplying the quotient of the coefficients by the quotient of the surd factors. 53. Va v/a. v/a  DIVISION OF RADICALS 267. 268. a fraction. 51. (3V32Vo)(2V3+V5). 49.
57735. by V7. however. VTL_Vll ' ~~" \/7_V77 . . Divide VII by v7. is Since \/8 12 Vil = 2 V*2. we have to multiply In order to make the divisor (V?) rational. we have V3 But if 1. /~ } Ex. Evidently. metical problems afford the best illustrations. . The 2.73205 we simplify JLV^l V3 *> ^> division Either quotient equals . Divide 4 v^a by is rationalizing factor evidently \/Tb hence. called rationalizing the the following examples : 215 divisor.by the usual arithmetical method.73205. 1. is illustrated by Ex. + 4\/5 _ 12v 3 + 4\/5 V8 V8 V2 V2 269. 4\/3~a' 36 Ex. Divide 12 V5 + 4V5 by V.RADICALS This method. Hence in arithmetical work it is always best to rationalize the denominators before dividing. the by 3 is much easier to perform than the division by 1. the rationalizing factor x ' g \/2.. 3. . To show that expressions with rational denominators are simpler than those with irrational denominators. e.g. arithTo find.
21. V3 24 . A. 272. V5 270.4142. Va + Vb and Va Vb are conjugate surds. 7. V48 25. find to four decimal places the numerical values of: 19. The product of two conjugate binomial surds is rational . To rationalize the denominator of a fraction whose denom inator is a binomial quadratic surd. V5 = 2. Vll 212*. 14. .216 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 99 Simplify : 1.. 23 . and Given V2 = 1. V8 12. V8?^ V7 xy T 13 11 n V7 ~ VH 5 2. Vn V7 ' * 8. i. VffV?. multiply numerator and denominator by the conjugate surd of the denominator. 20. they differ only in the sign which connects their terms. A. ^/H . V8 JL. . V2 22 .7320. 2V5 ' 2 V3 o vfi* ' ^ Va 12.2361. if 4=V50 Two binomial quadratic surds are said to be conjugate. V3 = 1. 271.
vffi^T _ . Ex. 217 Simplify 2V3V2 ' V3V2 ~ = 4 + V5. V2+2 _ V2+2 2\/2+l_6 + 6\/2. . Find the numerical value of : V2 + 2 2V21 e .2. V82 2V3 1fVS .Vs2 . 1.07105 = 7 7 2V21 2V21 2V2 + 1 EXERCISE Eationalize the denominators of : 100 . s Simplify a. 3.= 18. Ex. .1 xVtf a.RADICALS Ex.
v 2V3 28. 2V5V18 mVm Va 22. J?_.2361. = V3 = 1.W3. By the use of fractional exponents . 6V7. it can easily be shown that VcT = ( V) w Hence 3 V25~ = ( V25) 3 . ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 13 ~3 V51 14 A 16. 24.5 3 = 125. find to _!_. 19.4142. V3 + 1 1+V5 _ 3V5 ' V5+2 31. four places of decimals 23 .7320. Given V2 1. . V52 17 1Va? Vg+v/2 5V77V5 ' V3V2 15. V21 = 25 .218 6 . V5V7 18> ^SVg. 27. V32* to 1 Find the third proportional + V2 and 3 f 2V2. : and V5 = 2. Vo1 26. INVOLUTION AND EVOLUTION OF RADICALS 273.
v8f 2\/15. In other examples of involution and evolution. 2 12. it to this form. V255 . 2. 4. ( V5 + V3) = 5 + 2 V5~^3 + 3 2 = 8 + 2 VIS. To reduce is two numbers whose sum 5 and 3. SQUARE ROOTS OF QUADRATIC SURDS 275. 2. the If. 3. 3 (V2~u)  7. 1. introduce fractional exponents : Ex. we had to find problem would be quite simple if presented in the form v52V3 5 + 3. we must find 8 and whose product is 15. . 8. 9. Simplify Ex. To find the square root of a binomial square by inspection. on the other hand. 5. 11. Find the square of EXERCISE Simplify 1.RADICALS 219 274. : 101 (3Vmw) 2 . viz. V643 . \/l6*. \/125" . According to G3.
3. Find Vl2 4.6\/2 = ^9 . 2 \/18. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA l.2 A/2 = V9A/2 = 3 . EXERCISE 102 : Extract the square roots of the following binomials .6 A/2 = Vll Find two numbers whose sum numbers are 9 and 2.A/2. 2. is Find two numbers whose sum numbers are 10 and 2. +2 Ex.220 Ex. ^TT. and whose product is 18. is 11.6 V2. The Hence ^11 . Find V4 + VJ8. coefficient of the Irrational Write the binomial so that the term is 2. Find Vll .2 \/20. These Ex. 12 and whose product is 20.
The value x =2 reduces each . are radical equations. 19. they are transto formed into rational equations. .1. 5. VT . Ex. 277. x2 = x f 2. \/x Vx = + 3 = 7. Transposing Vsc2 + f 12 12 Squaring both members. A radical equation is an equation involving an irrational root of an unknown number. V48 23. r 22. (2x xrf 1.RADICALS Simplify the following expressions 18. i. * 4 * 2 V6 VT 4. Radical equations are rationalized. : 221 Vl32V22. If all radicals do not disappear through the the process must be repeated. first involution. Dividing by Check. 4. = xa + 4 x f 4. Transposing and uniting. member to 2. 4x x = 2.. V4 + V12 RADICAL EQUATIONS 276. +=. Solve vVf!2a = 2. Before performing the involution. much and to transpose the terms so that one radical stands alone in one member. by raising both members equal powers.e. a. examples to simplify the equation as it is necessary in most as possible.V48 4 20. 8.
V24~+~l = 0. an equaSquaring both members we obtain or 1. 2. the roots found are not necessarily roots of the given equation 279. Transposing and uniting. V4afT~l. or = VzMx2 7 x f f 7 x + 9. It = 3 x . the first member = V2. . a. Vitf 4x f 25 f 25 4x f 1 25. . 24 \/4 # Transpose V4 x Squaring both members. tion usually introduces a new Squaring both members of an equaThus x 2 = 3 has only root. . x = J. = 9 x2 18 x + 8x 2 25xf3 = 0. tion which has two roots.222 Ex. 5 and The squaring of both members of the given equation introSince duced the new root 1. viz. Dividing by 24. Therefore Check. (x 3) (8 x x = 3. Factoring. Squaring both members. 4#f 4 = 9. Ex. one root. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBltA Solve V4 x + 1 f V4 f 1 . f 25 = 12. x + 1 + 2 Vx'2 + 1 x + (. The results of the solution of radical equations must be substituted in the (jlren equation to determine ivhether the roots are true roots or extraneous roots. 3. Extraneous roots. Squaring both members. at . member =\/2 + jV2=v^.1) = 0.3. 2 Vx^ Dividing by 2. radical equations require for their solution the squaring of both members. Solve Vx f Squaring both members. a socalled extraneous root. f V/2TT25 = 5 + x 7 = 12. 5. they may be extraneous roots. 278. Therefore CftecAr. viz. = 12 = 144 24\/4# + 1 = 120. \/4 jc~+~l = 5. Transposing. Transposing and uniting.
47) = 0. 2 z 2 4 6 x 4 3 = 144 . equation it is an extraneous root. If If x 3 = 3. = } would be a VaT+T Ex. 223 x = 3.RADICALS Hence x If a. viz. ViTie 4 z2 . 4. x root of the preceding equation. 2 Clearing of fractions. Hence there is only one root. both members reduce to 5. NOTE. Hence x = the only root.48 x + 2 x2 53 f 141 = 0. (x x = 3. is x V.12 . Factoring. for it satisfies the equation . Therefore. the right member = V2. . Check. and to 5. . * Exclude all solutions which do not satisfy the equation or which make the given radicals imaginary. + 6~ieT~3 . . or x *j. Squaring. Solve the following equations : = G. = 3. Solve Vz+T + V2aT+3 = + "b"x f A5_ 15. If the signs of the roots were not restricted. tlie Jeft both members reduce member = 12T V2. V2x' 8 42x43 Transposing. Transposing.2 r. \ does not satisfy the given. 4 VxT~0 = \/8 x f 1.3) (2 x .
Many 1. Ex. radical equations may be solved by the method of 238.33 af* + 32=0. Factoring. Therefore .224 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 280. Solve af*.
3 6. But as the square root is restricted to cannot be equal to a negative quantity. 5.i~24 = 0.*2a. _ 2 y . = 26. . This can be seen without substituting. it will be found that 9 and 1 satisfy the equation. + 40 = Vz2 $x + 40 = y. 2Va. while 6 and 3 are extraneous roots. 2_8z 440 = 49. + 40 = 6.RADICALS Raising both members to the  power. y then x2 . Substituting.8 x 2 Hence y' 2y = 35. 4.8 x + 40 = 36. 3. Ex.f40= 5. Q . 412a* = 16. or y or Therefore 2 y = 5. EXERCISE 104* its Solve the following equations: 1.35 = 0. Solve x* 8x x* Adding 40 to both members. 2. some of the roots be extraneous. 2. Let 8 x f 40 . 225 x = 32~* or 1"* = ^ or 1. x Since both =9 or 1. = 7. 45 14VJB = .8 z40 = 7. o. x + Vx a? = 6. Vi 2 8a. members of the equation were squared. = 0. make the given radicals * Exclude extraneous roots and roots which imaginaries. x =6 or 3. for 6 and 3 are the roots of the may 2 equation Vx' 8x it positive values.
16. 2. 20.226 11. 14. 18. ar fll x 3x 12 V5l? +1 1^7^30 = 1 ^ + G V2^"^I + 2 = 4. 15. 19. 12. 6 Va?~3o~ = y? 3 x f . +3= 6. a^x2 5 2 13. 17. 4 V SB* 4 a. +x . or 2 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 8a f 40 2 V* 2 8. a.a 440 = 35.f 18 = 24. 2 7a?HV^ 3 7a.
then or* 2 and there is a 3 x2 f. 2.bx? + ex2 4.360 = 244. Ex. ^ = 381+2. however. Without actual division.3 x + 4 + 8 As 72 (a? . if Q was known. = 2." transposing.4 a. Let then find the remainder obtained z = 3. f 8 = (a? 2) x Quotient f Remainder.2 + 80 = 12. R = am* + 6m3 + cm2 + tZw + e. 3 2 Ex. substituting Q " and ani^ ^ 2 respectively for Quotient " and Remainder. by dividing 3 x* f. " Or. If x* . we make a? what the value of Q. 227 . a? R = x* . Without actual division. to x we # = 2 3. Hence.CHAPTER XVIII THE FACTOR THEOREM 281. we can find the value of R by making x = 2. E = ax + &z + m) Q. then (x 2)Q 0. could. assign any value whatsoever and would always obtain the same answer for R. does not contain a?.2 + 4. find the remainder when m. 1. even if Q is unknown. ax4 4.2 x 5 by x 3. no matter If.<fo f e is divided by x Let then 2 4 8 ca: f (to + e (x = w.2) Q .3 x~ + 4 x + 8 is divided by x remainder (which does not contain a?).
if 8 42  .4(. x* s 2 4. 8. fora?. the remainder is obtained by substituting in the given expression E. a f b 7 by a ^14y ~132/  283. EXERCISE Without actual division dividing : 105 find the remainder obtained by 2. If the remainder is zero. 2 j 7.3)f 11 =.g.8.4x411)^0 + 4 ( 3) . x is divided by x The remainder 6 sion involving If an integral rational expresm. } 2 by a1. + 3x3 2x* 32x12 by a?3. 5. hence (x divided by x 4. Only factors of the absolute term need be substituted . + 7 = 632. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA The Remainder Theorem. 3 x2 4) is a factor of x    00 *.228 282. a100 50 a47 4 48 a2 b. ing x becomes zero x8 3 x2 2 4 when 2 x If a rational integral expression involvm is a is written in place of x. 5 (4x . x5 a^ 7 b 5 by x 6.949.8'= 0.g. of the division 3) is m in place of x. The Factor Theorem. + 6. The remainder obtained by dividing (x + 4)4 _ (3 + 2) ( X  1) +7 by x  1 is 6* 3 . the remainder equals 8 2 x . the divisor is a factor of the dividend. 43 3 E. x*x + 4x Tx + 2\)y x + 2. x m is factor of the expression. + ^by x + b. 3.
. 21. is a factor. or x 4.7 f 5a 18 divisible by x 2.1. Factor a? 15. 20. 1ft : ar*f 6aj 2 o?5ar 3 l + lla. 9. a. then x8 7 x'2 4.9^ + 23^15. ^10^429^20=0. 15. Resolve into factors 4. a 5x 6. 25.TEE FACTOR THEOREM Ex. 3 2 : 7. or 5 4 + 3^ .7 + 16 . 8. 2o? m 6ra fllm 6. + 15. p 5^ + 8p 4. 5 Solve the following equations by factoring 15. a 2a + 4. 7 46 = 0.13m + 30 10.1. are f 1. & p*. Let x = . 2 2. m f m n 14. Therefore x ( 1). 11. x8 By dividing by x a?8 f 1. 18. The 5.7 x + 15 = 0.r6 = 0.12 = 0. f 3. Let x = 1 then 7 x + 7 a. we obtain 7  7 x2 + x + 16 = (x + l)(x 2  8 a. ^ + 7y + 2y40 = 0. 8 }3 3 2 3 s 2 3 4 8 2 2 4 s 3 t . 106 division. f 15 does not vanish. a + 32. 4m p~m p + 16m^ 12. a^8^ + 19a. 1.12. factors of the absolute term. 7 2 a? 2 f 7a?f 15. i. 3. 2m 5m . f 5.e. 1. oj 5x2 f3a. m 4 n4 25 mV + 19 ran 13. + 27 + 27. show that divisible 4x 2 j +3x 2 a? 2 2 as 5 is or 2 by is a. 17. a? 19. 5. a 8a f 19 a 12. _ . x* 34 ar 5 225 is divisible by x 5. 23. 6. 2.49 = 0. + ttt15 = 0. f 16) EXERCISE Without actual 1. 8. 24. 229 1. x 4o8 + 2a^ + 4a?~3 =0 4^ or* f 9 or* 2 a? aj? a? a? 2 4 3 .
By we obtain the other factors. ar +p= z6 e. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA positive integer. Factor consider m m 6 n9 . 2. 2 8 (3 a ) +8= + 288. x* f/ = (x +/)O .230 285. Ex. 2 Ex.  y 5 = (x  can readily be seen that #n f either x + y or x y. if n is even. We may 6 n 6 either a difference of two squares or a dif * The symbol means " and so forth to. xn f. it follows from the Factoi xn y n is always divisible by x y. if n For ( y) n f y n = 0. is odd. Factor 27 a* f 27 a 6 8. If n is a Theorem that 1. if w is odd. It y is not divisible by 287. : importance.xy +/). For substituting y for x.y n is divisible by x f ?/. 1. xn y n y n y n = 0. actual division n. 286. 2." . and have for any positive integral value of If n is odd. Two special cases of the preceding propositions are of viz. The difference of two even powers should always be considered as a difference of two squares.g.
THE FACTOR THEOREM ference of two cubes. however. preferable. f n)(m 2 mn f w 2 )(wi . 26. Factor a 12 EXERCISE Resolve into prime factors : 107 Solve the following equations: 25. since it more directly to the prime factors. as 27=0. Hence = (m Ex. 27. y 3 +8=0. leads 231 is The first method. 3.= . 28.i mn f w 2). x3 8=0. a.
xywe have 3. EQUATIONS SOLVED BY FINDING x +y AND xy 291. 290. *The graphic solution of simultaneous quadratic equations has been treated in Chapter XII. to equations of the fourth few cases. x y. = 6. xy x*y f y = 4 is of the second degree. Hence " /  X y = =} 4.CHAPTER XIX SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 289. + 6 a?V . 4 xy = 16. xy are given. (5) Combining (5) with (1). in general.y4 is of the fifth degree. Simultaneous quadratic equations involving two un known quantities lead. the third one can be found by means of the relation (ojjy) 2 4 xy Ex. If two of the quantities x f y. The degree of an equation involving several unknown quantities is equal to the greatest sum of the exponents of the unknown quantities contained in any term. Squaring Solve (1). of quadratics. & + 2 xy + = 25. * A I. ==5 > 1^ = 4. can be solved by the methods degree. 2 2/ (1) (2) (3) (2) x 4. (4) Hence. however.1. 232 .
b=3. EXERCISE Solve: 1. 108 2. = . The arranged in pairs.g.SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 292. In many cases two of the quantities x f y. r (" 1 = 876. I I x + y=7. ^. x and xy are not given. 12. " "' "' { r 8. roots of simultaneous quadratic equations must be e. ' 10. 1. 233 y. F* Lx ' 2 (1) ' (2) (3) (4) 2 + 3 = 293. 3. the answers of the last example are : r*=2. but can be found.
aj = 2.o 18.a. 3. ' ' . Substituting in (2) Simplifying. ( \ ~^V\ + 2 / 2y 2 ?/' . or JJ. =^ 18* ONE EQUATION LINEAR. . la. . ^ f or* f 4 xy = 28. + 29 = 0. one linear and ne quadratic.?/ i = 6. r^ 2 as ] f. A system of simultaneous equations.  42 y + Transposing. can be solved by eliminating one of the unknown uantities by means of substitution.20) = 0. Ex. 19.i/ = r 13. 5.  f J. x " (3) 49 etc. I x+y = a. 7 . Solve 2 x + 3y = 7. or y = 1 .~ y = 5.. Factoring. 9 y2 17 y 2 + ) 8 (y  40 y (17 y 1 Hence Substituting in (3).4 [ ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA x 4. 4 y = 20. THE OTHER QUADRATIC 294. 6 "I 14.  . I* Jj ^ [. 2 (1) From (1) we have. EXERCISE Solve : 109 47/ = 0.
(x to solve the 2t/)(2 x = ( Hence we have two systems (3) (1) From (3). the example can always be reduced to an example 296. ':il e :) . 8 V~80 Hence y =1 y . (1) (2) 7 xy + G if = 0. one equation of two simultaneous quadratics is homogeneous. x2y.SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS y 7. Solve . 1.3 2x 2 Ex. 235  > ' 1 lla 8 12~ 10 13. = 1 3 3. HOMOGENEOUS EQUATIONS homogeneous equation is an equation all of whose terms are of the same degree with respect to the unknown 295. quantities. ' x*. 3 y2 Substituting in (1). 9. y* + 2y = 3. 10. III. If of the preceding type. 3y) : Factor (2). 4^ 3 x 2 y 3 y3 A and # 2 2 xy 5 y2 are homogeneous equations. 4 f + 2 y = 3.
= Ex. (rc2/)(llx5y) 16 xy f 5 y 2 (3) Hence solve : (2) From (3).236 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 297. (1) Eliminate 2 and 6 by subtraction.20 xy + 15 y 2 = 2 x 5. = 0. 11 a2 Factoring. the problem can be reduced to the preceding case by eliminating the absolute term. 109 a. 2 . 2. (1) (2) x x 5. } VI09. If both equations are homogeneous with exception oi the absolute terra. y = 110 f 10^370^ + 7^ = 16^7^ . j Substituting y in (2). 15 x2 .2 ^ EXERCISE Solve: 6ar 7aK/427/2 ==0. (3) (4) Subtracting. = 0. Solve 2.
175 ay = 12. 2 (3) (4) Squaring (2). A. Equations of higher degree can sometimes be reduced to equations of the second degree by dividing member by member. Solve * + '* { Dividing (1) by (2).!.6. . Bxy9. SPECIAL DEVICES Many examples belonging to the preceding types.3^42^=43. which in most cases must be left to the ingenuity of the student.125 ay = . ' <"" =m _ 14 ' &. 150 */2 . 2 xy + y2 = 10.xy 4.y = 7. Division of one equation by the other. f 1 150 a?. Some of the more frequently used devices are the following: 299. E. (4) (3). and others not belonging to them. can be solved by special devices. 298.SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 237 m U. y? a? f . " IV. ' ^ 15.
Considering V# + y and y as quantities and solving. i ^ *>. quadratics can be solved by ?/. f^ + 3 7/ = 133. xy. (1 > (2) 1. = 12 J. Vx y 4 or V^^y = 3 x 4 or But the negative roots being extraneous. y .238 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 111 Solve * : fajy=152. Therefore x = 16. x +y y etc. x 2 . Solve Ex. = 189. In more complex examples letter for advisable to substitute another such expressions. considering not x or but expressions involving x and as the as x .. we obtain by squaring. i" <Vx f ' unknown 6. 2. jc~ y = 9. at first it is unknown quantities. from (2). Some simultaneous ?/. y = 3. B. * ' 300. we have from (1).
Solve (1) (2) Let Then r __ 17^ + 40. The solution produces the roots EXERCISE Solve : 112 5. Hence we have 7 x 4 to solve the two systems U) : x ! + */ = 17. 4. F+y+ . 2.SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS . 7. Hence = V or = 4. 239 Ex. 36* 2. I e. 6. [2x + : y= 17. . M6.
240 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Solve by any method : far' 9 + a^lSG. . ( xy (7 m 2 n*. ' x2 1 6 xy = 15. . 25. x 1 20' = 41 400' =34. = y 1 y* . * . 19 ' 26. = 198. 16.4 y = 47 a.21 ^ = 15. ' ** 5x+ 7y = 13 ' ' 1 f. 27. f 18. + o5)(6hy) = 80. 2 or 5 CCT/ + 3 f + 3 .
Interpretation . . 203): ix y Solve graphically (see 40. . oo 301. hence may be any finite number. = 48201. INTERPRETATION OF NEGATIVE RESULTS AND THE FORMS OF 5 . y % 9 f*K 36.SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS i 241 y . ^ oo . 30.of  According to the definition of division. etc. The results of problems and other examples appear sometimes in forms which require a special interpretation. as a . 3 a2 38. 31. .  But this equation is satisfied by any is value of a?. 25 34. ~\ OK OO. finite  =x y if = x. Q 7. 33. or ~ indeterminate. etc 302. 32. . 7' j/ 39.
Hence any number will satisfy equation the given problem is indeterminate. Let 2. equation. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Interpretation of ? e. it is an Ex. however x approaches the value be comes infinitely large. + I) 2 x2 ' f 2x + 1 x(x + 2)= .i solving a problem the result or oo indicates that the all problem has no solution. TO^UU" sufficiently small.x'2 2 x = 1. (1). x f 2.g. Interpretation of QO The fraction if x x inis infinitely large. and becomes infinitely small. 1. i. .000 a.can be If It is made larger than number. (1) is an identity. be the numbers.increases if x de x creases. as + l. The ~~f fraction . = 10. or that x may equal any finite number. customary to represent this result by the equation ~ The symbol 304.decreases X if called infinity. and . 306. I.e. creases. (1) = 0. without exception. By making x any * assigned zero. or infinitesimal) This result is usually written : 305.e. is satisfied by any number. while the remaining terms do not cancelj the root is infinity. the If in an equation terms containing unknown quantity cancel. i. the answer is indeterminate. (a: Then Simplifying. . ToU" ^100 a. The solution x = indicates that the problem is indeter If all terms of an minate. 1.242 303. oo is = QQ. of the second exceeds the product of the first Find three consecutive numbers such that the square and third by 1. Hence such an equation identity. cancel. great. Or.
and the sum of Find the numbers. Solve (aj + 1) : (x + 2) = ( + 3) 114 : (a? + 4). (2). two numbers is 76. 1=0. The sum of two numbers Find the numbers. and a. EXERCISE PROBLEMS 1. Hence /. 243 Solve the system : (1) (2) From Or. . Solve  9 7. no numbers can satisfy the given system. Find three consecutive numbers such that the square of 2. Solve . 113 is One half of a certain number equal to the sum of its Find the number. * 6. 3. Solve ~o 3 x v ~K 6 x r x 6 4.8 x + 15 6. 4 3 x x5 a2 . The sum is of squares 2890. z = 1 Substituting. the second exceeds the product of the first and third by 2. 42 and' their product is 377. third and sixth parts.SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS Ex. is their 2. y finite QO. = oo.2 y = 4. EXERCISE 1.e. Solve x a. 2.
and the edge of one. 6. 13. 146 yards.) The area of a right triangle is 210 square feet. Find the edge of each cube. and the edge of one exceeds the edge of the other by 2 centimeters. The volumes of two cubes differ by 98 cubic centimeters. and the side of one increased by the side of the other e. equals 4 inches. The area of a nal 41 feet. Find the side of each square. is is 17 and the sum 4. But if the length is increased by 10 inches and 12. is the breadth diminished by 20 inches. Find the sides. the The mean proportional between two numbers sum of their squares is 328. Find the sides of the rectangle. 148 feet of fence are required. . ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA The difference between is of their squares 325.) 53 yards. and is The area of a rectangle remains unaltered if its length increased by 20 inches while its breadth is diminished by 10 inches.quals 20 feet. two numbers Find the numbers. p. 255 and the sum of 5. Find the other two sides. 14. 9. and the hypotenuse is 37. of a right triangle is 73. Find the dimensions of the field. rectangle is 360 square Find the lengths of the sides. The hypotenuse is the other two sides 7. Find two numbers whose product whose squares is 514. 190. Two cubes together contain 30 cubic inches. The sum of the areas of two squares is 208 square feet. Find these sides. increased by the edge of the other. of a rectangular field feet. 103. 12. and the diago(Ex. and the sum of ( 228. Find the edges.244 3. 10. and its The diagonal is is perimeter 11. Find the numbers. the area becomes f% of the original area. To inclose a rectangular field 1225 square feet in area. 8. is 6.
) 17. Find the number.SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 15. by the product of 27 be added to the number. the quotient is 2. and if the digits will be interchanged. 245 The sum of the radii of two circles is equal to 47 inches. Find the radii.) (Area of circle and = 1 16. . The radii of two spheres is difference of their surfaces whose radius = 47T#2. their areas are together equal to the area of a circle whose radius is 37 inches. is 20 inches. (Surface of sphere If a number of two digits be divided its digits. differ by 8 inches. and the equal to the surface of a sphere Find the radii. irR *.
of a series are its successive numbers. The progression is a.. 309. to produce the nth term. 16. : 7..7.. f . is derived from the preceding by the addition of a constant number. a + 2 d. the first term a and the common difference d being given. 3 d must be added to a.. 12.CHAPTER XX PROGRESSIONS 307. and d. each term of which. An arithmetic progression (A. the second a descending. .) is a series. to produce the 4th term. P. 15 is 9 f.. progression. .. 19. to A series is a succession of numbers formed according some fixed law. series 9. except the first.. of the following series is 3. . 3. 11. a. P. The first is an ascending. to produce the 3d term. P. 4. . The terms ARITHMETIC PROGRESSION 308. 2 d must be added to a.1) d. a + d. a 3d. The common differences are respectively 4. 17.. Since d is a f 3 d. 10. (n 1) d must be added to a.. + 2 d.11 246 (I) Thus the 12th term of the 3 or 42. Hence / = a + (n . To find the nth term / of an A. The common Thus each difference is the number which added an A. a 11. to each term produces the next term. added to each term to obtain the next one. a f d..
Adding.. 2J. 21. 4^. 24.. Find the 5th term of the 4. of the series 10. ? (a) 1. 4. . 6. 2. a = 2. 5.. 6 we have Hence ... 1. 8. = a + (a Reversing the order. P. 5.... 2 EXERCISE 1.. 1J. 6. series . 3. (a + + (a + l) l). d . 9..3 a = l. Find the 10th term of the series 17. 99) = 2600. 3. 115. Find the 101th term of the series 1. .. (d) 1J. 5. 1. Which (6) (c) of the following series are in A.. Find the 12th term of the 4.. 10. 5. 3. 8. = 2. the last term and the common difference d being given. . 2. = I + 49 = *({ + . P.' cZ == . Find the nth term of the series 2. Find the 7th term of the Find the 21st term series . 9. . 247 first To find the sum s 19 of the first n terms of an A. ..4. 8. Or Hence Thus from (I) = (+/). 7. series 2. P. 2*=(a + Z) + (a + l) + (a + l) 2s = n * . first 2 Write down the (a) (6) (c) 6 terms of an A. 2 sum of the first 60 I (II) to find the ' ' odd numbers.16. = 99. 7... . 6..8. . d = 3. 3. 5. 19... if a = 5. the term a.PROGRESSIONS 310. 7. 3.
. + 2f3 + 4 H hlOO. . striking hours only. 4.5 H + if f to 10 terms. strike for the first yard. 2. . . : 3. 17. 11. 3. 15. 16.1 f 3. the other two may be found by the solution of the simultaneous equations . 13. (x +"l) 4. to 15 terms. Q^) How many times in 12 hours ? (&fi) does a clock. to 16 terms. In most problems relating to A. 22. 2J. 1. 6. 20. hence if any three of them are given.7 f to 12 terms. Sum the following series 14. Jive quantities are involved. (i) (ii) . 12.. 8. 1+2+3+4H Find the sum of the first n odd numbers. to 20 terms. How much does he receive (a) in the 21st year (6) during the first 21 years ? j 311. to 7 terms. 16. 1J. P. 7. > 2f 2. 33. 11. 29. to 10 terms. 23. rf.248 Find the 10. 15. to 8 terms. 21.(# 1 2) f (x f 3) H to a terms. 1. to 20 terms. 1. 31. and a yearly increase of $ 120. 11. 15. \n. + 3. . 19. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA last term and the sum of the following series : . 18. . . 11. 12. $1 For boring a well 60 yards deep a contractor receives yard thereafter 10^ more How much does he receive all together ? ^S5 A bookkeeper accepts a position at a yearly salary of $ 1000. . '. 7. 7. to 20 terms. and for each than for the preceding one.
a = 49 6(71 . if a.104 w + 408 = 0. The series is. 78. (1) 1014 = ^(12 + 144). 133. 6. 2. 122. Findn. 3 n2 52 n + 204 = 0. 12. 204 = ^ (a + 49).PROGRESSIONS Ex.1). the and the sum of all terms 1014. = 1014. 111. d = 6. = n(104 . 78 n Substituting in (1). Substituting in (2). 34. or if x Solving. a = 12. Ex.6.e. . l)e?. 6 n2 . n d. J = 49. is 12.6 n). or 144 = 12 + 12 d=ll. P. #. . 100. 45.. = 144. s 24ft last term 144. is Thus x the arithmetic mean between a and a=b x. 89.1) . 312. From (1). I Substituting in (I) and (II). The first term of an A. 23. Solving.~n~\ 408 6). if s = 204. 67. or 11 J. P. I. and b form an A. Find the series. But evidently n cannot be fractional. x=  4 the arithmetical mean between two numbers is equal to half their sum. 49 (1) (2) Substituting. 56. 1. 2 (2) From Hence (2). = a + (w. = 13. When is called the arithmetic three numbers are in A. = 1014. n = 6.. hence n = 6. 144. 204 = ^ (98 . the second one mean between the other two. P.
f J 1 1 / . = ^ 3 = 1. Find w. 11. . m and n 2. n has the series ^ j . and all his savings in 5 years amounted to $ 6540. of 5 terms 6. has the series 82. 4. n = 13. 3. = 16. 78. Given a = 1. = 52. = 17. = 45. 12. 15. n = 4. 14. Find d and Given a = 1700. Between 10 and 6 insert 7 arithmetic means . 7. produced. Find n. n = 16. d = 5. Given a = . How many terms How many terms Given d = 3. Between 4 and 8 insert 3 terms (arithmetic is means) so that an A. Find?. s = 70. a x f b and a b. 13. man saved each month $2 more than in the pre 18. n = 17.3. s == 440. 6? 9. How much did he save the first month? 19. I Find I in terms of a. Find d. 8. Find a and Given s = 44. Given a = .250 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 116 : Find the arithmetic means between 1. = 1870. 74. T? ^. a+ and b a b 5. Given a = 4. n = 20. P. and s. f? . Find a Given a = 7. 10. = 83. 16. 17. y and #f5y. Find d. I. ceding one. A $300 is divided among 6 persons in such a way that each person receives $ 10 did each receive ? more than the preceding one. n. How much .
. 4 (1) . ar. The 314. rs = s 2 . 2. P. the first term a and the ratios r being given.. . . the first = a + ar for ar f ar Multiplying by r. r n~ l . is it (G. (II) of the 8 =s first 6 terms of the series 16... 36. g== it is convenient to write formula' (II) in *.. 12. E. <zr . fl lg[(i) l] == 32(W  1) = 332 J. If n is less : than unity. of a G. or 81 315. P. . a?*2 To obtain the nth term a must evidently be multiplied by . . P. Therefore Thus the sum = ^ZlD.. except the multiplying derived from the preceding one by by a constant number. 4.. 108. The progression is a.) is a series each term of which. . (I) of the series 16.arn ~ l . 2 arn (2) Subtracting (1) from (2). ratios are respectively 3. I. NOTE.PROGRESSIONS 251 GEOMETRIC PROGRESSION 313. and To find the nth term / of a G.. . ar8 r. s(r 1) 8 = ar" 7* JL a.. or. 2 a. 24. 4. called the ratio. 24. 36. the following form 8 nf + q(lr") 1 r . 36. A geometric progression first. To find the sum s of the first n terms term a and the ratio r being given.g. Hence Thus the 6th term l = ar n~l . is 16(f) 4 . +1..
0. f. whose ... P. first 5. 1. .18.. 36.l. . fa.5. Ex. 9. Jive quantities are in. . Find the 6th term of the series J. And the required means are 18. fa. . Find the 5th term of a G. series 6. Evidently the total number of terms is 5 + 2.6. P. 80.. series 5. or 7. P. + 5. l. . 676. hence. 9._!=!>. f.252 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 316. whose and whose common ratio is 4. is 16. the other two be found by the solution of the simultaneous equations : may (I) /=<!/'. if any three of them are given.4. (d) 5.. Hence the or series is 0. 4. .. first term is 125 and whose common . . 72. series Find the llth term of the Find the 7th term of the ratio is ^. 9. 288. i 288. To insert 5 geometric means between 9 and 576. Hence n = 7.. whose and whose second term is 8. 36. P. (it. P... 18.. first term 4.. 4. I = 670. 8. a = I.72. 576. 25. volved . Write down the first 6 terms of a G. 20. . . Find the 7th term of the Find the 6th term of the Find the 9th term of the ^. EXERCISE 1. 7.18. r^2.5. .. . In most problems relating to G.. series .288. . (b) 1. 117 Which (a) of the following series are in G. \ t series . 676 t Substituting in = r6 = 64. 10. 6. 144. 144. . is 3. 36..*. +f%9 % . 144. 2 term 3. 3.54. Write down the first 5 terms of a G. ? (c) 2. 72. .
of r n decreases. Given r = n Z 5. .J and 270. a. Find a and Given r = 3. 14. . may be than any assignable number. 14. INFINITE GP:OMETRIC PROGRESSION 317.. 48. 21. 12. be written If the value of r of a G. a^. + 4 . . 126. Consequently the sum of an infinite decreasing series is By n less r^Ex.i a9 . 81. 54. 25S series : 32. 19. to G terms. to 5 terms.. I. = 3. 4.. 12 terms. J. M. 23. Find a and Given r = Given r = 2. 243. is less than unity. . Find a and 4. J. J. to 6 terms. the value The formula for the sum may if n increases* = _ fl flf made taking n sufficiently large. >"> . r . 15. 22. = 3.. . 16 .. 24. Therefore 8^ = 1 i =1 1 '. Find the geometric mean between 7.PROGRESSIONS Find the sum of the following 11.. Find the sum to infinity of the series 1. s = 310. n = 5. n = 5. to 7 . 42. 20. . 27. to 6 terms.nV> i*> !718. 1. J. to 6 terms. 13. 1. 72. and hence ~ r . s = 605. 81. P. Find a and n = 4. to 8 terms.. == 160. 36. 2. Z s. to 7 terms. Prove that the geometric mean between a and b equals Vo6.
9. of: 11.. Find the value 9. ratio 15. If a = 40. 13. the diagonal of each equal to the side of the preceding one. 7. The terms afteAhe first form an infinite G. . 3.. . 1. = 990 . 5. The sum Find the of an infinite G. of an infinite G. 66 Therefore . 10... 250. 2. ....01 ^ . 16. 65 = 1L 110 EXERCISE Find the sum to 1. Hence . Find the sum to infinity. 100. ..3727272 ...)7?7272 .555.. 118 : infinity of the following series 3.272727. is J.3121212. P.072 + . Given an infinite series of squares. is 16. .. 12. 1. .. . .. 1 r = .27777 .. 4. what is (a) the sum of the areas. 40. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Find the value of .. 8.00072 f .. and the first term is Find 17.191919. . 1. . = . .= .. i i J.. 8. .3 + . 6.. I. = a . 2. i. P. 4.99 . is 9. 6.1.717171. . .72. ..= _4Z* . =A+ 10 i. 5. 9.. r = j. 12.254 Ex... The sum r. 14....072.Ql....37272 .. . = . (6) the sum of the perimeters. P.. If the side of the first square is 2 inches.. 1. of all squares ? . first and the common term. 16. .
a6 8 16 in . Find the 3d term of fa f V ^Y Va/  19. 11.6) 20 .6) . (xy) : 6 . l 2. 22. Find the Find the u 13 coefficient of a?b in (a f 5) . 4 (1+V#) + (1 Va) 4 .b ). 16. . Find the middle term of (m ri) 16 Find the 99th term of (a + b) m im Find the 1000th term of .BINOMIAL THEOREM EXERCISE 119 257 Expand the following 3. Find the 6th term of (x . 7 .a2) 25 Find the 5th term of f Vx + ^r 18. (a2) 6. (a + b) . a4 b 12 in (a f 6)16 Find the coefficient of a5 b 15 in (a . 13. . 4. (\ 9 . (a 100 . Find the coefficient of a?V" in (a Find the coefficient of 23. 4 7.b) w (a (a f (1 . 15. 5. 26. + a) Find the 4th term of 7 (a f 2 b) . (s + i). 17. 28. 14. . /2a+Y\ 8. 10. Find the 5th term of Find the 3d term of + b) . 21. Find the middle term of (x + y) 4 Find the middle term of (a b)\ . 20. : (1 + xy. 2 2 24. 12. Find the middle term of f f x }\8 : ) 27. 25. 29. (z2 ^ Simplify 9. Find the 4th term of (w Find the 5th term of 12 ri) 11 . . coefficient of .
3. 3. 5.258 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA REVIEW EXERCISE Find the numerical values 1. 24 4. 2. if = = = 2. 2. 6. 3. 3. 1. ft 4 ) 5. 4. 3. 3. 2. (ca)(cft)' 4. 1. 1. 4. 5. c if 7 . if y=2j 2. 3. 4. 5. 1. 3. 4. 5. 2.  2. i (aft)(ac) a 6 (ft. 3. .f ac 1. 2. 3. 3. 2. 6. 2. 2. 2. c = = = 2. 4. 2 . 2. 6. if a ft c = = = 4. 4 2.] a 2^ aft + r 3 a l} 2 be 4. 2. 4. 2. 1. 3. 4 (2 a  13 a a b + a ft 31 a 2 ft 2  38 3. 5. ^+^ 3. 5. 2. 2. 4. 3. 3. 5. 1. 2. 1.  a)(a 1. = 2. (ft c)(c 4 ) 3. 3. if x^l. 3. + 2. aft 3 + 4. 2. 2.  2. 2 (2 a  3 aft f 4 2 ft ).  8 ^ 2. 2. 3. 4. + 1. a8 + ~T 3 2 ft' a2 + + 3T r C + + c2 + 2 . 2. 4 ft  c) 2. 2. 2. 4. 1. 4. 3. 3.c )(fta) 1. 1.a(a 4. of : 27 x* ~ 27 xy or f 9 xy~ 1 # 8 . ft) . a ft c = = 2. 5. 7. 4. 1. 5. 2. 1. 3. 1. 3. 1. 4. 1. 2. 5. 1. + c(a  c). y 3. 2. + 2. (c 3. *=M  M 3J f 2 2 ] 2 ] 2 1 3 1 3 1 M. 1. 2. 3. 6. 5J lj 2j 3} 8 4j y 8 . 4 *2  4 xy  4 ^+ a: ?/ 2 ?/ + 2 3. 2. 1. . l. 3. 6. 2. 1. 2J 4J 16 x* 32 afy 24 afya 1. 2. 3. 1. if = = 2.
+ 4 ?y . x = 4.3 a?y .11 z 3 4 4 ?p 2 . if a 6 = = c = 3.  a) (c 2. 15.' 4 x2 2  5 z3 8 .2 a?y + 3 aty . 4 y 13. and 3 y 8 f 12 z 8 . b(x (b 1. r> . 5. 4 z . 8 . 4.8 y y 5 4 * 8y.2. 8.x 5 4 . a 4 + 11 a . x3 f 3 ax'2 . 16. 12. f 8. 11 x 8 + 14 x^ij . a /> 3.a) . 10.4 xyz + 4 xy'2 . ' b) + 3.5. .  2 x 2// + 3 2 x?/  7 y3 . Add the following expressions and check the answers : 10. + 4. 2. c)(x a} . x C 4 4x y + . x 3 x' 14.5 xy 3 + + 4 . c = 3. 9. 4. 2 2 x2 + and 9 2:2 y' xy.2 z8 4 x. (5.a 5 a . 3. 10 z 8 12  6 2 8. 15. 7 xy 3 . 2. 1 + 3 x + 2 x 8 . x3 2 a2 . .2 x?/. = 2. . + 1. 25.11 x 5 12 z 7/ 3 ary. 6. 1.\ yz + xz. 3. 2 a3 7 y4 3 // f ax'2 . by The and c is represented radius r of a circle inscribed in a triangle whose sides are by the formula Find r. or . 5. ~c)(b. 29. 20. 24. 41. .c' 2 4 / . 26. 4a + 9 a2  3 a5 . 2  + 12 a 8 . 2. 11 z 4 x4 12 17. + 2.a 4 .8 3 + 7 x4 .a8 . x 3 11. 5. 21. 18. 2. a.4 yz\ 7xy* + z 3. 2 . 5.7 y 2* 4. + 8 x4 *y . c(x (c g)(x 6) = 1. 7y 4 .259 x c) .4 x'2 f 12 x and 5 2 + 7 x8 . a. + 3 y 2* . 40.1. 9. 4 a 5 9 4 2 */.x 2 + 4 2 ~ 10 z 2 + z 2 + 11 yz + 8 2:2 . 2 x 8. xy 2 12 xy* + G y4 4 xy*  zy + 12 xy*  4 y4 . a: . 17.4.r 6 x  4 xy .10. 7.8 + 2 // . + x/y 2 + + y'2z + 2 3 x 10 y'2 + 5 z2 .2. 1. 4 x 4 .2 x2 .7 + . 21. 6 y4 y 4 + 3 z8 . 6 a4 4 a8 .3 xyz. 4. x 2 +  2 ax* f a zx + 2 ?/ a8 .7 ys.
27~~7)}].3.4.8 3 4.n/ 4 4 12 x 5 4 4 x?y 4 2 x6 f 4 x 4 ?/ x// 5 ?/ . .5 . 6 VI ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 4X5V14. Take the sum 4x 4.?> x 4 20.3 x 3 from G a 8 2 a 2x  4 x8 22. . ft.5. take the sum of G x 5 .4 x from the sum of 9 x 2. .2 .x .6T .(5 c .4 Vl 4. 35.{G * 2 . 33. .2 x 8y2 44 . 4 2 x2 23. x'2 . and a 2 ft 4 ft 3 c take sum  2 c 4 2 a and 2 a 5 x c. c 4ft. 4 2 x8 x 4 4. 542 x 2 and .[4 z 8 .c. = x y ft z.2 3 ax 2 . 2 xy 4 the ^V 4 G x5 From take 4 sum sum 2 c of .4 ft) 4.(7 x 4.4 x 8 from ax 2 4 6 x8 4 21. 4 3 5 y/ . 5 10 4 G 11 4.x 2 4. 29.(a .(x* . 5 4 7 12 . 2 x2 + 2 y5 24.x 4. Simplify 31. a  ft + c. Find what expression added the ft to 3 x 2 2 x 4 3 will give 27. (/) a +  ft 4 6 +  rf.7. Take the sum of 3 x 4. 36.(5 y .6 x ] . find (a) a (ft) (c) a 4(</) 4.. 4vTT~y 3.(4 x 2 . c 4. 0" 30.3 x . f ft. c =x y }~ z.1 and x 8 G 11 4 3 x2 +  from G x2 4 x. From of 2 the 4. x8 x2 2 a'2x.3 . of a. 3 x2 133ft[l7a5ft^[7fl3ft{4fl~4ft(2a3ft)}]].4) . 3 x Subtract the difference of x 8 4 .(4 * .x2 . 7 x x the ft 4 x2 11 x. the From sum of 2 1 sum 2 c of ft 4.[4 x 4.#48. 2 x 32. 4 . 3 4 5 10 2  7 12 . of 2 x 8 4 4 x2 4 9 and 4 x . 3 ft. sum of . Take the sum of G a8 4 4 4 a 2x 4 . .1). / x5 2x 4 # 3 y5 G x a 4 3 5 x*.c 3 a.(x 4.a ft. 2 c  2 a  and 2 a 3 x2 28.2 .2 a . [4 I 2a47c(7ft44c)[6a3ft4 2~c44c{2a(ft2T2)}].1)}] .2 _[5ft{^ 2 8 4 x* . 5 10 + 7 . 4 3 From 44 the 3 // and G x 4y 2 x2 2 .3 . . 4 4 4.x . 7 12 .] 26.{2 x 2 . and a ft 4 ft 3 c take  6 a. : a x .260 19. and 2 Vl 4*/ 2VT+7 .5 10 b 3 \ G 11 = ft x4y42.2) .c 4 3 a. Add 9 Ifcc 2 7 12 .c.4\/i + x 3Vl 4. and 4 4 2 xs 4 and 5 x 3 y 5 . (*) a  c. 34.[3 if  (3 _^ ft 6 ft f c)}] a: . and d= c c 4 x4#4z </. and 7 x a 2x 2 ax'2 4. ft 25. and .
46. . (r (1 (a.96 [17 a.5 )}] + {4 c . (a 2 + 2 + c 2 .c 2 . 51. 2 f [3 c 7 a . (1 55.3T~2~s)} + 5 2].(7 i + 4 r:) . 2 53. 67. 4 + 2 2 + 1). . 68.6 xy . + 2)  (4 x 2  2 x 7)}].[7 a 36 {4 a 46 (2 a 3 ft)}]]. 2 52.7). . .(7 a.6 x + 5 x'2) (2 .{2 a (ft .3 yz)(2 a (* 2 ft ft ft ft ft ft ?/ ft ft ft ?/ a: 61. (2 x 2 3 ar+ 1)(3 z 2 x+ 1).ary + 2) (^ 4 ?/ *V + *)(! + ar)(l + ^ 2 )(1 + **).JT^T+1)} + (2 . +  ^+ y)(x 2 ) (x + a 2 )(a: 4 + a 4 ).3 z 2 ).3 *).2 zz . )(lz a ).(2 x2 . 59.b (c .3 c)]. a {. . 3 x 42.5)} + (3 a 2 .6c) (a + f c).3).[0 a 5a + 2 c + 4 c . (5 a 39. .(2 a 2 .2a .Z .(6 . (4 + 3a 2 .ac . 2 ft 41. . 49. 62.56. 56.{3 c . 65.[4 x  5 .(2 a + 5 a . 60.3~ft f 2 c + 4 ^ . .REVIEW EXERCISE 37. (a:2)(r4)(a:9).[2 .& + {. 2 a) (2: + 7/ a)(x 2 2 66.[3 y [2 ft 2 z + {4 (3 a ar 40. 45. 48.6)}]. 57. 2 : 7e)a}].rf)} + a [.3c). 'J 44.ab .4 a . 63. (4 z 2 + 9 2 + ^ 2 . a .0)} .e '/)}] (2a + 2b .4 a 2 + a 4 ).2 2 . (x 2 + 4 y 2 + 3 z 2 ) (.2 <?)} 13 ft ft _[&{2c(3d + Perform the operations indicated 47. 50. (x.1).  2 a  {3 2x a . 43.2x + 3). (a 2 + 2 + 9 .2 2 + 1)(7. (. 13 a .12).3 a + 3 + aft)(a + 3). (a 2 + 2 + c 2 + aft + ac .{2 a .(5 y .2)(1 . + 4x + 5)(j.r 2 + !>ar + 3)(^ 2 . .be) (a 58. (/> 4 .3)(*5)(* 7).a~^~c)K].(2 . (x . 2 2 x + !)(* . 54. (1 ar+a.2c(V/ . (. + *+!){> + 2). (ar + 7)(ar + 5)(a: + 3). 7 a 2 261 {5 2 a2 2 a + (2 a 2 i j 38.(4 d . 64.* 2 + (x + x + l)(a: (z 1). 5a(7ft+4c) + [6 a.r 2:c+ l)(ar.c).
85. 4 (a + ft)(a 2 81. 75. 79. ft ft ft a}. ft" l Simplify 80.2 (y 4. . 8 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA (a 2  z 3) (a 8 2 a + z 3 )(a 6 2 + a: 6 ) (a 12 a (a  + l)(a 2 f 2a + l)(a + + ( a: 12 ).c) 2 . 77.ac b + n~ + /? 2c n ft n an b c)(a"* ?n + + c). (x (x ( + *) .O (a 4(a 4. . ft 95. 87. by multiplying out each 4 side of the equality. .c) rr identities.y + z)(x + y .5 .y)\x y).3 (ft .c) .c) .c 8 4 3(6 c)(c 4 a)(n + 2 ft). Prove the following 8 4. 1). + (rtP+i 4 2 6)(a^+ . 83.6*y .2y)(.z) . 4 4 . ft 78. (p 2 .> 2 2 + 2 3 9).q).(x 42 y) O 2 4 y) (^ 44 y ). 70. 1). (x 4 2 y) (2 ^ 3 y)2(/ y) (^ 3 V)  . ar . _ ft) (a: + a)(x + b) + (bc)(x + ft) (a: 4. 86.262 69.(ft 4.b 4.9y2). 2 + a 2 ).r3y)4l)y( a :y)^2y)418 // (2ry)46 8 // .c)} .(4 .:y)( a.a) (2 + 7(7> ~ 'y) 2 4. a(2 + 4 3ft) 2 (2a 4 4 8 ^) .r 2 . 84.2ft) 8 ( + 2 ft).c)]. 76. f 72.2 ft}) f (3 a . xy y 2 ). (. 71. 89.c . 92. O (x (a 2 + 4 y y) 2 a J 4 . 91. 3[a{2 a (a 4ft 4 2 2 ^>) c) 44 a2 a8 4 2 4. (a 2 ft 2n 4. 93.m np c .c . p(p + ?) + 4 A) (a .v) 4.ft) + 4(2 .c c 2 4 2 am 20 (??2 + : n 6 f p ) (w . b 4.ft) 4 . 90. 2 (x 2 . 94.x + y + z).c) 4) (ft 4.(^ 4 y 2 )  4 ^/(.(/>  3 v)^(.(a? 4 y)*(x  y). 88.(c 4. a (a 2 2a + + " 4 l)(u 2a n f (:r a.y).c) j.2 (a .y'*4y 2m )OK y I)(a m ).a) (a? 4(c 4 y) (y c)(ar 2 ft + 8 a).n pc). 74. ft 8 ft) 4 ft 8 4.z\x 4. 4.<f(p . (a (2 b)*(a 4. (a) (a (ft) a8 4 ft 8 4.{3 a .z)(x y + z)(.3y) a (* 2 4. ft /. 82.(a 2) (s 4 ft. 73.3 a .am&t 4 A 2 *).(a 48 8 8 4.a) 2 .
4 aft .1).5 xy).27 x* . ( y 8_o7)^^2 + 3 y + 0).3 a"+ 4. 10). (80 a 112. 114. 109.xy 4. 116. 3*.y 2 ) 4 a 2// 2 /> 8 a.2 y 2 ) 3 xy (25 . (20 x*  4 72 x 2  35 4.21 x*if) (4 ^ 2 .y 2 4.6 y 4 4. .6 ) (a** (a (x 10 3 J 1 a  1). 26 (a 4 c).9 x 2 .5 a 21 (10 a 4 5 a*) Qafl^ = 5 a*. 124. (x* 4 9 ax 8 44 12 . 118. 113. 117. (2 y 44 2 y 2 4 02 y 23 a 4 3 16 y a 50 4 48) 2 111.b) 98. (. a*. 2 (a+ .(2 a 2 . 121. [10( 4.(y 2 ~ (a 2 ) 5 y 6 a  12). 1O4. Cr (z 27y l9a:y) (a:3yy 6 ) r 2 (a: 4 xy 4 y 2 ). 1).(7 xi/ .(x 2 . 99 100. 108.v/ ~ // = a: . 122.16 a 6 4.&) 8  5(a n 4 2 6) ] 5(a 4 &) 6 (a 4. (4 4 3 a  4  5 a 3 .y 4 ) .r 4 4. (a 8  8 68 8 4.*) (x 8 . 20) * (3 a* 4 4 a? + 5). 25 4 . 120.40 />) . 2 4 41 x 4a.REVIEW EXERCISE Simplify : 263 96. 4 (6 x 4 23 x s 33 z 43 42 a.2 xy 8 .5 b*). O3a n O2a 4~ i O4a 2a T (3' 3m n ~*~ 3 3n 3") 3". (8 x* 115. (2< 107.(a 1 2 8 . r . (a 8 ^4 + 8 & 8) (  2 2 119. .) .'30) ~ (4 ^  5 x 4 10). 105. 4 (a 8 44 16 a 2 4 4 256) s ~4 2 (a 4 4a ^ 4 16). 103. 106.a". 110.c 4 6 afo) f + ^ 4 ). 123.&).2y 2 4.y 4 .2 2% 4. 102.35 x 2 2 ) .
(*+ + .3(2 z .n .3 a#z) (ar + y + s). 138.5) = 12(4 x .3(* + 4) + 9} .2(4 .2) = 3 .  9)  7(0 x a?  32) + 5 = 4x  3(2 j  3). with 8 as remainder? Solve the following equations and check the answers: 133.3 a (1 + * l l 1 3 f 2 &). What is the 2 by a*ab + 26 ? 130.18 *&) (1 . 143. 2 4(ar .27 a 3" .3 x). 10(2 x 141.(9 x + 10) (a:  3) . 10(2 x 5 x + 3(7 x .264 125. 142.7) = 4 .3). 5(2 x . 129. By what expression must 3 a 2 ab + & 2 ? be divided to give the quotient 3 a 2  2 6 2  8 ttfc 8 + 2187? .5).4(0 x . 139.(j a? 144. 127.4) .8 6 .5{.(3 a? 2 [2 x + (x 4.x+ + x a ) ~ (x a + + x).3) (3 x 4.3) = 12 . 137. .r>) .2 7^~5] + 1). 1 o + 5 + 1=15.l)(ar + 2) (a: (ar (2ar 2 4} = 2(3 x .22.9) 4. 126.7(4 * . remainder when a 4 3 a b B + 12 a 2 6'2  b* is divided By what expression must a: f 3 be multiplied to give 4 x*7 8 a*b + 4 a 131.(x .2(10 x .12 M 132. (4 x .2 {3 8)} ^ 5(13 4(j = 5{2 x .2(j: . (5a: 150. By what expression must x* + G x2  4 a: 1 be divided to give x2 + 5 # 9 as quotient.a:)]}.2) (a: + 3). .1) . 1) = 2(* . .3). 3(2 x 134.4) . 128. 149.(x + 3) ] . . 1) . (1 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA + a8 3  G ax z8  8 z 8) 5 (1  a  2 x).7) = (7 x  1 1) (3 x .19) + 5 = 4 .9) + 3. . . 135. 42(3ar 145.3 a:). 3) a: a: a: +?+4= o 13. 7(2 x . y (* l x. o o 140.(1 . x 147. 136.G) .1) (a? .r + 7[or .2) + 2(ar + 4).(x f 9).2(5 . 3) = x\x . 2(3 x + 4) 8 [2 (a: . 5 146. 148. .
r + 3) . + 2) + (5 . these two angles would be equal.6 x) (3 . (b) At what temperature do the Centigrade scale and the Fahrenheit scale indicate equal numbers? (c) How many degrees C.1) (s + 3). (2 . transformed into F. 153. (a) If C. 165. 265 152. There are 63 sheep in three flocks. (a. + 5) 2 (4a:) 2 =r21a:. find the value of F.7) (1 x . 164.76. Find five consecutive numbers whose sum equals 100. sheep more than the 169. 154. = 15. . 155.. (a . 2 4 .2) (j? + 1) + (x .(5 x . = 2 C. . + 4) (2 x + 5). =  (F 32).z) (4 .3) (3 . 157.5*) + 47.9) + (a.1) O + 4) = (2 * . The formula which transforms Fahrenheit (F.(* + 2)(7 z + 1) = (* .29) 2 = 1.5(x . sheep are there in eacli flock Y The second of the three angles of a triangle is 180.7) (a.17) 2 + (4 x . how wide is the picture ? surrounded 108 square is 172. 163. The sum What 171. angle of a triangle is twice as large as the first. ^ + ?=13 + 2o 10 o .2 x) = (1 .24.3) (3 . How many 170.3) (a: .3) (j.4) (a . 5(ar x .2(x ~ 1) + 12 = 0. 160.5) = (3 . .T)O .19) + 42. + 10) (ar .3) = (3 x .a:) + 229. The second contains 3 first. (3 O + .REVIEW EXERCISE 151. (7 14 . 161.l)(z . are the three angles? is A picture which is 3 inches longer than wide by a frame 2 inches wide. 166.2).2) (7 *) + (*. (x (x a. 159.3)(* (ar 2 7)  113. .14) (a: + 3).j Write down four consecutive numbers of which y is the greatest.) readings of a thermometer into Centigrade readings is C. + 5) = (9 . and the third twice as many as the first. A man is 30 years old how old will he be in x years? 168. 156.2) a + 7(x . and if 15 were taken from the third and added to the first.8) = (2 x 4. f^ + ^sO. will produce F. If the area of the frame inches.5)(.5 x) = 45 x . By how much does 15 exceed a ? How much must be added to k to make 23? 167. 158. . a: ar a. 162.25) 2 .2 x) (4 .? .
and the middle row has 4 panes in each window more than the upper row there are in all 168 panes of glass. and  as old as his Find the age of the Resolve into prime factors : 184. A the boy is as old as his father and 3 years sum of the ages of the three is 57 years. and the father's present age is twice what the son will be 8 years hence. A each 177. was three times that of the younger. respectively. if each increased 2 feet. aW + llab2&. 10x 2 192. x* 185. 187. A boy is father. ll?/102. The length is of a floor exceeds its width by 2 feet. What is the distance? if square grass plot would contain 73 square feet more Find the side of the plot. and 5 h. number divided by 3. the sum of the ages of all three is 51. 188. +x 2. train. 15 m.36. z 2 92. 179. 178. Find the number. 3 gives the 174. the ana of the floor will be increased 48 square feet. An The two express train runs 7 miles an hour faster than an ordinary trains run a certain distance in 4 h.56. side were one foot longer. is What are their ages ? Two engines are together more than the of 80 horse 16 horse power other. z 2 + x . ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA A A number increased by 3. . 189. 13 a + 3. . 186. Find the age 5 years older than his sister 183. 12 m. Find the dimensions of the floor. . sister . 190. power one of the two Find the power of each. The age of the elder of it three years ago of each. 6 in each row the lowest row has 2 panes of glass in each window more than the middle row. two boys is twice that of the younger. Four years ago a father was three times as old as his son is now. father. 4 a 2 yy 42. A house has 3 rows of windows. 3 gives the same result as the numbet multiplied by Find the number. younger than his Find the age of the father.266 173. 7/ 191. + a. + 11 ~ 6. 181. 176. 180. 2 2 + a _ no. How many are there in each window ? . same result as the number diminished by 175. dimension 182.
8 a: ar. 3 ap 2 .10 xy. 245. 227. z + 5x 2 . *2 234. 4a 2& 2 241.10 y a x* . 15 x 2 + 26 x a . 195. # 2  29 y + 120. + G *2#2 + 9 x*y\ 6 x* + 5 a:y .19 a . a 2 . 3 x V . a: 4  a: 2 a: V 2 . 2  5 xy 13 y a. 14x 2 25ary + Gy 2 3 x* x 2 .6s.19 z 4 204. 5 x 2. y 2 194. 23 12.y) y) 6 a 2 + 5 a . 4 f yx* + z*x + z*y. 229. 2 a 2 . 206. 2 x 2 . 2 200. 233. + 2 . 211.3 xf + 3 * 2y . x* + 8 2 + 15. 2 2 y f 1. 215. a a: a: 237. . 2a te 3% ly 247. 221. 2 + x 2 ) 2 . . 2 afy 13 28 a: ary + 66 y.6 aq . 5 ?/ + 1 1 a*b . 239. a+a* + o a +l.28. 235. 2 a 8 . 230. 7x 2 225. 208. xm+l 243. 8 a. + 3a 196. 246.6 y2 + 4.21 a:  54. 244. . 7a 228. a.6. 216. . + 198.c) 2  (a . + 30 x. + 8. (a + . x 5 .20 z 8 a: 220.3 c/> + 6 cq. x*y 223. (13z 2 5# 2) 2 2 2 (a 6 (12 c 2 ) 2. a. 232. 3y 2 + ary .(b + rf) 2 . 12 x +4. 4 m +^.77 y + 150. 24 2 + 2 .r?/f y 2 9. 217. 222. 202. a.(a + z2 ) 2 (a 2 3 (x (r + y + a. 6 197. 201. a: 236. 2 . 209.x + 1. 3 x 2 .3 xy. 238. 218. 16x 4 81.12 * . a^a 226.REVIEW EXERCISE 193.6 2 ?/ . a: . wiy + la mx + aw. 207.xm y + xym  + (a c)  (c rf) 242. a: 231. 224. 11 2 + 10 20 x 4 .10.14 2 .a 2/A 214 12 x*y . 3y 248. 213. 212. . 9a4a6 (a 2 + b . a.c) 2 . 2 a: 2 + 4y2) 2 + 240. x 219. .64. 203.22 z + 48. 60 a 2  a: // 205.8 6 2. 267 199. .1. ifWy+b. 210. z 2 2.
17 x + 6 * 14 273 P a 5y>+4.13.9.16 x .10 a 4.2 ax 2 + 2 for 2 .3 abc . 254. of: 253. + 23 x f 20. x 2 263.a 2 />c 2 f 3. * 2 . x 2 4. 2 a.&z. x* . x 2 + 5 f . 3 a% 2 .9 xy + 14 y 2 ar ar a: . a: . x 2 f 9j: + 20.12.4 ab + 1. z 2 267.4. 30 ^ .120. 22x2 a. ^27/7 + 12 2?6 28 x 2 12 Jr 2__7^/_ J/ 2 + 3 .268 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 249.18 ry + 32 y 2 2 . 260.9 x . x 2 . 5 x 2 256.r . 258.6 by. 6.1 9 . x* .ry . 2 . 8 2 + 10 x . a 3 a 2 2 .15.80. a? a: a: // 262. + 3 x + 2.14 bx a%% 8 .3 x . 261. + 20 x 4. 251. x 2 + 2 x . * a .C. z 2 268. a. G(x+  l)'\ 9(x 2  1).15 + 30. 3 #2 255. 252. 10 x 2 . 7 12 2 2 . 264.3.a + 2 4.5 ab f 2.48 afy 2 . a 4. 2 + 7 r f 2.x .G7 x f 33. 3 ay 4. 18 x 2 .ry 21. _ 40 y 2 272 f f 2 !8a: . Reduce to lowest terms 271. x*y* 4. 2 8 .91. + 8 x + 5. 8 xf < 3 xy + a. 259.2 aft*. + 8. ft a. x 2 + 4 + 3.2/ 2 . 7 ax 250. 265. 15 # 2 z/ /. C. 28 2 f 71 x . 2 x2 . of: 266. 2 z 2 f 13 x + 1 5. 1 x ar Find the L. : x2 4 a: ~ + a. 269.9 x + 14.11 x f 28.8.23 + 12. 257.73 xy . * 2 .18 xy + 5.r + a# + az f 2 6z fry 4.36.23 x f 20.77 + 77 ' 2?5 5 ' 2 5 a: 2 7 . . I Find the II. F.(55. 10 a. 2 2 + 39 xy 4.10.11 a 2 . * 2 . 270.7 f 5.2 z .M.
n 2 )P * 287 " 281 2 q^( 2  a: 2 ) m 288 ' .2 22 + 2 2 yz 4 2 zx 2 + ary _ _ 22 _ 292 ^  ?/.2c a: 282. y)' z2 283 t 290 ' x'2 2 y* + z2 + 2 0:2 291 *2 + y 2 + 0.!/. + ac . 289 ' .. m 4.. fr 293 ' y <? 294 2 2 2 + 2 cV + 2 a 2^ 2  4  ft* ~ c4 295 296 ' 297 ' .J' 4 2 2 w mp .  9 ' 2Q4 4 *2 ' 8x+8 ' 278.2* + 3 x* 280. *2 " 2 + Oge.rL.ar 1 279. 8 . _ "* m ~n w 4 + 2 7w% 2 f sa . a. 285 z4 n* + a. z2 (a 2 + c)a. 9 286 1 1 + 2* 3 x f *2 ar + a .(y 2 z) * t (j.REVIEW EXERCISE 277 8 agg 269  6 a.
X2 (ca)(ai) 1 x2 4 (a +9 i_ 20 a . 4 3 301. (a: 1 + l)(ar + 2) (x + l)(ar + 2)(* + 3) 302.270 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA : Find the value of 298 23. 6) _ ~ i 305. a (: a) (x 2. + 19) 2Lz + 3 x " 2 99 ' i x +4 *3 a +7 300. _L + 12 x 1 + 35 1 307. x + 3 ^ "" 310 x a: 2 a: 2 2 a:  17 a:2 ar3 x 2 5a:i6" . O(ca) 306. ^. * 19 23 19(23 23. x 7. a? __ + *_ + + la?la? * a l 303. x x ~~ +^ i ^ ~ ''^ . ^n m+n "*" + n) 2 g 309. 2 + 7 _ 44 3. ^_2*(m 308. (a 1 1 + a b c) (a + ^ ct) (a + a c)(a f e) 304. Lnl + ar 2 a.
_ '(a6)*(a:r)a 323.(a .BE VIEW EXERCISE 311. .ft) 2 322. Dx x(l *) * 8(1*) 4(1 +*) 2 8(1 + 4(1 . . 1 x2 + + a. ( ftc g~ft ( 6_ c) 2_ (a. a: 1 313.2 1 f 1 + : *2 1  2 x' 316. 2ft 2 a8 3 314.*) + * 2) 321  c) 2 . _ x8 .+ a 10 z 2 2 *2 9*+ 20 *2  8* + 15 315. } . nl g(jL+ 2 ) ^^^_ 318. 1 _. (1 . i 271 + b a2 + ft 2 312.. 1a: + y a. (a? 4 2) 317. 2 + y 2 319.
7 acy + 12 y2 + 5 a:y + y 2 .15 33 .28 8 2  11 2 + J?_ x fl^^ffjje _ 2 12 a 4 a + a  4 6~7** 27^12^7 . * 3a. 20 44 333. a: 2 x* .4 x?/ 2 ^_ G x 2 + 13 gy_+ .y20  2y + 4 2 . z2  4 x  ^ "" 12 *.2 y2 ' 334 *2 ' + 2 y 8 a. 2 ?/ 4g~0yg 10 o# 2 ~ x 6 a* x' 2 24 y 2 1 .9 *// + 27 . 2 ^ "" 1B x + 40 y *2 + 5 x  3.6* t 328. 4 y2 2 5 x8 2 z6 3 y 10 a: 2 + 8 2 .B ~ 1037  329 4 a.272 Simplify: ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA ~ 324.. ' a: 2 2 5 sy a: f zy + 4 y* ./  3 y  6 ( 331 g gy ' f a 3y ~ 6 q  9 G 2 y/ + 5 ?/ 6 G fl y~4y+ 15 ^e  10 6y 332 3 a: +lly10 4 xy 8 2  a. 2 lOx 5x. .a: ' 2 + 0^ + ^2^7 a. . 250 5 10 2 325.5 a .. 2 a2  2 a  ' 03 i^+^T 42 ^2 _ l5rt~+~54* 327 8 ' ^ .19 xy + 6 y 2 8 x* a: ?/ ' ~" 6 y 333. 2 x* 8 x2 4 r8 i + 2 a.7 xy + 12 x .y 2 x (a?4y) 3(2 x  ' _ ^/ 3 y) 2 8 330 .2 +lOar 2 a.V  + y  x 3y a .ll.
338. 5 343.. 1 345. 352. (ar \ 346. : 1+ i. xi 347. f V.REVIEW EXERCISE 336. + ni + . ( 342. \x yj 340. 278 C  ~ a c* \ c* ~ b a2 q2 h c 5 5 ~ a c b q  q c 6 * \ : f 1 \  { 337. ' ~ ~ x2 + 8 + 76 2" 350. \5yl 341.13 13 s 11 Find the numerical values of 351. if a = 3. ' 2 "l 5 . (aWi + iJ. +^ a: y x . (af2/. w \. Simplify : 353 ^3 * 2 L pE+1 a /2x~l V 5a:~2 10 4 354.+ r .y. fl.) 2 . aj 339. a>74 . ** i. 344. (a \ + lV.1V. 348.r 5 2 . ?_2 ^ . + l + IV. 7 ( ?f!?. a: 349 _ o.
y360. a2 4 . 1+2 362. ar xy + yl x* 358. (a a b yx c yabc 361. I  I f 366.274 355 f 5 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA U<>3) 356 fl V ___ _/ 2(*l)J + ya xl x 1* YTx 2 110*W*1 1** JUal + xy 357. (~ 364. + x x a . W?* (* + 1 + 2x) \3a _ 1 + 2x \3a 1 365. i+5 1+1 9 x2 f 363. _ + l a 359.
a + . 2  m 373 "1*7 374. . 6 a c b a b b 1 ' ~ _^ .REVIEW EXERCISE 2 275 f 367. (1 +ab)(l+bc) 369. \b* + c* b + b b*c*)^ c ^\ b (b* f c*) } c 4 c a b . b c 368. 370 ' 1 (/')(&o) 1 a 372.
a: r ~ 2 + 5"^  10 xf x  382. 4(* . 5 {2 x 381. 1 + 16ar_63 24 g 2T~~~ia 7 12f a 8 a' 389 5  14(arl) 18 105 390. """ 2J 7 ' + 2 28 ear7 + i3JTo^ . 3 Solve the equations : or a: 2 (a. 5 3 vC 7 a: 385 10 17 387 * L*J> _ 14 1 7ar = (5 ar 10ar + 15 . . 379. r 1  3(* + 1)} ! ' . J !__7. 8  376. + 6)+  (* + J = _j_ j(* v/ O + 5)10 ^\:) / 380. __4 2x 3_ = !.^^ + x f o 51) +2J = 0. # k 1 _j j a: 2 a: 3 383. ^ . <3 378.276 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 375.*2 = 15. + 1) 45 O 377. . 2(3 x (x + 4) + 10) + 1 (x + 7) = 0. 5*8. 20 iLf5 + !*=! = 2 J.
3* 177. f 1 1 + a 403. c . _____ . u '2 a.1 . 40. 401. ^ (a . 399. JLg:== 7wa: c c } q. 400.25.5 1 f 1 x  2 = x .  J).  8 9* x ~r. n a 4O5 b b x f (a:  a) + a(a.5 x =r f .  ft) = 2(ar  ) (a. a: a)(a:  &)(>: + 2a +2&) = (a: + 2 a) 408.147. "i 2 37370 ^ x i x x + 1 a?  R  7 ~r * 1 a.8 = . l)(x  a) (a:  3) 42 3(4 *  2)(ar + 1).25 x + ..75 x f .6~a: 7 _ x 8~a. .REVIEW EXERCISE 391. + 4 a. 396. m x 398. (x ~ a)(x f 6) f c = ^ (z a: + 2 a)(a: a: 5 i). 6 7 7 ^ 2 1(5 a. 397. b 404. (8 x  3) (x 2  1) = (4 x a: 1) (4 x  5).2 a:  1.* 2 + *2 " 2 ~ ^ H.. a. . 277 x 4 _x 5 _ _ a: ar.5 ^ ~ a: a. y ~ rt ^= & ~ 402.6  .
418 ~jo. 4x a a 2 c 6 Qx 3 x c 419.(5 I2x ~r l a) . 411. f a x f x f c 1 1 ab b x 415. 18 be subtracted from the number.c) . he takes 7 minutes longer than in going.278 410. a x ) ~ a 2 b 2 ar a IJ a.  a) 2 6 2a. and was out 5 hours. (x f ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA a)(z  b) = a 2 alb = a (x f b)(x 2 . the order of the digits will be inverted. far did he walk all together ? A . Find the number. 421. (x . Find the number of miles an hour that A and B each walk.(c rt a)(x  b) = 0. 2 a x c x 6 f c a + a + a + 6 f walks 2 miles more than B walks in 7 hours more than A walks in 5 hours. In a if and 422. A in 9 hours B walks 11 miles number of two digits the first digit is twice the second. x 1 a x x1 ab 1 1 a x a c + b c x a b b ~ c x b 416 417. How long is each road ? 423. a x a x b b x c b _a b f x 414. and at the rate of 3^ miles an hour. mx ~ nx (a ~ mx nx c d d c)(:r lfi:r a b)(x . hour. down again How person walks up a hill at the rate of 2 miles an hour. A man drives to a certain place at the rate of 8 miles an Returning by a road 3 miles longer at the rate of 9 miles an hour.a)(x b b) (x b ~ ) 412. Tn 6 hours . 420.
and : b : c = 14 : 15. . 279 A in 2 lowed steamer which goes at the rate of 264 miles a day is foldays by another which goes 286 miles a day. Find the ratio x 5x : = 7y . : i. z 2 y. ax is \ by  ex + dy. Prove that the number of miles one can see from an elevation of h feet is very nearly equal to ^  miles. If a b : =5 n : 7.iand 22 22 I a . .2 (a + &*) (a h & ) = (a ) (a 6). Find the fourth proportional 426. : If is one equal 434. Which of the following proportions are true? (9 c. a + 5. 438. . a.a 2^ 8 + aft* . 432. 428. y. 433. 431. (a + 6 ) (a + ft) = (a (3a 2 2 : : fc : : : . wi* + y= ny. + 4ft):(Oo + 86)= (a26):(3o46). : m n(n x) =p : m n(p : x). find the angles of the triangle.31 afc + UV ) = (15 a 2 + 31 ab + H 6) (25 a2 . 5 7 or 151 208? 437. 8 8 5 ~ a*b + a*b* . 430.46 2): (15a 2 .6 8 ). Which ratio is greater.REVIEW EXERCISE 424. of the sixth and ninth parts of the less. 435. 3 and 1J. a8 f 2 ab f 6 2. The sum of the three angles of any triangle is 180. A line 10 inches long divided in the ratio m:n. d. Find the length of the parts. 2 2 8 2 . Find two consecutive numbers such that the sum of the fifth and eleventh parts of the greater may exceed by 1 the sum. z2  y\ x* xy + y*. When will the second steamer overtake the first? 425.& 5 ) (a 8 .49 63). find : a : c. Solve 436. Find the mean proportional to 429. if . angle of a triangle is to another as 4 5 and the third angle to the sum of the first two. x 427. a  t>. b.
ft.4 12 . 7jr9y = 17. The volumes If their diameters. 2 (3 a + 2 ab  8 ft) : 2 (5 a f 4 ai  12 ft 2 ) = a? : (5 a  6 ft). 456. ft. what is the weight of a sphere of the same material having a diameter of 3 inches ? 440. 8 x + y = 19. . 446.35. 457. 452. 42 = 15y + 137. ax + ly = 2 a*x + & 2# = a + b.55 y = . 4 = 5 y + 29. 450. Find the value of a. 16. x + 17 # 53.11 y = 95. 21 7 = 27 + Op. 28 = 5 a . 3 a. 8 .3 y = 3 5 f 7 . 15ar = 20 + 8y. c. 5z4:# = 3. Solve the following systems: 441. 449. 443. 5j + 7 7 = = 2. 1(3  a.59 = 3 z. ?/ 447. = 25.7 y = 25. 7 a: . 5 2 = 7 .(or l(*2y)=0. . a: 2y= = 1 .. 3 . 9/> = 2 . 448. 7a?y = 3. 5x+4y=lQ. 29(a + &) : x = 551 (a 3  ) 19(a  &). 445. 5#+ 10 = 27 a.*. . 451. /) ar a. a. />(. if 2 ft : 439. 20y + 21 18a = 50 + 25y.11 7.89 = q. 459. . 9ar7# = 71.rf2# = l. 33 x + 35 y = 4 55 * .280 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA x. 56 + 10y = 7a. ox f &// = 2 + y) = a + 8a + 21+3ft = 0. x + 5 y = 49 3 x . 454. + 5y = 59. . 458. 455. 7 442. 444. of two spheres are to each other as the cubos of a sphere 2 inches in diameter weighs 1:2 ounces. a: a: + 5y). 453.
473. + eyn. i 47O _ 3~12 } 4* 471.  = 2. ax cx by = m..+ =2. car = 4 rf cte  ey =/. 4 g ~ 2 7g + 3 . i = 5. 8 461. 3 a? _ y 7 a? 3 y _ 1 12 15 ~~10 4 __ 10 "10 463. 3 x 28i + 7 ~~~^ = 5. ' a: + 2 g + 3 y _ 467. _ 469. _ & +y 3 dx+frj c\ .?/ + 1 .2y) (2 = 2J.c=563y. x y 474.REVIEW EXERCISE 460. 468. 465. (or . ax by = c \ 472. 475.7. ^ + i^ = 7.
282 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 476. least The sum of three numbers is is 21. Find the numbers. How much money less 484. half the The greatest exceeds the sum of the greatest and 480. Find two numbers such that twice the greater exceeds the by 30. A spends \ of his. thrice that of his son and added to the father's. by 4. fraction becomes equal to . If 31 years were added to the age of a father it would be also if one year were taken from the son's age . and if each be increased by 5 the Find the fraction. Find the fraction. Find the principal and the rate of interest. and the other number least. and in 18 months to $2180. and becomes when its denominator is doubled and its numerator increased by 4 ? j 478. to . There are two numbers the half of the greater of which exceeds the less by 2. years. whose difference is 4. 479. and 5 times the less exceeds the greater by 3. Find the number. If 1 be added to the numerator of a fraction it if 1 be added to the denominator it becomes equal becomes equal to ^. had each at first? B B then has J as much spends } of his money and as A. age. Find the sum and the rate of interest. 481. Of the ages of two brothers one exceeds half the other by 4 is equal to an eighth of 482. In a certain proper fraction the difference between the nu merator and the denominator is 12. 485. the Find their ages. . latter would then be twice the son's A and B together have $6000. Find their ages. Find the numbers. and in 20 months to $275. 486. A number consists of two digits 4. 487. A sum of money at simple interest amounted in 10 months to $2100. 483. What is that fraction which becomes f when its numerator is doubled and its denominator is increased by 1. also a third of the greater exceeds half the less by 2. 477. if the sum of the digits be multiplied by the digits will be inverted. A sum of money at simple interest amounts in 8 months to $260. and a fifth part of one brother's age that of the other.
2 2 = 41. 1. + # +z= 35. 2 ar + 3 y 2 z = 8 . . 495. .5#+2z = $x a: G./ 504. = 15. and the difference of their Find the numbers. 2a:f 7. 2/>3r = 4. .z = 20. \ . a: 499. a. z y x 25 . x y f z = 13. ifi = x a. 5 + a. 2y + 2z = a: 2. : Solve the following systems 491. of two the sum of the digits also if number. a number . 7 4#+ 3z = 35. 4 497. x s + y z = 18J . = 20. 4 506. 30 2^ 3^ = ' ' 4r=9. 1+1 = 6. 493. There is 283 digits which is equal to seven times the digits be transposed the new number Find the will exceed 10 times the difference of the digits by 6. 2 e. 5^ 9z = 10. 2 a. 7 + 2 z . + y 5 y = 101 . 3ar 503. 7. a: f z = 79.REVIEW EXERCISE 488. 496. a: + ?/ 2z = 15. 494. . a: + // = 11. f + 3 y 62 4 y 4a./ f z =a. = 209. ~ 507. Find two numbers whose sum equals is s and whose difference equals d.z = 12. 8. z y ifi = z x 502. 498. . The sum of two numbers squares is b. * + 425  = . 492. 490. 3 x 500. 489. 3 a: + 5=84. y Solve : x +z= 5.? + 2y = 8. *i. 4z+3z = 20. x f y f z 29 . 2y + 3a = ll. a.
ll" . + + 3579 2+?. i=a + 6 c. z z =3a&c. 523. 517. !f == 2800. ra? + y 2 + 524 x \ +y + = + t jx [y + 9 = 3af& + r.284 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 516. 36 + c. + : = 1472.
A number of three digits whose first and last digits are the same has 7 for the sum of its digits. they would have met in 2 hours. . B and C and C and A in 4 days. Find the present ages of his father and mother. Two persons start to travel from two stations 24 miles apart. and one overtakes the other in 6 hours. A boy is a years old his mother was I years old when he was born. M. in 28 minutes. When weighed in water. N. if L and Af in 20 minutes.REVIEW EXERCISE 285 525. BC = 5. 527. touches and F respectively. if the number be increased by Find the number. the first and second digits will change places. AB=6. and B together can do a piece of work in 2 days. and third equals \\ the sum third equals \. E 533. AC in /). CD. An (escribed) and the prolongations of BA and BC in Find AD. 37 pounds of tin lose 5 pounds. What are their rates of travel? . . sum of the reciprocals of of the reciprocals of the first of the reciprocals of the second and the sum 528. 90. it is filled in 35 minutes. and CA=7. Throe numbers are such that the A the first and second equals . A vessel can be filled by three pipes. 530. and BE. and losing 14 pounds when weighed in water? (b) How many pounds of tin and lead are in an alloy weighing 220 pounds in air and 201 pounds in water ? in 3 days. (a) How many pounds of tin and lead are in a mixture weighing 120 pounds in air. 532. A can do a piece of work in 12 days B and C together can do the same piece of work in 4 days A and C can do it in half the time in which B alone can do it. Find the numbers. if and L. his father is half as old again as his mother was c years ago. In how many days can each alone do the same work? 526. it separately ? 531. Tu what time will it be filled if all run M N N t together? 529. and 23 pounds of lead lose 2 pounds. L. If they had walked toward each other. In circle A ABC. Tf and run together. How long will B and C take to do .
547. The values of y. Represent the following table graphically TABLE OF POPULATION (IN MILLIONS) OF UNITED STATES. GERMANY. to do the work? pendulum. The value of x that produces the greatest value of y. 2. .e.10 marks. Draw the graph of y 2 and from the diagram determine : + 2 x x*. x*  2 x. formation of dollars into marks. if x = f 1.3 Draw down the time of swing for a pendulum of length 8 feet. 2 x + 5. x *x + x + 1. 542. e. 2 541. 548. 543. a.286 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA : 534.  3 x. 536. x 8 549. 550. Draw the graphs of the following functions : 538. 2  x  x2 . c. 545. then / = 3 and write = 3. The values of x if y = 2. The greatest value of the function. AND BRITISH ISLES 535. x*. b. of Draw a graph for the trans The number in of workmen Draw required to finish a certain piece the graph work D days it is from D 1 to D= 12. x 2 544. i. z 2  x x  5. . + 3. 3 x 539. the time of whose swing a graph for the formula from / =0 537. d. 546. from x = 2 to x = 4. 2. FRANCE. If to feet is the length of a seconds.  3 x. the function. 540. How is t / long will I take 11 men 2 t' .  7. The roots of the equation 2 + 2 x x z = 1. x 2 + x. One dollar equals 4.
Which negative value of x produces the greatest value of y ? : Solve graphically 570 ' 571. 568.r . \ to t = 5.11 = 0. c. 2 554. = 5. a? 4 x .r a: a: x a. 3 x* . a. 3 . 2 567. 287 by a falling body is The formula 2 ] f/f for the distance traveled a. . 2 a. Solve// = 0. 3 x . 565. e. 566. Determine the number of real roots of the equation y Determine the limits between which m must lie. 2 ~0a: + 9 = 0. 18 x  4 = 0.15 = 0.4 x 2 + 4 .13 = 0. . // Solve y Solve y = 5.= 0. g.4 = 0.3 = 0. 572.G . a. 3 + 3 z . 556. i. J. c. . 2 x 2 560. 2.3 x .' 2* + Z  4 = 0. 2 8 . Find the greatest value which ?/ may assume for a negative x. and make the unit of the b. a. + 10 x . If y +5 10.) How In far does a how many body fall in 2^ seconds? seconds does a body fall 25 meters? Solve graphically the following equations : x*"2x7 = Q.r 1 561.7 = .3 .  2 1 a: a. 562. x 4 .10 x 2 + 8 = 0.11 x* + + 2 8 569. f. Find the value of m that will make two roots equal if y = m. 15. 553.6 + 3 .5 x .3 x .0. 563. x 2 ~ 2 . 564. Solve 552.REVIEW EXERCISE 551. a: 559. j.= 0.17 = 0.1 = 0. 557.4 . z 4 . 555. r?. 558.9 = 0. z 2 . Represent meters. h. ' = 8. + 5 . x* . if y =m has three real roots. x 5 . graphically from t = (Assume g = 10 scale unit of the t equal to 10 times the scale ^ 2 .
= 2 \*> + a: [ ^ = 4' = 581. j^f = 3. 2 611. 1 . f ^s_ 14 a 4/. 593. 600. 2 (2 a ft 6 + + 4 a 6& 2 + x f 13 2 . x [ ?/ 577. jj+.  128 a 10 6 30 3 a: + 2 ?/ ' 100 a 8 /. 4 (1a:) 3. + %) (a* + *) 5 .5 xy = 0. .2 & 2 ) (4 a: ?/ 14 a: 1 2 2 ?y 4 a: 10 2 + x^f . + + 4 . 598. 9  4 fSb 607.frf : 583.4. a 8 606. + ^) + (air%)8.2 6a: + 30 &c a. f ?>) 3 591. (a  8 ft) . 2  100 aW + 100 aW. 585 594. + . + jf:ji f590> (2 (3 (1 Perform the operations indicated 584. a: f ~+ x [ 10 ^i  1 V 6x + 4 + 610. 3 (f. 2 + f 9 6 + 25 c 2 10 ac  a6. x + z2) 8 . (1 (1 (1 . [ y =10.a:) 6 (1 2 2 (2 + 3 x + 4 ) f (2 3 x + f. a: . 608. : y* or 25. <r)3  2 3 a:) . 592. a: f 2 2 aAa: + 2 ?/ . a 2a. {f_7l j? 2* + ''. 599.4 + 4 a 8^6 + 9 a a^e _ 6 aW + 8 9(5 a: 7 // fe . 588. 2 2 a:' ) + x' )'2 . 2 943 ++ ~bx. 582. (a. Extract the square roots of the following expressions: 602. 5 a*.128 a*^ + 04 aty 10 3 5 zy . + + 4 x) (l 2 ^) .x + 2 )'2 601. (aiy. 609. 64 a 12 603. 604.o 2 [ ?/ > 3'  578. 3 . xY. 6 + 1) . fMV  586 ' ^ (a + 6)T ' 587. a 612. 597. 4 a. 2  2 aa: 2 .4 8 f 4 4 + i 2 ) 2 f (a 1 . 48 xf + a: 4  04 aty 6 a: // 16 2 605. 595. a:. 589.%) 4 (aa.4 x*y* + 3 4 6 .2 2 + y. 4 .48 a*h + 6 a: ?/ 10 6. 596.(1 . (1 + x a. 579. . (# 2) .288 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 4. a.
210. 40. = . VOIOOD + V582T09. Find the square root of 619. 035. 622. 49. 643. 2 + 189 z = 900. 630. x2 + 9x _ 5x _ 22 66 ? * + 9 . 3a.\/4090. 634. 623. V 635.15174441.12 a?y + y*. + 112 a 8 . x 2 f x ~  16 = 0. 4 289 of : 4 4 a*b + a2 2 /.8 aft 6 + 8 21G. 8*' + 24* = 32. 638. + 24 a 2 4 . 626. 32 631. x 2 641. : 5. 636. f 4 aft 8 + 4 ft . 633. 9a. 637. 21. 647t x 2 648 649. 644. 650.30. and the Earth's period equals 3G5J Solve the following equations : 640.150. a 8 10 a* 8 aft 7 + ft 8 . /. 625 : 621.2. = 70. x 2 . Find to three decimal places the square numbers : roots of the following 627. 614. ft . 7) 2. = 0. 2. + 2 21 x = 100. 639. 371240. 9g. 44352. 624. 4J. GGff.871844. 4370404. 615. 645. + 54 'x*y* .191209. 620. 2 + 21Ga.2410. *+* = 156. 494210400001. 2 2) 2 +x = 14. = 87. 628.V250 . 632. the cubes of the distances of the planets from the sun have the same ratio as the squares of their periods of revolution about the sun. If the distances of Earth and Jupiter from the sun are at 1 days.448 z + 1120 a: 4  1792 x* + 1792 2 . 651.*. 49042009. f (x + 5) 2 = (x + .49. 10:r 4 + 9G* 3 + HI x s  108 afy 616.1024 x + a: 256. Find the eighth root 617.REVIEW EXERCISE Find the fourth root 613. 0090. 25023844. find Jupiter's period. (x 9 x 646. a 642. a 8 of:  8 tvb + 28 a 6 //2  50 a c ft 8 + 70 a 4 ft 4  50 a 8 ft 6 + 28 a 2ft 618.53 x ~ . 942841. V950484 . According to Kepler's law. 10 a 4 32 fe 2 + 81. 629.
290 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA """ ar a x b ab .
1 __ : )'*' _i.a a )jr . 707. 4 a: + 4 ^^ 6a:x2 8 701. ax 2 698. 2 ft 2 2 fi 2 = 0. = 0. ex abc= fx 0.c = 0. 696. 693. 708.bx . 2 (:r + :r)O 2 + :cf 1) = 42. .2 a(l + & )z fa 2 (1 ax + to f ru: 2 . 2(4 :r 7r\O /'r'S = a: 0. 2 2 697. 1 + V* 2bx + a 2 + 2 ax . 2 702. 7^^ ^3" ^^ ^T 704. 695. 692. 706. 699.REVIEW EXERCISE ~ 291 X+ x 1> a +c ~ a i~ i c ~ b  ~ " x 690. (x 2 +3a:) 2 2a.ax .2V3:r 2 V5 a: f + fa + 1 = 0. 694. . + ~T~ * a + b x = rj* 2 4(5 4 x + + Ox + 4 691. 2 2 . a. 2 ' 3 2 a:)  28 + 21 + 5 '^ = 0.
25 might have bought five more for the same money. In how many days can A build the wall? 718. A equals CO feet. a: 713.44#2 + 121 = 0. ___ _ 2* 5 3*27 715. Find the altitude of an equilateral triangle whose side equals a. what is the price of the coffee per pound ? : Find the numerical value of 728. needs 15 days longer to build a wall than B. The difference of the cubes of two consecutive numbers is find them. sum is a and whose product equals J. 724. 3or i 16 . How shares did he buy ? if 726. 721. . if 1 more for 30/ would diminish 720. 217 .292 709. 725. Find two numbers whose 719. Find two consecutive numbers whose product equals 600.l + 8 8 + ft)' (J)* (3)* + (a + 64 + i. If a pound of tea cost 30 J* more than a pound of coffee. A man bought a certain number of shares in a company for $375. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA +36 = 0. Find four consecutive integers whose product is 7920. 723. he many 312? he had waited a few days until each share had fallen $6. Find the price of an apple. 16 x* . What number exceeds its reciprocal by {$. and working together they can build it in 18 days. paying $ 12 for the tea and $9 for the coffee. 717. 12 4*+  8. 722. 727. **13a: 2 710. 716.40 a 2* 2 + 9 a 4 = 0. in value. 714 2 *2 ' + 25 4 16  25 a2 711. 729. What two numbers are those whose sum is 47 and product A man bought a certain number of pounds of tea and 10 pounds more of coffee. 2n n 2 2 f2aar + a 5 = 0. of a rectangle is 221 square feet and its perimeter Find the dimensions of the rectangle. The area the price of 100 apples by $1.
)(ai + &.1 + x.X .1 f ^ 2). 34. + &2)( a 2_ 1 j2). (^ (a* (a^ ary* + x^y f y*) * + * (x*  y*). (x* (i* (a2 (a(1 1 4 d*). 35.2 d*m* + 4 d)(w* + 2 rfM + . + a^ 1 + a 26" 2 )(l . 32.l).aM ?n^n^ f ft*c*)(a* + 6* + c*). (4 a: 2  12 x* 28 x + 9 x*  42 x* + 49)*.REVIEW EXERCISE implify : 30. 52. 41. (4 x~* + l 3 ar 2 + 2 2 ) a.2 ). 293 (y* (a* + f y* + y*+l)(y*. 1 6. +   c* + 2 + ^ + cbf 44. (64 x~ + 27 y r (4 x~^ + 3 y"*). + a*x* x*)(a* /^ (a* (rrr + c^ s M ' + x*). 1 + l)(>r 2  i + 1). . 38. 46. 42. . 48 ^i? x T ^ ^2? x sT~ x .aft* 1 + a 2*. 40. (x* 2 a M+ f a8) (x*  2 aM" a). 36.2)(x2 4. 37. 39.2? 50. 33. 31. +w 5 n* +w n 3 + n )(m* 3 n^). (v/x). f + M 6* f 6) (a* U*") 4 a*6^ (<i* &*).1 f c" ).1 + c. 43. n.
. ~ r* x . 761._ 1 4j "r O/lf * ^ ^ II r* 4"*" 1 A "1 1. 4\/50 4 SVlOOO. 757. \/G86 v/lGv/128.1+J 756. 768. 758. 754.294 753. + V22 + + 12 V2b8  760. [1r^ T 1 i . 2^3(^2^21 + 4^3^:0. 759. 2V2 2V3 . vff + V^~ 4^ 2^/2 776. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 755. JU.
.2 V30. f x Va z Va f x + Va a.12VIT. 786. a 9442V5. Find the square roots of the following binomial surds: 784. 92VI5. 10 785. x 782.IIEVIEW EXERCISE y/a 295 f 780. 3J . 793.2V3* ^ 807. Va 809. 789. 787. . 794. c 792. 7 + 3 V5 ( 7 7  3 V'5 ( 2 4 73V5 + 3V5 + V3 + V3 4  5 . 790. 3812VIO. 7512V21. 87 ac + 6t  12 ^ + 2 Vab Simplify 801. 13 799. y/a + Va Va x x + x 781. 783. 806.VlO. .4 V(j. 14 791. . + 2V21. 103 788. 16 + 2V55.
818. 9 7 3 + V3a:+ = 0.296 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA . 812.79.g. + Vx .V? = 813. \/2(r+ /3 a: 1) + v/2 x + a: 15 = 13. 831. 816. 815. 836.  5 + V3 f 12 817. 819. /9ar a: = 17.28 = 4 V2 ar 14. V3 f 1 V4a. Find the sum and difference of (ar + V2yx 2)* and 1. 829. VaT+lJ f ^l .Vc^lJ . V2a: Va: + 3 + ar 2 Vx f 1 834. 833. 830.4 = 0. + 103Var.f 5 = V5x + 4. 814. 811. Va: . Va: + 28 f + V9 x . 3 x + 2 . V14 a. 820.1 V* + 60 = 2 Vx~K5 + V5.V2 ar 10. (x a: 2 ) 4 . x/aT+l . f 2 VaT+1 1 a: 832. + ViTli + V7 . 2\/^"+~5 + 3Vor7 = V25 . \/12 a.\/2y  810.13 = 0. = 1.
. 2 f 2 18a: f + 16. 8 8 848. 8 4a: 8 a. a* * 1 + a8 8 a. 871.1000 6. 729 867. . . 8 8  13 a.12\/(ar44)(5z~ = 36. 8 + a: 5 8 a. 4 a.28 a 4 xy 8 80. a: .  3x a. a 872. 64 a 866. x 6 x4 f + + a: x f 1. z*y 8 l64a. + . 8 + 4 4 ar 2 2 a. 864. a 8 869. a: 2 + 4\/3^~. . 4 a: 2 842. 8 a. 8^27^. 40 x 2 7 f 49. 2 a: 64 y*. 875.7x + 3 = 3ar(a. + 216 rt aty a 10 . 5 a 4 7 a8 .1.12. a. + 1. x 8 2 857. a. 839. 855. y 4. 844. 876. +3 4 +  4. a 8 850. 9. 4 x 8 858. f 12. 870. a: : Resolve into prime factors 843.a. 19 x 14. 852. 8 2a. a*" & 6n . 4o. a 8 873. a: 849. 2 f" + a/ 15. 27 y 8. 275 8 l. a. x 11 a^ J 13 854.3 Va: 2 . 868.3 a:. a 18 4. 865.3 . a.10 = 118. f 841. 4 x* 847. x 4 + f 2 a. x* 8 ^ 8 2 a#* a. a. 863. 851. a.3 x . 27 862. 853. 8 . V4 x 2 . 16 859.1)+ + Vo: 2 + 3 x f 5 = 7 . 8 860. 6 2 f 3 6 s. a l0m . 6. 861. 840. f b**.10 x f 1 = 10 x + L * 2 .x*y + 3x f 2. 846. 64. 2 x 3. 5 x* f 297 9) 11 x . 845.KEVIEW EXERCISE 838. + 512 y8 874. 8a: 2 4 f 8 a: + 2 19a. 856.ab9 ft*. .
a: 1 1 _ 5 892. a: + y 2 = 34. ar(ar + y ) 2 2 2 2 xy . 5x 3 exactly divisible 879. 2 + xy = 28. a. 5. + 2y=\2. y y 2 y 2 1121. x a: lI = xz .15.5 xy + 4 f = 13. 2 f ary = 8 + 3. . 2 + 2 f = 17. a. For what value m is 2 #3 mx* by x  880. 894. f ?/ a: a: . x 8 3 = 13:3. a# f + xy = 126. 878. 2 . 890. a: 2 897. 900. y 2 4. 4 2 2 + afy 2 + f ary + y = 37. 8 8 + y y 9 9 a: = = 37 a: 152.xy + y 2 = 19.1 = 2 a#. 1 x 893. 3 x 2 . 885. y = 28. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Show Show 3 ? that 99 + 1 is divisible by 100. that 1001 79 of 1 is divisible by 1000.y 2) = 20. . + ary + 2 = 37.298 877. 2 2 = 16 y. 2 3 2 z3 xy + y = 7. a: 888. 2 + y 2 . 895. 2 + xy = 10. . 883. xy 2 a: a: ?/ a. y 2 2 8f. 896. : x 3? Solve the following systems 881.y 2 + V(j. . M1 891 1 . . 889.y = 2 ay + a a# = 2 aa: + 6 a. = ? + p"iaL+L=13. x 882. y(a:2 + y 2 ) = 25 x. a.Vi' + 1 1_3. y*+ xy . What must be the value of m and n to make 8 + mx 2 + nx f 42 exactly divisible by 2 2 and by a. 2 + ary = 8 y + 6. xy + y = 32. xy(a:y + 1) = 6. f a: a: 4 ?y = 481. 2 . +y f y = 7. 2 = 2 + 5. 899. a:y . 887. a: 884. z 2 898. 886. . 2 + 3 y 2 = 43. x*xy.y 2 = 2 y + 2. a: a. 901.35.18.sy = 198.
+ ary = a*.16 y 3 8 = . 7 y . y 2 + xy = b 2 925. x + y 2 = aar. 7 + 4 y f 6 ary = 0. ary y = 8. + 2 ary = 39. 912. 910.y = a(ar + y). a. 2 * 2 ~ g. 917. Vary + y = 6. 921. a: a. . 906. . 907.y)^ 03 926 12 +y +y 927. 2 913. 3 y 2 + xy = 1.r a. + 2 a:y + = 243.y) = 33. xy + x= 15.V + y 2 = + xy + y a = (a? . x f 2 a:y = 32.x) = 21. 908.3(* + y) = 6. 914.2 y) = 49 2 919. ^ 2 . 2 2 2 916. y 2 + 3 ary = 2. (o. x 2 ry + y = 3. a: y zx 12. 4 (a. + a.y). xa 903. 2 924. = 8. 2 5 xy = 11. (3 x . x + y}(x + y) = 273. (a. L/ay = a: + 5? + g = ^ + g. y 49(x 2 2 = 6 2 (x 2 + y 2). a o o 2 j + a:y = 2. 920. xy + 2 y 2 = 65. 9 f 8 y f 7 ay/ = 0. or or a? a: a: . + ?/) .6.#y + 2 = 27. # + xy + y = 7. ny ft ma: = * a 2 m*. ?/ ^: ^f!i^2. 2 2 f 4 a: ar// or f a. 2 y 2 f ay/ = 16. y + a:y = 180.y2 = 22.3) 2 f (y . ^ 2 + 2 a:y = a a 2 3 a: a: a. *y . + 2 y) (2 + ?/) = 20. 3 y 8 ) =1216. y .y) (a? . + y 8 = 189. 905. + y = 9. 23 x 2 . (!) * . y x 2 = by. * + y = 444.REVIEW EXERCISE 902. 2 + y = 2 a 4. a:y xy 929. (0 Vx f 10 f v^+T4 = 12.y) (3 y . yz = 24.3)2 = 34. 2 915. (* 918. 923. y # 2 2 f f y = 84. xy 2 2 x 2y 2 = 0. 911. . f y 2 x 2 y = 1. y 3 2 2 922. 3 :r(3 .23 = 200. 909. + y)(a. x 4 299 xy z 904. a: * a: a: ar 928. x* + ary f y 2 = 9.
The sum of the circumferences of 44 inches. + z)=18. z(* + y + 2) = 76. 152. 942. How many rows are there? 941. and 10 feet broader. and the sum of their areas 78$. = ar(a? f y + 2) + a)(* + y 933. The perimeter of a rectangle is 92 Find the area of the rectangle. and B diminishes his as arrives at the winning post 2 minutes before B. Find the side of each two circles is IT square. and also contains 300 square feet. much and A then Find at what increases his speed 2 miles per hour. 2240. the area of the new rectangle would equal 170 square feet. feet. there would have been 25 more trees in a row. If each side was increased by 2 feet. The difference of two numbers cubes is 513. A is 938. The sum of two numbers Find the numbers. two numbers Find the numbers. 943. (3 + *)(ar + y + z) = 96. find the radii of the two circles. a second rec8 feet shorter.square inches.102. and the difference of 936. Find the sides of the rectangle. A plantation in rows consists of 10. The sum of the perimeters of sum of the areas of the squares is 16^f feet. 935. y( 934. Find the length and breadth of the first rectangle. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA (*+s)(* + y)=10. 931. is 3 . . Assuming = y. Tf there had been 20 less rows. is 20. *(* + #) =24. s(y 932.300 930. feet. In the second heat A . and the sum of their cubes is tangle certain rectangle contains 300 square feet. two squares is 23 feet. Find the numbers. 937. the difference of their The is difference of their cubes 270. (y + *) = . The diagonal of a rectangle equals 17 feet. is 3.000 trees. diagonal 940. (y (* + y)(y +*)= 50. two squares equals 140 feet. A and B run a race round a twomile course. y(x + y + 2) = 133. 944. the The sum of the perimeters of sum of their areas equals 617 square feet. 34 939. In the first heat B reaches the winning post 2 minutes before A. and the Find the sides of the and its is squares. rate each man ran in the first heat. + z) =108.
951. A and B. if its length is decreased 10 feet and its breadth increased 10 feet. 949. the digits are reversed. at Find the his rate of traveling. the square of the middle digit is equal to the product of the extreme digits. What is its area? field is 182 yards. Find two numbers each of which is the square of the other. Find the number. Two starts travelers. unaltered. Find its length and breadth. The sum of the contents of two cubic blocks the of the heights of the blocks is 11 feet. at the same time A it starts and B from Q with the design to pass through Q. and that B. the area lengths of the sides of the rectangle.REVIEW EXERCISE 301 945. that B A 955. sum Find an edge of 954. and travels in the same direction as A. If the breadth of the rectangle be decreased by 1 inch and its is length increased by 2 inches. 952. whose 946. and its perim 948. 953. set out from two places. was 9 hours' journey distant from P. . A number consists of three digits whose sum is 14. the difference in the lengths of the legs of the Find the legs of the triangle. each block. A rectangular lawn whose length is 30 yards and breadth 20 yards is surrounded by a path of uniform width. Find the width of the path if its area is 216 square yards. P and Q. . is 407 cubic feet. When from P A was found that they had together traveled 80 had passed through Q 4 hours before. A certain number exceeds the product of its two digits by 52 and exceeds twice the sum of its digits by 53. Find in what time both will do it. The area of a certain rectangle is 2400 square feet. and the other 9 days longer to perform the work than if both worked together. overtook miles. 950. triangle is 6. The square described on the hypotenuse of a right triangle is 180 square inches. The area of a certain rectangle is equal to the area of a square side is 3 inches longer than one of the sides of the rectangle. Find the eter 947. its area will be increased 100 square feet. distance between P and Q. Two men can perform a piece of work in a certain time one takes 4 days longer. and if 594 be added to the number. Find the number. The diagonal of a rectangular is 476 yards. .
J. *" 968.321? 965. 18th terms of an A. the terms being in A. and 976.454. (x + O 2 4 y 2 ) + O 8 + y*) + y) + x(x 2 4 y 2} 4. .. + (iiven a +  4 d . Sura to 24 terms. Sum Sum to infinity.. '. . ^ Vfirst five 959. ^1 + Vj 1 2  .V2 . 5. x(x to 8 terms... 16 962.. are 1 and sum of 20 terms. 966. n to n terms. ^ 1 . to n terms.. 969.. 964.. 12434+ j I 967. . (x 4 to n terms. How many Sum Sum terms of the series 1 + 3 + 5 + amount to 123. 971. such that the sum of the 1 terms is one sum of the following five terms. 972.. 957.. P. !Ll^ + n . 961. P.141414. 36 963. 1 to n terms. first ? n+l(n + l) The 10th and The term and the T + ( + +!) V (to J' infinity). 3 . 5. 975.3151515.1 4 f j$V . Sum to 20 terms. f + 1 . : + f 24 21 24 4f 32 36 1G 10.4142 . s  88. = 4. P. Find an A. Find the Find the common 977... Sum Sum Sum to 10 terms. \ .>/) to infinity. Find the sum of 4. 4.. P.. 1G series . Evaluate (a) . to infinity. difference. Find n f (ft) .x*(x 3 f 8) + y) + (2x + f) + (3 x + y 8 ) 4.302 956..v 973.to infinity. . the first term being Find the sums of the 960.. 3 + 5 7 + . 958. 970. fourth of the unity.. Find n. to 7 terms. Find the difference between the sums of the series 5 n + !Lni n " 4 4. (to 2 n terms). 974. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Sum to 32 terras..  2. are 29 and 53. 9th and llth terms of an A. 4 4 to 7 terms .
What 2 a value must a have so that the sum of + av/2 + a + V2 + . . to infinity may be 8? . of n terms of an A. 303 979.. Find the sum of the series 988.04 + . The 21st term of an A. and so on. Insert 22 arithmetic means between 8 and 54. all A perfect number is a number which equals the sum divisible.+ lY L V. to oo. How many sum terms of 18 + 17 + 10 + amount . 980. P. 990. Find four perfect numbers. named Sheran. doubling the number for each successive square on the board.001 4. 1. v/2 1 + + + 1 4 + + 3>/2 to oo + + . Find four numbers in A. is 225. and the sum of the first nine terms is equal to the square of the sum of the first two. Insert 8 arithmetic means between 1 and . If of 2 of integers + 2 1 + 2'2 by which is it is the sum of the series 2 n is prime. Find the value of the infinite product 4 v'i v7! v^5 .. : + 9   V2 + . then this sum multiplied by (Euclid.01 3. of n terms of 7 + 9 + 11+ is is 40.2 .. The sum 982. P. Find the first term. 4 grains on the 3d. to 105? 981.REVIEW EXERCISE 978. The term. 0. who rewarded the inventor by promising to place 1 grain of wheat on Sessa for the the 1st square of a chessboard. Find the number of grains which Sessa should have received. 986. and of the second and third 03. The Arabian Araphad reports that chess was invented by amusement of an Indian rajah.3 ' Find the 8th 983.. Find n. 992. 985. 5 11.. 2 grains on the 2d. 987.) the last term the series a perfect number. such that the product of the and fourth may be 55. P. to n terms. 989.001 + ....1 + 2. "(. and the common difference. first 984.
areas of all triangles. If a. 1000. ABC A A n same sides. The sum and sum . 995. and so forth to Find (a) the sum of all perimeters. Two travelers start on the same road. The sides of a second equilateral triangle equal the altitudes of the first. 999. 1003. 997. The fifth term of a G. The side of an equilateral triangle equals 2. 512 996. P. the sides of a third triangle equal the altitudes of the second. are 28 and find the numbers. in this circle a square. Under the conditions of the preceding example. P. are 45 and 765 find the numbers. of squares of four numbers in G. . find the series. third circle touches the second circle and the to infinity. ft. many days will the latter overtake the former? . In a circle whose radius is 1 a square is inscribed. c. P.304 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 993. One of them travels uniformly 10 miles a day. and if so forth What is the sum of the areas of all circles. is 4. (a) after 5 strokes. pump removes J of the of air is fractions of the original amount contained in the receiver. AB = 1004. Insert 4 geometric means between 243 and 32. 998. are unequal. Insert 3 geometric means between 2 and 162. in this square a circle. The sum and product of three numbers in G. (I) the sum of the perimeters of all squares. and so forth to infinity. and G. P. inches. and the fifth term is 8 times the second . P. prove that they cannot be in A. Find (a) the sum of all circumferences. Each stroke of the piston of an air air contained in the receiver. at the same time. In an equilateral triangle second circle touches the first circle and the sides AB and AC. 1001. after how strokes would the density of the air be xJn ^ ^ ne original density ? a circle is inscribed. The other travels 8 miles the first day and After how increases this pace by \ mile a day each succeeding day. (6) after n What strokes? many 1002. (6) the sum of the infinity. 994.
Find the middle term of (a + b) 1016. . ) 1021. Find the middle term of (a$ bfy. Find the coefficient a: X  \88 1 in 1019. Write down the expansion of (3 1007.iV 2i/ 5 .ft) 19 . Find the middle term of ( . Write down the (a first 305 three and the last three terms of  *)". 2 ) 5. (1 1018. Find the 9th term of (2 al 1010. 1011. Write down (x the first four terms in the expansion of + 2 #). Find the fifth term of (1  a:) 1015. 1012. a: 8 7. Write down the 1 5a  6 V . x) 18 .o/) 14 . Expand  2 a.l) w f . + lQ . Find the two middle terms of ( ( 9 . (12 #) 7 . . coefficient of x 9 in (5 a 8 7 . 1006. Find the two middle terms of (a *2 x) 9 . Find the eleventh term of /4 x >> .REVIEW EXEHCISE 1005. 1008. Find the two middle terms of 1013. Find the middle term of 1020. 1009. 1014.
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.. Aggregation.. 158..... 232 mean progression .. ... . . 112 54 54 251 .. 249 246 20 10 23 193 .210 130 " Addition value 4 15.178 Completing the square ... graphic tion of representa ... 129. Constant Coordinates Cross product 155 148 41 " Alternation 123 Antecedent Arithmetic *' 120 Degree of an equation Difference .130 .INDEX [NUMBERS REFER TO PAGES.. . simple simultaneous .. . quadratic . 246 91 " multiple. . Checks Coefficient 20.... .. .. 129 54. . . lowest ratio " '* .. 9 ** . . . 160 in quadratic form 191 .. .. 49 Clearing equations of fractions 108 8 ' graphic solution.. linear literal Common ** * difference .108 160 " .. . 148 178 Conditional equations Conjugate surds . . numerical . 232 169 807 . . sum Consequent Consistent equations 210 27 10 18 . .181 105 " Complex fraction " Evolution Composition . ..] Abscissa Absolute term . 54. Brace Bracket Character of roots . 97. . .. 123 .. .. t 53 120 . . .. 37. signs of Algebraic expression .... 8 . .Base of a power Binomial " theorem 54 8 45 130 10 255 9 Elimination Equations ' 63 consistent fractional .193 11 . . .241 45 45 Dividend Division Divisor Axiom .. .. . Discriminant Discussion of problems Arrangement of expressions Average .. 19. 9. ..
directly. 17 65.C Multiplication .. 112 . . 83 10 19 Polynomial Polynomials. .154 Order of operations " of surds . 205 148 148 27 86 Ordinate Origin .. . 227 geometric . 120 Lowest common multiple 70 .. 45.31. 184 54. 1 Quadratic equations Quotient Radical equations Radicals . . . Like terms Linear equation . 195 4 13 ous equations 100 158 . Inconsistent equations . 212 . . 143. . L. . 246 251 121 Inversion Involution Irrational Proportion 105 Proportional. Product '* 76 Infinite. Geometric progression . 227 . 45. .. . 91 ..108 Minuend . . . 195 Extreme Factor " theorem " II. . numbers ... 84. Insertion of parentheses . .. Imaginary numbers . Mathematical induction . . . 120 Member. . Fourth proportional Fractional equations u Fractions. 45 Laws of signs . 253 28 70 1. . P . 42 7 Independent equations Index . C Factoring 222 Literal equations . 109 102 . . .808 Exponent Exponents. 241 123 geometric . Negative exponents 11 . addition of " square of . 34.. . 9. 243 7 . 205 . 63. exponent . inversely 122 numbers . 89 235 Parenthesis Perfect square 53 . Known numbers . . arithmetic . . 130 9 Power Prime factors Problem. Mean " 81) proportional Mean.. 180. Graphic solution of simple equations Graph of a function Grouping terms Highest . arithmetic 346 120 338 341 53 70. . law of Extraneous roots . INDEX 8 . 114... common factor Homogeneous equations Identities . . . ..105 Monomials 03 Multiple.. .. 23 10 91 102. 178 45 221 205 Law of exponents .. 189. 195 33. . Integral expression Interpretation of solutions Progressions. first and second .251 Graphic solution of simultane. G.
27 17 Unknown numbers . . 23 18 228 27 9 205 10 Term " absolute 54 193 178 Theorem.... polynomial .... ....... 129.INDEX Ratio national Rationalizing denominators 76... 309 171 133 120 Square root Substitution 205 Real numbers Reciprocal 215 Subtraction 169 Subtrahend 104 22 Remainder theorem Removal of parenthesis Root Roots of an equation " character of " . 255 120 54 10 sum and product of . 1 Simple equations Simultaneous equations Square of binomial 205 Value. ... . 232 Vinculum Zero exponent 40 42 197 Printed in the United States of America.. . 4 155 9 " of . 9... ... Sum. algebraic Surds ... . binomial Third proportional Transposition .. 45 Trinomial 240 . . absolute 54 Variable . 193 Rule of signs Series Signs of aggregation Similar and dissimilar terms Similar surds 33.
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ANSWERS TO SCHULTZE'S ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA COMPILED BY THE AUTHOR WITH THE ASSISTANCK OP WILLIAM P. MANGUSE STrtn gork THE MACMILLAN COMPANY 1918 All rights reserved .
Reprinted April. BY THE MACMILLAN COMPANY. Mass. Gushing Co. 1916. Published September. 1910.. 1910.S. NorfoooS J. August. 1913. . 1917. 8.A.COPYRIGHT. Berwick <fe Smith Co. Set up and electrotypcd. U. December. Norwood.
8. x. 1. Page Page Ilis expenditures. 13 d. 5. 20. 2.000. 15. 73. 16 in.000. 12.. 2. 89. C $ 16. 2 5. 19. ^. $40. 6.000. 210. 5. A Bl 7. 4. 6. B 10 mi. 21.. 3 below 0. 150. 7. 20. C $60.000 negroes. 9 m. 2. 7m. 14.. 10. 17. 12. 5. 10. c. 192. 2. 9. sign. is $10. 19. 2  Page 8. 4. Ot 15. 37 S. 1. 14. 25. 24. 16. 18. 9. 28. 18.000. Multiplication. Yes. 13.  1. 10.21 24. 13 V. 1. 10. 9. . 16. 256. 1. 15. 20 \. 29. }. 126. 10. Page 13. 3. 5.3. 6. 5. 6 yd. westerly motion. + 1. 13. 22.000 Indians. 3. 18. loss. 8. 5. 3. 13.. 3* 7. 1. ft. 1. 512. sign. _ 32. 36. 3.  13. Page 1.2. B $4700. 48 ft. 26z. b. 3. 18. 6. 3. 12. 1. 14. 8. 20. 9 14. 9. 20 B. Australia ft. 16. 14 11. 29. South America 46. 9 16  larger than 7. 1. 5000. 37. 12. A 38 mi. 16.. 10. 32. 12. 9.000. 1. 30?. 4. 11. $100. 16. = 5 81. 14. 16 in. B $80. 11. 25. 49. 10. 16. 25. 128. Not 5. 7. 2. 28.. 17. 16. 24. 3.000.000. 115. 5. 13. A $90.00000001. 8.  2 p. 3 m. 17. 32. 2 ~ 15. 59. 6. 0.8. 106. 6. 3. 49. 1. 4. 32. 8. 7. 4. 7. 21. i .C. 1. 14. 13 S. 27. Page?. 3. 8. 2. 9. 18. Seattle 12 Philadel 9. 8 13. 19. 4. in 12.1. 2. 20. 3. 2. 17. arithmetic. 3. 6. A 15. 2.  1. 12. 17. V 23. 7. 9. 7. in. $ 1 50 10. 144. 7. 14. Page 8. 12. 16. 13. 2. 1. 8. 21. 25.. 64. 23. 3. 2. 3. 3. (a) (/>) 1. 11.150. 14. Page 4.$9400.. . 12. T . 15. 24. 2. 85. 11. 9. 12. 3. 10. 576. 30. 1. 26. 4. 6. 22. $160.. 15. 6. 7. 11. per sec. 14. . 9. 15. 7. 16. 8 ft. 27. 5.000.12. 0. 6* 16. in. 27. . 10g. C $1(50. B $20. 1. 12. 1. 3. x. 72 = = 216. 20 jo. . 2. 1 16. 3. 9 = 4. 6.ANSWERS Page phia 8 in. 6. 32. 19 4. 6. B $ 128.  22 20. A . 2. 16f 2. 18.
5x+3. 3(c4a). (a 4 4. 25.ft. 12. 314 sq. 15a.. 29. 3. $3000 Page 6.. 1. 22. 12.. . (ft) Page 2.ab. 28. 39. 1. 28. +/2(/. 0. 19. v'ft a4 4 a a 41. a 32. 12 a. II. 26. 35. mi. ft' 3 . ft)  3 /A  8x :i (/* 4 ft)(X 36 2 "'* ~ 5V (a ft). 27. (ft) mi.  0. 33. 37.  1. 3.1. 32. 00 24 04 ft. :J!>r'. (c) S(i. 8.. 14. 2. 14. 2. 5. 14. 27. (a) 200. 4. a2 4 15^44. ^). x^ 20. 8. 16. 2. 15. 15. 13. 57. 0. 25. 15. It. 3. 35. 7.'JO ft.a . 7 7. 17. 0. in. = ()501. Trino inial. 18. 12. Page 21. $r*y 4 3x?/ 4 m* run  . WIN + wiw. 6<t. ..32 c2 > ft 3 . 17.900. in. 19. 0.q 4. 14.rty8. 13. 58. 18. 1. 2.. 3a. 3. r:A 29. (59. #1111. 16. 14. (ft) 7. 8. 21. 7. 22. 20. ??i??.14 sq.r 2 . 6.. ft. 3 a* + 2 at*. 17. 0. yyz+xyz*. a3 a2 4 a 4 1. 15. 9. 13. 10. 16. 1. (a} 100 1(5 cm. ^. Page 31. jrif 4 9. m + 3(a. 3 . 13. 21^. 0. i:5. 11. (r) 78. 14. o^ft. 173. ]*. 104. ft. 9. (a) <> sq. ft.  3. 1. 27. 20. 30. 2ftx. 31. 4. Polynomial. y. 51 f. 8.6) 38. sq. 4.~4. 0. ft f 19. 9. 4 9/^/rl 2. 5. 31. 1. (<7) (a) 314 sq. 25. 2oVmf?i.. 14:). 5.. 16. 21.r f 15. 22( 19. _ 4 .'J. 10. 23. 19. . (ft) 12. <i~ 26. Page 18. 6.x. 240. 27. (r) 2.000 . 36. 17. in.4  2ft 2 33. 38. (b) 135 mi. 11. 27. 18. 43w//2 17. m 24.. 5. Polynomial. 13 cu. Va'+Y2 8^2 . 7. t. Binomial. in. 15. (a) 50. $80. 8. 12. .3 * 10 r5 <3 . I. 13. 33. 9.000 sq.  12. ft. 1. 04. 0* Page 3 w" 0. 20. 41. 24. 7. 20(. + ft).. Monomial. 23. 2V^4^/ 8 x* 6. 3. (c) 8. 5.<>Gq. 9.  xV 3 y.  40. + v> 2 . 34.94(>. 4<> 2 ?t Vc. . 5. 11. //'. 13. 26. (a) r>23ifcu. 4 y/ . 27. 29. 3 y v> <Mft 3* 2. + 5.5f> sq. Page 7. 12yd. = 81. 18. (r) 2000 m. . ft. 0.. 15. 8. 2. 21 a 3 4 10. 0. 18.ft) 4. 4. 6. 5. 4. 22. 36. 2. Page 23. 12.. 32. 17. 12.9?/2 8. . w. 3. 30. Pagel4r. 3. 1. 3. 38 ab. 14. 3rf 27. 5. 4. 28.r~ f 34. 49. (ft) $40. a ft c. . .  11. 8. 21. 42. 34. 31. 32 2 ftc.ii ANSWERS Page 11. 16.  2 4 13 ft 2 . :. 22. r+l. 30. (V) (rf) (ft) 50. 24. 10. 1. 7.GOG. 2x' 2 5 . vi 14.4 ft. f  5e 35. r/ \(\xyz. (r) 2G7. rt. 8. c. 35. 3. arty 1 20. 237. 11. \'\ 4. 50. 92.5 (ft) sq. ft n.
5. + 6.  G J8 r  4 a <?. 8. . 19.  23.c.5 z?/ + 3 y . x3 . 5. 18. 7. (mn} 11. 12. 13. ?/. 4.2 a2 2m 2 4. a 4 + ft. + 4 c. 4wipg>' 27.r 2 + 4?/ 4l). . G a bd. .aft.2 a. 14. 35. 8a*b8<tb'\ a + /> fc + 4 r.  a: 2.'U4j>. m*  n*. _ Page 30. 2 . .6 x + 0) 16. 1. a a. ( 7. a  49. 2 a 37. 2m. . ii\ 22. a 52. . 5. 2 4 5 2 a3 1. 31. 32 w 2 w. a2 4 2 ft 4 Ve. 36.  4 b 17 y*. 15. 18. 55. (2n' 43p 47 ). 6. 21. 2m + 2w. 15. j)(g1. .3 6.l. 2// 16. a 3& . 24 b 46. 5 2 Page 29.1. 10 x. 26. (w4w)(ww). ri\ 18. 58. 3. 3 nv> w 3 a 24 npy . 1. 43. 24.a f 54. 12. 7. . 4. 3 Ji 8 . r. 2. Page 28. 26. 22. 15. 20. 2. w* ( . 12. 4. ti.2 . a. lOrt 15w4. 34. 11. 3 a . 56. 10. 13. 12.a~. 26. a + (ftc4df). a2 24. 38.(2 x2 . 1 + 45. \ :{ 2 a 48. 1. 19. 14. 31. 20. a 3a 4 2 &. 8 + 2 a . 2a: 2 4x. 8 8 .r 2. 22.Oa: + 10.11. &.  12. 14. 7 a5 1 . 2. a + a. 7. 24. c. Page 8. .  14 afy . 28.AXSH'EJtS Page 23.2. 14. 0. ?/i 13. 2 3.  b.abc. 37. 21.h. 25. 4. 814. 42. _2?> 2 + 3 x 9. 4 21. /> Zmn + qt G/ 4 .2 ft 2 r2 10. M + 10. 2x 4 a 13. ab a.a . a 6 2 .2 57. 30. 5x 2 rt ft. f 2 ?/  2. 21. a4 4 4. 24. 2m(4? 2 4ir#(2. 16. ^ <. 2 3x f z. c2 .ws 2 ft) . a 10w. mn. 2. (5x47 3. 3 a3 & 41. t).7. 51.(7x2 Ox2). 2. 50. x a8 1. 32. a2 9. 29. . G. 2 4. + 8. 2 2 2 6. 25 47. . 17. 9. !  </ . 2. x  + 3z. a 3 .  17. 2 + a4l). 0.  1.. 10. 0. 7  # + 12. 1 4. 1. 1.x f 1 2 .4. 8. + 4 m4 4 8 7?i 8  G m. 2 y' 4 . ?> 22. 3. 5. 16. 25. 8. 8 b.8(c + a).4 d. 20. 4ft ~. 3. a' 4ab + ?/.1 . 4.  b* 4 r 1 . ' 12 m?/'2 27. Page 44. 36. + 2y. s_r>a5. + a 2 f 2 a 4. 2.a*. Page 7.5 4 2 3 ?/ . 2. 6. 2 6. 2a.3x 2 2 tf. ft Exercise 17. 19. a f 2 f 2 9. 18. (yz~d}.(a f 6) + 4(1 + c) . 10. 4r 2 . 2 . + c 4 d x + 6 e. 10 m. a). 11. . w 17. 8 . . 2. Exercise 16. 17.. 34 39. 7  a + 2 + c.4c 3 8 8 J. 7. ar. 6. a  ISjfat. '  . .r' 2 z2 2 4 a 1. 2 2. 6. 2.5. . 33. n*. ?>4tl 53. 40. 2 17.4x. 4. 2 a f 6 414. 11. 1. 59.a'2 . 25. f ft 9. . c. _5a<>&43c. 364c. :5 41.r. 3 m. 3m2 n 9 (a + $) 2 .
17.22 ac + 30 c2 + 43 2 2 8. 20. 19. . 15 lb. 14. 2 wiw 8 + 2 wiwp 2 2 x*y* 15. 1. 30 j9 jt?g j . 10. 4 a2 . 20. 9. . 27. 8. 2 8 xy f 4 a. 29.32 y s s G . 7 + r/m 4^4^414.6) =a2 31. 13. a. 4.16 a 2 + 32 a . 4 fc. 15 q\ 6. 40 r 2 .19p" + 19^ 10 . f 26. 3 a 3 . 26. 7G . 6. 90. . 14 m 2 . a 8 . 2 ). 29. 210. 23.iv ANSWERS + &)(. +. 27. 4200. 2. 360. 20. 35. 4. 37. 16. 8. 66 39 k* . 17. 24.44 aWc 16 abxy. 2 n8 29 a + 30. 31. 15. 16. r' 2 a: j/ (? ft . 64. 14. 102. 24. 25. 28. 16 lb. 13. 27.3 a 2 6 + 3 aft 2 .10 3 30 a a 4 c f 15 aWc . Page 36. . 29.r + 7 1S + 2 mp. . 28.(3x2_4^+7).21 a 3 c2 21. 3 ?i w 1(5 pag'V 2 W 2 . 9. 216. .14 xyz + 14 a:y0. 28. 30. Page 38.1. 19. m. s 9 ww. 33. 3(*+0 + 2). ci 5 . 21. 36. 15. 1. 2. ft 17. 3. 1. 7. a + ft. 6. 16. 18. 6. 22. 84. 2*8f x2 6x4. 19. 22. 6". +15. 24. 7.64 190 p6. 10. 4aWy. 18. 19. 42. 34. 5. 6 . 22.000. . 18. a.16 x2/ 5 4.>(/ r .6 wiw 24 n 2 36 + 65 ww .26. 23. 30. 216. 2 + aft 4 ft 2. a: 3a: 2 (2a:f iHa. 15. 2 a*62 c2 + 11 a&c .6 2 .35 a*b*c8 f 14 a?/e . . 20 aW. 770. 2 2 +2621ft 2 . + O4 66 . a: . 8. 18> ^* = a . 120. 3. 27. n (a6) 125. 13. 2 7t A. 21. 83 In + 1 n*. 66 8W 34. a. 343.. 76 8 a' 1 .12. 32. 2 ). + 7. 16. 30 ? 49 p*qh*t. 18. 52 + 6s 12. etc. 17. 0. 20.32. fa 2. 8. 17. 27. 20. 1. 8 . ?> 4 . 60. 18a% y. . Ox a 5 .15. 9z 8 16z2 9z + 10. 34. 3300. 11.14 ?/i r?/6j/ 5. 3. . 5aft(a 126 2). 12 ^. 33. 11.8 12. 24.25 x* + 25 x + 20 . 8. 4 a8 . 1400. 22. 16. 1. 25. 2. 23.19 + 2. + 58 . ?/ .21. 14. 16 51. 1904. ll 2 i. 2 * 80 . 161b. 2''. 15. (+3)x6=+16. 18. 4.8 4a12 a2 ftf 5aft2 f 6 6. 23. 12 x2 2 . a*b*c. 29. 25. 4. 38wiw. 2 2 2 .r% 2 2 ry. 20. 30. 127"'. 2 ll9HH 2) + . 6.2. 3 a 2 46. 30.14 w 2 2 .28 p'^/. ^^ = 20. . Page 7. 21 a'&c. 1. //. 12.:>/ . 11.69 rt + 21 132 + r .7(50. 0. Page 5. 9. 4 7> 4 :j !} .14 a 2 _6g8 + 9 2_i2g + 8. 9 13. 10c 2 19rd+0c? a I' . 1. 15.57 p6 3 2 4 25. 2. 14. 13. Page 3.. 26. 30. 4 m3 + 9m2 + m. x2 xy42^. Page 35. 9 w 2 + 13 n . 33. ! 2.11 xyz . 4. (x f ?/)  a 12 10. 10.18 w w + 10 WI M . 42. 3. 2 a2 (y 2 . 12. 108. 25 4 4. 25. 30. . 32. 161b. 14f 5. 2 w +2 2 . 7. . .20 xyz . 13. 34. 21. 24. 10. 30 n?b*c*.25 + 14. 5.12. 04.. 7. 60. 18.36 35. 108.. ISartyW e*f*tj. 28.14 . iSx8 . 12. 4 jcy*z*>. 2 . 4. 31. 11. 38 a*b 6 : 24. 2z 8 s 2 3zl.
2 a' y' . 1. 6 2 + 6lf>0.ab . 12 x2 . 999. 27. 3. a' .16 a3 f 50. . + 2 fz& + 2 i> + p + 9.5 ~ 81. x 4 ?/4 + ab . p4 + .000. 4 21. x 2 f xy + 9 41. 51. 441.4 a&+ 4 &*. 36. 55. . 9 4 /> . 9999. 4. 40. 10. lflrt 2 8 + l. 33.201.54 p 2 + 81. (a + 4) (a + 2)./ . + 4 t*.000.6 xy . 6.^V"' .+ l5J x// + 9 2 2 4 ^ 4 ()Or 2 20. 5. (n 2 5. 32. + a2 12 ab 2 8 0. + 3)(3). + 7 6)(3a~76>. 22 x 2 ?/ 2 y + 121 x4 29. 4 a&c + c2 30 x 4 ?/ 23.2 y*. 2 a4 6 4 +8 a2 6 2 2x4 +7x 2 6 2 15 6 4 36. fo*. 2 0)(p + 5). 30. a + 25. 2 m3 + 4m2 . 29.009. 2 4 2 2 64 .  12 xy +9 2 >2 ?/ 2. x2 GiC+5. 166. 25 a 2 6 2 .3. 2). ( 5) O5)(w + 3). ab. G a6 2. 2 6' .009. 5.020. 7> . 30 x + 19 x3 . ^V^4 . (x  2) (x Page (rt2). 45. 10. ft' 11. (r ?/) (x 6 (b + 5 ?i)(& 50.15.6.00 + 37.25. 31. 4 x2 13.810. 19.. Om2 4 6m 6.35 ab 9.r* 2 30. 8 38. 11. 7. 8. 1. x4 28.ri 17. m'2 +18?rt 2 ' + 81.20. 8. + 4 a +4. 14. 4. 16. .404. 2 1: 21. 10 p 2 g ?> 2 ?/ + 49 & 4 2 16. 1). 29. (46c + 5) (4 abc 43. 10. ) 4' 6/ 49. (p 2. w'n 2 //^ + 25. 26. 4 . 11. . . 15. + 12. 37. 4 . 39. Page 12.098. a + 25. ^/> 8 4 . 4x21. 25.4 n. 10. m 3 j) 3 . ^' J  7 f 12.r . 4. (w+4)(m4). 2 fr . a2 >2 2 2  84 a a + 49. 7. 17. 39. 3. 21 2 .6 x2 13. 18.5 ?i m #2 4 ?7i%'2 4 . 38. 15. 24.004. 31.m 30 6 4 1. s rc 47.x2y22. 30 /><. 8 a W . +   5). 998. 40.6 y4 10. 10. x 48. 2 12. 34. 10 a 4 ?. . ' 46. 4 + 25 q*. . 37. . 32. 1.020. .4 12. 1. 52. Page 39.14 jp + 49. 33. + 2 9. 7. a4 4 ?/ . (m + 6)(m3). . . +  m' 1.2 x + 2 x. 41. a 2 . 9801. + <z 22 2 4 20 rt2 32. .<* &2 + 106 + tt + . 56. 42.008. 31. 2 . m 2 . 484. r*d< x/2 ?/'2 18.606. 2 62 V2 132. 2 .r . 26. 19. 2 a 2 + a . 2xV+6x2y2^2 +22. 8. 36. 4 m'2 40 (i V2 c 2 + 25 r 4 22. 9. 10.8. 41. n + 2.500.996. ab . I/).x2 + 6 x2y 2 . 25 25. a + 56. 27. x4 4 121 4 ?/ . 40. ?/H)0.49. n2 a4 6. x* . p 2 . 2. . 35. x*2^f I. 2 +10s281. + 10 + 121 y*. (a (3 54.84 a' 9. 8)(?i (x2)(x3). r. 10. 14. 28. 990. ~ 6 20 . 2 (5 a 3). 34.10 35. 14. a2 ' + 48Z100. 36. 4 2 //. 53. 10. 2 a' + 2 ?/ 5 + a 3. 57. 36 a 4 .ANSWERS 28. 6 x6 + 13 x3 .. .2 6 + 13. 2 (6 a + 3) (3a66)(3a6&). 44.1. 2 4 a + 4. 3wi2 m Page 42. 10 a' 2 . 20a 2 21a + 4. 35. 9. 2 j3 Z . 7 .994. (w4)(w + l). 9990.p132. V + o ft .10 x + 25. 24 ab + 9 & 2 .712. 6. 33. 10. +4 34. 2. y. a3 0. 24. 10. . 25 r 4 ?/i 30. 1. . 23.^ + a? + 1.^.2. 1. 10. .001.
1.1. 14. . '.+ 77 15. abc 7.1.  3 c. 13.7 arty 4 4 x 2 //V2  3 Z2 3 1. 21. ?/2.  5 z* .3 ry.8. 2 a 3 ft. 2 ?/' . :r !>. 4 x y 2 7 x + 5. . +w . 2. Page 7. 14. 7a 2 ftc 4 4c42a.10 xy*. 9w 2 + 0m+ 1. 12. 9. m L 4. 18. 1. 2 4. z. 2 . 15. 17. *3 y 4 . 8 x5 ? + 4 1. 1000 1000 . 3 5 a4  4 a2 4.9 d. 2 2 + 2 a.2 aft 4.3 w 4*7 m 2 3 mn .  11. m'2 3. r ft. 2 12.2 2 2 8 . a 8 4.27 x 2 4. i 2 tji. 17. 6.1. j) . 7.1. . a 2 ft 4 9 c3 .30 ftc. c 12.  12 y 25. 5. 13. . 19. . 1.25. 13. .12 aft 4 20 ac . 9 5 4a' 2 ft 6. 4. 12. a 2 . 24. 14 r 2 . 4 a 2 4. .  10. 7 r .1. 8 r<ft 4 2 . . 4 pq. 50. 5. 1. 4ft. 3. 5 4 a Oft. w 2 .10 2 + z 2 410. 10.2 1 //. 8 ?/ . 14.9 4. Osy. 12.8 y. 4 n2 4 +p ft 2 42 2 aft 2 mn + 2 mp 4 10 a ft \ x* 4 4 2 z2 + 2 jrz a2 2 2 f 25  2 np. aftc 52.r . x4. Page 11.r' ~ 16. 12. 2 ?/ 4. 2 ^r ???' 2 . 2. . 7a3ft. 4 ac. 8.2 <</. 9.3 5.8 <r 2 2 ?/' . 6 x 2 t/ 2 4 .2 .x^. 4.lit x + 4. Page 48. 23. 135. 47. 6 <z 2 4 ft 3 . as _ 10 16. 8 ?/ .2 ac . a 10.6 :rs 4. 9. 5. 10.4. 6x 3. 13. 16. 2 ?/ ft Page 2. 6. a. . 9. 19. 16.> 10. l 4 .1. sr 11. 4 a* 4 9 11. 4xy + 13 <) . 3 l48m47?n 2 20. 10 ft. c3.29. 2.r ?/ ??i ?). G. . a2 x 8 4 ft 8 . 1. Page 22.8 yn .2 ftc . 4. 12. yfl. ft 17.2 ar. 14. 4 c m .5 mp. 3. r/2 4. . + 3. f>r* 4. 2 m2 4 2 w2 7. a 4 4 ft. 9.8. .000. Page 13. /r . 6.5 a . 125. 2 ? 14 . w . 11.7. + 16 r 4 + 12 a'2 //2 . 16./ 4. 2 4 2 x 4.2. 01.11 _ 5x _ _ o 18. 6. 5. ft ? ft' ft ft. .2 . 5. 5.1. 20. 2. 44. aft 4 tt ac 2 ftc. 4. 3. ft* ft / . 11.rw. 17.34. 3 a. 8 x . 11 4. aft.2 . // 19. 8. y 7. 49. 6. 2 ft 2 ?nc w .r'^ 15. 4 x. 2 . aft 12. 5. .rw f 8 . + 4.r" 20 S? .yar 4 */ ?/ Page 50. 3*y2 w + 1. x 2 + 2r f J. Page 51. a r'43 ll'a^S 15.2 wZ 4.5 n*.3 a 41. 8. 3. 8.3 x 2 2 4.  . 5 aft 4 ft 2 4 8. ti'jry1 7. 3. 21.3 3. r//.3^V. 18.c ft*/ 1  ft' ?/ .VI ANSWERS 43. 2. 3.15 21.23. 13. 4. 5. 1. _ 2 a .2 2 . . Exercise 2 a:// 26. + x?/ 2 1. 4. ft.25 c . 75 a 2 29.r?/. 8. 2 4 3 9. 20 15. 2.w. Exercise 27. 13. x 4. 1. 10. i 9. 5 a  (5 ft. 5^418(7. a 2 410 + 9 r 8 + w2l ftc. ??.n. 46.15. 26.y3. x' u' 2 2 z~ 4. 15. 4 d 2 4. 2 1. a 2 44 a2 ft' 4 ft 2 2 4. 8. 14.21 2 2 f + .1*5 2 r 2 .24 . 1/*. 4x43?/. 3 aft 20. 22. r 7. 4.r?/ j/. 5. 4. + c 2 4 aft2 ac + 4 ftc.
4(a ft) c = 8. 25. m+ 11. 3x2. 25. 10. 7. lO. <>. 0. 29. ct. f 6)(o 62. lOx 10 + w.  2\. 32.(3x  700) = 5. 3. 10 x sq. 800 = x + 1300. 4. X 60.r ct. 2. 17. f = eZ 2 x. Page 61. 28. 2. 1. 20. 11. 3 9. 44. fix. 10. 100 2. 7.. 5. 33. ( a f 4. 4. + 3x + 2y + 32. xy ft. 9. 43. Page 40. s.. 4. x. 5. 16. 10 yr. 21 2. Page 31. I.  6 10.  9 = 17 a.7).10) 100. 10) (6) 2 zf 20 3^740. r>?imi. 10 >_&. 2x + 35. 19. 20. 36. ft. 6.rr2. 1&. x + 1=a. Page 13. 5. 13. . 60 25 1. I. 22.ANSWERS Page 9. 6. 39. 26. 18. (a) ' 12.. 2b. 2 ct. 2=10. 'nj 100 a 28. 15. y 2z p= 3 (a c. 2. 6. 5. 38. m +~m 3. 18. 16. 3x  1700) = 12. # + 20yr. 10 a. / + y + a// 12 yr. 46. '^ . d. vil 56. 31. }f. 11. = 5 ?i x 460. 100 14. 2b 22. 57. r tx mi. !). 0. 45. 100= ^. 4^ = 100. 20. 14. x = m. + (d) 2 x + (3 sc 700) = (x f 1200)  x. ct. (</) 2a. 13. x y $ 6 yr. 44. 33. (>. 59. 47. " lir. 30. (2 a. 00.r1. 2. 40. 23. 7. 16.(3x+ = rraxlO. 37. 7. 34. 13. y yr. 17. 11. 29.  />) a = all. y 100 a 24. 100 d ct.p+7.. 5. 12. ) 2^ x 20 =a 7. 6.100. (c) (2zf 600) (3 =4. 50= L 100 15. rn mi. Page 6. a 10. b. 41. 7. 42. 7. iL*.000. 2. 6. 8 n  10 yr. 4 f 39. 19.ab a. 41. x 2y 10 act. a 8. 22. d + !. . 3. 1. 1. ] 2 ri 42. m=  100 2x=2(3x~10). 10. + 4x 3y 34. 14. 10. ft. ^ 12 sq. (> 27. (c) 2x.  1$.200) f(^ + (e) 200. 17. 9. + f + b 2. 36. 8. 58. 4. 38. 1. f (I. . v (6) 2x. 30. y ?>i x + 26. 12. . 4. . 5. (A) 3 x f (4 x . . "mi. 27. 1. sq. </ 20. x 49. 10) + = (a) 2 x . + 10 b + c ct. y 50. 7. ft. (c) 2a? + 3 (/) (2fl58)h(8aria)=60. 2. 24. 3. 37. + 3 = 2(3* . b. Jj12. . 7x 2 Page 21. n M. ct. ? 43. (d) 2a + 10 = n.6 = *. 90 7 2 + 10 = c. % 4. x 48.x700. 23. 35. l. 15. 8.
16.000. 8. 40 yr.3. 17.000 copper.5. 18. 8. 250. 11 in. 13. 7. 13. 7. (y 13. Pace 65. 14. Page 79. (a + 6) (a + 3). 15. w (/) 64. 6. 72... 10 yd.2. (a + 4)(a + 8). 12. 7.. 7. 4.21. 4pt. 52.000 Phil. Page Page 480 12. 13. 25.5p + 7 g ).. 30 yr.. 3. 78.10. 2. 9 in. 200. (2a63?2_4 a /^) 16. 82 mi. 10 Mass. 9. 10 Cal. 45 in. (a5)(a4). . 75. 18. k ' _ ft v J (d) 100 100 ' V ' ' 100 100 100 =^8000.(5z . 13 a 8 4 * 5 (53 xyz + x y'W). 4. 25. 17. 1. 11. (p + 7)(3a5&). 15. 11. (ro3)(w2). 1313.000. 1. ( + 4)(*2). 8. 67. 68. 8. (m + n)(a + 6). 10. 1200. 20. 9. 6. 8..6). a a (a 8 a+l).2).000 pig iron. 7 hr. 3. ~=90. 70^. 14. 1.000 N. 25 yr. 78. 14. 74. 5.000 gold. 2 2 2 5. 4. 90. 11. by 12 yd. 28yr.y"). 05. 600. 8. 3. 8 12. 30 mi. 1200.000. 2 3 6 7. 20 yd. ? 2  = SJL+J10 13. 20 yr. 15. 50.3. .. (a + 5)(a + 6). 4. .210^.. 21. 15 mi. 15 yd. 3. Page 7. 5. . 1. 11. 6. 4. 5$ hr.. 42yr.8. MOO HXT 100 100 ^~ (5z30) =900. 2.000.. 22. 8 in. (z5)(z2).5. 2. 7a*fe(2a & l).0.. 10. 2. 12.. 13. (6) (6 a 30) =20. (e) i* + A. (y8)(y + 2). 12. 14.411. 70. 3.16. 80 A. 5.000 Berlin. Ib. 9.22. 150.11.000.  PageSO. = _?_(2ar + 1). 12. 6. 7. 30. 9. 11 pV (2 p8 . 17z8 (l3z + 2x').. 10. $40. 17 7>c(2 a'^c2 . 3. 160 lb.000 ft. 300. 10.vili ANSWERS (a) V J^. 20 yr. 15. (*4)( + 11. 23.1). Oaj(o62cd). 14.13. 2$. 30. 8 2 19. 8. 100. (y + 8)(y2). 1. 6. Page 7. 5. 19. (yll)(y4). 10. 20. 15 in. 9. 18. 7.3). 8. 10 yr. z?/(4^ + 5xy . 2 2 ?/ 21.0. Y.. 11 w(w' + wi . 12 mi. 9. 5 Col. 1250.. a 12. 13. 6. 180. 2. 9. 5pt. 55. 4. 2). 12. 90 mi.24.000 ft. 100 1. Page Page 4. 24J. 1. (c) ^ v ' . (a 4) (a. (y7)(y + 2). 29.3aftc + 4). 6rt 2 11.. 6. 85 ft. 5 lb. 14. 2. 71. 10. 8(a6 2 +6c2 c2 a2 ). 3.79. 5.000. 200.7. 12. '2 > 10aVy(2a 2 ay43y 2 ). 3 (a +&)(*. + 7)(y3). Page Page 4. 6 aty (3 + 4 6) 2. 10.30) + (2s + 1) v v ' ' 5 18. ^ . 10 yr. 480. 15.000. ?(g ? g+ 1). 1. 3 hr. 1 lb. Page 5. 2. 3x (3r. 20. 6.
+ 8)(g3). 11. 24.7)(2z f 1). (* + y)(zy). 5. 19. 5. 15. (4y3)(3y + 2). (13a +10)(13a 10). No. + 4) (a. + 2 )(a + ft)(aft). (7 a + 4) (2 a . 2 17. (m + w) 2 5. 23. (9y4)(y + 4). . 26. 29. (5xy ) 3 ft 8 B 2 (12+ y 2 )(12y 2 ). Page 84. (ay8)(ay3). a(2u. x(x +y)(x y). y) (a. . 10(a + ft)(aft).4p). (a*& + 9) (aft + 3) (aft 3). . (2o + l)(2l). . 103x97. 40 x.. 10. (a2 + 10) (a2 2). (3*2)(.1). Yes. (w ~ n (x . 9ft w(?3) 140 w 2 27. a*(5a f l)(flr . 26. (a + 8)(a3). + 3). 33. (a a: 19. (n2 + 12)(n 2 + 5). 216 aft. (:52y)(2a!3y).y (6x + 4)(5x4).ANSWERS 16.4.5y)(3a. 8. . a. 11. 6. (5a4ft)(2 a~3 ft). 9. 32. Yes. (m7n) (a. 10(2 30. . 7. (l + x )(l + x )(l + x)(lx). 14. Yes. 100 (a. Yes.3 y 2 )(2 a: 2 f y'2 )2 3 Yes.6) 2 1. 29. (15a + 46*)(16a46). + 2y). x\x 24. (3#y)(+4y). ( 2 4 19. 15. 13x(a + ft)(aft). Yes. 21. 10. (a 6 6) (a 4. 10x2 (y9)(y + 2). 10. Yes. 2.+4 y)(3x4 y). 8. 21. (y + 4)(yl). 35. 27. . (m + n + 4p)(w + . 11.6) 2 2 .3). 25.c 2 ). (a 4 10) (a 4 + 3).4 6). 2 y' (2y3)(2yl). . 2. 35. . 27. 4. 17.2). 1. 14.1).2 ft). 4. 6. 4 (a . 25. (2w+l)(ro + 3). Yes.7) (a.y) 2 aft. 14. Page 83. (2yl)(y + 9).  x (5 a. x (z + 2)(x + 3). ix 18. 26. (m + n +p)(m + wp). 26. 3)(3a. 3a. 21. (w* (3a26). 2(2s + 3)(a: + 2). 2(9a:8y)(8a:0y). 10(3 5 6) 2 . 21. 3. 36. + 0(90 Page 85. + 3?i) 2 (5x2y) 2 . 12. 20. (5a +l)(5a l). (y8) 2 2 . 17.2). Oa 2 (a2)(al). + y + . 9. 2). 22. (0 + 6)(66).9*). No. 13x7. 2.   . 9. (3a. 30. 23. f 2). 22. Yes.1). 2 2 15. 18. 31. 27. (4a. 30. 3. . (4 18. 28. 25. 22. 1. (15z2y)(x5y).w*)(l 2 n 2 ). (g . (2xl)(x + f>). 24 9. 22. (ft + ll)(aftll). + 5) a. (5 a 2) (2 a 3).2 y). 24. 25. Yes. .11 6) (a 4. (4al)(a2). (6n + l)(+2). (3 n + 4) (2 (3x+l)(x + 4). 3. 18. 25. 24. 20. . No. 7. Page 82. 16. 12. 10 y2 (\) x + l)(x~ 3). No.8). 10 a 2 (4 . 17. (6 a. (2 a? 4. (0 (l+7a)(l7a). (5wl)(m5).11 ft)(a6).r2). (10a + ft)(10aft). 9. 16. + 3)(c44). Yes. 23. Yes. 2 3 by2 Yes. (5x . 16. 34.3)(z2). (az + 9)(ox2). Yes. 2 No 4. 3(x + 2)(zl). 100(x. 13. 200 (x + l)(x + 1). a . 8) (a. 23. 33. a 2 (w7)(w + 3). 32. No.1). (2 *+!)(* 9). + 9^)(oxy . 12.2 by2 6. 28. (7 ay + 8) (7 ay 2 2 13. 1. (a 3 + 10)(a. y(x. (10 aft + c 2 (10 aft . (<7 20. 19. 8. (a. 28. 7 6) (a 10 6). . 9. (a (p8)0> + l). y) 2 29. (4 13. (15ay2) 2 . (x + y4 )(x . 7. (w + 20)(w + 5).y4 ). 31. 20. 34. 10. 2 y(ll x 2 + 1)(11 x2 .* (2 y + 3)(y. 10(a .
4  9.3)(x 4. 2 2 10. 15 M. (f> + fo 7. 19. ANSWERS r)(4x (4x 4. 4& 2 )(tt4/>)('e 62 2 2 4l)(a' & &) 5). r x 2 */3 . 13. 3x(x?/) 4.4).&).42 x 4.. 15. (xf!/)' 3 4 w)(m. n  r)(5a 10. 80a6 4 40 aV>*>c >d\ !)&(<* 4. Page 12. 7. a + a b. (a &4.5 <:  9 </) (2 a 12. 4. . 7. a 41. ( rt 23. a 4.4)(?  5 (6a 4l)(a +)2( 2x2/)(x2?/). 17(x43//)(x2y). 4). a 2_rt4l)(a rt 1).4. 13( 33. 7.l)( a 25.r(3x' 2 4 (14. (7/1 2) (m 41). (Ox  7 ?/)(7 x4 y/).'/)('< 4.7s) (2 a. 11. 4 6. 16. a x 3 10.'J)(' . x . 4. 2 21. 4. 38.y. 2 a 2 13x 3 y. 20. 3p (^9)(j) 4).3. 5  (2 2 . (^ + ?>_8).y (m + 2 u + (\p)(m + \ . 4. fi(c426). x  1). 22.^46) a?/ 2 /> + o) (ff n 2 T>). 8. (w4w) 2 1. ?i(w 4y) . 2. 12. 10(2 (3 4.  (w' 4. x43. + 3.  29. 6 f c). 2 . a(a 2 + !)(+ !)( .  (m3n + a + b)(m 3nab). 24x sy s 9.y '2 2). l. Page 87. y(2x?/). 9. (5 26.3. + 2 //). 12. 14.5 m2 x2. x 4. 12.4).0+ 12). 6. ( 4 1 ) (2 m . Page 90. 9. 35.^ c)((> 4 3 (3 w 2 w 4 m  ). 6. (16 4  2(5 n . 3(47>44)(^4'> 22/)((3x). 4. 5. 4. 17. 11. 4 a s &8 . (w * . (x. 4 a8 . (a 9. Page 86. 6.w )(l 4 w 2 )(l 3 + ( y) r)(x ( .!) (x42)(x2). 6.e 4. (5 31.1) 3. (* _ 2 )(a 4. 14. 2 k (wi 4. . 42).))(x  ^OC 1 1). (5 al) 3) (f> a/> 15 ?>).y). 40.36). 2. 2(m4l)' .?>) H. ofc)( fid). 8.8) ( (16. 41. 3(. 2(5 a  ft) (a 3 ?>). (a 4. 2 5 a 2 6c 2 3. Exercise 47.?/). Exercise 46.1). 24. 8. b) (r 4.9). (m  I)' 6. Page 92. 2 y) ^ . (5^4. y). 13. 7. (!__/>). 4. 16. c 5 b 5 + 9 iZ) . 2. 8. 14. 37. Gp).7)(^ {I 12. 8.1). 2 8(w . 13. 5 x8 3. ( y). (2x7)(x 2 2). 10. ^ .^ 48. 7. Page 89. 5. (a />. K + l) a (a 5 />z 9. ?>). 8 4 15 ?>)(a 34. 2 2 (3a 4// )(x4>/). 8. a (a + 2 6).b. (. (5a+l)(9a). (14. 12 m 2 (m n) 2 . (a + (2a3fc)0*+ tf)Or 41) (^42). 4. (^ 7. . ah}. 3. 15. 1.'})(c .>*)(:> 4 lj 4. (2 a ~ f> b 4. 2. 32. 42a 3 x.2). 5. 6.2 y). (r420(4 10.&). (x//.2)(x 1.i4l)(x4l)(x~l). ( (<> r4y3 . 450. 4 3. 2 + . (> 1. 8x.y)(fi a . ( a ^)(^3.X 5. 39.a + (< (3 7>)(3  a l fo).?50)(xt/z. a8 . 19 13> (7rt3)(7a~3). 8. 7. (c. 2 1. y )(.n).//)(5y x(x4ti<0. . 30. 13 x 8 2 . 6. O + ?/4<?)O ?> 4 q). 1(V/ 88. .) j). 18. y6. 27. . 2. 2 (a 4.  WIM. a 2 (a9). 11.4. 8). 3 x4 . 28. 2 2 3 . 10(8x' 4l) 4. 14.8).8) n 43*). x(x f y)(jr . ( { &). 11. 36. 5.2).& (a 5 & 4#  2 y) (a 1. a 4.
x 24.ANSWERS 10. x 12. b ! 21. 13. 6a2&(rt6). 18. + &) 2 ( . + y) (a: y). +8b a 4 3 / ^. w 2 ^ (!L 5 +2 3 i + 63 3^1 rr Pace 991 20 . +5 1. + &)(&) ( . x 22. 30(3 2 (a 15.  1). // m+1 !+*?. (a2y2 (a3) 2 (a4) 2 14. 11.6). 2(2al) + l). a 23. a 10 25. 1). ?_!&. (a2)(a + 2)2.
w + _ i + _J? a w+4+ ? 3 8. 1. 11. ^iie^+JoJ^^ilOa bc 9 11 92 aft  1>*  10 12 + qc + ab ' 238 . w1 + ac w 4 7. 4 L 8 2 .Xll ANSWERS 21 2 . c 8.80 MP 2 30 ?/ r + t S ^ 2ft "' 180 wv 15. xy 43. ' 2 7. 0. 3a 2 2) ' i (x ' t+3) 5x (wi8)(w go a 3ffl + 13 + *2)(x + 3)' 19 ' rtv+Ji:'. a 5. 7. 26. _*^p5_^^_. ^~ 29. + lH + . ^i 2n a 22 9x * T 94 4<i ^ 33 9 ^ 37 (a 2 b)' (a + ft) a 42. 2 a. 4. Page 101. ab121 12 ft 2 8 a 2 196 a2 8. 2x1 + 5x 12 + ^.  **/* + 84 _. 4c 10. 6. Page 100.50 ~ 1/2 . 6. 30. + ^8 1 a 2 1 ~ 41. i. a 2 ft 2 + 21 ft' 1 4m m2 26 9 fi 7 . r > 'a2 f an f ft' ' 2(czft) (x 2. . rt 3a2 + ~3a a 3. + 2H 1 ^.2g ftc 46 ?t ~ 30 y .y~ z ' ] 5 x2 y + :j y. i^. 28.. 6a5f^. 6. A^.
13. 14. x\. 12. 9. w^x 2 b Page 105. J. 16. 17. 3. 16. 1. Page 110. 11. 2) 19. 7. ^i 11. a2 2. 15. 5. 2 47. 3. f Page 107. . 41.^_. ' 6. . J. 7. b 2. 7. flf. b a f +c 14. 5. 4. m 9. J. 1. xiii in <l ~ 2b 18. 11. Page 113. 3 7 i o. 7. 15. 14. 0. 23.y 7. 4. 5. a.L+ft. ?+_!?>. 3. 1. 14.  10 X + u. 6. 4. 38. 9. 10. 35. 8j_m 7 3. Page 111. 21. Of. 19. x 05m ' 5. 11. 17. j L . . (y + (z 12. 10. an 18. 6. 3. 5 be _J_. 20. 6. ac mp lf> n 12. 26. c 8. 39. ! 4 20. +3 ( + 15. 1.^U\WF### X<6. ft. 6 . 12. 3. 4. 46. 1. 43. 34. a 17. (a + y) 2 Page 104. 0. 4. 11. 2 re +3y mn 10 lo. 32. ^_. 36. + f. 42. 4. pf n 6 1. 29. n m a + 13. 4. 21. 5 6 Q 5 a 12. 21. ?. 33. 15. 37. Page 106. y(x + x ?/). 2ft a i m x. 44. n . 1. 4a3ft. 8. (>. 6. 18. 24. 30. n 16.  V o 4. 1^)2 ' 2 1) 2 13.ft . ft 2 f 1 + a + 1 Page 109. I) 2 3z 1. 1. 9. 3. 27. 11. x 1. f 7. . 45. 1. 1. 8. 1. 40. 12 28. 6. 5. 31. A. 25.
003. 6. ANSWERS 16. 5. 4. J. 10. 10. Page 119. 212. 15. 10. Yes. 22. . after 20. 21. No. 10. 10. 1:1 = 1:1.000 1 = 23. IV s. 21. ^p^ r ~ 7. after 18. 2x:3y. f .137. '"I 22. 3 : 19 = 4 : 25. 9. 14. Page 121. 15. 26. 33. 1 da. 300. 3. (ft) (r) 8 hr. 10. 16. b 25 ' mft 26 ' w 27 ^ ' ~i~ ^ .002. nm. 10^ oz. No. 19. Yes. (ft) 5 da. 1:4. 13. 8. 11 hrs. 15.. Yes.. min. 17. 5ft 30mi. 6. f.139. 1 : 12. 12. Yes.. 26 mi. . 12.000. 10. 3:2. 9. Yes.000 If da.000. 8. 10 yrs.XIV '/ .. = A's. $30. 10. (d) 4 da. 7. 33. 2. 55 mi. 9ft. 5. Page 124. 11. 4~r~ n . $45. ~m . 30. a 4 ft 3 T 29 30 ' 5T (a) ^ 10 (ft) 31. 18. n 32. 36. 4. 10. 2 20. 24. 17. 3. 1^'. w 21. 18. 19. 4x'2 :3?/ 2 1 . 9. (a) 4 min. 6. 00. 40wn. 5 25. Page 118. 5 2. 11. min. () 2.0. 275:108. 24. 35. 1: ~. . ^?i min. #V ~~ 34. 7. :2. Yes. 13. P+ ^ 33. a 4 ft.. silver. 15. 30 mi. 18. 5./hr. 75 . J ^'. gold. 17. 1. r/ i  PM xx HXH />/ Page 114.004. . after $12. (ft) 28. 30 yrs. 15.. $40./hr.138.  C . 4.} da. 7. 16. 8. 4fl M_. ft. 2:1. 15. 14.0 & .. Yes. 7. . 40 mi.001. Page 117. dn ~ mi. (a) 30. 38ft min. 5. 500. 13. 17. Yes. 20. 19. . 40 yrs. 1. (c) 2 hr. 9$. 1. 28. 1:1 = 1:1. 4.9. (r) 3^ da.2. (a) 12 hr. $00.000. 1:3.x + y. 1. (ft) 104. 15. 21ft min.000. 3. jj. (c) 8300. 23< &n b ' . 8. 8. (a) 25. 14. 81. 11. 9J oz. 3 da. 13. 7} 18. 16. 300. 3. [>> ^ a . 2. 9. (d) 500. 7. $0.  + .  29. 34.10. xy. 24 mi. w 18. (ft) 5 hr.2.. 20. 27. 3. 300. 4. 1:1 = 1:1. 14. 31. 0. * 7:9.11.. w 44. 30ft. 8301 hr. " 0. 19. 74. ^m . Page 125. 7 . 20. 7. 12. 1:1=1:1. 26 30. . 7T 2 Page 116. 3. 32.15. _JL..
in.3. 7.12. mi. 4. 11. 6. 19.17. 3. 11. 55. 2. 4."2:1.4.840. : : : ?/ : tf : ?/ : : : : : : : : : sr. x y y . 43. 3. 23. 11 w a 13. 24. 41. 4. 2. jc:y = n:m. 11. Page 137.1. 13. 12. 2. 7. 3}.2 oz. J. 4.x a.12. 20 cu. 9. .3. 30. ~ 1. 8. 52. 6.  19.  ?. 26. 45. 19 OJ. x 42.7. 23. 8.2.5. (a) Directly. 22. 12. 5. 10. 3. s<i.2. 4. 1. 1. 3. . (<l) A A (e) m m = d> (. 1(5. 13. 10. 47. w 8. 5.3. "lO. . y 1.2. Page 131. 5:0 = 10:12. 24 1 (e) Directly. l.46.3.5. (I. 2. 2. 9. . 12. 3.3. Of.8 oz. : : T 1' : /> : . 7. 6. I. 13. 8. in n. 7. 5. *. mi. 2.4. 2. tin. 31J. 14. 19 3 . 7.3. + W.5. ft.5. . 7. t 5.20. 5. 5. 59. 9. 36. . 7.5. 141.a. 3  24. 32+ mi. + m* <7^' 10 7)C 14.1. : XV 27. 16.22.J.. 20 20 J ^. 1. () 7 Page 126. 2. water. lo mi. 1 1 : : : : : : (I. 21. 17. 7. 13J.3. b x 37. 1.. 3. 174+ Page 128.2. 5. 25. 54. 18. 3. 46. 7. 9. : />. . a f 2 2 = 5 x. 1.1. land.]. y :y =. 10. 27. 4. 21. 8. 57.. 2.1. 2. 48.3.2 x. 32  <>' 33  4 <^: 34 : : . 7. a +b 1. 11. 2. +m ' 12 3_a ' 7^ 10 ' 1 .J 3. 1 rt * vm^1. Page 9. 40. Page 132. 2 n . ini. 1. w.' : : : : <>. a~. : . 1. 2. 3 2=3 x. 20. 49. 20. 9  15. Page 136. 4. 5. 8.4. 9.  28. 44. 22. 31. 7. = 7 b'. 4. J. 36. 28. 19. OJ. 5. 16. OJ. 4. 1. 2. 8. 1. 6. 2. 26.5. + b 7 . 16. 38. 7. 56. x:y a: b.) 31. 7. 25. 9. 5. 3. . 5:3 = 4: x. 5. 7. 40. i. 10. J pq.li.5. 14. /. 2. 4. : : . 50.15.000 sq. 35. 11. 4. 2. 5 2.3. 945 11 10 .5. 41.36. 2. x +y x + 74 7 \. 9. J. $." ^ 2. . 13. a 3.3. x y = 1 = 3 2.*. Inversely.C ?/ a .57. ' 55. 29. 24.6. cu. 6 10 = 12. .15 x. 2. 1 18 = 3 51. + 7>i//  ft 1 .5. 11 5 .r.^ 0?j ' gms. 2. 4. 14.000 sq. 4. 3. y . \.7.4.4. 17. 3. . 2./':</ c a f :y=2:9.ANSWERS 22. 2. Page 5. Page 133. : 23. 17. 12. 2. 15. 8.1. \\. 2. 25. ig 6. 1. 138. 6*. 2. (b) Inversely. . 39. 15.3. 4. 19. Page 135. 3. 200 mi. 53. . 30. () Directly. 9. 4. Page 134. 7.9. 127. = R~ R>'\ V V = P> P. 15> 9. 32j. 7. 3. 6. 58. y a y = 7 0. (</) ft. 14. 2. . 3.160. 3. 5. (b) C C' = fi JR'. copper. 7^. 2.
6 cows.1. 14. 17. 3. 6. 3. $ 1000. a =J (n  1) rf.. 19. 25. 12. 1. . The ordinate. ad AzA. 1. 7. 2. 3. 5. B's 40 yrs. 25. Nov. (c) . 23f . ' . 7. 7. Page 143.8. (a) Apr. 3. On the x axis. 7. 3. & part of Feb. 25. 4. 21.. 12. 18. 12. . 14. Apr. 16. 11. . 10. 12. 10. A a parallel to the x axis. 24. 2. Jan. 3.65. 2. . J. Oct.2. 17. 4. $4000. 5. 20. 6. B's 15 yrs. 30. 30. 18. 1. 72.3. (ft) 23 J. 147. July. 4. (ft) 20. 9. 1. 3.4. Jan.10.$2000. SL=J o ft r^2. 24. 1.1J. (5. Aug.n + p. 7. 7. Nov. 6. 423. 13. be 10. 2. 16. 11. 7. On 11. 2. through point (0. & May. $3000. 7. 23. 12. $250. 24. 4.1. . 10. 2. yrs. 5.  17. 26. 4. 11. 1. 32. 9. Page 152. 20 to Oct. Page 146.0. $500. 11. . 2. C's 10 yrs. Page 151. 4. Apr. 3. m f 8. 23.. 30. 5. 22. 3. July 20.& w_ i ae 22 5 L=. 8. Page 149.0. $6500at3Ji%. ft 3. 5. . Page 145. 3. ^.l. May 5. 20. 3. 21. 18. . 10. 2. 16. 5. 13. 9. 5%. yrs. 0. 6. 26. . 1. 3. 9. 5. 7. July. u 2ft. 6. 100. 40. 6%. 18. 2. 00. 9. 1. Page 142. 4. parallel to the x axis 0.4. 8. A's 30 18. afcd ae ftd 8 ft. 13. 3). 16.^. 4 mi. 11. 3. 1. 3. 4. 19. 2. 15.. M 2. 17. m + n p. = ^ a Page 141.2. June..  Zn  "(^ll 14. (<f) 13. 3. C's 30 yrs. 16. Apr. 2. 10 sheep. a. 2. 6. Nov. About 12f. 4 ' q. m . 28. 1 (c) Jan. m f 9./hr. 3. 14. 3.4. 0. ' 6 3 a. 1. 3. 27. 8. Jan. 16 to July 20. 6. 4. 7. 4. 2.33. 1 (d) Apr. 15. 11. 20. 2. Nov. 3. 19 gms. 10. Feb. . ' w_i 7 fr^ m w ' 2 m+w . 4. 4. 2 a. 1. 8. 2. 25. 2. . (a) 12. 20. 5.$5000. Jan. 40. 20 & Oct. 5. 1. 6. Jan. 4.  11. . ad _(?jrJL. $900 5%. 16. &.3. <*ft/ bd 1. Page 22. 3. On the y axis.XVI Fagel39. 24. 31. 15. A's 50 13. 9.7. 4. 2. 4. 90. 29. 20. 5. & part of Sept.9. . be 7. at 15.. 10^ gms. Page 153. 2 horses.3. 2t2. 0. 2.
. 1. 4. . 13 . 11. 125 16. 125 a 8 12.25. 2 a&m Page 167. 5. 1. 3. 2. 5. f 10. 3. +3 4.24. 14. G. 17. 1. .  1. 9 and Page 166. ft . . ft 2 4. 5 and 2. 1. (/) 3. 19.64.24.75. \ft) 5.. 125a 28.34F. 15. 2. 14. 8 a1. 1^. 5. m. 2. . 32F. 1. . 1. 2.. 19.4 aft h a 2 ft 2 . 10.2 (ft)  1.83. 8 1 f f g*. 30.  12 ft xW  26 31.27. (/) 3. _ 9 x ^27 1 .AN WE US 'S xvii Page 157. 2. xg . 13. 8. 2 2 22. a 29. 25.79. f4p 7+6p g f4pg 6." 23. 1. 1. 3.83.1.. 2.79. Inconsistent. jgiooyiio 17. 1. 3. . . .8 n 27 a 4 ft 4 f 8. 2. Inconsistent. 83. m + 8 m% f 60 win2 4. . 3. 81 ". 27 27 81. 27 19. 2. 20. 2.1.  1. 8.25. 5. 1. 04 x 12 */ 1 '^ 1 2 t  9 11. 4. 3.5 (ft) 3.59 . 10 C. 6. 20. . 4.59. 14. SlstyW 7. Indeterminate. . 1 4. (ft) (ft) 2.75. 2ft4 Page 168. 4. 64_ a 12 ft 27 ' a 121 81 a 4) ft 44 a 4TO a3 l. . 15. 5.5. xW. . (c) 7. (gr) 21. . 24. 24. 9.4 a^ft 4*/ 3 + t/*. 22. 9. 2. 2.84. 3 . . (ft) 2. 1. Page 159. 12. Page 163. 11. . 2.75.3 aft 2 + 8 ft . 13. 4 ) 21. 27. 3. m4 1/ m%+6 w2 n f 2. (a) 12.25. 21. . . 4wn8 + n4 5. (a) 5. 10. 4}. Page 158.13. 3. .41 and . (c) 2. 15. 18. 12. 5. I21a 4 ftc 2 18. 4. 1. xy.67. f.64. 3. 1. 26. 1.73. 3.. H. a 10 ' a ll V&.41 and 23. + a 4 ft* . 1.24 . . 13C. . f12 wi 9. 0C.3. 4. ' :=_!. 30. 2. H. a 6o&i85 c i5o . 10. Page 164. 1. 3. 2 l. 1 + I5a 3 + 75a6 + 150 126a 9 ft . 3.87 (0) 3 (c) and and 1 2. 2. 3. 7. (e) 3. x3 3x2y + 3x?/2 2 a 3 +3a 2 +3a + m8 6w _ i. Indeterminate. 28. 2. 3. (a) 4. (ft) (d) 2. (<?) 2.  .17 (ft) (c) 2. 2.73. 4. x*f 4x 8 + 6x2 f4 xf 1. aH64 a2 + 36 aft 2 +8 8 27a135a2 ft4225aft2 125ft8 . .75 (ci) 3^.4. 5. 18C. 14. . * 16. 3. 3. ImW. 0. 1. 3. 8mW.3.25. 3.6. 27a 3 27 343 a 6 27 2 +9al. 6. 15 . f. 147 a 4 ft 21 a 2 12. (e) 2. (c) 14 F. a + ft. 13. 11. 1. 3. 2. () (rt) 3. 2. 1 23. 2. (a) 2.73 ami . . (ft) and (d) 2. i/* 25 a8 343x30 ' 1 125 29. 8.25. 44 + 6t/2 m4 4m8 H6m2 4m4l. 16.7. . 22.5.73. 1. 27 a6 ft  9a 2 1.
23. w 8 + 8 in n + 28 5 5 4 4 3 8 2 w c + 10 w 2 2 c 3 + 5 mwc 4 + r5 18. 17. + y).1.GO a c + 23. 12. (4a2 9& 2 13. (1 (x2y). 15. 2 ?>i?< >2 10. 763. (a 2. (5^ + 4x?/ + 3?/ ). 3.5 a 4 + 10 a9 .10 a~ + 5 a . 420. 10 x G a 4 . (23 alt + 7 (4rt +3 (5m 2 Cm + 3). 2 12. 4. +(^ 2 3^ + 2). 1. a: l . a 2 . fr ft i/ /> ^  23 . 14. ro 12 + 4 m+ w + 4 w + l. 0. 3 6 23. 20. 8. (ab + c). . 1 + 8 z + 24 2 + 32 r + 10 x 4 25.83.5. 16. (27 + 3 a xy 8 21. m 13. (48 + 6. ? . wi 8 + 3m 2 . 11.i c 6 15. + l). 9. 3. Page 176. 5. (ly). j/^/t^/' wi n 4 p*+ 10 w 8 w y 10 wi 2 w 27> 2 +6 w/ip. 34. 1. (x + y\ 90. 3. 84. 2. (x' l). 1 1 ?>). 3 w 2 H2 + 3 4 n 4 . /> 4 ). (7 (2 2 3 2 16. 180 . Page 170. 1. 32 r^ 10 + 80 w 8 + 80 wt c + 40 m 4 + 10 m'2 + 21. 21. 10. ( x + 2 x 2z + 4). (rt' (2 a (7 4 10. 25. 81 + 540 + 1360 a 4 + 1500 a 2 + 025. + Z). 100 *6 + GOO x 1000 2 + G25. 11. 2(> + ( 2 7>). 20. r> 4 : 1 . 1247. (Gn + 5 a + 4 a). 14. 18. 14. +3 + 5 4. 1. . 8.6. 19. 2. 90. 10. 20. ^i.^). .x ). 14. Page 171. ?7i 1 1 3 1.2). (6 a + 5 a + 4 a ).+ 50 m*w* + 70 w 4 4 + f>6 ?n *w 6 +28 >/* + 8 mn + w 8 17. 8. ? : 1 . .037.7 /)). 8.+3^ + 4. 3 2 ^. 4. +35. (a + 2 +l). 35. 57.1. 30. 99. Zll. 64. 12. 72.5). 21. 7.r 2 + 6jt). 24. 119. 70. 12. fe *?>' ?> fi . 3 2 8 3 12. 30. (3a. 18. 2. (:' + (2a3a: 2 + a. 300. 7. 28. (a + y+l). 8 4 se 1 1 :J . 32. 19. m* m*>n + 16 w 4 2 +5 c*d+ 10 c 3 tf2 + 10 c 2 d+6 c<74 + d5 20 in s + 15 w 2 w 4 G mw 6 + w 6 11. . + i)). 17. 13. 00. I 8x2). 32+ 80 a +80 a* +40 a 3 + 10 a 4 fa 5 14. 309. ??i ?i . . 2 49 . 16. c 10 6 :l 20. 22. 5. 2. 6. (2 a + ft). ( Page 174. 9. 1 + 5 a?b* + 10 a 4 b* + 10 a& + 5 a/> + a 10 10 i c5 . 9. a. 2038. 9. w w + 5 W w c + 10 19. 11. a 7 + 7 b + 21 + 36 4 & 8 + 35a 3 & 4 6 6 7 . (l + x + . 90. 36. 15. a ). (6a + 4a + 3a + 2). 98. 7. 978. + 29. a. 18. 6. 5. 6.  +X '. 13. 11. 16. 9. 15. Page 172.XV111 7. 40. 20. ). 2 4 8 2 . 2 2 7. 6 (\x 3. 31. 5 5 8. 8. . rt . 2 2 4.3 ab + 2 2 ). 4. 26.  x. + (win . 71. 8 /. 17.r 2 + S:r2/2 ). + + ?V 22. 4. l lV (l+? + & + x J x V s 24. 9. 76.f 1 m 9 16. 5.a b 22. 16 6 w . . 1 w + 5 m' G 7 w. .1000 ac 3 + (J25 c 4 24. 3. 10. 5. 247. 6. 2. 3M. GOO 2 c 2 . 237. 25 19.94. 33. + 4 x2 + Ox4 +4^ + x8 10. 101.y2 ). 10*. 6. (Gx + (i + 2a. f 21 rt'6 + 7 f 6 13. . 27. 15. AN S WE no .
*. 27. Page 180. 21 in. 9 15 ft. or 5. 4. 2. 8. 8. 2. JJI. 7.. Page 184.4. 2. 36. . w. 14. 22. 15. 16. . 11. 17. 33. 10. 11. 13.6. 20. a + 61. 2. 8.645. 1. V35 1.  f. *. 4. 13. 5. 17. Page 185. 5083. 31. 10. . 8. 3. 4. 3. > w ft.5. 12. V J l.1. f.469. 5. 12.243. 6. 48. 12.  3.  43. 10. 5. * 1. 9. 15 1 10. 20. 35. 5. 4. 3. 9. 6. 2] see. 4. 4 W**. 31. 28. 9. 10. >i 27. 3. 4. m. (< + ?>). 32. _ iVaft. 17. 11. 4 a. 7. () 2. 24. 12. 9. 13. ft. ft. V17. {. 34. 3J. V. 26. 3. 9. 1 f Vl3. 18. 25.. 6. ^. 3. 3. 1.ANS WERS 22. 12.  1.a. 8.1. 46. 6yds. 4J. 4 n. 25 J.w 18. 47. 9. 21 28 ft. 3.?. (6) Vl4 3.6. ~ V^3. 21yds. 2. 1. 16. 4 TT M 28. 14. l~8. 30.V 8j. i. 6 f !.798 yds. 6. 23. 9. 1 38. 16. 5. 16. i ^.5. 24.522 38. 1. 7. 270 sq. }. 42. 21.4. 1. 4. 2. f .  2. " ^_ 22. 32. 7. 4. 2 sec. 41. 50. 36 in.  5. 39. 2. m.6. ZLlAiK 19. .. 9. 6.60. 37. Af^. 11. 7.. 13. \/3. 19. 4. .. f f V. 36. 15. 49. . / 11. a. 23. 1.916 yds. 39 in. f..237.. 7. 40. 7.690.367. 5. 29. or 3. 6. 10.935. 2. 14. 2. . 27. 14. ft. 10. 29. 10.. 6561. 2. 6V21.18. 4. 7. 5. 1. . 7. 10. . 34. 3. 3. 12. 20.925 ft.742 in. 28. 3. 7 in. 15. vYb. 3. 5. 5. ^. Page 183. If ^. 1 7. 14. . 21. 4. 4. ii :J _7. Page 179.. 5. 11. 25. 2. 5. 5f. 23. 3.236. 6. 29. f 3. 1. (afl). 1. 2. 3. . J. 1&.  f. Page 181. ^^7m. 1. 33. 7 45. 19. vV'TA 24. 6.4. 2. 16n. 15.  14. 28 in. 5. V2. 8. 5.. 37. V2. 5. 30. >TT 26.13.6.005. 40. 10. 6V'2J. Page 177. 15.6.}. 18. 7}. 4. /. 7563. 12. 13. 21. f ^ is. 39. v 17. 35. 44.i.Sn. 1. . xix 26. 7. 6J. 7. 12.
12. 8. 19 in. $30 or $70. 0. 2. 6^2 in. x*4x=0. 7. 47. 1. 8.a 3 a. 4. 0.2 x2 . 23. 3. 5. 0. AB = 3. 5 ft. 3. 10. 6. 10 mi. 4. V^~2. 0. 3. unequal. 31.a. 3. i . Page 188. $80. 39.  Page 194. H. '  f 5. equal. 6. 6.Oa.23. 10 in. 16. 2. 2. 1 .XX Page 186. 3. 40. 8. 3. 41.37. . unequal. 3.4. Real. a8 . 8\/2 17. 23.  1. 1. V2. . 2. 1. 7.l. ^l/>> = 85 ft. _ 19. 42. unequal. 3. 10. unequal.3. a. (5 10. 13. r* i.2. . 6. 1). 10 or 19. 36. 3.17. 0. 1. 5. 1.1. Page 189. 0. 28.6 = 0. 4. 9. 9. . Page 187. Imaginary.2. 12. 1. . 18. 3.10. f. 1. 0.7.  13. 22. 11. 1. 34. Real. unequal. 1. 22. .2. 2. unequal.  24. 52. 0. 25.  5.23. 70 ft. x 14. 0. 6.02. Imaginary. 2. $ 120. 3. . a + 1. 3. 12. . . 21. 3.2. 16. 8. 29. 56. V^l. 6. 1. Real.1.4. 3.48 3.59./hr. 10. v^^fcT"^. 7. 3if.  5.. 4. 2 4jr + x2 8 3 = 0. V2. 1. 8 or 12 mi. 2. 38.70.2. 6. 2. .41. i.7.2. 1. 45.2. 2.  6. 2. 3. 1. 26. .62. 14. ft. 6. 17.7. Page 191. 32..  2. 0. 1. 4. V7. x* 51. 5. 3.5. 2. 6. V^l. 25.'. s 11. 3. 2 V3 in. . rational. 27. Real. 0. 35. + 11 x. unequal. 2. 25.. 44. 28. #<7=3. unequal. 25. 64c. 5.5^. 2. 23.  1. rational. irrational.1.12. irrational. 26. .0*8. 11.4.3. rational.4. U. 7. 2 .12 = 0. 2 ft. 0.2. 0. 2. .  1. 3. Imaginary. 4. 2. 6V64. . 21. 7. 7. V ~ 16 4 2. . 4. 15.$40 or $60. 1 3. 48. 49. = 0. 24. 20. 1.. 27. 2. equal. Real. . 10 mi. 2. . 3. 37. 43. Page 190. If. 3. ' 1. 57. + 7 x + 10 = x*x 2 6x = or . Imaginary. 4.  1.  9x <). 26.. 20. ./hr. 120 ft. 0. 15. 26. 35. 1. *'' 12. 20 eggs. 9. 16. f 6 52 a. f. 20.a. 1_^L ft 14. Real. 14. 13. 0. 1. 53. 50. . 4 da. 1. Real. 64.2.3. %. 2. VV11. equal. unequal.48. a + 6.74. 46. 5.6. 15 ft. orf. 19. 7. .  1. Real. Page 192. 4. 55. 30. 3. 15.2. ANSWERS 22. 18. x2 + B .* 2. 1./hr. 21. . 20 nii. jr . 2. 2. 4. in. 28. 24. 6. 9.. 3. 2. 2. a. 18. 7. 12. t is.  2. 24.4. 27./hr. 2.  i. 3. rational. rational. 1. 0. 12. 33.]. AB = 204 ft.5 x + 6 = 0. 58. 19.
Jb \..  a'2 . 33. 24. 30. 27. v^T4 m. 4. 25. . 9. 58. 44. 14.  f. 1. \/3. 15. 49. 1. 17. 9. : . 0. 3. JV37. 13. ^Sf 3 38. . 28. (m 26. 41. 5. 8. 39. 8. 20. vV. i. 10. 7V7. &. ifa. 23. 84. 19. 1. 3. 243. 1. 12. 10. x$. 33. v'frc 18. 9. 30. 1V1. 5. 26. 50. 18. 55. 23. 31. 7 . Vr. 56. 14. 54.  48. 16. 1. ^49. 8. 20. \/. 49. . 28. 33. _! V3. v. 21. 4. 22. 37. 31. I. 16.2. *V. . fx'^z'l 23. 9. 2. . 20. y. 20. 3. 3. 4. . 2. 6  AAf. \. 1. 1. wA 46. 2. aW\ 40. 25. ar 1 . 17. 7. Page 200. 13. 38.ANtiWEUS rational. 2V a. 24. jV 10. 2. 12*2 61. 3. 2. 16. 10. 49. 32. 1. 9. y . 53. 50. . 5.//^. 5. 3. 8. J. m. 19. 3 4 11. 4. . 'J. z + 22.1 5 15. J.^7. J 3. 5\/5. xxi 15. r*. x/25. 29.6. 0. 40. ) 2 >J i 10. 32. 45. 8. 48. m'. 17. 4. 2 L ( V. 1. 13. 4. 4. . 5. 43. 1 39. 3. 25.  5. x. 51. 29. 59. a. 15. 19. \. 4. 2. vm.17. V^ 34. Page 197. 60. 8. 52. 125. 1. 3. l  5 12. 2. 30 a. 21. 57. 16. ." 17. 3.  J j. 36. 11. $7. v/3. 7. 0. 6. Page 199. 21. 22. 14. 27. 2. 18. 2. 11. ). 1. 2. 14. 6. 8.  f .32. 3. v'frW. 24. ? . p. 19. a 18 . J. 46. 47. 13. 2. 12. 49. 47. 42. \ . 8. 15. 1. \/r\ 11. J. 29. Page 196. \a\ \/^. 18. 10. 3. 35. 3. r. Page 201. 5. n\/* Page202. 7. 9.
28.  2 3:r. 40.XXii ANSWERS 1. v^. yV35. 5. x%  3 ^+ 1. 13. V 5 47. 1. + 1. . / V3. 27. + . 13. ftV 46. 28. 7.12 *^ + x 7/> x  a** + or " 2 + 1. ^88". 2v (T 2aVf. . 34 r 6.Vxy 35. 11.'\ 14. 29. 2 4 z2 l 3. x y. 5 ( . x. 6. 13 35. 3V^T. 3 a~ 3 (x (. ^: V2c.2 18. 1 2 or 1 ?.632. 2 a?>V2 a. 36. 39.). 37. + Vic + 25. (a 27. 38. 17. 2. (o* 2. 8. a^ + 2^+1. y. 2 '"V5. 40. Va 2 "ft. . + 2 Vzy + y 1. 9. 5 22. ). 30. 2. 3. 12. + + ft. . T.rV:r. x 7  34. 4 or + 3 9 <r + 12. V.692. 21. 29. . 101 1. 10. 51.648. ^7 \AOx.x^y* + y%. 62V(J. 2. 19. 2. r 17  Page 204. 8. 48. 3. 16.2 VlO. + 2 V22. Vz2 ?/ 2 44. x + 5 x3 + 0. (Va (5xJ Vft+Vc). a 3. 26. 4. 2>X2. 11. 31. . 16. 30.. l 5. 9 . x 25. 3 4\/2. abVab.f. V80. 8a6V5. 17. 2 x* 15. 31. 5. 41. 03r* 7. 7. r c . 3 \ 39. m* n*. . Page 208. 34. 37. 26. (x' (l 1+x). 2. 22. + 2 ar 1 ).yl : . 4aV^J 16.3 + 40 3 . a2 4. 24. JIV6. + 2). 20. 3 x^y 33. 3^2. 135V6. 49. 13 a. 33. V2 + 4 V22. 2\/7. 43. 32. 3^ + 2). 23. 10. 9. ?tV?w. 20&V6.577. 24. Vr 8. 9. 18. 20. V.r^ 5 a~ 2 ft~ 1 + Vft. 11V3. Page 207. 32. 50. 3 42. 10. 3V5. v'TM. V63. 1) 3V3. 6. 3. 2. a 4 +* + !. 21. 4. Page 203. 195V3.r. 15. 25. .707. k/2. x^ . Va a + 2 a^b* 14. y (a + ft) V2. v/^r 5  A/^~. 45. 1+2 v/i + 3\/!^ + 4 x. 8V/) 15.  a Vft 2 121 b. 19.
20. v^30. 8. 8V73\/IO. 40. v"3. V3.ANSWERS _ Page 209. 5 \/2. 35. 33. 3 V2. 7. VJla. rtv/5. VLV/ ^i?i= a: . Vdbc. Vat. 2. 3. 9. 21 23. ab 4. 17. 25. 9. 27. xx 1. \^6. 44. 6V2. aVa. 4. x/w^ 8. 5. 2\/7. 14. ^ 3 b 5 24. 3. v^O. 6. . 53. 11. "^8000. v/lO. 2. 36. 13. x/8L v/27. 8  \/15. 1. 38. 2 \/2. 22. 27. ^9. 6+2V5. 24. VT5. 26. Page 213. 30 Vl4. . Vtf +3+ 33. 14. \^r^bVabc. v 25^4714 V2"a. 11. 2. 37. 3\/15  6. 16. m ?i2Vm/t. 6x2?/. 19. V2. 48. v^f. V2. V3. 4\/5. 26. 40. v^a. 4. v/i). \/2. r)\/(l Vrtr. + 20. 3. 3v^2. b. 3. \/8. a^\/a7>. / \/w/t 4 13. 1V5. 16. 18. ^\/3. 6. 6. v^4. 3 Vl5 30. \^6. 2 1. 13. + VlO  v y (5. 74\/Jl 120 46. 46. \/128. 29. x/125. 9 VlO + 4. \XOfl6Vi5. 37. 5v/2. 35. "v/wi ??. Page 210. v^lf. V/. 6 2\/0. vT). a\/5c. 22. 18. 0. 21. 4VO. v/l2. 4 a*. 2 28. 5. 7. 31. 42. x/8. W). 31. 17. 32m27n. 24. 21. 11. 15. v/9. V3"m. w?i. x/27. 12.30 2. v"5. 41. 2. 28. 6. . 1. Page 216. 3. fl^Vac. 3 V15  47. 7. \V3. 3\/wi. V5.T*. 14. 30.. 50. 18. 52. 16. 39. '. 25. 17. \/abc*. Vn. 5. 49. 2. 14c 4 V5. 5V2. 32. 4 >/3. Page 214. 15. 10. 38. 10. 36. D 45. __ rw 3 \~s~' ] * . x/4. : ^32. 0. 34. 39. . 8. 3\/2. ^v 7 15. 5V2. 13\/3. 9. 2yV2?/. .J Page 212. V5. 23. 8V2. a2  b. % 29. \/a6c. . 2 ate. 6. Page 211. 12. v7^. x/8l. 1. ^27. 23. 6aV2\^. 7\/(l 7VTO. 8v2T 12. x/3. 51. v/8. 10. \/04a. V8. 34. 32. .r v/^ v^fr*.  3. 10V(). 2 V'3. 43. 19.
xy 2. f. . Page 226. 16. 9 mn. 26. 14. {. 10. 9. 2. . 34. 10. 12. 7 f 5 4. V2. 4. 1. 11. 15. 25. 4. \/57t. 64. 8 V3V2. J. 1. Page 28. 12. 19.W + 12 v/7  3 \/15 . 25. V3. 3. . 17. 18. 23. 6. 4. J.81. V. 4. 32. 4. 10. 20. 9. 16. 16. 25.2828. Page 225. nVTl. 8.0606. 30. 512. 11. V^TTfc. V35. 5. 9. + 6) 2 . 1. Page 219.732.9. ANSWERS 8.w 6. 13.. 1. 3. (2f V"5). 3. 2. 4V3 + 6. 19. (3+ v/2). Va.7071. 15. (VaT^v a). 2. 11. 4. 20. Page217. 2. . 14.  . 3. 13. * 3.1. 4 14. 6 V. fV2. (Vf + (4 V2). 2. 33. 23. 19. n*. 27. 8. 8. +3 V2). (\/5V2). . 5. 20. 5 f. 5. 7.732. 4.3. A . i^Lzi. 2x^2^. 9. ^. i^ ~ 1 v ^.1805.^ (\/22 4. 2V3. Va. 20. 23.389. 36.  13. ~ Vac _c 0. p 6 13. . 10. 4. ^(VlO\/2). 18. 7. _^JflJ?. 15. 35. 216. 4. 18.4142. 7. m f. 4. 21. 2ajV2*.601.3535.1547. 22. 29. 6. 2. Page220. 12. 30. 15. 5. 23. 25. 16. 19. 3. (2V2). (V51). 12. 10. . 1. (V6 + 2V2). 24. 10. 16. 14. 24. (2Vll). 17.V3). 10. 5. (a 1. 5. 8. 2 . V3. 7. 5 + 2 vU 17. 8. 21. 16. 29. 3. 5. 21 ' Vob 26. Page 223. ^\/2. 28. !^ 6 4. 15. 5. ^r. 17. 2. .5530. .3.13. 11. . V3.625 10. 18.6. 9. 5 V65.  f. 27. 81. j.64. (V8 + V2. K>/0 + \/2). 3. 4. 8. 1.464. 22. 23. 81. 25. V5.2. 125. j 15. (\/3f 1). i(Vf Vft). 11. Page 218. 37. 1. 19. \/3). \. 0. (VllV2). 4. 31. .XXIV 7. 7 Page221. 27. 15 f 3 V2L 4. x 20. (2.\/TO). 7. 9.2. 100. 12. Vf6fVtf. 1. V6c. 7.6 V3. 7. 1. 26. 12. 6. 6 (V2 + 1). 22. 2!5_. 16.  2. ^. 11. 2V2. 14. V3 . 4. 1. 24. 25. 25. 9. 6. (V5f 5. ' 22 i . 3V23. 224. 18. 4. 17. 13. 9. + 5V2. (V21). 6. 0. 5. 24.5. 8. 16. 7. 1.4722.7083. 4. 8. 2V3. 9. 3(7+3V5). 21.
f . 3. 11. (a 4.1)(4 a + 2 a + 1). . . 4.  1. . (s + l)(x2 :r + 1). (B43). 20. 1. 4. 1. 8. 3. 10. 4. 2 . (a. 4 20. =A^Z3. .22. 3. 14.  2. 7.+ ^)( 4 a 2 6 2 h6 4 ). 13. a .  5. 2. 1. 12. 12. 13. 10. 4. 22. 4.1. 2. 8. 0. 2 6. 1. . 30 . 2.2)(* . + 6 4 )(a*a' 6 + a 2 6 2 a& 8 H6*). 15. a: :} . 7. 12.3. 3. 2. 5. 2. 4 . (pl)(p3)(p6).l)(m . 0. 2. 2 &. 13. 2. 18. 1. t/ 23. 5. 5. o. 11. 21. 25. a  . 7. 2. 1. 16. 19. Page 234. 2 V^ .5 xy + 25) 22. 2. (10 #0(100 + 10^ + 4 ).ANSWERS Page 228. 1 6. 1. 3. 2. a(l+a)(l_afa 2 ). 2 . y. 25. 5. 2. V3. 4. . 4. 1 . 6. 3.Y. 12.3. Page 236. 3. .2. (la&)(l46 + 2 & 2 ). 1.  f . (xy + 5) (x*y* . 11. 3 . 4 4. 50. 6. (2a + l)(4a*2a + l). 25. 6 2 2a + 2). 4 1. 3. 2. 24. 15. b .w 4 + 1). 4. 26. a(. . . 56l). 3. 14. 18. XXV 4. 1.  J. 1 . 87 . (pl)(p2)(p2). 20. 4. 2. (+!)( 2) 10. 1 3.3. 1. (8. . 30.10.7. (a . 5. (wp)(w2p)(wi3p)(w*42p).4). J 24. . 3. (w2)(m3)(2m + 5). (1 +a 2 6 2 )(l a 2 6 2 +a 4 6 4 ). 1. 5.4. ( 16. . 1 . (63)(6' t 18. 2 6. 1. 2. 25. 20. 30. qpl.nl^EI. 0. 4 . .2)(m. 100. 8. (a + 2) (a Page 229. 11. 3. (4 mn . 3 5. 7. 2. 4. 7. 3.3. 8. 10. 1 (?> x/^3. 5. 7. 3. . Page 233. 4.f 2)(sc 2 2 r + 4). 73.  . 3 . 1. o& (3m 3 7)(9w 6 +21m*+49). 3 9. 2. 5. (a+&)( 2 14.1. 0. 3.0. 19. l. 2. 2. 12 24 y . 4. 3. . 10. 3 . 24. 2. (&y2a#H4). 8 6 & 0. 5.l)(z 2 + z + 1). 11. \/0. 1 . 14. (m 4 + l)(ro. .  3. 3. 30 30. 7. J. (rt. 5. 1.  3. (a2)(:iB2 f 2a44). (r. . (w . 4. 10. . 11. 0.l)(a3)(a . 17. 2 <? 4a2 .4.2. 2. ~ f7.8a 18. 3. 2 . 8. 3. f>. 73. 28.3.  1.  16). 3. 1. 23. 1. 3. 3. 9. 22. 10.  4. 1. 3. . 2 > 1. 2. 3. 15. J Page 235. 4. 21.2 ) ( 10 w 2 n 2 f 4 winy 2 Page 231. 4.5. ' J. 3. 7. 6.3). 4. 1.4. 17. 12. 5. 2. 19.^a. 16. . & + 6 2 ). 0.3 2. 5. 17. 6.l)(a 4 + a + a 2 f a f 1).12.2 + (row)(w4w)(w a + 6mw f w 2 ). 1 . 2. 4. 9. 13.3.. 0. .a) (04 + 8 a + a 2 ).2. 6. . 6. 2. 2. //. 8. 13.r . J. 5. 27(2 a 4fc)( 4 2 2 (a 4 &)(* + 4 & + !&*). P. . 2. 2. 1.l)(a 2 + a f 1). 9. 3. 1. 2. (2 a. 6. 5. 4. (a.  3. 0. 4. 2 . (a + l)(a*a 8 + aa + l).
11.0. 5. 7 3. _ 5. 30. 3. 512. 3 4. 15. $. i'ljVU. 4.020.4. 2. .136. 3. 2>/3. (a) $3400. 7. 24. 37. . 7. }. 1 . 1. 13. 5. 1. . 40 25 in. 2. 1. . 2. 11.5. 1. 17. 15. 2..  11. . (>. 1. 12. 4 .1. 3. 6.200. ^ }. 1. 6.4. 16. 4. 8. 1. 8. 3. 3V5. f>. 13. 3. 5. . no co . ft. 3. 21 30. 1. 2 1. 20. 4. 40. (a) 5. 5 cm. j. 512. Indeterminate. 8. 69. J.3. 12 ft. 3. 11. 2 ft. 32. . ( 3. 2 10. 4. 17. Page 248. 35 a. Exercise 113. 9. 7. oo . Page 240. . 31. 3. . 2. . 16. 4. . 1. V7. 40 1} 9 3 ft. 2 16. Page 239.3. 50.3. 125 125. 12 d. 288. 2. 17. 8. Page 243. 0. $. \/6. Page 238. (&) 2. 8. 5.6. 5. . 12. 50. 10. . 9. 1J.  2 . n . m27. .4. 4. 1.  1. 400. 5. 3. 19.18. 1. m + n. . 10. ANSWERS 2. $VO. 3. 4.3. 5.xxvi Page 237. 2 . 14. 12. 9. 1. 1. 5. . 30 13. 7f solution. 14. 15. ^~2. . 9. _ 7. 2 . . oo. 5. 4. 20. 2. 2. 3. 3.4.e. 3. . 12ft. and _ 4. . 4. 2. 38. 1. jj. . 3. 25. Page 247. 8ft. ri*. 30. in. 3. 21. 4. 11. 37. co . 4 8. 40 in. 17. 4. 17. 1. 4. 16... 4. Exercise 114. in. in. 1.13.1. .5. 0.3. 1. 1. 8 3. 19. 21. 1. . 20 in. 3. Page 245. ft. 8. $46. 22. i. 5050. 3. . 6. Indeterminate. J. _ 10. 1. . 33. 22. 23. 3. 5 .. 84. 55. 10.. . 24. 9. J. .y. 3. 4 34. 1 . 2.. 3 cm. 45yd. 8. 2. 17. 14. 11. 3. 2n. 1. 18. 2. 4 6. 7. ft. 10. 4. (/>) "_. 35 ft. 2. 8. 14. 5. 5. 4. _ 13 (0 6. 1 . ' j. . \. 15. in. 39. 3. 4. 41. 20 7. 3 . in. c. 5. 1. 1. 12. 78. 1 ... 12. m28. 13. 23. 31. 29. 7. 3.. 1. 3 3. 2 2. 0.1. 2. 14. 2.0. 6. 2 . 11.2.30.3. 5 4. 1. 18. = QO 6. 3 . . 2 Y> V . 2. 14. f*. 35^ 5. 9. 1.. 2. 2. 3 2. 4. . 15. 201. 3. x 4. 2. V3~. } . '>. 5. .6. 5. . . 4. 4. 18. +  n. 2. 7. 4. J. 48. 15. 3. f. 15.3 . 14. 37. i j. Page 244. 2. n. Page 241. . oo . 5. 1 2. 12. 3 . 2 26. 1. 28yd. 2. 1 . 5. 5. 1. 900. 1. 5. 1. 3. 4. 2. 26. . i i i . 6. 2V7. GO . tn 2.3. 3. 8 . 12 1. 7. 1. 4. 35. .  . 36. 1.
. 12. 1. 17. 2. 5. in. 2. ?/i 6 x llj .r^  280 x 4 4i^S + 6. 7. A. 4. 4950 M 2 b y *.r* 4 70 . d. 19.  101.419. sq. 5. 4. 6i.r 4. 3. a. c. 5. w9  8. . 8. Ja. (?>) 4 8(2 V2). 495. x + Vy. 343. . 8. 4. 2. 9. 18. 32. 10. />*. .5. 3.920.  20 flW. 50. 14. 16 11. 0.130 x30 189 a 4 24. 6. 70.2 45 a 8 /). 1.120. 405. 220 . 04. 4. 70. 1 14.13. 0. G. a4 4 14. 81.192. 7. 20. 1. 4. 4. :r 4 4 8 x 28 x~ 60 .680. 16. I. 3. .3 ays.^ x2 ^x w ^2 ? . 13. 75. Y11. 125. 7 2 x 4 x8 . 2. 3. xxvii 1. 55. 8. 3. . 2. 1 7 4. 22. 45. **+. 21.^ ?>i 2412x4. 22. 13. 15. 1.4 &z x>&. 0. 7. 29. . 43. 6. 16.r x>/ 7 3. 10 14. 25. 26. 10.470. 20. 125. r 5 4. 15. f r6 4  20 rV 42 15 xV 8 .K 4 4 50 x 5 4 28 x 4 4 ^8 1 g ! . 70.4. 2. 500 x3 10 4 4 072 a? 3 . 18. Page 258. 304. 1.2 9. 005. x4 . 04. 100. 11. 3. x r 4. 44. 11. 28. f 7 ^ 14 x 84 4 .504. ^a 8. 0. 9. 2i* 7f.5y 4 . 12. 27. 1. 12. 192. 2. 410. 3. 4. 8. 9. 120 aW. 3. 2.  17. 9. 53. 0. 4. &' 14. 910. J 2 //2 25. % 4 20 ab* 42 330 x 4 15. 2. 105. 1.53. . <. 4. 5. 15.6. 343. i 10.5 x.12 x*y 16. 1. REVIEW EXERCISE . 16. 27.870 m*n*. 8 . 8J.<2 4. 1JH. Page 254. 12. 6. 8. 5. 1. 2. r r j. 5. 21. 12. 0. '23. 23. 17. 7. 0. 18. 10. JSg. 6. Page 252. 10. y ^ 5  ^\ ).170. 3. 0.210. 5. 2. 4. Page 259. 5. 10. 327. 05. 27.v Page 253. 7. 4. . 4.700. 12. } $ 50.7 10. 1000 aW. 35. 3. 6. 1820. 6. 5. 7. 3 4 15 a 8 11 4 14 a  1  2 y* . 17. . 27.x' 10 . 4 0.0. 8. . 16. 16. 8. 45. 9. ~ an . vy. 3.5*7 + ^4 1 12 w 4 10 x' 2 //^.384. 12. 5. (). 18. 8. B . 20. 4.1. 1. 3.10 a 3 ?/2 10 4<J aW 4. 1.5 M ' 41 fc 5 . 8. 7 x4 17. 35. 5 13. 5.5. 4.ANSWERS Page 250. . 0. . 8 4x' 2 . 6. 2. 10. 128. . ' 1.^ 448 x a' 3 /') . 2. 2 1 x 4 6x'2 12. 19. 7. 12. 15. ~v 9. 7. . 280 53. 16. 8. 6.6 . 4. 8 1.8.5 J4 10 47 d*b 6 4 4. 15. f y 8 + z* . 4. and 1. \ w 4 . 4. 708. 48. Jj? 45. 19. 45 Page 257. 11.x^ 4 x8 15 x 4. 13. 3. 6. 9.15 x 4 //'?/ a5 4 J 5 4 Z> 4. . 16.
18 x?/0. 37. 2 2/' .5x4.ft). .ac 44 aft. 8 .3 y. 82.6 b. x } 4.^a . 105. 243x4729. x2 a2 1 . 8 x* + 27 y 2 x2 2 . x3  15 x 2 48 ?/ . 2 . . 10 a 12 b. ?/ 3. 4 ! . 4 15 x 5 . 7 + 3 xf 2.3 b . 4ft y3. + a 4. 2 2 9 ^4 2 59.41. 30. a4 x. 3 a 44. 130. 13 + 2 s. . 10 4. m " + n + P3c . x .2 xy + 4 y2 106. 2 a. 127. . . 5 42.4. 14 x . a* a 8 a aftc. 6 c 47. + 3 a?. x 4.{ 54.a' 'ft 4.3 mn p 2/ x 4 .15 x 6 x4 ?/ Ilx 2 ft a8 4 8 y4 . 1x 4 x3 xty6 a 24 3  Page 262.a 2 x 2a . r 5 VFTx + vTfy + 1. 21.18 ?/ 5x4. 93. 4. 4 2 . .2. (d) x  (a) 2 x 2 ?/ 4 ?/ (ft) 2 y 2 y 2 g (c) 3 x +y 11 a: y 4 3 2 . 1 121.x. 3 r2 2 ?/ 2  ax . + f 2 2 (/) 2 34. 24 a 2 6 3 x3 0. 125.4. a 3m 4.2 c . 107.3 x?/ 2 1/ 4a 3 a o_a 4 a2 +l.  4 a3 85.  + 16 a/> 8  a*2a 2 6 2 +& 4 74.4 x?/2 3 4. . .4 2 4 c2 42 . x 3 41. 110. 52. . x2 2 .6 am b\ 129.c.9 b. f5+7. 2 a2 4 aft 5 116. 3 a .2. 122. .3 aftc. 32. 4 115. . 4 69. 25. 133. 1 a"* 4 an .1w 77. 28. a 4 .1. x 3 4. xyxzyz. 61. 104.1 4 jry 4 x .4 x y 87. 9x. I 57. 62. . + 28 x2 13x 3 56. . 27.7 x   15. _55_7c 48.c. .5 3n 4. x2 471x4. . 120. x?/ 2 2/V2 4 2 x2z2 4 92. 46. 81 ?/ 4 108 xy 3 75. 4 65. 29. x 8  a8 . a* 4. 22.5 b + c . ft n . 80. 15 ab 4 Oac 4 6 be. 1 x 45. a J . 99.. 0. 4. 4 . ?/ . 3 c . 36 + 9c9 a x3 4 + 8. 109. 76.fee 2 4. 2 2 x2 ?/ 2 4 63 4 ?/ . c3 4 58.9 x .3 a 2 '6 w 4. 49. 6a6c.y*. fc' 6 p'2 q  54 ? 3 . 24. 118.2 x^.2. 2 x'V2 90.36 xfy 2 a 8 ?* 3 4. x 8 + x 4 68.5 a 2x8 x 3 .5. x4 3 4 2 x 2 4 0. 63. x 2 . t 81.  ft 3  13 a 4 + ll a 2 2.rty x2 4 123. . 40.3 . x2 + 4 x7 9 y2 x4 4 4.x24 73.a*ft 2 126. 16. + z. 2 30 . 4 4 4 ft*" 3 4 + 2'2 ~+ 2 81 x2 134. 3 36 b c . 4. 12 a/.a. 100. 1 + 4 xy.7.a6 2 4. 2 2 *  3 2n 101.1. 6 a2 97. 2 . 2 aft 3 4 3 ft 4 .a" xy 2 2/' 3 . 3 y2 2z2 ~3xy?/. 72. Page 263. 50. x' . df. Page 260. . . 39.xxviii ANSWERS 19.105. 0. 12 x.4.3 x 2 + 3 x . 16t/. x2 3x2/?/ 2 112. 4 Page 264. . x8 x2 55. 2 53. 3~ n 4.+ 4 2 ft) (a 4. 26. * 60. 8x3 8x. ft2ft 4 4l. x2 5r*x ft 5 . 6 8 j27 40 ab. a' 111. .3 a'ft. ft /> 78. 5x + 2y~z. 124.  . 3a~2c.c 3 4. 132. as 20. 6y 2 a2 _52 45 = 73(). 88. 5 4 4. 102. &p 84. () 2 x 33. .  3 x2 . a2 2 aft 2 2. 94. ft x6  3 x5 4 9 x4  27 x 3 1.  + 3 x2 . 131. 3a'2 Page 261. 2 x2 108.2 x 4. 43. 9 2w 128.5 3 2 y2 5 a2 4 2 aft 4 ft. a~b 89. (a + ft)" 98.a'2 c. 1 . x' 79.x 51. 4 fee 4. 31. .1. 91. !! 71.15 4 62 x  72.  e +/.4 ac. 5x 2 2x43. x* .3 103. +^ + ft W. 114. 2 . x 8 + x 4 y* 67. x4 f + 23 .  12 a. az 4. 38. 36. ^ . 70. 2 2a 2 2 2(a. 3 a 5 a 5. fi :ry 42 4  a 2 4 a 2 ft 2 3 119. y 4 z* 0. 66.4. 86. 35. /> 4 83. .1. ?> . 2 q. x3  15 x 2 71 x  105.x4 + y'2 z 4. 23.x 2 4. 0. 2 113.x x*  f 2 ax 4.4 x 2 . 96. 64. 2 x2 4. .
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383. 5 ^^K^+M^ AC^Ln?). 387. . 7. " 4 378. ?>*. 6a. 2 r36 384. 13 391. 396. . 3.!. 386. + 4 & 4 \ b. 365. 4. 400. ^"" 4 s . a 2 . 370.  1. 11. 393. 325.)Cr4)__ . (a + b + c\ . 3. 408. + x 362. _*L'L+. 385.. 407. 376. 329. 401. a + b + 6). S. If. 326. 4 rw. 1. 382. . 0. 392. 375. 2. 360. 380. 2 327. 377. 339. T+^. 7/i ^ _ . y 4 I 340. 4 A. x 54 359. 1 i 2 ^. 399. 355. 394. 389.. 1. 390. . c 402. **" ~ 2 3 > + 8 x* f 2 y 4 1 ^ 350. ab. a +6. 397. 0. <L 409. 404. 20.H ' 2wi ^' /' . 1. A^L5L. 405. 379. j 328. m. 3. . + 335. A^izA??r+J!j/?_ *x 330. 364. 388. 324.".7. 334. ^ 3 // . 333. 361. 2 ab  a Page 276. 366.1. 4. 9^. . 2 ?/ 363. 2 ). 398.3. a) A^_. 2(a i 403. 336. ?=. 406. L . ?/ + 3 332. 0. 0. xa' 2 '2 7/ + 4 f Page 273.  1 356. 27 ^" li'oy 3 r J // J 341. l . l'j. ^_:r f> 331.(5 a .XXXI Page 272. T\. 12. 2(q. 1. 2. 6 ?/+:>. Page 274. * 357. 395. Page 277.J . 1.1 ')_ x'2 + 4x + 381. 343 00 351.vin a /r " 337. f.
4. . ^. 6.  7. 2. Page 280. 6. $2000 at 0%. : />a. 42. 4. 20 yr. 2. 9.1. 1. not true. <L+ 6 (. 0. c. 472. 4. 11.  2. 432. 426. 5. 483. 439. 2. 429. 10. 3. . 2 438. 3. . 492. 10. .  7. 6 f c a + ? & ~ a 0.  2f 504. 5J. . 0. .7. 440. 0. 478. 7. 448.. 490. 32 yr. 21. 2.7.488. 496. a + + ft c. 464. 0. 477.vz in. 8.489. A $ 3500. 442. 2. 10. 12. . 33. 500. 430. 17. . . 7. 24 days. 5.2. . a* 424. 484. 8. 0.  453. b 449. fj. 508. 32. 1.. Page283. Page 278. 28 yr. '.. 3a 4 5. 447.}. 428. B 4 mi. \ 1. + b ' + a __ b c ' 2 w f w 417. 457. 53 yr. 452. A 5 mi . 0. I.7. />c c(f be. 450. ft 5. 5. 454.  f>. 14 miles. L2 a  6 . (a  c).  10.4.  1.} ' c^acjd} ^ fcfZ a/ ?>rf + 86 (. 5. (&) 443. 2 a 2. 1. 7. 467. 445. 0.  505. 3 . 495. 441. 482. 10$. L (c) I.4. 2.3. . 423. 6. 506. . 411. 40. *+. 456. 419. \. 20. 2$. 497. 84. 2. 427. 501.. 3. 487. 5. fc. 6. . 435.46.  2.te + . 493. 498. 10. 8. 494. m 1 : wi. 455. . 446. ISJini. 468. 22. 10. !L=4.rz Page 279. 6. 420. 479. 6. 4. 6. 461. z8 +?/ 3 431. (a) 1. 50.55. 444.  . (&) true. ^r?i 434. 436. 421. ^V. 10. 1 a /?$+&?. 502. 503. 422. 7.  1. . (c) not true. & 491. . 1. 1$. 1. 10..XXX11 ANSWERS ab. 458. 17. 410. 2. a 22 .0. 486. . 2. 425. 90..3.7. 466. (d) true. B $ 2500. 463. 2. i. 462.5. 63. 418. + () 433. * .2. 18. 413. 8. 507. 7. 459. 460. 476. 481. 40 oz. . 499. 480. 485. i a b 451. ISjmi.m  m+ M in.7. 51. 465. Page 281. 412. c 6fc 10. 5.12. m.}.  2. Page 282. 7 : . (d  6) f. ' $260 at 0%.0. .
88. 1. 591. 4 8 x2 ?/4 605. 515. M ft c 2 ft 3465. 115 Ib.24. 2(6 597.04.9. 1. 2. 7. a 7 687i 588i tt e a _ _3 7 ir 7 rt e & + 2 1 a 5 ft 2  rt 4^2 + i 3 ^254 590. 5. . (c) 4. 550.62. 24 da. 2 .33.  4. 7^ da. . 2 a 8 x 8 + 6 ax&fy 2 x + 12 a 2xt2 b*y'2 + 2 6 4 ?/ 4 595. 4* da.83.  J(a f + 2c). a*8a + 24tf 82a. 3. o> .04. 5. da.6 2. 2$.3. l+4x+0x 2 +4x 8 f x4 4 4 594. 31. 582. 516. 3. 553. .3.% rr\* 585. 564.4 x + .16. 2 1.24 sec.62.21. 1. 3. 3. 1 600. lead. 6. + 26x2 + 10 x4 ). f. 1. f. 3 . 581. 8. 4. 1. 554. 561. 4 mi. _ 3. 1. 1.. (/)  10 to 8.  (a) 2. 599.5 f. 3.xj/ f xV . 3. 1 1  2 x 7 2 f 3 2 x' 2 + x8 f x4 . + 35 86 4 4 &8 3 + 589. a + ft  a  f c. (e) (c) 2.6. + 12 x .75.10. . 551.ANSWERS Page 284.00.6.f 1. + 6 tf f 3 .5.3. 2.6.55. 1.8. (a) 74 Ib. f36a28x8 592. 4. tin. . 4. 2.12. 2. (d) 537.  2.  .53. 555.3. (c) 3. 2 2. 2 imag. 5. 232. 567. a+ Page 286.02. . .14. ^ ft 4. 1.3. 1. 27 y* f\4 . 2(4 602.4. 509.73. 4.6. 3. 1. i _ 4 sc2 + 6 + 10a:8 + a6) .24. 560. Page 285. 562. . 8 a6 42x + 8x2 + 2x 8 4x4 601. . .4. Page 287.  7.3.1. per hour.4. . 1J.1.8.54. . . 3f 4f. 1 . 576. .83.7. 1. . (ft) 4.4. 3 da. per hr. <z ft 1. 1. 8 +3 x f 6 x2 2 a4 & 604. 566. f ? a f ft __ + c C). .3.0. 2.  2 a*b + 3 a6 3 . 0. .5.4.02.02. 4. _ 4. 3.56 sec.7. 532. 573. 577. 3.   (h) 8. 583. or 8.25m.35.1. 4 0. . . . 3.1.8. 2 . 513. 528. .2 xt/ a4 + x3 4 6 x4 3 xG fx. x8 .15. 1 . 6.52. 3. 3.0.5. 512. 4. > ^ . 1. 4. 571.5.1. g(rc+ 6c). 5. 531. (i) 3.8 x3^. 527. 1. 1.54. 574.  3.. . 1. _^ 2754x .51.2. 530.78. 2. lead. 40 Ib. S82 c.. 510.21 a2 + 3x + 3x2 rA 86 3 4 ft + 35 4 + 21 2&6 fts + 7 7 rt?> 6 a^ _ 8 +^ 57.r8 596. Page 288.0. 3. 1. 552. 24. (6) . ft 584. .31. J7] min. 514. a f ft + c._ ft 523 a 2 ftc 2 524. 2. 536. 565. 4. .  557.. 568. 563.  1. 578.03.  2ft da.03. T .02. 556. + 26 + .  ft*. y% Z * 586. 558. . 1.20. (ft) Ill Ib.25. 1. 14. 1. 598. 1$. 2. 533. 603. 575. y 4.30. tin.31. 529.1. 579. If 572. . 0000.3.5+.78.  (a) (d) 1.  + + c. 2 10. H. .37.15. 525. (6) 3. Roots imaginary.15.xV f +6 a2 &2  4 6. 526..8. 1 580.75. 6435. 2. 518. imag. 3.4.37. .05. 593. 8 mi.0. xxxin 511.5. (e) 570.  imag. 21*_. 569. 4.38. 1.10. 559. (gr) 10 1.7. 2 1.
4. 702. 2 / 2 4. 666. 2. \+ab 699. 7. 2. 626. 7.001. V2. 649. x3 4 3 x x ' 4 X* 609. 672. . 655. 608. 5. 703. 2 a 688. V7.303. 4330 da. z  1. 25. 683. 643.y. V"^TJ..  6. 25. 3 x2 . 5. 620. (a3&45rj. ab 689. 634. 8 f 3. 4. y  619. 700. 8. af6fc __ __ ( a 4. 614. + ~^'2 + a 1.  1. 2 a: 4. If 665. 2092. I}'/. 11.b. 624. la6 2. .  13. 654. \. If b. 4. 2. If f 667.2f Page 290. 12.04.b 686. 1 V5 1. ^ _ \/3 +^~< 2 a a +^ 694. 615. 618. 690. 703. 660. 641. K 5 2 V2. ^ 1. 669. 650.  4. 617.25.  a2  a (ab). a ' 2 + . 2 x 44 ^/. 636.>A 610. 633. 8 6 fo . 4. 0. 646. . 5.a~ {Z 663.f 3 V^3). 2. 210. 2. 644. 2. 13. 1m*. 657. 623. . 1. a. . a 673. If. l/'3. . . If 658. 705. 661. 640. n^l +^. 616. 642. 9. 607. 627.3. 1.  2f r 659. 3. V^~3). . 5002. 1. 14. 2. <T! .  684. . 4 V 0. 0.7/ ~ +w ( 7>) ^~ V3 ^' 3. 898. 5. V2. 1 2. . 670. o. 1.  . 1 ~a . 625. Page 289. 6.43^4. 2f.049. 7003. 708. 1010.702. 652. 648. 971. ix 2 . ^. b . 78. 628. 2 + 36 )K3 + ( 687. 679. a 2. 638. 11.  3. 631. 3. 5 3. ANSWERS ( 3 x 2 S 2 .001.XX XIV 606. 647. 0. 622. 2 a  6*. ab. if 4/> 671. (*_ + a: 611. . 0. 691.  4. 2. fta a/> ^A. ft). 653. J^^. . 662. 4$.3. a 4. If .3f l 668. 637. 645. 635. a + b. 656. 6. 701. 1 ^  7Q7> b j(_ (_ x/^15). 10. a 1J. / V^+lO^M"^. b 664. 2f.203.3.2f (5 4. 2 ab + a  &. 6 685. 677 680. 2. 692. 9*. 613. 629. 1$ 639. ' 674. 632. ^^ 695.  ft. . 2&). 0. 3 681.. i. fe + a. + 2 A (i f Page 291.c ) 697. 50. c.14 If 1. 621. 706. 678< 682. 0. /> 4. 4 676.002. 612. 630. ^. 698. b. ' fe 2 ). 3.3.0. 1 704. 651. be ac \. 3 a. . 696. 009.
 711. 5.4 .9.rJ w L 754. 726. 729. a 2 6^. 724. 1 [ + '> J. x i f^' . 769. 34. 3 VlT 795. 731. mn. ^ Ti i a*tj~ 4. 2 V2 . Hi a. 714. 39. 8. 758. 1. 24 4 . . 5. ^ ?>. 710. 739. 722.1 />f f + lr'~ + _L a 4 6. . i^.ANSWMHti Page 292. + 6 2 tf'c. i 2. 715. 728. 24. 3 720.~ . 1. 737. 717. r. 29\/3. 763.4 . 719. 776. a".2 4 w" + 4 d" + Hid. 749. ^^ f ^3 _ r} t 2 i3x 4 rt + + 2u: 8'o'a +a2 3 . 793. 713. 755. VIO\/3. > 748. 751. 725.V/^ 741. 782 785. v/7 / . 753. v'll. 47. . T%. x\y. 3V72V3. 25. 3. 7  3V5.. 730. 732.. iv/Jj. 32>/2. 17ft. 738. 773. 1. 2x3^ a. 796.11.2. + < 735. 778. 4 x' 5 x 4 3 x~* ( 2 ar 1. a:* . y  1. 4 104 v/2. 15 shares. 1 752. . 712. 790 2v 3v 2. .257. 768. / 787. 723. 342V3. VT14V5. 789. J(v'lO2V 791. cr*lr*. 792. 736. 709. 3V72VO.8. 1 I . 2\/53V2. 777. VV> L4V34. ^ . 33^2. 756. 740. 733. rt3 2 ^i^. a 5 . 1^ _ 760. 3V52V3. 3V7. 750. 734. 59. j 742. 727.r. fyaw&cu. 3^. 24V2. 788. a + 6 +cx* 2 (t' 3 1 a*&M. a 2  x2 . 746. 721. 767.9.^ 743.1 .. *+V( x 2 "r 2 )' ^ 786. 300. 1 747. ^7xy. "V313. 718. 716..V2. 13ft.12 af V^ 4 744. 794. 30\/10 764. 00.10.^. 8. Page 293.r+y> 759. Page 294. a db Va^T < 45da.
((' 1). 810. 817. 7. (3 b . 822. o 828.25 ?>2). 883. 5. 4 . 2. 847./>") (a'. (x 2 f r .1). (xl)(^~3)(. (x 2 . (a + 2 ?>c)(a 2 2fl?>44 ?/V ). 6+V7. 2. 2/ 856. 2 . (x 845.y) 852. 3.rae) (4 . 7.6 xy + 9 )(4 x 2 (9x 4l2x + 10).4. 2. 2. (am l)(a m + 1) 4m . (3 862.XXXVI 797.a 4 + 1). 843. Hoots are extraneous. 863. 4. 6. 833. 14. 2. . 11. 840. 5). (x42?/)(x2y)(4x . x. (a 1) (x 4. 4. 831. Page 296. 888. 23. 2. H. 841. (a 4 871.4. 4. . 0. 4.3)(x + 4).l)(x + 3)(2x43). Page 297. + d)*. (2x (r. (x3). 1. X4 1).r . 837. %7 ?/ ( 2 >wt 2wt ft ft 4 rc f 1 '* Page 298. 800.. (x . ^VG. . 13. 842. (x + 0X024. . 891. V 3. 25. . 2 *x 807. 3. a^*4l)(aa 4 + l). 0.1) . . . 881. 830. 7. 834. 880. (x .7). 2.l)(x . ANSWERS 798. are extraneous. 4. 882. 5.3.. 814. 3. (a m . (  ?>) (a + ^> .3. 894. Va 803.4)(1 f 4 a 4 10a 2 ). 848. 2. 4. 8 09. 897.2) (x 4 2). 17. ^. 890.1. . 3. m 875. **. (x 4. 1. 4 818. +j!>. 836. 6. '0 3 2 an 4 3(> n 6 ). a2 ^E*!. 1C.1)(V 2 . $. 4. Va. 884. 838. . 3.  839. 5. (1 . 872. 6(a6)(o a + + &).1) (a 8 . (x*y*ryz + z*). 6. 4. 2  2. 859. \/2. 826. 898. 851. 861. 2 + 2)^ 3 + (a 4 5 f 8). 3. (2x3?/^)(4x2 4Ox^ + 9//%2).om 441) (a 855. 887.l)(x . n =  29. 844. 2. 2. 5. 7. . 0. (2 4. 876. 6 $. 2 854.l)(x + 2). 3. b' 2 821. 8(?/ + 2x2 ?/ ~ x 4 ). 5. 2 806. . 4 885. 896. 892. 849.7)(4 x. 4. (:r 11.  1. (4 c 4.4) 860. 4.a 2m W" 4 ^ m f & 2m 870.  ' . db 7. $. 801. 3. 858. 2 m . 827. a* 4. 19.5) (x + * 853. 2 2 . 799.1)(0 865.0.2 ax 4.  + l(l^). 879.5 b) 4 1). 812. 1 . 1. . 824. 2 j 889. m = 2. Va + 6 + Vtt"fc. o. 6 4 V&  e " X/^^+A^ + 2 *a o l V 2 802.. (. 11. 4.r?/ 50(i ( 2)(5 04. 816. 20).+ m f ") (a* ). 819. (x + y) (x f y) (x + y) (x .  tt 815. 857. . a(ry + 864. 835. 2 . f 3 866> (9 + 8 ) 81 ^3 _ 72 xy 4 04 ^). 48. 8. 832. ( 869. 8. (2 x + 3 y} . 804. 3. ) (a' 874. f. 808. 893. 825. ^ V}. 3. Hoots . 17. a(ft)( 873. ( 4 4. 823. 1.7 4 1) 846. 820.7). 1 1.a 2 2 ). x . 811. (2 a . jV3 f 3.2w . 2 . 3 . 895. 867.r4). 899. 900. \/5. 829. 813. 886. a 42)(x .a 3 " 4.f.10 ab 4. _ 3 ^ 860 r + 3) . 2 (x 4*4. 4 1)(4 x jc jr ::} ?> ?> . 868.7. 16xyV2*/^~x2 . 0. J V. 10. 1.
8. a. 14 . 2 1.. T 6. 108. 938. . r ft ' < Page 299. 6 a 915. 985. 66 924. 962. i(6 in. 3). 2.073. Va926. 5. 2.. 918. . 280. 903. w 3.01.2. 80. . . i1" 913. 957. 911. =F J. 4 6 mi. 2 w 914. . 979. . J(_ ft. 960. 6 . 950.. 1 . 4 . 6. Page 303. 958. 948. 978. ft. 3. 922. $(l 4. 0. 2 ft. 28. 8.. 2. 925. 940. 4. 15 16 ft. 919. 981. . 8. 939.  1 . 248. 4. 4. T3. 987. ft. 951. 986. 7 or 30. 3. 6. 934. 902. 964. 56. f.744. 3.. a + . 3 4 .ANSWERS oJV 41 6 901. 3. 20 19 ft.. 0. 2. i 3. 1. 952. f ft 4 .V~~3). 11. .  26j. T 6.I.111. 933.. '3 3 in. 955. 1. 100 rows.1. 12 mi. 930. 4. ft. 5. Y. 4 in. . 333. 5.651. 10. . 982. 936.' ifcVira^ 2 3. %* . . . 921. Page 300. 2 i ' a V. 2. 5l4f. 3 . 0. 1. 111. w. 8. 916. 12. 937. 480 8 sq.. V5 T 2 . 1 XXXVll ' a 1. 3.760 sq. 8. V^3). 6. 4. 7. 5 . 935. 944. 1 1.. dL 4. 6 a + 3 2 ft ' 4 3 & 928. 11. 932. J. yd. 905.  1. 496. ft. 984. 7. . 2. 11. 906. v/(ai !)(&910.. 0. 40 16 in./hr. i 8. 2. . 6. 983. J.2. 73. 3.1. 8. 4. 7. 941. . 4. 954. 5. . . 923. 2. 942. 931. 1 + V953. I) v/Ca^T)^ 2 5. 8. 3. . 18. Page 302.446. 115. 6 da. 943. ?/i 6. ft.615. 1 _2 . 5. 12. S07. 4. 920. ft.. 2. 28. 333. 904. 2. 2 yd... 977. V5 fj. 10. 9 in. 6. 8 . 15 946. Page 301. ^y. 6.. 7.1 = 9. 28. 963.0. 12. 909. 908. 329. 947. 917. 912. 7 ft. i>. 1 2. ft. 927. ft. 8128. 11. 959. 6 1 1. . 956. 60 949. 4. tt2 19.. . 945. Z ^.709. 961. 4. 1). 12 in. 6. 8. 980.
" 1710 rtV and 1710 252 35.  W1W JI + 1 / 1 _ _L\ a . + v 2). (5. 995. 1007.'^^ } ( . 1016. 991. 4. 1001.128 I. (J. 162. 1005. . () 12(2+V3). 3003. 1014. a a 13  13 ax + 78 a3 4y*> . 1 1004. 1019. 9 da. 1 8 8 2. 1018. (a) 2^ + 1 \/2).. 2 .92. 997. 4 and 1020. ^Trsq. (a) (6) ^ 1002. r = 2. 1010. ~ \. 1009. 6 70 . 1003. 72. 9 /> l 6 /> 6 . in.xxxviii ANSWERS 989. 990.870 a 6 1011. 243 ?/ 810 x 2 + y 1080 x* 4 5 ?/ 720 * 240 r 8 7 ?/ .378 <W and 92. (Z>) 999. 988. 994. 78 n+ a' x 2 t  13 . ^f (2f3V2). 1000. 1006. 48.18.  5&7 1021. 0. 2(2 v/2).. 12. . 996. 8. 1008. Page 304. 5 :J2 r 10  14 y + 84 y*  280 + 5(>0  72 C K 4 2 MJiy 8 r? " 8 . 120 i^l^.378 1015. 12. 192. 108. 992. 120 a. (6) 8(1 . 1017.192rt?)r 120 *. 1013. X. .51.870 z8 . 32 13 (tx 4V3. 1012. + 448 . 0. 1(5. 24. 993. Page 305.
i2mo. Half leather. save Inequalities.ELEMENTARY ALGEBRA By ARTHUR SCHULTZE. etc. which have been omitted from the body of the work Indeterminate Equahave been relegated to the Appendix. comparatively few methods are heretofore. The more important subjects tions. xiv+563 pages. so that the Logarithms. than by the . Half leather. The author has emphasized Graphical Methods more than is usual in textbooks of this grade. To meet the requirements of the College Entrance Examination Board. 6466 FIFTH AVBNTC.D. book is a thoroughly practical and comprehensive textbook. but none of the introduced illustrations is so complex as to require the expenditure of time for the teaching of physics or geometry. xi 4 373 pages. $1. physics. Particular care has been bestowed upon those chapters which in the customary courses offer the greatest difficulties to the beginner. given. Ph. but the work in the latter subject has been so arranged that teachers who wish a shorter course may omit it ADVANCED ALGEBRA By ARTHUR SCHULTZE. which has been retained to serve as a basis for higher work. $1. without the sacrifice of scientific accuracy and thoroughness. very numerous and well graded there is a sufficient number of easy examples of each kind to enable the weakest students to do some work. great many work. The introsimpler and more natural than the methods given In Factoring.25 lamo. A examples are taken from geometry. proportions and graphical methods are introduced into the first year's course. but these few are treated so thoroughly and are illustrated by so many varied examples that the student will be much better prepared for further The Exercises are superficial study of a great many cases. and the Summation of Series is here presented in a novel form.10 The treatment of elementary algebra here is simple and practical. HEW TOSS . and commercial life. All subjects now required for admission by the College Entrance Examination Board have been omitted from the present volume. THE MACMILLAN COMPANY PUBLISHERS. especially duction into Problem Work is very much Problems and Factoring. not The Advanced Algebra is an amplification of the Elementary.
xi f 373 pages. The more important subjects which have been omitted from the body of the work Indeterminate Equahave been relegated to the Appendix. but the work in the latter subject has been so arranged that teachers who wish a shorter course may omit it ADVANCED ALGEBRA By ARTHUR SCHULTZE. save Inequalities. The Exercises are very numerous and well graded. has emphasized Graphical Methods more than is usual in textbooks of this and the Summation of Series is here presented in a novel form. especially duction into Problem Work is very much Problems and Factoring.ELEMENTARY ALGEBRA By ARTHUR Sen ULTZE. which has been retained to serve as a basis for higher work. physics. so that the tions. but these few are treated so thoroughly and are illustrated by so many varied examples that the student will be much better prepared for further work.25 i2mo. The author grade. bestowed upon those chapters which in the customary courses offer the greatest difficulties to the beginner. xiv+56a pages. All subjects now required for admission by the College Entrance Examination Board have been omitted from the present volume. than by the superficial study of a great many cases. and commercial life. not The Advanced Algebra is an amplification of the Elementary. Half leather. Logarithms. 6466 7HTH AVENUE. proportions and graphical methods are introduced into the first year's course. In Factoring. comparatively few methods are given. book is a thoroughly practical and comprehensive textbook. $1. THE MACMILLAN COMPANY PUBLISHBSS.10 The treatment of elementary algebra here is simple and practical. HEW YOKE . there is a sufficient number of easy examples of each kind to enable the weakest students to do some work. etc. The introsimpler and more natural than the methods given heretofore. Ph. without Particular care has been the sacrifice of scientific accuracy and thoroughness. 12010. $1.D. To meet the requirements of the College Entrance Examination Board. but none of the introduced illustrations is so complex as to require the expenditure of time for the teaching of physics or geometry. great many A examples are taken from geometry. HatF leather.
lines. Preliminary Propositions are presented in a simple manner . 80 cents This Geometry introduces the student systematically to the solution of geometrical exercises. of Propositions has a Propositions easily understood are given first and more difficult ones follow . NEW YORK . 4. The numerous and wellgraded Exercises the complete book. Algebraic Solution of Geometrical Exercises is treated in the Appendix to the Plane Geometry . . SCHULTZE. KEY TO THE EXERCISES in Schultze and Sevenoak's Plane and Solid Geometry. xii + 233 pages. $1. THE MACMILLAN COMPANY PUBLISHERS. Many proofs are presented in a simpler and manner than in most textbooks in Geometry 8. guides him in putting forth his efforts to the best advantage. Cloth. under the heading Remarks". iamo.r and. $1. Proofs that are special cases of general principles obtained from the Exercises are not given in detail. 6466 FIFTH AVENUE.. Half leather. i2mo. 7 he . Attention is invited to the following important features I. SEVENOAK. These are introduced from the beginning 3. textbook in Geometry more direct ositions 7. 10. PLANE AND SOLID GEOMETRY F. 9. aoo pages.10 By ARTHUR This key will be helpful to teachers who cannot give sufficient time to the Most solutions are merely outsolution of the exercises in the textbook. wor. 6. The Schultze and Sevenoak Geometry is in use in a large number of the leading schools of the country.10 L. Difficult Propare made somewhat? easier by applying simple Notation . State: . at the It same provides a course which stimulates him to do original time. and no attempt has been made to present these solutions in such form that they can be used as models for classroom work. Pains have been taken to give Excellent Figures throughout the book.D. Hints as to the manner of completing the work are inserted The Order 5. more than 1200 in number in 2. ments from which General Principles may be obtained are inserted in the " Exercises. The Analysis of Problems and of Theorems is more concrete and practical than in any other distinct pedagogical value. Ph. By ARTHUR SCHULTZE and 370 pages. xttt PLANE GEOMETRY Separate. izmo. Cloth.
Typical topics the value and the aims of mathematical teach ing . THE MACMILLAN COMPANY 6466 Fifth Avenue. New York DALLAS CHICAGO BOSTON SAN FRANCISCO ATLANTA . 370 pages. Most teachers admit that mathematical instruction derives its importance from the mental training that it But in affords. . enable him to " The chief object of the speak with unusual authority. of these theoretical views.The Teaching of Mathematics in Secondary Schools ARTHUR SCHULTZE Formerly Head of the Department of Mathematics in the High School Commerce." The treatment treated are : is concrete and practical. a great deal of mathematical spite teaching is still informational. New York City. . methods of teaching mathematics the first propositions in geometry the original exercise parallel lines methods of the circle attacking problems impossible constructions applied problems typical parts of algebra. and not from the information that it imparts. . and Assistant Professor of Mathematics in New York University of Cloth. 12mo. . . . . " is to contribute towards book/ he says in the preface. $1. making mathematical teaching less informational and more disciplinary. Students to still learn demon strations instead of learning how demonstrate. causes of the inefficiency of mathematical teaching.25 The author's long and successful experience as a teacher of mathematics in secondary schools and his careful study of the subject from the pedagogical point of view. .
AMERICAN HISTORY For Use fa Secondary Schools By ROSCOE LEWIS ASHLEY Illustrated. Cloth. is an excellent example of the newer type of school histories. New York SAN FRANCISCO BOSTON CHICAGO ATLANTA . The author's aim is to keep constantly before the This book pupil's mind the general movements in American history and their relative value in the development of our nation. diagrams. THE MACMILLAN COMPANY 6466 Fifth Avenue. which have been selected with great care and can be found in the average high school library. All smaller movements and single events are clearly grouped under these general movements. The book deserves the attention of history teachers/' Journal of Pedagogy. $1. supply the student with plenty of historical narrative on which to base the general statements and other classifications made in the text. An exhaustive system of marginal references. This book is uptodate not only in its matter and method. and a full index are provided. but in being fully illustrated with many excellent maps.40 is distinguished from a large number of American textbooks in that its main theme is the development of history the nation. " This volume etc. Topics. i2mo. which put the main stress upon national development rather than upon military campaigns. diagrams. photographs. Studies and Questions at the end of each chapter take the place of the individual teacher's lesson plans. Maps.