PAGES MISSING
WITHIN THE

BOOK ONLY
(255,256)

CO >-

DO

164146
CQ CO

Call

OSMANIA UNIVERSITY " ^ No. Accession
'
'

-

'

I'*

No.

*

7

*

Author
" Title
,'

U
.^

>

x.V\ x
u
:

/

/

i>A ^

.

._

This book should be returned on or before the date
las^

marked

bclo*v.

ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA

. LONDON LIMITKU HOMBAY CALCUTTA MELUCK'KNK THE MACMILLAN CO. LTD.AS - BOSTON CHICAGO SAN FRANCISCO MACMILLAN & CO. OF TORONTO CANADA.THE MACM1LLAN COMPANY NKVV YORK PAI-I.

D. NKW YORK ITNIVEKSITT HEAD OF THK MATHEMATICAL DKI'A KTM EN T. PH. FORMERLY ASSISTANT PROFESSOR OF MATHEMATICS. NEW 1 ORK CUT THE MACMILLAN COMPANY 1917 All rights reserved . HIH SCHOOL OF COMMERCE.ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA BY ARTHUR SCJBULIi/TZE.

' February. July. Reprinted 1913. 1910 . . Berwick & Smith Co. 1917. August. Published Set up and electrotyped. 1915. 1911. Mass. September. IQJS January. 1916. .COPYRIGHT. . January. J.S.A. 8. U. May. 1910. BY THE MACMILLAN COMPANY. May. Norwood. Cushlng Co. September.. 1910.

but "cases" that are taught only on account of tradition. chief : among These which are the following 1. All unnecessary methods and "cases" are omitted. not only taxes a student's memory unduly but in variably leads to mechanical modes of study.. and conse- . and ingenuity while the cultivation of the student's reasoning power is neglected. are omitted. Typical in this respect is the treatment of factoring in many text-books In this book all methods which are of and which are applied in advanced work are given. omissions serve not only practical but distinctly pedagogic " cases " ends. The entire study of algebra becomes a mechanical application of memorized rules.PREFACE IN this book the attempt while still is made to shorten the usual course in algebra. giving to the student complete familiarity with all the essentials of the subject. owing has certain distinctive features. All practical teachers know how few students understand and appreciate the more difficult parts of the theory. Such a large number of methods. Elementary Algebra. in order to make every example a social case of a memorized method." this book. however. specially 2. Until recently the tendency was to multiply as far as possible. " While in many respects similar to the author's to its peculiar aim. All parts of the theory whicJi are beyond the comprehension of the student or wliicli are logically unsound are omitted. etc. short-cuts that solve only examples real value. manufactured for this purpose.

e. The presenwill be found to be tation of problems as given in Chapter V quite a departure from the customary way of treating the subject. Topics of practical importance. the following may be quoted from the author's "Elementary Algebra": which "Particular care has been bestowed upon those chapters in the customary courses offer the greatest difficulties to the beginner. as quadratic equations and graphs. In regard to some other features of the book. enable students who can devote only a minimum This arrangement will of time to algebra to study those subjects which are of such importance for further work. in particular the requirements of the College Entrance Examination Board.vi PREFACE quently hardly ever emphasize the theoretical aspect of alge bra. are placed early in the course. may be used to supplement the other. etc. hence either book 4. The best way to introduce a beginner to a new topic is to offer Lim a large number of simple exercises. especially problems and factoring. there has been placed at the end of the book a collection of exercises which contains an abundance of more difficult work. however. This made it necessary to introduce the theory of proportions .g. and it is hoped that this treatment will materially diminish the difficulty of this topic for young students. " The book is designed to meet the requirements for admis- sion to our best universities and colleges. all elementary proofs theorem for fractional exponents. Moreover. TJie exercises are slightly simpler than in the larger look. a great deal of the theory offered in the avertext-book is logically unsound . For the more ambitious student. all proofs for the sign age of the product of of the binomial 3. differ With very few from those exceptions all the exer cises in this book in the "Elementary Alge- bra". two negative numbers.

but they unquestionably furnish a very good antidote against 'the tendency of school algebra to degenerate into a mechanical application of memorized rules. and they usually involve difficult numerical calculations. McKinley than one that gives him the number of Henry's marbles. but the true study of algebra has not been sacrificed in order to make an impressive display of sham life applications. based upon statistical abstracts. such examples. and commercial are numerous. viz. The entire work in graphical methods has been so arranged that teachers who wish a shorter course may omit these chapters. are frequently arranged in sets that are algebraically uniform. to solve a It is undoubtedly more interesting for a student problem that results in the height of Mt. physics. is based principally upon the alge- . elementary way. an innovation which seems to mark a distinct gain from the pedagogical point of view. the student will be able to utilize this knowledge where it is most needed. of the Mississippi or the height of Mt. nobody would find the length Etna by such a method.' This topic has been preit is sented in a simple. Moreover. in " geometry . But on the other hand very few of such applied examples are genuine applications of algebra.PREFACE vii and graphical methods into the first year's work. and of the hoped that some modes of representation given will be considered im- provements upon the prevailing methods. By studying proportions during the first year's work. " Graphical methods have not only a great practical value. while in the usual course proportions are studied a long time after their principal application. and hence the student is more easily led to do the work by rote than when the arrangement braic aspect of the problem." Applications taken from geometry.

Manguse for the careful reading of the proofs and many valuable suggestions. ARTHUR SCHULTZE. pupil's knowlso small that an extensive use of The average Hence the field of suitable for secondary school tations. however.viii PREFACE problems relating to physics often offer It is true that a field for genuine applications of algebra. is such problems involves as a rule the teaching of physics by the teacher of algebra. William P. . genuine applications of elementary algebra work seems to have certain limi- but within these limits the author has attempted to give as many The author for simple applied examples as possible. 1910. NEW YORK. edge of physics. April. desires to acknowledge his indebtedness to Mr.

...... and Hoots Algebraic Expressions and Numerical Substitutions . ... 34 35 36 Multiplication of Polynomials Special Cases in Multiplication 39 CHAPTER IV DIVISION Division of Monomials 46 46 47 Division of a Polynomial by a Monomial Division of a Polynomial by a Polynomial Special Cases in Division ix 48 61 . AND PARENTHESES 15 15 10 .CONTENTS CHAPTER INTRODUCTION Algebraic Solution of Problems Negative Numbers I PAGB 1 1 3 Numbers represented by Letters Factors. SUBTRACTION........ Powers... Numbers Monomial Monomials 31 31 Multiplication of a Polynomial by a . . II 6 7 10 CHAPTER Addition of Monomials Addition of Polynomials Subtraction ADDITION.... III 22 27 Signs of Aggregation Exercises in Algebraic Expression 29 CHAPTER MULTIPLICATION Multiplication of Algebraic Multiplication of ....

80 83 84 86 87 Summary CHAPTER Common Factor Lowest Common Multiple Highest VII . . Form x'2 -f px -f q Form px 2 -f qx + r -f ..63 55 67 to Simple Equations 63 CHAPTER VI FACTORING 76 I. Type VI...X CONTENTS CHAPTER V PAGE LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS Solution of Linear Equations Symbolical Expressions Problems leading . Type V. Type IV. /^ .. Complex Fractions 105 CHAPTER IX FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS Fractional Equations Literal Equations . All of whose Terms contain a mon Factor Com77 . Quadratic Trinomials of the Quadratic Trinomials of the 78 .. HIGHEST COMMON FACTOR AND LOWEST COMMON MULTIPLE 89 89 91 CHAPTER VIII 93 93 97 FRACTIONS Reduction of Fractions Addition and Subtraction of Fractions Multiplication of Fractions Division of Fractions 102 104 * .. .. . Type Polynomials..... 108 108 112 Problems leading to Fractional and Literal Equations . * . ...114 . The Square of a Binomial x 2 Ixy The Difference of Two Squares Grouping Terms of Factoring . Type III.. Type II.

. .CONTENTS XI RATIO AND PROPORTION Ratio ... ... 171 CHAPTER XV QUADRATIC EQUATIONS INVOLVING ONB UNKNOWN QUANTITY Pure Quadratic Equations Complete Quadratic Equations Problems involving Quadratics Equations in the Quadratic Character of the Roots ... 140 143 CHAPTER XII GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS AND EQUATIONS Representation of Functions of One Variable .. Two Unknown 129 130 133 138 Quantities Problems leading to Simultaneous Equations ... Evolution of Polynomials and Arithmetical Numbers ... CHAPTER XIV 169 . CHAPTER XI CHAPTER X PAGE 120 120 121 Proportion SIMULTANEOUS EQUATIONS OF THE FIRST DEGREE Elimination by Addition or Subtraction Elimination by Substitution Literal Simultaneous Equations Simultaneous Equations involving More than . Evolution of Monomials 170 ....... 148 164 Graphic Solution of Equations involving One Unknown Quantity Graphic Solution of Equations involving Two Unknown Quantities 168 160 CHAPTER INVOLUTION Involution of Monomials XIII 165 165 166 Involution of Binomials EVOLUTION .. 1*78 178 181 189 191 Form 193 .

xii

CONTENTS
CHAPTER XVI
PAGK 195

THE THEORT OP EXPONENTS
Fractional and Negative Exponents Use of Negative and Fractional Exponents

....

195

200

CHAPTER XVII
RADICALS
Transformation of Radicals Addition and Subtraction of Radicals
Multiplication of Radicals Division of Radicals

205

206 210

.212

Involution and Evolution of Radicals

.....

214

218

Square Roots of Quadratic Surds Radical Equations

219
221

CHAPTER
THE FACTOR THEOREM

XVIII
227

CHAPTER XIX
SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS
I.

......
.
.
.
.

232
232

II.

Equations solved by finding x +/ and x / One Equation Linear, the Other Quadratic

.

.

234

III.

Homogeneous Equations
Special Devices

236
237

IV.

Interpretation of Negative Results

and the Forms

i

-,

.

.

241

Problems

243

CHAPTER XX
PROGRESSIONS
Arithmetic Progression Geometric Progression
Infinite
.

246
24(j

251

Geometric Progression

263

CHAPTER XXI
BINOMIAL THEOREM
.

.

.

.

.

.

..

.

.

255

BEVIEW EXERCISE

.

268

ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA

ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
CHAPTER
I

INTRODUCTION
1.

Algebra
it

may

arithmetic,

treats of

be called an extension of arithmetic. Like numbers, but these numbers are freletters,

quently denoted by problem.

as illustrated in

the following

ALGEBRAIC SOLUTION OF PROBLEMS
2.

Problem.
'

The sum
x

is five

times the smaller.

Let

two numbers is 42, and the greater Find the numbers. the smaller number.
of

Then
and
Therefore,

5 x = the greater number, 6x the sum of the two numbers. 6x

= 42,

and
3.

x = 7, the smaller number, 5 x = 35, the greater number.

A problem
An

is

a question proposed for solution.

4.

equation is a statement expressing the equality of

two

quantities; as,
5.

6 a?

= 42.

In algebra, problems are frequently solved by denoting numbers by letters and by expressing the problem in the form of an equation.
6.

Unknown numbers
;

are usually represented
as, x, y,
z,

by the

last

letters of the alphabet

but sometimes other letters

are employed. B

1

2

ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
EXERCISE
The sum
1

Solve algebraically the following problems
1.

:

of two

times the smaller.
2.

numbers is 40, and the greater Find the numbers.

is

four

twice as

and a carriage for $ 480, receiving for the horse as for the carriage. much did he receive for the carriage ?
sold a horse

A man
A

much

How

3.

and

B own

a house worth $ 14,100, and
capital as B.

A

has

in-

vested twice as
invested ?
4.

much

How much
is

has each

The population

of

South America

9 times that of

Australia, and both continents together have 50,000,000 inFind the population of each. habitants.

and fall of the tides in Seattle is twice that in and their sum is 18 feet. Find the rise and fall Philadelphia,
5.

The

rise

of the tides in Philadelphia.
6.

6 times as
7.

Divide $ 240 among A, B, and C so that A may receive much as C. and B 8 times as much as C.

A pole 56 feet high was broken so that the part broken was 6 times the length of the part left standing. .Find the length of the two parts.
off
8.

The sum

If

two

of the sides of a triangle equals 40 inches. sides of the triangle are equal, and each is twice the A remaining side, how long is each side ?

A

9.

The sum

triangle is are equal,

of the three angles of any 180. If 2 angles of a triangle and the remaining angle is 4

times their sum,
there in each ?

how many

degrees are

is

G 10. The number of negroes in Africa 10 times the number of Indians in America, and the sum of both is 165,000,000. How many are there of each ?

B

INTRODUCTION
11.

3

twice as
12.

Divide $280 among A, B, and C, so that much as A, and C twice as much as B.

B may

receive

twice as
13.

Divide $90 among A, B, and C, so that B may receive much as A, and C as much as A and B together.

A
is

which
14.

line 20 inches long is divided into two parts, one of long are the parts ? equal to 5 times the other.

How

travels twice as fast as B, and the tances traveled by the two is 57 miles.

A

sum

of the dis-

How many

miles did

each travel ?
15.

4

A, B, C, and

does

A

take, if

B

D buy $ 2100 worth of goods. How much buys twice as much as A, C three times as
much

much

as B,

and

D

six times as

NEGATIVE NUMBE
EXERCISE
1.

2

Subtract 9 from 16.

2.
3.

Can 9 be subtracted from 7 ?
In arithmetic

why

cannot 9 be subtracted from 7 ?
"*

\

4.

The temperature
is

What
5.

noon is 16 ami at 4 P.M. it is 9 the temperature at 4 P.M.? State this as an
at
at

of subtraction.

The temperature

4 P.M.

is

7, and

at 10 P.M.

it is

10

less.
6.

What is the temperature at 10 P.M. ? Do you know of any other way of
below zero) ? What then is 7 -10?
(3

expressing the last

answer
7.
8.

Can you think

of

any other

practical examples

which

require the subtraction of a greater

number from a smaller

one?
7.

Many

greater

number from a smaller

practical examples require the subtraction of a one, and in order to express in

a convenient form the results of these, and similar examples,

4

ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA

it becomes necessary to enlarge our concept of number, so as to include numbers less than zero.

8. Negative numbers are numbers smaller than zero; they are denoted by a prefixed minus sign as 5 (read " minus 5 "). Numbers greater than zero, for the sake of distinction, are fre;

quently called positive numbers, and are written either with a prefixed plus sign, or without any prefixed sign as -f- 5 or 5.
;

The

fact that a

thermometer falling 10 from 7 indicates 3
be expressed 7 -10

below zero

may now

= -3.
is

loss of $ 60,

Instead of saying a gain of $ 30, and a loss of $ 90 we may write

equal to a

$30
9.

-$90 = -$60.
number
is

The

absolute value of a

the number taken

without regard to its sign. 5 is The absolute value of
10.

6,

of -f 3 is 3.

It is convenient for

many

discussions to represent the

positive

a line

numbers by a succession of equal distances laid off on from a point 0, and the negative numbers by a similar

series in the opposite direction.
,
I
I

lit
-4
to

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

-6

-5

-3

-2

-1

+\
4,

+2

+

3

+4

4-5

+6

y

Thus, in the annexed diagram, the line from
the line from
4 represents
etc.

to 4- 6 represents 4- 5,

resented by a motion of "three tion of 8 by a similar motion toward the

The addition of 3 is repspaces toward the right, and the subtracleft.

Thus, 5 added to

1

equals 4, 5 subtracted from

1 equals

6, etc.

EXERCISE
1.

3

If in financial transactions

we

indicate a man's income

by

a positive sign, what does a negative sign indicate ?
2. State in what manner the positive and negative signs may be used to indicate north and south latitude, east and west

longitude, motion upstream

and downstream.

INTRODUCTION
3.

5

If north latitude

is

indicated by a positive sign, by what

is

south latitude represented ?
4.

If south latitude

is

indicated by a positive sign, by what
?

is

north latitude represented
5.

the meaning of the year 6 yards per second ? erly motion of
is 6.

What

20 A.D. ?

Of an

east-

A

his total gain or loss ?
7.

merchant gains $ 200, and loses $ 350. - 350. (b) Find 200

(a)

What

is

higher, is 8

- +7? 8. A vessel
(6)

If the temperature at 4 A.M. is 8 and at 9 A.M. it is 7 what is the temperature at 9 A.M. ? What, therefore,

starts

sails

38 due south,

(a)

from a point in 25 north latitude, and Find the latitude at the end of the

journey.
9.

Find 25 -38.

A
22

sails

vessel starts from a point in 15 south latitude, and due south, (a) Find the latitude at the end of the
(b)

journey,
10.

Subtract 22 from

15.
18.

11.
12.
13.

14.
15.

16.
17.

From 30 subtract 40. From 4 subtract 7. From 7 subtract 9. From 19 subtract 34. From subtract 14. From 12 subtract 20. 2 subtract 5. From 1 subtract 1. From

19. 20.

21.
22.

23.
24. 25.

To 6 2 To To 1 From 1 To - 8 To 7 From

add add add

12.
1.

2.

subtract 2.

add add

9. 4.

1 subtract 2.

Add

1 and 2.

26.

the one of

Solve examples 16-25 by using a diagram similar to 10, and considering additions and subtractions as

motions.
27.
(a) 28.

Which is the greater number lor -1? (b) -2 or -4?

:

By how much

is

7 greater than

12 ?

ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
29.

Determine from the following table the range of tempera:

ture in each locality

NUMBERS REPRESENTED BY LETTERS
11. For many purposes of arithmetic it is advantageous to express numbers by letters. One advantage was shown in 2 others will appear in later chapters ( 30).
;

EXERCISE
1.

4
is

If the letter

t

means 1000, what

the value of

5t?
a=

2.
3.

What is the value of 3 6, if b = 3 ? if b = 4 ? What is the value of a + &, if a = 5, and 6 = 7?

if

6,

and

b

=

4?
is

4.
5.

What
If a

the value of 17

c,

if c

= 5?

ifc

= -2?
marbles,

many
6.

boy has 9c? marbles and wins 4c marbles has. he ?
Is the last

how

7.

How
8.
9.

merchant had 20 much has he left ?

A

answer correct for any value of d ? m dollars and lost 11 m

dollars.

What

is

the

sum

of 8 &

and G

b ?

Find the numerical value
If c represents a certain

of the last

answer

if b

= 15.

10.

number, what represents 9 times

that

number ?

INTRODUCTION
11.

1

From 26 w

subtract 19 m.

12.
if

What is the numerical
From 22m
if

value of the last answer

if

m = 2?

m = -2?
13.

subtract
1

25m, and

find the numerical value

of the answer
14.

m=

2.

Add

13 p, 3p, 6p, and subtract 24 p from the sum.

15.
16. 19.

From

10 q subtract 20

q.

17.
18.

Add -lOgand +20 q. From 22# subtract 0.
7 a=

From subtract 26 Add - 6 x and 8 x.

x.

20.

From

Wp subtract 10^).
is

What sign, therefore, 140. 21. If a = 20, then understood between 7 and a in the expression 7 a ?
FACTORS, POWERS, AND ROOTS
12.

The

and equality have the same meaning
in arithmetic.
13.

signs of addition, subtraction, multiplication, division, in algebra as they have

If there is no sign between

two
is

letters, or

a letter and a

number, a sign of multiplication
6

is

understood.
written win.

x a

is

generally written 6 a

;

m

x n

Between two
(either

figures,

x

or

)

however, a sign of multiplication has to be employed as, 4x7, or 4 7.
;

4x7 cannot be
14.

written 47, for 47

means 40

-f 7.

A product is
=

the result obtained by multiplying together

two or more
Since 24
Similarly,

quantities, each of which is a factor of the product. 3 x 8, or 12 x 2, each of these numbers is a factor of 24.

7, a, 6,

and

c are factors of 7 abc.

15.

A

power
is

thus,

aaaaa

6 aaaaaa, or a ,

is the product of two or more equal factors called the " 5th power of a," and written a5 " the 6th is power of a," or a 6th.

;

;

The second power is also called the square, and the third 2 power the cube; thus, 12 (read "12 square") equals 144.

8
16.

ELEMENTS OF ALQEBEA
The
base of a

power

is

the

number which

is

repeated

as a factor.

The base

of a 3

is a.

17. An exponent is the number which indicates how many times a base is to be used as a factor. It is placed a little above and to the right of the base.

The exponent

of

m

6

is

6

;

n

is

the exponent of an

.

EXERCISE
1.

5

find the numerical value of the square of 7, the cube of 6, the fourth power of 3, and the fifth power of 2. Find the numerical values of the following powers :
2.
3.

Write and

72

.

6.

42

.

10.
11.
.

8

(i)

.

14.
15.
2
.

25 1

.

2*.

7.
8. 9.

2*.

O

9
.

.0001 2

.

4. 5.

52
83

.

10 6
I 30
.

12.

(4|)
(1.5)

16.
.

l.l 1

.

.

13.

2

17.

22

+3

2
.

If

a=3, 6=2, c=l, and
18. 19.
3
ci
.

d=^
22.
a*.

find the numerical values of:
24.
2
.

20.
21.

c

10
.

3

(2 c)
ab.

.

26. 27.

2

at).

b2

.

d\

23.

(6cf)

25.

(4 bdf.

28.

If

29.
30.

= 8, what is the value of a? If m = what is the value of m ? = 64, what is the value of a ? If 4
a3
2
-jJg-,

In a product any factor product of the other factors.
18.

is

called the coefficient of the

In 12 win 8/), 12
19.

is

the coefficient of
is

mw 8p,

12

m is the coefficient of n*p.

A
17

numerical coefficient

a coefficient expressed entirely

in figures.
In
aryx,

17

is

the numerical coefficient.
is

When

stood ; thus a

a product contains no numerical coefficient, 1 1 a, a Bb 1 a*b.

under-

=

=

INTRODUCTION

9

20. When several powers are multiplied, the beginner should remember that every exponent refers only to the number near which it is placed.

3 9

2

means 3
3

aa, while (3

2

)

=3ax

3 a.

= 9 abyyy. 2* xyW = 2-2.2.2. xyyyzz.
afty

1 abc*

7 abccc.

EXERCISES
If

a

= 4, b = 1, c = 2, and x = ^, find the

numerical values of

:

21. root is one of the equal factors of a power. According to the number of equal factors, it is called a square root, a cube root, a fourth root, etc.
3
is

A

6

is is

the square root of 9, for 32 = 9. the cube root of 125, for 6 8 = 125. the
fifth

a

root of a 5 the nth root of a".
,

The nth
Va,
is

fifth root of a,

indicated by the symbol >/""; thus Va is the is the cube root of 27, \/a, or more simply the square root of a.
root
is

A/27

Using

this

(Va)
22.

n

= a.
The

symbol we

may
is

express the definition of root by
the

index of a root

number which

indicates

what

root is to be taken.
sign. In v/a, 7
23.

It is written in the opening of the radical

is

the index of the root.

The
[ ]
;

signs of aggregation are

:

the parenthesis,
.

( )

;

the

bracket,

the brace,

j

j

;

and the vinculum,

V2a. 6. e. A binomial is 62 . find the numerical value of: Vff. V3 .10 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA They are used. 14. expression containing more than one and a 4 term. b = 3. as in arithmetic. since the parts are a . V36". 8. 15. Val -\fi?. 10 x [4 by 4 + 1 or by 5. v'Ta. [6-c] 3 . 17. !^-f\/0-3 3 ft. AND NUMERICAL sym- SUBSTITUTIONS An algebraic expression is a collection of algebraic bols representing 25." EXERCISE If a 1. to indicate that the expres* sions included are to be treated as a whole. 16. d 7. 6. 26. 3. separated by a sign (6 + c + d} is o c ^and (6 + a monomial. Each 10 is of the forms 10 to be multiplied x (4 -f 1). c -f d). 11. x 9. some number is . \/c. + M -f c 4 -f- d 4 are polynomials. a polynomial of two terms. 5Vl6c. + 1]. 0. A trinomial a polynomial of three terms. 10. A monomial or term -f- an expression whose parts are not as 3 cue2. A polynomial is an y. 2. or 9 Vx. 2 . 4(a 6(6 + &). a2 + and | - \/a are binomials. 6 a26 7 Vac ~* 2 -f 9. 7 = 2. 13.g. ALGP:BRAIC EXPRESSIONS 24. (c-f-d) 4. is 28. V^a6. 9. 10 x 4"+T indicates that (a b) is sometimes read "quantity a b. 12. c = 1. 27. 4V3~6c. are trinomials. + c). aVc^.

x=^. 2 ). 5a2 2 a2 -46c-f2^^ + 3 a& +. 5. a 2 -6. b = 3. d=Q. ' -f & -f c 3 8 -d s . multiplication.9 5 32 2 + ^ 5 8 3 . . 5 means 3 4- 20 or 23. 5c6 2 +-6ac3 a 3 17c3 -hl2o. 2 3a& 2 + 3a2 6-a&c2 .810 + 150 = . = 32 + 45-27 = 50. (a (a -f b) 7. 52 . Otherwise operations of addition. 4. 6.2 + I-126.e. 5. * For additional examples see page 268. 8.3-0 = 270 . a2 -f + (a + 6)c 6+ a (2 2 c 2 . 14. .390.19 = 6.9. . 3 2 If 1. Ex. and division are to be performed in the order in which they are written all from left to right. 10.9 aWc + f a b . l 13. 12. i. c = 2. 4 . d = 0. EXERCISE 8* - . 4a6-fVa-V2^. find the numerical value of: 9. 1. 11 if it In a polynomial each term is treated as were con- tained in a parenthesis. 3 4 . 2. c=l.9-9. Find the value of 4 28 +5 32 - *^. . 3a + 56 a 2 . Ex.4 6^9 ad. a2 11.9 a& 2 c + f a 6 . 2 of 6 ab If a = 5. a=4.INTRODUCTION 29. 6. + 26+3 c.g. subtraction. 2.5 ax 50 a6cd. -5c +-d 2 . 16. 6a2 +4a62 ~6c' 27 c 3 -+12a(i *15.19 a 2 bcd = 6 5 32 . 5=3. each term has to be computed before the different terms are added and subtracted. _|_ E..19 a 6cd 3 2 3 find the numerical value 6 aft 2 . 3.

6 = 7. geometry. The quantity a 6 2 by the quantity a minus 36.12 17 & * ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 18 ' 8 Find the numerical value of 8 a3 21. 6. Six times the square of a minus three times the cube of Eight x cube minus four x square plus y square. 24. 23. and the area of the is triangle S square feet (or squares of other units selected).c) (a . a. if : a = 2. 35. 6 = 6. 6 = 1. Six times a plus 4 times 32. a = 4. : 6. 34. Read the expressions of Exs. 27. a =4. a =3. and other sciences. 6=2. and If the three sides of a triangle contain respectively c feet (or other units of length). a = 2. 6 = 6. 10-14 The representation of numbers by letters makes it posvery briefly and accurately some of the principles of arithmetic. a a=3. of this exercise? What kind of expressions are Exs. Six 2 . 6 = 5. a = 3. then 8 = \ V(a + 6 + c) (a 4. 33.6 -f c) (6 a + c). Twice a3 diminished by 5 times the square root of the quantity a minus 6 square. 6 = 5. 26. sible to state Ex. 30. = 3. 25. 6. 12 cr6 -f- 6 a6 2 6s. . w cube plus three times the quantity a minus plus 6 multiplied 6. 6 = 4. 30. 2-6 of the exercise. physics. a = 4. Express in algebraic symbols 31. 28. 22. 6 = 3. 37.6 . 38. 6 = 2. a = 3. 29.

d. 4. A carrier pigeon in 10 minutes. the area of the triangle equals feet. and 5 feet. if v . 2. then a 13. if v = 50 meters per second 5000 feet per minute. b. the three sides of a triangle are respectively 13.16 1 = 84. and c 13 and 15 = = = . 9 distance s passed over by a body moving with the uniform velocity v in the time t is represented by the formula The Find the distance passed over by A snail in 100 seconds. (c) 4. = (a) How far does a body fall from a state of rest in 2 seconds ? (b) * stone dropped from the top of a tree reached the ground in 2-J. if v = 30 miles per hour. 12. Find the height of the tree. i. count the resistance of the atmosphere. S = | V(13-hl4-fl5)(13H-14-15)(T3-14-i-15)(14-13-f-15) = V42-12-14. 14. 13. An electric car in 40 seconds. (b) 5. and 13 inches.INTRODUCTION E.g.seconds. A body falling from a state of rest passes in t seconds 2 over a space S (This formula does not take into ac^gt 32 feet. How far does a body fall from a state of rest in T ^7 of a (c) A second ? 3. . A train in 4 hours. 84 square EXERCISE 1. c.16 centimeters per second. and 15 feet. if v : a. By using the formula find the area of a triangle whose sides are respectively (a) 3. b 14. 15 therefore feet.e.) Assuming g .

on $ 500 for 2 years at 4 %.14 is frequently denoted by the Greek letter TT. the 3. 32 F. the equivalent reading C on the Centigrade scale may be found by the formula F C y = f(F-32). to Centigrade readings: (b) Change the following readings (a) 122 F. (c) 8000 miles. of this formula : The The interest on interest $800 for 4 years at ty%. : 8000 miles. If the (b) 1 inch. 6 Find the volume of a sphere whose diameter equals: (b) 3 feet. diameter of a sphere equals d feet. ~ 7n cubic feet. (The number 3. If the diameter of a sphere equals d units of length.).14 4. fo If i represents the simple interest of i p dollars at r in n years. the area etc. meters.) Find the surface of a sphere whose diameter equals (a) 7. then =p n * r %> or Find by means (a) (b) 6.14d (square units). If cated on the Fahrenheit scale. is H 2 units of length (inches. 2 inches. 5. (c) 5 miles. This number cannot be expressed exactly. $ = 3. square units (square inches.14 square meters. (c) 10 feet. . Find the area of a circle whose radius is It (b) (a) 10 meters.). ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA If the radius of a circle etc. (c) 5 F. denotes the number of degrees of temperature indi8. and the value given above is only an surface $= 2 approximation. then the volume V= (a) 10 feet.

we call the aggregate value of a gain of 6 and a loss of 4 the sum of the two. the fact that a loss of loss of + $2. we define the sum of two numbers in such a way that these results become general. or that and (+6) + (+4) = + 16 10. SUBTRACTION.$6) + (- $4) = (- $10).CHAPTER II ADDITION. Or in the symbols of algebra $4) = Similarly. Thus a gain of $ 2 is considered the sum of a gain of $ 6 and a loss of $ 4. In algebra. in algebra this word includes also the results obtained by adding negative. While in arithmetic the word sum refers only to the result obtained by adding positive numbers. of $6 and a gain $4 equals a $2 may be represented thus In a corresponding manner we have for a loss of $6 and a of loss $4 (. however. or positive and negative numbers. . In arithmetic we add a gain of $ 6 and a gain of $ 4. Since similar operations with different units always produce analogous results. AND PARENTHESES ADDITION OF MONOMIALS 31. but we cannot add a gain of $0 and a loss of $4.

12. 10. EXERCISE Find the sum of: 10 Find the values 17. = 5. . if : a a = 2. is 0. 4 is 3 J. add their absolute values if they have opposite signs. 6 6 = 3. subtract their absolute values and . 33.16 32. - 0. '. of 2. + -12. 22. 19. the average of 4 and 8 The average The average of 2. l-f(-2). 24. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA These considerations lead to the following principle : If two numbers have the same sign. of: 20.3. is 2. d = 0. + (-9). The average of two numbers is average of three numbers average of n numbers is the is one half their sum. 18. d = 5. Thus. (always) prefix the sign of the greater. the one third their sum. c = = 5. (-17) 15 + (-14). (_ In Exs. 23-26. find the numerical values of a + b -f c-j-c?. 5. 4. 21. 23. c = 4. 5. and the sum of the numbers divided by n.

or and . 34. which are not similar. -11 (Centigrade). 7 a. 43. 5 and 12. 32. $7000 gain. 09.ADDITION. d= 3. -' 1? a 26. : and 1. c = 0. 3 and 25. 66. 6. 32. AND PARENTHESES d = l. 0. $500 loss. affected by the same exponents. 13. . and 3 a. 5 a2 & 6 ax^y and 7 ax'2 y. 37. 33. if his yearly gain or loss during 6 years was $ 5000 gain. 30. . }/ Add 2 a. $1000 loss. Dissimilar or unlike terms are terms 4 a2 6c and o 4 a2 6c2 are dissimilar terms. = 22. 60. 41. 6. are similar terms. : 48. 25. 4 F. 36. : Find the average temperature of Irkutsk by taking the average of the following monthly temperatures 12. Find the average of the following temperatures 27 F. and 3 F. 35. & 28. and 3 yards. .. and 3 a. 72. $3000 gain. 2. 42. c=14. = -23. 7 a. and 4. What number must be added to 9 to give 12? What number must be added to 12 to give 9 ? What number must be added to 3 to give 6 ? C* What number must be added to 3 to give 6? **j Add 2 yards. = -13. 38. Find the average temperature of New York by taking the average of the following monthly averages 30.5. \\ Add 2 a. & = 15. 6. 10. 40. . 7 yards. 55. 10.4. 2. 29. 10. Find the average gain per year of a merchant.7. . 39. and $4500 gain.3..5. or 16 Va + b and 2Vo"+~&.. -4. sets of numbers: 13. 3. : 34. Similar or like terms are terms which have the same literal factors. 1. 12.7.13. 74. ^ ' 37. 31. . SUBTRACTION. and -8 F. 27. . ' Find the average of the following 34. .

12Vm-f-n. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA The sum of 3 of two similar terms x2 is is another similar term. 5l 3(a-f-6). Algebraic sum.13 rap 25 rap 2. 12(a-f b) 12. 14 . The indicated by connecting and a 2 and a is is -f- a2 . 9(a-f-6). . 2 . The sum x 2 and f x2 . While in arithmetic a denotes a difference only. 11 -2 a +3a -4o 2. and 4 ac2 is a 2 a& -|- 4 ac2. either the difference of a and b or the sum of a and The sum of a. -f 4 a2. in algebra it may be considered b. 5 a2 . 1 \ -f- 7 a 2 frc Find the sum of 9. 10. 2 a&. sum of two such terms can only be them with the -f. 13. The sum The sum of a of a Dissimilar terms cannot be united into a single term. 5Vm + w. EXERCISE Add: 1. b a -f ( 6). In algebra the word sum is used in a 36. 12 2 wp2 .18 35. or a 6. Vm -f. 12 13 b sx xY xY 7 #y 7.sign.ii. + 6 af . 7 rap2. ab 7 c 2 dn 6. 11. b wider sense than in arithmetic. : 2 a2. -3a . 2(a-f &).

32. n x* 2 22. + y. ra 19. 2/ : Add. and to add each column. 3a-76 + 5a + 2a-36-10a+116. 2 2 2 31. i xyz -co* mn mri Simplify the following by uniting like terms: 29. l^S 25. 1 27. -36. Simplify : AND PARENTHESES 19 15. -17c + 15c8 + 18c + 22c3 +c3 3 3 . 35. "Vx + y Vaj + y 2 2 Vi + + 2 Va. 5x173 + 6x173-3x173-7x173. 2 7 -1 26. 2a -4a-4 + 6a -7a -9a-2a + 8. 4x9' 10x38 ADDITION OF POLYNOMIALS Polynomials are added by uniting their like terms. 6 23. 37. + / + 3 Va. m n ^ 2 Add: 18. 33. is . a a8 ZL **. 17. SUBTRACTION. without finding the value of each term 34. It convenient to arrange the expressions so that like terms may be in the same vertical column. 21.ADDITION. 30. xyz + xyz 12 xyz + 13 xyz + 15 xyz. c 2 ^24. +m """ 20.

4a4-6 12 q 5 2 a. it is convenient to arrange the terms according to ascending or descending powers 39. 4- 2. 5 . 4 = 7.6a& 7 6ca a5c + 4 be 6c 4 26 ca c' 9a& 38. e.3 s. It is not also a406 4c would In various operations with polynomials containing terms with different powers of the same letter.2 a 26 To check c assign numerical values to then .20 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA . the following polynomials : 2a 364-6 t c. 2 0-25. and 2 .15 6c.o c and 4.c= 2. f 110WS: 26 aft.2z and 0^-9 z * For additional examples see page 259. NOTE. ft any convenient and c.8 & c~15&c -12a&4l5a&c -20c2 -f-lO&c .4-1 = -3. 2z2 -4?/ 2 -f2z 2 5 -3ar -22/2 4- 4 -3 /. 3 a -f 4 1) 4.20 c 5 ab 4. s. 6 a7 4 5 x"2 + 7 x* 4 5 -7a &+4a fi 5 4 is 6c 8 arranged according to ascending powers 4 7 a&<d? + 9 6 5 4 e 7 is arranged ac- aW a. of that letter. 3a 2? . Numerical substitution offers a convenient method for the addition of checking the sum of an addition. to add 26 ab . -f 5 c -f- But 7 = 10 .4 6c + c 2 we proceed as . 46 4z 7 c. .8 abc . c = 1.2 6 + 4 c = 1 +4 a. and J 2 s. 5.g.3 a -f 4 the sum a = 1. V3. 3.15 abc . a 4. x of x.7 2 . to show any error.3 + 8 + 5 = 1 0.12 a& 4. While the check is almost certain an absolute test e. the erroneous answer equal 7. . 2 Thus. 9 q 4. 6=2. .10 6c 6 c 2 and 7 a&c 4.g. 2 . 2 Sum. 2c. = . 7 4. therefore the answer is correct. cording to descending powers of EXERCISE 12 Add 1.

a 3a 9 y\ 3 afy . -7ar + 3B -5. d.12 6 ~5 a .7^ 2iB 8 + 2y + 2 8 8 . </ AND PARENTHESES 2i 14d-15e + 2/.6) + 14(a 4 6) 4 10. m 4 6. + a + 1.3 5 Va 2 2 3 3 2 .7m .1 a 4 1 0.5 cr& + 7 6 9. . 6 # 2 2 2 2 2 2 .9(a + &) .ADDITION. 6a -5a &47a& -4& and 7. 5-6 w. 2 ?/. a. 4 3 .Ga 4-3x45. 2 2 .a 4 a 4 1. 6 # 4 5 z 4 2 7. ?/ .a.12.3 mn 2 2 n8 . and and 13. and v 15. . 3 2 2 3 9 . in 8 3 m n 4. a4 6(a a a2 -f a -f- 1. a + 1> 8 2 2 . 8. 19. a 4 a . + 50 + 62 . 3 ?/ 3 ? 2 j and a 2 4.10 Vc. xy3xz + yz.7v/i-f. 2 a. 4 8 3 4 4 . 4. 4 o^?/ 4 y\ and a. and 5 Vb 18.Va 4 2 V& 4 6 Vc. a) -y -^/.5a^-6 -f 6) . . 2(6 + c) + (c -f a). and 8 3 .VS 4 2 Vc.2 #?/ 4 5 a + 4 aft . 7(a + 5) 4 2 and 6 4 a.and 6. 2 3(c -f a).4 Va . 16. and 1 4 a . a 4 a .15 5. 10a +lOa 6-ll& 10. 4 ajy 17. a2 2 14. . 7 4 5 x*y 2 y?y* 3 xf.4:xy xz 6yz. 4(a . -18/+6y + d. and -12a 4 15& -20c .6. 4 3 3 ^* -f- -h <l.2n 2 2 3 rz . 16e + 17/-90. v/20. 3 2 tf 2 l 2 ^_. . d and / 3 ? 12. ^2 1 e.5 c ll& -7c -6 4. 4 + 6) - 5 (a + 6) + 3. . 4 Vc.8 m 2m -12. e a4 /. . 2 and 9m 48m 4. and .a.12(a 4. .1. a 4ar ! byb 8 c^c 8 . 2 ?ft ?/z.3 ay 6 afy + 6 ay/ 4 10 and .a -. a2 a. . 2 2 and . .(b + c) 1. 8 2 2 3 s 2 3 . 2xy + 4:XZ-}-5yz. 11. w* 4 3 m n 4 3 m?i 4 2w . SUBTRACTION.

12 xyz. 22. many negative units re- main ? from 2. -f 1. -2 8 n + <w 2 . SM/Z + 2 a:?/ -f x y bxyz~lx. 1. . and 3^2 SUBTRACTION EXERCISE 1. and e + 6y . what to obtain the same result ? total of the units -f 1. -f 1. What is therefore the remainder when 3 is taken -5? Instead of subtracting in the preceding example.11 xy + 12. What away is the value of the sum if two neg- ative units are taken ? If three negative units are taken away 4. -4-5a-6 2 . 2 a3 -a 4 3 a-f^. 4^ + 3t*n l-2aj 2 a. m 3 3 5y 3 8 .4 2tn* Sic 2 . 1.22 21. If you diminish a person's debts. 8 -f-3f a n-2<w +n . What other operations produce the subtraction of a negative number? same result as the 6. . . 1. The sum and ? 1. 2-fa 3 4 -a +7a.3^* 2n 2 . and 25. 5 -}- and 3 m 3 7 m. +d a.m 4m ?/-?/ d. + n*. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 4 w + 3 m + 2 m. 1. 5 3 -f- 4 ?n 4 -2m+2m e. If from the five negative units three negative units are taken.5< 3 2 s 4^4. is 2. -f- number may be added 3. 1.. 1/ . c 3 3 3 2 3 . + 1. a s -f3o $ xy and 5+a\ ^ "27. 16m 7/-12my d+e a 6. does he thereby become richer or poorer ? . 13 1. 8 . -T-8a. a 6 2 c. s .17 + 4 ?nfy .ra + m.3 taken from 2 ? 5. 1. and 6 + 9 x + 12 26.-9aj 2. how 1. and 2 24. What is therefore the remainder is when 2 is taken from 2? When . 6 -f c 2 23.

To subtract. ing the sign of the subtrahend thus to subtract 6 a 2 6 and 8 a 2 6 and find the sum of change mentally the sign of . In addition. In subtraction. change the sign of the subtrahend and add. 7. State the other practical examples which show that the number is equal to the addition of a 40. From 5 subtract + 3. the given number the subtrahend. two numbers are given. . the algebraic sum and one of the two numbers is The algebraic sum is given. The student should perform mentally the operation of chang8 2 6 from 6 a 2 fc. called the minvend.ADDITION.3. This gives by the same method.g. 3. From 5 subtract to The number which added Hence. +b 3. 5 is 2. From 5 subtract to . The results of the preceding examples could be obtained by the following Principle. (- 6) -(- = . 41. Ex. from What 3. 1. 6 -(-3) = 8. Therefore any example in subtraction different .2. 2. a. Subtraction is the inverse of addition. SUBTRACTION. and their algebraic sum is required. and the required number the difference. a-b = x. Or in symbols. if x Ex. NOTE. AND PARENTHESES 23 subtraction of a negative positive number. Ex. 3 gives 3) The number which added Hence. 3 gives 5 is evidently 8. the other number is required. may be stated in a : 5 take form e. may be stated number added to 3 will give 5? To subtract from a the number b means to find the number which added to b gives a.

3 r*-5o. Ex. To subtract polynomials of the subtrahend and add. If x = l = 2 -t- . Check.3 x* .-f 8 .5 x + 8. From _6ar3 -3z + 7 2 -6ar3 -3o2 +7 2 or3 .24 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA we change the subtract 2 x sign of each term 42.

47. From 16 + a3 subtract 8 2 a + a2 -f a3 From a 4 . 43. 56. 58. -f 12 b -f From 10 a 12 & -f 6 subtract 5 c. 55. 42. 6 4 a. 44. 6 6 2 2 ?/ . 2y 2 . +3x -f & -f- 12 take 3 -f- ar -f- 4 x + 11. From a3 From 6a 1 subtract -f a + b 3 1. ?/ 3 #?/ 2 y2 . 50. From 5a-(>& + 7c From 2 x2 8 a?y + 2 From mn -f ??/> 8d 11 c-f 17 d. SUBTRACTION. 57.5 #?/ 2 and check the answer.4 a^ 4. AND PARENTHESES from 14 a 25 Subtract the sum of 2 m and 7 m c 10m.c. 96 subtract 10 b 2 From From 1 -f & take 1 -f b -f- & s . 52.7 a . and 3 7/ . 2. 48. 41. From 5 a 2 2 ab ?/-' subtract 2 a 2 + 2ab .ADDITION.a 2 -j. From From $ -a 3 7 x 2 ?/ 5 a/ + ?/ subtract -f- ar -f 7 a 2 ?/ . 54. From 2 a take a & -j.w>t. From From x2 the sum sum 7. From 6(a-f. . + a the 2 a.& 4 subtract a 2 2 4 +4 8 6 6 a-& 59. take 2 8 o# + qt c mt subtract a2 -f mn -f wp -f.6)-f. c -f d. 4v From 6 subtract l-t-2a-f3& + 4<7. 2 + 4 a& 3 -f 6 4 . 45. 53. check the answer. tract 4 x 3. 51. -f 2 aa -7a 2 ?/ 2 subtract a3 take 11 a 2 :c + 2 a . 49. From a3 subtract 2 a3 -f.2. of a 4.b -h c and a & -f c subtract a _ 6 _ 2 c.5(6 + c) 4(c + a) subtract 7(a-f&) REVIEW EXERCISES 1. 46. of x2 4x -f- 12 and 3 a2 3 # 3 sub- From a3 + 2 a2 4 a subtract the sum of a 3 -}- a2 2a and a 2 + 4.4 a*& + 6 a & .a From 3 or 2 a:// + 2 subtract 2 1.

subtract # + 1. ~2a-6 + 2c? expression must be subtracted from 2 a to produce -a+6? v . A is n years old. Subtract the difference of a and a Subtract the sum + f and + 6 + c from a + b + c a +2 y from 2 2 2 ar* 2 */ 10. years ago ? How old was he a b years ago? . + 2. +a add the difference duce 13. n years hence ? A c How old will he be 10 years hence ? a +b is 2 a years old.26 4. 6 17. 6. 16. To the sum of 2a + 66 + 4c and a 2 c. a + 6. 9.15. + 6 + c. 2 m 21. What must be added to b 4^ + 4^ + 2 z. 4 6 2 c add the To the 3 sum a3 4- a2 3 between 5 a 12. a a + c. to produce find : 0? = x +g c =x 18. 20. +4 and 4 a +1 +a 2 and a2 a. of # 2 8. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA From the difference between a? a? 3 -j- +5 a: 2 + 58+1 + cc and 4 a? 2 +4x 5. 10 a + 5 b sum of9ci-66 + c and 11. a 2y + z. 19. Subtract the sum s of 6 m +5 m +6m 8 4m* 5 m +4m 2 from 2 ra + 7 m. sum of Subtract the x2 + 2 and 6 a iE 3 2 from x3 + a^ 4 6. Subtract the sum of 5 a2 + 2 7 and 2a2 + 3a and from 2 a2 + 2 a 7. What expression must 8a3 -2a-7? What What be added to 7 a 3 +4a 2 to pro- expression must be added to 3a + 56 cto pro- duce 14.

Hence the it is sign may obvious that parentheses preceded by the -f or be removed or inserted according to the fol: lowing principles 44. & -f c. II.a~^~6)]} = 4 a -{7 a 6 b -[.6 b -f (.a -f- = 4a sss 7a 12 06 6.c. the sign is understood. we may begin either at the innermost or outermost.ADDITION. changed. a+(b-c) = a +b . 4a-{(7a + 6&)-[-6&-f(-2&. A sign of aggregation preceded by the sign -f may be removed or inserted without changing the sign of any term.& c additions and sub- + d) = a + b c + d. If there is no sign before the first term within a paren* -f- thesis.a^6)] - } .2 b . . A moved w may be resign of aggregation preceded by the sign inserted provided the sign of evei'y term inclosed is E.c. I. Ex. may be written as follows: a -f ( 4. If we wish to remove several signs of aggregation.g. SUBTRACTION. one occurring within the other. 6 o+( a + c) = a =a 6 c) ( 4-. tractions By using the signs of aggregation. 66 2&-a + 6 4a Answer. 45. 46. Simplify 4 a f + 5&)-[-6& +(-25. (b c) a =a 6 4- c. The beginner will find it most convenient at every step to remove only those parentheses which contain (7 a no others. AND PARENTHESES 27 SIGNS OF AGGREGATION 43.b c = a a & -f- -f.

7i -h jp) (m ?*. 14. may be inserted according to 43. last three Inclose in a parenthesis preceded by the sign terms of the See page 260. 19. Ex. In the following expression inclose the second and third. 9.+ 6)-f (a-2 b). 2m 4a-f- 2 2 2 10. : x + (2y-z). a a c) + [3 a {3c (c 26 a)} 6a]. 2 2 2 a-(. Signs of aggregation 1.1422) J ] . 2. 5. a -(a + 26 -c ). [36+ (a -2c]. a-(3b a3 3 2 2 2c). 2 2a.(a + 6).) 5 . 8. m+n + [# (6 (m (r + M> + w n p) ___ ( m~n-\-p.[271 47. .- ? 11. 2a 2 + 5a-(7-f 2a )-f (5-5a). 2a -(4a -26 +c ). (m a2 -f. 15.-y (60. 13. 6) 2. a (-a + 6). 7 6)+ {a [a: 22. + (2a -6 + c ). 3. By removing parentheses. 21. 16. find the numerical value of { 1422 .: Ex. 4. 271 + (814 . 18. m -f ft)- a. 6. 17. 3 3 f 7.)]. a -f (a a . the fourth and fifth terms respectively in parentheses.28 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 15* Simplify the following expressions 1.

Nine times the square of the sum of a and by the product of a and b. 7. SUBTRACTION. 3. 6. 5 a2 2. The sum of tKe squares of a and b. difference of the cubes of n and m. 4. 2. a-\-l> > c + d. The sum of the fourth powers of a of and 6. The sum^)f m and n. The product of the sum and the difference of m and n. 10. y -f- 8 . z + d. 5. p + q + r-s. 7. The product The product m and n. The square of the difference of a and b. The difference of a and 6. In each of the following expressions inclose the last three in a parenthesis preceded by the minus sign : -27i2 -3^ 2 + 4r/. 12. 9. 5^2 _ r . 6 diminished . . ' NOTE. EXERCISES IN" ALGEBRAIC EXPRESSION 17 : EXERCISE Write the following expressions I.4 y* .7-fa. 2m-n + 2q-3t. 3. 13. m and n. m x 2 4. )X 6.2 tf . EXERCISE AND PARENTHESES 16 29 In each of the following expressions inclose the last three terms in a parenthesis : 1. of the cubes of m and n. and the subtrahend the second. Three times the product of the squares of The cube of the product of m and n. The The difference of the cubes of m and n. II. first. terms 5.1. The minuend is always the of the two numbers mentioned. 8.ADDITION. 4 xy 7 x* 4-9 x + 2.

b. difference of the cubes of a and b divided by the difference of a and 6. and c divided by the ference of a and Write algebraically the following statements: V 17. The sum The of a and b multiplied b is equal to the difference of by the difference of a and a 2 and b 2 . 6. x cube minus quantity 2 x2 minus 6 x plus The sum of the cubes of a. dif- of the squares of a and b increased by the square root of 15.) . 16.30 14. The difference of the squares of two numbers divided by the difference of the numbers is equal to the sum of the two numbers. 6 is equal to the square of b. (Let a and b represent the numbers. a plus the prod- uct of a and s plus the square of -19. 18. d. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA The sum x.

what force is produced by the Ib. 2. let us consider the and JB. therefore. weight at B ? If the addition of five 3 plication example. weight at A ? What is the sign of a 3 Ib. two loads balance. is 5 x ( 3) ? 7. and forces produced at by 3 Ib. By what sign is an upward pull at A represented ? What is the sign of a 3 Ib. is by taking away 5 weights from A? 5 X 3? 6. applied at let us indicate a downward pull at by a positive sign. If the two loads balance. A A A 1. weights at A ? Express this as a multibalance. 4. what force is produced by the addition of 5 weights at B ? What. 3. force is produced therefore. If the two loads balance. weights. 5. what force 31 is produced by tak( ing away 5 weights from B ? What therefore is 5) x( 3) ? . If the two loads what What.CHAPTER III MULTIPLICATION MULTIPLICATION OF ALGEBRAIC NUMBERS EXERCISE 18 In the annexed diagram of a balance.

NOTE. . Multiplication by a negative integer is a repeated sub- traction. (. and we may choose any definition that does not lead to contradictions. (-5)X4.4)-(. 4 multiplied by 3. make venient to accept the following definition : con- 49. 4 multi44-44-4 12. In multiplying integers we have therefore four cases trated illus- by the following examples : 4x3 = 4-12. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA If the signs obtained by the true. 4x(-3)=-12. This definition has the additional advantage of leading to algenumbers which are identical with those for positive numbers. 48.32 8. (- 9) x (- 11) ? State a rule by which the sign of the product of two fac- tors can be obtained. 9 9. examples were generally method of the preceding what would be the values of ( 5x4. times is just as meaningless as to fire a gun tion 7 Consequently we have to define the meaning of a multiplicaif the multiplier is negative. however. becomes meaningless if definition. the multiplier is a negative number. or plied by 3. ( (. Multiplication by a positive integer is a repeated addition.9) x 11. 4 x(-8) = ~(4)-(4)-(4)=:-12. Practical examples^ it however. Thus. thus. a result that would not be obtained by other assumptions. 5x(-4).4)-(-4) = + 12. such as given in the preceding exercise. To take a number 7 times. 9 x (- 11).4) x braic laws for negative ~ 3> = -(. x 11. or 4x3 = = (_4) X The preceding 3=(-4)+(-4)+(-4)=-12.

. Ua b 28. +5. is 6x-7. 19. -. tors is no misunderstanding possible. 4 a2 . 9. 30.3) (-1) 7 2 . 14. 6. 3. 32. 8 31. 22. x. 15. (-4)'. _2^ -3. 2a 2 6c. (-2) 8 (. (. -1. z s 11 aWcx. about fac- (-2)X If 6. . 23. and y = 4. (-4)X(-15).7. (-10) 4 . 1. If a cal = 4a6c. the product of two numbers with unlike &) (-a)(+6) = -a&. and obtain thus product of two numbers with like signs in signs is negative.(a&c) 2 2 . 16.(-4J). Law Thus. (c#) .MULTIPLICATION 50. find the numeri- values of: 21. (-2)x9. 2. 3 aW. 29.-4. . 4a -f-26 2 2a + 3&2 -6c* . 24. 6 2. _3. x= 0. 8. -5x-3. b = 3. Formulate a law of signs for a product containing an even number of negative factors. 2a6 c . . X(-5). 11. 4. c = 25. the parenthesis frequently omitted. 7. 20.-3. 8 4 . NOTE. 3. _2. 3 a2?/2 . 6. of Signs: TJie positive. 26. 27. 4 . 10. etc.-2.-2--f 18.a)(- =+ a&. 33 We shall and negative integers the assume that the law illustrated for positive is true for all numbers. (-7) X (-12). EXERCISE 19 : Find the values of the following products 1. 13. 5. 12. 17.2 f+x 2 . Formulate a law of signs for a product containing an odd number of negative factors.

17.50-3).12 Perform the operation indicated 12. 6" 127 U . am Xa n = (a =aa is m (a a to n factors) (m X fl w = fl /w +w . 34. 2 2 2 . 50(11-2. & = -3. 6 = 1. 10. Or in m and n are two positive to factors) -f n) factors. 6 aWc x . or 2 . 36. 1. m*.2 -2 23 + 5 . Ex.6 if 35. 3 3 4 .7 &*# =(6 - 7) (a 2 a8 ) .7. 4. 2(7. 2 x (2* 5 7 2 )= 26 5 7 2 . 3 2 . &*) c d*. 5 3 5 3 2 .m a 3 - 4 . fl*" integers. 53. 5(7-11. This 52. 2 3 .. 4. a= 1. 7. 2. a = 2. (a6) -(a5) 9. By 3 definition. 11. a = 3.(2. a 23 =2 Hence 2 x 2 general. . 3. - 2 2.<?. : 3a-7abc. 2. + 2/). 100. known as of Multiplication : The Exponent Law The exponent of is the product of several powers of the same base the exponents equal to the 8 (ft sum oj Ex. 5 = 2. . a 5 (-a) (^ + 14 8 2/) -(a? + 4 2/) -(aj . IB. 13.34 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA of 8 Find the numerical value 33. 5. 2 -2 3 6 . only one of the factors is multiplied by the number. MULTIPLICATION OF MONOMIALS 51. a 2 2 .3). of the factors. .. =2 a *. 127 - 127 9 7 . 9 . 2(14.e. Ex. 3. . 5 .3-5). 16. In multiplying a product of several factors by a number. - and 2 25 8 . 200. a8 a=2. 4. i.2). 4 x (2 25) =8 25. = 2. 78 .(-12) .(-7). if =2 a a to - 2 2 x2 2 2. 12 U U . B. 6. 6 = . 14. .1 2 a 6 -f 6 aW .257). EXERCISE 20 : Express each of the following products as a power 1.

20. . . /). Thus we have in general a(b 56. 34.2 3 aft ). ax /) 2 4 1 (.4 (2 a 2 ft 3) 2 3 . the would obviously be 6 yards and 9 inches. MULTIPLICATION OF A POLYNOMIAL BY A MONOMIAL we had to multiply 2 yards and 3 inches by 3.6 a2 62c -f 8 a2 6. 35 4 7(6. 25. 4 aft -5 aft 2 . -7p*q r*. 17(10041042). . 21. (. is evidently correct for any positive integral multiplier. 3. ) 2 33. 19. 5 2 aft (6 e 8 C a 2ftc). . 28. 22. 29. 4 9 afy 2 a3 ?/ ).3 a2 6(6 a*bc + 2 be - 1) =- 18 a 4 6 2 c . and then adding : 1. 11(3. This principle.6. . 23. If results ft. 12(| + 1 4 i). tet^m -f c) = ab +ac. 6(104-20430).7 w'W (-8 n^W). EXERCISE 21 Find the numerical values of the following expressions. 35. 24. multiply each by the monomial. but we shall assume it for any number. 6. To multiply a polynomial by a monomial. _4aft.-4a#. 2.A). 23(10004100420). 31. 5 aft 3 ( ftc ( 2 2ac). 6 e/ a (- (- 2 a2 ) 3 . 7. .-7pqt. c-(-4a ftc ). 5.5 xy 19 aW lla ( 3 3 tfy 2z*. 2 32.M UL TIPLICA TION 18. = (a + 26)+(a + 2 ft) -f (a 4- 2 ft) + (a + 2 ft) 55. 3(124342). 4.3 win ) . (.f- 2). 26. 2(5-fl5-f25). 2 19 ' mV 2 ft 5 - 2 ran4 30. by first multiplying. 27. called the distributive law. Similarly the for quadruple of a 4 2 b would be 4 a -f 8 54. 2(645410).

6 (6 2 +6 +6 10. 26. Find the factors of 6 Find the factors of 2 or* -f 3 x* -f arty 3 a4 . 5 aW( 3 2 2 aW + 3 a 2 2 ?/ 6 c 2 . . 4 13 (4 9 -4 5 -4).5 w*V -f 7 wn). Any it closing x +y (a polynomial may be written as a monomial by inb by within a parenthesis. . ~2mn(m +n -p ). 2 2 16.6) (x -f y z) = x(a = (ax b) + y(a b) z(a (az b) bx) -f (ay by) bz) by az + bz. . 2 m(m-hn -\-p). Thus to multiply a write (a + y z) and apply the distributive z.3 x2y 2 + 3 xy. be multiplied to give 4o. Find the factors of 6 ary . . 3 ). 20. 23.^ c + 2 . 12. 19. 21. 11.3 aftc). 22.60 a& 10 aft. 7 a 6 c(. 5). 5(5 + 52 + 2 2 5 7 ).2 mn(9 mV .6 a6). MULTIPLICATION OF POLYNOMIALS 57. -5 x\5 pqr + 5 pr 5 x2 .36 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA : Express as a sum of several powers 8. ofy 2 4 +8 2 4 a.asa product. 29. -f7a. 2 27.5 x- 7).we b) (x law. -: expression must 24. 7 3 (7 3 -f-7 +7 10 ). 2 4 %Pq\ 14. 17. Express 3a^ Find the factors of 3x + 3 y + 3z. Perform the multiplications indicated: 13. By what 25. 9. Find the factors of 5 a 6 . 30. 28.

a6 =2 by numerical Examples in multiplication can be checked substitution. 59. Check. the student should apply this test to every example. If Arranging according to ascending powers 2 a . If the polynomials to be multiplied contain several powers of the same letter. The most convenient way of adding the partial products is to place similar terms in columns. as illustrated in the following example : Ex.a6 4 a 8 + 5 a* . To multiply two polynomials.2 a2 6 a8 2 a* * - 2" a2 -7 60. Since errors.3 b by a 5 b. Multiply 2 a .4. this method tests only the values of the coefficients and not the values of the exponents. 2.3 a 3 2 by 2 a : a2 + l.1. Multiply 2 + a -a. a2 + a8 + 3 .3 ab 2 2 a2 10 ab - 13 ab + 15 6 2 + 15 6 2 Product. . Since all powers of 1 are 1.a . the work becomes simpler and more symmetrical by arranging these expressions according to either ascending or descending powers. multiply each term of one by each term of the other and add the partial products thus formed. are far more likely to occur in the coefficients than anywhere else. 1 being the most convenient value to be substituted for all letters.3 a 2 + a8 a a = =- I 1 =2 -f 2 a 4. Ex.M UL TIP LICA TION 37 58. however. 2a-3b a-66 2 a .3 a 2 + a8 .

2 ^/ ' 2 mnp -f. 32. 13. 9. 4. 35. * For additional examples see page 261. (aj-f6y)(aj 23. (6p (2 -f- 21. 2 . (6a~7) 2 . 6. (6xy + 2z)(2xy 27. 12)(a?^2-|-l). 2 (a a-l)(2a?-fl). QQ O7. 4 2). 2 (m?n?p (x (a //)4 lA/ //j. 18. 31. 1).4) (mnp 4. (a&c 2 + 7)(2a&c-3). -^ 2 . 15. 2. (13 A. (6i-7n)(llJ-n). 10.1 . 3n)(7m -f-6<7)(5^) + 8n).n)(m 8 n)(m n). 36. 6 2 (6a&c-5) -3a6-f-2)(2a6~l). + & + 1-f a^faj -1). 16. 3<7). 3. (9m-2n)(4m + 7tt).4) (x + 1). 36). 29. 8. 25. 22. (4a-f 76)(2tt (4ra -f-ra (5c-2d)(2c-3d). 11. (2 x* x 2 . 2 - 37. 30. . a 5c)(2a-6c). l)(ra-f 2). (a-^-26) .2m)(l -m). 2 .38 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 22* Perform the following multiplications and check the results 1. . 20. 12. 40. 26. 7y). 41. 7. 17. I (m-fn)(m-4. (llr + l)(12r (rcya (2m (a (4 a 2 . (2s 3y)(3a? + 2y). (8r-7*)(6r-39. (2w 19.2). (4a 2 33. 36) I) 14. 24. (a -|-2a + 2)(a-3). OQ OO. 5. 28. -2) (3 A: -1).

+ 2) (a -f 3). X 102. (ofy* -f 3) (tfy* (a5 2 ). 24. 13. 39 The product of two binomials which have a common term. (a (a (a.e.n)(w-f w). 9. 25 a 2 . + 60)(f-2). 1) (10 + 2). (wi 2^*-12)(ajy 6. 22. 14. 3. 20. 2 a? 29. + 3) (a -7). in of the two unequal terms. . 1005x1004.13).!!)( (a + 21). . Find two binomials whose product equals 3x + 2. 10. (100-1) (100 (1000 + 2). -2) (1000 + 3).MUL TIPLICA TION SPECIAL CASES IN MULTIPLICATION 61. 16 ft) (5 a) 75 ab. (ra. (p-12)(p + ll). 25. 18. . (100 +2) (100 + 3).-25)(y+4). 6.2 6) (a -f 6). + 5) (1000 + 4). (a -9) (a + 9). i. + 9)(m+9). i. (6 -12) (6 -f. 26. plus the sum of the two unequal terms multiplied by the common term. 27. 75 ab -f 54 ft . (-!)(* -5). 17. = + EXERCISE Multiply by inspection 1. 7. (a-3)(a + 2). (10+ (1000 (2. (5 a plus the sum of the unequal terms multiplied by the common terms. 99 (a + 2 6) (a 6). (*. The product of two binomials which have a common term equal to the square of the common term. 15. 28. ft 16. plus the product of the two unequal terms. ( 2 Hence the product equals 25 a'2 54 ft 2 . 8. 12.4). 11. _3)(a _4). 19. : 23 2. -2 6) (a -3 6). (a 102 x 103.e. (J 23. 6 ft) (5 a 9 ft) is equal to the square of the common term. 2 5 b z) (a2 -f 4 (a 2 4. 21. 3 (a -7) 3 (a -8). plus the product 62.

2 (a (*-5) 2 . 4. 9. . 33. 49 y*. m2_ 3m _ 4 2 36. 34.e. square of the difference of two numbers is equal to the square of the Jirst. : 24 (a 2. (x+3i/) 2 .e. 37. 6.e. of the following expres- Find two binomial factors sions 30. (4 x3 + 7 2 i/ 2 is )' equal to the square of the first. (ain general language : Expressed is equal to tlie square I. + 6 a + 8. 63. of the second. <J>-7) J . plus the square of the second. 8j/ 2 + 49 y4 first .40 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA of each.66 s. i. and the second. n2 10ii+16. Ex. a2 2 w + 2 w . 3.15. w 2 ro . is The product of the sum and to the difference the difference of two numbers equal of their squares. III. 2 5. + 3) 2 . (a-26) 2 . 16 y* t plus twice the product of the i. oft x 3 y'2 plus the square of the Hence the required square equals 16 xP -f. . plus sum of two numbers the square II. 7 a + 10. Some special cases of the preceding type of examples : deserve special mention II. 32. : ar'-Sz + a 2 G.30. EXERCISE Multiply by inspection 1. plus twice the product of the first and the second. p 2 -p. (a-2) (p a . 8. (II) is only a The student should note that the second type special case of the first (I). second. minus twice the product of the first and the 71ie second. 31.15. 77ie square of the of the first. III. 7. + 6) (a + 2) -a) 2 . . 35. i.

21. By actual multiplication. The product of 57.998 39. a 2 + 10 ab -f 25 b\ Pind two binomial sions 50. (20 -f- 1) . 2 . 99x101. 14. (a -3) 2 2 2 . 24. 33. 2 + 11 -2 (5 r 2 2 2/ ) 2 - Z ) 2 2 (5 r -f 2 2 .ll^X^+lly (100 30. . . (m -27i )(m + 2n 2 5 ). 45. 32. 46. 2 . 40. 12. (^-. (m -f 2 tt n)(ra w )- 26 - (^ (2m + 3)(2m-3). 41. -I) 2 . . 51. 2 (2a6-c) (2a# (4 a 6 2 2 . 2 9a -496 2 56. 23. + 5)(5+a). 34. 4 53. : Extract the square roots of the following expressions 43. 41 16. we have 3x 5x + 2y 4y 2xy-Sy* . m 2 16. 2 2 . 9 a2 . 104 2 37. 2 (4a-36) 2 13. 17. 103 36.MULTIPLICATION 10. 28. 47. : factors of each of the following expres- y?-f. 16aW-25. 48. 54. 31. -7)(a 2 2 -f 7). 2 2 -5c ) 2 2 19. 42. (3p -9) (6a 2 2 2 . 2 . 35. n 2 -f4n+4. 49. 55. -7& ) 25. + 1) (100 + 2) 2 . 991 2 2 . a2 -9. 11. a 2 -8a6+166 2 . 2 -11 # ) 2 20. 22. (1000 2 . + 3z) 2 2 . x*+2xy+y\ a 2 -2a6 + & 2 m 2 -2m-hl. 29. + 5). 998x1002. 22 2 . ( 27. 44. 18. 62 -25n 2 . 38. G> +5g)*. ). (100 + 2) (100 -2). 2 J ). (6afy 2 -5) (a.30 ab + 25 6 64. 2 2 (5 (a r*-2t ) 2 5 (c-d -5)(c d 2 . . two binomials whose corresponding terms are similar. n*-6n+9. 15. 52. 25 a -9. (2x-3yy.

: 25 2. (5a-4)(4a-l). 14. plus the last terms. (2a-3)(a + 2). 2 2 + 2) (10 4-3). 2 (2m-3)(3m + 2). 2 (2x y (6 2 2 + z )(ary + 2z ). the product of two binomials whose corresponding terms are similar is equal to the product of the first two terms. (5a6-4)(5a&-3). 5. 2 2 2 2 (2a 6 -7)(a & + 5). (x i- 5 2 ft x 2 -3 6 s). 7. 65. 8. .& + c) = a + tf + c .42 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA of the result is obtained product of 5 x follows: by adding the These products are frequently called the cross products. 4. or The student should note minus signs. 9. 11. The square 2 (a 4. 2 10.-f 2 a& -f 2 ac + 2 &c. that the square of each term is while the product of the terms may have plus always positive. 3. 13. 7%e square of a polynomial is equal to the sum of the squares of each term increased by twice the product of each term with each that follows it. (100 + 3)(100 + 4). ) (2 of a polynomial. (3m + 2)(m-l). ((5a? (10 12. (4s + y)(3-2y). and are represented as 2 y and 4y 3 x. The middle term or Wxy-12xy Hence in general. plus the product of the EXERCISE Multiply by inspection 1. 6. sum of the cross products.

M UL TIPLICA TION EXERCISE Find by inspection 1.5) = (7 . = 10 x .(x .y? + 8 .3) (x .39. 3. + 6)( . 8 2(m 3(6 3 n) 2 3(m + n)H. 4. s? + y + z + 2xy + 2yz + 2 xz. . (2a-36 + 5c) (3 (.5).[a? . + 6 )-2(6 + &)~(&4-& ). (m-f n)(m+2)-3m(n + m). Hence. 9. 3.24] . 4. 12. Simplify (x + 6) (a . n). after multiplying the factors of a term. 4y s-f n) 2 . EXERCISE 27 : Simplify the following expressions.(= [ Xa + 2 .8 x + 15] . a.r _ 2 . -2)-6. the beginner should inclose the product in a parenthesis. Find the square root 11. 6. In simplifying a polynomial the student should remem.4) . 6(a 2. of z : 10.4) . 4(* + 2)-5(-3). 66.3)(z. ( - 2 -4) = - 20 a. (x-y+z)*. 2 m 2 -+- n2 2 "-f- jp -f 2 mn 2 ?wp 2 np. = . 4(aj-2)-h3(-7). ber that a parenthesis is understood about each term.3) . (u-4& + 3c'.i-2&-c) 2 . 2 2. (a-2)(a-3)~(a-l)(a-4). 7.(>-.X2 + 2 x . 5. If x = 1.(m 2 6.24 . 6~2(a + 7). 7. : 43 26 (m-f n+p) 2 2 .39. 13. 8. + 6-5) . Check. 8. 5.1 5 = 10 .29. Ex. and check the answers !. (a (.

44
9.

ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA

10. 11. 12.
13.

4(m + 2)
(a?

+ 5(w

3)

5)(oj-2)

(a;-

(n -f 5) (w

- 2) + (n - 7) (n + 4) - 2 (n* - 2)

14.
15.

6(p+2)-7(p-9)-2(i> + l)(p-l).

16.
17.

x- 2 y)(3 x -f 2 y) - (4 - y) (a3 (a -f 6) - 4 (a + &) (a -f 2 6) + (a (5
2

18.

19.

20.
21.

22.

2

(a

-fa-f

1)

(

a - 1)

- (a + 1) (a - 1).
8

CHAPTER
DIVISION

IV

is the process of finding one of two factors and the other factor are given. The dividend is the product of the two factors, the divisor the given factor, and the quotient is the required factor.

67.

Division

if

their product

is

Thus
by
-f

to divide
12.

12

by

+

3,

we must find
is

the
;

number which

3 gives

But

this

number

4

hence

_

multiplied

12 r +3

=4.

68.

Since

-f

a

-

-f b

-fa

_a
and
it

-f-

a

= -f ab = ab b = ab b = ab,
b
-f-

follows that

4-a

=+b

ab

a
ab

a
69.

Hence the law
:

of signs

is

the same in division as in

multiplication
70.

Like signs produce plus, unlike signs minus.

Law

of
,

a8 -5- a5

=a

3

for a 3

It follows from the definition that Exponents. X a5 a8

=

.

Or

in general, if

greater than

m n, a

-f-

and n are positive integers, and m ~ n an = a m a" = a'"-", for a
<

m

m

is

45

46

ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA

71. TJie exponent of a quotient of two powers with equal bases equals the exponent of the dividend diminished by the exponent

of the divisor.

DIVISION OF MONOMIALS
7 3 72. To divide 10x y z by number which multiplied by number is evidently

2x y
6

2
,

we have
z

to

find

the

2x*y

gives 10 x^ifz.

This

Therefore,
the quotient

*

,

= - 5 a*yz.
is

Hence,
sign,

of two monomials of their
part
coefficients,
is the

a monomial whose

coefficient is the quotient

preceded by the proper
literal

and whose

literal

found

in accordance with the

quotient of their law of exponents.

parts

73. In dividing a product of several factors by a number, only one of these factors is divided by that number. Thus (8 12 20)-?-4 equals 2 12 20, or 8 3 20 or 8 12 5.
-

-

.

-

.

-

.

EXERCISE
Perform the divisions indicated
'
:

28

'

2

.

76-H-15.
-39-*- 3.
2
15

3"
7

7'

3.

-4*
'

4.
5.

-j-2

12
.

4

2

9

5 11

68

3 19 -j-3
5

10.

(3
38
-

-2 4 )^(3 4 .2 2).
56
'

11.

3

(2

.3*.5 7 )-f-(
2
'

12

'

2V

14

36 a
'

13

''
y-ffl-g

35

-5.25

-12 a

2abc

15

-42^
'

-56aW
'

UafiV

DIVISION
lg

47

-^1^. 16 w
7

20>

7i

9

_Z^L4L.

22.

10 iy.

132 a V* 14 1

*

01

-240m
120m-

40

6c

fl

/5i.
3J)

c

23.

2 (15- 25. a ) -=- 5.

25. 26.

(18
(

.

5

.

2a )-f-9a.
2

24.

(7- 26 a

2

)

-f-

13.

DIVISION OF POLYNOMIALS BY MONOMIALS

To divide ax-}- fr.e-f ex by x we must find an expression which multiplied by x gives the product ax + bx -J- ex.
74.

But
TT

x(a
aa?

Hence

+ b e) ax + bx + ex. + bx -f ex = a 4- b +
-\.

,

.

c.

a?

To divide a polynomial by a monomial, cfc'wde each term of the dividend by the monomial and add the partial quotients thus
formed.

3 xyz

EXERCISE
Perform the operations indicated
1.
:

29

2.
5.

fl

o.

(5*

_5* + 52)

-5.

52

.

3.
97
.

(2

(G^-G^-G^-i-G
(11- 2

4.

(8- 3

+

11 -3

+ 11

-5)-*- 11.

18 aft- 27 oc

Q y.

9a

4

-25 -2 )^-2
<?

2

.

+8- 5 + 8-

7) -*-8.

5a5 +4as -2a

2

-a

-14gV+21gy
Itf

15 a*b

-

12

aW + 9 a
2

2

3a

48
,

ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
22
4,

m n - 33 m n
4

s

2

-f

55

mV

- 39 afyV + 26 arVz 3

- 49 aW + 28 a -W - 14 g 6 c
4 4

15. 16.

2 (115 afy -f 161 afy

- 69
4
2

a;

4
?/

3

- 23 ofy
3

4

)

-5-

23 x2y.

(52

afyV - 39
4
?/

oryz

- 65 zyz - 26 tf#z)

-5-

13 xyz.
-f-

,

17.

(85 tf

- 68 x + 51 afy - 34 xy* -f 1 7

a;/)

- 17

as.

DIVISION OF A POLYNOMIAL BY A POLYNOMIAL
75.

Let

it

be required to divide 25 a

- 12 -f 6 a - 20 a
3

2

by

2 a 2 -f 3 a, divide

4

a, or, arranging according to
2

descending powers of

6a3 -20a

-f

25a-12

2 by 2a -

The term containing the highest power of a in the dividend (i.e. a 8 ) is evidently the product of the terms containing respectively the highest power of a in the divisor and in the quotient.
Hence the term containing the highest power
of a in the quotient is

If

the product of 3 a and 2

2

4 a

+

3, i.e.

6 a3

12 a 2

-f

9 a, be sub-

8 a 2 -f 16 a tracted from the dividend, the remainder is 12. This remainder obviously must be the product of the divisor and the rest of the quotient. To obtain the other terms of the quotient we have

therefore to divide the remainder,

8 a2

-f-

16 a

12,

2 by 2 a

4 a

+

3.

consequently repeat the process. By dividing the highest term in the new dividend 8 a 2 by the highest term in the divisor 2 a 2 we obtain
,

We

4,

the next highest term in the quotient. 4 by the divisor 2 a2 4 a Multiplying
-I-

+ 3, we

obtain the product

8 a2

16 a

12,

which subtracted from the preceding dividend leaves
the required quotient.

no remainder. Hence 3 a

4

is

DIVISION
The work
is

49
:

usually arranged as follows

- 20 * 2 + 3 0a-- 12 a 2 +
a3

25 a
{)

-

12

I

2 a2 8 a

-

4 a 4

a

_
12

+3

I

-

8 a? 4- 16

a-

76. The method which was applied in the preceding example may be stated as follows 1. Arrange dividend and divisor according to ascending or
:

descending powers of a common letter. 2. Divide the first term of the dividend by the first term of the divisor, and write the result for the first term of the quotient.
3.

Multiply this term of the quotient by the whole divisor, and

subtract the result
4.

from
it

the dividend.
the same order as the given new dividend, and proceed as before.

Arrange

the

remainder in
as a

expression, consider
5.

until the highest poiver

Continue the process until a remainder zero is obtained, or of the letter according to which the dividend
is less

was arranged
the divisor.

than the highest poiver of the same

letter in

77.

Checks.

Numerical substitution constitutes a very con-

venient, but not absolutely reliable check. An absolute check consists in multiplying quotient and divisor. The result must equal the dividend if the division

was

exact, or the dividend diminished by the remainder division was not exact.

if

the

Ex.

1.

Divide 8 a3

-f

8 a

- 4 + 6 a - 11 a
4

2

by 3 a
,

- 2.
^ _ _
,

Arranging according to descending powers,
6 a4 6 a4

,

,

+ 8 a8 4 a3
12 a 8

11

a2 a2

-f

8a

4

I

3 a
2 a8

-2
-f

=
a _+ 2
.

7-r-l,

4 a2

=

7

+

-11

-

3 a2

3

a'

2

+ +

8 a 2 a

-4 + 6a - 4

50
Ex.
2.

ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
Divide a4

- 46 -6a6
4
3

-f-

9

2

6

2

2 l by 26 -3a& + a

.

Arranging according to descending powers of

a,

we have

a<a4

6 a36
fr

-f
-f

9 a2 6 2
2 a2 6 2
2
2

-46*

I

a2
a*

-

8 ab 3 ab

- 3 a8

-

|

+ 2 6^ - 2 62

-46*

- 3 a^ + 9a 2 6 - 6 ab 8
+ 6 a& a - 4 6 4 - 2 a^a + 6 aft - 4
Check.
ft*

The numerical
it

substitution a

=

1,

&

=

1,

cannot be used in this
either to use

example since
larger

renders the divisor zero.

Hence we have

a

number

for a, or multiply.
2 - 8 ab + 2 & 2 ) ( a _ 3 ab - 2 6 2 ) (a = [(a2 - 3 aft) + 2 62 ] [(a2 - 3 a&) - 2 62 ] = (a 2 -3 aft) 2 -4 6* = a2 - 6 8 6 + 9 a2 6 2 - 4 5*.

EXERCISE

30 *
:

Perform the operations indicated and check the answers

2. 3.

(jf_2y-15)-i-<y-6).
2 (15 a
2

4.
5.
6.

- 46 a# -f 16 ) _ 26 mn 4- 5 n ) (5 m
2
i/

-5-

(5

a5 w).

2

-*-

(m

7.

(6^-53^ + 40)^(6^-5).
(56
2 a; -f-

8.

19 x

-15) --(8

-3).

9.

10.

11.
12.

13.

2 (25 a

- 36

2
ft

)

-j-

(5

a

-f-

6

6)

* See page 263.

.2). 19.DIVISION 14. Division of the difference of two squares.l. 51 15. (a -f b) (a V) Since =a a 2 b 2 . c + 3* ' v7 169 a<6 2 ' . a I. (3 a 13 m + 47 m + 35 w (1 (5 m -f (6a 2 & 2 2 2 3 2 -f- 2 3 -f- ) -5- 1) .11 a + 9 a . b -f b by the difference or by the sum Ex. (81 m + 1 .18 m 2 ) -f- (1 G m -f 9 m 2 ). + 23a& + 20)-*-(2a& + 6). . (8xy + lo-22x' y)-+(2x y-3). 20. the difference of the squares of two numbers is divisible of the two numbers.e. (aj -3aj-2)-^(oj-2). EXERCISE Write by inspection the quotient 31 of : 2 -x 1 c 2 6 ' 3 -^. SPECIAL CASES IN DIVISION 78. . (a? s -8) 4 -*-( 2). 18.81 c8 f ' ISVft-Qc 8 64 ' a2 -166 2 ' a? 10 -1 .2) (3 a . 16. v/17.

. 14. aW 12 a. -100ry.49.000. 15. -9& 2 . 16. -r/ 1.52 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA of Find exact binomial divisors of each expressions 9. 121a a 16 100 11. 10.000-1. 16 . : the following w a 4 -!. 36 a4 ?/ 4 . . 12. 1. f 13. 4 -b.

. =11. Thus. The sign of identity sometimes used is = thus we may write . y y or z) from its relation to 63 An known numbers. x 20. The first member or left side of an equation is that part The secof the equation which precedes the sign of equality. An identity is an equation of the letters involved. 83. 81. hence it is an equation of condition. (rt+6)(a-ft) = 2 - b' 2 . An equation of condition is usually called an equation. (a + ft) (a b) and b. . ond member or right side is that part which follows the sign of equality. the first member is 2 x + 4. . 82. which is true for all values a2 6 2 no matter what values we assign to a Thus. in Thus x 12 satisfies the equation x + 1 13. second member is x + 4 x 9.CHAPTER V LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS 79. the 80. in the equation 2 x 0. An equation of condition is an equation which is true only for certain values of the letters involved. ber equation is employed to discover an unknown num(frequently denoted by x. y = 7 satisfy the equation x y = 13. is said to satisfy an equation. A set of numbers which when substituted for the letters an equation produce equal values of the two members.r -f9 = 20 is true only when a.

2. 3. E. A numerical equation is one in which all . If equals be divided by equals. the remainders are equal. a. the products are equal. the sums are equal. A 2 a. 90. 87. . one member to another by changing x + a=. 5. the divisor equals zero. 85. = bx expressed by a letter or a combination of c. To solve an equation to find its roots. x I. . 86. The process of solving equations depends upon the : lowing principles. called axioms 1. 2 = 6#-f7. A term may be transposed from its sign. the quotients are equal. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA If value of the an equation contains only one unknown quantity. 4. Transposition of terms. 2. the known quan x) (x -f 4) tities are = .54 84. Consider the equation b Subtracting a from both members. NOTE. fol- A linear equation is also called a simple equation. Like powers or like roots of equals are equal. If equals be multiplied by equals.b. 9 is a root of the equation 2 y +2= is 20. but 4 does not equal 5. If equals be subtracted from equals.e. Axiom 4 is not true if 0x4 = 0x5.g. 89. (Axiom 2) the term a has been transposed from the left to thQ right member by changing its sign. A linear equation or which when reduced first to its simplest an equation of the first degree is one form contains only the as 9ie power of the unknown quantity. expressed in arithmetical numbers literal is as (7 equation is one in which at least one of the known quantities as x -f a letters 88. If equals be added to equals. an^ unknown quantity which satisfies the equation is a root of the equation.

b c. 4x 1 + 6. Unite similar terms.6 y -f y\ . Uniting similar terms. The first member. Dividing by Check. 3 y .9 y + y2 = 22 . Qx 6# = 4x + l + 6. Check. The second member. and divide both members by the coefficient of the quantity. = 2 (11 3 y) + #*. is correct. y) (5 y) unknown Ex. SOLUTION OF LINEAR EQUATIONS 1. Solve the equation (4 Simplifying. --f If y 20 . To solve a simple equation. 2 x = 6.3 y) + y 2 = 2(11 + i)^ V= 2) 1 4 = 26 i + | = 26 -f f = 26$ JI . x = (Axiom 3) 92. if a x = b. 2(11 . a? Adding 5 to each term. a= a 6-fc. Subtracting 4 x from each term.y) = C4 + })(5-f The second member. x = 3.2. . The first member.2 y= f . (Axiom 1) The result is first member to the same as the right we had transposed a from the member and changed its sign. transpose the unknown terms to the first member. (4-y)(6. may be changed Consider the equation Multiplying each member by x-\1. Solve the equation Qx 5 = 4 -f 1. x = 93. Dividing both members by 2. 6a-5 = 18-5 = 13. b Adding a to both + a. and the known terms to the second.9 y + 6 y = 20 -f 22. Ex. Uniting. if 55 x members. (Axiom 4) When x = 3.8. The sign of every term of an equation without destroying the equality. Hence the answer. 4-fl = 12-fl = 13 3.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS Similarly. Transposing. 91.

56 Ex. -f- Simplifying. 2. = 2 ?/. + 22. -3)= 9(3 7 a. 20. 9 9a? = 7 13. 16. = 60 -7 = 16 + 5 : Xx 7 = 14.4) = + 3) = \ x 14 x 21 = 7. and check the answers 9. it NOTE. 3. J. 7 (6 x -16). 17 + 5a. {(x (x The The member right member left . a. 11 ?/ a? 18. Solve the following equations by transposing. 3. etc. 7a? 5. BXEECISB 32* Solve the following equations by using the axioms only 1. =2 = 3. . 3-2 = 26-4. a. 6. 21. \x x 2-^x-fl. 12. 17 7 a. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Solve the equation | (x 4) = \ (x + 3). 8. 4a + 5 = 29. 14.. If x = 18. 17 -9 x + 41 = 12 -8 17. + 24) = 6 (10 x + 13). .-7a: = 39-4a.17 + 4y = 36. 3 7 a.. 87- 9(5 x -3) 6(3 a? = 63.69. 7. 11. = 3. 13a? 3a?. Uniting. -50. = 7. aj * See page 264. x x 1 . 19. 4y 10. Dividing by Cfcecfc. x = 18. a? a?. 24-7y = 68-lly. 14y = 59-(24y + 21). a?. + 7(3 + 1) =63. = 5a?+18. 24. Instead of dividing by \ botli members of the equation \ x would be simpler to multiply both members by 0. 22. Transposing. + 16 = 16 + 17. 3 = 17 3 a? a?.7. 15. v23. 4. 13 y -99 = 7 y. : 5# = 15+2a.

he should formulate a similar question stated in arithmetical numbers only. 6(6a.5(2 u . .12) (2 + 5) . . Hence if one part the other part 70 x. Evidently 45. 39. 40. 35.5) + 199.3) + 14. | +6= |aj (4 t t t 1 (5 x (a? 2 2 2 2 2 2 (a? . this question. he should first attack a similar problem stated in arithmetical numbers is only. 27.3) . 57 73-4* = 13*~2(5*-12). 34. + 1) -8(7-5 a?) +24 = 12 (4 . (aj- 37.14 = 0.(14 x + 1) + 7) = 285 + 21 a* (z + 2) -(a-5) :=2. . Suppose one part of 70 to be a?.1) (a (a? + 3) = .g. 42.4) (x + I) + (x + 2) = (x 2(* + l) -(2J-3)( + 2) = 12.1) (u . (6 u =5 44. . 31. . -7) (a.32. . .2) (M . or 70 a?.7. + 4). . + 7) (. and let it be required to If the student finds it difficult to answer find the other part.3) + . 30. SYMBOLICAL EXPRESSIONS 94.5) = (a. a? 43. 36. is the other part. : One part is of 70 is 25 . 7(7 x y 26. 25. 38. e.-5)-5(7a>-8)=4(12-3a5) + l. find the other part.1 0) = 0. (a. 29.4) + 4 w . .LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS 25.7) (7 x + 4) . 41. 5) (as (a.(2 + 6) (4 . WJienever the student is unable to express a statement in algebraic symbols. and apply the method thus found to the algebraic problem. 33. 2 2 * -Jaj. a? 28.

smaller one 16. so that one part Divide a into two parts. and the smaller one parts. 4. two numbers and the and the 2 Find the greater one. x -f- y yards cost $ 100 . $> 100 yards cost one hundred dollars. If 7 2. 9. greater one is g. 1. 5. 10. 13. is d. one yard will cost 100 -dollars. Divide a into two parts.58 Ex. 7. EXERCISE 1. 6. 11. 6. a. 17. one yard will cost - Hence if x -f y yards cost $ 100. Ex. so that one part The difference between is s. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA What must be added to a to produce a sum b ? : Consider the arithmetical question duce the sum of 12 ? What must be added to 7 to pro- The answer is 5. Divide 100 into two 12. or 12 7. The difference between two numbers Find the smaller one. 33 2. Hence 6 a must be added to a to give 5. What number divided by 3 will give the quotient a? ? What is the dividend if the divisor is 7 and the quotient ? . 15. Find the greater one. is a? 2 is c?. find the cost of one yard. By how much does a exceed 10 ? By how much does 9 exceed x ? What number exceeds a by 4 ? What number exceeds m by n ? What is the 5th part of n ? What is the nth part of x ? By how much does 10 exceed the third part of a? By how much does the fourth part of x exceed b ? By how much does the double of b exceed one half Two numbers differ by 7. 3. so that of c ? is p. 14. one part equals is 10. is b.

How many cents has he ? 27. y years How old was he 5 years ago ? How old will he be 10 years hence ? 23. Find 21. ?/ 31. If B gave A 6 25. Find the area of the Find the area of the feet floor of a room that is and 3 30. Find 35. 34. feet wider than the one mentioned in Ex. 24. A room is x feet long and y feet wide. 28. find the has ra dollars. is A A is # years old. The greatest of three consecutive the other two. A feet wide. How many years A older than is B? old. 19. b dimes. find the of their ages 6 years hence. sum If A's age is x years. 20. A dollars. numbers is x. and B has n dollars. rectangular field is x feet long and the length of a fence surrounding the field. 26. 22. 33. A man had a dollars. 59 What must The be subtracted from 2 b to give a? is a. square feet are there in the area of the floor ? How many 2 feet longer 29. Find the sum of their ages 5 years ago. amount each will then have. 28. How many cents had he left ? 28. smallest of three consecutive numbers Find the other two. and 4 floor of a room that is 3 feet shorter wider than the one mentioned in Ex. How many cents are in d dollars ? in x dimes ? A has a dollars. and B's age is y years. 32.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS 18. What What What What is the cost of 10 apples at x cents each ? is is is x apples cost 20 cents ? the price of 12 apples if x apples cost 20 cents ? the price of 3 apples if x apples cost n cents ? the cost of 1 apple if . and spent 5 cents. and c cents. and B is y years old.

A cistern can be filled in alone fills it by two pipes. b To express in algebraic symbols the sentence: " a exceeds much as b exceeds 9. and the second pipe alone fills it in filled y minutes. a. What fraction of the cistern will be second by the two pipes together ? 44. How many x years ago miles does a train move in t hours at the rate of x miles per hour ? 41. he walk each hour ? 39. -46.60 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA wil\ 36. and "by as much as" Hence we have means equals (=) 95. How old is he now ? by a pipe in x minutes." we have to consider that in this by statement "exceeds" means minus ( ). how many how many miles will he walk in n hours 38. What fraction of the cistern will be filled by one pipe in one minute ? 42. miles does will If a man walks r miles per hour. The numerator If of a fraction exceeds the denominator by 3. Find x % % of 1000. The two digits of a number are x and y. how many miles he walk in n hours ? 37. c a b = - 9. . Find a 47. m is the denominator.50. A cistern is filled 43. as a exceeds b by as much as c exceeds 9. Find a. in how many hours he walk n miles ? 40. 48. of m. per Find 5 Find 6 45. If a man walks n miles in 4 hours. If a man walks ? r miles per hour. A was 20 years old. If a man walks 3 miles per hour. find the fraction. 49. Find the number. -. of 4. The first pipe x minutes. % % % of 100 of x.

by one third of b equals 100. 3. The product of the is diminished by 90 b divided by 7. same result as 7 subtracted from . 2. 6. third of x equals difference of x The and y increased by 7 equals a. etc. thus: a b = c may be expressed as follows difference between a : The and b is c. of a increased much 8. 4. The double as 7. 8 -b ) + 80 = a . The excess of a over b is c. c. In many word There are usually several different ways of expressing a symbolical statement in words. c. -80. double of a is 10. a is greater than b by b is smaller than a by c. Four times the difference of a and b exceeds c by as d exceeds 9. equal to the sum and the difference of a and b sum of the squares of a and gives the Twenty subtracted from 2 a a. 9. the difference of the squares of a 61 and b increased -}- a2 i<5 - b' 2 ' by 80 equals the excess of a over 80 Or. 5. 80. of x increased by 10 equals x.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS Similarly. a exceeds b by c. of a and 10 equals 2 c. EXERCISE The The double The sum One 34 : Express the following sentences as equations 1. cases it is possible to translate a sentence word by in algebraic symbols in other cases the sentence has to be changed to obtain the symbols. = 2 2 a3 (a - 80.

A is 4 years older than Five years ago A was x years old. A gains $20 and B loses $40. a. the first sum equals 6 % of the third sura. 11. as 17 is is above a. a. . a second sum. B. pays to C $100. B's. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Nine is as much below a 13. and C's ages will be 100. m is x % of n. B's age 20. 14. 5x A sum of money consists of x dollars. express in algebraic symbols : -700. and C's age 4 a. 12. 3 1200 dollars. express in algebraic 3x : 10. (e) In 3 years A will be as old as B is now. B's. 17. sum equals $20. and (a) (6) A If has $ 5 more than B. of 30 dollars. the sum and C's money (d) (e) will be $ 12. the first sum exceeds b % of the second sum by first (e) % of the first plus 5 % of the second plus 6 % of the third sum equals $8000. A If and B B together have $ 200 less than C. first 00 x % of the equals one tenth of the third sum. a third sum of 2 x + 1 dollars. they have equal amounts. In 10 years the sum of A's. 16. (a) (b) (c) A is twice as old as B. amounts. (c) If each man gains $500. In 3 years A will be twice as old as B. 18. 6 % of m.*(/) (g) (Ji) Three years ago the sum of A's and B's ages was 50. 50 is x % of 15. ->. Express as : equations of the (a) 5 (b) (c) % a% of the second (d) x c of / a % of 4 sum equals $ 90. (d) In 10 years A will be n years old.000. symbols B. x is 100 x% is of 700. and C have respectively 2 a. is If A's age is 2 x. x 4- If A. they have equal of A's. #is5%of450.62 10..

x= 15. x+16 = 3(3-5). 3 x + 16 = x x (x - p) Or. x = 20. 2. Transposing. Transposing. much as 40 exceeds the number. Uniting. number by x (or another letter) and express the yiven sentence as an equation. be three times as old as he was 5 years ago. A will Check. by 20 40 exceeds 20 by 20. verbal statement (1) (1) In 15 years A will may be expressed in symbols (2). Uniting. -23 =-30. etc. Find A's present age. In order to solve them. NOTE. . The solution of the equation (jives the value of the unknown number. Three times a certain number exceeds 40 by as Find the number. The student should note that x stands for the number of and similarly in other examples for number of dollars. 15. 6 years ago he was 10 . x + 15 = 3 x 3x 16 15. In 15 years 10. Check. Simplifying. 3z-40:r:40-z. The equation can frequently be written by translating the sentence word by word into algebraic symbols in fact. Dividing. In 15 years A will be three times as old as he was 5 years ago. but 30 =3 x years.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS 63 PROBLEMS LEADING TO SIMPLE EQUATIONS The simplest kind of problems contain only one unknown number. exceeds 40 by as much as 40 exceeds the no. Write the sentence in algebraic symbols. number. the . Ex. equation is the sentence written in alyebraic shorthand. Three times a certain no. = x x 3x -40 3x 40- Or. Let x The (2) = A's present age. Ex. 3 x or 60 exceeds 40 + x = 40 + 40. Let x = the number. be 30 . denote the unknown 96. the required . 1. number of yards. 4 x = 80.

A number added number. to 42 gives a sum equal to 7 times the original 6. What number 7 % of 350? Ten times the width of the Brooklyn Bridge exceeds 800 ft. Uldbe 66 | x x 5(5 is = -*-. 35 What number added to twice itself gives a sum of 39? 44. Find the number. A train moving at uniform rate runs in 5 hours 90 miles more than in 2 hours. How long is the Suez Canal? 10. 11. twice the number plus 7. A will be three times as old as to-da3r . 14 50 is is 4 what per cent of 500 ? % of what number? is 12. Hence 40 = 46f. 4. Four times the length of the Suez Canal exceeds 180 miles by twice the length of the canal. Forty years hence his present age. exceeds the width of the bridge. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 56 is what per cent of 120 ? = number of per cent. How old is man will be he now ? twice as old as he was 9. Find 8. EXERCISE 1. 5. 300 56. 120. Find the width of the Brooklyn Bridge.64 Ex. 3. Find the number. by as much as 135 ft. then the problem expressed in symbols W or. . How many miles per hour does it run ? . 47 diminished by three times a certain number equals 2. 14. Find the number whose double increased by 14 equals Find the number whose double exceeds 40 by 10. Six years hence a 12 years ago. % of 120. Dividing.2. 13. Find the number whose double exceeds 30 by as much as 24 exceeds the number. Let x 3.

numbers (usually the smaller one) by and use one of the given verbal statements to express the other unknown number in terms of x. F 8. two verbal statements must be given. In 1800 the population of Maine equaled that of Vermont. Ex. One number exceeds another by : and their sum is Find the numbers. then dollars has each ? many have equal amounts of money. During the following 90 years. the second one.000. x. If the first farm contained twice as many acres as A man number of acres. If A gains A have three times as much 16. is the equation. make A's money equal to 4 times B's money wishes to purchase a farm containing a certain He found one farm which contained 30 acres too many. and as 15. The other verbal statement. while in the more complex probWe denote one of the unknown x. statements are given directly. how many acres did he wish to buy ? 19. five If A gives B $200. . Maine's population increased by 510. One number exceeds the other one by II.000. The problem consists of two statements I. If a problem contains two unknown quantities. B will have lars has A now? 17. written in algebraic symbols. and another which lacked 25 acres of the required number. How many dollars must ? B give to 18. The sum of the two numbers is 14. 1. which gives the value of 8. and Maine had then twice as many inhabitants as Vermont. A and B have equal amounts of money. B How will loses $100. and B has $00. 65 A and B $200. 14. Vermont's population increased by 180. Find the population of Maine in 1800. times as much as A.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS 15. 97. How many dol- A has A to $40. Ill the simpler examples these two lems they are only implied.

Then. = 14.= The second statement written the equation ^ smaller number. the greater number. A gives B 25 marbles. . A will lose. Dividing. 25 marbles to B. o\ (o?-f 8) Simplifying. unknown quantity in Then. B will have twice as many as A. x x =14 8. expressed symbols is (14 x) course to the same answer as the first method. B will have twice as viz. Another method for solving this problem is to express one unknown quantity in terms of the other by means of statement II viz. 8 the greater number. / . and Let x = the Then x -+. 2x a? x -j- = 6. = 3. Uniting. x 3x 4- and B will gain. A has three times as many marbles as B. Let x 14 I the smaller number. the sum of the two numbers is 14. Statement x in = the larger number. 2. Let x 3x express one many as A. . I. to Use the simpler statement. 26 = B's number of marbles after the exchange. terms of the other. < Transposing. which leads ot Ex. = B's number of marbles. If we select the first one. although in general the simpler one should be selected. = A's number of marbles. 26 = A's number of marbles after the exchange. If A gives are : A If II. + a- -f -f 8 = 14. 8 = 11. the smaller number. x = 8. in algebraic -i symbols produces #4a. consider that by the exchange Hence. To express statement II in algebraic symbols. has three times as many marbles as B.66 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Either statement may be used to express one unknown number in terms of the other. The two statements I. .

How many are there of each ? The two statements are I. Dividing.10. Two numbers the smaller. Simplifying. differ differ and the greater and their sum times Two numbers by 60. Check. 11 x = 5. 50(11 660 50 x -)+ 10 x = 310. B's number of marbles. Never add the number number of yards to their Ex. 6 half dollars = 260 cents.75. we express the statement II in algebraic symbols. Uniting. * ' . Check. Uniting. .10. then. their sum + + 10 x 10 x is EXERCISE 36 is five v v. 67 x -f 25 25 Transposing. Dividing. is 70. x = 6. greater is . the price. 6 dimes = 60 = 310. x = the number of half dollars.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS Therefore. A's number of marbles. Selecting the cent as the denomination (in order to avoid fractions). 40 x . etc. Find the numbers. Eleven coins. Find the numbers. x x + = 2(3 x = 6x 25 25). 45 .$3. 3 x = 45. The number of coins II. and the Find the numbers.. 6 times the smaller. The value of the half : is 11.5 x .10. the number of half dollars.. 15 + 25 = 40. 2. the number of dimes. (Statement II) Qx . by 44. 50. 50 x Transposing. 60. x from I. * 98. dollars and dimes is $3. The sum of two numbers is 42. consisting of half dollars and dimes. but 40 = 2 x 20. w'3. 1. of dollars to the number of cents..240. Let 11 = the number of dimes.25 = 20. The numbers which appear in the equation should always be expressed in the same denomination. . cents. Simplifying. have a value of $3.550 -f 310. 3. x = 15.

the number. How many inches are in each part ? 15. tnree times the smaller by 65. 3 shall be equal to the other increased by 10. as the larger one. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA One number is six times another number. and four times the former equals five times the latter. and in 5 years A's age will be three times B's. How many 14 years older than B. of volcanoes in Mexico exceeds the number of volcanoes in the United States by 2.000 feet. cubic foot of iron weighs three times as much as a If 4 cubic feet of aluminum and Ibs. 2 cubic feet of iron weigh 1600 foot of each substance. and in Mexico ? A cubic foot of aluminum. 5.68 4. and the greater increased by five times the smaller equals 22. How many hours does the day last ? . 7. What are their ages ? is A A much line 60 inches long is divided into two parts. Find their ages. one of which increased by 9. find the weight of a cubic Divide 20 into two parts. How many volcanoes are in the 8. the larger part exceeds five times the smaller part by 15 inches.. and twice the altitude of Mt. McKinley exceeds the altitude of Mt. Mount Everest is 9000 feet higher than Mt. 6. Twice 14. Everest by 11. What is the altitude of each mountain 12. it If the smaller one contained 11 pints more. the night in Copenhagen lasts 10 hours longer than the day. 11. would contain three times as pints does each contain ? much 13. and B's age is as below 30 as A's age is above 40. Two numbers The number differ by 39. and twice the greater exceeds Find the numbers. Find Find two consecutive numbers whose sum equals 157. On December 21. ? Two vessels contain together 9 pints. A's age is four times B's. 9. McKinley. United States.

try to obtain it by a series of successive steps. Let x II. Ex. number of dollars of dollars B C had. II. Tf it should be difficult to express the selected verbal state- ment directly in algebraical symbols. are : C's The three statements A. If A and B each gave $5 to C. . B. B has three times as much as A. original amount. the the number of dollars of dollars of dollars A B C has. and the other of x problem contains three unknown quantities. The third verbal statement produces the equation. first According to 3 x number number and according to 80 4 x = the express statement III by algebraical symbols. If A and B each gave $5 to C. then three times the sum of A's and B's money would exceed C's money by as much as A had originally. The solution gives : 3x 80 Check. = number of dollars B had after giving $5. 8(8 + 19) to C. 1. has. three One of the unknown num- two are expressed in terms by means of two of the verbal statements. let us consider the words ** if A and B each gave $ 5 to C. x = 8. A and B each gave $ 5 respectively. and B has three as A. 19. number of dollars A had. 4 x = number of dollars C had after receiving $10. or 66 exceeds 58 by 8. they would have 3. = 48. bers is denoted by x. sum of A's and B's money would exceed much as A had originally.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS 99." To x 8x 90 = number of dollars A had after giving $5. III. I. If 4x = 24. times as much as A. number had. and C together have $80. has. then three times the money by I. and C together have $80. and 68. B. 69 If a verbal statements must be given. 5 5 Expressing in symbols Three times the sum of A's and B's money exceeds C's money by A's 3 x ( x _5 + 3z-5) (90-4z) = x.

III. = the number of dollars spent for sheep Hence statement 90 x Simplifying. x -j- = the number of horses. The number of sheep is equal to twice tho number of horses and x 4 the cows together. The number of cows exceeded the number of horses by 4. x -f 4 = 9. and Ex.70 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA man spent $1185 in buying horses. number of horses. 2 (2 x -f 4) or 4 x Therefore. 90 may be written. and 28 sheep would cost 6 x 90 -f 9 + 316 420 = 1185. first. number of cows. Dividing. 28 2 (9 5). The number of cows exceeds the number of horses by 4. cows. x = 5. three statements are : IT. and each sheep $ 15.140 + (50 x x 120 = 185. = the number of dollars spent for horses. first the third exceeds the second by and third is 20. + 8 90 x and. 9 cows. number of sheep. 4 x -f 8 = 28. number of cows. and the difference between the third and the second is 15 2. x 35 -f + = + EXERCISE 1. 90 x -f 35 x + GO x = 140 20 + 1185. 1 1 Check. 2. 28 x 15 or 450 5 horses. Uniting. Find three numbers such that the second is twice the 2. + 35 x 4. and the sum of the . The total cost equals $1185. 185 a = 925. and. Let then. x Transposing. The I. 85 (x 15 (4 x I + 4) + 8) = the number of sheep. the third five times the first. = the number of dollars spent for cows. 9 -5 = 4 . each cow $ 35. + 35 (x +-4) -f 15(4z-f 8) = 1185. each horse costing $ 90. sheep. according to III. 37 Find three numbers such that the second is twice the first. A and the number of sheep was twice as large as the number How many animals of each kind did he buy ? of horses and cows together. according to II.

the copper. A 12. and the third exceeds the is second by 5. and of the three sides of a triangle is 28 inches. the first Find three consecutive numbers such that the sum of and twice the last equals 22. If twice The sum the third side. The three angles of any triangle are together equal to 180. equals 49 inches. Find three consecutive numbers whose sum equals 63. the second one is one inch longer than the first.000 more inhabitants than Philaand Berlin has 1. New York delphia. twice as old as B. increased by three times the second side. first. The gold. In a room there were three times as many children as If the number of women. what are the three angles ? 10. the third 2. and children together was 37. men.000. is five numbers such that the sum of the first two times the first.000 more than Philadelphia (Census 1905). and is 5 years younger than sum of B's and C's ages was 25 years. 71 the Find three numbers such that the second is 4 less than the third is three times the second. If the population of New York is twice that of Berlin. 7. what is the length of each? has 3. what is the population of each city ? 8. and the sum of the first and third is 36.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS 3. v - Divide 25 into three parts such that the second part first. If the second angle of a triangle is 20 larger than the and the third is 20 more than the sum of the second and first. A is Five years ago the What are their ages ? C. women. how many children were present ? x 11.000. and the pig iron produced in one year (1906) in the United States represented together a value . "Find three is 4. and the third part exceeds the second by 10. twice the 6. first. and 2 more men than women. - 4. v . 13. 9.

8 x = 15.000 more than that the copper. width. how many 100.72 of ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA $ 750. we obtain 3 a. 3x + 4 (x 2) = 27. has each state ? If the example contains Arrangement of Problems.000. = 5. 3z + 4a:-8 = 27. . A and B apart. number of hours. of arid the value of the iron was $300. Let x = number of hours A walks. then x 2 = number of hours B walks. Since in uniform motion the distance is always the product of rate and time. such as length. but stops 2 hours on the way. 3 and 4. and Massachusetts has one more than California and Colorado If the three states together have 31 electoral votes.g. Find the value of each. The copper had twice the value of the gold. i. First fill in all the numbers given directly. 7 Uniting. After how many hours will they meet and how E. or time. Dividing. speed. statement "A and B walk from two towns 27 miles apart until they meet " means the sum of the distances walked by A and B equals 27 miles. it is frequently advantageous to arrange the quantities in a systematic manner.e.000. = 35. together. 14.000. number of miles A x x walks. and A walks at the rate of 3 miles per hour without stopping. and distance. start at the same hour from two towns 27 miles walks at the rate of 4 miles per hour. and 4 (x But the 2) for the last column. of 3 or 4 different kinds. and quantities area. California has twice as many electoral votes as Colorado. B many miles does A walk ? Explanation. Hence Simplifying.

+ 8.M(x . 70x10 Ex. original field has Check.04 8. But 700 certain = 800 2. z = 20." gives (2.x + 00) 2 x2 Simplify. 2 - - and transpose. $ 800 = required sum. If the length The length " The area would be decreased by 100 square yards. .01 = = . or 700. 73 of a rectangular field is twiee its width. $ 1000 x . x .05 x x . . What brings the same is the capital? in- Therefore Simplify. the area would be 100 square yards less. 2 a = 40. A sum invested larger at at 5 % terest as a sum $200 4%. The an area 40 x 20 =800. x + 200). fid 1 The field is 40 yards long and 20 yards wide. Multiplying. $ 800 = 800. Find the dimensions of the field.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS Ex. Check.06 = $ 40.04 = $ 40. + 10 x 300 = 2 z2 100. l. were increased by 30 yards. 10 x = 200. and the width decreased by 10 yards.053. the second 100. Cancel 2 # 2 (a -10) = 2s -100. Transposing and uniting. x .

mobile. A If its length rectangular field is 2 yards longer than it is wide. Find the dimen- A certain sum invested at 5 % %. and its width decreased by 2 yards. together bring $ 78 interest. and the cost of silk of the auto- and 30 yards of cloth cost together much per yard as the cloth. Find the share of each. The second is 5 yards longer than the first. Six persons bought an automobile. After how many hours will B overtake A. the area would remain the same. If the silk cost three times as For a part he 7. but four men failed to pay their shares. What are the two sums 5. sions of the field. How much did each man subscribe ? sum walking at the rate of 3 miles per hour. but as two of them were unable to pay their share. and follows on horseback traveling at the rate of 5 miles per hour. 3. each of the others had to pay $ 100 more. twice as large. of coffee for $ 1. and how far will each then have traveled ? 9. A man bought 6 Ibs. sum $ 50 larger invested at 4 brings the same interest Find the first sum. were increased by 3 yards. 2.55. Ten yards $ 42.74 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 38 rectangular field is 10 yards and another 12 yards wide. 1. how much did each cost per yard ? 6. A sets out later two hours B . invested at 5 %. A sum ? invested at 4 %. and the sum Find the length of their areas is equal to 390 square yards. as a 4. How many pounds of each kind did he buy ? 8. Twenty men subscribed equal amounts of to raise a certain money. paid 24 ^ per pound and for the rest he paid 35 ^ per pound. A of each. and in order to raise the required sum each of the remaining men had to pay one dollar more. and a second sum.

will they be 36 miles apart ? 11. and B at the rate of 3 miles per hour. After how many hours. but A has a start of 2 miles.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS v 75 10. and from the same point. and another train starts at the same time from New York traveling at the rate of 41 miles an hour. how must B walk before he overtakes A ? walking at the rate of 3 miles per hour. traveling by coach in the opposite direction at the rate of 6 miles per hour. A sets out two hours later B starts New York to Albany is 142 miles. Albany and travels toward New York at the rate of 30 miles per hour without stopping. A and B set out direction. how many miles from New York will they meet? X 12. walking at the same time in the same If A walks at the rate of 2 far miles per hour. The distance from If a train starts at .

if. a- + 2 ab + 4 c2 . if it contains no other factors (except itself and unity) otherwise . -f- db 6 to b. if this letter does not occur in any denominator. 6. expression is rational with respect to a letter. \- V& is a rational with respect to and irrational with respect 102. if it does contain some indicated root of . which multiplied together are considered factors. as. a2 to 6. a. consider 105. stage of the work. An after simplifying. 76 . 5. + 62 is integral with respect to a. 104. An expression is integral and rational with respect and rational. An expression is integral with respect to a letter. a factor of a 2 A factor is said to be prime. The factors of an algebraic expression are the quantities will give the expression. it contains no indicated root of this letter . at this 6 2 .CHAPTER VI FACTORING 101. we shall not. it is composite. if it is integral to all letters contained in it. The prime factors of 10 a*b are 2. but fractional with respect 103. vV . J Although Va' In the present chapter only integral and rational expressions b~ X V <2 Ir a2 b' 2 2 ?> . this letter. irrational. a.

g. 77 Factoring is into its factors.3 sy + 4 y8). Factor 14 a* W- 21 a 2 6 4 c2 + 7 a2 6 2 c2 7 a2 6 2 c 2 (2 a 2 . 2 4 x + 3) is factored if written (x' would not be factored if written x(x and not a product. Since factoring the inverse of multiplication. ?/. 1. E. Divide 6 a% . . POLYNOMIALS ALL OF WHOSE TERMS CONTAIN A COMMON FACTOR ( mx + my+ mz~m(x+y + z). 2. TYPE I.62 can be &). for this result is a sum. it follows that a 2 . or Factoring examples may be checked by multiplication by numerical substitution. Hence 6 aty 2 = divisor x quotient. The factors of a monomial can be obtained by inspection 2 The prime 108. It (a.9 x2^ + 12 sy* = 3 Z2/2 (2 #2 . dividend is 2 x2 4 2 1/ . 8) (s-1). 110. . Ex. in the form 4) +3. 55. x. y.62 + &)(a 2 . An the process of separating an expression expression is factored if written in the form of a product. Factor G ofy 2 . 2. 01. x. 2. it fol- lows that every method of multiplication will produce a method of factoring. 109.FACTORING 106.) Ex. since (a + 6) (a 2 IP factored. factors of 12 &V is are 3. or that a = 6) (a = a . 107.3 6a + 1).9 x2 y 8 + 12 3 xy -f by 3 xy\ and the quotient But.9 x if + 12 xy\ 2 The greatest factor common 2 to all terms flcy* is 8 2 xy' .

3.8 c a 15 ofyV . 20.30 aty. 4 tfy -f. 2 Or. Ilro8 9. in general.16 a'V -f 48 ctfa^ 2 s 4 : + 34 X 8 a*b -f 8 6V . . -f In factoring x2 2x we have to find whose product is g. 18. 3 3 5 6. 15.12 cdx. x2 -f-2 x = 15 we have. + llm -llm. 14. to find two numbers whose product is 15 and whose sum is -f. two numbers m and n whose sum is p and and if such numbers can be found. 2 6. -7a & 10. 7i 13. 2 2 . In multiplying two binomials containing a common 3 and 5 to obterm.78 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 39 Resolve into prime factors 1. and to multiply 3 and 5 to obtain the term which does not contain x or (x 3)(x -f 5) 15.g. 4 8 .6.4. TYPE IT. 2 23. a6c.5 x*y 2 17 a? .51 x4 2 6 xy s . e. a(m-f-7i) + & ( m + 3 (a + 6) -3 /(a + 6).5 + 13 -8. 2. 4. the y factored expression is (x -}-m)(x + n). (as 3) and (cc-f-5). 3x*-6x*. QUADRATIC TRINOMIALS OF THE FORM 111.5 + 2. 11. we had to add tain the coefficient of x. )- 22 - 2. . &-{-20a 6 4 &3 2 . 12. 32 a *?/ . in factoring a trinomial of the form x -f-/>#-f q. 3. obviously.2.4. : 6 abx . 34 a^c 8 . a -a '-J-a . 15 2 7. 8.51 aW + 68 21. q*-q*-q 2 a.3. 16. 19. 5-f 2 . 13. 2 + q. 14a 4 5.45 afy . 3 2 . 17.

4.FACTORING Ex. and (a . Factor x? .1 1 a tf a 4.4 . Factor + 10 ax . the two numbers have opposite signs. or 7 11. however. but of these only a: Hence 2 . 11 7. a 2 . 2. Hence z6 -? oty+12 if= (x -3 y)(x*-4 y ).77 = (a. 2 11 a?=(x + 11 a) (a.a). is The two numbers whose product and -6. Ex. + 30 = 20.4 x . . Since a number can be represented in an infinite number of ways as the sum of two numbers. .1 afy 8 The two numbers whose product is equal to 12 yp and whose sum equals 3 8 7 y are -4 y* and -3 y*. or 77 l. the student should first all terms contain a common monomial factor. as p. but only in a limited number of ways as a product of two numbers. or 11 and 7 have a sum equal to 4. can be factored. Hence fc -f 10 ax is 10 a are 11 a - 12 /. Therefore Check. Ex. If q is positive. We may consider 1. the two numbers have both the same sign as p. 77 as the product of 1 77.5) (a 6).G) = . + 112.11 a + 30. 3. of this type.30 = (a .11. 79 Factor a2 -4 x . 2 6. determine whether In solving any factoring example. If q is negative. 11 a2 and whose sum The numbers whose product is and a. Factor a2 .11) (a + 7). it is advisable to consider the factors of q first.. 5.11 a 2 . EXERCISE Besolve into prime factors : 40 4.6 = 20. If 30 and whose sum is 11 are 5 a2 11 a = 1. tfa2 - 3.5) (a . and the greater one has the same sign Not every trinomial Ex. m -5m + 6. .

6. 29. . 14. 9. 2 ?/ 28. QUADRATIC TRINOMIALS OF THE FORM According to 66.17 + 30. 100 xr . 21 a 2 2 .48 + + 446 200. 8. or . 32. a -7 a -30. 19. +7 Hence a? is the sum of the 13 x cross products. 4 2 . 13. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBEA x*-2x-8. 2 ?/ -5?/-14. 12. 3?/-4 + a' -2a&-24& n + 60+177> a + 7 a -30. ITT. + 2x-S. and 5 x. By actual trial give the correct we find which of the sum of cross products. we have to find two bino- mials whose corresponding terms are similar. 35. 27. a2 .2) = 20 x2 + 7 x . 2 2 a' 34. 2 . factors of 6 x 2 and 5 . 2 . 10 x y 2 200 x2 . 15. a? + 5 + 6 a. 4 3 2 . x2 23. . 18. ^ </ 2 2 -7p-8. 6 is the product of + 3 and 2. 16. -17a& + 7(U -9a&-226 + 8 a -20. + 30. 25. 16. x*y ra 2 2 4xy 4 wia 2 2 21y. 17. 26. 6 8 8 4 2 a. 2 . 21. 36. + 44. and the sum of the cross products equals 13 x. 2 ?/ 22. (4 x + 3) (5 x 20 x2 is the product of 4 a. a 2 +11 a a? 16. + 5<y 24. 6 a -18 a + 12 a 2 2 ?/ . + 4?/-21. 20. 33. 11. 31. . ay -11 ay +24. y_ 6y +6y -15?/ 2 ?/ 10. 2 2 . in factoring 6 x2 + 5.180 a.70 x y . 30. TYPE 113. a 2^ 2 a2 + 7ax 18.80 7. 24. ra + 25ra + 100.500 x + 600. such that The The first last two terms are factors of 6 x 2 two terms are factors of 5. + 400 x aft a4 4 a 2 .

none of the binomial factors can contain a monomial factor.13 x + 5 = (3 x . but the opposite sign. 9 x 6. 2 x 27. 18 x 3. 64 may be considered the : product of the following combinations of numbers 1 x 54. If py? -\-qx-\-r does not contain any monomial factor. 6 x 9. and after a little practice the student possible should be able to find the proper factors of simple trinomials In actual work at the first trial. 54 x 1. . The work may be shortened by the : follow- ing considerations 1.FACTORING If 81 we consider that the factors of -f 5 as must have is : like signs. If p is poxiliw. X x 18. or G 114. the If p and r are positive. Since the first term of the first factor (3 x) contains a 3. If the factors a combination should give a sum of cross products.5 .1).83 x -f- 54. Factor 3 x 2 . The and factors of the first term consist of one pair only. a. 11 x 2x.31 x Evidently the last 2 V A 6. which has the same absolute value as the term qx. all it is not always necessary to write down combinations. Ex. viz. 3. then the second terms of have opposite signs. 3 x and x. and that they must be negative. the second terms of the factors have same sign as q. 2. 27 x 2. . the signs of the second terms are minus. sible 13 x negative.e-5 V A x-1 3xl \/ /\ is 3 a. exchange the signs of the second terms of the factors. all pos- combinations are contained in the following 6x-l x-5 . we have to reject every combination of factors of 54 whose first factor contains a 3.5) (2 x . Hence only 1 x 54 and 2 x 27 need be considered. and r is negative.17 x 2o?-l V A 5 - 13 a combination the correct one.

32.10 4a? + 14oj + 12. x-54 a. 10 a . 10a?2 2 33. 2x* + 9x-5. + 4. 9.2 a 90 x*y .30 y 6 4 . 22. 4. 2m -t-7w + 3. 4a2 -9tt + 2. IV) are special cases of In all examples of this type. since all others (II. 10a2 G a2 2 . 21. 25. 19. 6n 2 -f 13w + 2.83 x . -h r is 2 the most important of the trinomial types.17-9. -9a. . X -27 . 35.290 xy -f 144 y* 4x 8 ofy + 3 y 2 2 4 2 4 -f- . arranged according to the ascending or the descending powers of some letter. Therefore 3 z + 64 The type pa. 2 2 2 23.260 xy . 2 . 14. 34. 14 a -fa -4. 10.300 ab 2 -f4 250 . EXERCISE Kesolve into prime factors 1. 13.2) (x . 6n + 5?i-4. 11. 2 28. 12y -2/-6. 2 ar* 2 i/ . 100^-200^ + 100^. 2 2 2 .-7. 20. 2i/ * 2 2 x 27.77 xy + 10 y -23afc + 126 . : 41 2. + 2/-3. 2 26. 24. -f go. 8. 144 x . 30.19 a -f 6. + 11 or 2 + 12 a.83 x = (3 . 7. the expressions should be it. 18. 3. 15. . 3a + 13a. 2. 5 a6 2 2 -9 a .163 x 2 . 2 f-3y -4y 40a -90aV + 20aV. .82 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 3x-l 3s-2 x X 115.y + 172/-9. SoJ + llay 15 aj* 40*. 5m -26m -f 5. 29. 6. 17. 90 a 8 2 . 12^-17^-1-6. Sar' + Sa-G. 2 31. 2 . 16. 5. 2 fc . and the monomial factors should be removed.13 xy + 6 y2 12 x -7 ay.27). 12. 9 y + 32^-16. 3x*-Sx + 4.

m -14ww + 49n 2 16 a .26 ab + 9 6 2 . x* . 2 . of its terms are perfect squares. 11. To factor a trinomial which maining term. A term when two is trinomial belongs to this type. it is a perfect square. 9 +6a6 2 2 -f a4 . a -flOa&4-6 4 wi -f 2 2/ 2 . m + 2mn + n c -2cd-d 2 2 . 4 6 m*ti -f 9 n*. 14. 9 -10a6-25. 12. 10. and factor whenever possible : 1. square. 8. and the remaining equal to twice the product of the square roots of these in order to be a perfect terms. and a perfect square. connect the re- square roots of the terms which are squares by the sign of the indicate the square of the resulting binomial. 9. x> 2 a 2_4 a & a 2 + 462.3 y) 2 is 2VWx 2 x V0y2" = 24 xy. THE SQUARE OF A BINOMIAL 2 Jr 2 xy +/. EXERCISE 42 per- Determine whether or not the following expressions are feet squares. Expressions of this to factor them according a2 to 65. 6. . 25 7.e. and may be factored according to the method used In most cases.10 x -f 16. for + 9 y2 = (4 x . form are special cases of the preceding type. 4. it is more convenient for that type. 3. 2 2 . however. - 2 xy + if = (x 2 ?/) . must have a positive sign. 116. . 24 xy + 9 y' 2 is Evidently 10 & 24 xy a perfect square. 16 y? The student should note that a term. 13.20 xy -f 4 y\ . i. 2. 2 9 -10g-f25.FACTORING 83 TYPE IV. 5.

difference of the squares of two numbers is equal of the sum and the difference of the two numbers. 4 2 23. 7. +( )-f816 30. 36 2 4. -6 2 . 19. - + 6a + ( 9a -( ) + 144 a 2 28. a. . 3. 2. u2 -6& + 2 ( ). 2 . ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 16a 2 -24a&4. 100a2 -68 a2 & 2 -121. 225 ofy . Ex.60 a# + 4.9& 2 3<> 4 2 . prime. 10 a 2 4 2 . : 43 tf-y\ a -9. + GO + 25. 3. . 4a2 -l. 16&*. ^//c to the Ex. 25. 27. 3 Make the following expressions perfect squares by supplying the missing terms : 21. 2 . 2. . 2 20.9 z* = (2 ary + 3 z ) (2 1G a . product i. -* 2 . 22. 9.6 m* + 9 m.84 15. aV .20 ab + 10 b a . ). a. a4 a2 2 -f 6 is . 2 -f b 2 2 2 ) (a NOTE. V. m 4a + 12a + ( 2 4m 2 20 -f- ( ). ). -48 a +( ). ). 26. x*-Sx + ( 64 a 4 100w +( )+49. THE DIFFERENCE OF TWO SQUARES JT 2 -/. 16. 17.3 * ). TYPE 117. According to 65.6 = (a 4 -b) = (a* + b*)(a + b)(a-b).4 6 = lG(tt +2Z> )(a -26 ). 18.2 ofy + ofy m .e. 1-49 a 81 8. 6. 4 3 4 ^ 3 8 10 8 10 ) 4 5 4 5 Ex. !Gar 9 -( )+25. 9a2 . 5. 1. a2 24. 2 .64 6 = 16(a . EXERCISE Resolve into prime factors 1. 29.

2 2 : (m-f-n) _p 2 . 11.(c + d) 2 = (a + c + cZ) (a . (a x? -f- 6) 6 2 . Factor a 2 .d) 2 . (m-7?) -y. (2a-5&) -(5c-9ef) 2 3. 2 ?/) 16 2 (y -f 2 . 14. a2 . T. (x -f 3 9 2/ 2 . 2.(I) . (2a (2s + 5) -(3a-4) 2 2 . 13. 6. 2.FACTORING 85 118. Resolve into prime factors and simplify EXERCISE 44 Resolve into prime factors 1. (?/ 2 cc (x y)*.(c 4. One or both terms are squares 1. a:) 12. 2 . 8. 5. Ex. 25a -(&-c) (m-h2n) 2 2 . Ex. 9.c . 16p 2 . 4. (m -f # 2 2 n) 42:) 10. 36|> . of polynomials. 2 . (m 3n) 2 ( 2 2 .

a3 c 3 10ax-5ay-6bx + 3by. 2. 9.86 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA TYPE VI.ab + bx. raV + nV 3 a 2ic 2 m ?/ 2 n 2an-3&n + 2ag-3&?. : 45 ax + bx + ay+by. 8.y + 2 2). 1. . GROUPING TERMS By the introduction of parentheses. 6. ma ?*a + m& nb.and trinomials. Ex. a5 + ab 6 . a? 11. + x + 2x + 2. By grouping. = (3 x + y .7 c + 2c . a 26 2 2 3 .(x - 5) EXERCISE Resolve into prime factors 1.2 ) (3 x . 5) . + 4cy--5dx 2 5dy. ive find that the new terms con- common factor. x8 . 7.1.14.4 6 x -f 3 a y 2 4.a a . A. 4:cx . After grouping tain a the terms. Factor or 5 5 x2 x x -f 5. Factor ax ax -f- bx -f ay -f by. polynomials can frequently be transformed into bi. 4 B. 10. 2. + bx + ay + by = x(a + &) + y(a + 6) Ex. which may be factored according to types I.6z2 + 5 = z2 (. the expression becomes the difference of two squares. 5. 12. Factor 9 x*-y*-4:Z 2 -f 4 yz. 3.VI.r. Ex. 119. .

$- a8 . 8. Trinomials are factored by the method of cross products. m -Gw + 9-n * See page 266. 8.12 aaj 4 6y. Polynomials are reduced to the preceding cases by grouping terms.12 z + 9 x2)_ (&2 _ 4 ty + 4 ^2) a. II. 5.12 ax + 9 a2 + 4 &t/ 4 y2 = (4 a 2 . 2a3/ 7. 87 -f- Factor 4 a2 - 6 2 + 9 tf .10 xy + 4 y\ 2 . 2 7. 6.FACTORING Ex.6 ww + n 2 2 < a 2 -4a6 + 46 -25. .* */2 ft EXERCISE Kesolve into prime factors 1. + 2xy + y*-q*. l~a -2a5-6 2 2 .9 a2 4 v* 2 . 6 6. : m 2 2 16. 6a4 + 37a2 + 6. EXERCISE 47 MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES* Resolve into prime factors !. a 2 -10a6 4 2 + 256 2 x -ar -2a. . +c+ 2 2 2/ . although frequently the particular cases II and IV are more convenient.62 + 9 _ 4 _ 12 ax + 4 6y 2 = 4 a 2 . w -m 2. Arranging the terms. 4. Binomials are factored by means of the formula a 2 -6 2 III. = (a + 6)(a-6). IV. 8ra 2 + 16. 3. SUMMARY OF FACTORING I. 6a4 -12a2 + 6. 4 a2 . First find monomial factors common to all terms.-l. 3. : 46 x* 2. 4. 2.4 f . 36 9 m . 2.

2 a -128. 11. 3 2 .156. 20 >r + 2 ?<s __ G4. 18. 256 4 2 2 ?/) . 29. -50^ + 45. 12. + 14. 48. a + a + a + l. (^ 34. 1 ?v _w 8 2 33. 4 2 2 ft ft -2a + a*-l. . 80 a 2 ft 38. 5a' 20.85 xy + 42 y 10 w 43 w 9. 2 3#4 -3a2 -36. 24. 5 a. _|_ ft)2 n Qy 2 . a5 a 1 4 2 39. 14. 3 41. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA x*-xif. 42 s 2 . 13. 25 a + 25 aft . 4 a. 32.310 x . or 3 7#2 . 22. 6 :J 2 2 ft 2 16. a3 156. 3 a2 23. 2 ft . 28.40.24. 3 25. 30. 2 17. + 6 aft + 3 . any V 2 ( 51 xyz + 50. 4 8 tt 2 z . a6 36. 19. 13 c . 40. 10 a 2 4a 4 26. a. -32 aft + 6 4ft 4 . (a.13 c . 49 a 4 4 -42 a + 9 a 20a -90a -50. 27. 35.88 10. 42 x .

C. 12 tfifz. 3. F. + 8 ft) and cfiW is 2 a 2 /) 2 ft) . F. of the algebraic expressions. . expressions which have no are prime to one another. C. Two common factor except unity The H. - 23 3 . The H. 15 aW. C. 33 2 7 3 22 3 2 . F. 5 7 34 2s . C. of two or more monomials whose factors . The H. 2 2 . 5 2 3 . F. 121. is the lowest that the power of each factor in the power in which that factor occurs in any of the given expressions. are prime can be found by inspection. F. 54 - 32 .) of two or more . F. 5 s 7 2 5. of a 7 and a e b 7 . of : 48 4. 8 . the algebraic factor of highest degree common expressions to these expressions thus a 6 is the II. C. aW. C. C. of a 4 and a 2 b is a2 The H. F. 24 s . and GO aty 8 is 6 aty. find by arithmetic the greatest common factor of the coefficients. C. 3 . 2. 13 aty 39 afyV. Thus the H. of (a and (a + fc) (a 4 is (a + 6) 2 .CHAPTER VII HIGHEST COMMON FACTOR AND LOWEST COMMON MULTIPLE HIGHEST COMMON FACTOR 120. C. The student should note H. C. II 2 . of aW. of 6 sfyz. The highest is common factor (IT. 5. F. EXERCISE Find the H. 6. and prefix it as a coefficient to H. 122. F. 89 . If the expressions have numerical coefficients. F. 25 W.

13. resolve each polynomial into prime factors. 4 7/i 3 n2 10 4 mV. 4 ?io. F. 2 . 4a -f 4a2 2 2 a 2 - . 7/ EXERCISE Find theH. . a2 ar* 4. 12. -3^ 2 4 . aWd. 225 4a 9 . 11. 57 a>V.?/ . 9. a2 + 7a-f!2. 10. a2 . 5 a6 -5^ 2 a. 1.7 xy + 10 2 = (x . To find the H.12 as 66 . 24 a 2 . 95 2/V. 13. 6(m+l) (m+2). 5.y) . of polynomials. 3.6 . 65 zfyV. 38 #y.2 ?/) (x .5 y). 15. 8. . 4(m+l) 3 . 30 mu\ 39 afyV. a. and apply the method of the preceding article. 3 .# 4 afy -f 4 . 25 m27i. . 2 . Ex.6 a&. F. 52 oryz4. y + 3y-64. 16. 75 a&X -15 bed 11 . 0^-80:4-16.8 a + 16. 12. x2 ^-4^ and tf -7 xy + 10 f.3 xy + 2 y* = (x . . 8 a 10 . C.-6.6 a' + 2 a& + 6 . 2. (a7 ?/) .90 7. ^a + 5^ + 6. 1. 10. ^2 2 . 15 x-y^ 2 10 arV . 7. 2a -f5a-f 2. x* x2 Hence the H.y) 123.^-9. ^-707 + 12. 6 mx . 3). of: . = x 2 y. 2 . 6 3 a. 14. . a3 -9a. F. 12 w*nw 8.5 + 6. . 9. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBEA 6 rarcV. 11. 15 3ao. 9 aj*(a? . a2 + 2a-3. 49 C. 4 a3 6 4 8 a663 . 16 a .y)\ O+ 0^(0.y + y-42. 4(m -f ?i) 3 3 5(w + w) 5 7(m + n}\m 2 ri). a3 -16 a. 2 . F. C. of + 4 if. ^-f a. 12 . 8. a -3a-4. 6 a2 y? . 8 6.2 y) (a. 8(?/i-f-l) 14. Find the H. C.5 x3?/ 2 6.

ory is the L.M. of tfy and xy*. = (a -f last 2 &)' is (a - 6) . Common 125. =4 a2 62 (a2 . 60 x^y' 2 .(a + &) 2 (a have the same absolute value. C. 2. C. resolve each expression into prime factors and apply the method for monomials. C. which also signs. of the general. a^c8 3 . M.6)2. 1. Hence the L. two lowest common multiples. Find the L. C. each set of expressions has In example ft). The lowest common multiple (L.) of two or more expressions is the common multiple of lowest degree. 6 c6 is C a*b*c*. 300 z 2 y. L. The L. Ex. M. M. M. 2 The The L. M. M. If the expressions have a numerical coefficient. M. C. of as -&2 a2 + 2a&-f b\ and 6-a. C.6 3 ). is equal to the highest power in which it occurs in any of the given expressions. etc. 127. of several expressions which are not completely factored. Find the L. thus. 128. To find the L.C. 2 multiples of 3 x and 6 y are 30 xz y. find by arithmetic their least common multiple and prefix it as a coefficient to the L. . of 3 aW. Ex. &) 2 M.LOWEST COMMON MULTIPLE 91 LOWEST COMMON MULTIPLE multiple of two or more expressions is an which can be divided by each of them without a expression 124.M. C. of 12(a + ft) and (a + &)*( - is 12(a + &)( . C. 4 a 2 &2 _ Hence. L. M. . C. M of the algebraic expressions. of 4 a 2 6 2 and 4 a 4 -4 a 68 2 . NOTE. 126. Obviously the power of each factor in the L. but opposite .C. A common remainder. C.

2. 2 a?-b\ a + 2ab + b' 2a-2b. 6 a. 2 a . 9. 6 y. 3 ab. ic 2 ?/. 2 .1. 3 Z> . 3(a + b). afy. 16. 6b 2 . a 2 a3 . 3 (a-2)(a-3) ( a -3)(a-4) 2 2a?b-'2ab 2 a. a?b. + 2 7i) . a. T a 3 a 2 . 5 a? 5 a? y. 24 x. 30 a. of: 4. a. + 2. 3. M. G a. 15. 3 . x2 2 + 5 a + 6. a& 4 +& 2 . a -f- 2 19. ) . (For additional examples see page 268. a -!.-f 6. 2 7ic+10. or -f- 3 a 15 #. -f b. 5 a 2 ^ 2 15 . 24. x2 5 -f 2 3# 5 + 2. 4 a -f 2. . 2 a. b 2 . x* ~5a. 3(m + n) 4 m 2 . x 2 5 a. x2 + 4 a -f 4. 8 afy. a 2 -fa6. 4 a . 6. 2 x -\-2 y. 7. 4 a 5 6cd. 21. 40 abJ. a.1. by. + 6. 1. 13. 18. 20. 2 ic 3 4a 8 a. 20 9 a. 2 10. 2 . 11. Find the L. ax -{-ay ~ 3 a 3 b. 2 . a 2 -f 4 a +4.- 3 -f2. bx a? 8 2 lOaj-f-lfi. 3. y*. ic 23. . 17.92 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 50 C. 5. (a -4)(a-2) 12. 8. a^-1. a -{- a~b. 3 6 xif. 2 a . xy\ . a 1. #. a -f 3. 2(m 2 . 14. a2 ~ab 1. 8 d 5 . afc'cd 2 . a2 4. 22.

Reduce ~- to its lowest terms. Ex. the product of two fractions is the product of their numerators divided by the product of their denominators. A -f- fraction is b. fraction is in its lowest when its numerator and its denominator have no common factors. All operations with fractions in algebra are identical with the corresponding operations in arithmetic. and i x mx = my y terms A 1. only positive integral numerators shall assume that the all arithmetic principles are generally true for algebraic numbers. C. If both terms of a fraction are multiplied or divided by the same number) the value of the fraction is not altered. Thus. an indicated quotient. a b = ma mb . etc. the value of a fraction is not altered by multiplying or dividing both its numerator and its denominator by the same number. 131. rni Thus 132. a?. common 6 2 divisors of numerator and denomina- and z 8 (or divide the terms . 130. successively all 2 j/' . thus - is identical with a divisor b the denominator. F. TT Hence 24 2 z = -- 3x .CHAPTER VIII FRACTIONS REDUCTION OF FRACTIONS 129. Remove tor. as 8. but we In arithmetic. however. and denominators are considered.ry ^ by their H. The dividend a is called the numerator and the The numerator and the denominator are the terms of the fraction.

33 -7 a 36 arV 18 x2^' 39 a2 6 8c4 * See page 268.94 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 133. Keduce a* ~ 6 a' 4 *8a 6a qs _.4) Ex.6 a + 8) 6 d\a* . resolve numerator and denominator into their factors. cancel factors only. 6 24 a2 to its lowest terms. Never cancel terms of the numerator or the denominator. To reduce a fraction to its lowest terms. Ex. 3. Keduce -62 ~ 2 62 a2 to its lowest terms. 2. . tf a* - n2 + 8 a 24 a* _ ap 2 . and cancel all factors that are common to both. _Q 2 6 EXERCISE 51* Reduce i to lowest terms 3 : 9-5 2 *' o 3 * 3T5"** T^ 12a4 " 3 K 6 ' 32 78 ' ' 2.

ny 4 18. n h ' m11 2 m 3 8. 23. ^' rt ^ - 31.10 a + 3 2 14. + ' 4 2 ?/ 27. x1 15 ' ft< 4 xy //(/ _.n 8 + T> ? wn + n 2 ?i 2 m " -*-7 . ~__ 9n _ 22 9.' 32. . 19. . 29. 16. * OQ 3 a3 _6a a/i 2 2 5 ?tt +6 ^. 12 15 m m 2 2 7 w. LJZJ^JL. _ 3 7i rt< 26.. ' ^ . ^+3*.FRACTIONS 7- 95 22 a 2 bc 1 4- ^-. 3a ^ ^ "-^ 2 -9 . nx 17. 04 !l 9 or 2 6 it*?/ +y 2 12. '-M 3 ??i 2fi 25. ^" a.7 . "-""-. 9x + "a" 10. 11 ^ Mtr f .*. 5^-10 y 30. g J- 21. .

and 6rar 3 a? kalr . we have -M^. we may use the same process as in arithmetic for reducing fractions to the lowest common denominator.r 2 2 . 2> . Reduce -^-. and Tb reduce fractions to their lowest common denominator. TheL. ^ to their lowest com- The L. . ELEMENTS OF 'ALGEBRA Reduction of fractions to equal fractions of lowest common Since the terms of a fraction may be multiplied denominator.M. M. mon T denominator. and (a- 8). C. . To reduce to a fraction with the denominator 12 a3 6 2 x2 numerator ^lA^L O r 2 a 3 ' and denominator must be multiplied by Similarly. multiplying the terms of 22 . multiply each quotient by the corresponding numerator. we may extend this method to integral expressions. and the terms of ***. take the L.C. . Divide the L. we have (a + 3) (a -8) (-!)' NOTE. - by 4 6' .~16 (a + 3) (x. by the denominator of each fraction. 1. of the denominators for the common denominator. 3 a\ and 4 aW is 12 afo 2 x2 .96 134. Multiplying these quotients by the corresponding numerators and writing the results over the common denominator. =(z (x + 3)(z.-1^22 ' . Ex. and 135.D. - of //-* 2 . 1). by any quantity without altering the value of the fraction. + 3). we have the quotients (x 1). Since a (z -6 + 3)(s-3)O-l)' 6a. Ex - Reduce to their lowest common denominator.by 3 ^ A 2 ' .C. C.3)O - Dividing this by each denominator.M.3) (-!)' = .

oj o* or / . . a? 1 5 > ^* . fractions having a common denominator are added or subtracted by dividing the sum or the difference of the numerators by the common denominator. 22 a2 5a * . Since --{-c c = 5L^ c (Art. . 7i 2 ab* ". i. 8 i i. 137.T 3y Ga-1 ax 9 ' 2a .^1. . . 18. JL. If the given fractions have different denominators. they must be reduced to equal fractions which have the lowest common denominator before they can be added (01 subtracted). 2 3 9a ~l' 3a-l 6 8 a ' 2 a8 * 5 4a 8' ' a jj + 6 a- 9 ^ .. ?y2" m^ S? m 2 7^ m S* **.Reduce the following to their lowest 1.FRACTIONS EXERCISE 52 97 .T n"> ^' 5c 3 26 o atf o> 5 77" ' . 5?. 3.. 5a 3 zl ' _ 2a-l n. bxby g ! a 5 ' a -f-5 a2 25 ?--. . 74). 2aj ~ .a+2 ' a 2 -3a-f 2 ADDITION AND SUBTRACTION OF FRACTIONS 136. 2 ay IB. 2. j y 3. o o a. common denominator 6.

understood about terms ( 66) hence he should.ft) (a ft ft)~. T? Ex. the student should remember that parentheses are . 4 6 + 2qg+6~ag-f4a&-8 a(a-ft)(a -2ft) ft 2 a2 a(a + 5 aft . (a-8ft)(a~-ft) 8 2 2ft) 2 =a -4 2 + 2 (2 a 4. D. cr -\-t Simplify _T__ -r* + . in the beginning. (2 ~ a ft) a(a - + 7 ft)fa ft)(a 2 ft) - ft) a(a -2 ft) NOTE. Multiplying the terms of the first fraction by 2(2 a the second by (2 a . a2 ab ft2 Hence the a a2 -f 2 6 a2 . ft) ft ft a(a ~ 3 aft + 2 ft2 a2 - 2 aft _(a + 2ft)(a-2ft) +a (2q + a(a . C. a -3 2a + "~ a2 ft). 2.7 . The results of addition and subtraction should be re- duced to their lowest terms. D. ^ _ ^ a-3b ft).98 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA - Ex ' Sim C.3 ft 2). (a ft). L. 4(2 a 3 ft).3 ft)(2 a -f + : Ga-6 + 3 ft).. 2 ^. The L.(a 2 6).ft)(a . write 2 the product in a parenthesis.g. ft). and adding.2 = a(a .aft) Ca2 . ^ is 2^JT) .20 aft 3ft) -f 3 ft 2 4(2a-3ft)(2a-f 4 aft -f 21 2 138.3 ft)(2 a + 3 ft) ft ft) (6 a -ft) _ 8 a 2 -f 24 aft 20 a 2 -f -f 18 2 + ft 12 a 2 .aft - _ 3 ab + 2 = ( a _ ft)( _ 2 a 2 -2 aft :=(.4 aft + ft ft ) a(a - ft)(a 2ft) 2 =a .2 ' 2 _.3 . as 4 aft -f. (a . we obtain 2 a the terms of 2(2 a +3 -3 ft 6 a -f ft _ 2(2 a + ft) 3 ft) (2 a ft) 4(2 a 3 4(2 a ~~ + 3 ft) -f (2 a .. (a 3 ft) In simplifying a term preceded by the minus sign. e.3 ft).

36 3u 2v v 5 wv 8v 12 uv 13.FRACTIONS EXERCISE 53* Simplify : 99 2a-4 5 3. 18 v 19. 1 1 -f w 16. a-2 a + 3* 2 a -7 a-f-1 ' 2) * See page 270. A+2_3. + . a+6 a 6 2 14. -1* 1 + m-f 3 1 M. 1 -f q * 1 m m . a 36 ++. 23. t-3 m-2* a _2 6 a 4. 46 2a 4a 12. 9m + 7n 3 6m 5n 2x + 3y 3x 15 y x + 2y 45 8. 2. 6a-116 13 a 15a-26 116 e ' 6 2 10.5 18- -^4-f25. 30 u -+? + i- _H_ + _*_. 6 c 3a 7. 2L + 2a 1 17. 5a-76 4a 106 9. 20. 24. + a "" 2 6 ' . j>0 i> 21. 15.

_ ' a +b +a= ( 38. 41. ^-2-^+6m 3 45 ' 44. 43. a 30. ic 1 + 1. a 2 ^> 2 x2 -7x+12~x -l7x + 4:~ ' } . _m & 2 i +m 6 i _w 36 a2+ a ^_2&2 35. ! n. / IIlNT: Let a 1 - 39. a 4 31. 42. a-f 1-f /j. 1 34.LOO ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 26 - x*3x + 2 x-2 5x 27 ' ~. a.9 79 -6 2 i. 3a 9 +. a ?^ 40. x-2 Q 3 /Yl Qfi ou L "I "I \_ L I * 7 IT-i ~T~ 7 TTo O :_ ' i 37 _ 9 <1 - 1 i 1 '> a2 -. -_ + a? ?/ + y. x + 3y x-3y Gx x2 2x . 2 a-f-1 32.9.

6 x + 10x4 x2 17 Therefore x y 3g . - . - 4 or 3 2a. . To reduce a fraction to an integral or = + ceo 2 * *- (S74) v ' Hence 5a2 -15a-7 = 5 a2 oa 5a 15a oa 7 5a =a 3 . 2 + 4tf 3 17 . 2 x2 + 2 g 4. 1. 101 mixed expression. T. Reduce .7 5a v Ex.FRACTIONS 139. . .'3) 2 EXERCISE expression 54 to a Keduce each of the following fractions : mixed or integral a a +1 9a2 -6a + 2 3a m 2 *- 5 m -f 6 4 m 7 n 2 + 7n + 14 fi . 2x 4 x3 to a mixed expression.6 + 4x 4 x2 .17 (2^ + 2x -f 5-3 (2x-.

we may extend any e. Common factors in the numerators and the denominators should be canceled before performing the multiplication. Since - = a.102 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA MULTIPLICATION OF FRACTIONS 140. multiply the 142. expressed in symbols: c a _ac b'd~bd' principle proved for b 141. (In order to cancel common factors. !. fractions to integral numbers. Simplify 1 J The expreeaion =8 6 . -x b c = numerator by To multiply a fraction by an that integer. F J Simplify . and the product of the denominators for the denominator. each numerator and denomi- nator has to be factored. 2 a Ex.g. integer. or.) Ex. 2. Fractions are multiplied by taking the product of tht numerators for the numerator.

. 2 -f 5 a.20 3a 2 6 ' GoA ai> 56 2c " ar " ' 4 ac2 V V 3m " " +1 " " o?-f 2 ~ ' _ 9m JO. 14. 5# 56 / c& 4. 53 *38 " ' 4 ' 14 b* ' 10 a 8 ' " 4a-f-86 76 5c 36C2 10 (a 7a-216 a2 2 q~. . 4 8. 50 . 2 -25n 2 1 3m +&n 15.FRACTIONS EXERCISE Find the following products ' 103 55 : 2!v! 2 4 5 8 a2 " ' ^ ' 36^ 21m* ' 17 ab ' ' 2 48 as b*' 34 ab 2 14m4 . aj 5 1 a? 18. 5n a2 4-3a-4 a2 3 a 4 a 2 -5a-h4 < - x2 + x (x 2 I) 17. 6) 12 ot 2 ab + 2 fc a b* o.. _G x 7 a2 -5a-6 a.6 12 d6 4.

The reciprocal of a number is the quotient obtained by dividing 1 by that number.y3 + xy* x*y~ -f y 8 y -f 3 2/ x3 EXERCISE 56* Simplify the following expressions 2 x* '""*'-*' : om 2 a2 6 2 r - 3 i_L#_-i-17 ar J 13 a& 2 5 ft2 ' u2 +a . and the principle of division follows may be expressed as 145. 8 multiply the Ex. The reciprocal of ? Hence the : +* x is 1 + + * = _*_. 1. Divide X-n?/ . invert the divisor and multiply it by the dividend. To divide an expression by a fraction. x a + b obtained by inverting reciprocal of a fraction is the fraction. * x* -f xy 2 by x*y +y x' 2 3 s^jf\ = x' 2 x* .104 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA DIVISION OF FRACTIONS 143. To divide an expression by a fraction. expression by the reciprocal of the fraction. The The reciprocal of a is a 1 -f- reciprocal of J is | |. : a 4-1 a-b * See page 272. 144. . Integral or mixed divisors should be expressed in fractional form before dividing.

c ab 2 4- &c* & a .6 s + 064.10 ?/ _. ga2 4- 8 5 a . t ' a^-3^-4 ? 4* ' a?-~ab > a 2 a- 4a 4- 4 a: +3 m 12 2 -f. Ex. or both.6 COMPLEX FRACTIONS 146. l.&c 2 ~ a 4- a2c 4. a a2 4.' ' * ' ^-5^+4 . A complex fraction is a fraction whose numerator or denominator. mm 5 a a2 6 2 4-g-2 2a 2 4-g-20 25 . a 6 _6 c c ac a6 2 4.afr 4.T ?/ 4 2 a*?/ 15 #4.FRACTIONS 105 -.^c 2 2 .5 ??i 80 50 . Simplify <! c a a2 c 4- -L 4.1 5 w + 56 a 2 w a2 2 4._ # ~ y ' 45 14 in^o 2 ?/ ^y "xy 15 a2 + (Jf fr a b . are fractional.

the answer is directly obtained. the expression becomes (x EXERCISE Simplify : 57 x 2. & . 10. Ex. i.y 32 . 6. 2. . -n a 8. B If the numerator and denominator of the preceding examples multiplied by a&c. . many examples the easiest mode of simplification ia multiply both the numerator and the denominator of the mplex fraction by the L.a ^c c _^ a -. . c +6. Simplify x -}. y X 4* 2 y 3.?/ x y _x^_l X ~V x+y . M. JL. a m "" . . 9. xy x +y Multiplying the terms of the complex fraction by (x y). C. x* 4. of their denominators.16 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA In 147. 7i+~ 7.

1 +2 1 i " f " ( a + 1 /*-_i_i 4- 14. : . s-y 18. 1 + 1+ 1 ti flg-f-l a?l ic+1 a. -i ~T" * ~ 1 y 19 4 ' !^-5n a "~ 12. m^n* n L a 17.) . 2 & a 20 - a4-6 13.-~l (For additional examples see page 273.FRACTIONS 107 1 i m 11. o 15. 1 i 1 2 5 .

of the denominator. 6 = = 72 72 -3 (a. Solve ^-2^ = 63 2 x 12 -* + *-*. x = 6. C.28 a = 5 x2 . 1. If x 6. 148.28 x + 42 = .CHAPTER IX FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS FRACTIONAL EQUATIONS If an equation contains fracbe removed by multiplying each term by the may L. 5 x2 + 20 x + 15 15 .42 + 9. Clearing of fractions.9 x2 + 9. -!)(&+ 1) (x + 3). each member is reduced to 1. a. . Transposing. these Ex. Uniting.1. = 6. 4- 4) - x. tions. + 1) (a + 3) . 2z-2a. If = 64. Bx 12 Qx. 9x x Check. 5(3 85 Check. = 6. each member is reduced to Ex. 2x Transposing.14 (a.l)(z + 3) = . Uniting.48.8 x = .-f3# + C:E=-6-f72-12. 2. Multiplying by (x Simplifying.9(se + !)( 14 x 2 . 108 . - 2(x 2 + 3) Removing parentheses. M. Multiplying each term by 6 (Axiom 89). 2 3. Solve 5 -I 14 x +1 x +3 I). 14 z 2 + z 2 + 20 x .

+1 = 5. +4 14. 18. o ""~TiT" ' 3 12. a: 7 a.1 _7-7 a.FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS EXERCISE Solve the following equations : 109 58 ^ 4 3 _ +7 a? 32 3 10. --. ^-1 = 9. 16. ^' 2. 15. 3 a? '2 4 " - 2 a? "T"" 4 4. a. = xx a? a? hi- x +^ + 3 = 11. 4 y 2 ^ 16 20 +2 334 y-2 y-3 == on . . ' - 4 13.= 2. a/ - 5 a/ = 12. 1 *> = 2. 1+5 & ^0 -^ a? = 19 1 11.

. 2^12 = 2 = 34.110 ELEMENTS Of ALGEBRA 24. If two or more denominators are monomials. ^^ ' 39 7 ' x. . - 2 - 13 _J_ = _J3 . and after simplifying the resulting equation to clear of all denominators. 31 31. 33._ _ . + 26 2^4-3 1 4^-9 1 2a?-3 A* 37. 2 20 x+3 x-3 3 o^- 28 .11_4 x- 149. 4a4-l4* + l-~. - 38 = 40. it is advisable first to remove the monomial denominators only. and" the remaining one a polynomial. 32 6 . 3x 35. . . 25. y+3~2 29. 27 . J_. 3 3x-2 51 3x*-2x 23 x 3x-2 22 36. ?_=_. 26 26.

5x x : = 9. Check. a. If a. Transposing and Multiply ing by 6 uniting. Solve the following equations 41 : 5a. 60. 5 = 20 g 5 a: ~ Jff 1 .-2 42 9 43. 10 x -f 6 __ 4a. M. = 9. 24 a.2 3 ~ - == 7a.FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS Ex. 26 a.-29 507-12' 9 18 . -f 13 8#-f 2__ 2x 5 7 15 ~~7-16* 6a? 44. Transposing and uniting. . - 5 = 20 x 45. Dividing. of the monomial denomina~ &Q =: n 16 x 2( +3-~ x 16 x - 2. the 1 5 L. each member is reduced to ^.1.-r-7 5 +l 6a-fll~~ 3 6x-flO ' 5 2a?~25 15 17a?~9 14 28 64-14 . 5# 10. C. 1.. Solve 111 10 Multiplying each term by tors.

It frequently occurs that the x. = -l^ 9 b 4- . 2. Ex. unknown letter is not expressed by or z. to Transposing all terms containing a 6 ab 6 ac one member.m 2* = (a -f 6) mnx = (1 4. they are united by factoring.m bx 2 mn) x. Ex. b a a a z Clearing of fractions. -f ~ 5c. = 6 a2 . Literal equations ( 88) are solved by the same method as numerical equations.be.112 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA LITERAL EQUATIONS 150. ax -f- x -f. and multiplying by a(9 b 4 c 4 c) = 7 &c. bx -f 6)z = 3 & 2 ab. Dividing. = 2 -f b 2 . fr Reducing lowest terms.2 ac + 3 aft . Thus. y. When the terms containing the unknown quantity cannot be actually added.& .3 6 2 = a' . .c) (3 a ac 6(rt-fc)(a-c) 6 a2 6 a& +6 6c = (2a + &)(3a-c). 3(a-c) c) Multiplying by 3 (a .1. a. Uniting. + 2 ac 9 a& 3 ab Simplifying. ax- + bx ax (a -f IP Transposing. 4 ac 1.2 62 2 ab. =a 2 151. 5> a. Uniting the Dividing. find a in terms of b and c. If 3a-c L= = a ? . = = 6 6c 7 6c. l to = !=?_=^6? a -f 6. jr.

c 18. = 3 (6 a).= n. 3(2a + aj) 25 ?+l '~~ a/ 1 = 2L .FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS EXERCISE Solve the following equations : 113 59 *. . 1 -f. 15. = 2(3a = aaj-ffta? + 7^ = 0*+^ 4 (a x) 1 a). a. The The i time. solve for a. If ^^ = a 1 32. * Solve the same equation for^). denoting the interest. 3(*- 8. q solve for/. 34. If * 33. 12. 9. i The formula for simple interest ( 30.a. 14. . f P -=-+!. 3. = vt. IIL n b + &o. = 8 4 #. m a? x . 10. 6. 30. 4. iw 21. in terms of other quantities. ^ ax a^ 26. s = V-t solve for v. and n the number of years. 11. + xx = 1. 2 solve for y a. 17. If s (wi n) x =px + q. + 3a.i l . a? x!7 - a ITo x T _ ~ 2 8. t. solve for . 5) is t =^.= c a Z> . p the principal.= H. . -. = 6 (m -f n) = 2 a + (m-?i)a?. = 5. a + 26+3aj=2o + 6 + 2a?. -4-. _ 2. 29. 31. c. rate. 13. If s If 16. Find the formula for: () The (6) (c) principal. Ex. -f- ^o. = rt. co?. r the number of $>. mx = n.

180. 2 3 . A would do each day ^ and B j. . When between 3 and 4 o'clock are the hands of a clock together ? is At 3 o'clock the hour hand 15 minute spaces ahead of the minute : hand. A can do a piece of work in 3 days and B in 2 days.114 35. 12. In how many days can both do it working together ? If we denote then /- the required number by 1.minutes after x= ^ of 3 o'clock. 2. Ex. C is the circumference of a circle whose radius R. is 36. then = 2 TT#. = 16^. 100 C.. days by x and the piece of work while in x days they would do respectively ff ~ and and hence the sentence written in algebraic symbols ^. . Ex. 1.. PROBLEMS LEADING TO FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS 152.20 C. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA (a) Find a formula expressing degrees of Fahrenheit terms of degrees of centigrade (<7) by solving the equation (F) in (ft) Express in degrees Fahrenheit 40 If C. and 12 = the number over. hence the question would be formulated After how many minutes has the minute hand moved 15 spaces more than the hour hand ? Let then x x = the required number of minutes after 3 o'clock. = the number of minute spaces the minute hand moves over. x Or Uniting. Find R in terms of C and TT. ~^ = 15 11 x ' !i^=15. of minute spaces the hour hand moves Therefore x ~ = the number of minute spaces the minute hand moves more than the hour hand. Multiplying by Dividing.

" gives the equation /I). Clearing. The speed of an express train is $ of the speed of an If the accommodation train needs 4 accommodation train. Solving." : Let x - = the required number of days. Explanation : If x is the rate of the accommodation train. Ex. then Ox j 5 a Rate Hence the rates can be expressed. 3. 32 x = |. in Then Therefore. = 100 + 4 x. the rate of the express train. = the x part of the work both do one day. what is the rate of the express train ? 180 Therefore. fx xx* = 152 +4 (1) Hence = 36 = rate of express train. and the statement. u The accommodation train needs 4 hours more than the express train. 4x = 80. hours more than the express train to travel 180 miles. 180 Transposing. But in uniform motion Time = Distance .FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS A in symbols the following sentence 115 more symmetrical but very similar equation is obtained by writing ** The work done by A in one day plus the work done by B in one day equals the work done by both in one day. the required number of days. or 1J.

116 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 60 1. is equal 7. length in the ground. A man lost f of his fortune and $500. The sum 10 years hence the son's age will be of the ages of a father and his son is 50. and found that he had \ of his original fortune left. ceeds the smaller by 4. How much money had he at first? 12 left After spending ^ of his ^ of his money and $15. money and $10. J- of the greater increased by ^ of the smaller equals 6. by 3. is oO. Find two consecutive numbers such that 9. to his son. which was $4000. its Find the number whose fourth part exceeds part by 3. make 21. 3. and one half the greater Find the numbers. one half of What is the length of the post ? 10 ter. and of the father's age. by 6. How did the much money man leave ? 11. 9 its A post is a fifth of its length in water. ex- What 5. are the The sum of two numbers numbers ? and one is ^ of the other. fifth Two numbers differ 2. Two numbers differ l to s of the smaller. and 9 feet above water. -| Find their present ages. Find A's 8. Twenty years ago A's age was | age. Find a number whose third and fourth parts added together 2. to his daughand the remainder. A man left ^ of his property to his wife. of his present age. and J of the greater Find the numbers. a man had How much money had he at first? .

what is the 14. If the accommodation train needs 1 hour more than the express train to travel 120 miles. and has he invested if his animal interest therefrom is 19. and an ounce of silver -fa of an ounce.) 22. An ounce of gold when weighed in water loses -fa of an How many ounce. and losing 1-*- ounces when weighed in water? do a piece of work in 3 days. If the rate of the express train is -f of the rate of the accommodation train. 1. air. At what time between 4 and ( 5 o'clock are the hands of a clock together? 16.FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS 13. . Ex. and after traveling 150 miles overtakes the accommodation train. after rate of the latter ? 15.) At what time between 7 and 8 o'clock are the hands of a clock together ? 17. investments. A can do a piece of work in 4 clays. 2. At what time between 7 and 8 o'clock are the hands of ? a clock in a straight line and opposite 18. at 4J % and P> has invested $ 5000 They both derive the same income from their How much money has each invested ? 20. and B In how many days can both do it working together in ? 12 days. A has invested capital at more 4%. A man has invested J- of his money at the remainder at 6%. 117 The speed of an accommodation train is f of the speed of an express train. ^ at 5%. ? In how many days can both do working together 23. 3. In how many days can both do it working together ? ( 152. How much money $500? 4%.) ( An express train starts from a certain station two hours an accommodation train. and B in 4 days. A can A can do a piece of work in 2 days. 152. Ex. what is the rate of the express train? 152. and it B in 6 days. Ex. ounces of gold and silver are there in a mixed mass weighing 20 ounces in 21.

The problem to be solved. To and find the numerical answer.009 918. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA The last three questions and their solutions differ only two given numbers. e. B in 12. : In how many days if can A and it B working together do a piece of work each alone can do (a) (6) (c) in the following number ofdavs: (d) A in 5. B in 16. . B in 30. it is possible to solve all examples of this type by one example. B in 5.g. and n = 3. n x Solving. Find three consecutive numbers whose sum equals m. by taking for these numerical values two general algebraic numbers.414.e. is A can do a piece of work in m days and B in n days. In how in the numerical values of the : many days If can both do we let x = the it working together ? required number of days. A in 6. Hence. is 42. A in 6. is 57. 26. . Then ft i. therefore. Answers to numerical questions of this kind may then be found by numerical substitution. Find three consecutive numbers whose sum Find three consecutive numbers whose sum last : The two examples are special cases of the following problem 27. Find the numbers if m = 24 30.= -. make it m 6 A can do this work in 6 days Q = 2. 3. they can both do in 2 days. 25. 6 I 3 Solve the following problems 24. we obtain the equation m m -. if B in 3 days. 2. . A in 4. m and n.= m -f- n it Therefore both working together can do in mn -f- n days.118 153. Ex. and apply the method of 170.

A cistern can be filled (c) 6 and 3 hours.721. if m and n are. respectively (a) 60 miles. the rate of the first. same hour from two towns. squares 29. . 2 miles per hour.000. 2 miles per hour. last three examples are special cases of the following The difference of the squares of two consecutive numbers By using the result of this problem. 5 miles per hour. 3J miles per hour. and the second 5 miles per hour. by two pipes in m and n minutes In how many minutes can it be filled by the respectively. After how many hours do they rate of n miles per hour. and the rate of the second are. two pipes together ? Find the numerical answer. 33. is (a) 51. (b) 35 miles. Two men start at the first miles apart. 3 miles per hour. : (c) 64 miles. If each side of a square were increased by 1 foot. (b) 149. 88 one traveling 3 miles per hour. solve the following ones Find two consecutive numbers the difference of whose squares : find the smaller number. The one: 31. After how many hours do they meet. 34. 4J- miles per hour. and how many miles does each travel ? Solve the problem if the distance.FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS 28. is ?n . the second at the apart. the area would be increased by 19 square feet. (a) 20 and 5 minutes. the Two men start at the same time from two towns. 119 Find two consecutive numbers the difference of whose is 11. squares 30. (d) 1. (c) 16. (b) 8 and 56 minutes. Find two consecutive numbers -the difference of whose is 21. meet. d miles the first traveling at the rate of m.001. Find the side of the square. respectively. and how many miles does each travel ? 32.

b. The ratio - is the inverse of the ratio -. 158.5. a ratio is not changed etc.CHAPTER X RATIO AND PROPORTION 11ATTO 154. In the ratio a : ft. . the antecedent. E. terms are multiplied or divided by the same number. " a Thus. the second term the consequent. 1. etc. : : 155. A ratio is used to compare the magnitude of two is numbers. antecedent. b is the consequent.g. : A somewhat shorter way would be to multiply each term by 120 6. Simplify the ratio 21 3|. instead of writing 6 times as large as ?>. is numerator of any fraction consequent. Ex. term of a ratio a the is is the antecedent. 6 12 = .) The ratio of 12 3 equals 4. all principles relating to fractions if its may be af)plied to ratios. The first 156. The ratio of first dividing the two numbers number by the and : is the quotient obtained by second. b is a Since a ratio a fraction." we may write a : b = 6. the symbol being a sign of division. b.or a * b The ratio is also frequently (In most European countries this symbol is employed as the usual sign of division. Thus the written a : ratio of a b is . the denominator The the 157.

9. and c is the third proportional to a and . term is the fourth proportional to the : In the proportion a b = c c?. 62:16.RATIO Ex. 7f:6J. proportional between a and c. and the last term the third proportional to the first and second 161. 5 f hours : 2. 4|-:5f : 5. Transform the following unity 15. a and d are the extremes. b is the mean b. 3:4. A proportion is a statement expressing the equality of proportions. 8^- hours. 11. 6. extremes. $24: $8. 16. 18. b. 1. 16a2 :24a&. 12. 159. AND PROPORTION ratio 5 5 : 121 first Transform the 3J so that the term will 33 : *~5 ~ 3 '4* 5 EXERCISE Find the value of the following 1. J:l. 17. two | ratios. 10. : 1. 7|:4 T T 4 . Simplify the following ratios 7. terms. b and c the means. and c. 61 : ratios 72:18. the second and fourth terms of a proportion are the and third terms are the means. The last first three. 16 x*y 64 x*y : 24 48 xif. : is If the means of a proportion are equal. either mean the mean proportional between the first and the last terms. = |or:6=c:(Z are The first 160. : ratios so that the antecedents equal 16:64. In the proportion a b : = b : c. 3. 3 8. 3:1}. : a-y . 27 06: 18 a6. The last term d is the fourth proportional to a. equal 2. 4.

e. of a proportion. q~~ n . If 6 men can do a piece of work in 4 days. 163.122 162. " we " NOTE. Instead of u If 4 or 4 ccm. : : directly proportional may say.) b = Vac. = 30 grams 45 grams. i. then G ccm. then 8 men can do it in 3 days. pro- portional. if the ratio of any two of the first kind is equal \o the inverse ratio of the corresponding two of the other kind. and the time necessary to do it. or 8 equals the inverse ratio of 4 3. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Quantities of one kind are said to be directly proper tional to quantities of another kind. The mean proportional of their product. 2 165.'* Quantities of one kind are said to be inversely proportional to quantities of another kind. In any proportion product of the extremes. of iron weigh 45 grams. is equal to the ratio of the corresponding two of the other kind.30 grams. 6 ccm. ad = be. Hence the number of men required to do some work. if the ratio of any two of the first kind. t/ie product of the means b is equal to the Let a : =c : d. of iron weigh . ccm. Hence the weight of a mass of iron is proportional to its volume. briefly.__(163. and we divide both members by we have ?^~ E. 163. !-. 164. If the product of two numbers is equal to the product of two other numbers^ either pair may be made the means. are : : : inversely proportional. Clearing of fractions. and the other pair the extremes. a b : bettveen two numbers is equal to the square root Let the proportion be Then Hence 6 =b = ac.) mn = pq. If (Converse of nq. 3 4. : c.

Determine whether the following proportion 8:6 = and 5 x 7 7 : true rn 8 x t: 4|. ad ( 163.) a b b=c b = c-)-d:c d. bd bd. V. I. Or IV. ad = be.PATIO Ex. AND PROPORTION x = 12 : 123 Find x. a:c=b:d. 166. (Division. These transformations are used to simplify proportions.) II. = 35 . I. Change the proportion 4 5 = x 6 so that x becomes the : : last term. is 4$ = 35. If 6 : a a : 6 =c : : d.) (Called Alternation. a III.) Any is of these propositions may be proved by example : a method which illustrated by the following To prove This is b if d true ad - Or if But Hence ^ =^' o = be = be. By inversion 5 : 4 =6 : x. (163.) a + b:a = c + d:c. . then =d c. is Ex. hence the proportion true. d d. + b:b = c + d:d. 2.) = f f = 3 J. 1. if 6 : 7. 12x Hence a? = 42.) d 167. (Composition. (Frequently called Inversion. a+b a (Composition and : : : Division.

5 5. = ^2x x Or Dividing the antecedents by m. . its ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Alternation shows that a proportion is not altered when its consequents are multiplied or divided by antecedents or the same number. 8ajy:17 = i^:l-^. : x. 3n JJ =n x NOTE. = 7:2f 3J. EXERCISE 5^:8 = 2:3. the consequents by 7. = 180:125. = 12 5ft. 3.e. 10. E. 1 : 3 3 Divide the antecedents by : = = 5 1 : jr. mx tin Apply composition and division. 6 =4 : x. Apply composition.124 IT. . To simplify the proportion 11 : 5:6 =4 x : x. 13 = 5f llf : : n 2. x = 2.!=!*. 5.g. to simplify 48:21=32:7x. IV. and determine whether they are true or not : 6. V. 8. Simplify the following proportions. A parenthesis is understood about each term of a proportion. 11 : 5 : 15:22=101:15. = 2:3. 4. To simplify m 3n ? = + *. 3:3 1:1 divide the antecedents by 16. : 3 = 5 -f x : x. 120:42 2 2 7. To simplify the proportion 8 Apply division. i.:J 62 : Determine whether the following proportions are true 1. = 20:7. Or III. = 2:x. 9. 2. 72:50 m n (m n) = (m + rif m 2 : 18:19 6 2 : = 24:25.

21 : 4z = 72 : 96. 3. 21.x: 6:5 a : x.RATIO AND PROPORTION Determine the value of x 11. 2= 5 x x. if : 40. y : b y : =x 1 =x : a. 35. b.8:1. ra 2 . 20. 25. a. 8 a 2 and 2 b 2 Form two x 10 If ab proportions commencing with 5 from the equation 6 36. 34. 50. + fyx = cy. a 2 and ab. Find the third proportional 24. 44. terra 2:3 = 4. 4. to : 9 and 12. = 2 + x: x. : 125 40:28 = 15:0. to : a and 1. 52. ra. 2 3 = y #. 22.. 2. . Find the 37. 5. |- 32. 51. 43. 1. = 5 x 12. 46. 3. 16 n* x = 28 w 70 ra. 112:42 = 10:a. f.6 : : Find the fourth proportional 19. 29. : . 14 and 21. 7iy = 2:x. 41. 31. 9 x = 2 y. 18. 6. mx = ny. 6 x = y. 16. form two proportions commencing with x : = xy.j>. 16 and 28. w. 6x = 7y. Find the mean proportional 30. 33. 2. (a : : 45. 13. = 3 43 + x. 26. 27. 47. 17. = 15-o. x m = y n. ratio of y. 4 a*:15ab = 2a:x. 42. ra + landra 1. : : Transform the following proportions so that only one contains x: 48. 12. : a2 . 23. 03:a?=135:20. 38. 5= 18 a? : a?. 39. = l^:18.:ff. 1 and a. 3t. rap. x:5 = y:2. to: = 35:*. 4 and 16. 28. 14. 2 a and 18 a. 22: 3 19 2 : : 49. : 53. a?:15 15. rag. and 2/.

the volume of a The temperature remaining body of gas inversely proportional to the pressure. The number of men (m) is inversely proportional to the number of days (d) required to do a certain piece of work. (e) The distance traveled by a train moving at a uniform rate. under a pressure of 15 pounds per square inch has a volume of gas is A 16 cubic feet. 56.126 54. A line 11 inches long on a certain 22 miles. and the time necessary for it. State whether the quantities mentioned below are directly or inversely proportional (a) The number of yards of a certain kind of silk. and the area of the rectangle. and the area of the smaller is 8 square inches. What will be the volume if the pressure is 12 pounds per square inch ? . the squares of their radii (e) 55. A line 7^. (c) The volume of a body of gas (V) is circles are to each inversely propor- tional to the pressure (P). (b) The time a The length train needs to travel 10 miles. 1 (6) The circumferences (C and C ) of two other as their radii (R and A"). and the speed of the train. (d) The areas (A and A') of two circles are to each other as (R and R'). (d) The sum of money producing $60 interest at 5%. what 58. othei (a) Triangles as their basis (b and b'). the area of the larger? the same. 57. areas of circles are proportional to the squares of If the radii of two circles are to each other as circle is 4 : 7. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBEA State the following propositions as proportions : T (7 and T) of equal altitudes are to each.inches long represents map corresponds to how many miles ? The their radii. and the time. and the : total cost. (c) of a rectangle of constant width.

produced to a point C. 4 ' r i 1 (AC): (BO) =7: 5. 127 The number is of miles one can see from an elevation of very nearly the mean proportional between h and the diameter of the earth (8000 miles). 18 x = 108. Hence or Therefore Hence and = the first number. 11 x = 66 is the first number. as 11 Let then : 1. Therefore 7 = 14 = AC. 11 x x 7 Ex. Let A B AC=1x. x = 6. 7 x = 42 is the second number. 4 inches long. Divide 108 into two parts which are to each other 7. it is advisable to represent these unknown numbers by mx and nx. is A line AB. What is the greatest distance a person can see from an elevation of 5 miles ? From h miles the Metropolitan Tower (700 feet high) ? feet high) ? From Mount McKinley (20. = the second number. 2. 11 x -f 7 x = 108. x=2.RATIO AND PROPORTION 69. When a problem requires the finding of two numbers which are to each other as m n. AB = 2 x. : Ex. so that Find^K7and BO. . 2 x Or = 4. Then Hence BG = 5 x.000 168.

: 197. : Divide 39 in the ratio 1 : 5.000. Water consists of one part of hydrogen and 8 parts of If the total surface of the earth oxygen. How many 7. consists of 9 parts of copper and one part of ounces of each are there in 22 ounces of gun- metal ? Air is a mixture composed mainly of oxygen and nitrowhose volumes are to each other as 21 79. and the longest is divided in the ratio of the other two. 6.000 square miles. and c inches. How many grams of hydrogen are contained in 100 : grams 10. 11. 7. 3. The total area of land is to the total area of is water as 7 18. : 4. Divide 20 in the ratio 1 m.128 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 63 1. How many gen. What are the parts ? 5. If c is divided in the ratio of the other two. of water? Divide 10 in the ratio a b. what are its parts ? (For additional examples see page 279. m in the ratio x: y % three sides of a triangle are 11. How The long are the parts ? 15. find the number of square miles of land and of water. 12. : Divide a in the ratio 3 Divide : 7. cubic feet of oxygen are there in a room whose volume is 4500 : cubic feet? 8. 9. 14. Brass is an alloy consisting of two parts of copper and one part of zinc. 2. 12. A line 24 inches long is divided in the ratio 3 5. How many ounces of copper and zinc are in 10 ounces of brass ? 6.) . and 15 inches. Gunmetal tin. 13. The three sides of a triangle are respectively a. Divide 44 in the ratio 2 Divide 45 in the ratio 3 : 9.

the equation is satisfied by an infinite number of sets Such an equation is called indeterminate. However.CHAPTER XI SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS 169.y=--|. such as + = 10. From (3) it follows y 10 x and since by the same values of x and to be satisfied y. which substituted in (2) gives y both equations are to be satisfied by the same Therefore. a? (1) then I. Hence.-L x If If = 0. y = 5 /0 \ (2) of values. if . values of x and y. y = 1. the equations have the two values of y must be equal. expressing a y.-. x = 1. etc. there is only one solution. The root of (4) if K 129 . y (3) these unknown numbers can be found. 2 y = . If satisfied degree containing two or more by any number of values of 2oj-3y = 6. if there is different relation between x and * given another equation. Hence 2s -5 o = 10 _ ^ (4) = 3. is x = 7. An equation of the first unknown numbers can be the unknown quantities.e. =.

Solve -y=6x 6x -f Multiply (1) by 2. E.3 y = 80. Any set of values satisfying 5 x + 6 y = 60 will also satisfy the equation 3 x -f. 3. Therefore. viz. of elimination most frequently used II. 26 y = 60. 21 y . to The two methods I. The process of combining several equations so as make one unknown quantity disappear is called elimination. the last set inconsistent. ~ 50.26. 30 can be reduced to the same form -f 5 y Hence they are not independent. for they are 2 y = 6 are But 2 x 2. 6 and 4 x y not simultaneous. for they cannot be satisfied by any value of x and y. for they express the x -f y 10. Independent equations are equations representing different relations between the unknown quantities such equations . 4y . By By Addition or Subtraction. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA A system of simultaneous equations is tions that can be satisfied a group of equa by the same values of the unknown numbers.24. ELIMINATION BY ADDITION OR SUBTRACTION 175. unknown quantity. x -H 2y satisfied 6 and 7 x 3y = by the values x = I. y = 2. = . 174. 172.X. cannot be reduced to the same form. (3) (4) Multiply (2) by - Subtract (4) from (3). 6x .130 170. Substitution. A system of two simultaneous equations containing two quantities is solved by combining them so as to obtain unknown one equation containing only one 173. and 3 x + 3 y =. The first set of equations is also called consistent. y I 171. same relation. are simultaneous equations.

10 + 5 1 = 135. 5 13 .15 y 39 x + 15 y Add (3) and (4). Check. y = 1. y = 2. 3. x = 10. Hence to eliminate Multiplyy if necessaryy the equations by such will make the coefficients of one unknown quantity equal. add the equations. = 406.3 y = 47. 10 . + 2. subtract the equations. 64 x = 040. are like. 3y = 3. 131 Substitute this value of y in either of the given equations. coefficients If the signs of these if unlike. Transposing.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS the simpler one (1). 3. 60 . whose coefficients In general. Multiply (1) by Multiply (2) by 5. preferably 3x Therefore + 4 = 13 x = 3. EXERCISE answers: 64 Solve the following systems of equations and check the ' . by addition or subtraction : numbers as (3) (4) (6) 176.2 = 6. Therefore Check. 25 x . = 235. 8 2.14 =-8.2 = 9 + 4 = 13. eliminate the letter have the lowest common multiple.3 1 = 47. Therefore Substitute (6) in (1). x = 10. 3-7.

' 94 ^4 ' 15 ' ^ - 25 * -60. [2o. ' 12. 13.9 *. I ~ y~~> 22. -I i 3 a.3.4. 9- 1 r 20. = 24. = 41.3. v ^ = ll.ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 5.1ft is 1 fl<>* r A + 22/ = 40. x 11. 7 ' 1fi fl . * + 3 y = 50.-f2/ ' = 50. _. 13- 6-1 l7a. I oj 5y = 17. .v 23.5 y = -2. O t K 8. ] ^ . I . J I y = 1U. = 6. + 3?/ { 3 x -f 2 y = 39. f 3# ?/ = 0. + 2/ 17. f 3X 7x 14. i 3. 19< I a.

x ) ^"" 13. and solve the resulting equation. = 4#-8. (1) (2) Transposing 2. 21 y 24 Therefore y = 26. = 13. . EXERCISE Solve by substitution : 65 f5aj l3a. 8. = 2. Hence to eliminate by substitution : Find in one equation the value of an unknown quantity in terms of the other. Substituting this value in (2) 3 7 ( ?/ t " 8 +2y= + 4 y 25 y Clearing of fractions. 3. tity in the Substitute this value for one unknown quan- other equation. 133 Solve 7 y in (1) (2-7. = 60.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS ELIMINATION BY SUBSTITUTION 177. This value substituted in either (1) or (2) gives x 178. = 2y + 10. I3ar + 2y and dividing by .

(4).-6)-7(y-7)==18. From 9 = 36. the equation must be cleared of fractions and . . (4t(x-\-) ' ""^IT 3. Whenever one unknown quantity can be removed without clearing of fractions. and check the answers: + 5(y + 5) = 64. Substituting in (6) . it is advantageous to do so in most cases. (7) (7) (8) . simplified before elimination is possible. 3. 3 (1) Ex. 7x_2y=-3. + 21-2y-4 = 14.3. 4* + 3y = 19. \ \6(a. 7 y = 6. 2 y = . (3) (4) (6) (6) Multiplying (6) by 2 and (6) by Sx + 6y = Adding and 3S.134 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 179. f8(z-8)-9(y-9) = 26. 21z-6y=-9. Solve 2 7 (2) Multiplying (1) by 12 and (2) by 14. however. 29 x = 29. (8) 1 +8 2 _ 7 EXERCISE 66 Solve by any method. 43 + 8-f-3y + 7z From (3). x = l.

a.-f-2 2. 4 11. . . 4(5 x l2(315 8 8. +y 2 . J 9. 10 2a?-5 17. a. 16.1) + 5(6 y . 12. 135 "25 ' 6 ' tsjj ' r4(5.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS 3x 4. . 4~2v 3a?-2^4 3 1 18. 2 4^ ~ 3 = 13. = 3. 10. 14.1) = 121. y-M a. ff "*" _13 ~ 4 2' 15.

180.Q ^ 4 21. -f y . 22. .and x y . In many equations it is advantageous at first not to consider x and y as unknown quantities. {. and y. e. <X + 20. ?~y .#. * ((* (( .136 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA -4_1 2' 19. l_3 4' 2/4-1 2 a. 3x-\" 1 23 24. but some expressions involving x.

by the regular Clearing (1) and (2) of fractions. 1. however. Substituting x = 3 in (1). can also be solved Examples method. (4) + (G). (4) (6) (6) (7) 2x(5). 2* * x 2.4 x = 4 xy.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS x Ex. y 4. etc. y 1. . of this type. EXERCISE Solve : 67 2' 1. (2) (3) a. 137 Solve y y (1) . Dividing by 11 3 = #. 15 y + 8 x . x 3. x 2x(2). . Therefore y=4. y. Clearing of fractions.3 xy. 33 = 11 x.

21 9 --. Ex.= 5. bmx = en anx anx + bny (3) (4) ftp. x y 5. 6. x 8. 1. n. x y 331 9. LITERAL SIMULTANEOUS EQUATIONS 181. 4 13. 6w3 + bny = 6p. Solve (1) (2) (1) (2) (8) x x (4). 253 7.138 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 4 6 K --. 10 " 12 25 U y 6. y M-Oi y a. = en. .= o 6.

. and I if 13. Dividing. .SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS Uniting. (1) (2) (7) an bm (6) (7) x w. w.cm y= EXERCISE 68 bm -f- 6y = c. a Find a and terms of n. ap. x a.W. . 14. From the same equations find s in terms of a. ny = fy/ I sc 1. -f- 6^ [ nx -f my == m. apan cm. d. x -f my = 1. f 5. 139 (an bm)x = en bp. Uniting.y = = 9a + 46. 6. . bmy bm}y ap cm. and I. x 12. ax + by = 2 a&. s in 11. W . From and L the same simultaneous equations find d in terms of a. amx + bmy amx -f any = any (an cm. fax -f = l. d.

1. -4. the to the solution problem reduced of two simultaneous equations containing two unknown quantities. by 3. . (4) -(5). (8) 2.12 y + 6 z = . 8B-12y + 17 x 16z z = 32 Oa + 12?/. 4.2 + 3. Multiplying (1) by Multiplying (2) by 4. l. four equations containing four unknown quantireduced to three equations containing three unknown quantities. 8 x . x + 12 y .2 + 4.lf> z . Ex. y =* 2. 182.140 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA SIMULTANEOUS EQUATIONS INVOLVING MORE THAS TWO UNKNOWN QUANTITIES three unknown quantities three simultaneous independent equations must be given.3 = 8. (6) + 3 Therefore Substituting the values of x and z 2 x = (7) in (1).1+4. 17 x 100 z Therefore Substitute this value in (4). = 3.9z =11 x (6) Eliminating x from (4) and (5). 20. 3y = Hence Check. = 30. Solve the following system of equations: = 8.1-3.by 2.8 = 1. Multiplying (2) + = 20 12 2 10 (4) Multiplying (3) Adding. 1. 3. ties are Similarly. (1) (2) (3) Eliminate y. eliminating one and is the unknown quant iff/ from any pair of equasame unknown quantity froni another pair.3=-4. etc.1-6.2-5. To solve equations containing By tions. 6. 3. -f 3y 12 =s 8.15z=-12 Adding.

y -f ?/ -M 2? = 4. 10. 15 2 = 45. x 13. == 6. 8. 12. 2 4. + 2 y -f 2 = 35.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS EXERCISE 10 x 69 141 1. ~6?/ 5. a? 11. k 2/ -f 2 x a. -f- 2 i/ -f- z = 14. a? + 70-9 = 26. 49. 14. 7. 2 . 4 = 42. + y -f z = 15. 2z = 40.

84 21. 1510 4- 17. ^ = 2. 32. ? = llz. 60.3 y + . 27.42 = 2. = 8*. 16.6 2. (3 _.. 4.2 a. ?/ 3x = 0. x _2 3 ' 074-2! J 18. 23. 22. .142 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 15. . 19. =s 20. . = 5.

2/ 2/ PROBLEMS LEADING TO SIMULTANEOUS EQUATIONS 183. 1 = 2. either directly or implied. Obviously of the other . as many verbal statements as there are unknown quantities. and if 396 be added to the number. Find the number. + z = 2p. Check. M=i. The digit in the tens' place is | of the sum of the other two digits. . 2 = 6. + 396 = 521. symbols: x + y +z- 8. and to express In complex examples. = 2 m. The three statements of the problem can now be readily expressed in . (1) 100s + lOy + z + 396 = 100* + 10y + x. z + x = 2 n. ( 99. y * z 30. 1 digit in the tens place. The sum of three digits of a number is 8. y 31. and Then 100 + 10 y +z- the digit in the units' place. = l. to express it is difficult two of the required digits in terms hence we employ 3 letters for the three unknown quantities.y 125 (3) The solution of these equations gives x Hence the required number is 125. 2 = 1(1+6). Simple examples of this kind can usually be solved by equations involving only one unknown every quantity. however. Ex. Let x y z = the the digit in the hundreds' place. x : z =1 : 2. the number. . the first and the last digits will be interchanged. +2+ 6 = 8.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS 143 x 29. Problems involving several unknown quantities must contain. # 4. unknown quantity by every verbal statement as an equation. 1.) it is advisable to represent a different letter.

the fraction is reduced to | and if both numerator and denominator of the reciprocal of the fraction be dimin- ished by one. Find the fraction. 8 = xy + x xy = xy -f 3 x 2 y = 2. the fraction Let and then y is reduced to nurn orator. 2. = 8. y = 3. the distance traveled by A. + I 2 (1) and These equations give x Check. direction. 3 xand y I 1 (2) 5. Since the three men traveled the same distance. x 3x-4y = 12. C. By expressing the two statements in symbols. 3. 5_ _4_ A. 4 x = 24. . 3+1 5+1 4_2.144 Ex. starts 2 hours after B and overtakes A at the same How many miles has A then traveled? instant as B. Or (4)-2x(3). = the fraction. and C travel from the same place in the same B starts 2 hours after A and travels one mile per hour faster than A. who travels 2 miles an hour faster than B. increased by one. Ex. we obtain. 2. (1) (2) 12. ELEMENTS OF ALGE13KA If both numerator and denominator of a fraction be . From (3) Hence xy Check. 6 x 4 = 24. x y = the = the x denominator . xy a: 2y 4y 2. = Hence the fraction is f. B. x 3 = 24. (3) C4) = 24 miles.

and four times the first digit exceeds the second digit by 3. Find the numbers. and the two digits exceeds the third digit by 3. the fraction equals . and the second increased by 2 equals three times the first. its value added to the denominator. the digits will be interchanged. 6. it is reduced to J. If 27 is 10. Five times a certain number exceeds three times another 11. fraction is reduced to \-. If the denominator be doubled. to the number the digits will be interchanged. If 9 be added to the number. tion ? 8. and its denomi- nator diminished by one. Half the sum of two numbers equals 4.}. 2. If 4 be Tf 3 be is J.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS EXERCISE 70 145 1. the last two digits are interchanged. If the numerator of a fraction be trebled. 5. . if its numerator and its denominator are increased by 1. the number (See Ex. A fraction is reduced to J. and twice the numerator What is the fracincreased by the denominator equals 15. and the second one increased by 5 equals twice number. Find the numbers. and the numerator increased by 4. Find the numbers. both terms. to L <> Find the If the numerator and the denominator of a fraction be If 1 be subtracted from increased by 3. The sum of the first sum of the three digits of a number is 9. added to the numerator of a fraction. and the fourth 3. part of their difference equals 4. ? What 9. Find the number. 1. 183. the Find the fraction. the fraction is reduced fraction.) added to a number of two digits. the value of the fraction is fa. Four times a certain number increased by three times another number equals 33. Find the fraction. number by the first 3. Find the number. The sum 18 is is and if added of the digits of a number of two figures is 6. 7.

bringing a total yearly interest of $530. If the sum of how old is each now ? at invested $ 5000. A sum of $10. What was the sum and rates est The sums of $1500 and $2000 are invested at different and their annual interest is $ 190. and B's age is \ the sum of A's and C's ages. Find the rates of interest. Two cubic centimeters of gold and three cubic centimeters of silver weigh together 69 J. and money and 17. and in 5 years to $1125. partly at 5 %. Three cubic centimeters of gold and two cubic centimeters of silver weigh together 78 grains. 13.146 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 11. respectively ? 16. and partly at 4 %. much money is invested at A sum of money at simple interest amounted in 6 years to $8000. Twice A's age exceeds the sum of B's and C's ages by 30. 14. in 8 years to $8500. 5 %.grams. How 6 %. What was the amount of each investment ? A man % 5%. Ten years ago A was B was as as old as B is old as will be 5 years hence . 12. Ten years ago the sum of their ages was 90. What was the amount of each investment ? 15. and 4 %. now. a part at 6 and the remainder bringing a total yearly interest of $260. If the rates of interwere exchanged. A man invested $750. Find the weight of one cubic centimeter of gold and one cubic centimeter of silver. and 5 years ago their ages is 55. Find their present ages. 19. partly at 5% and partly at 4%. . and the 5% investment brings $15 more interest than the 4 % investment. and The 6 investment brings $ 70 more interest than the 5 % % 4% investments together. the rate of interest ? What was the sum of A sum of money at simple interest amounted in 2 years to $090.000 is partly invested at 6%. the annual interest would be $ 195. the rate of interest? 18.

but if A would double his pace. and CF? is a circle inscribed in the 7<7. 25. The number of sheep was twice the number of horses and cows together. How many did he sell of each if the total number of animals was 24? 21. respectively. the three sides of a triangle E. cows. and CE If AB = G inches. On /). and angle BCA = 70. and F.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS 147 20. triangle Tf AD. c. what are the angles of the triangle ? 22. then AD = AF. and $15 for each sheep. are taken so ABC. 23. is the center of the circum- scribed circle. and F '(see diagram). . points. BE. and e. and sheep. In the annexed diagram angle a = angle b. Find their rates of walking. A farmer sold a number of horses. what is that = OF. B find angles a. 1 NOTE. andCL4 = 8. If angle ABC = GO angle BAG = 50. It takes A two hours longer 24 miles. three AD = AF. BC = 7 inches. Find the parts of the ABC touching the three sides if AB = 9. receiving $ 100 for each horse. and F. The sum of the 3 angles of a triangle is 180. the length of NOTE. BC=7. BD = HE. and angle e angle/. $ 50 for each cow. angle c = angle d. If one angle exceeds the sum of the other two by 20. he would walk it in two hours less than than to travel B B. E. ED = BE. . An C touch ing the sides in D. 24. and their difference by GO . and GE = CF. for $ 740. A r ^ A circle is inscribed in triangle sides in D. and AC = 5 inches.

is the abscissa. hence The coordinates lying in opposite directions are negative. PN are given. Abscissas measured to the riyht of the origin.CHAPTER XII* GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS AND EQUATIONS 184. Thus the points A. and point the origin. It' Location of a point. (3. or its equal OM. ?/. B. * This chapter may be omitted on a 148 reading. PN. (2. jr. lines PM the and P^V are coordinates called point P. and PJ/_L XX'. 2). and ordinates abore the x-axis are considered positive . (2. (7. the ordinate of point P. and PN _L YY'. and r or its equal OA is . is The point whose abscissa is a. -3).. and respectively represented Dare and by (3 7 4). two fixed straight lines XX' and YY' meet in at right angles. The of Coordinates. PM. . the ordinate by ?/. then the position of point is determined if the lengths of P P3f and 185. YY' they-axis. first 3). 186. and whose ordinate is usually denoted by (X ?/). The abscissa is usually denoted by line XX' is called the jr-axis.

11. 3). 4) and (4. Plot the points: (-4. 6.3). 12. What is the locus of (a?. the quadrilateral whose vertices are respectively (4. 0). (0. (-1. (4. (0. the mutual dependence of the two quantities may be represented either by a table or by a diagram. paper ruled with two sets of equidistant and parallel linos intersecting at right angles. i. . 3. Where do Where do Where do all points lie whose ordinates tfqual 4? 9. What Draw is the distance of the point (3. (-2. (4. (-3. 2J-). 71 2). (4. -2). (-4. -2). 0). 6. which of its coordinates known ? 13.and(l.(!.4). Plot the points : (0. two variable quantities are so related that changes of the one bring about definite changes of the other. Plot the points: (4.1). Graphic constructions are greatly facilitated by the use of cross-section paper. (-4. 0). .GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS The is 149 process of locating a point called plotting the point. -!). 4) from the origin ? 7. Plot the points (6. 4. and measure their distance. (-5. Graphs. What are the coordinates of the origin ? If 187. =3? is If a point lies in the avaxis. 4).2). (4.e.) EXERCISE 1. 8. all all points points lie lie whose abscissas equal zero ? whose ordinates equal zero? y) if y 10. -3). 0). -4). 1). 2. Draw the triangle whose vertices are respectively (-l. (See diagram on page 151. 1). whose coordinates are given NOTE. 3).

and the corresponding number in the adjacent column the ordinate of a point. By representing of points. however. representation does not allow the same accuracy of results as a numerical table. . Thus the first table produces 12 points. 10 . we obtain an uninterrupted sequence etc. in like manner the average temperatures for every value of the time. 188. may be represented graphby making each number in one column the abscissa. ure the ordinate of F. from January 1 to December 1. but it indicates in a given space a great many more facts than a table.. B.150 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA tables represent the average temperature Thus the following of New volumes 1 Y'ork City of a certain to 8 pounds. 1. A graphic and it impresses upon the eye all the peculiarities of the changes better and quicker than any numerical compilations. and the amount of gas subjected to pressures from pound The same data. A. 15. ically each representing a temperature at a certain date. D. we meas1 . Thus the average temperature on May on April 20. or the curved line the temperature. C. may be found on Jan. ABCN y the so-called graph of To 15 find from the diagram the temperature on June to be 15 .

Daily papers represent ecpnoniical facts graphically. uses them. and to deduce general laws therefrom.GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS 151 i55$5St5SS 3{utt|s33<0za3 Graphs are possibly the most widely used devices of applied matheThe scientist uses them to compile the data found from experiments. physician. (c) January 15. the rise and fall of wages. the graph is applied. The engineer. as the prices and production of commodities. . Whenever a clear. EXERCISE From the diagram questions 1. etc. (d) November 20. the merchant. the matics. : 72 find approximate answers to the following Determine the average temperature of New York City on (a) May 1. concise representation of a number of numerical data is required. (b) July 15.

1 to Oct.. 1 ? does the temperature increase from 11. is 10. How much. During what month does the temperature change least? 14. During what months above 18 C. When the average temperature below C. At what date is the average temperature highest the highest average temperature? ? What What is 4. from what date to what date would it extend ? If . June July During what month does the temperature increase most ? rapidly 12. When What is the temperature equal to the yearly average of the average temperature from Sept.? is is the average temperature of New York 6..152 2. From what date to what date does the temperature increase (on the average)? 8. (1) 10 C. 1? 11 0. is ture we would denote the time during which the temperaabove the yearly average of 11 as the warm season. During what month does the temperature decrease most rapidly ? 13. (freezing point) ? 7. Which month is is the coldest of the year? Which month the hottest of the year? 16. (d) 9 0. ? - 3. on 1 to the average. 15. ELEMENTS OF ALGEKRA At what date (a) G or dates is New York is C. (c) the average temperature oi 1 C. At what date is the average temperature lowest? the lowest average temperature ? 5.. ? 9. How much warmer 1 ? on the average is it on July 1 than on May 17.

Draw a graph for the 23. Represent graphically the populations : (in hundred thou- sands) of the following states 22. Construct a diagram containing the graphs of the mean temperatures of the following three cities (in degrees Fahren- heit) : 21. Draw . transformation of meters into yards. 153 1? When is the average temperature the same as on April Use the graphs of the following examples for the solution of concrete numerical examples. 19.GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS 18. Hour Temperature .09 yards. in a similar manner as the temperature graph was applied in examples 1-18. 20. NOTE. a temperature chart of a patient. From the table on page 150 draw a graph representing the volumes of a certain body of gas under varying pressures. One meter equals 1.

4. The initial cost of cost of manufacturing a certain book consists of the $800 for making the plates. A 10 wheels a day. if 1 cubic centimeter of iron weighs 7. binding. and $. 2 x -f 7 gradually from 1 to 2.5 grams. 2 is called x 2 xy + 7 is a function of x.154 24. (Assume ir~ all circles >2 2 . to 27. etc. Represent graphically the cost of butter from 5 pounds if 1 pound cost $. 3. if each copy sells for $1.50 per copy (Let 100 copies = about \. . 2 8 y' + 3 y is a function of x and y. then C irJl. Represent graphically the distances traveled by a train in 3 hours at a rate of 20 miles per hour. Show graphically the cost of the REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS OF ONE VARIABLE 189. etc. the value of a of this quantity will change. if he sells 0. x* x 19. 2. 1 to 1200 copies. e. 190. 9. An expression involving one or several letters a function of these letters. to 20 Represent graphically the weight of iron from cubic centimeters.) On the same diagram represent the selling price of the books. 2 . 26. +7 If will respec- assume the values 7. books from for printing. gas.50.) T circumferences of 25.. function If the value of a quantity changes. 3. amount to $8. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA If C 2 is the circumference of a circle whose radius is J2. x 7 to 9. the daily average expenses for rent. 29. x increases will change gradually from 13. represent his daily gain (or loss). If dealer in bicycles gains $2 on every wheel he sells. if x assumes successively the tively values 1.50. from R Represent graphically the = to R = 8 inches.g. 28..inch..

and (3. 3 (0. 2. may. 9). a*.GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS 191. (1. -J). Graph of a function.1). etc. (2. is supposed to change. to con struct the graph x of x 2 construct a series of -3 points whose abscissas rep2 resent X) and whose ordi1 tions . x a variable. 1 the points (-3. Thus the table on page 1G4 gives the values of the functions x 2 x3 and Vsr. E.e. 2 (-1. (1^. 4). be also represented by a graph. to x = 4. values of x2 nates are the corresponding i. it is In the example of the preceding article. . may . and join the points in order.2 x may 4 from x = 4.1). To obtain the values of the functions for the various values of the following arrangement be found convenient : . plot points which lie between those constructed above. If a more exact diagram is required. 4). is A constant a quantity whose value does not change in the same discussion. Ex.g. Q-. 155 -A variable is a quantity whose value changes in the same discussion.0). for x=l. 2). Draw the graph of x2 -f. (- 2. hence various values of x The values of a function for the be given in the form of a numerical table. construct '. The values of func192. while 7 is a constant. however. 3 50. as 1. 9).

Thus 4x + 7. the function is frequently represented by a single letter. 4J. or ax + b -f c are funclirst tions of the first degree. and join(0. if /* 4 > 1i > > ?/ = 193. Thus in the above example.156 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Locating the points( 4. (4. 2..2 x . 194. (-2.20). hence two points are sufficient for the construction of these graphs. = 4. A Y' function of the first degree is an integral rational function involving only the power of the variable. straight line produces the required graph. 4). 7 . If If Locating ing by a 3) and (4. It can be proved that the graph is a straight of a function of the first degree line. r */ +* 01 . Ex. and joining in order produces the graph ABC. y = 6. etc.. rf 71 . 2 4 and if y = x -f. as y. (-3.4). = 0.) For brevity..-. Draw y z x the graph of = 2x-3. . -1). j/=-3. (To avoid very large ordinatcs.. 5). the scale unit of the ordinatcs is taken smaller than that of the x.

x+1.5)2. x-l. 19. The roots of the equation 2 -f 2 a a*2 = 0. 21. 1-J-. 6. a ar. y = 2x = -4. Draw the graph of or from the diagram determine: 4 a? +2 a. 2 a. Draw the graph ofy=2-j-2# and from the diagram determine : #2 from # = 2 to a?=4. The roots of the equation 2 -{-2x a*2 = l. 2-3x.8)'. 6 -fa. The value of x that produces the smallest value it* of the function. + 4. 2.e. (/) Vl2^ (0) V5. (-If) Va25. The values of a?. if the function equals zero. -J-. The smallest value of the function.-or. (C ) (-2. 8. a? the graphs of the following functions: + 2. if"a. . (</) The roots of the equation x2 4 x -f 2 = 2. 11.2 4 # + 2 equals 2. 7. -fa-- 17. the diagram find (a) (e) (3. 2x + 3x a?. -Jar . The values of x that make 2 4 a? + 2 = 0. 4 a. 22. ?/ a. (a) (6) (c) (d) (e) The values of y. a?. from x VlO-'S". (7i) (c) 23. xz + x. 3. and (a) (6) (c) (d) The values of the function if x = \. 1 8 10. (d) (^) 1 to and from 2 . 1J-. if y = 2. 2 2. 14. 4a? I. 2J-. if a. = The values of a*. (/) The roots of the equation x The roots of the equation a2 4 x -f 2 = 1. .GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS EXERCISE 73 157 Draw 1.5)2. 16. (ft) (_ 1. 15. Draw the graph of : from #= 4 to 05 = 4. The values of a*. 2 4 x -f 2 = 0. 12. 2. a. 1-J-. 2 2 a. 2J. 2 a. l. 2 or 2 20. = 4. the function. 5. a? 1. -3 a -8. i. 18. a? 2 4. a* 13. 9. 1. 3.

25. C. Show any convenient number).. the abscissas of 3. that the graph of two variables that are directly proportional is a straight line passing through the origin (assume for c 27. it is evidently possible Thus to find to find graphically the real roots of an equation. If two variables x and y are directly proportional. From grade equal to (c) the diagram find the number of degrees of centi-1 F. 9 F. i. Therefore x = 1. what values of x make the function x2 + 2x 4 = (see 192). then cXj where c is a constant. A body moving with a uniform t velocity of 3 yards per second moves in this seconds a distance d =3 1. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Degrees of the Fahrenheit (F. to Fahrenheit readings : Change 10 C.158 24.24. GRAPHIC SOLUTION OF EQUATIONS INVOLVING ONE UNKNOWN QUANTITY Since we can graphically determine the values of x make a function of x equal to zero. that graph with the o>axis.where x c is a constant. 14 F.) scale by the formula (a) Draw the graph of C = f (F-32) from to (b) 4 F F=l. then y = . 1 C.24 or x = P and Q. we have to measure the abscissas of the intersection of the 195. if c Draw the locus of this equation = 12. 32 F.) scale are expressed in degrees of the Centigrade (C. If two variables x and y are inversely proportional. y= formula graphically.e... ... Represent 26.

-f 9 = 0. or 5 2. and c represent \-3 -2 --1 1/2 known quantities. 7. 13. the points may be found otherwise by inspection. Y' EXERCISE 4x_ 7 74 : Solve graphically the following equations 1. (a) (6) 9. . draw through 1) a line parallel to the #-axis. 3. and determine the abscis- 1 sas of the points of intersection with the graph. 6. tion x 2 159 To +2x solve the equa4 1. 0. 197. 10. viz. 6. de- = termine the points where If the function is 1.-7 2 -a -5 = 0. z 2 4x 6 a2 6. 11. 8. + + = where a. = 0. a2 -2a. (a) x2 = 0. cross-section paper is used. 12. 4. 2 and 1. is called a quadratic equation. An equation of the the form ax2 bx c 0. 14. a: (a) (6) (c) -6a. Such equations in general have two roots.GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS 196. (0.

that can be reduced Thus to represent x - - -L^- \ x =2 - graphically. Graph of equations involving two unknown quantities. 3x _ 4 . y= A and construct x ( - graphically. solve for ?/. NOTE.2. locate points (0. 1) and 0).160 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA GRAPHIC SOLUTION OF EQUATIONS INVOLVING TWO UNKNOWN QUANTITIES 198. fc = 3. 199. we can construct the graph or locus of any Since we can = equation involving two to the above form. . Hence. if y = is 0. Hence we may join (0. == 2. y = -l.1. Represent graphically Solving for y ='-"JJ y. represent graphically equations of the form y function of x ( 1D2). 2). and join the required graph. (f . unknown quantities. Equations of the first degree are called linear equations.e. Draw the locus of 4 x + 3 y = 12. 4) and them by straight line AB (3. ?/ =4 AB. = 0. 0). Ex. y y 2. because their graphs are straight lines. X'-2 Locating the points (2. T . If x = 0. i. Ex. first degree. ?/. If the given equation is of the we can usually locate two y. and joining by a straight line. produces the 7* required locus. 4) and (2. Thus If in points without solving the equation for the preceding example: 3x s .2 y ~ 2. Hence if if x x - 2.

202. The roots of two simultaneous equations are represented by the coordinates of the point (or points) at which their graphs intersect. 201. parallel have only one point of intersection. we obtain the roots. Since two straight lines which are not coincident nor simultaneous Ex. equation x= By measuring 3. viz. and CD. Solve graphically the equations : (1) \x-y-\. AB but only one point in AB also satisfies (2). 203. P.1=0. (2) . The coordinates of every point of the graph satisfy the given equation. The every coordinates of point in satisfy the equation (1). By the method of the preceding article construct the graphs AB and and CD of (1) (2) respectively.15. the point of intersection of the coordinate of P. Graphical solution of a linear system.GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS 161 200. To find the roots of the system. AB y = . linear equations have only one pair of roots.57. and every set of real values of x and y satisfying the given equation is represented by a point in the locus. 3.

0. 4. we of the + y* = 25. AB the locus of (1).e. and . (4. V25 5. which consist of a pair of parallel lines. 4. y equals 3. construct CD the locus of (2) of intersection. the graph of points roots. The equations 2 4 = 0. 1. 4. 2. (-4.0.9. i.. (1) (2) -C. 0) and (0. 4. Inconsistent equations. . 0. 2. intersection. if x equals respectively 0. - 4. Using the method of the preceding para. x2 . Measuring the coordinates of P. 4. 3). 5. There can be no point of and hence no roots. Locating two points of equation (2).g. 4. 4. obtain the graph (a circle) AB C joining. Solve graphically the : fol- lowing system = = 25. P graphs meet in two and $. 3. In general. (-2.0).5. and joining by a straight line. 2 equation x 3). 5. etc. Solving (1) for y. 3. 1. parallel graphs indicate inconsistent equations.y~ Therefore. and + 3). there are two pairs of By measuring the coordinates of : P and Q we find 204. = 0.162 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA graph. they are inconsistent. This is clearly shown by the graphs of (1) arid (2). 3x 2 y = -6. e. 4.5. Since the two - we obtain DE. Locating the points (5. 3. the point we obtain Ex. (1) (2) cannot be satisfied by the same values of x and y.

. 6. 10. vice versa. EXERCISE 75 Construct the loci of the following equations: 1. 2x 3?/=6. a+r/=6. idengraphs indicate dependent equations. '163 Dependent equations. y = 4. 4. 3.GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS 205.. as 2^3 and 3x -f ==l 2y =6 tical have identical graphs. 5. 9. 7. 17. 8. 20. state reasons. \ 2x + 3^ . the graphs of the following systems. y 2 4. and solve each If there are no solutions. 16 23. 19. 2. 16 22. Draw system. 1 6* + 7 y = 3. a. y=x + 5. if possible. and. y= a2 2x y6. x~y=0.

4 a = 3(6 .y). 28.164 24. 25. 29 . TABLE OF SQUARES. 3 31. 30.8. AND SQUARE HOOTS . 26. CUBES. Show that the same values of x and y cannot satisfy the : three equations x -f 5y = 5.14 y = . ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA "~ U # .

etc. All odd powers of a negative quantity are negative. on to in factors 4. a = a3 . powers of a positive quantity are positive. involution repeated multiplication. 2. ( 2 aft ) 9 is negative. To find (#(**&)" is a problem of involution. = a2 5 =6 (5 )* n m n (a ) = a (a 2 3 ) a2 b5 . 52.-faa a a a Obviously 1. ^4/? it According to 50. (- 3 2 6 3 )* = (- 3 a2 6 8 ) . follows that 3. Involution is the operation of raising a quantity to a Since a power effected positive integral power.a2 . INVOLUTION OF MONOMIALS 208. According to 1. is may be by 207. . ( a) is positive. 2. (- 3 a268 ) (- a 8 = _ (2m ) (8 ____ 16 *)"" 27 n 165 . Law of Signs.CHAPTER XIII INVOLUTION 206. a2 6 6 = ?> 2+2 5 5 + 2 = a. All even powers of a negative quantity arc positive. a special kind of product. 8. 3 -f a = -f a = +. = 6+ 5 + +fi = fi 62. -fa.

' 27 ' / _4_ _4_V ' 11. 16. (-|^^) 2 . 210. 5. raise ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA the exponent of the power of a power.3 a 6 -f 3 a6 . The &- cube of a binomial (a 3 3 _j_ we obtain by multiplying (a 2 2 + 6) 1 by + and = a + 3a 6 + 3a6 + * 6) . 4. ^--/-2?n?A 4 ' 30. V 3xy )' INVOLUTION OF BINOMIALS 209. 4 /2mV. V V/ 13. (-a ) 2 4 - 3.166 To find To To power. raise a fraction to a power. (-277171 )*. 3 2 2 8 . (-a ) 2 5 . \ 3 J ' - M-W 10. raise its terms to the required EXERCISE Perform the operations indicated 1. a product to a given power. 6. the required power. 15. 76 : (>y. 24. The square of a binomial was discussed in 63. . 2 11 (afc ) .6) = a .6 (a 8 8 . am-Vy) 3 . (-2ar). multiply tht raise each of its factors to given exponents. 2.

5 5 4 2 2 3 s .27 ay + 9 x y2n 2 EXERCISE 77 Perform the operations indicated: 1.y) = (3 y?y . 15. 167 Find the cube of 2 x -f. . (5 (1 -a) 3 . 23. 86 3 w + 3 w + ra8 -126 + G6-l. 8. + 3a 6 + 3a& -f-& ^-Sx^ + S^ -^ 3 2 2 3 . (a-j-7) . (a-fl) . . Ex. 13. nent of the binomial. 2 a8 -3a2 + 3a-l. + a 2 a. 2. (3a-f26) 8 . (m-2) 8 (w+w) 3 8 10. +5a) 22. 211. 9.) 14.y . 21. and decreases in each succeeding term by L . 3 . (a + &)8 . 5. 6. : a 20. 7. 2 . 3 3 + 3(2aO*(Sy) + 3(2aj)(3y)> + 36 z2y + 54 xy* + 27 y3 .6 2 8 ft) . + 4aj) 3 . = s= (2s) 8 a. 3 8 . pansions. TJie exponent of a in the first term is the same as the expo2. or* - Find the cube root of 19. (3 (l -I) 2 8 . The higher powers of binomials. 16. frequently called ex. (3 x . 1. (3a (a (4 62 -l) 3 . 1 -f 3 2 3 . etc. Find the cube 2 6 n of 3 x* .3(3 a*)a(y = 27 a . 12. 4.INVOLUTION Ex. 8 (a?-?/) 3 . as follows : + 6) = o + 3 d'b + 3 a6 + + 6) = a + 4 a?b + 6 a & + 4 a6 + b (a = a + 5 a 6 + 10 a*b + 10 a 6 -f 5 aM + 6 (a + 6) 8 8 2 (a b*. 2. 3.3 y. (6m+2w) (3 8 . are obtained by multiplication. 4 4 2 2 3 4 . a. 18. examination of these results shows that : The number of terms is 1 greater than the exponent of the binomial. An 1. - lx - (7 a (1 -I) 3 17.

2. (3a -f5) 5) 4. . . 4 .4(2^(3 ^'+(3 y . (1 + 4 ?/) . 24.216 a^ 4. 14. of the second term equals the exponent of the binomial 6. Expand (x = ic 5 -f 5 x*y + 10 ^V + 5 .96 ^y -f 216 o?y . Ex. 5. 12 EXERCISE Expand: 1. and the powers negative. since the even powers of signs of the last answer arc alternately plus y are positive.168 3. (l-a&) 4 12. Expand <? 2 (2 # - 3 y3 ) 4 2 . (mnp 5 I) 5 . is the coefficient of the next term. (2 a 4 . Expand (a??/) x5 5 x4 y + 10 x'2 (and odd + 212. Ex. (tf-f-1) (c-fd) . 6. (p + q) 4 * 7. and the result divided by 1 plus the exponent of b. (2a-5c) (1 -f 2 4 a:) 4 . 23.4(2 * )'(3 *f) -f 6(2 ^) (3 y ) 8 . 3. 78 s .81 y 2 8 9 8 4 ) . 9. 4 (1-for) 5 . (m 5 I) 2 22. . (?/i-~w) : 16. (2 4. ( &) 5 . 15. and increases by 1 in each succeeding term. (l-fa 6 2 ) 5. 25. . 1. . 4. (l 8 . (m -fl) 2 20. (a-f 5) . 5. 10. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA T7ie exponent ofb is 1 in the second term of the result. 2. . Ex. 17. 13. (m 2 + n) 8 . mn 5 2 5 ) . . The minus. * 2 4 ) 16 ic 8 . 8. (a~^) 5 . 21. (?>i?i -f c)*. 3. (m-J) 4 11. 10 x*y* + 2 5 xy* + y5 . (2w 2 2 -f-l) 4 . 18. The The coefficient coefficient of the first term is 1.a) 3 19. (w 4 ?i) 4 . TJie coefficient of any term of the power multiplied by the exponent of a.

\/a = x means x n = y ?> a. Every odd root of a quantity has same sign as and 2 the quantity. quantity may the be either 2wsitive or negative. V9 = + 3. or -3 for (usually written 3) .CHAPTER XIV EVOLUTION 213. Evolution it is is the operation of finding a root of a quan the inverse of involution. for (-f 3) 2 ( 3) equal 0. It follows from the law of signs in evolution that : Any even root of a positive. \/"^27=-3. a) 4 = a4 . which can be simplified no further. Thus V^I is an imaginary number. or x &4 . 4 4 . etc. 1. 109 . numbers. and all other numbers are. 2. for distinction. and ( v/o* = a. it is evidently impossible to express an even root of a negative quantity by Such roots are called imaginary the usual system of numbers. for (+ a) = a \/32 = 2. or y ~ 3. called real numbers. V \/P 214. = x means = 6-. 27 =y means r' = 27. tity . Since even powers can never be negative. (_3) = -27. 215.

6. 4 v. Ex. = V26TIT81 = 5-3. 7 . index.9 = 136. . 6- 7 = 030.64 5 4 . = 19472. 5. 10. we have (Vl472) 2 Ex. 7.125. 9. -v/2^. 79 2 -v/2 5 . 8. 2 . Ex. = 199 + (_ 198) . 3/0** = am . for (2 a 2 6c4 ) 8 = Ex. Ex. 8. Ex.1. To extract a root of a fraction.170 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EVOLUTION OF MONOMIALS The following examples root : are solved by the definition of a . VT8226 = V25 2 729 . 3. \/2 4 9 . extract the and denominator. V25 9 16.4. V5 -v/2 7 2. 7 . - 100 a 2 .200 . 6. 3 33 53 . 14 63 25 = V2 3* = 2 32 6 . Find (x/19472) Since by definition ( v^)" = a. -fy 5 3 . . 9. roots of the numerator \/18 . v/^i2 = a*. Ex.(. 2.lL.201) = 2. 3i . . To extract the root of a power. divide the exponent by the A root of a product equals the product of the roots of the factors. EXERCISE 1.for(*Siy = 3 3 6 c* \ c*J 2 2 b' ?*243 ft^c20 216. 2. V36 9 4. 7. v^SjW 3 = 2 a ^/gL^g = * c* A 82 &c*. Ex 5 a" . 82 . 62 = V2* . for (a")" a = a mn 3. V?. Ex. for (a 3 )* = a 12 .

30. 2y-h2/ 4 - 9^ + 60^ + 2 2/ .3. 33.) 4 3 EXERCISE 80 : Extract the square roots of the following expressions 1. 45 V5184.) by inspection. 31. ( VI5) x ( VT7) 2 2 2 2 x ( V3) 35. a -f2 l 2 + l.3 . 1. 2 .6 tfif + 9 y = O . 29.EVOLUTION 171 28. V8. 116. 5. 32. (Vl24) -{ 2 EVOLUTION OF POLYNOMIALS AND ARITHMETICAL NUMBERS 217.98. . 2. V20 .75. 3. (V2441) ~(V2401) 36. ( VH) + (Vl9) 2 2 .4/. 6. In such a case the square root can be found ( 116. Find the square root of a2 . Hence _ 6 ary -f 9 y = (s . Ex. 2 . a* 4 8 2 . A trinomial is a perfect square if one of its terms is equal to twice the product of the square roots of the other terms.3 y2) ( vV . 2 -f ( V240) 3 .6 ofy 2 -f 9 y4 . 34./). ^-40^4.(V200) -f ( VI5) 2 . V9216. -\/d -\-Vab r + b\ 9.

a2 + & + c + 2 a& . 8 . In order to find a general method for extracting the square root of a polynomial. however. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBEA 4a2 -44a?> + 121V2 4a s . #2 a2 - 16. 11.172 7. the given expression is a perfect square. i. 2 .72 aW + 81 & 4 . a -f. 2ab .2 &c.2 ab + b .2 ac .> 13. 14. The work may be arranged 2 : a 2 + 2 ab + W \a + b . . 2 2 218. let us consider the relation of a -f. the that 2 ab -f b 2 = we have then to consider sum of trial divisor 2 a.b 2 2 to its square. 2 49a 8 16 a 4 9. multiplied by b must give the last two terms of the as follows square.e. + 6 + 4a&. it is not known whether the given expression is a perfect square. The term a' first 2 . term a of the root is the square root of the first The second term of the root can be obtained a. and b. 10. a-\-b is the root if In most cases. and b (2 a -f b). mV-14m??2)-f 49. second term 2ab by the double of by dividing the the so-called trial divisor. 15. 12.

Explanation. Arranging according to descending powers of 10 a 4 a. by division we term of the root. . 1. We find the first two terms of the root by the method used in Ex. As there is no remainder. \ 24 a 3 4-f a2 10 a 2 Second remainder.24 afy* -f 9 tf. Extract the square root of 16 a 4 . the first term of the answer. 8 a 2 . First complete divisor. . the required root (4 a'2 8a + 2}. 173 x* Extract the square root of 1G 16x4 10 x* __ . Ex. 219. First trial divisor.24 a + 4 -12 a + 25 a8 s . By doubling 4x'2 we obtain 8x2 the trial divisor. 8 /-. 10 a 4 8 a. 2. and consider Hence the their sum one term. . 8 a 2 - 12 a +4 a -f 2. we obtain the next term of the root 3 y 3 which has to be added to 2 the trial divisor.EVOLUTION Ex. 4 x2 3 ?/ 8 is the required square foot. 2 Subtracting the square of 4x' from the trinomial gives the remainder '24 x'2 + y. and so forth. The square . double of this term find the next is the new trial divisor. 8 a 2 Second complete divisor. 24# 2 y 3 by the trial divisor Dividing the first term of the remainder. . Second trial divisor. 8 a 2 2. 1. . The process of the preceding article can be extended to polynomials of more than three terms. Multiply the complete divisor Sx' 3y 3 by Sy 8 and subtract the product from the remainder. 6 a. of x. - 24 a 3 + 25 a 2 - 12 a +4 Square of 4 a First remainder. */'' . is As there is no remainder. Arrange the expression according to descending powers root of 10 x 4 is 4 # 2 the lirst term of the root.

a? 2 . 4-36^?/4-69a.25 x 4 4. 16 _^ + 2 JX XT 4a. 18. 12. 36a 4-60a 4-73a 4-40a 4-16a 3 2 13. 6 11.14^4-4 ic 4^ 3 12^. 17. 16. 4 . 5 4- 16 4 iK .42 a*& 4. 36it. 25 x 4 -f- 40 afy 4-46 x 2 if 4- 24 a^ 8 4- 9 4 i/ .V4-30^4-25^ 4m 4.73 a8 .162 a2 60 a10 4. 3. l 4. x 6 4- 4 0^4.2^4-3^4-2^ 46 5 4 a. 19. 2 4. 14.54 a 40 a 6 4- 9 a4 .10 x2 4. 2 x2 3 2x. 4-12 a& -f 37 a' 6 . 1 4. 729 4. 24. 15. + 81 a 4-54 a + 81.73a4 4-40^4-36^4-60^. 3 a2 a4 4- 2a + a4 2 or 4-1 3 2 a3 + 1.24 or . 13#4 4-13ar 4-4a. 10.a 6 x*y 2 .4 x 4.16.20 o 4.174 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 81 : Extract the square roots of the following expressions 2.9m 4 20m3 30m 4. 6. 16x6 4. 25 m 20 w + 34 m . 8. .42 a -f 49 a 6 16 a4 -|- 24 a3 4 J 2 3 3 4 4 .9.40 a 22 . > 7.12m 5 4. 5.20 J or 2 16 x 4.37 a ^ .12 a6 2 2 3 4- 4 64 .6 . 20. 4- 36 a 2 12 4- 4- 16 a4 4- 46 a 4 4- 44 a 8 -f 25 a -h 12 a 4- 4 25 a6 4. 6 6 2 49 a 4 .12 m 4. 4 4-?/ 4-2x- 4 3 j/ 2xif 6 a5 4.25. 9.

000 is 1000. then the number of groups is equal to the number of digits in the square root. and the complete divisor 168. of a number between 100 and 10. Thus the square root of 96'04' two digits. a f>2'41 '70 6 c [700 + 20 + 4 = 724 2 a a2 = +6= 41) 00 00 1400 + 20 = 1420 4 341 76 28400 = 1444 57 76 6776 . etc. 7744 80 6400 1 +8 160 + 8 = 168 1344 1344 Since a 2 a Explanation. of 10. From A will show the comparison of the algebraical and arithmetical method given below identity of the methods. a 2 = 6400. Hence if we divide the digits of the number into groups. 175 The by a method very similar expressions.000. 1. Therefore 6 = 8. the preceding explanation it follows that the root has two digits. 2. the square root of 7744 equals 88.EVOLUTION 220. Find the square root of 7744. As 8 x 168 = 1344. square root of arithmetical numbers can be found to the one used for algebraic Since the square root of 100 is 10. Ex. Ex.176. the integral part of the square root of a number less than 100 has one figure. = 80.000 is 100. the first of which is 9 the square root of 21'06'81 has three digits. two figures.. Hence the root is 80 plus an unknown number. and the square root of the greatest square in units.1344. first .000. The is trial divisor = 160. of 1. Find the square root of 524. etc. the first of which is 4. and the first remainder is. the first of which is 8. beginning at the and each group contains two digits (except the last. and we may apply the method used in algebraic process. which may contain one or two). the consists of group is the first digit in the root.

or by transforming the common fraction into a decimal. annex a cipher.70 6. The groups of 16724. in . ELEMENTS OF ALGEKRA In marking off groups in a number which has decimal begin at the decimal point.0961 are '.1T6 221. Roots of common fractions are extracted either by divid- ing the root of the numerator by the root of the denominator. 12. 3. EXERCISE Extract the square roots of : 82 . Find the square root of 6/. and if the righthand group contains only one digit. places.10.7 to three decimal places.688 4 45 2 70 2 25 508 4064 6168 41)600 41344 2256 222. we must Thus the groups 1'67'24.GO'61.1 are Ex.

53. T\. JT . 34.58 square 38. feet.4 square when R = radius and 11.EVOLUTION Find 177 to three decimal places the square roots of the follow- ing numbers: 29. feet. 13. Find the side of a square whose area equals 50. 33.22. Find the side of a square whose area equals 96 square yards. 30. . 31. 36. 1. 1. 35.01. Find the mean proportional between 2 and . J-. whose area equals 48.1410. 32.) 40. TT Find the radius of a (Area of a circle circle 1 equals irR . 37. 5. 39. = 3.

1. = 7^ + 5. Extracting the square root of each member. an integral rational equation that contains the square of 4x the unknown number. A pure quadratic is solved by reducing it to the form and extracting the square root of both members. is A quadratic equation. absolute term of an equation is the terra which / does not contain any In 4 x 2 unknown quantities. or affected. 2)* + 5 = 33. 6#2 = x* 24. 6 y2 = 17. 225. Solve 13 x2 -19 etc. = 4. + bx -f c r= is a complete quadratic ax 2 = m is a pure quadratic equation. 224. 2 ic = a. Dividing. ax 2 + bx + c = Q. 178 . 226. The 7 equation. x = + 2 or x =2.CHAPTER XV QUADRATIC EQUATIONS INVOLVING ONE UNKNOWN QUANTITY 223. A pure. or incomplete. quadratic equation is one which contains both the square and the first power of the unknown A quantity. 2. . complete.g. Ex.. is frequently written x 13( 2)2 = 7( - 19 = 33 . or equation of the second degree. Transposing. but no higher power e. is 12. x -f 12 = the absolute term PUKE QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 227. This answer Check. x 2 7. quadratic equation contains only the square of the axt unknown quantity.

2 4fc -5' 18.25. 19 + 9 = 5500. Solve 179 . 15^-5 = 6. 8. 3. ' =: y? b* b . or Therefore. o. . 10. EXERCISE Solve the following equations 1.QUADRATIC EQUATIONS Ex. ax Transposing and combining. (a?- 9. 16^-393 = 7. : 83 2. 6(--2)=-10(aj-l).2. 4. 5. + 4 ax = ax + 4 a 2 + x2 -f 2 x2 = 8 a 2 4 a2 x2 = x = V 4 a2 x= x = .=g x2 4 a2 Clearing of fractions. -7 = 162. 2. s-3 -? + oj x +3 = 4. 0^ + 1 = 1. . Dividing by Extracting the square root. 7. 2 2 a. 4 ax.

solve for d. Three numbers are to each other as 1 Find the numbers. If a 2 4. If 2 -f 2 b* = 4w 2 -f c sol ve for m. and the sum The sides of two square fields are as 3 : 5. 2.b 2 If s If =c . The two numbers (See is 2 : 3. opposite the right angle is called the hypotenuse (c in the diagram). The sides of two square fields are as 7 2. 25. A number multiplied by ratio of its fifth part equals 45. If G=m m g . 2 . is 5(5. 2 . Find is the number.) of their squares 5. and the first exceeds the second by 405 square yards. . : 6. then Since such a triangle tangle. Find the side of each field. . 84 is Find a positive number which equal to its reciprocal ( 144). find a in terms of 6 . r. If the hypotenuse whose angles a units of length. A right triangle is a triangle. 24. If 22 = ~^-. 27. 9 & -{- c# a x +a and c. 29. ' 4. 108. EXERCISE 1. 228. 2a -f- 1 23.180 on __!_:L ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA a. may be considered one half of a rec- square units. 28. Find the side of each field. 2 : 3. solve for r. 3. Find the numbers. is one of _____ b The side right angle. solve for v. 22 a. and they con- tain together 30G square feet. and the two other sides respectively c 2 contains c a and b units. 4. and their product : 150. its area contains =a 2 -f- b2 . = a 2 2 (' 2 solve for solve for = Trr . 26. If s = 4 Trr ' 2 .

8. The hypotenuse of a right triangle is 2. and the other two sides are as 3 4. radii are as 3 14. A body falling from a state of rest. 9. . we have of or m = |. in how many seconds will a body fall (a) G4 feet. (b) 100 feet? = . and the two smaller 11. Find the radii. The area : sides are as 3 4. and the third side is 15 inches. . sides. add (|) Hence 2 . x* 7 x= 10.) 13. Find the unknown sides and the area.7 x -f 10 = 0. Find these 10. member can be made a complete square by adding 7 x with another term. 4. Two circles together contain : 3850 square feet. The following ex- ample illustrates the method or of solving a complete quadratic equation by completing the square. passes in t seconds 2 over a space s yt Assuming g 32 feet. let us compare x 2 The left the perfect square x2 2 mx -f m to 2 . 181 The hypotenuse of a right triangle : is 35 inches.2 7 . make x2 Evidently 7 takes the place 7x a complete square to to which corresponds m 2 . Solve Transposing. Method of completing the square.QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 7. To find this term. (b) 44 square feet. 2m. -J- = 12. 24. of a right triangle Find these sides. 7r (Assume and their = 2 7 2 . 8 = 4 wr2 Find 440 square yards. its surface (Assume ir = 2 . . The hypotenuse of a right triangle is to one side as 13:12. Find the sides.) COMPLETE QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 229. The area $ /S of a circle 2 . the radius of a sphere whose surface equals If the radius of a sphere is r. is and the other two sides are equal. the formula = Trr whose radius equals r is found by Find the radius of circle whose area S equals (a) 154 square inches.

182 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 2 Adding ( J) to each member.2 a2 . Transposing. Simplifying. -7 5 + 10 = 0. Complete the square by adding the square of one half the coefficient of x.e. = |..x(l = . Extracting square roots.1. J. adding member). or x = 2. Ex. Or (*-i) x Extracting square roots. 230. a. = \ # = ff. a Clearing of fractions. . = 6. 80^69^-2 = 9 x2 sc Transposing. 2 -| . Uniting. (*~8) a = at . = x-\ = 2. 2 a* a. 15 x 2 Dividing by 9. Transposing. x x2 x x2 + 2 a2 x -f a = 2 ax. 62 x 5 = f. Hence to solve a complete quadratic : Reduce the equation to the form x*-\-px==q. Hence Therefore Check.2. | x Q) 2 to each Completing the square (i.a. 22 -7 2 + 10 =0. Ex. Therefore. 2 ax -f 2 o) s a . | \. Extract the square root and solve the equation of the first degree thus formed. or J.

x = l+ * a = 1 +2 <* V IT -* Therefore * Vl < EXERCISE 85 . Extracting square root. 183 Simplifying.4 ~ a2 Transposing. x .1+2?= "*" - - Vl .QUADRATIC EQUATIONS Completing the square.

-\-bx-\. Solving this equation we obtain by the method of the preceding 2a The roots of substituting the values of a. 2x 3 4.c = 0. Solution by formula. and c in the general answer. . o^ or -}- 3 ax == 4 a9 7 wr . any quadratic equation may be obtained by 6. x la 48. = 12. 2 Every quadratic equation can be reduced to the general form. =0. 49. =8 r/io?.184 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 45 46. article. ao. 231.

20 x Hence Therefore a = 5. Hence Therefore =p 1 t b = (p 2 + 1). 2or } -5o. ?i 2 . 2. V^tT)* .. 2. 6. 6m = 7 m + 12 = 64 7 x2 2 2 a.4 4- 5 . 2 o.25 x. 9. 11. 2 a. 6 Ex. 2# 11 + 15 = 0. TIO. 20. 7. 18. 4. 3 x -11 + 10 = 0. - . 14. b = - + 20 == = 0. 3. 15. c = 5. c p.QUADRATIC EQUATIONS Ex. 17. 21. 6 10 2024 =6or 10 l. a.15 x9 25x* = 21 . 16. 1. 6. 6^+5^ 56. 6 . Solve 2 j>o? p*x x px* a 2 p. 13. 7^ + 9 x 90. 2 . 5 x2 Transposing. 185 Solve 5 x2 = 26 x-5. 8. 10. : 86 + 2 = 0. - P + VQ^+T? ^4^ EXERCISE Solve by the above formula 1. 2 a? = 44 x . = 12 . = 64-120?. 26. Reducing to general form. 19. 12.

transposing terms to one member. member can be Ex. Eesolving into factors. any degree. Factoring. Therefore the equation will be satisfied 5x _. (5 a? -!)(. if either of the uct is zero. 5 = 0. = 0. = 14. we x obtain the roots =^ or x = 5. .5 Solving (1) and (2). Evidently this method can be applied to equations of if one member of the equation is zero and the other factored. Solve a*= 7a? + 15x 2 2* . the prodif x has (1) (2) such a value that either or a?. 25. 2S-3x 1 2 . all or. = 0.5) =0. factors Now. 2a^7x sc(2 --16rc Therefore a = 0. x2 = 1 .2. 23. Let it e(l uation: 5^ + 5=26*. or # 5 is zero. Clearing for fractions. Solution by factoring. x(x <2 . 3x?+x = 7. a=:i^-^. 24. 0. 233. Hence the equation has three + 3) (x 2x-f3=0. }.4) = . orz roots. and 6. = 0. 26. =7 x se 2 2 + 16 x. Transposing. 5) = 0.186 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA to Find the roots of the following equations places : two decimal 22. 27 x== 4-2a. ar>-8o. 1.x. a? 28 - 7a-l=-7s be required to solve the 232. Bx 1 1.

: 87 = 0. E. -4)(z-3) = 0. Form an equation whose roots are 4 and 6. 0(0-2) = 7(0-2). 2o3 -f9a. members by x But evidently the value x 3 3. 13. 7. 4or + 18a -f 8a. 16. + 8=s: 7. + 100. 12. ar'-Sa^ -12.e. EXERCISE Solve by factoring -|-6 2. 3^ = 0(110-6). The equation I. for a: . the resulting expression equation contains fewer roots than the original one.QUADRATIC EQUATIONS Ex. 3) = 0.:=0. 3. 2. } 2 2 (5 . members of an equation are divided by an involving the unknown quantity. 9. 187 Solve x? -3x x*(x 2 4x + 12 = 0. (*-2)(x + 2)(a-3)=0. 3^ 25^ + 28 = 0. 6. 0^ ar> 11. Ex.24 = 0. 5.3)(x + 3 3.3 =5 or = 2 3 obtained from the 5 (x or x equation x (x = is also a root. 3) Factoring.g. a?-10a=:-24. 14. 3 or 2 a. such a common divisor must be made equal to zero. evidently (x Or 4)(x . 8. In order If both to obtain all roots of the original equation. a?. we 9 obtain x 4. is 5) = 0. + 10 a = 24.= 24. Or Hence the 234. + 9 -f 20 x = 0. - 3) 2 4 (x = 0. 4. 0^ + 21 = 10 10. 2. O roots are 2. (aj-4)(a. aj( 15. 3. 5 = 0. a* 10a=24. + 6)=0.6)) = 0. Therefore x =3 = 2. and the equation thus formed be solved. x2 -f 2 x . let it be required to solve If or x we divide both = 2. 3# y 5 = 0.(.

25. (a + 1) (a.188 17. 22. 19. or 3 -a -2 2 a? 26. '-3a!J - . uz + u 21. 50. ara + ft + c*. 20.3) = (s + l) (3 -a). + 2)= (y( j_ ? (+ 3)(a?+2). 18. f ELEMENTS OF ALGEKRA tt(3tt + 7tt)=6tt. 2. w(w x2 2 w)=6tt. 23. a 2 =(x a)b. 27. (2a? 3) (a 24.

88 its reciprocal A number increased by three times equals 6J. 52. 3. -2. 2. and equals 190 square inches. 56. Find two numbers whose difference is 40.3. 7. EXERCISE 1.3. The sum of the squares of two consecutive numbers 85. 189 the equations whose roots are 53. 6. 1.2. 0.9. -2. 3. area A a perimeter of 380 rectangular field has an area of 8400 square feet and Find the dimensions of the field. two numbers is 4. of their reciprocals is 4. G. 8. The difference of |. . Find the numbers. 57. number by 10. Find the sides. Find the number. -2. -2.0.1.QUADRATIC EQUATIONS Form 51. and whose sum is is 36. The 11. PROBLEMS INVOLVING QUADRATICS in general two answers. and consequently many prob- 235. -4. Find a number which exceeds its square by is -|. 2. 54. and whose product 9. Divide CO into two parts whose product is 875.3. What are the numbers of ? is The product two consecutive numbers 210. 5. but frequently the conditions of the problem exclude negative or fractional answers. 55. and the difference Find the numbers. -5. : 3. Problems involving quadratics have lems of this type have only one solution. 58. its sides of a rectangle differ by 9 inches. feet. 1. is Find two numbers whose product 288. Twenty-nine times a number exceeds the square of the 190. Find the number.0.

Two steamers and is of 420 miles. A man bought a certain number of apples for $ 2. had paid $ 20 less for each horse. Find the rate of the train. and lost as many per cent Find the cost of the watch. and gained as many per Find the cost of the horse. it would have needed two hours less to travel 120 miles. 14. c equals 221 Find AB and AD. as the 16. A man A man sold a as the watch cost dollars.190 12. What did he pay for 21. sold a horse for $144. A man cent as the horse cost dollars. other. watch for $ 24. exceeds its widtK AD by 119 feet. of a rectangle is to the length of the recthe area of the figure is 96 square inches. dollars. Two vessels. If he each horse ? . watch cost sold a watch for $ 21. 13. . 17. he had paid 2 ^ more for each apple. and the line BD joining two opposite vertices (called "diagonal") feet. start together on voyages of 1152 and 720 miles respectively. and lost as many per cent Find the cost of the watch. What did he pay for each apple ? A man bought a certain number of horses for $1200. 15. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA The length 1 B AB of a rectangle.10. The diagonal : tangle as 5 4. a distance One steamer travels half a mile faster than the two hours less on the journey. and the slower reaches its destination one day before the other. and Find the sides of the rectangle. 19. he would have received 12 apples less for the same money. If a train had traveled 10 miles an hour faster. vessel sail ? How many miles per hour did the faster If 20. At what rates do the steamers travel ? 18. ply between the same two ports. ABCD. he would have received two horses more for the same money. one of which sails two miles per hour faster than the other.

By formula. Equations in the quadratic form can be solved by the methods used for quadratics. Find and CB. (tf. A rectangular A circular basin is surrounded is - by a path 5 feet wide. B AB AB -2 191 grass plot. Solve ^-9^ + 8 = ** 0. Ex. the two men can do it in 3 days. ^-3^ = 7. . how wide is the walk ? 23. 27. as 0. 23 inches long. 30 feet long and 20 feet wide. 24. Find the side of an equilateral triangle whose altitude equals 3 inches. and the area of the path the radius of the basin.) 25. contains B 78 square inches. constructed with and CB as sides. or x = \/l = 1. is On the prolongation of a line AC. so that the rectangle. Find TT r (Area of a circle . EQUATIONS IN THE QUADRATIC FORM An equation is said to be in the quadratic form if it contains only two unknown terms. a point taken. The number of eggs which can be bought for $ 1 is equal to the number of cents which 4 eggs cost. How many eggs can be bought for $ 1 ? 236.QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 22. In how many days can B do the work ? = 26. is surrounded by a walk of uniform width.I) -4(aj*-l) 2 = 9. =9 Therefore x = \/8 = 2. A needs 8 days more than B to do a certain piece of work. If the area of the walk is equal to the area of the plot. 1. of the area of the basin. and working together. 237. and the unknown factor of one of these terms is the square of the unknown factor of the other.

a. a4 -5o. stitute ELEMENTS OF ALGEBEA In more complex examples it is advantageous to sub a letter for an expression involving a?. 9. >. 2. T 17.2 =-4. 3 a4 -44s + 121=0. 4-36 3. Solving. 2 (^-Z) - "3 14. 4 2 4 -37aj 2 = -9. 6. = 1. aV+9o 4 =0.T 2 2 . 2 16 a^-40 11. ^^ ~ 28 (a?- ^ 2:=Q> . (a: +aj) -18(x2 +a. 19. 4. EXERCISE Solve the following equations 1. 18. a? 15 1=2*. 2 -h9:=0. Let x + 15 = J < Then or or r-f 15 = 0. 4 a. or y = 8. 4 -8 = 2 a* 2. 8. 12. 7. 16. 4 6. 4 : 89 -10a. a -21or=100. = 13. Hence Le. Ex. 10.192 238. y-8)=0.)+72=0.

240. Relations between roots and coefficients.c 4 ac is called the discriminant of = 0. and equal. ( 2a Hence 1. the roots are equal. a perfect square. b 4.2) 2 4 3 (. . 3. Determine the character of the roots of the equation 4 x2 . the roots are unequal.QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 193 CHARACTER OF THE ROOTS 239. the roots are rational. it 2a follows 2 : 2.bx 4.2 z .12 x + 9 = 0. Ifb 2 Jfb 2 is zero. rational. and unequal. rational. The discriminant =(. are denoted __ Tl If the roots of the equation ax2 4. Determine the character of the roots of the equation 3 a 2 . 1. 2 4 ac 2a Hence / 1 4-r2 = a Or . The quadratic equation oa/* 2 -f- bx -f- c = has two roots. Since ( 12) 2 4 4 9 = 0. The expression b 2 the equation ay? 4.f> = 0. Ex.Vfr 2 4 ac T* b Vi . is 4ac not zero. negative. the roots are real. Hence the roots are real.bx 4- by ' i\ and r2 then . 241. Ex. the roots are imaginary. 2. c the roots are real. If b Ifb* 2 If b Iflr 4 ac is is is 4c 4 ac a positive or equal to zero. kac 4 ac is 'not a perfect square.5) = 04. the roots are irrational.

: a 2 . 2a -4z-5 = 0. x2 -4 x 0^ or j + 205 = 0. + 12 2 - . or + 10 + 4520 = 0. -lla. -f 2 E. 5a -26a? + 5 = 0. 5aj 9. 2 7. = Q. If the (a) coefficient ofx 2 in a quadratic equation is is unity. 5oj -aj + l = 0. The sum of the roots equal is to the coefficient of x with the sign changed. n a?-3 ' ~ == l 5. the sain of the roots of 4 x 5 x 3 =: is j. = 0.g.2 + 4a: + 240 = 0. 14. ar + ^ + 2^-2 = 0. 22. 4. 2. 23. their product is-f. o. + 2-a.19 # 20.. 10 x = 25 x + 1. x2 -!i>x + 2 z2 2 16. + 2a-15 = 0. Sa^ + 2 Ooj 2 Solve the following equations and check the answers by forming the sum and the product of the roots 19. 2x* + 6x + 3 = 0. 6. x2 -7 10. 18. 21. 12~x = x 2 . -9a-3 = 0. = 0. + 18 2 8. 9x2 ~ the In each of the following equations determine by inspection sum and the product of the roots: 13. (b) The product of the roots equal to theubsolute term. = 5x. 15. EXERCISE 89 a Determine without solution the character of the roots of the following equations 1. 12. 2 : 3. 60 2 = 0. 2 a. ^-12. 17. 24.194 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 2 a? these results If the given equation is written in the form may be expressed as follows : -x +a +-= a 0. = 0. tfmx+p^Q. 3a.

provided w > n. m IV. must be *The symbol smaller than.* III. II. > m therefore. The following four fundamental laws for positive integral exponents have been developed in preceding chapters : I. no Fractional and negative exponents. a m a" = a m+t1 . hence. instead of giving a formal definition of fractional and negative exponents.a" = a m n mn . (a m ) w . The first of these laws is nition of power. for all values 1 of m and n. We assume.CHAPTER XVI THE THEORY OF EXPONENTS 242. while the second of the first. we let these quantities be what they must be if the exponent law of multiplication is generally true. very important that all exponents should be governed by the same laws. however. 244. (ab) . that a an = a m+n . such as 2*. It is. we may choose for such symbols any definition that is con- venient for other work. 4~ 3 have meaning according to the original definition of power. (a ) s=a m = aw bm a . Then the law of involution." means "is greater than" 195 similarly means "is . the direct consequence of the defiand third are consequences FRACTIONAL AND NEGATIVE EXPONENTS 243. and . ~ a m -f. = a"" < .

we try to discover the let the meaning of In every case we unknown quantity and apply to both members of the equation that operation which makes the negative. To find the meaning of a fractional exponent. 30. - we find a? Hence we define a* to be the qth root of of.196 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA true for positive integral values of n. 25. n 2 a. Write the following expressions as radicals : 22. 29. at. etc. Hence Or Therefore Similarly. fractional. 3*. . as. ^=(a^) 3* 3 . 23. a*. laws. 24. 31. a\ 26. or zero exponent equal x. (xy$. Assuming these two 8*. a . e. ml. 4~ . since the raising to a positive integral power is only a repeated multiplication.g. = a. (bed)*. disappear. a?*. m$. '&M A 27. 245. 28. Let x is The operation which makes the fractional exponent disappear evidently the raising of both members to the third power. 0?=-^.

-\/xy- -\/m. the base is zero. a * a2 Or a=l. 5 a* = 10.\/n. 48. a. 7z* Find the values of 47. a* * = 3. 35. Vo5 . = 2. If. 246. ty?. hence is . -v/o&cT 34. is The operation which makes the zero exponent disappear 2 evidently a multiplication by any power of a. : 2' 4* = 4. 50.g. 27* = 3. Solve the following equations 39. 44. 64* + 9* + 16* + (-32)*. : 4* + 9* + 16* + 25* + 36*. 40. -\fi?. : 197 33.g. a . equal to unity. 49. however. 5L is indeterminate Indeterminate. is Therefore the zero power of any number NOTE.THE THEORY OF EXPONENTS Express with fractional exponents 32. 3* = 27. 46. 45. 42. 38. To find the meaning of zero exponent. v'mT 36. e. = 49. 41. 43. = 2. e. 37. Let a = a.

198 247. Or a"# = l. each is The fact that a if = we It loses its singularity 1 sometimes appears peculiar to beginners. consider the following equations. by changing the sign of NOTE. cr n. 248. vice versa. . in which obtained from the preceding one by dividing both members by a. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA To find the meaning of a negative exponent. a8 a 2 = 1 1 . Let x= or". Factors may be transferred from the numerator to the denominator of a fraction. e.g. a a a = = a a a a1 1 a. or the exponent. an x = a.2 = a2 . Multiplying both members by a". etc.

2m~i 43.THE THEORY OF EXPONENTS EXERCISE Find the values of: 91 199 Express with positive exponents 21. : mi m~^. 44. 3 a? * 42. : or 5 . ^L. .- 27. ""^T"*' Write without denominators 29. 2 . 39. 36. * 24. 37. a^ 41. a. ^?2 y' 34."* 38. 1 -L ?>i""i 3 cci . 25. 3 a. : * 31 l> ' <W* arV 8 30. 2 . . Write with radical signs and positive exponents 35. 6 or 2 ^-^ ^. 66 45. rfS. 7~ l a 2b 2 . 40. f (2w)~i 1 -. c 32. m . 22.

48. 58.6). 5 - 75 USE OF NEGATIVE AND FRACTIONAL EXPONENTS 249. 52. 47. 54.26)* 1 (I-) 2 .343)* + (. + A_. It then follows that: Fractional and negative exponents may be treated by the same methods as positive integral exponents. = . z* = 1. + 1~* -f 21 . 49. 17' 2 51.9*. (a*&~*)* + (aVM = a*&~* + V ' = '*&* Ex 2 . and we shall hence assume that all four laws are generally true. It can be demonstrated that the last three laws for any exponents are consequences of the first law.81 -f (a . 55. . of: 3-ll4~* 60.001. Examples relating to roots can be reduced to examples con- taining fractional exponents. 53.008)* + A. 59.200 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA : Solve the equations 46. = l. (. 1. 250. Ex. 57. ar = i. z 5or*=10. = 5. 61. 10* 5* = .(. = -^. 10* Find the values 56. 2 =f 3* = f x~ l 50. (81)* + (3f)*-(5 TV)*-3249 + 16 * .1.

NOTE. S-'-s-S-8. remove the fractional exponents.&.7i. . Perform the operation indicated. (d) If required.4 . 7*. 7~ 6 . &. 16. 27 - 28. 10. 4 5. 6. ' 11.7*.6 *' 6 *25. . 6 *. 17. OA 20.$-". 3-s-VS. are performed. a. 13. #* a. . 72 . 23.^/5-^5.THE THEORY OF EXPONENTS 251. V5.5a. 95 -^9i 5-*-*.4 2 a? 2 ar 1 . 12. 6a-. 14. 14an- (4**(Va) 4 . Remove the negative exponents. 7~ 5 27 - . Negative exponents should not be removed until all operations of multiplication^ division.&.3 aj" a. 79 . __ 29- /m -'-=V a9 -i-a. 25 26 - 2~ 8 2~ 9 22. / 7-f--v 7. 8 ' 9.5. 16.4 a8 . 4 x^. 3. 201 Expressions containing radicals should be simplified as : follows (a) (6) (c) Write all radical signs as fractional exponents. 18.7W. 7.. 26.$-*. EXERCISE Simplify : 92 2. etc. 3 a.

V ra 4/ 3 -\/m 33. If powers of a?. 40. Arrange in descending powers of Check.202 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 32. powers of x arranged are : Ex. 34. 1. we wish to arrange terms according to descending we have to remember that. 2. 1 Multiply 3 or +x 5 by 2 x x.2 d . 1. lix = 2x-l =+1 Ex. the term which does not contain x may be considered as a term containing #. 6 35. Divide by ^ 2a 3 qfo 4. The 252.

THE THEORY OF EXPONENTS
EXERCISE
93

203

Perform the operations indicated:

2.
3.

4. 5. 6.

(7r-8Vr + r>)(9 Vr-7). 2 - 1 ). (a- + a -f 1) (a~ + a
2 2 2

7.
8. 9.

10.
11.

(4

a- 3

- 24 a- - 9 - 3 a~ )
1

2

-r-

1

(a"

- 3).

12.

13.

14.

+ + 47i) + 35V5?)-*-(5Vp + l). VS" ^- ( Vo Vft) H- (a~ -f 7 a- ^a~ + 1C a-*b~ - 33 a- 6~ + 14 a(3 a _&)-*. (-^? + ^/-^ + */fr^ 15. 16. (a-6 + 2V6c c)-^-(Va+V6 Vc). 17. -y^TTOa; -f 13 - 12 *- + 4 aF*.
(13Vp
5

l

(Va^-f aV^-&Va
l

3

)

3

2

2

^>~

3

2

1

1

)

(

1

18. 19.

Vor

2

2 x -h or
2

2 or

1

-f-

3.

V25 #

- 2()"ar r+ 34 - 12 x -f 9 x*.

20.

^^
l

21. 22.
23. 24.
25.

+2
a?
8

(l+4^-flO^ + 20oT-f 25^T -f-24-\/i?-f 16
(1+V2)V2. (2+V2)(V2-2). (5+V3)(5-2V3).
26. 27.

)*.

(1-3VS)(2 + V5).

(VU - V2)(Vn~3V2)

204

ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
:

Find by inspection
28.
29.

(x*

+ 3)(tf*-f 2).

35.
36.

8 (a;*

yi)

.

a*

+ 3l-5.
V2

(5*-2*

2
.

30.
31.
32.

38. 39.

(3^
(#* ^
(fl

2*)
-f-

.

33. 34.

5) (x*

5).

40.

(m

n)

-f-

(m*

11
-f-

n 5 ).

CHAPTER XVII
RADICALS
253.

A

radical is the root of

a quantity, indicated by a

radical sign.

254.

The

radical is rational, if the root can be extracted

exactly; irrational, if the root cannot be exactly obtained. Irrational quantities are frequently called surds.

^9
4^
\/2,

(*

+ V) *

are radicals.

= 2, V(a + 6) 2 are rational.
V4a-f
b are irrational.

255.
root.

The

order of a surd

is

indicated by the index of the

va
\/2

/-

.

is
is is

of the second order, or quadratic. of the third order, or cubic. of the fourth order, or biquadratic.

Vc

256. A mixed surd is the product of a rational factor and a surd factor; as 3Va, a;V3. The rational factor of a mixed surd is called the coefficient of the surd.

An
257.
factor.

entire surd is

one whose coefficient

is

unity; as

Va,

Similar surds are surds
3v/2 and 6

which contain the same irrational
are similar.

av^

3V2 and

3 V8 are dissimilar.

206

206
258.

ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
Conventional restriction of the signs of roots.

All even roots
e.g.

may

be positive or negative,

VI = + 2

or

2.

Hence
6. which results in four values, viz. 14, 6, To avoid 14, or this ambiguity, it is customary in elementary algebra to restrict

the sign of a root to the prefixed sign.

Thus

5 V4 4- 2 V4

= 7 VI = 14.

If the object of an example, however, is merely an evolution, the complete answer is usually given thus
;

=-

(oj- 2).

259.

Since radicals can be written as powers with fractional

exponents, all examines relating to radicals

may

be solved by the

methods employed for fractional exponents.

Thus, to find the nth root of a product ab we have
T

1

1

(a6)"==a"6"
I.e.

(242).

to extract the root of a product, multiply the roots of the

factors.

TRANSFORMATION OF RADICALS
260.
Simplification of surds.

A radical is simplified when the

expression under the radical sign is integral, and contains no factor whose power is equal to the index.

Ex.

1.

Simplify

= \/25~a~ Vb = 6 a*VS.
4

Ex.

2.

Simplify

-v/16.

-J/lB^^.

4/2

= 2^.

RADICALS
.

207

261 When the quantity under the radical sign is a fraction, we multiply both numerator and denominator by such a quantity as will make the denominator a perfect power of the same
degree as the surd.

Ex.

3.

Simplify V|.

Ex.

4.

Simplify

EXERCISE

94

208

ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
/s

37.

39.

j

*x+y
38.

n

\ 2m

262.

An

same manner

imaginary surd can be simplified in precisely the as a real surd thus,
;

42.

V-16a
:

,

2
.

44.

2\-

Simplify and find to three decimal places the numerical
values of
47.
48.

VJ.*

49.
50.

Vf.

VJ.

VA

263.

Reduction of a surd to an entire surd.

Ex.

Express 4 a V& as an entire surd.

EXERCISE
Express as entire surds
1.
:

95

4V5.

3.

2-\/lL

5.
6.

7.

2.

3V7.

4.

3^5.

a VS.

8.

* See table of square roots on page 164.

RADICALS
264. Transformation of surds to surds of different order.

209

Ex.

1.

Transform -\/uW into a surd of the 20th order.

Ex.

2.

Transform

\/2,

V3, and

\/5 into surds of the

same

lowest order.

V2 = 2* = a* = '#64. |^ = 8* = 3A= ^gi. ^5 = 6* = 6* =^125.
1

Ex.

3.

Reduce the order of the surd tyaP.

Exponent and index bear the same relation as numerator and denominator of a fraction ; and hence both may be multiplied by

same number, or both divided by the same number, without changing the value of the radical.
the

EXERCISE
Reduce
1.

96
:

to surds of the 6th order
2.

Va?.

-fymn.

3.

\/ v

4.

v'c?.

5.

\|

z

\

^3

6.

mn.

Reduce
7.
8.

to surds of the 12th order
9.

:

V2~a.

\/a4 6 2c.
-\/3ax.

11.
12.

-\/oP6.

13.
14.
a.

^v/mV

10.

\/5a5V.

Express as surds of lowest order with integral exponents and indices
:

15.

-v/o

5
.

16.

\/oW.

17.

-v/IaT .

2

18.

-\/

20.

A/^

22.

VSlmV.

24.

-^6. V2. ^3. ^5. 36. 28.e. Simplify V|~ .2. Ex. </20. 31. V2. 30. 3: \/=^8 v~ 8ft 2 s/a. 39. 3. -^7. To add or form. -v^S. A/3. 34. ^2. s!/3. -v/3. Arrange 35. -v/3. V5.3-\| . </3.10 V2 = - V2. Ex. 37. -\/5.210 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA : Express as surds of the same lowest order 25. A/2. terms their If the resulting surds are similar. 2\ 3*. Simplify V| + 3 VlS. V2. ^4. if dissimilar. -^4. signs. 40. 5V2. ^/IT. 4^/4. I VJ + 3VT8 . VS. ADDITION AND SUBTRACTION OF RADICALS 265. 27. V3. 38. connect them by proper 1.2 V50 = V2 + 9 V2 . ^126. (i. -v/4. </2. -\/7. in order of magnitude : \/7. ^2. 3 - s/- / 3ft 2 - 3 ^y Ex. -^2. subtract surds. 26. + .2 V50. 29. 32. V3. 33. Simplify/a35 ~ o . reduce them to their simplest add them like similar add their coefficients) . ^30.

VT2 + 2V27 + 3V75-9V48. 14. 9. 4. 10. 4V80-5V45-. 3. V45c3 3 abv'ab V80~c~3 -f V5a c + c 2 + 3 aVo^ 3 Va^ . VJ+V8-V1 + V50. 8VT8-J-2V32 7. V18+V32-VT28+V2. 2V8-7Vl8-f5V72-V50. 6. + 3V8-35V2. 12. 8. .J a6 V4 aft. 11. V175-V28+V63-4V7. 6. 13.3V20 + 6V5.RADICALS EXERCISE 97 : 211 Simplify the following expressions 2.

212 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA . . Multiply V2 by 3\/l.100 = -f 44 VS6 6 + 44\/36. y* = Ex. 5 4/6072 = 16^6272. 3.2v/6 + IPV6 105. Ex.2 VS by 3 Vf + 10 VB. 23.6V35 106 4-60V35-100 .fab V \~\ jab FW MULTIPLICATION QEJRABIQALS 266. 2. 26^ . and then multiplied. 1. Dissimilar surds are reduced to surds of the same order. 98 ab ^" fab 1 " . . 6*. Ex. for a~\/x b~\/y ab^/xy. Multiply 3-\/25^ by 5\/50Y 3v / 2 . Multiply 5 V7 8\/7 6\/7. the Surds of the same order are multiplied by multiplying product of the coefficients by the product of the irrational factors.

a?.^/2. 38. ( Vm -\- 1 Vm) (Vm-f 1 6(Va-f Va -{- Vm). 19. 6 V4 5. . + VB)(2-V5). 13. 3. 10. 14. 6. 7. 27. V3 V6. (Vm-Vn)(Vm+Vn> 33. 25. 9. (V2+V3+V4)V3. 6. (5V5-8V2)(5V5 + 8V2).VSS. 40. V5 Va VaV?/ V Vr 16. aVa. -\/3 -\^). (5V2-2V3-CVS)V3. 18. (2-V3) 8 . V2a-V8^. 21. (3 20. 40 10 30. 8. 2 . -v/4. 37. (6V2-3V3)(6V2-|-3V3). (Va Va 36. 28 . fWa 17. (V6 + 1) 1 . -v/18 -v"3. V20 V30. V42. 15. -VTO. (Vm-Vn) (V3-V2) 8 . 41. Vll. 213 98 11. 34. VlO V15. 4. 12. V3 Vl2. V2 -V50.RADICALS EXERCISE 1. 39. 2.

51. (3V3-2Vo)(2V3+V5). 47. Monomial surdn of the same order may be divided by multiplying the quotient of the coefficients by the quotient of the surd factors. the quotient of the surds is If. E. 48. 44. 49. 60.y. -v/a - DIVISION OF RADICALS 267. a fraction. . 52. Ex. Ex. (5V2+V10)(2V5-1). 53. 46.214 42. all monomial surds may be divided by method. 268.V5) ( V3 + 2 VS). (2 45. (V50-f 3Vl2)-4-V2== however. it more convenient to multiply dividend and divisor by a factor which makes the divisor rational. Va -v/a. is 1 2. 43. (5V7-2V2)(2VT-7V2). V3 . ELEMENTS OF ALGEHRA (3V5-5V3) S . a VS -f- a?Vy = -\/ - x*y this Since surds of different orders can be reduced to surds of the same order. (3V5-2V3)(2V3-V3).

the by 3 is much easier to perform than the division by 1. The 2. 1.by the usual arithmetical method. called rationalizing the the following examples : 215 divisor. . Divide VII by v7. however. is illustrated by Ex. 4\/3~a' 36 Ex. is Since \/8 12 Vil = 2 V*2.57735.RADICALS This method. Evidently. To show that expressions with rational denominators are simpler than those with irrational denominators.73205. 3. we have to multiply In order to make the divisor (V?) rational.. + 4\/5 _ 12v 3 + 4\/5 V8 V8 V2 V2 269. e. we have V3 But if 1. VTL_Vll ' ~~" \/7_V77 . Divide 12 V5 + 4V5 by V. . /~ } Ex. the rationalizing factor x ' g \/2. metical problems afford the best illustrations.73205 we simplify JL-V^l V3 *> ^> division Either quotient equals . . Hence in arithmetical work it is always best to rationalize the denominators before dividing. arithTo find.g. Divide 4 v^a by is rationalizing factor evidently \/Tb hence. by V7.

Vn V7 ' * 8. V3 = 1. Va + Vb and Va Vb are conjugate surds. and Given V2 = 1. V3 24 . 272. To rationalize the denominator of a fraction whose denom- inator is a binomial quadratic surd. V2 22 . multiply numerator and denominator by the conjugate surd of the denominator. A. 21. 14. 271. V48 25. -i. Vll 212*. 23 . The product of two conjugate binomial surds is rational . 20. if 4=V50 Two binomial quadratic surds are said to be conjugate. . V8?^ V7 xy T 13 11 n V7 ~ VH 5 -2-.7320.. 2V5 ' 2 V3 o vfi* ' ^ Va 12. V5 = 2. V5 270. Vf-f-V?. find to four decimal places the numerical values of: 19. --. A.216 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 99 Simplify : 1.2361. they differ only in the sign which connects their terms. ^/H . 7.4142. V8 JL. V8 12.

= 18. 3. V8-2 2-V3 1-fVS . Find the numerical value of : V2 + 2 2V2-1 e . . 1. Ex.07105 = 7 7 2V2-1 2V2-1 2V2 + 1 EXERCISE Eationalize the denominators of : 100 . s Simplify a.RADICALS Ex. Ex.1 x-Vtf a. V2+2 _ V2+2 2\/2+l_6 + 6\/2.vffi^T _ .2.Vs2 . 217 Simplify 2V3-V2 ' V3-V2 ~ = 4 + V5. .

19. .2361. V3 + 1 1+V5 _ 3-V5 ' V5+2 31. V5-2 17 1-Va? Vg+v/2 5V7-7V5 ' V3-V2 15. INVOLUTION AND EVOLUTION OF RADICALS 273. V5-V7 18> ^-SVg. -J?_. 27.5 3 = 125. By the use of fractional exponents . ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 13 ~3 V5-1 14 A 16. 6V7-. = V3 = 1.4142.W3. four places of decimals 23 . Vo-1 26. 2V5-V18 m-Vm Va 22. Given V2 1. 24.218 6 . v 2-V3 28. V3-2* to 1 Find the third proportional + V2 and 3 -f- 2V2. it can easily be shown that VcT = ( V) w Hence 3 V25~ = ( V25) 3 . : and V5 = 2.7320. V2-1 -= 25 . find to _!_.

Simplify Ex. it to this form. 9. \/125" . . 2. SQUARE ROOTS OF QUADRATIC SURDS 275.RADICALS 219 274. 4. -\/l6*. 1. To reduce is two numbers whose sum 5 and 3. Find the square of EXERCISE Simplify 1. the If. 8. 5. v8-f 2\/15. To find the square root of a binomial square by inspection. we must find 8 and whose product is 15. 3 (V2~u-) - 7. ( V5 + V3) = 5 + 2 V5~^3 + 3 2 = 8 + 2 VIS. According to G3. 2 12. V255 . 11. on the other hand. we had to find problem would be quite simple if presented in the form v5-|-2V3 5 + 3. V643 . 3. In other examples of involution and evolution. 2. introduce fractional exponents : Ex. : 101 (3Vmw) 2 . viz.

2 A/2 = V9-A/2 = 3 .220 Ex.6\/2 = ^9 . +2 Ex. Find V4 + VJ8. The Hence ^11 . Find Vll . These Ex. 2 \/18. ^TT. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA l.6 V2.2 \/20.6 A/2 = Vll Find two numbers whose sum numbers are 9 and 2. EXERCISE 102 : Extract the square roots of the following binomials .A/2. is 11. coefficient of the Irrational Write the binomial so that the term is 2. Find Vl2 4. and whose product is 18. is Find two numbers whose sum numbers are 10 and 2. 12 and whose product is 20. 3. 2.

x2 = x -f 2.V48 4 20.. * 4-- * 2 V6 VT 4. much and to transpose the terms so that one radical stands alone in one member. 8. a. they are transto formed into rational equations. Transposing and uniting. 4. V4 + V12 RADICAL EQUATIONS 276. The value x =2 reduces each . by raising both members equal powers. i. (2x xrf 1. 5. Solve vV-f!2-a = 2. Radical equations are rationalized. Ex. -+=. examples to simplify the equation as it is necessary in most as possible.1. Before performing the involution. = xa + 4 x -f 4. : 221 Vl3-2V22. VT . 4x x = 2. r 22. -\/x Vx = + 3 = 7. member to 2. Transposing Vsc2 + -f 12 12 Squaring both members. 19.RADICALS Simplify the following expressions 18. first involution. are radical equations. Dividing by Check. If all radicals do not disappear through the the process must be repeated. A radical equation is an equation involving an irrational root of an unknown number.e. V48 23. . 277.

= 9 x2 18 x + 8x 2 25x-f3 = 0. tion usually introduces a new Squaring both members of an equaThus x 2 = 3 has only root. a so-called extraneous root. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBltA Solve V4 x + 1 -f V4 -f 1 . The results of the solution of radical equations must be substituted in the (jlren equation to determine ivhether the roots are true roots or extraneous roots. Transposing. the roots found are not necessarily roots of the given equation 279. radical equations require for their solution the squaring of both members. 5. Extraneous roots. viz. the first member = V2. viz. one root. V4afT~l. they may be extraneous roots. Dividing by 24. at . or = VzMx2 7 x -f -f 7 x + 9. Transposing and uniting. 278. tion which has two roots. an equaSquaring both members we obtain or 1. member =|\/2 + -jV2=|v^. Squaring both members. = 12 = 144 24\/4# + 1 = 120. . . Vitf 4x -f 25 -f- 25 4x -f- 1 25. 5 and The squaring of both members of the given equation introSince duced the new root 1. x = J. 24 \/4 #-|- Transpose V4 x Squaring both members. 4#-f 4 = 9. (x 3) (8 x x = 3. a. Ex. 2 Vx^ Dividing by 2. Squaring both members.3. Transposing and uniting. 2. \/4 jc~+~l = 5. x + 1 + 2 Vx'2 + 1 x + (. It = 3 x . Therefore Check. . Therefore CftecAr. Solve -Vx -f- Squaring both members.222 Ex. 3. Factoring. -f- 25 = 12. V24~+~l = 0.1) = 0. -f V/2TT25 = 5 + x 7 = 12.

equation it is an extraneous root. Transposing. Solve Vz+T + V2aT+3 = + "b"x -f A5_ 15. 223 x = 3. \ does not satisfy the given. 4- VxT~0 = \/8 x -f 1. is x V.48 x + 2 x2 53 -f 141 = 0. Hence there is only one root. viz. 4.2 r.47) = 0. If the signs of the roots were not restricted. for it satisfies the equation . both members reduce to 5. + 6~ieT~3 . ViTie- 4 z2 . 2 Clearing of fractions. . 2 z 2 4 6 x 4 3 = 144 . Squaring. V2x' 8 4-2x4-3 Transposing. = 3. * Exclude all solutions which do not satisfy the equation or which make the given radicals imaginary.RADICALS Hence x If a. Check. (x x = 3. Solve the following equations : = G. . tlie Jeft both members reduce member = 12T V2. and to 5. = } would be a VaT+T Ex.12 . Factoring. . Therefore. If If x 3 = 3.3) (2 x . the right member = |V2. Hence x = the only root. NOTE. or x *j-. x root of the preceding equation.

Factoring. Many 1. Therefore . Ex.224 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 280.33 af* + 32=0. radical equations may be solved by the method of 238. Solve af*.

EXERCISE 104* its Solve the following equations: 1. 225 x = 32~* or 1"* = ^ or 1. + 40 = 6. Vi 2 -8a.*-2a. 45 14VJB = .RADICALS Raising both members to the | power. This can be seen without substituting. But as the square root is restricted to cannot be equal to a negative quantity. 4. x Since both =9 or 1. + 40 = Vz2 $x + 40 = y. 2. 4-12a* = 16. Solve x* 8x x* Adding 40 to both members. 3. 2Va. or y or Therefore 2 y = 5. Ex. . = 26. = 7. 3 6. for 6 and 3 are the roots of the may 2 equation Vx' 8x it positive values. x + Vx a? = 6.8 z-|-40 = 7. some of the roots be extraneous. make the given radicals * Exclude extraneous roots and roots which imaginaries.i~24 = 0. members of the equation were squared. Let 8 x -f 40 . Q . o. x =6 or 3.-f40= 5. 5.8 x 2 Hence y' 2y = 35. = 0. while 6 and 3 are extraneous roots. _ 2 y .8 x + 40 = 36. Substituting. 2_8z 4-40 = 49. y then x2 . 2. it will be found that 9 and 1 satisfy the equation.35 = 0.

6 Va?~3o~ = y? 3 x -f . 16. 14. a. 2.a 4-40 = 35. 17. 15.226 11. a^x2 5 2 13. 19. or 2 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 8a -f- 40 2 V* 2 8. 12. 18. 20. 2 7a?H-V^ 3 7a. 4 V SB* 4- a. +3= 6.-f 18 = 24. ar -fll x 3x 12 V5l? +1 1^7-^30 = 1 ^ + G V2^"-^I + 2 = 4. +x .

3-6-0 = 244. Hence. 1. Let then find the remainder obtained z = 3.2 + 8-0 = 12. we can find the value of R by making x = 2. 3 2 Ex. however.bx? + ex2 4. then (x 2)Q 0. Without actual division. assign any value whatsoever and would always obtain the same answer for R.2 x 5 by x 3. even if Q is unknown. If x* . by dividing 3 x* -f. 2. could. -f 8 = (a? 2) x Quotient -f Remainder.4 a.2 + 4. ax4 4. a? R = x* . substituting Q " and ani^ ^ 2 respectively for Quotient " and Remainder. = 2.<fo -f e is divided by x Let then 2 4 8 ca: -f (to + e (x = w. ^ = 3-81+2. Ex.3 x~ + 4 x + 8 is divided by x remainder (which does not contain a?). no matter If. R = am* + 6m3 + cm2 + tZw + e. we make a? what the value of Q." transposing. if Q was known.3 x + 4 + 8 As 72 (a? . does not contain a?.CHAPTER XVIII THE FACTOR THEOREM 281. to x we # = 2 -3. E = ax + &z + m) Q. Without actual division. " Or. 227 . find the remainder when m.2) Q . then or* -2 and there is a 3 x2 -f.

The remainder obtained by dividing (x + 4)4 _ (3 + 2) ( X - 1) +7 by x - 1 is 6* -3 . x*-x + 4x -Tx + 2\)y x + 2.g. the remainder equals 8 2 x . 2 j 7. if 8 42 - . x5 a^ 7 b 5 by x 6.3)-f 11 =. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA The Remainder Theorem.949.8. of the division 3) is m in place of x. + ^by x + b. the divisor is a factor of the dividend.4x4-11)^0 + 4 (- 3) . 5 (4x . EXERCISE Without actual division dividing : 105 find the remainder obtained by 2. x m is factor of the expression. x is divided by x The remainder 6 sion involving If an integral rational expresm. If the remainder is zero. -}- 2 by a-1.8'= 0. 3 x2 4) is a factor of x - - - 00 *. x* s 2 4. Only factors of the absolute term need be substituted .4(.228 282. 43 -3 E. + 6. hence (x divided by x 4. the remainder is obtained by substituting in the given expression E. fora?. 5. a100 -50 a47 4- 48 a2 b. + 3x3 -2x* 32x12 by a?-3. The Factor Theorem. ing x becomes zero x8 3 x2 2 4 when 2 x If a rational integral expression involvm is a is written in place of x.g. 8. a -f b 7 by a ^-14y ~132/ -- 283. + 7 = 632. 3.

-r-6 = 0. 106 division. factors of the absolute term. 3 2 : 7. 8. 7 4-6 = 0. 1ft : ar*-f 6aj 2 o?-5ar 3 l + lla. 2 2. 229 1. a + 32.TEE FACTOR THEOREM Ex. x8 By dividing by x a?8 -f 1. p -5^ + 8p 4. + 15. 2o? m -6ra -fllm 6. -f 16) EXERCISE Without actual 1. m -f m n 14. 6.7 x + 15 = 0. x* 34 ar 5 225 is divisible by x 5. ^ + 7y + 2y-40 = 0. a -8a -f 19 a -12. is a factor. Let x = . 5 Solve the following equations by factoring 15. 24. + 27 + 27. 2m -5m .1. i. m 4 n4 25 mV + 19 ran 13. or 5 4 + 3^ .e. 4m p~m p + 16m^ 12. -f 5.-12 = 0. Therefore x ( 1). & p*. we obtain 7 - 7 x2 + x + 16 = (x + l)(x 2 - 8 a. or x -4. 9. 25. 8 -}3 3 2 3 s 2 3 4 8 2 2 4 s 3 -t- . 15. ^-10^4-29^-20=0. a 5x 6. x -4o8 + 2a^ + 4a?~3 =0 4^ or* -f 9 or* 2 a? aj? a? a? 2 4 3 . 11. 18.12. 17. 2. 8. a.1. a^-8^ + 19a. a? 19.7 -f -5a 18 divisible by x 2. Factor a? 15. . 1. -7 2 a? 2 -f 7a?-f 15. oj 5x2 -f3a. -f- 3.4-9 = 0. The 5. Let x = 1 then 7 x + 7 a. then x8 7 x'2 4. are -f 1. _ . 3.9^ + 23^-15. + tt-t-15 = 0.13m + 30 10. 23. a -2a + 4. 21.7 + 16 . 5. 20. -f 15 does not vanish. show that divisible 4x 2 j +3x 2 a? 2 2 as 5 is or 2 by is a. 1. Resolve into factors 4.

is odd. xn y n y n y n = 0. It y is not divisible by 287. ar +p= z6 e. 286. xn -f." .xy +/). ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA positive integer. The difference of two even powers should always be considered as a difference of two squares. if w is odd. Two special cases of the preceding propositions are of viz. and have for any positive integral value of If n is odd. : importance. If n is a Theorem that 1.230 285. if n For ( y) n -f y n = 0. 1. if n is even. 2. Factor consider m m 6 n9 . 2 Ex.g. By we obtain the other factors. actual division n. - y 5 = (x - can readily be seen that #n -f either x + y or x y.y n is divisible by x -f ?/. it follows from the Factoi xn y n is always divisible by x y. 2. 2 8 (3 a ) +8= + 288. x* -f-/ = (x +/)O . We may 6 n 6 either a difference of two squares or a dif- * The symbol means " and so forth to. Ex. For substituting y for x. Factor 27 a* -f 27 a 6 8.

THE FACTOR THEOREM ference of two cubes. Factor a 12 EXERCISE Resolve into prime factors : 107 Solve the following equations: 25. 3. 26. however. since it more directly to the prime factors. y 3 +8=0. -f n)(m 2 mn -f w 2 )(wi . as -27=0. x3 -8=0. 28.= . Hence = (m Ex. 27.i mn -f w 2). preferable. leads 231 is The first method. a.

& + 2 xy + = 25. xy x*y -f y = 4 is of the second degree.1. Hence " / | X y = =} 4. Simultaneous quadratic equations involving two un- known quantities lead. = 6. 232 . (4) Hence. The degree of an equation involving several unknown quantities is equal to the greatest sum of the exponents of the unknown quantities contained in any term. can be solved by the methods degree.CHAPTER XIX SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 289. + 6 a?V . 4 xy = 16. (5) Combining (5) with (1). If two of the quantities x -f y. 290. x y. Squaring Solve (1). EQUATIONS SOLVED BY FINDING x +y AND x-y 291. xy are given. 2 2/ (1) (2) (3) (2) x 4. the third one can be found by means of the relation (oj-j-y) 2 4 xy Ex.y4 is of the fifth degree. ==5 > 1^ = 4. *The graphic solution of simultaneous quadratic equations has been treated in Chapter XII. * A I. x-ywe have 3. of quadratics. in general. however. to equations of the fourth few cases.

1. " "' "' { r 8. In many cases two of the quantities x -f y. r- (" 1 = 876. the answers of the last example are : r*=-2. b=-3. EXERCISE Solve: 1. ' 10. I I x + y=7. but can be found.g. 108 2.SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 292. = . F* Lx ' 2 (1) ' (2) (3) (4) -2 + 3 = 293. ^. 3. 12. 233 y. roots of simultaneous quadratic equations must be e. The arranged in pairs. x and xy are not given.

. 9 y2 17 y 2 + ) 8 (y - 40 y (17 y 1 Hence Substituting in (3).i/ = r 13. 2 (1) From (1) we have. - . aj = 2. ( \ ~^V\ + 2 / 2y 2 ?/' . or y = 1 . Factoring.o 18. x " (3) 49 etc.~ y = 5. THE OTHER QUADRATIC 294. I* Jj ^ [.. one linear and ne quadratic. can be solved by eliminating one of the unknown uantities by means of substitution. 6 "I 14. 19. A system of simultaneous equations.?/ i = 6. la. Ex. . - f J. 3. 4 y = 20. Solve 2 x + 3y = 7.4 [ ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA x -4. EXERCISE Solve : 109 -47/ = 0. or JJ. r^ 2 as ] -f.a. I x+y = a. ^ f or* -f 4 xy = 28. 7 . - 42 y + Transposing. + 29 = 0. =^ 18* ONE EQUATION LINEAR. 5. ' ' . Substituting in (2) Simplifying.20) = 0.

10. ' x*. 3y) : Factor (2).3 2x 2 Ex. If of the preceding type. (1) (2) 7 xy + G if = 0. 1. HOMOGENEOUS EQUATIONS homogeneous equation is an equation all of whose terms are of the same degree with respect to the unknown 295. 9. 3 y2 Substituting in (1). 235 - > ' 1 lla 8- 12~ 10 13. III. 8 V-~80 Hence y =1 y .SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS y 7. y* + 2y = 3. the example can always be reduced to an example 296. 4^ 3 x 2 y 3 y3 A and # 2 2 xy 5 y2 are homogeneous equations. quantities. Solve . one equation of two simultaneous quadratics is homogeneous. (x to solve the 2t/)(2 x = ( Hence we have two systems (3) (1) From (3). x-2y. = 1 3 3. 4 f- + 2 y = 3. ':il -e :) .

If both equations are homogeneous with exception oi the absolute terra. (1) Eliminate 2 and 6 by subtraction. 15 x2 . } VI09. 109 a. y = 110 f 10^-370^ + 7^ = 16^-7^ .20 xy + 15 y 2 = 2 x 5. the problem can be reduced to the preceding case by eliminating the absolute term. 11 a2 Factoring. (1) (2) x x 5. (rc-2/)(llx-5y) 16 xy -f 5 y 2 (3) Hence solve : (2) From (3).236 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 297. Solve 2. j Substituting y in (2). = Ex. 2. (3) (4) Subtracting. = 0. 2 .2 ^ EXERCISE Solve: 6ar --7aK/4-27/2 ==0. = 0.

SPECIAL DEVICES Many examples belonging to the preceding types.xy 4. 2 xy + y2 = 10.!. Equations of higher degree can sometimes be reduced to equations of the second degree by dividing member by member. 2 (3) (4) Squaring (2). Some of the more frequently used devices are the following: 299. f 1 150 a?. ' <"" -=m _ 14 ' &. y? a? -f .SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 237 m U. . " IV.6. can be solved by special devices.125 ay = . which in most cases must be left to the ingenuity of the student.y = 7. Bxy-9. E.3^4-2^=43. Solve * + '-* { Dividing (1) by (2). 298. ' ^ 15. and others not belonging to them. (4) -(3). Division of one equation by the other. 150 */2 .175 ay = 12. A.

= 189. Solve Ex. Vx y 4 or V^^y = 3 x 4- or But the negative roots being extraneous.238 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 111 Solve * : faj-y=152. Therefore x = 16. * ' 300. B. x 2 . Some simultaneous ?/. = 12 J. i" <--Vx -f -' unknown 6. considering not x or but expressions involving x and as the as x -. quadratics can be solved by ?/. Considering V# + y and y as quantities and solving. (1 > (2) 1. y . x +y y etc.. jc~ y = 9. we have from (1). we obtain by squaring. y = 3|. xy. f^ + 3 7/ = 133. i ^ *>. 2. at first it is unknown quantities. from (2). In more complex examples letter for advisable to substitute another such expressions.

The solution produces the roots EXERCISE Solve : 112 5. 2. 239 Ex. Solve (1) (2) Let Then r __ 17^ + 4-0. 36* 2. F+y+ . I e. 7. |. [2x + : y= 17.SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS . M-6. Hence we have 7 x 4 to solve the two systems U) : x ! + */ = 17. 4. Hence = V or = 4. 6.

25. ' x2 1 6 xy = 15. . 2 or 5 CCT/ + 3 f + 3 . = y 1 y* . * . 16. ( xy (7 m 2 n*. 27. f 18.240 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Solve by any method : far' 9 + a^lSG. + o5)(6-hy) = 80. 19 ' 26. . = 198. ' ** 5x+ 7y = 13 ' ' 1 f. x 1 20' = 41 400' =34.4 y = 47 a.21 ^ = 15.

7' j/ 39. as a --. etc 302. ^ oo . . hence may be any finite number. Interpretation . . etc. oo 301. 30.of - According to the definition of division. 25 34. 33. Q 7. -. y % 9 f*K 36. 31.SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS i 241 y . . The results of problems and other examples appear sometimes in forms which require a special interpretation. INTERPRETATION OF NEGATIVE RESULTS AND THE FORMS OF 5 . finite - =x y if = x. = 48201. or ~ indeterminate. ~\ OK OO. -- But this equation is satisfied by any is value of a?. 3 a2 38. 203): ix y Solve graphically (see 40. 32.

while the remaining terms do not cancelj the root is infinity. and .242 303. the answer is indeterminate. TO^UU" sufficiently small. i. oo is = QQ.x'2 2 x = 1. or infinitesimal) This result is usually written : 305. as + l. ToU" ^-100 a. or that x may equal any finite number. I. x -f 2. 1. (1). (1) = 0. and becomes infinitely small. Hence any number will satisfy equation the given problem is indeterminate. = 10. 306. equation. By making x any * assigned zero. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Interpretation of ? e. customary to represent this result by the equation ~ The symbol 304.increases if x de- x creases. of the second exceeds the product of the first Find three consecutive numbers such that the square and third by 1. without exception.decreases X if called infinity.e. be the numbers. i. . The ~~f fraction .000 a. The solution x =- indicates that the problem is indeter- If all terms of an minate. cancel. is satisfied by any number. it is an Ex. 1. (1) is an identity. Hence such an equation identity.e. great. (a: Then Simplifying. + I) 2 x2 ' -f 2x + 1 -x(x + 2)= . creases.g. Interpretation of QO The fraction if x x inis infinitely large.can be If It is made larger than number. Or. however x approaches the value be- comes infinitely large. Let 2. the If in an equation terms containing unknown quantity cancel.i solving a problem the result or oo indicates that the all problem has no solution. .

SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS Ex.2 y = 4. EXERCISE 1. Solve | 9 7. z = 1 Substituting. 3.e. third and sixth parts. Solve x a.8 x + 15 6. 42 and' their product is 377. Solve (aj + 1) : (x + 2) = ( + 3) 114 : (a? + 4). 1=0. and the sum of Find the numbers. EXERCISE PROBLEMS 1. no numbers can satisfy the given system. 2. . The sum of two numbers Find the numbers. Find three consecutive numbers such that the square of 2. y finite QO. two numbers is 76. Solve . the second exceeds the product of the first and third by 2. 113 is One half of a certain number equal to the sum of its Find the number. The sum is of squares 2890. and a. (2). 4 -3 x x-5 a2 . Solve ~o -3 x v ~K -6 x r x 6 4. * 6. is their 2. Hence /. 243 Solve the system : (1) (2) From Or. = oo.

Find the dimensions of the field. The hypotenuse is the other two sides 7. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA The difference between is of their squares 325. 190. Find the edges. To inclose a rectangular field 1225 square feet in area. Find the edge of each cube. Find two numbers whose product whose squares is 514. 10. is is 17 and the sum 4. Find the numbers.) 53 yards. . of a right triangle is 73. 14. equals 4 inches. But if the length is increased by 10 inches and 12. and the diago(Ex. 12. the area becomes -f% of the original area. and its The diagonal is is perimeter 11. and the side of one increased by the side of the other e. 9. The area of a nal 41 feet.244 3. and the edge of one. 255 and the sum of 5. two numbers Find the numbers. Find the sides. Find the side of each square. The sum of the areas of two squares is 208 square feet. rectangle is 360 square Find the lengths of the sides. and the sum of ( 228. the The mean proportional between two numbers sum of their squares is 328. 6. and the edge of one exceeds the edge of the other by 2 centimeters. 148 feet of fence are required. The volumes of two cubes differ by 98 cubic centimeters. is 6. 8. 146 yards. Two cubes together contain 30| cubic inches. Find the other two sides. Find these sides. is the breadth diminished by 20 inches. p. of a rectangular field feet. and is The area of a rectangle remains unaltered if its length increased by 20 inches while its breadth is diminished by 10 inches. and the hypotenuse is 37. Find the sides of the rectangle.quals 20 feet.) The area of a right triangle is 210 square feet. 13. 103. increased by the edge of the other.

Find the radii.) 17. their areas are together equal to the area of a circle whose radius is 37 inches. (Surface of sphere If a number of two digits be divided its digits.) (Area of circle and = 1 16. and if the digits will be interchanged. . The radii of two spheres is difference of their surfaces whose radius = 47T#2. and the equal to the surface of a sphere Find the radii. the quotient is 2. is 20 inches. 245 The sum of the radii of two circles is equal to 47 inches. by the product of 27 be added to the number. differ by 8 inches. Find the number.SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 15. irR *.

The common differences are respectively 4. 3.. a + 2 d. a 3d. 17. each term of which. except the first. 2 d must be added to a. : 7... 11. 309.1) d. P. . -f . 3 d must be added to a.. The first is an ascending.CHAPTER XX PROGRESSIONS 307. . (n 1) d must be added to a. + 2 d. . to produce the 3d term.) is a series. 16.7.. 12. is derived from the preceding by the addition of a constant number. P. the second a descending. a + d.. An arithmetic progression (A. of a series are its successive numbers. a 11. progression. P.. The common Thus each difference is the number which added an A.11 246 (I) Thus the 12th term of the 3 or 42. -4. 10. a.. . Hence / = a + (n . the first term a and the common difference d being given... 19. to A series is a succession of numbers formed according some fixed law. Since d is a -f 3 d. 15 is 9 -f. To find the nth term / of an A. to produce the 4th term. to each term produces the next term. a -f d. and d. of the following series is 3. series 9. added to each term to obtain the next one. The progression is a. The terms ARITHMETIC PROGRESSION 308. to produce the nth term.

? (a) 1.-.. -24.. = I + 49 = *({ + . Find the 5th term of the 4. d = 3. P..4. Find the 101th term of the series 1. 2J. -4^.. a = 2. = a + (a Reversing the order. series . 5. 3. -3. Or Hence Thus from (I) = (+/). = -2.. if a = 5.. Find the 7th term of the Find the 21st term series . Which (6) (c) of the following series are in A..8. Find the 12th term of the -4. 2 sum of the first 60 I (II) to find the ' ' odd numbers.- (a + + (a + l) l). 8. 7. 3.16.. 2 EXERCISE 1. . (d) 1J. 115. 7.. 8... P. series 2. 2. . -7. Find the 10th term of the series 17. 5. . 8. 6. 3. 6 we have Hence . 19..' cZ == . 1. of the series 10.. . . 5. Adding. 6. 247 first To find the sum s 19 of the first n terms of an A. 9.PROGRESSIONS 310. 5... d . -10. = 99. 2.. the last term and the common difference d being given. 9. 1-J. 3. 6. -|.3 a = -l. Find the nth term of the series 2. . 5. the term a. 4. 21. 1. P.-. first 2 Write down the (a) (6) (c) 6 terms of an A. 99) = 2600. 2*=(a + Z) + (a + l) + (a + l) 2s = n * ..

31. 12. 22. 18. '. 20. 2. to 7 terms. . 11.. -. to 20 terms. \-n. to 15 terms. How much does he receive (a) in the 21st year (6) during the first 21 years ? j 311. striking hours only. 3. 23. 1J. 15. + 3. 7. 21. to 16 terms. 12.1 -f 3. . : 3. the other two may be found by the solution of the simultaneous equations .(# 1 2) -f (x -f 3) H to a terms. 1. 16. to 10 terms. 17. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA last term and the sum of the following series : .5 H + i-f -f- to 10 terms. 19. 7. 13. . 15. strike for the first yard. 1|. Sum the following series 14. 11. $1 For boring a well 60 yards deep a contractor receives yard thereafter 10^ more How much does he receive all together ? ^S5 A bookkeeper accepts a position at a yearly salary of $ 1000. + 2-f-3 + 4 H hlOO. 15.248 Find the 10. 29. 11. 7. and for each than for the preceding one. . > 2-f 2. 8. (x +"l) 4. 2J. hence if any three of them are given. and a yearly increase of $ 120. 1. to 8 terms. 16. to 20 terms. 1+2+3+4H Find the sum of the first n odd numbers. 4. 6. . rf. 11. In most problems relating to A. .7 -f to 12 terms. Q^) How many times in 12 hours ? (&fi) does a clock. to 20 terms. . Jive quantities are involved. (i) (ii) . P. 33.

n d.. 144. 312. From (1). #.~n~\ 408 6). 2. Find the series.1). The series is. = 1014. J = 49. 78 n Substituting in (1). 122. a = 12. (1) 1014 = ^(12 + 144).e. the and the sum of all terms 1014. 111. is Thus x the arithmetic mean between a and a=b x. the second one mean between the other two. 67. P. Solving. P. The first term of an A. 3 n2 52 n + 204 = 0. and b form an A. 56. or 11 J. s 24ft last term 144. n = 6. 89. is 12. = a + (w. P. 34. = n(104 . d = 6.1) . a = 49 -6(71 .6 n). Substituting in (2). 1. I Substituting in (I) and (II). Ex. l)e?. = 144. 6 n2 . = 13. . I. 49 (1) (2) Substituting. . 78. 204 = ^ (98 . But evidently n cannot be fractional. 45.PROGRESSIONS Ex. = 1014. When is called the arithmetic three numbers are in A.6. if a. hence n = 6. 12. 23. 133.104 w + 408 = 0. x= - 4 the arithmetical mean between two numbers is equal to half their sum. if s = 204. 100. 6. Findn. 204 = ^ (a + 49). or if x Solving.. 2 (2) From Hence (2). or 144 = 12 + 12 d=ll.

Find d. n = 13. 8. Find d. I. = 83. d = 5. s = 70. 12. n = 17. produced. s == 440. Find d and Given a = 1700. Find a Given a = 7. 17. 10. 13. of 5 terms 6. Between 4 and 8 insert 3 terms (arithmetic is means) so that an A. = 16. 7. n = 16. 6? 9. has the series 82. Between 10 and 6 insert 7 arithmetic means . Find?. 3. a+ and b a b 5. A $300 is divided among 6 persons in such a way that each person receives $ 10 did each receive ? more than the preceding one. f J 1 1 / . = ^ 3 = 1. n has the series ^ j . Find w. . 11. man saved each month $2 more than in the pre 18. I Find I in terms of a. ceding one. 15. How much did he save the first month? 19. Given a = . n. n = 4. How many terms How many terms Given d = 3. = 17. P. 4.3.250 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 116 : Find the arithmetic means between 1. and all his savings in 5 years amounted to $ 6540. = 52. a x -f- b and a b. n = 20. Find n. f? . 16. T? ^. Find a and Given s = 44. 74. y and #-f-5y. = 45. 14. Given a = 1. Given a = |. How much . and s. = 1870. Given a = 4. m and n 2. 78.

36.PROGRESSIONS 251 GEOMETRIC PROGRESSION 313. E. 24. . 2 arn (2) Subtracting (1) from (2).. . <zr .arn ~ l . (I) of the series 16. or.. A geometric progression first. a?*2 To obtain the nth term a must evidently be multiplied by .. 108. P. is 16(f) 4 . g== it is convenient to write formula' (II) in *. To find the sum s of the first n terms term a and the ratio r being given. 4- (1) .. rs = s 2 -.) is a series each term of which.g. 2 a. fl lg[(i) -l] == 32(W - 1) = 332 J. and To find the nth term / of a G. s(r 1) 8 = ar" 7* JL a. 36... NOTE. -I. is it (G. the first term a and the ratios r being given. . 12. except the multiplying derived from the preceding one by by a constant number. |. ratios are respectively 3. . +1. Therefore Thus the sum = ^ZlD. 4. r n~ l . 36. Hence Thus the 6th term l = ar n~l . the first = a + ar -for ar -f ar Multiplying by r. of a G. ar. P. The 314. ar8 r.. . -2. The progression is a. (II) of the 8 =s first 6 terms of the series 16. If n is less : than unity.. the following form 8 nf + q(l-r") 1 r .. 24. 4.. called the ratio. or 81 315. P.

2 term 3. 1. whose . 9. . -fa. series .6. whose and whose common ratio is 4. 676.5. (it. +-f%9 % . 288. first 5. 3.-. . And the required means are 18. |. 20. if any three of them are given. first term 4. + 5. 144. .. volved . 36. P.. Write down the first 6 terms of a G. P. 676 t Substituting in = r6 = 64. 7. i 288.18. ... (b) 1. series 5. whose and whose second term is 8.. EXERCISE 1. 25. .54. .*.. I = 670.. 80.. hence. Find the 7th term of the Find the 6th term of the Find the 9th term of the ^. -fa. 72. 10._!=!>. . 4. P. . Find the 5th term of a G. Find the 6th term of the series J. a = I. (d) 5. . 117 Which (a) of the following series are in G. ? (c) 2.5. or 7. Evidently the total number of terms is 5 + 2. first term is 125 and whose common . Jive quantities are in.18. . 9. P. Hence the or series is 0. is 3.l. series 6. To insert 5 geometric means between 9 and 576. 9. l. series Find the llth term of the Find the 7th term of the ratio is ^. .. 18. f. 6. 576. 144. 0. . In most problems relating to G. r^2...4..72. 36. Write down the first 5 terms of a G. Hence n = 7.. f. 8. P. 36.288.252 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 316. 144. 72. . \ t series . is 16. the other two be found by the solution of the simultaneous equations : may (I) /=<!/-'. Ex. 4.

81.. 243. 16 . of r n decreases. to G terms. J. to 7 . to 6 terms. = 3. 15. Given r = n Z 5. 24. be written If the value of r of a G. -J. -J-. 19. Therefore 8^ = 1 i =1 1 '. M. n = 5. 126. Find a and n = 4.J- and 270. 72. P. . the value The formula for the sum may if n increases* = _ fl flf made taking n sufficiently large. is less than unity. Find the sum to infinity of the series 1. >"> -. 13. Z s.nV> i*> !718. Find a and Given r = 3. to 6 terms. Find a and Given r = Given r = 2. Prove that the geometric mean between a and b equals Vo6. J. to 5 terms. = 3.-. to 7 terms. Find the geometric mean between 7. .. 36. 48. 25S series : 32. and hence ~ r . 12.i a9 . 20.. 14. a^. 1.. n = 5. I.PROGRESSIONS Find the sum of the following 11. a. -. r . 27. Find a and 4. 54.-. + 4 . 12 terms. 2. to 6 terms. 23. . s = 310. == 160.-. s = 605. 14. 4. may be than any assignable number. to 8 terms. . 1. 42. Consequently the sum of an infinite decreasing series is By n less -r^Ex. . 21. 81. INFINITE GP:OMETRIC PROGRESSION 317. 22.

4. The sum r.. If a = 40. i. 9. .717171-... 1. r = j. 10..555. = . P.Ql. of: 11.. of an infinite G. .... 4. what is (a) the sum of the areas. .. 5. .00072 -f ... . I.254 Ex. .. 118 : infinity of the following series 3.37272 . 9. P. of all squares ? .072 + .. -. 16.3 + . is J. 8. 100.. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Find the value of . and the first term is Find 17. 40. 16. 12. . -. 6.3727272 ... = 990 .01 ^ . Find the value 9. 250. -. ratio 15. 13. .1. .. The sum Find the of an infinite G. 5. .. 6. 1. 2. 66 Therefore .. i i J. Hence . 14.= . 3..072.72. . 65 = 1L 110 EXERCISE Find the sum to 1. .= _4Z* ....27777 . the diagonal of each equal to the side of the preceding one. first and the common term. 2.. . The terms afteAhe first form an infinite G.3121212-. =A+ 10 i.. 12.. 1.. is 16. 7...)7?7272 .. 1 r = . (6) the sum of the perimeters. Given an infinite series of squares.191919-... is 9. = a . If the side of the first square is 2 inches. . = .99 .. 1. P. 8.272727-. Find the sum to infinity.

6) 20 . (x-y) : 6 . 11. (a + b) . 21. 4 (1+V#) + (1 Va) 4 . 26. Find the 3d term of fa -f V -^Y Va/ - 19.BINOMIAL THEOREM EXERCISE 119 257 Expand the following 3. 28. 20. + a) Find the 4th term of 7 (a -f 2 b) . 17. .a2) 25 Find the 5th term of f Vx + -^r 18. 16. 4. (a 100 . Find the coefficient of a?V" in (a Find the coefficient of 23. 22. 13. coefficient of . 2 2 24. 29. a6 8 16 in . (a-2) 6. 25. 4 7.6) . 10. 14. : (1 + xy. 15. l 2. Find the 6th term of (x . Find the Find the u 13 coefficient of a?b in (a -f 5) . (z2 -^ Simplify 9.b ). 12. Find the 5th term of Find the 3d term of + b) . Find the middle term of (m ri) 16 Find the 99th term of (a + b) m im Find the 1000th term of . Find the middle term of (x + y) 4 Find the middle term of (a b)\ . . a4 b 12 in (a -f 6)16 Find the coefficient of a5 b 15 in (a . . 7 . (s + i). /2a+|Y\ 8. 5. Find the middle term of f f x }\8 : ) 27. . (\ 9 . Find the 4th term of (w Find the 5th term of 12 ri) 11 .b) w (a (a -f (1 .

3. 2. 24 4. 2. 5. l. if = = 2. 2.] a 2^ aft + -r 3 a l} 2 be 4. c if 7 . - 2. 2. 2. 3. 2. -1. 2. - 2. 6. 3. 1. 2. 2 . 1. 5. 2 (2 a - 3 aft -f- 4 2 ft ). 2. 2. 4. 1. if y=2j 2. 2. . 4. 3. 5. 4. 1. -3. 2. ft 4 ) 5. 3. 3. + 1. 1. 3. 3. 2. -3. 2. 2. a ft c = = 2. . + 2. 2. (c 3.c )(ft-a) 1. if = = = 2. 3. 2. 4. 4. 4. 1. 4. 3. ft) . 2. 6. i (a-ft)(a-c) a 6 (ft. 4- ft - c) 2. 1. ^+^ 3. 7. y 3. -5. + 2. 3. -3. 5J lj 2j 3} 8 4j y 8 . 3. 2. -2.258 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA REVIEW EXERCISE Find the numerical values 1.f ac 1. 4. 4. aft 3 + 4. 2. 4 (2 a - 13 a a b + a ft 31 a 2 ft 2 - 38 3. 1. of : 27 x* ~ 27 x-y or -f 9 xy~ 1 # 8 . if x^l. 3. 2. 1. 3. 5. -6. 3.a(a 4. 1. - a)(a 1. -1. 4. 4. c = = = 2. 2. 2. 5. - 8 ^ 2. 5. 5. 6. *=M - M 3J -f 2 2 ] 2 ] 2 1 3 1 3 1 M. 3. 4. 1. 1. 3. 1. a8 + ~T 3 2 ft' a2 + + 3T -r C + + c2 + 2 . -3. 6. 2J 4J 16 x* 32 afy 24 afya 1. 5. -4 2. (c-a)(c-ft)' 4. 3. 3. (ft c)(c 4- ) 3. 4 *2 - 4 xy - 4 ^+ a: ?/ 2 ?/ + 2 3. 1. -1. 1. 1. 2. if a ft c = = = 4. 5. = 2. 3. 2. 2. 2. + c(a -|- c).

+ 3 y 2* . . 8 . (5.a 5 a . 2. a: . 40. 11 x 8 + 14 x^ij . . Add the following expressions and check the answers : 10.10. = 2. 6 a4 4 a8 .x 2 + 4 2 ~ 10 z 2 + z 2 + 11 yz + 8 2:2 . 21. 7 xy 3 . 4 x 4 .3 xyz. + 1. 8.2 z8 4 x. 41. 7y 4 . . 1. and 3 y 8 -f 12 z 8 . by The and c is represented radius r of a circle inscribed in a triangle whose sides are by the formula Find r. -f 8.2 x?/.8 + 2 // . 17. 12. 16. 9. b(x (b 1. 4. 1. 4. a. 4.259 x c) . 6.c' 2 4 / .x 5 4 . 15. x 3 x' 14.4 yz\ -7xy* + z 3.4 x'2 -f 12 x and 5 2 + 7 x8 . + x/y 2 + + y'2z + 2 3 x 10 y'2 + 5 z2 . c(x (c g)(x 6-) = 1.2. c = 3. 10.r 6 x - 4 xy . 4 a 5 9 4 2 */. 4 y 13. 5. 2 x 8.8 3 + 7 x4 .' 4 x2 2 - 5 z3 8 . 5. 10 z 8 12 - 6 2 8. 1 + 3 x + 2 x 8 . 7. x C 4 4x y + . 2. 11 z 4 x4 -12 17. + 4 ?y . 20.a) .a 4 . 2.1. . a. 26. 18. x = 4. 5. x 2 + - 2 ax* -f a zx + 2 ?/ a8 . 2. or . 2 2 x2 + and 9 2:2 y' xy.a8 . 29. ' b) + 3. 3. a /> 3.11 x 5 12 z 7/ 3 ary. 4a + 9 a2 - 3 a5 . + 8 x4 *y . + 4.2. 2 . - a) (c 2. x 3 11.8 y y 5 4 * 8y. 4 z . r> .4 xyz + 4 xy'2 . 24. 5.\ yz + xz. c)(x a} . 9. ~c)(b. 2 a3 7 y4 3 // -f ax'2 . a 4 + 11 a .5. 15.4. xy 2 12 xy* + G y4 4 xy* - zy + 12 xy* - 4 y4 . x3 -f 3 ax'2 . + 2. 6 y4 y 4 + 3 z8 . 3.3 a?y .7 + .7 y 2* 4.7 ys. x3 2 a2 . - 2 x 2// + 3 2 x?/ - 7 y3 . 21.2 a?y + 3 aty .11 z 3 4 4 ?p 2 . 2 - + 12 a 8 . if a 6 = = c = 3.2 x2 . 25.5 xy 3 + + 4 .

Take the sum 4x 4. 3 x2 13-3ft-[l7a-5ft^[7fl-3ft-{4fl~4ft-(2a-3ft)}]].(5 y . c 4ft. c 4.3. Take the sum of G a8 4- 4- 4 a 2x 4- . 5 10 + 7 .2 x 8y2 44 . 7 x -x the ft 4 x2 11 x. 3 x Subtract the difference of x 8 4- . and d= c c 4- x4-#4-z </. .4 x from the sum of 9 x 2.(4 x 2 .5 10 b 3 -\- G 11 = ft x4-y4-2. Simplify 31.3 . Add 9 Ifcc 2 7 12 .1)}] .x 2 4.4.3 x . ft.5 .x 4. 4- 4 4.2 _[5ft-{^ 2 8 4 x* . and a 2 ft 4- ft 3 c take sum - 2 c 4- 2 a and 2 a 5 x c. 4- 2 x2 23.a ft. 5 4 7 12 . Take the sum of 3 x 4.(x 4.x2 . .5.(7 x 4. ft 25. 2 c - 2 a - and 2 a 3 x2 28. 5 10 4- G 11 4. . 36.6T .c 4- 3 a. 33. 3 ft.1 and x 8 G 11 4- 3 x2 + - from G x2 4- x.c.2) .[4 x 4.260 19.3 . .[3 if - (3 _^ ft 6- ft -f- c)}] a: . of a. -f ft. and 4 4 2 xs 4 and 5 x 3 y 5 . (*) a - c. 3 4- 5 10 2 - 7 12 .2 3 ax 2 . sum of . 2 x 32.4 Vl 4. and a ft 4- ft 3 c take - 6 a.2 a .] 26. 4vTT~y 3. 2 x2 + 2 y5 24.. 4- 2 x8 x 4- 4. = x y ft z. 0" 30. 6 VI ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 4-X-5V14. 7 12 .4\/i + x 3Vl 4. 35.?> x 4- 20.6 x ] .7.{G * 2 . 4- 3 5 y/ .{2 x 2 .8 3 4.2 .x . 4 . 29.27~-~7)}]. /- x5 -2x 4 # 3 y5 G x a 4 3 5 x*. x'2 . Find what expression added the ft to 3 x 2 2 x 4- 3 will give 27. From of 2 the 4.4 x 8 from ax 2 4- 6 x8 4- 21.(4 * .(a . and . 2 xy 4 the ^V 4- G x5 From take 4 sum sum 2 c of .c.4 ft) 4. of 2 x 8 4- 4 x2 4- 9 and 4 x .(x* .n/ 4 4- 12 x 5 4- 4 x?y 4- 2 x6 -f 4 x 4 ?/ x// 5 ?/ . : a x .4) . 4- 3 From 44- the 3 // and G x 4y 2 x2 2 . x8 x2 2 a'2x. .3 x 3 from G a 8 2 a 2x - 4 x8 22.x . and 2 Vl 4*/ 2VT+7 . a - ft + c. 54-2 x 2 and . and 7 x a 2x -2 ax'2 4.#4-8. the From sum of 2 1 sum 2 c of ft 4. take the sum of G x 5 . 34. (/) a + - ft 4- 6 + - rf.c 3 a.2 .[4 z 8 . . find (a) a (ft) (c) a 4(</) 4. c =x y -}~ z.(5 c . [4 I 2a4-7c-(7ft4-4c)-[6a-3ft4 2~c4-4c-{2a-(ft-2T-2)}].1).

4 a . (4 z 2 + 9 2 + ^ 2 .3)(*-5)(* -7).5)} + (3 a 2 . 62. 7 a 2 261 -{5 2 a2 -2 a + (2 a 2 i j- 38.(7 i + 4 r:) . 64.[3 y [2 ft 2 z + {4 (3 a ar 40. 2 -f [3 c 7 a . 2 a) (2: + 7/ a)(x 2 2 66.b -(c .12).JT^T+1)} + (2 .* 2 + (x + x + l)(a: (z 1). - 2 a - {3 2x a . (a 2 + 2 + c 2 + aft + ac .[2 .{2 a .(2 x2 . (a 2 + 2 + 9 .6c) (a + -f c).a~^~c)K]. 'J 44.3 z 2 ).2x + 3).7).c 2 .2 2 . (a 2 + 2 + c 2 . 59.6-)}]. (1 55.(5 y . 13 a . 3 x 42. (ar + 7)(ar + 5)(a: + 3).2 2 + 1)(7.2)(1 .3).e -'/)}] -(2a + 2b .ac .2 zz . 50.2c-(V/ .(2 .{3 c . 2 : 7e)-a}]. (5 a 39.rf)} + a -[. 5a-(7ft+4c) + [6 a. )(l-z a ).(2 a + 5 a .[0 a 5a + 2 c + 4 c .2 <?)} 13 ft ft _[&-{2c-(3d + Perform the operations indicated 47.3~ft -f 2 c + 4 ^ .(7 a. 49.0)} . 2 52. (a:-2)(r-4)(a:-9). 54.Z .6 x + 5 x'2) (2 .{2 a -(ft . 51. a -{. . + - ^+ y)(x 2 ) (x + a 2 )(a: 4 + a 4 ). + 4x + 5)(j. 2 53. 63.3 a + 3 + aft)(a + 3). 2 2 x + !)(* . + 2) - (4 x 2 - 2 x -7)}].3T~2~s)} + 5 2]. 46.(4 d .(2 a 2 .6 xy . 56.5 )}] + {4 c . . (2 x 2 -3 ar+ 1)(3 z -2 x+ 1). (x.ab . (x 2 + 4 y 2 + 3 z 2 ) (. (1 -ar+a. (. 2 ft 41. 48. (r (1 (a. (.[7 a 36 -{4 a 46 (2 a 3 ft)}]]. . . 45.4 a 2 + a 4 ).3 c)]. (4 + 3a 2 . (/> 4 . 68. 43.3c).3 *). 57.ary + 2) (^ 4 ?/ *V + -*)(! + ar)(l + ^ 2 )(1 + **). .56.[4 x - 5 . . a . + *+!){> + 2).c). . 60. 4 + 2 2 + 1). . 65.r -2:c+ l)(ar. (x .r 2 + !>ar + 3)(^ 2 .be) (a 58. 67.(6 .REVIEW EXERCISE 37.1).96 -[17 a. .& + {.3 yz)(2 a (* 2 ft ft ft ft ft ft ?/ ft ft ft ?/ a: 61.2a .

.O (a 4(a 4. 79.:-y)( a. -f 72.(a 2) (s 4- ft. (x (x ( + *) . by multiplying out each 4- side of the equality. 2 (x 2 .am&t 4- A 2 *).z\x 4. 4. 86.c) .c) 2 .r-3y)4-l)y( a :-y)^-2y)4-18 // (2r-y)4-6 8 // .c 8 4- 3(6 c)(c 4- a)(n + 2 ft).(^ 4- y 2 ) - 4 ^/(.9y2). 1). 87.x + y + z).2ft) 8 ( + 2 ft). ft 8 ft) 4- ft 8 4. 70. 1).y'*4-y 2m )OK --y I)(a m ). 85.-2y)(. 84.c .(x 42 y) O 2 4- y) (^ 44- y ). 89.(/> - 3 v)^(. 91. (a (2 b)*(a 4.c) .2 (a .q).c) j. xy y 2 ). p(p + ?) + 4 A) (a .5 . b 4.v) 4.ac b + n~ + /? 2c n ft n an b c)(a"* ?n + + c). 82.a) (2 + 7(7> ~ 'y) 2 4. _ ft) (a: + a)(x + b) + (b-c)(x + ft) (a: 4. 76.y). 4 (a + ft)(a 2 81.c)} . 4- 4- . (a 2 ft 2n 4. 83.z)(x -y + z)(. a(2 + 4- 3ft) 2 -(2a 4- 4- 8 ^) .a) (a? 4--(c 4- y) (y c)(ar 2 ft + 8 a).c c 2 4- 2 am 20 (??2 + : n 6 -f- p ) (w .2 ft}) -f (3 a .b 4.y + z)(x + y .n pc). (p 2 .2 (y 4.3 a . ft" l Simplify 80. 93. a (a 2 -2a + + " 4- l)(u 2a n -f (:r a.y)\x y). .3y) a (* 2 4.262 69.(a 48 8 8 4. 94. + (rtP+i 4- 2 6)(a^+ .6*y . ft 95. 90. 73.r 2 . ft /.c)]. (a) (a (ft) a8 4- ft 8 4. .(4 . ft ft ft a}.(a? 4- y)*(x - y). 92. (x 4- 2 y) (2 ^ 3 y)2(/ y) (^ 3 V) - . 77.a) 2 .ft) + 4(2 .(c 4. 75.> 2 2 + 2 3 9). (. 2 + a 2 ).c) 4) (ft 4.(ft 4.z) . 88.m np c . 8 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA (a 2 - z 3) (a 8 2 a + z 3 )(a 6 2 + a: 6 ) (a 12 a (a - + l)(a 2 -f 2a + l)(a + + ( a: 12 ).<f(p . O (x (a 2 + 4- y y) 2 a J 4 . 74.3 (ft . ft 78. 3[a{2 a (a 4ft 4- 2 2 ^>) c) 44- a2 a8 4- 2 4. ar .ft) 4- .c) rr identities. Prove the following 8 4.c . 71.{3 a .

*) -(x 8 . (a 8 - 8 68 8 4.21 x*if) (4 ^ 2 .6 ) (a** (a (x 10 3 J 1 a - 1).2 xy 8 . 110. 114.y 4 . Cr (z -27y -l-9a:y) -(a:-3yy 6 ) -r- 2 (a: 4- xy 4- y 2 ). 122.4 aft .y 4 ) . 106.5 b*). 116. (80 a 112. 123. 1O4. 20) -*- (3 a* 4- 4 a? + 5). (4 4 3 a - 4- - 5 a 3 . 113. 2 (a+ .2y 2 4. 25 4 .(a 1 2 8 . (2 y 44- 2 y 2 4 02 y 23 a 4- 3 16 y a 50 4- 48) 2 111. 99 100. [10( 4. O3a n O2a 4~ i O4a 2a -T- (3' 3m n ~*~ 3 3n 3") 3". (20 x* - 4- 72 x 2 - 35 4.27 x* .40 />) .r 4 4.(x 2 .y 2 4.(y 2 ~ (a 2 ) 5 y 6 a - 12).b) 98.5 a 21 (10 a 4- 5 a*) Qa-f-l^ -=- 5 a*. -r- .&). 4 (a 8 44- 16 a 2 4 4- 256) -s- ~4 2 (a 4- 4a ^ 4- 16). (.9 x 2 . ( y 8_o7)^^2 + 3 y + 0).16 a 6 4. a*.1). 117. (x* 4 9 ax 8 44- 12 . (2< 107. 102.2 y 2 ) 3 xy (25 . 105. .35 x 2 2 ) .(2 a 2 .y 2 ) 4 a 2// 2 /> 8 a.a". . 120.xy 4.) . 118. 103.&) 8 - 5(a n 4- 2 6) ]- 5(a 4- &) 6 (a 4.REVIEW EXERCISE Simplify : 263 96. 109.6 y 4 4.'30) ~ (4 ^ - 5 x 4- 10). 3*. -26 (a 4- c).5 xy).2 2% 4.(7 xi/ .v/ ~ // -=- a: . (8 x* 115. 124.c 4- 6 afo) -f- + ^ 4 ). 121. (a 8 ^4 + 8 & 8) ( - 2 2 119. 1). 4 (6 x 4- 23 x s 33 z 43 42 a. 2 4- 41 x 4a. 108. 10).3 a"+ 4.

8 6 . 127.4) .2) = 3 .3). By what expression must x* + G x2 - 4 a: 1 be divided to give x2 + 5 # 9 as quotient.2 {3 8)} ^ 5(13 4(j = 5{2 x . 126.(x + 3) ] . 148.(x .5) = 12(4 x . - 9) - 7(0 x a? - 32) + 5 = 4x - 3(2 j - 3). x 147. 137. 135. 1 o + 5 + 1=15.3).3) = 12 . .(1 . o o 140.3 a:).2(10 x .1) .2) + 2(ar + 4). What is the 2 by a*-ab + 26 ? 130.a:)]}. .2(j: . 129.5).7) = (7 x - 1 1) (3 x . (*+ + . with 8 as remainder? Solve the following equations and check the answers: 133.3(2 z . 7(2 x . 3) = x\x .7) = 4 .27 a 3" . 5(2 x .3(* + 4) + 9} . -1) = 2(* . 136.1) (a? .5{.4(0 x .x+ + x a ) ~ (x a + + x). 5 146. By what expression must 3 a 2 ab + & 2 ? be divided to give the quotient 3 a 2 - 2 6 2 - 8 ttfc 8 + 2187? .(x -f 9).(9 x + 10) (a: - 3) . (4 x . .(3 a? 2 [2 x + (x 4. 1) .7(4 * .2(5 . 2 4(ar .9) 4.(j a? 144.19) + 5 = 4 .264 125. 10(2 x 5 x + 3(7 x .22. . . . 3(2 x 134.9) + 3. 128. 138.4) .l)(ar + 2) (a: (ar (2ar- 2 4} = 2(3 x .3 a (1 + *- l l 1 3 -f- 2 &). 2(3 x + 4) 8 [2 (a: .2) (a: + 3). 142.2(4 . (1 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA + a8 3 - G ax z8 - 8 z 8) -5- (1 - a - 2 x). (5a: 150.3 x). remainder when a 4 3 a b B + 12 a 2 6'2 - b* is divided By what expression must a: -f 3 be multiplied to give 4 x*7 8 a*b + 4 a 131.3) (3 x 4.12 M 132.G) .3 a#z) (ar + y + s). 4-2(3ar 145. 139.r>) . 143. .r + 7[or . y (* l x. 10(2 x 141.2 7^~5] + 1). 3) a: a: a: +?+4= o 13. 149.n .18 *&) (1 .

f-^ + ^s-O.2) (j? + 1) + (x . + 4) (2 x + 5). The sum What 171. sheep more than the 169. How many 170.2(x ~ 1) + 12 = 0.2). 154. If the area of the frame inches. 162. transformed into F. + 10) (ar . The second contains 3 first. = | (F 32).a:) + 229. 158. . 157.8) = (2 x 4..2) (7 -*) + (*. (a. a: ar a. .24. find the value of F. ^ + ?=13 + 2o 10 o .(* + 2)(7 z + 1) = (* . (2 . 265 152.5*) + 47.T)O . (7 14 . 2 4 . 166. = 15.3) (a: . and if 15 were taken from the third and added to the first. these two angles would be equal. .) readings of a thermometer into Centigrade readings is C. and the third twice as many as the first.4) (a .7) (1 x .3) (3 .17) 2 + (4 x . (3 O + .j Write down four consecutive numbers of which y is the greatest. (b) At what temperature do the Centigrade scale and the Fahrenheit scale indicate equal numbers? (c) How many degrees C.3) = (3 x .5(x .29) 2 = 1.25) 2 .2 x) = (1 .6 x) (3 . By how much does 15 exceed a ? How much must be added to k to make 23? 167. (x (x a.r + 3) . 161. The formula which transforms Fahrenheit (F. Find five consecutive numbers whose sum equals 100.REVIEW EXERCISE 151. . 155. will produce F.1) (s + 3). . 156.7) (a. 165.3) (3 .? . = 2 C. There are 63 sheep in three flocks. + 5) 2 -(4-a:) 2 =r21a:.2) a + 7(x . angle of a triangle is twice as large as the first.14) (a: + 3). 160.5 x) = 45 x .5) = (3 . (a . + 5) = (9 .9) + (a.l)(z .3) (j. (a) If C.(5 x .76. 153.3)(* (ar 2 7) - 113. 159. A man is 30 years old how old will he be in x years? 168.1) O + 4) = (2 * . 164. sheep are there in eacli flock Y The second of the three angles of a triangle is 180. are the three angles? is A picture which is 3 inches longer than wide by a frame 2 inches wide. 5(ar x . how wide is the picture ? surrounded 108 square is 172.5)(.z) (4 . 163. + 2) + (5 .2 x) (4 .19) + 42.

if each increased 2 feet. z 2 + x . and the middle row has 4 panes in each window more than the upper row there are in all 168 panes of glass. is What are their ages ? Two engines are together more than the of 80 horse 16 horse power other. A each 177. and 5 h. 187. sister .266 173. A the boy is as old as his father and 3 years sum of the ages of the three is 57 years. the sum of the ages of all three is 51. 189. How many are there in each window ? . 180. 15 m. Four years ago a father was three times as old as his son is now. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA A A number increased by 3. An The two express train runs 7 miles an hour faster than an ordinary trains run a certain distance in 4 h. 181. 179. Find the dimensions of the floor. and the father's present age is twice what the son will be 8 years hence. What is the distance? if square grass plot would contain 73 square feet more Find the side of the plot. father. Find the age 5 years older than his sister 183. aW + llab-2&. +x- 2. -ll?/-102.-36. 13 a + 3. dimension 182. The age of the elder of it three years ago of each. Find the number. respectively. A boy is father. 3 gives the same result as the numbet multiplied by Find the number. 186. two boys is twice that of the younger. train. 3 gives the 174. same result as the number diminished by 175. 7/ 191. 188. 4 a 2 y-y -42. 190. power one of the two Find the power of each. x* 185. 10x 2 192. 178. . + a. + 11 ~ 6. 6 in each row the lowest row has 2 panes of glass in each window more than the middle row. number divided by 3. and | as old as his Find the age of the Resolve into prime factors : 184. z 2 -92. 2 2 + a _ no. 12 m. A house has 3 rows of windows. . was three times that of the younger. The length is of a floor exceeds its width by 2 feet.56. . side were one foot longer. 176. younger than his Find the age of the father. the ana of the floor will be increased 48 square feet.

64. 209. 195. 2 a 8 . a: 231. . 246. 203. 4 m +^. 3 x 2 .14 2 . .22 z + 48. 221. 2 afy 13 28 a: ary + 66 y. 8 -a. 5 x 2. 60 a 2 - a: // 205. + 198. -23 -12. (13z 2 5# 2) 2 2 2 (a 6 (12 c 2 ) 2. a. 224.20 z 8 a: 220.6 2 ?/ .21 a: - 54.77 y + 150. 218. 8 a: ar. a 2 . 267 199. 227. .x + 1. 3 x V . 2 . 15 x 2 + 26 x a . 9a-4a6 (a 2 + b .(b + rf) 2 . x* + 8 2 + 15.12 * .6 y2 + 4. a: 236. 2 2 y -f 1. 202. # 2 - 29 y + 120. 3y 248. a: 4 - a: 2 a: V 2 . 229.3 c/> + 6 cq.c) 2 . + 2 . 201. 206. a. 2 + x 2 ) 2 . 2a te 3% ly 247. if-W-y+b. 215. 2 - 5 xy 13 y a. 217. z + 5x 2 .REVIEW EXERCISE 193. 7a 228. + 30 x.19 a . . 2 a 2 . x 5 . . 3 ap 2 . y 2 194. a+a* + o a +l. 212. 233. 3y 2 + ary . 239. 16x 4 -81. 6 197.10. a a: a: 237. (a + .1. 2 x 2 . 4a 2& 2 241. 245. 4 -f yx* + z*x + z*y. x 219. -11 2 + 10 20 x 4 . 238. 12 x +4.y) y) 6 a 2 + 5 a . 235.6s. 207. wiy + la mx + aw. a.8 6 2. x*y 223. 208. 211.6 aq . 244.28.19 z 4 204. 2 200. 24 2 + 2 . *2 234. 230. 14x 2 -25ary + Gy 2 3 x* -x 2 . a: . . 216. + 8. 7x 2 225. 222.c) 2 - (a .xm y + xym - + (a c) - (c rf) 242. 5 ?/ + 1 1 a*b .(a + z2 ) 2 (a 2 3 (x (r + y + a. z 2 -2. + 3a 196. 232. 213.10 y a x* . a. .6. + G *2#2 + 9 x*y\ 6 x* + 5 a:y . a^a 226. xm+l 243.a 2/A 214 12 x*y .10 xy. 2 a: 2 + 4y2) 2 + 240.3 xy.3 xf + 3 * 2y .r?/-f y 2 -9. 210.

2 2 + 39 xy 4. 2-2x2 a. z 2 267.120. 2 + 7 r -f 2.2/ 2 . x 2 -f 9j: + 20. * 2 .18 xy + 5. 261. x 2 + 2 x . x* . + 23 x -f 20.1 9 .91.73 xy . 2 z 2 -f 13 x + 1 5. 7 ax 250. + 3 x + 2.M. x*y* 4.80.3.9 xy + 14 y 2 ar ar a: . 6.&z. 2 .23 x -f 20.ry -21.11 a 2 . 270. x* . a: .ry . 10 a. + 8. + 20 x 4.r + a# + az -f 2 6z fry 4.13. 8 xf < 3 xy + a. 18 x 2 .12.2 ax 2 + 2 for 2 .a 2 />c 2 -f 3. * 2 .14 bx a%% 8 . 8 2 + 10 x .3 abc .17 x + 6 * 14 273 P a -5y>+4. 257. of: 266. -I- Find the II. 5 x 2 256.10.36.4 ab + 1. G(x+ -|- l)'\ 9(x 2 - 1). 10 x 2 .7 -f 5. 258. x 2 .16 x . 3 a% 2 . 15 # 2 z/ /.2 z . x 2 + 4 + 3. 264.268 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 249. 260. * 2 . z 2 268.9 x + 14. a 3 a 2 2 .x .r . 1 x- ar Find the L. x 2 + 5 -f .23 + 12. 2 a.2 aft*. 28 2 -f 71 x . . 265.G7 x -f 33.6 by. _ 40 y 2 272 -f -f- 2 !8a: .C.a + 2 4. a? a: a: // 262.9 x . ^2-7/7 + 12 2?6 28 x 2 12 Jr 2__7^/_ J/ 2 + 3 . 251. 269. 30 ^ . x 2 263. : x2 4 a: ~ + a. 2 x2 .15 + 30.10 a 4. F. C. 254.9.18 ry + 32 y 2 2 . * a . + 8 x + 5.8. a. ft a. of: 253.3 x . 7 12 2 2 . a 4. 252.11 x -f 28. Reduce to lowest terms 271.5 ab -f 2. 3 #2 255. 259. 2 8 . x 2 4. 3 ay 4.(55.15.48 afy 2 .4.77 + 77 ' 2?5 5 ' 2 5 a: 2 -7 .

!/.ar 1 279. z2 (a 2 + c)a.REVIEW EXERCISE 277 8 agg 269 - 6 a. + ac .2 22 + 2 2 yz 4- 2 zx 2 + ary _ _ 22 _ 292 ^ - ?/. _ "* m ~n w 4 + 2 7w% 2 -f sa . 8 . 285 z4 n* + a. a.. y)' z2 283 t- 290 ' x'2 2 y* + z2 + 2 0:2 291 *2 + y 2 + 0. *2 " 2 + Og-e. -9 286 1 1 + 2* 3 x -f *2 ar + a .(y 2 z) * t (j.. fr 293 ' y <? 294 2 2 2 + 2 cV + 2 a 2^ 2 - 4 - ft* ~ c4 295 296 ' 297 ' . m 4.n 2 )P * 287 " 281 2 q^( 2 - a: 2 ) m 288 ' .2c a: 282.J' 4- 2 2 w mp .rL. - 9 ' 2Q4 4 *2 ' -8x+8 ' 278.2* + 3 x* 280. 289 ' .

a (: a) (x 2. ^_2*(m 308. _L + 12 x 1 + 35 1 307. + 19) 2Lz| + 3 x " 2 99 ' i x +4 *-3 a +7 300. O(c-a) 306. x + 3 ^ "" 310 x a: -2 a: 2 -2 a: - 17 a:-2 ar-3 x 2 -5a:-i-6" . x x ~~ +^ i ^ ~ ''^ . 2 + 7 _ 44 3. 6) _ ~ i 305. (a 1 1 + a b c) (a + ^ ct) (a + a c)(a -f e) 304. x 7.270 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA : Find the value of 298 23. X2 (c-a)(a-i) 1 x2 4- (a- +9 i_ 20 a . (a: 1 + l)(ar + 2) (x + l)(ar + 2)(* + 3) 302. ^n m+n "*" + n) 2 g 309. * 19 23 19(23 -23. ^. Lnl + ar 2 a. a? __ + -*_ + + -la?-la? * a l 303. 4 3 301.

2 1 -f 1 + : *2 1 - 2 x' 316. ( ft-c g~ft ( 6_ c) 2_ (a. 1 _. .- 1 x2 + + a. 2ft 2 a8 3 314. i 271 + b a2 + ft 2 312. 2 + y 2 319.*) + * 2) 321 - c) 2 ._ '(a-6)*-(a:-r)a 323. a: 1 313. (1 . .BE VIEW EXERCISE 311. (a? 4- 2) 317. } . 1a: + y a.ft) 2 322. Dx x(l *) * 8(1-*) 4(1 +*) 2 8(1 + 4(1 . nl g(jL+ 2 ) ^^^_ 318.+ a 10 z 2 2 *2 -9*+ 20 *2 - 8* + 15 315. _ x8 -.(a ..

28 8 2 - 11 2 + J?_ x fl^-^ffjje _ 2 12 a 4 a + a - 4 6~7** 27^-12^7 .B ~ 1037 - 329 4 a.4 x?/ 2 ^_ G x 2 + 13 gy_+ .15 -33 . 2 ^ "" 1B x + 40 y *2 + 5 x - 3.19 xy + 6 y 2 8 x* a: ?/ ' ~" 6 y 333. a: 2 x* . . 2 x* 8 x2 4 r8 -i- + 2 a.7 xy + 12 x . 2 a2 - 2 a - ' 03 i^+^T- 42 ^2 _ l5rt~+~54* 327 8 ' ^ .5 a . -* 3a. 20 44 333.272 Simplify: ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA ~ 324. z2 - 4 x - ^ "" 12 *. 2 -lOx 5x.2 +lOar 2 a. ' a: 2 2 5 sy a: -f zy + 4 y* ..V - + y - x 3y a ..ll. 250 5 10 2 325.y 2 x (a?-4y) 3(2 x - ' _ ^/ 3 y) 2 8 330 . 4 y2 2 5 x8 2 z6 3 y 10 a: 2 + 8 2 .6* t 328.7 acy + 12 y2 + 5 a:y + y 2 .a: ' 2 + 0^ + ^2^7 a.9 *// + 27 ./ - 3 y - 6 ( 331 g gy ' -f a 3y ~ 6 q - 9 G 2 y/ + 5 ?/ 6 G fl y~4-y+ 15 ^e - 10 6y 332 3 a: +lly-10 4 xy -8 2 - a.y-20 - 2y + 4 2 . 2 ?/ 4g~0yg 10 o# 2 ~ x 6 a* x' 2 24 y 2 1 . .2 y2 ' 334 *2 ' + 2 y 8 a.

( 342. ' 2 -"l 5 .REVIEW EXERCISE 336. : 1+ i--.13 13 s 11 Find the numerical values of 351. 5 343.y. ** -i. ' ~ ~ x2 + 8 + 76 2" 350. fl-. w \. aj 339.) 2 .1V. 7 ( -?-f!?. 1 345. a: 349 _ o.. xi 347. 352. f V. (a \ + lV. (ar \ 346. 348. +^ a: y x . ?_2 ^ . a>74 . if a = 3. (a-f2/. + l + IV.r -5 2 . 338.+ r . \x yj 340. (a-Wi + iJ. 278 C | ~ a c* \ c* ~ b a2 q2 h c 5 5 ~ a c b q | q c 6 *| \ : f 1 \ - { 337. \5yl 341. 344. + ni + -. Simplify : 353 ^-3 * 2 L pE+1 a /2x~l V 5a:~2 10 4 354.

W?* (* + 1 + 2x) \3a _ 1 + 2x \3a 1 365. i+5 1+1 9 x2 -f 363. a2 4- . _ + l a 359. 1+2 362. y360.274 355 f 5 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA U<>-3) 356 fl V ___ _/| 2(*-l)J + ya xl x 1-* YTx 2 1-10*W*-1 1-** JUa-l + xy 357. + x x a . ar xy + yl x* 358. I - I -f 366. (a a b y-x c yabc 361. (~ 364.

2 - m 373 "1*7 374. (1 +ab)(l+bc) 369.REVIEW EXERCISE 2 275 f 367. a + . 6 a c b a b b 1 ' ~ _^ . . b c 368. 370 ' 1 (-/')(&-o) 1 a 372. \b* + c* b + b b*-c*)^ c ^\ b (b* -f c*) } c 4- c a b .

r 1 - 3(* + 1)} ! ' . 20 iLf-5 + !*=! = 2 J. __4 2x 3_ = !. <3 378. + 1) 45 O 377. J !__7. 2(3 x |(x + 4) + 10) + 1 |(x + 7) = 0. . a: r ~ 2 + 5"^ - 10 x-f x - 382. # k 1 _j- j a: 2 a: 3 383. 5 3 vC 7 a: 385 10 17 387 * L*J> _ 14 1 -7ar = (5 ar 10ar + 15 . 5 {2 x 381.276 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 375. -3 Solve the equations : or a: 2 (a.^-^ + x -f o 51) +2J = 0. 5*-8. ^ . 379.*-2 = 15. 4(* . 1 + 16ar_63 -24 g 2T~~~ia 7 12f a 8 a' 389 5 - 14(ar-l) 18 105 390. 8 - 376. """ 2J 7 ' + 2 28 ear-7 + i3JTo^ . . + 6)+ - -(* + J = _j_ j(* v/ O + 5)10 ^-\:) / 380.

JLg:== 7wa: c c -}- -q.* 2 + *2 " 2 ~ ^ H. 397. c .147. "i 2 3737-0 ^ x i x x + 1 a? - R - 7 ~r * 1 a.25.. 399. . u '2 a. 40. b 404.8 = . ____-_ . - ft) = 2(ar - ) (a. - 8 9* x ~r.6 - .1 .2 a: - 1. 401. 277 x 4 _x 5 _ _ a: ar. 6 7 7 ^ 2 1(5 a. (x ~ a)(x -f 6) -f c = ^ (z a: + 2 a)(a: a: 5 i).5 ^ ~ a: a. . 3* 177. + 4 a. (8 x - 3) (x 2 - 1) = (4 x a: 1) (4 x - 5). 400. -f 1 1 + a 403. a. l)(x - a) (a: - 3) 42 3(4 * - 2)(ar + 1).5 x =r -f . n a 4O5 b b x f -(a: - a) + a-(a.5 1 -f 1 x - 2 = x . ^ (a . 396. - J). a:- a)(a: - &)(>: + 2a +2&) = (a: + 2 a) 408. m x 398.6~a: 7 _ x -8~a. y ~ rt ^= & ~ 402..25 x + .REVIEW EXERCISE 391.75 x -f .

How long is each road ? 423.a)(x b b) (x b ~ ) 412. 421. down again How person walks up a hill at the rate of 2 miles an hour. 2 a x c x 6 -f c a + a + a + 6 -f walks 2 miles more than B walks in 7 hours more than A walks in 5 hours. 418 ~j-o.c) . 411. 4x a a 2 c 6 Qx 3 x c 419.(c rt a)(x - b) = 0. far did he walk all together ? A . hour. A man drives to a certain place at the rate of 8 miles an Returning by a road 3 miles longer at the rate of 9 miles an hour. he takes 7 minutes longer than in going. mx ~ nx (a ~ mx nx c d d c)(:r lfi:r a b)(x . - a) -2 6 2a. x 1 a x x1 ab 1 1 a x a c + b c x a b b ~ c x b 416 417. Find the number. 420. a x ) ~ a 2 b 2 ar a IJ a. the order of the digits will be inverted.(5 I2x ~r l a) . and was out 5 hours. In a if and 422. 18 be subtracted from the number. a x a x b b x c b _a b -f x 414. (x . -f a x -f x -f c 1 1 a-b b x 415. A in 9 hours B walks 11 miles number of two digits the first digit is twice the second. Find the number of miles an hour that A and B each walk.278 410. (x -f ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA a)(z - b) = a 2 alb = a (x -f b)(x 2 . Tn 6 hours . and at the rate of 3^ miles an hour.

: If is one equal 434. 430. 435. ax is -\- by - ex + dy.2 (a + &*) (a -h & ) = (a ) (a -6). Find two consecutive numbers such that the sum of the fifth and eleventh parts of the greater may exceed by 1 the sum. Find the fourth proportional 426. b. x 427. wi* + y= ny. 8 8 5 ~ a*b + a*b* . : m n(n x) =p : m n(p : x). Find the ratio x 5x : = 7y . Find the length of the parts. Which ratio is greater. . 428.46 2): (15a 2 .& 5 ) (a 8 . z 2 y.REVIEW EXERCISE 424. A line 10 inches long divided in the ratio m:n. angle of a triangle is to another as 4 5 and the third angle to the sum of the first two. |. 5 7 or 151 208? 437. find : a : c. When will the second steamer overtake the first? 425.iand 22 22 -I a . The sum of the three angles of any triangle is 180. d.a 2^ 8 + aft* . 433. if . + 4ft):(Oo + 86)= (a-26):(3o-46). y. (a + 6 ) (a + ft) = (a (3a 2 2 : : fc : : : .31 afc + UV ) = (15 a 2 + 31 ab + H 6) (25 a2 .49 63).6 8 ). a + 5. find the angles of the triangle. 2 2 8 2 . Find the mean proportional to 429. a - t>. z2 - y\ x* -xy + y*. Prove that the number of miles one can see from an elevation of h feet is very nearly equal to ^- - miles. . 432. Solve 436. : i. of the sixth and ninth parts of the less. 3 and 1J. If a b : =5 n : 7. 438. 279 A in 2 lowed steamer which goes at the rate of 264 miles a day is foldays by another which goes 286 miles a day. 431. and : b : c = 14 : 15. a8 -f 2 ab -f 6 2. Which of the following proportions are true? (9 c. a.

21 7 = 27 + Op. 7 442. 3 a. 4 = 5 y + 29. . 449.r-f-2# = l.59 = 3 z. 5x+4y=lQ. 5#+ 10 = -27 a. . 453. a: -2y= = 1 . 16.*. 7a?-y = 3. 445. 1(3 | a. of two spheres are to each other as the cubos of a sphere 2 inches in diameter weighs 1:2 ounces. 56 + 10y = 7a. ax + ly = 2 a*x + & 2# = a + b. 28 = 5 a . 444. 15ar = 20 + 8y.7 y = 25. ?/ 447. + 5y = 59. 459. 455. 451. a: a: + 5y). 5j + 7 7 = = 2. 8 x + y = 19. what is the weight of a sphere of the same material having a diameter of 3 inches ? 440. 8 . /) ar a.4 12 . x + 5 y = 49 3 x . 452. if 2 ft : 439. ft. 446. 457. 448. . 33 x + 35 y = 4 55 * . 7 a: . 5z-4:# = 3.35. 443. 42 = 15y + 137.280 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA x. />(. ox -f &// = 2 + y) = a + 8a + 21+3ft = 0. 5 2 = 7 . 454.11 y = 95. = 25. 458. c. . 7jr-9y = 17. Find the value of a.89 = q. . 3 . a. 9/> = 2 .3 y = 3 5 -f 7 . 456. 9ar-7# = 71.. The volumes If their diameters. x + 17 # 53. 450.55 y = . 2 (3 a + 2 ab - 8 ft) : 2 (5 a -f 4 ai - 12 ft 2 ) = a? : (5 a - 6 ft). 20y + 21 18a = 50 + 25y.(or |-l(*-2y)=0.11 7. 29(a + &) : x = 551 (a 3 - ) 19(a - &). Solve the following systems: 441. ft.

car = 4- rf cte - ey =/. ax by = c \ 472. 8 461. 468. --i = 5. - = 2. _ 469.7. -_ & +y 3 dx+frj- c\ . 473. ax cx by = m. 3 a? _ y 7 a? 3 y _ 1 12 15 ~~10 4 __ 10 "10 463..+ -=2.c=56-3y.REVIEW EXERCISE 460. ' a: + 2 g + 3 y _ 467. + ey-n. ^ + i^ = 7. 4 g ~ 2 7g + 3 .?/ + 1 .2y)- (2 = 2J. i- 47O _ 3~12 } 4* 471. x y 474. (or . 475. 3 x 28i + 7 ~~~^ = 5. 465.

and if each be increased by 5 the Find the fraction. Find the fraction. age. Find the principal and the rate of interest. and becomes when its denominator is doubled and its numerator increased by 4 ? j| 478. Find the numbers. A sum of money at simple interest amounts in 8 months to $260. 483. In a certain proper fraction the difference between the nu merator and the denominator is 12. A sum of money at simple interest amounted in 10 months to $2100. and in 20 months to $275. Find their ages. by 4. whose difference is 4. Find two numbers such that twice the greater exceeds the by 30. and in 18 months to $2180. and a fifth part of one brother's age that of the other. if the sum of the digits be multiplied by the digits will be inverted. and the other number least. There are two numbers the half of the greater of which exceeds the less by 2. A number consists of two digits 4. and 5 times the less exceeds the greater by 3. also a third of the greater exceeds half the less by 2. least The sum of three numbers is is 21. half the The greatest exceeds the sum of the greatest and 480. 479. latter would then be twice the son's A and B together have $6000. the Find their ages. How much money less 484. 486. What is that fraction which becomes f when its numerator is doubled and its denominator is increased by 1. fraction becomes equal to |. 481. Find the number. If 1 be added to the numerator of a fraction it if 1 be added to the denominator it becomes equal becomes equal to ^. . to . years. Find the sum and the rate of interest. 487. If 31 years were added to the age of a father it would be also if one year were taken from the son's age . thrice that of his son and added to the father's. 485.282 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 476. Of the ages of two brothers one exceeds half the other by 4 is equal to an eighth of 482. A spends \ of his. had each at first? B B then has J as much spends } of his money and as A. 477. Find the numbers.

498. 3ar 503. 2 a. of two the sum of the digits also if number. z y i-fi = z x 502. + y 5 y = 101 . a: + // = 11. 2 ar + 3 y 2 z = 8 . ~ 507. 7./ -f z =a. 2y + 2z = a: 2.z = 20. 494. a. a number . a. The sum of two numbers squares is b. . x -f y -f z 29| . 2 2 = 41. 490.z = 12. i-f-i = x a.-5#+2z = $x a: G. a: 499. 7 -4#+ 3z = 35. 30 -2^ 3^ = ' ' 4r=-9. 4 497. and the difference of their Find the numbers. 2 e. 489. 1+1 = 6. 2/>-3r = 4. 5 + a. *i. a: + ?/ 2z = 15. 492. --\ .? + 2y = 8. 4 506. : Solve the following systems 491. Find two numbers whose sum equals is s and whose difference equals d. There is 283 digits which is equal to seven times the digits be transposed the new number Find the will exceed 10 times the difference of the digits by 6. x y -f z = 13|. . = 20. + # +z= 35. . y Solve : x +z= 5. x s + y z = 18J . 2y + 3a = ll. = 209. 1. -f- + 3 y 62 4 y 4a. 496. a: -f z = 79. 2a:-f 7.REVIEW EXERCISE 488. z y x 25 . . 493. 3 a: + 5=84. 495. 7 + 2 z . 4z+3z = 20. * + 425 - = . 8./ 504. = 15. . 3 x 500. 5^ 9z = 10.

z z- =3a-&-c. i=a + 6 c. !f == 2800.284 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 516. + + 3579 2+?. 517. ra? + y 2 + 524 x \ +y + = + t jx [y + 9 = 3a-f& + r. + : = 1472. 36 + c. 523. ll" .

if the number be increased by Find the number. In circle A ABC. L. AC in /). touches and F respectively. What are their rates of travel? . sum of the reciprocals of of the reciprocals of the first of the reciprocals of the second and the sum 528. CD. Find the present ages of his father and mother. Tf and run together. 37 pounds of tin lose 5 pounds. (a) How many pounds of tin and lead are in a mixture weighing 120 pounds in air. 90.REVIEW EXERCISE 285 525. M. AB=6. A vessel can be filled by three pipes. . it separately ? 531. . When weighed in water. they would have met in 2 hours. How long will B and C take to do . if and L. A can do a piece of work in 12 days B and C together can do the same piece of work in 4 days A and C can do it in half the time in which B alone can do it. and 23 pounds of lead lose 2 pounds. 532. 530. and losing 14 pounds when weighed in water? (b) How many pounds of tin and lead are in an alloy weighing 220 pounds in air and 201 pounds in water ? in 3 days. in 28 minutes. BC = 5. and CA=7. Two persons start to travel from two stations 24 miles apart. E 533. A number of three digits whose first and last digits are the same has 7 for the sum of its digits. An (escribed) and the prolongations of BA and BC in Find AD. Find the numbers. his father is half as old again as his mother was c years ago. Tu what time will it be filled if all run M N N t together? 529. B and C and C and A in 4 days. if L and Af in 20 minutes. 527. and B together can do a piece of work in 2 days. Throe numbers are such that the A the first and second equals . N. it is filled in 35 minutes. and BE. and one overtakes the other in 6 hours. A boy is a years old his mother was I years old when he was born. and third equals \\ the sum third equals \. If they had walked toward each other. In how many days can each alone do the same work? 526. the first and second digits will change places.

to do the work? pendulum. 545.286 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA : 534. . - 3 x. formation of dollars into marks. 2. 2 541. - 7. x*. x *-x + x + 1. . AND BRITISH ISLES 535.e. x 2 + x. The value of x that produces the greatest value of y. Represent the following table graphically TABLE OF POPULATION (IN MILLIONS) OF UNITED STATES. Draw the graph of y 2 and from the diagram determine : + 2 x x*. 2 x + 5. 543. The roots of the equation 2 + 2 x x z = 1. How is t / long will I take 11 men 2 t' . The values of y. If to feet is the length of a seconds.3 Draw down the time of swing for a pendulum of length 8 feet. - 3 x. the time of whose swing a graph for the formula from / =0 537.10 marks. 536. 547. then / = 3 and write = 3. the function. 2 - x - x2 . 542. b. 3 x 539. of Draw a graph for the trans- The number in of workmen Draw required to finish a certain piece the graph work D days it is from D 1 to D= 12. 2|. x 2 544. The values of x if y = 2. z 2 - x x - 5. 548. from x = 2 to x = 4. a. x* - 2 x. 550. GERMANY. x 8 549. c. Draw the graphs of the following functions : 538. + 3. One dollar equals 4. The greatest value of the function. i. e. d. if x = f 1. FRANCE. 546. 540.

10 x 2 + 8 = 0. .) How In far does a how many body fall in 2^ seconds? seconds does a body fall 25 meters? Solve graphically the following equations : x*-"2x-7 = Q. 555. Solve 552.= 0. 3 x .3 = 0. 558.r -1 561.11 x* + + 2 8 569. 557. J. If y +5 10.3 x .3 x . r?. .9 = 0. .0. // Solve y Solve y = 5. 2 x 2 560. 2 ~0a: + 9 = 0. x* . 3 . Determine the number of real roots of the equation y Determine the limits between which m must lie. i. ' = 8. x 2 ~ 2 . c.= 0. Find the greatest value which ?/ may assume for a negative x.3 . g. 566. Find the value of m that will make two roots equal if y = m.4 x 2 + 4 . 565.11 = 0. e. a: 559. 572. c.4 . - 2 1 a: a. Which negative value of x produces the greatest value of y ? : Solve graphically 570 ' 571. a.G . 3 + 3 z . f. 553.13 = 0. graphically from t = (Assume g = 10 scale unit of the t equal to 10 times the scale ^ 2 .' 2* + Z - 4 = 0. 564.r . 568.6 + 3 . Represent meters. 2 a. 2 8 . \ to t = 5. 3 x* . 2 567. a. if y =m has three real roots. 563.r a: a: x- a. 15. x 4 . x 5 . 287 by a falling body is The formula 2 ] f/f for the distance traveled a. z 2 .7 = . Solve// = 0. j.REVIEW EXERCISE 551. a? 4 x .17 = 0. h.1 = 0. + 5 . + 10 x . 556. z 4 .4 = 0. 2. 2 554.5 x . a. 562. = 5. and make the unit of the b. 18 x - 4 = 0.15 = 0.

48 a*h + 6 a: ?/ 10 6. x + z2) 8 .a:) 6 (1 2 2 (2 + 3 x + 4 ) -f (2 -3 x + -f. 593. (1 + x a. 4 . 589. . a: -f 2 2 aAa: + 2 ?/ . 588. 6 + 1) . a 8 606. 597. 2 - 2 aa: 2 . 4 (1-a:) 3. - 128 a 10 6 30 3 a: + 2 ?/ ' 100 a 8 /. 592. (a - 8 ft) . (# 2) . 582. 64 a 12 603. 598.(1 . a:. + . x [ ?/ 577.128 a*^ + 04 aty 10 3 5 zy . 608.-5 xy = 0. Extract the square roots of the following expressions: 602. 2 - 100 aW + 100 aW.2 & 2 ) (4 a: ?/ 14 a: 1 2 2 ?y -4 a: 10 2 + x^f . 585 594. a 2a. a: . 5 a*. . -f ?>) 3 591.2 6a: + 30 &c a.o 2 [ ?/ > 3' - 578. [ y =10. j^-f = 3.x + 2 )'2 601. 595. -f ^s_ 14 a 4/. jj+.4 x*y* + 3 4 6 . a 612. + jf:ji f590> (2 (3 (1 Perform the operations indicated 584. + %) (a* + *) 5 . a: -f ~+ x [ 10 ^i - 1 V 6x + 4 --+ 610. 2 943 +-+ -~-bx. 609. 3 . : y* or 25. 4-8 xf + a: 4 - 04 aty 6 a: // 16 -2 605.2 2 + y.-4. f-MV -- 586 ' ^ (a + 6)T ' 587. (a. = 2 \*> + a: [ ^ = 4' = 581. {f_7l j? 2* + |''. 2 (2 a ft 6 + + 4 a 6& 2 + x -f 13 2 . 604.%) 4 (aa. (a-iy. 4 a. 2 + -f 9 6 + 25 c 2 10 ac - a6.288 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA |4. 579.4 8 -f 4 4 + i 2 ) 2 -f (a 1 .frf : 583. 1 . 600. 3 (f-. 2 611. 599. + + 4 x) (l 2 ^) . 596. 9 - 4 fSb 607. xY. + ^) + (air-%)8. 2 2 a:' ) + x' )'2 . <r)3 - 2 3 a:) . a. + + 4 .4 + 4 a 8^6 + 9 a a^e _ 6 aW + 8 9(5 a: 7 // fe . (1 (1 (1 .

035.15174441. 4 289 of : 4- 4 a*b + a2 2 /. 0090. (x 9 x 646. 371240. 622. x2 + 9x _ 5x _ 22 66 ? * + 9 . + 112 a 8 . *+* = 156. 638. 8*' + 24* = 32. 626. 639. 25023844. ft . 2. 49.1024 x + a: 256. a 8 10 a* 8 aft 7 + ft 8 . 9g. 7) 2. 2 2) 2 +x = 14. + 54 'x*y* . = 70. V 635. 651. According to Kepler's law.30. /. = 0. 629. 2 + 21Ga. 49042009. + 2 -21 x = 100. and the Earth's period equals 3G5J Solve the following equations : 640.191209. If the distances of Earth and Jupiter from the sun are at 1 days. 44352. 625- : 621. 10 a 4 32 fe 2 + 81. find Jupiter's period.49. 637. a- 642. 628. 3a. + 24 a 2 4 . 4J. = 87. 650.448 z + 1120 a: 4 - 1792 x* + 1792 2 . 9a. 633.REVIEW EXERCISE Find the fourth root 613. 643. x 2 641. x 2 . Find the eighth root 617. -f (x + 5) 2 = (x + . = . 615. 624. VOIOOD + V582T09. 623.\/4090. 4370404. 210.V250 . 632.2. 494210400001.*. Find to three decimal places the square numbers : roots of the following 627.871844. 2 + 189 z = 900. 40.12 a?y + y*. GGff.8 aft 6 + 8 21G. 636. 32 631. Find the square root of 619. 620.150. the cubes of the distances of the planets from the sun have the same ratio as the squares of their periods of revolution about the sun. 21.53 x ~ . -f 4 aft 8 + 4 ft . : 5. 10:r 4 + 9G* 3 + HI x s - 108 afy 616.2410. 644. 614. 630. 647t x 2 648 649. 645. a 8 of: - 8 tvb + 28 a 6 //2 - 50 a c ft 8 + 70 a 4 ft 4 - 50 a 8 ft 6 + 28 a 2ft 618. 942841. V950484 . 634. x 2 -f x ~ - 16 = 0.

290 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA """ ar a x b ab .

699. 2 2 .ax . (x 2 +3a:) 2 -2a. 695. . 708. 7^^ ^3" ^^ ^T 704. 694. 4 a: + 4 ^^ -6a:x2 8 701.2 a(l + & )z -fa 2 (1 ax + to -f ru: 2 . 2 ft 2 2 fi 2 = 0. = 0. . a. 692. 706.a a )jr . 696. ex -a-b-c= fx 0.bx . 1 __ : )'*' _i. 707. 2 2 697. 2 (:r + :r)O 2 + :c-f 1) = 42. 1 + V* -2bx + a 2 + 2 ax . 2(4 :r 7r\O /'r'S = a: 0. 2 702. + ~T~ * a + b x = rj* 2 4(5 4 x + + Ox + 4 691. ax 2 698.REVIEW EXERCISE ~ 291 X+ x 1> a +c ~ a i~ i c ~ b - ~ " x 690.2V3:r 2 V5 a: -f + fa + 1 = 0. 693.c = 0. 2 ' 3 2 a:) - 28 + 21 + 5 '^ = 0.

Find the altitude of an equilateral triangle whose side equals a. paying $ 12 for the tea and $9 for the coffee. How shares did he buy ? if 726.292 709. sum is a and whose product equals J. 16 x* . and working together they can build it in 18 days. 724. ___ _ 2* -5 3*2-7 715. 217 . The area the price of 100 apples by $1. Find two consecutive numbers whose product equals 600.40 a 2* 2 + 9 a 4 = 0. What number exceeds its reciprocal by {$. he many 312? he had waited a few days until each share had fallen $6. 2n n 2 2 -f-2aar + a -5 = 0. The difference of the cubes of two consecutive numbers is find them.44#2 + 121 = 0. 727. A man bought a certain number of shares in a company for $375.l + 8 -8 + ft)' (J)-* (3|)* + (a + 64- + i. 714 2 *2 ' + 25 4 16 | 25 a2 711. If a pound of tea cost 30 J* more than a pound of coffee. 725. 729. what is the price of the coffee per pound ? : Find the numerical value of 728. 723. **-13a: 2 710. of a rectangle is 221 square feet and its perimeter Find the dimensions of the rectangle. Find the price of an apple. in value. if 1 more for 30/ would diminish 720. . 716. Find two numbers whose 719. needs 15 days longer to build a wall than B.25 might have bought five more for the same money. What two numbers are those whose sum is 47 and product A man bought a certain number of pounds of tea and 10 pounds more of coffee. 722. a: 713. A equals CO feet. 721. 12 -4*+ - 8. 717. In how many days can A build the wall? 718. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA +36 = 0. Find four consecutive integers whose product is 7920. 3or i -16 .

.1 + c.2 ). 42. + - - c* + 2 + ^ + cb-f 44. (x* 2 a M+ -f a8) (x* - 2 aM" a).)(a-i + &. 1 -6. +w 5 n* +w n 3 + n )(m* 3 n^). 31.2)(x2 4. 36. (v/x). 39. 35.REVIEW EXERCISE implify : 30. n. 34. .-l). 41.- 1 + l)(>r 2 - -i + 1).X . + a^ 1 + a 26" 2 )(l . 33.2? 50. 37.1 -f c" ).2 d*m* + 4 d-)(w* + 2 rfM + .1 + x. (x* (i* (a-2 (a(1 1 4 d*). (^ (a* (a^ ary* + x^y -f- y*) * + -* (x* - y*). (4 x~* + l 3 ar 2 + 2 2 ) a. 38.aM ?n^n^ -f ft*c*)(a* + 6* + c*). (64 x~ + 27 y -r- (4 x~^ + 3 y"*). 32. 46.aft* 1 + a 2*. (4 a: 2 - 12 x* 28 x + 9 x* - 42 x* + 49)*. + a*x* x*)(a* /^ (a* (rrr + c^ s M ' + x*). 293 (y* (a* + -f y* + y*+l)(y*.1 -f ^ 2). 43. 40. + &-2)( a -2_ 1 j-2). 48 ^i? x T ^ ^2? x sT~ x . 52. -f- + M 6* -f 6) (a* U*") -4- a*6^ (<i* &*).

294 753. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 755. 758. 754. \/G86 v/lG-v/128.1+J 756. 2^3(^-2^21 + 4^-3^:0. 759. 768.. [1r^ T 1 i ._ 1 4j "r O/lf * ^ ^ II r* 4"*" 1 A "1 1. ~ r* x . 2-V2 2-V3 . vff + V^~ 4^ -2^/2 776. JU. 761. 757. 4\/50 4- SVlOOO. + V22 + + 12 V2b8 - 760.

13 799. 806. a 94-42V5. 783. + 2V21. . Va 809. . -f x Va z Va -f x + Va a. 87 ac + 6t - 12 ^ + 2 Vab Simplify 801. . 3J- . 794. 7 + 3 V5 ( 7 7 - 3 V'5 ( 2 4 7-3V5 + 3V5 + V3 + V3 4 | 5 . 787.4 V(j. 16 + 2V55. Find the square roots of the following binomial surds: 784.2 V30. . 14 791. 786. 38-12VIO. 9-2VI5. y/a + Va Va x x + x 781. 793. 75-12V21. c 792.IIEVIEW EXERCISE y/a 295 -f 780. 789. 103 788.12VIT. 10 785. 790.2V3* ^ 807.VlO. x 782.

816. 829.4 = 0. 811. 830. 818. + Vx .79.28 = 4 V2 ar 14.V2 ar 10. 831. Va: + 28 -f + V9 x .\/2y - 810. V14 a. 815. 819.-f 5 = V5x + 4. V2a: Va: + 3 + ar -2 Vx -f 1 834. 836.1 V* + 60 = 2 Vx~-K5 + V5. 2\/^"+~5 + 3Vor-7 = V25 . 814. x/aT+l . 3 x + 2 . Va: . \/2(r+ /3 a: 1) + v/2 x + a: 15 = 13. 820. + ViTli + V7 . 833.296 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA . -f 2 VaT+1 1 a: 832.g. - 5 + V3 -f 12 817. Find the sum and difference of (ar + V2y-x 2)* and 1. (x a: 2 ) 4 . 9 7 3 + V3a:+ = 0.13 = 0. \/12 a.V? = 813. 812. VaT+lJ -f ^l .V-c^lJ . V3 -f 1 V4a. = 1. + 10-3Var. /9ar a: = 17.

a. 4 a.1.7x + 3 = 3ar(a. a 8 850. a. 8 8 - 13 a. 4 a: 2 842. 19 x 14. 16 859. 9. 852. x 11 a^ -J- 13 854.1)+ + Vo: 2 + 3 x -f 5 = 7 .KEVIEW EXERCISE 838. 8 + 4- 4 ar 2 2 a.-12. x 6 x4 -f + + a: x -f 1. 8 + a: 5 8 a. 8 -2a. 8 . 64 a 866. 846. 5 a 4 7 a8 .x*y + 3x -f 2. 6 2 -f 3 6 s. 868. 40 x 2 7 -f 49. 8^-27^. . + 1.3 . 8 a. 861. -f 12.1000 6. 729 867.28 a 4 xy 8 80. 876. + . 851. 27 862. a: . 863. a. + 216 rt aty a 10 . - 3x a. 27 y 8. a. 871. 8 8 848. 4 x 8 858. 855. 2 -f 2 18a: -f + 16. + 512 y8 874. . a 8 873. 5 x* -f 297 9) 11 x . 853. 6. a*" & 6n .a.3 a:. 8 860. 4 x* 847. z*y 8 l-64a. 844. 275 8 -l. x 8 2 857. 845. -64. 865. 4o. x 4 + -f 2 a. a 18 4. 2 x 3. 864. -f b**. a. 839. a 8 869. 8 4a: 8 a. a: 849.12\/(ar4-4)(5z~ = 36. 2 a: 64 y*. a l0m . x* 8 ^ 8 2 a#* a. .3 x . V4 x 2 . 856. -8a: 2 4 -f 8 a: + 2 19a.ab9 ft*. a* * 1 + a8 8 a.3 Va: 2 . +3 -4 + - 4. . 840. . a 872. y 4. 2 -f" + a/ 15. a: : Resolve into prime factors 843.10 = 118. 875. -f 841. 870. a. a: 2 + 4\/3^~.10 x -f 1 = 10 x + L * 2 .

886. 1 x 893. -. a: + y 2 = 34. 2 = 2 + 5. What must be the value of m and n to make 8 + mx 2 + nx -f 42 exactly divisible by 2 2 and by a. 3 x 2 . xy(a:y + 1) = 6. . 2 + 2 f = 17. -f- a: a: 4 ?y = 481.y 2 = 2 y + 2. 895. 894. that 1001 79 of 1 is divisible by 1000. 2 + 3 y 2 = 43. y(a:2 + y 2 ) = 25 x. a:y . a: 884. y 2 2 8f.1 = 2 a#. a. z 2 898. 885. x a: l-I = xz . x 882. a# f + xy = 126.298 877. 900. y 2 4. 2 + ary = 8 y + 6. 2 + xy = 28. 890. a: 888. 2 3 2 z3 xy + y = 7. 2 . --. a. 896. 5. 5x 3 exactly divisible 879. . + ary + 2 = 37. 2 2 = 16 y. x 8 3 = 13:3.y 2) = 20. = ? + p"iaL+L=13.35.18. 2 + xy = 10. ar(ar + y ) 2 2 2 2 xy . : x 3? Solve the following systems 881. +y -f y = 7. . -f ?/ a: a: . a: 2 897. y = 28. x*-xy. 901. 889.y 2 + V(j. 2 . 4 2 2 + afy 2 + -f ary + y = 37.sy = 198. a: 1 1 _ 5 892. xy + y = 32. M1 891 1 . ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Show Show 3 ? that 99 + 1 is divisible by 100. a. 878. 887. xy 2 a: a: ?/ a.xy + y 2 = 19.5 xy + 4 f = 13.15. 2 -f ary = 8 + 3. 8 8 + y y 9 9 a: = = 37 a: 152.y = 2 ay + a a# = 2 aa: + 6 a. y y 2 y 2 1-1-21. + 2y=\2. . y*+ xy .Vi' + 1 1_3. 2 + y 2 . 899. 883. a: a. For what value m is 2 #3 mx* by x - 880.

xy + 2 y 2 = 65. *y . (* 918. 908. 2 924. 2 5 xy = 11. 2 y 2 -f ay/ = 16. + y 8 = 189. a: y zx 12.2 y) = 49 2 919.x) = 21. 912. 3 -|-y 8 ) =1216.#y + 2 = 27. (a. + 2 y) (2 + ?/) = 20.y). 914. 909.y) = 33. = 8.r a. ?/ ^: ^-f!i^2. 9 -f 8 y -f 7 ay/ = 0. x 4 299 xy z 904. a: a. + y = 9. 917. (!) * . y + a:y = 180. a:y xy 929. 923. xa 903. x + y}(x + y) = 273. 4 (a. (0 Vx -f 10 -f v^+T4 = 12. 7 y .y) (3 y . + 2 a:y + = 243.6.3) 2 -f (y . 2 913. y 2 + 3 ary = 2. ary y = 8. + y)(a. 907.3(* + y) = 6.23 = 200. 921. yz = 24. 920. 2 2 -f 4 a: ar// or -f- a. -f y 2 x 2 y = 1. + a. x* + ary -f y 2 = 9. y 2 + xy = b 2 925. * + y = 444. (o. y 3 2 2 922. 7 + 4 y -f 6 ary = 0. xy 2 2 x 2y 2 = 0.y) (a? . . 2 * 2 ~ g.y)^ 03 926 12 +y +y 927. xy + x= 15. ^ 2 + 2 a:y = a a 2 3 a: a: a. ny ft- ma: = * a 2 m*.3)2 = 34. + ary = a*. x -f 2 a:y = 32. 23 x 2 . or or a? a: a: . ^ 2 . + 2 ary = 39. . 2 2 2 916. 910. 3 :r(3 .V + y 2 = + xy + y a = (a? . 2 915. + ?/) . # + xy + y = 7. . a o o- 2 j + a:y = 2. a. x 2 ry + y = 3.16 y 3 8 = . L/ay = a: + 5? + g = ^ + g. y # 2 2 -f -f y = 84. y 49(x 2 2 = 6 2 (x 2 + y 2). (3 x . Vary + y = 6. y .y2 = 22. y x 2 = by. a: * a: a: ar 928. x + y 2 = aar. 3 y 2 + xy = 1. 906. 905. 2 + y = 2 a 4.y = a(ar + y). 911.REVIEW EXERCISE 902.

and the sum of their cubes is tangle certain rectangle contains 300 square feet. is 20.102. Find the length and breadth of the first rectangle. and B diminishes his as arrives at the winning post 2 minutes before B.300 930. 937. two squares is 23 feet. and the difference of 936. and the Find the sides of the and its is squares. Find the numbers. two squares equals 140 feet. there would have been 25 more trees in a row.000 trees. y( 934. 944. is 3. + z)=18. much and A then Find at what increases his speed 2 miles per hour. diagonal 940. two numbers Find the numbers. 931. . (y (* + y)(y +*)= 50. 942. The difference of two numbers cubes is 513. = ar(a? -f y + 2) + a)(* + y 933. is 3 . 34 939. How many rows are there? 941. the difference of their The is difference of their cubes 270. (y + *) = .square inches. (3 + *)(ar + y + z) = 96. The sum of the perimeters of sum of the areas of the squares is 16^f feet. z(* + y + 2) = 76. feet. and the sum of their areas 78$. The sum of the circumferences of 44 inches. find the radii of the two circles. In the first heat B reaches the winning post 2 minutes before A. A plantation in rows consists of 10. the area of the new rectangle would equal 170 square feet. 152. In the second heat A . A is 938. and also contains 300 square feet. y(x + y + 2) = 133. Assuming = -y. 935. Find the side of each two circles is IT square. A and B run a race round a two-mile course. The perimeter of a rectangle is 92 Find the area of the rectangle. 2240. Find the sides of the rectangle. 943. and 10 feet broader. *(* + #) =24. + z) =108. feet. If each side was increased by 2 feet. s(y 932. a second rec8 feet shorter. Tf there had been 20 less rows. rate each man ran in the first heat. the The sum of the perimeters of sum of their areas equals 617 square feet. The diagonal of a rectangle equals 17 feet. The sum of two numbers Find the numbers. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA (*+s)(* + y)=10.

and the other 9 days longer to perform the work than if both worked together. A certain number exceeds the product of its two digits by 52 and exceeds twice the sum of its digits by 53. Find the width of the path if its area is 216 square yards. whose 946. 951. triangle is 6. The sum of the contents of two cubic blocks the of the heights of the blocks is 11 feet. A rectangular lawn whose length is 30 yards and breadth 20 yards is surrounded by a path of uniform width. set out from two places. 953. A number consists of three digits whose sum is 14. The area of a certain rectangle is 2400 square feet. The area of a certain rectangle is equal to the area of a square side is 3 inches longer than one of the sides of the rectangle. When from P A was found that they had together traveled 80 had passed through Q 4 hours before. Two starts travelers.REVIEW EXERCISE 301 945. the difference in the lengths of the legs of the Find the legs of the triangle. was 9 hours' journey distant from P. unaltered. 949. . Find in what time both will do it. If the breadth of the rectangle be decreased by 1 inch and its is length increased by 2 inches. at the same time A it starts and B from Q with the design to pass through Q. Find the eter 947. 950. its area will be increased 100 square feet. What is its area? field is 182 yards. The square described on the hypotenuse of a right triangle is 180 square inches. each block. Find its length and breadth. and its perim- 948. is 407 cubic feet. and if 594 be added to the number. Find the number. Two men can perform a piece of work in a certain time one takes 4 days longer. . distance between P and Q. P and Q. the square of the middle digit is equal to the product of the extreme digits. overtook miles. . the digits are reversed. that B A 955. 952. The diagonal of a rectangular is 476 yards. and that B. A and B. Find the number. at Find the his rate of traveling. and travels in the same direction as A. sum Find an edge of 954. if its length is decreased 10 feet and its breadth increased 10 feet. Find two numbers each of which is the square of the other. the area lengths of the sides of the rectangle.

: + -f 24 21 24 4-f 32 36 1G 10.V2 .-.. Sura to 24 terms.. are 29 and 53.to infinity. 964.4-142 . . and 976.-. 970. 3 . s - 88.. to n terms. 12434+ j I 967..x*(x 3 -f 8) + y) + (2x + f) + (3 x + y 8 ) 4. to infinity. . Find the sum of 4. 1G series . to 7 terms.454.141414. *" 968. 4.. 5. (x 4- to n terms. 36 963. the terms being in A. \ . difference.321? 965. P. first ? n+l(n + l) The 10th and The term and the T + ( + +!) V (to J' infinity). J. f + 1 .. 957. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Sum to 32 terras. 961. 966. 1 to n terms.3151515. the first term being Find the sums of the 960.. . (to 2 n terms).302 956. 972. Find n. ^ 1- . '.. Find n -f (ft) . 3 + 5 7 + -. P. such that the sum of the 1 terms is one sum of the following five terms. 969. Find the Find the common 977.. 16 962. . P. 971. Find an A. Sum Sum to infinity. !Ll^ + n .. 974.. - 2.. 9th and llth terms of an A... Sum Sum Sum to 10 terms. 5. x(x to 8 terms.. fourth of the unity. 958. P. (x + O 2 4 y 2 ) + O 8 + y*) + y) + x-(x 2 4 y 2} 4. 975. n to n terms. 18th terms of an A.>/) to infinity. = 4. are 1 and sum of 20 terms. ^ Vfirst five 959.1 4- f -j$V . 4 4- to 7 terms . -^-1 + V-j 1 2 - . Evaluate (a) .. Sum to 20 terms. + (iiven a + - 4 d . How many Sum Sum terms of the series 1 + 3 + 5 + amount to 123. Find the difference between the sums of the series 5 n + !Lni n " 4- 4.v 973.

doubling the number for each successive square on the board. Find the sum of the series 988.--- : + 9 - - V2 + .. 987. to n terms.. first 984. Insert 8 arithmetic means between 1 and -.04 + . 1. Find the number of grains which Sessa should have received.001 4. all A perfect number is a number which equals the sum divisible. to 105? 981.. 0. such that the product of the and fourth may be 55. The 21st term of an A.. and the sum of the first nine terms is equal to the square of the sum of the first two.001 + . and of the second and third 03.+ lY L V. named Sheran. Find n.-. of n terms of 7 + 9 + 11+ is is 40.2 . Insert 22 arithmetic means between 8 and 54. 4 grains on the 3d. P. to infinity may be 8? . to oo. and so on. Find four perfect numbers. P.) the last term the series a perfect number. 985. 2 grains on the 2d. Find the value of the infinite product 4 v'i v7-! v^5 . 992. Find four numbers in A. 990. and the common difference.3 ' Find the 8th 983. v/2 1 + + + 1 4 + + 3>/2 to oo + + . "(. 986. 989.1 + 2. 980. The term. is 225. who rewarded the inventor by promising to place 1 grain of wheat on Sessa for the the 1st square of a chess-board. The Arabian Araphad reports that chess was invented by amusement of an Indian rajah.REVIEW EXERCISE 978. How many sum terms of 18 + 17 + 10 + amount .. Find the first term. then this sum multiplied by (Euclid. .. If of 2 of integers + 2 1 + 2'2 by which is it is the sum of the series 2 n is prime. What 2 a value must a have so that the sum of + av/2 + a + V2 + . P.-.01 3. The sum 982. of n terms of an A. 5 11. 303 979.

1000. The sides of a second equilateral triangle equal the altitudes of the first. . If a. are 28 and find the numbers. Each stroke of the piston of an air air contained in the receiver. 999. The sum and product of three numbers in G. and G. P. 512 996. P. The other travels 8 miles the first day and After how increases this pace by \ mile a day each succeeding day. 997. and if so forth What is the sum of the areas of all circles. (a) after 5 strokes. (I) the sum of the perimeters of all squares. 1003. prove that they cannot be in A. are unequal. One of them travels uniformly 10 miles a day. the sides of a third triangle equal the altitudes of the second. are 45 and 765 find the numbers. after how strokes would the density of the air be xJn ^ ^ ne original density ? a circle is inscribed. Find (a) the sum of all circumferences. The fifth term of a G. in this square a circle. P. 995. at the same time. The side of an equilateral triangle equals 2. In an equilateral triangle second circle touches the first circle and the sides AB and AC. inches.304 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 993. ft. in this circle a square. Under the conditions of the preceding example. The sum and sum . find the series. and the fifth term is 8 times the second . Insert 4 geometric means between 243 and 32. and so forth to Find (a) the sum of all perimeters. third circle touches the second circle and the to infinity. ABC A A n same sides. (6) the sum of the infinity. pump removes J of the of air is fractions of the original amount contained in the receiver. (6) after n What strokes? many 1002. areas of all triangles. Two travelers start on the same road. many days will the latter overtake the former? . of squares of four numbers in G. 994. Insert 3 geometric means between 2 and 162. AB = 1004. In a circle whose radius is 1 a square is inscribed. and so forth to infinity. 998. P. is 4. c. P. 1001.

1008. . Expand - 2 a. + lQ . Write down the expansion of (3 1007.l) w -f . Find the middle term of 1020. Find the coefficient a: X ---- \88 1 in 1019.o/) 14 . Find the middle term of ( . Write down (x the first four terms in the expansion of + 2 #). Find the eleventh term of /4 x >> . Find the middle term of (a$ bfy. 1014. Find the 9th term of (2 al 1010. 1012. (1 1018. Find the two middle terms of 1013. . coefficient of x 9 in (5 a 8 -7 . Find the middle term of (a + b) 1016.ft) 19 . x) 18 .REVIEW EXEHCISE 1005. 1011. Write down the 1 5a - 6 |V . 2 ) 5. Find the two middle terms of (a *2 x) 9 . a: 8 7. Write down the (a first 305 three and the last three terms of - *)". Find the two middle terms of ( ( 9 . 1006.-i-V 2i/ 5 . ) 1021. (1-2 #) 7 . 1009. Find the fifth term of (1 - a:) 1015.

.

.130 .. . 37. . .. signs of Algebraic expression . 160 in quadratic form 191 . 158.. . 9.. 232 169 807 .. Checks Coefficient 20. . 112 54 54 251 .. .. .. 249 246 20 10 23 193 .. 54. 97.Base of a power Binomial " theorem 54 8 45 130 -10 255 9 Elimination Equations ' 63 consistent fractional . .... sum Consequent Consistent equations 210 27 10 18 . . .. Brace Bracket Character of roots . . . 148 178 Conditional equations Conjugate surds .. . quadratic .. . ... 9 ** .. . 123 .. . Discriminant Discussion of problems Arrangement of expressions Average ... ..] Abscissa Absolute term . . 8 . . graphic tion of representa- ....INDEX [NUMBERS REFER TO PAGES. ..181 105 " Complex fraction " Evolution Composition . 129 54. .. .193 11 . . . 19. 232 mean progression . linear literal Common ** * difference .. .. ... lowest ratio " '* . Aggregation. .. 246 91 " multiple..241 45 45 Dividend Division Divisor Axiom . . simple simultaneous .210 130 " Addition value 4 15. . 129.178 Completing the square ...108 160 " .. 49 Clearing equations of fractions 108 8 ' graphic solution. numerical . Constant Coordinates Cross product 155 148 41 " Alternation 123 Antecedent Arithmetic *' 120 Degree of an equation Difference .. t 53 120 .

31. . . 114. 120 Member. . 9. Inconsistent equations . Fourth proportional Fractional equations u Fractions.251 Graphic solution of simultane.. 17 65. 120 Lowest common multiple 70 .C Multiplication . . .. . 83 10 19 Polynomial Polynomials. law of Extraneous roots . 178 45 221 205 Law of exponents . L. INDEX 8 . 91 .154 Order of operations " of surds . . 205 148 148 27 86 Ordinate Origin . 45 Laws of signs . .. arithmetic 346 120 338 341 53 70. . . Mean " 81) proportional Mean. . 227 . . 143. .108 Minuend . . 130 9 Power Prime factors Problem. common factor Homogeneous equations Identities . 112 .. . . P . . C Factoring 222 Literal equations . 189. . . 246 251 121 Inversion Involution Irrational Proportion 105 Proportional. . Known numbers . Integral expression Interpretation of solutions Progressions. arithmetic . .. . 109 102 .. directly. Like terms Linear equation . inversely 122 numbers . 89 235 Parenthesis Perfect square 53 . 243 7 . . 241 123 geometric . 212 . Geometric progression .105 Monomials 03 Multiple. 1 Quadratic equations Quotient Radical equations Radicals .. 195 33. . Mathematical induction . addition of " square of . 195 Extreme Factor " theorem " II.. 45... numbers . 180. Graphic solution of simple equations Graph of a function Grouping terms Highest . 184 54. 84. 205 .808 Exponent Exponents. . exponent . Insertion of parentheses . first and second . 45. 23 10 91 102. 195 4 13 ous equations 100 158 . . 253 28 70 1. . Product '* 76 Infinite.. 34.. G. . .. Negative exponents 11 . 63. 227 geometric .. 42 7 Independent equations Index . Imaginary numbers ...

. 23 18 228 27 9 205 10 Term " absolute 54 193 178 Theorem. 255 120 54 10 sum and product of .. 193 Rule of signs Series Signs of aggregation Similar and dissimilar terms Similar surds 33.... absolute 54 Variable .INDEX Ratio national Rationalizing denominators 76. . polynomial . binomial Third proportional Transposition ... .... 1 Simple equations Simultaneous equations Square of binomial 205 Value.. . 9.... algebraic Surds . 45 Trinomial 240 . 27 17 Unknown numbers . .. 309 171 133 120 Square root Substitution 205 Real numbers Reciprocal 215 Subtraction 169 Subtrahend 104 22 Remainder theorem Removal of parenthesis Root Roots of an equation " character of " .. 4 155 9 " of .. . .... Sum... 232 Vinculum Zero exponent 40 42 197 Printed in the United States of America.. . . 129..

.

ANSWERS TO SCHULTZE'S ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA COMPILED BY THE AUTHOR WITH THE ASSISTANCK OP WILLIAM P. MANGUSE STrtn gork THE MACMILLAN COMPANY 1918 All rights reserved .

Published September. U. December. 1913. Gushing Co. 1916. Reprinted April.A. BY THE MACMILLAN COMPANY.COPYRIGHT. Berwick <fe Smith Co.S. 8.. Set up and electrotypcd. 1910. 1910. Mass. August. NorfoooS J. Norwood. . 1917.

20. 3. 28. Page 1. 7. 5. 29. 4. -2.000. 8. 25. 9. C $60. 17. 4.. 3.00000001.. 20. 7. 27. 17. 13 d. 9 16 - larger than 7. 7. 2 5. b. $100.1. Page 8. Seattle 12 Philadel- 9. 6* 16. 9.. sign. 192. loss. ^. 3. -32. 14. 4. 13. - 22 20. sign. B $ 128. ft.ANSWERS Page phia 8 in. . 9. 17. arithmetic. 26. -14. 2. 10g. 20 B. V 23. C $ 16. 4.$9400. $ 1 50 10. 144. 9. 1. 16. 89. 25. 7m. Australia ft. 10. in..000.. -15. 16. 3. 8. -3. -7. 16. 8. 3. 9. 3. 5. 20 \. 3..000. . 256. 7. 32. 7. 21. 24. 1 16. 25. 16. . 30. A 38 mi. = 5 81. 12. -3. 1. 5. 2. 17. 6. 12.000 Indians. 3. is $10. 5. 4. 150. 16 in.3. 19. 21. 6. 11. 20 jo. 6. 6.150. 15. 16. 25. $160.8. 24. 18. 0. 12. 3. 12. A $90.. 36. 15. Page 4. 12. i . 2. 10. 12. B $20. 72 = = 216. 85. _ 32. 2. 13 V. 1. 1. Page Page Ilis expenditures. 15. 27. 29. 1. 22. 8. 14. 18. 2.. A Bl 7. 5000. B 10 mi. 1. -37. 13. A 15. 9. per sec. x. 9.000. 5. 11. 6. 10.21 24. 3* 7. - 1. 1. 9. 14. 128. 12. }. 18. 2 - Page 8. Page?. 6. 8 13. 2. 6. westerly motion. 24. 49. 10. 16. - 2 p. 23. 19 4. 3. T . -3. 6 yd. 17. - 1. -2. 1. 3 below 0. 1. 11. 0.000. 22. 18. 12. - 13. 21. 7. 12.12. x. 13. c. 37 S. 6. 512. 2. 9. 3. 4. 2. 5. 2. 73. (a) (/>) -1. 1. 10.000 negroes. 4..000. 13. 6. 10. 13. 32. 1. 2 ~ 15.C. 9 14.2. 9 = 4. 32. in. 14. 18. 10. B $4700. 1. Not 5. 576. 16. 3. -30?. 16 in.000. 5. 1. 20. 59. Yes. 3. 64. Ot 15. 18. in 12. 14. 8 ft. 8. 3. 49. 6. 7. 9 m. 12. 28. 2. 16. $40. 15. 8. 6. 115. 19. 6. South America 46. 1. Multiplication. -26z. C $1(50. 48 ft. 16f 2. A . 14 11. |. 8. 27. + 1. 19. 2. 20. 14. -10.000. 7. 11. 210. . 106. 14. 126. 16. -2. 13 S. B $80. 5. 11. 1. 3 m. Page 13.

0. 314 sq. Page 23. 19. 7. -o^ft. 32. 27. -32 2 ftc.r -f 15. + 5. ft. - 1. 10. 17. 2x' 2 5 . 29.1. 16. Page 21. 5. 11. (a) <> sq. -21^.000 . 0. + v> 2 . 7. 15. $r*y 4- 3x?/ 4 m* run- - . 5. 9. ft n. -2. m + 3(a. -2. 49. + ft). 1. 8. -38 ab. . 12yd. -2oVm-f?i. y. 00 24 04 ft. ^. 7. in. 50. 23.<>Gq. 6. (r) 2G7.4 ft. 19. 104. 30. 18.ab. 16. - 12. vi 14. 3.. 3rf 27. 2. 7. jrif 4- 9. (a) 50. 13. -1. 13. <i~ 26. i:-5. in. 13. 27. 3. 4 9/^/rl 2.. 2V^4-^/ 8 x* 6. (59. 32. -22. . ^). 13. 27. (r) 78. w. 8. 24. 25. 11.ft. = 81. (a) r>23ifcu. a2 4- 15^4-4. 8. 18. - x-V 3 y. 3.x. -15.. 36. ??i??.. 13. +/-2(/. (c) S(i. 12. mi. 17. 33. (b) 135 mi. It. -3a. Polynomial. 2. -5. 5. 6. ft. 15. (ft) mi. 25. 5.000 sq. 17. 8. (ft) 7. Va'+Y2 8^2 . 18. $3000 Page 6. (a) 200. #1111.. 34. = ()501. a 32. -14. 8. 18. 13 cu. 34. 4. t. 11. Monomial. Trino- inial. 3. 9. 21. r:A 29.. -yyz+xyz*. 92. 26. . (a} 100 1(5 cm.9?/2 8. x^ 20. 1.5 (ft) sq. 7 7. -15. sq. 4. 13. r+l. 37. 18. Page 31.-~4. 10. 0. 57. 0.5f> sq. 15. 16. 0. -I. -2ftx. II. 4. 16. . ft -f- 19. 5. ft. (ft) $40. rt. m 24. 20(. :. c. -43w//2 17. 20.rty8.. 35. .94(>. ]*. arty 1 20.'J. 25. 14:). in. 9. 8. 14. . 21 a 3 4 10. (r) 2000 m.6) 38. -3. 27. 30. 6. 39. - 11. 31. a3 a2 4- a 4- 1. 14. 41. 27. 1. 2. 3 . 14. 14. 8. 4<> 2 ?t Vc. 3. - 3. -31. 1. - 0. (c) 8. 28. 04. Page 18. (<7) (a) 314 sq. 36. 20. -5x+3. 14. 5.r 2 . 5. - 2 4- 13 ft 2 .. (r) 2.. 3 a* + 2 at*. 27. a ft c. 12.. 9. r/ \(\xyz. .. Pagel4r. 237. (ft) Page 2. 0.4- - 2ft 2 33.3 * 10 r5 <3 . 2. 3. 0. 4. . 1. 22( 19. 35. 28. 4. 11.14 sq. 58. ft. 22. 21. 33. 38. Polynomial. 22.GOG. -4. 16. -- 40. 20. 21. 0. -3(c4-a). //-'.ii ANSWERS Page 11.ft) 4. _- 4 .. v'ft a4 4- a a 4-1.a .'JO ft.r~ -f 34. 23. ft. \'\ -4. 14. 12. 31. ft-)- - 3 /A - 8x :i (/* 4- ft)(X- 36 2 "'* ~ 5V (a -ft)-. (ft) 12.q 4. 19. 7. 24. 15. 173. 4 y/ . 3 y v> <Mft 3* 2. (a 4- 4. -0. 35. 12. 1. 17. WIN + wiw. 28.900. 6<t. :J!>r'.32 c2 > ft 3 . 3. 42. 12 a. 12. 29.. 240. -f - 5e 35. (V) (rf) (ft) 50. 51 f. . 30. 10. 3. 22. 9. ft' 3 . 1. Binomial. 12. 0* Page 3 w" 0. $80. 8. 15a. 1. 17. 26. in. Page 7.

?> 22. 56. 1 4. 2 a -f 6 414. 59. 15. 33. 2 + a4-l). 10.1. . 24 b 46.(7x2 -Ox-2). -2. c. 11. 4ft -~. G.4. 4. -f 2 ?/ - 2. -8a*b-8<tb'\ a + /> fc + 4 r. - b. 6. 10. -2 6. 2m + 2w. - 12. + a 2 -f 2 a 4. 32 w 2 w. ( 7. 2. + 6. a2 9. 5. . 8 8 . 34 39. 3 a . 4r 2 . m* - n*. 21. 2 17. 26. ?>-4-tl 53. &.a -f 54.4-c 3 8 8 J-. -12. a' 4ab + ?/-. 3-6. 6. 25. -18. 25 47. . - G J8 r - 4 a <?. 4- 21.(a -f 6) + 4(1 + c) . Page 7.4 d.r 2 + 4?/ 4-l). 0. 8. 814.2 57. 2 -2.3 6.2 a2 2m -2 4. 14. 31. 8 . 2 a 37. _ Page 30. 7 a5 1 . ' - . 4. 21. 12. ' 12 m?/'2 27. 22. 20. 14. -14. a 4 + ft. 16.ws 2 ft) .6 x + 0) 16. . 7 - a + 2 + c. 19. 15. 2m-(4? 2 4ir#-(2. . 364-c. Page 8. 2. 3 Ji 8 . (5x4-7 3. 5. - b* 4- r- 1 . c2 . - a: 2. 5x 2 rt ft. 1 + 45. Page 28. 24. 3 nv> w 3 a 24 npy . - 4 b 17 y*.-11. ti.x -f 1 2 . w* ( . -f ft 9. 10 m. a 3a 4- 2 &. 19. 2.5 4- 2 3 ?/ . 2. a 6 2 . a -f 2 f 2 9. 7. a 3 . 25. ?/i 13. 43. 6. 2 3x -f z. 2. 2 4- 5 2 a3 1. a - ISjfat.'U4j>. 7. .4x.5. + c 4 d x + 6 e. G a b-d. + 4 m4 4- 8 7?i 8 - G m. 50.a~. w 17. ! - </- . -\- :{ 2 a 48. 2.h. 2 y' 4- . 55. 4. mn. 8. 11. 28. j)-(-g1. Exercise 16. a2 24. r. ?/-. 1. -(y-z~d}. 2. 2 4.3x 2 -2 tf. ab a.c. a + (ft-c4-df). 20. a 10w. 20. 8 + 2 a . 22. /> Z-mn + qt G/ 4 . (w4w)(w-w). 30. ii\ 22. 13.r' 2 z2 2 4- a- 1. a). 0. 2 3. . 24.r. s_r>a-5. 2// 16. + 4 c.. 13.a*. 7. + 2y. . 7 - # + 12. . 51. 4. 40. 5 2 Page 29. 2a: 2 4-x.a'2 . x3 . 2m. - 23. 2. 5. 9. n*. 31. 1. .2 . 18. -37. 12. 7. a -a. 2 2 2 6.(2 x2 . 10 x. 4wipg>' 27.1 . 14. 5. 8 b. 16.AXSH'EJtS Page 23. - 1. 29.Oa: + 10. 42. 35. a - 49. 32. a4 4 4. 36. 34. x - + 3z. 38. - 17. t). M + 10. 26.abc. 6. 2a. _5a-<>&4-3c. . . -^ <.5 z?/ + 3 y . Page 44.2 ft 2 -r2 10.2 -a. a 3& . 8. :5 41. 3.7. a + a. 3 a3 & 41.r 2. 3m2 n 9 (a + $) 2 . ft Exercise 17. 24. . + 8. . 3. - 14 afy . 0. lOrt 15-w4-. 2-. 58. 1. ri\ 18. 1. ar. 3 m. 2 . 25.a . _2?> 2 + 3 x 9. 17. 10. 19. 4. a 52.8(c + a). 26. 2x 4 a 13. (2n' 43p -47 ). 4. 1. a.2. a2 4- 2 ft 4 V-e.aft. 11. 21. 17. 12. . . c. 15. (mn} 11. 18. 3..-l. x a8 1. 2 . 1.

3 a 2 6 + 3 aft 2 . 3 -a 2 -4-6. 18. -108. 35. 4 7> 4 :j !} ..7(50. -161b. 2'-'. 25 4 4. Page 36. 84. 13. Page 38. 29. 360. 66 8W 34. 42. a: . . 28. 2*8-f x2 -6x-4.44 aWc 16 abxy.12. 34. 29. 18. 19. 3. 20 aW. 33. -18a% y. -27. 4 a2 . 3 ?i w 1(5 pag'V 2 W 2 . 6 . (+3)x6=+16.6 2 .57 p6 3 2 -4 25.64 190 p6. -20. 11. 30 j9 jt?g -j- . 28.10 3 30 a a 4 c -f 15 aWc . -f 26. 13. 2 a2 (y 2 . 10c 2 -19rd+0c? a I' . 2 . 38 a*b 6 : 24. Ox a -5 . 30 n?b*c*. 5. 15. 27.-15. 8. 29. 12. a*b*c. . . 21 a-'&c. 1.2. 7. 30. 1904. 2. 9. iSx8 . 18.20 xyz . 8. 34. 23. 1. //. 4. 27. 24. -1. ?> 4 . 21.14 . -2 8 xy -f 4 a. 38wiw.16 a 2 + 32 a . 14 m 2 . 90. 1. ft 17. 2. -30.iv ANSWERS + &)(. 8. 7. 11. 16. s 9 w-w. 16. 34. a + ft. 60. -18.35 a*b*c8 -f 14 a?/e . 23.>(/ r .12. 0. 16 lb. . n (a6) 125.16 x2/ 5 4.. -108. 20. 2 2 +26-21ft 2 . 4 fc. 4. 37. a: 3a: 2 (2a:-f iH-a. 10. 20. -. 3.19 + 2. 13. 26. 9z 8 -16z2 -9z + 10. 15 q\ 6. 8 . 25. 4. 30. 6.r + 7 1S + 2 mp.32 y s s G . 18> ^|* = a -. 14f 5. 24. 7. etc. 2 + aft 4- ft 2. 18. 19. 1.21.8 12. -161b. 30.69 rt + 21 132 + r . 29. Page 35. 13. 1. 1400. 6. 10. 4 a8 . 21. . 19. 216.r% 2 2 ry. ! 2. Page 5. 3. a. 2 7t A. 66 39 k* . 83 In + 1 n*. 30 ? 49 p*qh*t.26. -42.1. 1. 17. 4 -jcy*z*>. 23. 14. -64. 7 + r/m 4^-4^-414. 5.8 4a-12 a2 ft-f 5aft2 -f 6 6.19p" + 19^ 10 . 15. a. . 40 r 2 . ci 5 . + 7.14 xyz + 14 a:y0. 22. 7. 32. 23. 33. -15. 6. +15. 2. 8. 52 + 6s 12. 8.. 2 ll9H-H 2) + . 30. a 8 . . 2 2 2 . 21. 76 8 a' 1 .(3x2_4^+7). 27. 2 wiw 8 + 2 wiwp 2 2 x*y* 15. 2. 2 ). 2 a*62 c2 + 11 a&c . 14. 4. 11.14 w 2 2 .25 x* + 25 x + 20 . 31. 16. -ISartyW e*f*tj. -30. 20. 9 w 2 + 13 n .000. 343. ?/ . 25. 120.:>/ . 17. Page 3.28 p'^/-. 12. 2 w +2 2 . (x -f ?/) - a 12 10. 2z 8 -s 2 -3z-l.22 ac + 30 c2 + 43 2 2 8.6) =a2 31. 0.14 ?/i r?/-6j/ 5. 11. 22. 16 51. 770. a. 6". 4aWy. 31. m. 15. 2 ).. 17. . 7G . 4. . 13. -24. -216. 12 x2 2 . 3 a 3 . Page 7. 19. + 58 . ll 2 i. 33.36 35. 20. 17. 14. 27. 14. . 3. 9.18 w w + 10 WI M . 6. 102. 26. 15. 60. -28. 4.25 + 14. 3(*+0 + 2). 28. 10. 12 ^. 22. 16. 18. 36. 4 m3 + 9m2 + m. r' 2 a: j/ (? ft . .21 a 3 c2 21.6 wiw 24 n 2 36 + 65 ww . 25. 22.11 xyz . 3300. 24. 127-"'. 24. x2 -xy-42^. 9 13. 9. -12. 2 * 80 . 25. ^^ = -20. + O4 66 . -04. 5aft(a- 126- 2). 15 lb. 32. 2 n8 29 a + 30. 20. 16. fa 2. 4200.32. 10. .14 a 2 _6g8 + 9 2_i2g + 8. +. 210. .

32. . x 4 ?/4 + ab . (w+4)(m-4). ) 4' 6/ 49. 8 a W . 4 2 //. 31. 998.4 a&+ 4 &*. + 2 9.000. 53.x2y22.25.5 ~ 81.2 6 + 13. a 2 . + <z 22 2 4 20 r-t2 32. 3.m 30 6 4 1. 2.810.r* 2 30. 51. G a-6 2. 55.8. 2. 24. a + 25. . x* . 52. 30 x + 19 x3 .84 a' 9. x 2 -f xy + 9 41. n + 2.201.r . 11.6 x2 13. 18. a' . -7> . 11. 10. 3wi2 -m Page 42. 1. 23. (a (3 54. 36. ^/> 8 4 . -2 m3 + 4m2 . p4 + . 27. ~ 6 20 . 12 x2 . 1. . 2 0)(p + 5). 27. 1. + 10 + 121 y*. 7 . 8. . . 2 4 2 2 64 . 1. 6. 34. 2 a4 6 4 +8 a2 6 2 2x4 +7x 2 6 2 15 6 4 36. 24 ab + 9 & 2 .10 35. 10. 40. 2 +10s-281. x2 -GiC+5.009. 7. 10 p 2 g ?> 2 ?/ + 49 & 4 2 16.16 a3 -f 50. . 36. 5.20. 31.404. 34. 10. 2 j3 Z -. 56. 2 . 7. m'2 +18?rt 2 ' + 81. 26. + 2 fz& + 2 i> + p + 9. ft' 11. (x - 2) (x Page (rt-2).500.14 jp + 49. 1. 26. 3. 1). lflrt 2 -8 + l. -4 . .4 12. 25 25. 8. 10.49. +4 34. 57.. 1.6 y4 10.606. w-'-n 2 //-^ + 25. . + 12.. 16. Page 39. 19. 5. 14. 30 />-<. . 25 a 2 6 2 . 37. 41. 33. 10. 4.2 x + 2 x. 10 a' 2 . 2 62 V2 132. 10. 25. + a2 12 ab 2 8 0. 8)(?i (x-2)(x-3).004. 30. 35. ab .54 p 2 + 81.x2 + 6 x2y 2 . 36. 24. 2). a + 56. 6 2 + 6-lf>0. a2 ' + 48Z-100. 9801. 32. a + 25. 29. 10. 2 (6 a + 3) (3a-66)(3a-6&).00 + 37. y. 2 (5 a -3). 484. 28. 10. + 4 t*.6. m 3 j) 3 . . ' 46. + - m' 1. 9.020. (n 2 5. . 10. 4 .ANSWERS 28.1.008. 9990.098. 4 x2 13. 39. 42. m 2 . 14. x 48. (r ?/) (x 6 (b + 5 ?i)(& 50.r . a4 4 ?/ . 10 a 4 ?.^V"' . 45. V + o ft . ( 5) O-5)(w + 3). 2 4 a + 4. . 17. 29.2 y*. 31.-/ . 40. -21 2 . 2 6' . 2 . 33. -4x-21. a-b. 4 m'2 40 (i V2 c 2 + 25 r 4 22. (m + 6)(m-3). n2 a4 6.6 xy . 6. + - - 5). . (a + 4) (a + 2). r*d< x/2 ?/'2 18. -4 a&c + c2 30 x 4 ?/ 23. a3 0. 2 a' y' . + 3)(-3).ri 17.+ l5J x// + 9 2 2 4 ^ 4 -()Or 2 20. 2 1: 21. r.020. (46c + 5) (4 abc 43. x4 28. 4 + 25 q*.p-132. ^V^4 . 14.2. 990.712. 2 fr . Page 12. 41. 2 12. 2 a' + 2 ?/ 5 + a 3. 2xV+6x2y2^2 +22. ?/-H)0.<* &2 + 106 + tt + . 9 4 /> . s rc 47.3.ab . p 2 . 166. 25 r 4 ?/i 30. ^' J - 7 -f 12. 35. 7. .000. . -8 38. (w-4)(w + l). 4 21.5 ?i m #2 4 ?7i%'2 4 . 22 x 2 ?/ 2 y- + 121 x4 29.10 x + 25. x*-2^-f I. 999. 4. 19.994.35 ab 9. (p 2. 36 a 4 . I/). fo*. 6 x6 + 13 x3 . - 12 xy +9 2 >2 ?/ 2. 441. 44.001. a2 >2 2 2 - 84 a a + 49. 37.15. 20a 2 -21a + 4. + 7 6)(3a~76>. 38. 8.009. Om2 4 6m -6.996. . 15.^. 40.^ + a? + 1. .4 n. + 4 a +4. 9. 33. 15. 4. 9999. 10. x4 4 121 4 ?/ . 2 a 2 + a . 10. 39.

Os-y. + 4. m L 4. 9. .2-1 2 2 -f + -.24 . 4.2 . 2. 24.2 ar. 5 4 a Oft.r'^ 15. 3. 5. 12. 6. sr 11. - 3 c. 75 a 2 29.5 mp. 8. -3. w . 2 ?/' . 1. ft* ft /- .8. 10. a 2 4-4 a2 ft' 4 ft 2 2 4. 4 pq. 8 ?/ . 4 a-c-. 12.1. 20 15.27 x 2 4. . 3*y2 w + 1. 19. -14. 5^4-18(7. c 12.yar 4 */ ?/ Page 50.+ 77 15. 2 ? 14 . ft. -4xy + 13 <) . 2 a -3 ft.8 y. 14. 2 . a2 x 8 4- ft 8 . a 2 ft 4- 9 c3 . Exercise 2 a:// 26.2 2 .1*5 2 r 2 . 4 d 2 4. 2. 8. 1. Page 48. 3. 1/*. w 2 . 21. 4 a* 4 9 11.rw -f 8 . 4.r ?/ ??i ?). -i 9. Page 51. r//.r" 20 S? .2 2 2 8 . 2. 50. 4 x. 4. 17. x' u' 2 2 z~ 4. + 16 r 4 + 12 a'2 //2 . m'2 3. y-fl. ti'jry-1 7. 1. 18. 6.2 wZ 4.3 5. 22. x 4.1. 9 5 4a' 2 ft 6. 3 a-.9 4. 19. Page 11.6 :rs 4. 4.r?/ j/.10 xy*. 3 aft 20. -13. 2 4- 3 9. 12./ 4. 23. 135. 5. j) . .2 aft 4. 12. 3.23. .7.8. 10. 8 x . + 3. 10. 14.2 1 //.8 <r 2 2 ?/' . 14 r 2 . 2 2 + 2 a. 16. 1000 1000 . 46. 8. 4. /r . y 7.1. . 26. abc 7. 5 aft 4 ft 2 4 8. 3 5 a4 - 4 a2 4. a 2 . 4 a 2 4. 5.1. 4. -5.> 10. 13. + x?/ 2 1. 3. 4. 4x4-3?/.- - 11.1. -G. 2. 2 1. + c 2 -4 aft-2 ac + 4 ftc.VI ANSWERS 43. - . ft ? ft' ft ft. a 4- 4 ft. r ft. 2 12. 2. 8.25. 1.3 x 2 2 4. 1.29. 9. 4ft. 44. ft 17.r . .1. 4 c m . 2 ?/ 4. *3 -y 4 . 5 a - (5 ft. +w . 8 r<ft -4 2 .3 w 4-*7 m 2 3 mn .15. 4 x y 2 7 x + 5. 2 ft 2 ?nc w . r/2 4.11 _ 5x _ _ o 18. a r'4-3 ll'a^-S 15. ?/2. 5.5 n*. 18.r?/. 17. :r !>. 01. f>r* 4. aftc 52. .2 <</. l 4 . 9w 2 + 0m+ 1.lit x + 4.2.3 ry. 2. aft 4 tt ac -2 ftc. 11. as _ 10 16. aft 12. . 16. 4. 2 m2 4 2 w2 7. 10 ft. // 19. - 12 y 25. 13. 11. -125. 7a-3ft. Page 7. - 10. 6.2 ftc . 2 ?/ ft Page 2.3 a 4-1. 11 4.12 aft 4 20 ac .4.1. 9. 15. 3 l4-8m4-7?n 2 20. 20. 2 ^r ???' 2 . -5. 13. 7a 2 ftc 4 -4c4-2a. 1. -49. .rw.34.000. 2 4- 2 x 4. -6x 3. c-3. 7. - 5 z* . 13. . 14. . . 6 x 2 t/ 2 4 .x^. _ 2 a . 47. '.2 . x-4. -9. 4- n2 4- +p ft 2 4-2 2 aft 2 mn + 2 mp 4 10 a ft \- x* 4- 4 2 z2 + 2 jrz a2 2 2 -f 25 - 2 np.9 d. 16. 17.10 2 + z 2 410. Page 22. r 7. 7 r .5 a . Exercise 27. 5. 6.n. 8. 8 ?/ .25 c . 2 . 5.7 arty 4- 4 x 2 //V2 - 3 Z2 3 1. 1. 6.8 yn . 3. i 2 tji. a 8 4. a. 5. 14.2 ac .3 3. Page 13. 15.30 ftc. z. 13.w. . . a 2 4-10 + 9 r -8 + w-2l ftc. 6 <z 2 4- ft 3 .3^V. .y3. a 10. .2 .15 21.c ft*/ 1 -|- ft' ?/ . 8. 8 x5 ? + 4- 1. 21. 9. 2 4. 12.r' ~ 16. x 2 + 2r f J. aft. ?--?.

1&. . 33. r>?imi. + -f + b 2.a-b a. s. y yr. Page 31.-. 10. 6. (</) 2a. (A) 3 x -f (4 x . 36. d. "mi. xy ft.x700. 4. 2 ct. 11. 29. (>. = -5 ?i x 460. 3x - 1700) = 12. 36. 23. m -+~m 3. 10) (6) 2 z-f 20 3^-740. 100= -^. ^ 12 sq. . 7. 11. 4(a -ft) c = 8. (d) 2a + 10 = n. lO. 8. 8. 7. 3 9. . . y 2z p= 3 (a c. 5. + (d) 2 x + (3 sc 700) = (x -f 1200) - x. l. 1. I. Page 40. x 2y 10 act. 10 >-_&. . 44. fix. 58. X 60. 38. 90 7 2 + 10 = c. 34. -f = eZ 2 x. 8 n - 10 yr. y 100 a 24. 22. 21 2. 38. - 9 = 17 -a. 12. 27. iL*. 47. 30.200) -f(^ + (e) 200. 4.(3x - 700) = 5. 18. 12. 7x 2 Page 21. 3. 6. - 6 10. !). 2. 'nj 100 a 28. (a) ' 12. 0. 9. (c) 2x. 26. 13. 10 x sq. 25. 4. }f. 0.p+7. x 49. 4-^ = 100. 14. 60 25 1. y ?>i x + 26. (> 27. ] 2 ri 42. 37. - 2\. 45. 800 = x + 1300. 5.100-. " lir. 41. + 3 = 2(3* . 100 2. m= -- 100 2x=2(3x~10). x = m. 43. 1. + 4x 3y 34. 11. 59. x + 1=a. 1. -f (I. 20. % 4. 2b. 16. Page 6. 4. '^ . 5. 2=10. Page 13.r-1. 14.7). ? 43. x 48. 6.. . 15. ( a -f- 4. 7. ct. - 1$.r ct. 1. 17. 19. . 6. b. 1. 22. + 3x + 2y + 32. 7. 46. 16. 10. m+ 11. 20. (2 a. 15. ) 2^ x 20 =a- 7. ft. 33. r tx mi. + 10 b + c ct. 23. 6. 30. 50= L 100 15. ct. 00. n M. a -10. 100 14. rn mi.ANSWERS Page 9. 19. 5. 16. sq. v (6) 2x. 5. 41. 39. x. 20. lOx 10 + w. 28. 3. 3. 2x + 35. 42. 29.000. (c) 2a? + 3 (/) (2fl5-8)-h(8ar-ia)=60. 44. / + y + a-// 12 yr. 7. 32. ct. 10 yr.. y 50. 9. - />) a = all-. 2. vil 56. 2b 22. b. 10) + = (a) 2 x . 2. 18. 25.rr-2. 17. 13. 17. 10. 2. (c) (2z-f 600) (3 =4. <>. Page 61. 4. 2. 57. -f 6)(o 62. # + 20yr.6 = *. 7..10) 100. 10 a. ft. 5. </ 20. 24. 10. 7. 3x2. d + !. 35. 100 d ct.(3x+ = rrax-lO. 37. x y $ 6 yr. 40. 2. 4 -f 39. -Jj12. -13. 31. ft. a 8. I.

11. 9. 11 in. 7. 15. 12. 17z8 (l-3z + 2x-'). (a + 6) (a + 3). (y 13. (a + 5)(a + 6). 5.000 copper.. 1. (a + 4)(a + 8).000 Berlin. 2. 12. 78. 10 Cal. ? 2 - = SJL+J10 13. ?(g -? -g+ 1).000. 3. 13. 13.5p + 7 g ). 15 yd.. 12 mi. 6.000.. 10. Page 7. Pace 65. 5. 4. 52. (a -4) (a. 3. . 50. Ib. 9. 72. ^ . (y + 8)(y-2).000.000. 6. 15 mi. 5 Col. 12. 8. 12. 6rt 2 11. (ro-3)(w--2). 8. 25 yr. 8 in. 2 2 ?/ 21. 4..y"). 05. 20.16. 6.000 N. 5pt. 17.. by 12 yd. 13 a 8 4 * 5 (5-3 xyz + x y'W). (y-7)(y + 2). 1. 90 mi. 5. 5$ hr. k ' _ ft v J (d) 100 100 ' V ' ' 100 100 100 =^8000.1). 74. 10.13. 10 Mass. 13-13. z?/(4^ + 5xy .. ~=90. 15. 2. 6. 70. 3 hr. 200. 8. (y-8)(y + 2). 18.000. 7.22. 1200. 6. 7a*fe(2a & -l). 10. 4. 1. 250. 7. (y-ll)(y-4).000 ft. 1250. 3. 3. 22.0. 4.3. 7. 200. $40. 17. 8. 85 ft. 1. 2. 6. 2$. 15. 14. 9. 4pt. ( + 4)(*-2). 9. 100 1.. 8.3). 1 lb.0. 42yr. - PageSO. 2 2 2 5. 10.21. 18. 20 yr. 150. 7. 9. (z-5)(z-2). (c) ^ v ' . 70^. 3. a a (a 8 -a+l). 160 lb. 6. 30. Page Page 4. 7 hr.000 gold.. Page Page 4.8. 14.30) + (2s + 1) v v ' ' 5 18. 10.000.vili ANSWERS (a) V J^. 15 in. 2. 3 (a +&)(*. 9.24. 5 lb. 10. = _?_(2ar + 1). 1. 3. 23. a 12. Page 5. 16. w (/) 64.3.. 11.000. 9 in. 8. 8. 45 in. 13. 2. MOO HXT 100 100 -^-~ -(5z-30) =900. 75. 82 mi. 1. 1. 11. 8 2 19. 10 yr. 25.7. 11.000 ft.. 300. (e) -i* + -A.79.(5z .10. 180. 6. 21. 90.. (*-4)( + 11. 6 aty (3 + 4 6) 2. 2. 19. 14. 20. Page 79. 24J. 15. (2a6-3?2_4 a /^) 16. 80 A. 12. 20 yd. + 7)(y-3). Page 7. . (a-5)(a-4). 10 yd. 30. 9. 10. 67. 71. 78. 55. . 18. 4. 68. 7. 15.5. 480. (m + n)(a + 6).2. 5.3aftc + 4).11. 17 7>c(2 a'^c2 . 20 yr. 3x (3r. 600. Oaj(o6-2cd). 13. 14.. '2 > 10aVy(2a 2 -ay4-3y 2 ). 12. 29. 14. 4. (p + 7)(3a-5&). 28yr. 25.. 8 12.. 2). 5.4-11. 8(a6 2 +6c2 -c2 a2 ). 14.210^.-2). 10 yr. . 2.000 pig iron.000 Phil.. 40 yr. (6) --(6 a -30) =20.5. 8.6).. 1200. 30 yr. 20. 30 mi. 2 3 6 7. 11 pV (2 p8 . Y. 13. 3. 11 w(w' + wi . Page Page 480 12. 100.

29.-5y)(3a. . (9y-4)(y + 4). 30. 29. 3. 15. (13a +10)(13a -10). (x + y4 )(x . 3. 8. 10 a 2 (4 . (4y-3)(3y + 2). 17. (6n + l)(+2). 32. (y + 4)(y-l). (6 a. 26. (w ~ n (x . (15a + 46*)(16a-46). 21. No. a 2 (w-7)(w + 3). -3)(3a. Yes.11 ft)(a-6). Page 84. 9. 12. (5 a -2) (2 a -3). 9.4 6). 10. 4. . x(x +y)(x -y). (l + x )(l + x )(l + x)(l-x). (4 13. (a2 + 10) (a2 -2). 13. + 3). (ft + ll)(aft-ll). 2 17. 3(x + 2)(z-l). (a a: 19. Yes. Oa 2 (a-2)(a-l). (10 aft + c 2 (10 aft . (:5-2y)(2a!-3y). 10 y2 (\) x + l)(x~ 3).y4 ).11 6) (a 4. 26. (m + n +p)(m + w-p). (a (p-8)0> + l). 24 9. (<7 20. 10(2 30. 2. 32. a- . + y + .y) 2 aft. - - . 10(a . - x (5 a. (5a +l)(5a -l). 4.2 by2 6. 4 (a . (g . (y-8) 2 2 . (2x-l)(x + f>). 14. -y) (a. -y) 2 29. 25. 18. (0 (l+7a)(l-7a). (2y-l)(y + 9). (ay-8)(ay-3). 31. y(x. 23. 10(3 -5 6) 2 . 21. (4a-l)(a-2). 40 x. + 4) (a.y (6x + 4)(5x-4). 2 -y' (2y-3)(2y-l). 11. (3*-2)(. 3a. (a*& + 9) (aft + 3) (aft -3). (a. 25. 3. 36. 35. 25. 33. (2 *+!)(* -9). . 28.w*)(l -2 n 2 ). 2 2 15. (* + y)(z-y). 16. (w* (3a-26). Yes. (7 ay + 8) (7 ay 2 2 13. 14. 9.4. 21.1). 13x(a + ft)(a-ft). (10a + ft)(10a-ft). 35. 2 3 by2 Yes. 25. 6. (2o + l)(2-l). a. 5. 20. a(2u. (a -6 6) (a 4. 9. (4a. 2 y(ll x 2 + 1)(11 x2 . Yes. 26. 8. (7 a + 4) (2 a . a*(5a -f l)(flr . (0 + 6)(6-6). 28. + 8)(g-3). (2w+l)(ro + 3). ix 18.6) 2 1. 18. 16. 10.3). + 2y). Yes. (w + 20)(w + 5).4p). (m + n + 4p)(w + . 24. (3a. -2). Yes. 30. 27. . 17. (3#-y)(+4y). 7. 11. 100 (a. 2(9a:-8y)(8a:-0y). 9. (az + 9)(ox-2). Yes. 20. No.6) 2 2 . .3 y 2 )(2 a: 2 -f y'2 )2 3 Yes. 1. 2. (5w-l)(m-5).9*). 31. . (a 3 + 10)(a. (2 a? 4. 23. 6. Yes.1). 10x2 (y-9)(y + 2). Yes. 23. (3 n + 4) (2 (3x+l)(x + 4).2 ft). Yes. 20. (15z-2y)(x-5y). 28. 15. 7. No. 33. 2(2s + 3)(a: + 2). -f 2). 19. ( 2 4 19.7)(2z -f 1). (a 4 -10) (a 4 + 3).8). 34. 1. .7) (a. (n2 + 12)(n 2 + 5). 1. 103x97. (m + w) 2 5. + 5) a. 23. 22. 10(a + ft)(a-ft). (4 18. 25. . 5. Yes. 216 aft. 27.ANSWERS 16. -7 6) (a -10 6). . Page 82.2). 19. No. 11. 2. + 3?i) 2 (5x-2y) 2 . + 3)(-c4-4). . (m-7n) (a. + 2 )(a + ft)(a-ft). 26. (15a-y-2) 2 . 8. 21.1). + 0(9-0- Page 85. 9ft w(?-3) 140 w 2 27. 7. 22. 17. 100(x. . + 9^)(oxy . x (z + 2)(x + 3). 34.1).+4 y)(3x-4 y). 24. Yes. 22. (5xy ) 3 ft 8 B 2 (12+ y 2 )(12-y 2 ).2 y). 13x7. 200 (x + l)(x + 1). (5a-4ft)(2 a~3 ft). x\x 24. Page 83. 16.2). . -8) (a. 10.. (5x . 14. 10. No.r-2).c 2 ). 22. 12. 27. 24. . (a + 8)(a-3).* (2 y + 3)(y.3)(z-2). 2 No 4. 12.

a x 3 10. . (. (c. x(x -f y)(jr . ?i(w 4-y) . 2.8) n 4-3*). 9. . 35. + 2 //). 8. 4). 3(. 39. 2 1.y). 4. 4-& 2 )(tt4-/>)('e 62 2 2 4-l)(a' & -&) 5). 4. (f> + fo 7. 18. Exercise 46. 8. 5 - (2 2 . (* _ 2 )(a 4. 6. 4. 24. 5.7s) (2 a. 6. (x-f!/)' 3 4- w)(m. 2(m4-l)' . 13( 33. (Ox - 7 ?/)(7 x4- y/).9). 2 y) ^ . 17.y (m + 2 u + (\p)(m + -\- . (2x-7)(x 2 -2). (-> 1. 2 2 (3a -4// )(x4->/). 2 5 a 2 6c 2 3. . 6. 3x(x-?/) 4.y '2 2). 4- 3. Page 87. x - 1).5 <: - 9 </) (2 a 12. 2 2 10. 19- 13> -(7rt-3)(7a~3).!) (x4-2)(x-2). 2 (a 4. a + a b. 2.7)(^ {I 12. 11. 11. 38. ( y).y)(fi a .n).'/)('< 4. 2 8(w . 19. a8 . 32. Page 89. y )(.2)(x 1. 14. ( -{- &). 14.-?/). 30. 13. - 29.a + (< (3 7>)(3 - a l fo).4. 12. 80a6 4- 40 aV>*>c >d\ !)&(<* 4. 1(V/ 88. 7. 2. 8 4- 15 ?>)(a 34. 3(4-7>4-4)(^4-'> -22/)((3-x). 4-2).//)(5y- x(x4-ti<0.X 5. ^ . 9. 5. n - r)(5a 10. 28.^ 48. ( (<> r4-y-3 . 4- 6. 7. 17(x4-3//)(x-2y). (a />. 13.?>-) H.e 4. 6 -f c). 16. 4 a8 . (r4-20(4 10. 12 m 2 (m n) 2 . Page 90. . 2 . 8. 15. 6. a (a + 2 6). a -4. + 3. 2 a 2 13x 3 y. (a 9. l. 2(5 a - ft) (a -3 ?>). 37.>*-)(:> 4- lj 4. (2 a ~ f> b 4. (5a+l)(9-a). O + ?/4-<?)O ?> 4- q). 4. (m - I)' 6. Page 12.))(x - ^OC 1 1). 42a 3 x. (x.2). (a + (2a-3fc)0*+ tf)Or 4-1) (^4-2). (a &4. 5 x8 3. ( a -^)(^3.3)(x 4. y). r x 2 */3 . - WIM.2). 22. 13 x 8 2 . 4.1) 3.3.&). (w4-w) 2 1. 7. 24x sy s 9. (14. 8. x4-3. 20. 1. Page 92. 7. 27. 4. 36. ( 4- 1 ) (2 m .& (a 5 & 4-# - 2 y) (a 1.8) ( (16. 8. (5 31. 14. ANSWERS -r)(4x (4x 4.0+ 12). 5. 11. 12. 2. a 4-1. 2 21. 450. . x . 8. y(2x-?/). -8).8). fi(c4-26).42 x 4. 3.^4-6) a?/ 2 /> + o) (ff n 2 T>). (5 26. (7/1 -2) (m 4-1). K + l) a (a 5 />-z 9. 3p (^-9)(j) -4).'J)(' . (^ 7.l)( a 25.b. - (w' 4. c 5 b 5 + 9 iZ) .4.i-4-l)(x4-l)(x~l). 5.2 y).&). 3 x4 . 10(8x' 4-l) 4.3.1).36). 6. 12. Page 86. .4). 10(2 (3 4. - (m3n + a + b)(m 3n-ab).1). 2 2 3 . y-6. 4 - 9.?-50)(xt/z. ?>). (5 al) 3) (f> a/> 15 ?>). 4. (w * . 14. ofc)( fid). 8. (!__/>).^ c)((> 4- 3 (3 w 2 w 4- m - ). b) (r 4.) j). (a 4. 13. (x//. 10.4). 2 k (wi 4. 7. a(a 2 + !)(+ !)( . ah}. x 4.r(3x' 2 4 (14. 15.'})(c . (5^-4. 4 a s &8 . 4. 41.y. 15 M..5 m2 x-2. 7. a 2 (a-9). 16. 6. a 4.w )(l 4- w 2 )(l 3 + ( y)- r)(x- ( . (^ + ?>_8). Exercise 47. 2. 2 + . 8x. 40.4)(? - 5 (6a 4-l)(a +)2( 2x-2/)(x-2?/). a 2_rt4-l)(a -rt- 1). ( rt 23. 11. Gp). (16 4- - 2(5 n .

18.6). (a-2)(a + 2)2. w 2 ^ (!L 5 +2 3 i + 63 3^-1 rr Pace 991 20 . (a-2y2 (a-3) 2 (a-4) 2 14. 30(3 2 (a 15. a 10 25. +5 1. x 12. // m+1 !+*?. + y) (a: -y). 13. b ! 21. x 24. 11. 1). - 1). ?-_!&. 2(2a-l) + l). 6a2&(rt-6). +8b a -4 3 / ^. + &) 2 ( . + &)(-&) ( . a 23.ANSWERS 10. x 22.

Page 101. ab121 12 ft 2 -8 a 2 196 a2 8. 11. 0. r > 'a2 -f an -f ft' ' 2(cz-ft) (x 2. 2x1 + 5x 12 + -^-. 2 a. _*^p5_^^_. x-y 43.2g ftc 46 ?t ~ 30 y .50 ~ 1/2 . 4 L 8 2 . w + _ i + _J? a w+4+ ? 3 8. - **/* + 84 _.80 MP 2 30 ?/ r + t S ^ 2ft "' 180 wv 15. 4. rt 3a-2 + ~3a a 3.. Page 100. -A^. 4c 10. c 8. i. 1.y~ z ' ] 5 x2 y + :j y. -^-~ 29. 6. a 2 ft 2 + 21 ft' 1 4m m2 26 9 fi 7 . i^. 3a 2 2) ' i (x ' t+3) 5x (wi-8)(w go a 3ffl + 13 + *2)(x + 3)' 19 ' rtv+Ji:'. + 2H 1 ^. w-1 + ac w 4 7. 26. 6. . 30. ^i 2n a 22 9x * -T 94 4<i ^ 33 9 ^ 37 (a 2 b)' (a + ft) a 42. + ^8 1 a 2 1 ~ 41.Xll ANSWERS 21 2 . 6. a 5. 7. 28. 6a-5-f^. ' 2 7. + lH + . ^iie^+JoJ^^ilOa bc 9 11 92 aft - 1>* - 10 12 + qc + ab ' 238 .

12. 11. 0. 14. 43. J. 3. an 18. 4. 30. 4. ' 6. I) 2 3z 1. ?-+_!?>. 23. 1. 2 47. 1. 31. n . 9. 1. 2) 19. 11. j L . 13. 7. 15. 5. p-f n 6 1. 8. Page 111. 35. Page 106. 0. ac mp lf> n 12. 29. n 16. -Of. 1^)2 ' 2 1) 2 13. 8. 17. 1. 41. a 17. 2-ft a i m x. -3. a2 2. b 2. 16. b a -f +c 14. 4. 12 28. - 10 X + u. 33. 9. 4. -3. 11. 11. 21. ^_. 1. w^x 2 b Page 105. 15. 5 6 Q 5 a 12. 14. x 1. . 5 be _J_. . f 7. 1. 7. ft 2 -f 1 + a + 1 Page 109. 36. n m a + 13. 7. (a + y) 2 Page 104. 26. 25. 5. 27. 9. 6. 4. y(x + x ?/). 19. . 6.L+-ft. 3. 4a-3ft. 32. ?. 1.^U\WF### X<6. 6. 5. 42. m 9. Page 113. 10. ft. x 05m ' 5. 38. +3 ( + 15. flf. 4. xiii in <l ~ 2b 18. 37. 14. c 8. a. 3 7 i o.^_. A. 1. Page 110. 12. . 45. 18. 6. -f Page 107. 16. 3. 4. ! 4 20. J. 1. 17. 20. 44. 5. 46. 24. + f. (>. 6. 8j-_m 7 3.y 7. x-\. 15. 10. 1.ft . - V o 4. 40. (y + (z 12. 21. 34. 21. 2 re +3y mn 10 lo. 6 . 11. J. 3. 7. ^i 11. 39.

Page 119. 24. 4~r~ n . 18. 30. * 7:9. 11. a 4- ft 3 T 29 30 ' 5T (a) ^ 10 (ft) 31. 15. -'"-I- 22.137. Yes. ^p^ r -~| 7.000 1 = 23. 4. $0. 9. 10. Page 117. 5. 300. 12. 1:1 = 1:1.138.10. nm. 21ft min. 81. 8. 10. (ft) 28. 15. 10^ oz. 12. 6. No. after $12.003. n 32. (d) 4 da. 26 mi. f. 4x'2 :3?/ 2 1 .} da. 75 . --1^'. - 29. 10. 7.004. Yes. 14. 14. 5ft- 30mi.. min. (ft) 5 hr. 26 30. 2:1. 3 da. 1: ~. after 18.139. ----- + .000. (a) 4 min./hr. . 3:2. 12. 1|. 15. . w 21. 28. Yes. 7. -#V ~~ 34. b 25 ' mft 26 ' w 27 ^ ' ~i~ ^ . 16. silver.. 300. Yes.. 31.0. 20. 36. 1. 10. gold. 13. No. 2. 1:1=1:1. 19. (ft) (r) 8 hr. 3. 4. jj. $00. 30 yrs. 9$. Page 121. 17. f . 500. 1 da. 5. 7} 18. " 0. Yes. $45. 10.11. 17. 8. 1. 20. 11. _JL. P+ ^ 33. 11 hrs.000. $30. . 8301 hr. 3. w 18. 3 : 19 = 4 : 25. 19. :2. 15. 13. 14. w 44. 38ft- min. 275:108. (a) 30. 3|. 7. 20. 30ft./hr.. (ft) 104. 7T 2 Page 116. 9. 9J oz. -^m -. 10. 17. 1:1 = 1:1. 27. 2x:3y. 9ft. 18. Yes. (c) 8300. 1 : 12. . [>> ^ a .. 9. 15. 15. 10. 8. J ^'. x-y. .2. -4. 6. 35. 3. 32.001.. after 20. 13. 3.XIV '/ . Page 124. 8. 4. 40wn.000.000. 5. 34. 16. (r) 3^ da. 74. 5 25. 26.9. 1:3. a 4- ft. 24 mi. 8. 14. r/ i - PM xx HXH />/ Page 114. $40. () 2. 10. 40 mi. 15.002. IV s. (a) 12 hr. 16. 1. 7. 1:4. 4fl -M_. - C -. 22.. min. (ft) 5 da. (c) 2 hr. 00. 1:1 = 1:1. Page 118. 4. . 24.0 & . (a) 25. 7. 17. 5.000 If da. 19. 5 2. ANSWERS 16. 7 ..2. 19. (d) 500. ft. 21. 10 yrs. 40 yrs.. 7. Yes. 300. 13. = A's. 9. 55 mi. -^?i min. Page 125. 0. J. 21. 6. ~m . . 18. 23< &n b ' . 33. dn ~ mi. 2 20. 30 mi.15.x + y. 10. 11. 3. 2. Yes.. 212. 33.

127.8 oz. 9. -3. 10. -7. 19.' : : : : <>. 12. Page 134. 1. 6. copper. 2. 9.J. 19. . 7. Page 5. 2.000 sq. a~. y . 8. 2. -3. a -f 2 2 = 5 x.x a. (I. + 7>i// - ft 1 . water. 36. 58. 200 mi. 3. 55. 12. 2. b x 37. 7^.3. 4. x:y -a: b. 2. 2.3. 2.36. 43. 8. 6. 11 5 . 3. 11. a 3. 1. -1. Page 136. y 1. : : T 1' : /> : -. 138. 23. 9 - 15.1. 1. x 42. 2.C ?/ a .20. 1(5.46. 11. 19.1.- 1 1 : : : : : : (I. 25. 7. : : . 4. 2. i. 1 18 = 3 51. mi. 4. 3 2=3 x. + b 7 . 8.]. 7. 18. 24. 2. 2. 16. . cu. 5. 53. 41. : : : ?/ : tf : ?/ : : : : : : : : : sr. 56. 3.li.3.15 x. 16. w 8. 3.3. *. w. (a) Directly. 30. 3.2 x." ^ 2. 39. 3. x y = 1 = 3 2. 46. 7. 5. 3.57. 13. 29.3. 50. +m ' 12 3_a ' 7^ 10 ' 1 . 27. 19 OJ. = 7 b'.2 oz. . 5. 57. Page 131. 36. 2. 6. .3. (<l) A A (e) m m = d> (. 30. () Directly. 24 1 (e) Directly.15. in.4.r. 5 2. ft. 11. 6 10 = 12. 3 - 24. -2. 6. 40.3. 1. 38. 23. : />. . 17. 7. 945 11 10 . 5.3. 17. Inversely. l. 7. = R~ R>'\ V V = P> P. 2. 48. 5. - ?. 9.5. 10. $. - 28.7. 20 cu.6.. -7. -7. x +y x + 74 7 \. 15.9. 7. 2|. jc:y = n:m. 1.5. 2. y :y =. + m* <7^' 10 7)C 14. J. . 1.5. 32j. lo mi.5. 13.5. 8. 9. 26. 6. 25.3. 2. 13. 54. 174+ Page 128. 1. 31J. a +b 1. \.4. 11 w a 13. 4.3.5. 7. 2. Page 137.000 sq. x y y .5. 5. 9. land. J. () 7 Page 126.-) 31.3. 4. 24. + W.^ 0?j ' gms. (</) ft. 41.4. (b) C C' = fi JR'. 9. . 12. 52. 10.1. OJ. 5. Of.4. -J.17. ~ 1. 2. 13J. 14. 22. 14. 21. 47.2. -4./':</ c a -f :y=2:9. /. 8. 4. OJ.840. 32+ mi. 5. (b) Inversely.4. y a y = 7 0. ' 55. 14. 3. 13. 5. 45. 1 rt * vm-^1. 2.22. "lO. 8. 22..160. -1. 5:0 = 10:12. 11. ini.5. 3. 25. Page 133. 2. 9. 3}. 49. 17. 15> 9. -2."2:1. 10. . Page 9. 44. 6*.2. J pq. tin.2.7. 4. 2.12. 20. t 5. 5.1. 14. . - 19. . I.ANSWERS 22.J -3.2. 26. 7. . 8. 31.. 19 3 . 35. Page 132. : . Page 135.1. s<i. 4. 7. 2. -2. -. 20. : XV 27. 32 - <>' 33 - 4 <^: 34 : : . mi.5. 28. 1. 7. 4. \\. 4. 141. 2. 21. 59.a. 40. 4. . 7. 5:3 = 4: x.12.*. 4. 3. 4. 7. 4. 16. 5. 20 20 J -^. ig 6. 11. 15. 3. 3. in n. . 9. 2 n . 12. : 23.

3. 21.3. 1. 6. 11. m -f 8. 3. 1. 12. 1. 00. 0.10.4. 5. yrs. 3. (5. 14. Oct. 2 horses. 3. m -f 9. 25. 5. ad _(?jrJL. 12. 15. Aug. 40. About 12f. 21. u 2ft.. 15. 2 a. 4. 20. 3. $500. 20 to Oct. B's 15 yrs. 4. 4. 4. 4 mi.65. 6. 2. 15. 9. 5. 3. 6. June. M 2. A's 50 13. 29. 9. 0. May 5. $4000. 2. -3. 14.^.1. 7. . 6 cows. 11. 9. 100. (<f) 13. at 15. . - 11. . 22.. Page 143. 25. Page 149. 2. On the x axis. Page 22.n + p. 423. 19 gms. Nov. 26. 1. (a) 12. The ordinate. 4.3. Jan. 5.. 7. 1. 2t2. 3. ' . A's 30 18. 7. 2./hr. ' w_i 7 fr-^ m -w ' 2 m+w .$2000.& w_ i ae 22 5 L=. 4. 6. 12. 7. 16. 3. 14. 2. 31. 27. Page 146. 3. 5. 6. 24. ad AzA-..XVI Fagel39.3. 2. 20.4. 7.2. Apr. 7. 23f . Feb. $ 1000. A a parallel to the x axis. 90. 23. 18. -4. 30. & part of Sept. 32. 11. 5. 3.4. Apr. 9. 10 sheep. 1.8. On 11. 147. yrs. 25.33. 7. 13. 3. <*-ft/ bd 1. 10. Jan. July 20. 2. 1. Page 145. $250. Page 153. . . 24. 5. 19. $900 5%. 13. 2. 16 to July 20. 6. 4.. 19. 8. &. ' 6 3 a. 3. 3). m .0. 17. 10. = ^ a Page 141. 4. Jan. 3. 5%. .7. |. 24. 2. 1 (c) Jan.$5000. On the y axis. (ft) 23 J. 11. 25. 20. C's 10 yrs. 4. 2. 3. 30. Apr. 2. . 10^ gms. be 7. SL=J o ft r^2. 4. .9. 11. 30. (a) Apr. C's 30 yrs. 72. 5. 3. 11. 20. m + n -p. - 17. 23. 9. 40. -. 5. a =J- (n - 1) rf. 4. through point (0. 6. 10.-l. 2. 20 & Oct.. 24. 6%. 16. a. Nov. $3000. Nov.1J. Page 142. 7. 6.0. 9. 8. . 3. Jan. 16. parallel to the x axis 0. 10. 1. 1. 16. 16. 26. 28. 8. 2. July. 20. 17. 2. & May. & part of Feb. 18. 3. (ft) 20. 4. 3. . 2. Page 152. 5. B's 40 yrs. 3. 1 (d) Apr. 12.2. af-cd ae ftd 8 ft. 13. Page 151. 17. 1. J. 0. 18. 7. 2. ^. Nov. July. 4. - Zn - -"-(^-ll 14.1. 16. 8. 7. (c) . be 10. 12. ft 3. 1. $6500at3Ji%. Jan. 10. 4. . 4 ' q. 1. 2. 2. 18.

Page 164. 24. 27a 3 -27 343 a 6 27 2 +9a-l. 8 1 -f -f g*. 16. 4-4 + 6t/2 m4 -4m8 H-6m2 -4m4-l.. 4}. 21. 5 and 2.25. (a) 4. aH64 a2 + 36 aft 2 +8 8 27a-135a2 ft4-225aft2 -125ft8 . a- 29. xW.27. 1. 13. -27 19. 2.41 and . 28. 3. 3.13.75. 5. f.73." 23. 2. 1. 3.. 2. 14. * 16. . 2. (c) 7. (ft) (d) 2. I21a 4 ftc 2 18. (a) 2. x*-f 4x 8 + 6x2 -f-4 x-f 1. -f-12 wi 9.73 ami . 13 . a 6o&i85 c i5o .3. 1. 0C. -3. 1.1. 10. 27 27 81. 3. .24 . 2. -18C. 3. + a 4 ft* . 5. -8mW. H. -13C. 2. 1. 10. 15. m4 1/ m%+6 w2 n -f 2. 6.7. -125 a 8 12. 1. 4. Indeterminate.64. - . 1.1. x3 -3x2y + 3x?/2 -2 a 3 +3a 2 +3a + m8 6w _ i. \ft) 5. 13. 25.25. 83. 2. 3. Inconsistent. ..73. 12. 5. 4. _ 9 -x ^27 1 . 3. 14. (ft) (ft) 2. m. -1. 3. ImW. .83. . 30. (c) 14 F. . Page 159.5. Inconsistent. -2. 3. 147 a 4 ft 21 a 2 12. (<?) 2. 2. 5. . (c) -2.34F. -2. ft . 14.83. 1. (ft) and (d) 2. ft 2 4. 15 . -4. |. 4wn8 + n4 5.24. 2. . 2|. i/* 25 a8 343x30 ' -1 125 29. 22.84. -1. (a) 12. 2. 3. -. . 13. -2.AN WE US 'S xvii Page 157. 8. (e) 3. 32F.73.75. 2ft4 Page 168. 81 -". 3. SlstyW 7. -.3 aft 2 + 8 ft . +3 4. .4 aft -h a 2 ft 2 . 3. () (rt) 3. 6. 7. 1.25.4 a^ft 4*/ 3 + t/*. 10 C.41 and 23. 3. 1.79. - 12 ft xW - 26 31. -1.6. 19. 9.24. f.75 (ci) 3^. Indeterminate. 2. Page 158. 5.67. 10. 18. 5.4. . 4. 8. (e) 2. - 1. 3. . 2. 27. 2 2 22. 11. -1. 1 4. 64_ a 12 ft 27 ' a 121 81 a 4) ft 44 a 4TO a3 l. 15. 12. 24. 1.17 (ft) (c) 2. 15. 8. 11. 1. 04 x 12 */ 1 '^ 1 2 t - 9- 11. 1 + I5a 3 + 75a6 + 150 126a 9 ft . 3.87 (0) 3 (c) and and 1 2.. 26. 5. (/) 3. (ft) 2. 0. x-y.59. 11. 2. -f 10. . -f-4p 7+6p g -f-4pg 6.75. - 1. (gr) 21.5 (ft) 3. 2. 3. 30.25. a + ft. . 9. . 4. . 2 -l. 20. Page 163. 2. . . . 1|. 1^. m + 8 m% -f 60 win2 4. 4 |) 21.8 n 27 a 4 ft 4 -f 8. 125a 28. 1. 4. xg . H. (/) 3. 1. 22. |.3. . 8 a-1. 125 16.79. G. 3. 27 a6 ft - 9a 2 1. 17. 19. -4. (a) 5. 20. 2 a&m Page 167. 14.25.2 (ft) - 1. -a 10 ' a ll V&. 1 23. ' :=_!. 3. .59 . 3 . jgiooyiio 17.5. 9 and Page 166.64. .

7. (x + y\ 90.GO a c + 23. - +X '-. (a 2. ?7i 1 1 3 1. a: l . 9. 2 ?>i?< >2 10.3 ab + 2 2 ). 28. I 8x2). 5. w 8 + 8 in n + 28 5 5 4 4 3 8 2 w c + 10 w 2 2 c 3 + 5 mwc 4 + r5 18. w w + 5 W w c + 10 19. 8 4 se 1 1 :J .94. + + ?V 22. AN S WE no . 11. 18. m* m*>n + 16 w 4 2 +5 c*d+ 10 c 3 tf2 + 10 c 2 d+6 c<74 + d5 20 in s + 15 w 2 w 4 -G mw 6 + w 6 11. Page 171. 35. 12. 70. 7. Page 172. . (Gx + (i + 2a. . 20. 16. 2. 13. 34. +3 + 5 4.7 /)). 247. Zll. 22. 30. 8. -f 21 rt'-6 + 7 -f 6 13. 0. (Gn + 5 a + 4 a). + y). 11. . 31. -/> 4 ). 30. (27 + 3 a xy 8 21. Page 176. 1 1 ?>). (2-3 alt + 7 (4rt +3 (5m 2 Cm + 3). 3 6 23. 8. 15.037. 2(> + ( 2 7>). 2038. 6. 18. a 2 . 21. 16.5 a 4 + 10 a9 . 90. 2 4 8 2 . 2 12. (3a. 17. 20. j/^/t^/' wi n 4 p*+ 10 w 8 w y 10 wi 2 w 27> 2 +6 w/ip. l lV (l+? + & + x J x V s 24. 1. -5.r 2 + S:r2/2 ). 26. 9. . 25 19. 8. (l + x + . .a b 22. (a-b + c).1000 ac 3 + (J25 c 4 24. 1. 10*. 2. ro 12 + 4 m+ w + 4 w + l. c 10 6 :l 20.-2).-f 1 m 9 16. 2. 9. 101. -20. 16. 15. a. 71.6. (2 a + ft). (6a + 4a + 3a + 2). 27. 4.^). r> 4 : 1 . 5 -5 8. 23. 32. a 7 + 7 b + 21 + 36 4 & 8 + 35a 3 & 4 6 6 7 . 1 + 5 a?b* + 10 a 4 b* + 10 a& + 5 a/> + a 10 10 i c5 . (48 + 6. wi 8 + 3m 2 . 9. 57. (x' -l). 100 *6 + GOO x 1000 2 + G25. (l-y). 2. (a + 2 -+l). rt . 11. (7 (2 2 3 2 16. +(^ 2 -3^ + 2). + l). 3. ). fr -ft i/ /> ^ | 23 . . (:' + (2a-3a: 2 + a. + Z). 2 49 . ( x + 2 x -2z + 4). 5. 21.5).y2 ). 10. (6 a + 5 a + 4 a ). 9. 16 6 w . (1 (x-2y). 00. 24. 12. 763. 15. ( Page 174. 6 (\x 3.i c 6 15. 10 x G a 4 . 3. 4. . 14. 7.r 2 + 6jt). 14. 1247. 17. (rt'- (2 a (7 4 10. 3 2 ^-. 10. 84. 1 + 8 z + 24 2 + 32 r + 10 x 4 25. 20. 81 + 540 + 1360 a 4 + 1500 a 2 + 025. 6.10 a~ + 5 a .83. 33. 6. 19.XV111 7. 14. 64. .x ). 72. 2 2 4. 1. 98. 3. 237. 32+ 80 a +80 a* +40 a 3 + 10 a 4 -fa 5 14. 6.1. 18. 420. -3M. . 2 2 7. 3 w 2 H2 + 3 4 n 4 . 36. a. 8. 8 /. 309. 6. 19. -^i.+ 50 m*w* + 70 w 4 4 + f>6 ?n *w 6 +28 >-/* + 8 mn + w 8 17. 32 r^ 10 + 80 w 8 + 80 wt c + 40 m 4 + 10 m'2 + 21. + 29. + i)). (a + y+l). 1. 10. + (win . 3 2 8 3 12. 3. 180 . ??i ?i .1. ? : 1 . ? . 76. 5.5. 90. 978. 119. 4. +35. 40. 99. 9. GOO 2 c 2 . 13. 5. - x.+3^ + 4. . 14. fe *?>-' ?> fi . m 13. (4a2 -9& 2 13. 12. 8. 25. 17. 1 w + 5 m' G 7 w. 11. + 4 x2 + Ox4 +4^ + x8 10. (5^ + 4x?/ + 3?/ ). 4. Page 170. 300. a ). 15. 2.

34. 6- f !. f. Page 180. 4. V- J l. 5. 4. 50. - 43. (6) Vl4 3. 5.. 25. -2. 11. |. 2. >TT 26. -16. 21 in. 15. 5. 13. 2. 33. 11. . 4. 22. 12. 2. 5. 6yds. - 1.522 38.935. 21. 1.236. . 6. 14. 4 a. 10. 39. 7. 42. 11. 2. 5.6. 8. 12. 25. 6561.6.-4. m.5. -3. V2. 8. If ^.-?. 6. 1. 29. 3. 12. -m. -6. 7.005. () 2. f. 1 -7. ZLlAiK 19. vYb. -10. 1. 6. 5. 23. -4. Page 179. 5. 5.4. . 20. 3.1. 6. 35. 3. 4. 14. 18.13. Page 183. 7. 6|. 21 28 ft. 36. J. 1&. 9. 15. 3J. 4 n. 6V21. 9. |. f .-6. f -f -V. 28 in.. 47. 7. 32. or 3. 4. 16. 23. 28. a + 6-1. 2. w. 3. -4. 27. 7.. 7.645..ANS WERS 22. 6. -4J. xix 26. 7.798 yds. 7}.1. 46. Af^. 14. . -i ^. 10. (a-fl). ft. 9. -V. 23. 9 15 ft. 17. 24.367. 10. 3. 40. 41. 8.S-n. . 11.469. a. 4. 4.243. 7.. 2. 4.V 8-j. 4. or 5. * 1. .5. V2. (< + ?>).. 7 in. 1.--w 18. 14. 1. 8.a. 24. 35. .742 in. 12. 12. 36 in. 3. 13. v 17. 31.}. i.. -5. 7. . 30. 32. 13. }. 17. Page 181. 3. 2. i-i :J _7. 10. 39. 5083. 15. 10. 270 sq.i. 15 1 10. _ iVaft. 3. . 31. 18.. 3. -^-^7m. *. 1. 2] see. 21yds. 6. {. 29. 9. 20. 1. Page 177. ^-. 4 W**. >i 27. 20. 1 -f Vl3.60. - -|f. > w ft. -2. 15. 1. 17. 4. - 14.6. vV-'-TA 24. 5. 34. 37. 3. ft. 4 TT M 28. 36. 19. /. V17.916 yds. - 5. 5.18. -^. 14. 37. f ^ is. 13. 25- J. . -9. -16n.237. - f. 29. 2.925 ft. 2 sec. 10. 40. 8. / 11. 44.*.690. 12. Page 184. 13. 5. 9. 5. 39 in. 49. 48. -f 3. 11. ft. 1. 3. 6J. l~8. 1. 10. 21. 16. 30.. 28. \/3. " ^_ 22. 3. 1 38.. 9. 12. - 3. 7563. V35 1. 2. 1. 21. 10. 27. 8. 15.4. 7. 6V'2J. Page 185. 7 45. 5. 5f. 12. 9. 2.6. 7. JJI. 19. 33. 16. - 2. 4. 26. 2. 3. ~ V^3.

-6.37. 43. 6.2. 2. 2.2. t is. 2.23. 6. -1|. 1_^L ft 14. 2 4jr + x2 8 3 = 0. - 5. 46. 9.6 = 0. U. . - 1. -2. ANSWERS 22. Page 192. H. 15. 1. 12. 2 . 1 .1.3. - 1. rational. . 16. 1. 4. AB = 204 ft. 22. 11. 14. 21. Imaginary.5^. a + 6. x2 + B . 0.3. 4. 64-c. Page 190./hr. 3. 1. V2. 2. -f 6 5-2 a. ' - f 5. 3. 15 ft. . 0.7. 42.a. 35. Page 189. 10. 1. 44. 12. 2. 10 mi. . x 14.. 1. V ~ 16 4 2. 0.12 = 0. rational. 14. 35. -4. $30 or $70. . ft.48 -3. - 1. 3. 1.41.17. 33.. 16. 21. 26. 2./hr. 9. . + 11 x. 8. 0. 2. 3. 38. - 2. - 1. 27. 9. - 5. 31. 2. 2. 3. unequal. 7.2. 26. 28. = 0. . 6. 23. _ 19.12. 23. rational. -0. 2. 19. - Page 194.2. 34. 4 da. 3. 20. equal. 4. 30. 2. *'-' 12. 3. orf. If. i . -4. 27. 0. x*-4x=0. Imaginary. 20. 19. 28. 1. 25. -1. 18. 3|. 3if. 18. 26. unequal.1. .10. 2. unequal. 0. - 24. 1. Real. 3. 6. %.Oa. 1 3. 25. Page 187. 3. Real.]. v^^fcT"^.02. AB = 3. V^l. . 0. 48. 15. Real.a. 1. 3. 1. 5.. 7. 12. 0. 8. unequal. 4. 0.0*8. 120 ft. 3.. 4. 3. Imaginary. jr . 1. 3. irrational. . . 3. 13. 0. 53. 2. 18. a.4. -3.1. 20 nii. 3. a. 2. unequal. 25. 7. i. 37. 6. 17. -7. a8 . 10.70.48. 6. 29.4. . 2. #<7=3. 10 mi. 3.* 2. 12.2 x2 . .2. 36. 8 or 12 mi. 10 or 19. - 9x <). . $80.XX Page 186. V7. Real. 0. 40. 45. 5. -21. s 11.4./hr. 19 in. -12. - 1. 24. 8\/2 17. 3.5. 28. Real. - 13. 8.7. 3. unequal. 20 eggs. in. 2 V3 in. 57. . f. 0. 10.'. -4. - 2.3. . . 50.2. 8. 6V-64. - 6. Imaginary. 7. 1. 24. VV11. 7. 49. f. V2. 56. 22. equal.59. a + 1.4.. 10 in. 6. 2. x* 51. 13. Page 191. + 7 x + 10 = x*-x 2 -6x = or . 0. . 47..2. 2. 6.23. 2.2. 1). 58. Page 188. Real. 1. 24. (5 10. 23. 1. r* -i. 0. 4.5 x + 6 = 0. irrational. 6. 6^2 in. 25. unequal. 64. 1. Real.74. |. 52. 2. 5. 15. 26. 7.62. 0. -2 ft. 39. 11. ^l/>> = 85 ft.$40 or $60./hr. 7. 2. 2. 2. V^l. - i. 1. 4. ' 1. 41.2. 6. 1. rational. equal. 32. . unequal. $ 120. 55.2. 27. . V^~2. . 16. 1. Real. 20. 3.l.7. 70 ft. 5 ft.a 3 a. 5. -3. 9. 5. -3. unequal. rational.4.

33. 3. \. 33. 3. 21. a. p. 2. 4. vm. 1. 17. -2. 59. v'frc 18. v/3. 15. 2. 13. .1 5 15. -3. : . 30 a. . - f. 20. 49. 25. J. 4. 43. y . 3. . 21. 52. 12. . 56. v'frW. 0. 2 L ( V. 2. 51. 19. 50. . $7.^7. 2. 15. 46. 25. 0.2. J. 13. 27. 1. 24. z + 22. 2. 5. \. &. 9. 38. 13. 25. v^T4 m. 36. 8. J. . 49. 16. 28. 58. 13. -1. 20. 42. i. 3. 243. 9. 2. 17. 4. vV. 2V a. v. ? . 8. 31. -1. 14. 4. *V. xxi 15. 4. 5. 18. 32. J. 24. 18. 10. 9. m'. 5. \/3. - J j. I. 8. 35. 5\/5. Page 196. 3 4 11.ANtiWEUS rational. \/r\ 11. n\/* Page202. 4. 7V7. 55. -1V-1.6. . 39.17. 20. m. 40. 3. 14. 24. \ -. r*. Jb \. - f . 7 . 7. 41. 23. x$. -2. 7. 2. 4. 6 - AAf.-32. 16. 54. 28. 30. J 3. 23. 22. 15. 1 39. - 5. 5. 4. 10. 3. 27. . 48. 6. 1. (m 26. 16. 9. 11. 33. 9. l - 5 12. '-J. 47. 3. -jV- 10. 1. wA 46. Vr. ^49. x. y. 12. . 14. r. 1. \a\ \/^. 19. 45. 14. 0. ^Sf|- 3 38. 8. x/25. Page 200. 26.//^. 17. 29. - a'2 . 84. 37. ar 1 . -2. -3. 57. 50. 32. -3. 19. 16. 2. 22. 8. 10. 21. 53. 1. 29. 60. 7. 11. 9. 8. 5. Page 197. 125. 8. fx'-^z'l 23. 1. 47. 1. Page 199. JV37. 18. \/. 6. ) 2 >J i 10." 17. -ifa. 19. V^ 34. 44. Page 201. 8. 30. 29. 12*2 61. aW\ 40. -3. a 18 .. 1. 31. 3. |. 1. 49. -_! V3. 5. 49. ). - 48. 20. 10.

101 1. l 5. JIV6.r-^ 5 a~ 2 ft~ 1 + Vft. -v/^r 5 - A/^~. 40. 40. ^: V2c. 36. 21. (x' (l 1+x). 8a6V5. Va 2 "ft. 31. 2>X2. ).632. 9. 22. 4.r. 3 42. 1+2 v/i + 3\/!^ + 4 x. 2. 9. 8. 49.692. 6. abVab. -2.XXii ANSWERS 1. 2. v'TM.f. 19-5V3. 3 a~ 3 (x (. / V3. 48. x. 26. + 2 ar 1 ). 32. 4.x^y* + y%. x 25.rV:r. V. a^ + 2^+1.648. 11V3.'\ 14. 16. V63. 3^2. 2v (T 2aVf. a 4 +-* + !. 8V/) 15. 3. 15. 19. V80. + 2 Vzy + y 1. 29. 34 r 6. x% - 3 ^+ 1. 7. 28. 13 a. 2 a?>V2 a. 28. ^88". 12. 3V^T. + + ft. 10. + Vic + 25. . yV35. 03r* 7. 1 2 or 1 ?. 11. 38. 3 \ 39. 18. 4 or + 3 9 <r + 12. 2\/7. 3V5. 3 x^y 33. .). m* -n*. 5 22. V. 13. a2 4. Page 207. 30. Vz2 -?/ 2 44. r 17 - Page 204. 25. 11. 30. + 2 V22. 2. 7. Page 208. .707. 9. x 7 - 34.3 + 40 3 .577. 1. v^. x y.yl : . 27. 37. 19. 8. 1) 3V3. r c . 29. 2. 5 ( .2 VlO.2 18. 24. . 39. 13 35. (Va (5xJ Vft+Vc). k/2. 17. 10. . 3. 50. 16. 41. 2 x* 15. 20. 5. 3 4\/2. ^7 \AOx-. 20. 51. Vr 8. 45. 3. - 2 3:r. 43. 33. V2 + 4 V22. 21. Page 203. 6-2V(J. + 1. 32. 5. - a Vft -2 121 b. . 17. 26. V 5 47. Va a + 2 a^b* 14. . ftV 46.Vxy 35. 24. + 2). (a 27. 20&V6.. 23. y. y (a + ft) V2. 2 4 z2 l 3. -13-5V6. 6. 34. x^ . 2. 3^ + 2). 31. a 3.12 *^ + x 7/> x - a-** + or " 2 + 1. (o* 2. 9 . 2 '"V5. ?tV?w. -T. + . 10. 4aV^J 16. x + 5 x3 + 0. 13. . 37.

16. 14. 35. 2. 6+2V5. 17. + VlO - v y (5. 44. -^ 3 b 5 24. ^v 7 15. 2. 4\/5. 7. \/04a. W). Vtf +3+ 33. 5V2. 13. 23. 14. . 25. 11. 32. 2 \/2. 7\/(l 7VTO. Vdbc. 48. w-?i. 13. 49.T*. 1. ab 4. 37. VLV/ ^i?i= a: . 3. V3. V/. Page 213. D 45. 8v2T 12. 8V73\/IO. 2 ate-. 32m-27n. \/128. v/l2. 39. 26. 7. 0. x/8l. Page 216. 27. V5. 9. 15. x/8. v^30. "^8000. 24. 8. 2. b. 6. 5. v/i). 9. rtv/5. -21 23. V3"m. ^\/3. 26. 4VO. 2. v 25^4714 V2"a. 30. . 35. Vat. 10. 29. 39. 20. v/8. 3v^2. 23. m ?i-2Vm/t. v^4. 27. 4 a*. VT5. % 29. x/3. 53. 7. 3\/2. \/abc*. \^6. 6. 3\/15 - 6. 17. V3. x/w^ 8. . 36. 38. 40. 10. - 3. 30 Vl4. 21. 12. \/8. 3. / \/w/t 4 13. 3. 1-V5. 2. 2yV2?/. V5. 46. 6x-2?/. v"3. v/9. 22. Vn. a2 - b. r)\/(l Vrt-r. -V-Jla. : ^32. 40. . 6. V2. v^lf. 5V2. 6V2. 14c 4 V5. . vT). "v/wi ??. 6. . aVa. 4. 4 >/3. 18. 2 1. 3\/wi. 6. xx 1. x/27. 16. 7-4\/Jl 120 46. 36. v^a. 15. . 11. 9. 31. v7^. Page 210. 10V(). 42. 3.ANSWERS _ Page 209. v/lO. + 20. 18. 3 V2. 17. \/a6c. 2\/7. \V3. Page 211. v^f. \XO-fl-6Vi5. a^\/a7>. 3. 16. 4. 3 Vl5 30. 5v/2. 10. 28. 6 2\/0. 50. 34. 8 - \/15. 0. 12. 32.r v/^ v^fr*. 5 \/2. V8. 1. 8V2. V2. 37. 34. v^O. 2 28.. \^r^bVabc. 24. fl^Vac. x/125. 38. ^27. 6aV2-\^. ^9. \^6. 1. 9 VlO + 4. 33. 25. 19.J Page 212. Page 214. 31. 21. __ rw 3- \~s~' ] * . 18. 52. -13\/3. x/4. 51. \/2.30 2. 41. 5. 5. '-. 43. x/8L v/27. 3 V15 - 47. a\/5c. 11. v"5. 22. 14. 8. 2 V'3. 19.

Page 225.1547. 11. 12. +3 V2). 4. 9. 4. 64.3. 18. 2. 81. 25. 12. j. 6. J. 7 -f 5 4. 4. 3.w 6. 25. 15 -f 3 V2L 4.V3). 18. 31.1|.7083. 1. ^. 5. 1. 19. V35. Page220. -26. 25. 16. 13. 8. (\/5-V2). V3. x-y 2. 16. 2V2. (2-f V"5). 15. V5. . 13. 2. 24. V^TTfc. (V5-f 5. 13. 5. 23. 1. 22. 3V2-3. (Vll-V2).5. (3+ v/2). 37. 7. ^r. 10. Va. 5 f. -. 9. 36. 3. 15.2828. 6. 21. 30. 9. 4. 10. 8. 2ajV2*. 1. 12. 27. 2. 2x^2^. 0. 7. \. 8. 7. Va. 19. - 13. 7. 8.625 10. V3. 6.13.3. 27.3535. 17. 16. (V6 + 2V2). 7. 5. 1. (2-V2). 4. ' 22 i . -4. 29. (2. (2-Vll). . * 3. 21. 23. 16. fV2. . 5. 27. 16. (Vf + (4 V2).601. 2.464. 100.389.6 V3. 34. Page 226. + 6) 2 .1805. nVTl. V2. ^\/2. ^. 12. 6 |(V2 + 1). 24. m -f. 5. 18. . 22. 8. 14. A- . 2 . 8. 4. V. 125. j 15. V6c.2. ~ Vac _c 0. 11. 5. 16. 7 Page221. 23. 14. Page 218. 8. 0. Page 219. 25. 23. J. K>/0 + \/2). 5. 14. p 6 13. 6. 16.732. ANSWERS 8.\/TO). 3. 20.4142. 10. 10. {. i^ ~ 1 v ^-. 17. 3. 512. 1.2. 10. 9 mn. (V5-1). 3. 9.W + 12 v/7 - 3 \/15 . 2. 14. -3. -1. 5 V65.0606. V3 .732. 15. 35. 4. (\/3-f 1). 33. 4. 1. 2.^ (\/22 4. 12. . - 2. . 16. 9. 25. x 20. (VaT^-v a). 8. 10. 24. 9. 3(7+3V5). 4. 7. 4. 20.64. 9. . 20. 18. 224. _^JflJ?.81. Page 28. 5. 24.. (V8 + V2. 9. 15.9. - f. 20. 22. 17. 25. . 1. 4 14. 7. 4V3 + 6. 8 V3-V2. -2!5_.XXIV 7. 3. 15. 6 V. f. 4. (a 1. Vf6-f|Vtf. 2. . 18. Page 223. 32.5530. (V2-1). 5. i^Lzi. 29. + 5V2. 6. 11. . 1. 21 ' Vob 26. 4. 9. \/3). ^(VlO-\/2). 81. \/57t. 11. 17.6. 7. 19. 21. 4. i(V-f Vft). 216. 1.4722. 4. V3.7071. n*. 12. !^ 6 4. 28. 2V3. 10. 23. 19. 25. - . 30. 2-V3. 11. 11. 5 + 2 vU 17. 26. 19. Page217.

. . 6. 13. 4. . 0. 17.3. 30. Page 233. 0. .22. 14. 2. (a.l)(m . 16.12. J. 3. 4 . . 1. 2 6. a . . J. . 4. 10. -0. a(. 9. 8. 1.a) (04 + 8 a + a 2 ). 3. . . 15. 5. 2 -V^ . 3.ANSWERS Page 228. (2 a. 4 1. - 16). 3 .0. 10. 1. 21. 11. b . (1 +a 2 6 2 )(l -a 2 6 2 +a 4 6 4 ). 2. - 1. (&y-2a#H-4). 4. 3. f>. 20. 4. 3. 1 3. 4. 3.. (8. 4. 1. 8 6 & 0. 2.3. 6. 19. 6. XXV 4.1. 24. 25. 1. 1. 4 . 1 . . 22. (r. 2. 1.l)(a-3)(a . 6 2 2a + 2). 1. 2. 3.l)(a 4 + a + a 2 -f a -f 1). a: :} . 50.2. 9. 3. 4. 24. 12.w 4 + 1). 15.4.2)(m. 87 . (10 -#0(100 + 10^ + 4 ). -P. (p-l)(p-3)(p-6). 4.r . - 4. . 16. (6-3)(6' -t- 18.l)(a 2 + a -f 1). 4. 3. 3 9. 14. 2 . 3. 8. 2 . (a 4. -7. - 1. 2. 11. 2 . 25. (w . 0. 1.2)(* . 2. 2. 3 5. J 24.2. . 3. (l-a&)(l46 + 2 & 2 ). -10. 5. -2. 2. . 17.nl^EI. -13. & + 6 2 ). 2. (w-p)(w-2p)(wi-3p)(w*4-2p). 5. 7. 1. 3. 3. qpl. 27(2 a 4-fc)( 4 2 -2 (a -4 &)(* + 4 & + !&*). + 6 4 )(a*-a' 6 + a 2 6 2 -a& 8 H-6*). 5. 6. 2. 2. 1. (B4-3). 13. 4 20. t/ 23. 12. 18. 4. 7. . 3. 5. //. 4. f . 11. 2. 0. 5. 6. 19. . 3. V3. (p-l)(p-2)(p-2).-f 2)(sc 2 -2 r + 4).3. 1. 30 . 1 . - 3. a(l+a)(l_a-fa 2 ). 3.3). 5. 11. 12 24 y . (s + l)(x2 -:r + 1). 3. 2. 1. 10. . 2. 30. (a + 2) (a Page 229.Y. 4 4.3 2. 3. 25. 8. 2.l)(z 2 + z + 1). J Page 235. 5. 1. 2. 1 .10. 3. 1 6.5 xy + 25) 22. -73. 9. (a+&)( 2 14. 22. 3. 73. 2.2. -12. 7. 3. 4.8a 18. 11. 1. 5.1. 26.4. 12. 2 > 1. 4. o& (3m 3 7)(9w 6 +21m*+49). 7. . ( 16. |. 7. Page 234.3. 7. 1. 1 . 10. 2. ~ f7. 17. 4. 25. (w-2)(m-3)(2m + 5). 4. 1.4). -11. 6. 14. 3. (a-2)(:iB2 -f 2a44). 0. - 3. 5. 7. 28. 19. -3 . - 3. (rt. 10.7. 1 . 4. (a. . 5. =A|^Z3. 2. 3 . .^a. 2 . 12. . 3. 18. 21.1)(4 a + 2 a + 1). '- J. 2 6. 15. 3. 8. 2. -20. - 2. 2. o. a - . (a . - . 1.2 ) ( 10 w 2 n 2 -f 4 winy 2 Page 231.+ ^)( 4 -a 2 6 2 -h6 4 ). Page 236. 20. 30 30. 1. 2 <? 4a2 . - 5. 13. 5. . . 13. 5. (a + l)(a*-a 8 + a--a + l). 23. 4. 3.4. 4.2 + (ro-w)(w-4w)(w a + 6mw -f w 2 ). (4 mn .5. 1. 0. (2a + l)(4a*-2a + l). (m 4 + l)(ro. 8. (xy + 5) (x*y* . 8. \/0. 2. 2. -1 (-?> x/^3. -56-l). y. l. 2. 2 &. 100. 4. 2. - J. 2. - f . 0. 5. 6. (+!)( -2) 10.3.3.

17. J. 3. 13. 25. 20 7. 1. J. 4. 35 ft. 3 2. 3. ANSWERS 2. 2. 2 2. 4. } . 41. 9. Page 238. 1. c. and _ 4. 4...30. 7. + - n. 31. V3~. 5. 3 . 69. 3. 7. 2. 1. f*. 4. 3. 7f solution. - 1. 2. 19. 10. 15.6. 4|. 3. 16. 26. 15. -$VO. 3. 2. 7 3. .3.5. . 1. 40. 5. 4.3. 14. . 2 16. 40 in. . GO . 2. 0.. Page 241. 9.020. 16. 3. 7. 288. 7. 1. 37. 12. 30 13. 11. . 8. 17. 1.136. 7.1. 8.4. i j. . J. . 1. oo. 12. Exercise 114. 4.3. 22. . 0. 18.. Page 240. _ 7. 12. 1. 1. 2. ( 3.e. 2 . Indeterminate. . i. 13. 17. 5. 17. 2. - 2 . . 2n. . -37. x 4.-y. - 11. i'ljVU. ^~2. 3 3. . 3 4. no co . 1 2. . V7. 10.6. 1. 5 4. in. . Page 243. 4. 2. 35 a. 6.1. 3. 31. . 5 cm. | . -3. 8. 17. 21. 3. $46. 1. in. . 12ft. Page 248. 2. 14.. 22. 11. 8. n .. Page 244. 16. oo . 5. (a) $3400. . 1 . 3. 7.5. Page 247. 1. 78. co . 1. 1. 1.4. 20 in. 15.. 35. 13. m + n. 12 1. 30. . ft. 3. 15. 9. . 5.0. 9. J. _ 10. 24.3 . 40 1} 9 3 ft. 1. 3. 3. -14. 4. 2 1. . $. Page 245. 14. 1. . 11.3. 6. .1. f. Exercise 113. n. . ^ }. 14. 1 . 12. 4 . 5. 1 . . 24. -400. Indeterminate. 23. -3. (&) 2. 50. 1 . 29. 20. _ 13 (0 6. . jj.. 5. 12. 8 3. in. 5. 12. 1. 3. .. 1. 7. 1. 84. 48. 1. 1 . 4. 4. -5. 2.13. 3. 37. 4 8. 3. 3. 2. . (>. 2>/3. 15. 6. in. 12 ft. 55. 30. 2.200. 3. 2. -1J. in. = QO 6.4. 8. .3. 1. (a) 5. 2V7. ft. 4. . 15. 4. oo . 2 . 3 cm. 8ft. 4. 1. 4. 1. 5. 35^ 5. 1. 1. 4 6. -2. 2. 21 30. ft. 10.xxvi Page 237. 4. 4 34. 4. $. 1. 38. 18. 9. 2 Y> V . 23.. 201. 36. 32. i i i . 3. 512. \/6. 9. 1. m27. 40 25 in. 1. 5. 4. '>. 5 . m28. 2. j. ' j. 3. 2 -10. 6. 2 . 1. -50. 0. 5. ri*. 3. 15. 5. 10. 39. 1. 2. 125 125. 4. 4. 3. 8. 512. 5. 8. |. 8 . 11. 4. . . 33. 3V5. Page 239. 4. 11.0. 2. |. 3 . 14. . 8. 14. }.3. 17.18. 2. (/>) "_. 3. |.2. \. 5. 2. 1. 5. f>. 900. 2. 21. tn 2.4. 5050. 5. 2. 6. 5. 28yd. . 19. 2 26. 2 ft. 2. 3. 3 . 11.3. 45yd. 12 d. _ 5. 18. 20.

29. 10 14. 5. 2. x r 4. x + Vy. 120 aW. 8J. 12. 12. 1. a4 4- 14.210. 4. A. i 10.8. ' 1. % 4 20 ab* 42 330 x 4 15. 10. 45 Page 257. r r j. . -15. 04. 5. 405. .v Page 253.4. 17. 16. 2|. 0. REVIEW EXERCISE . 48. 0. 11. 3. 5. 3.170. 1. 7 2 x 4 x8 . 3. 43. 14. JSg. 2. 2. 0. 5. 5. 5. 20. Jj? 45. 6. .2 45 a 8 /)-. 7. 12. 32. 3. 4.3 a-ys. 4.6 . y ^ 5 - ^\ ). 7. 26.4 &z x>&. 2. 9. . 18. 1. \ w 4 . 1. 2. 7. 10. 2.K 4 4 50 x 5 4- 28 x 4- 4- ^8 1 -g ! . 19. . &' 14. . ~ an . 0. 3. . 1. :r 4 4- 8 x 28 x~ 60 .5. 4. 16.5*7 + ^4 1 12 w 4 10 x' 2 //^. 6.r* 4- 70 .680.ANSWERS Page 250. 4. 55. - 101. .7 10. 70. Page 259. 9. 0. 4. 16.0. 8. 100. 8. '23. 1. 708. 16. 4. 20.<-2 4. 4. 8. 53. . 50. 8 1. (?>) 4 8(2 V2). 10. 105. 12. 2. 44. . -8.130 x30 189 a 4 24.10 a 3 ?/2 10 4<J aW 4. 1. 11. 20. - 20 flW. 12. 25. 16. 10. -f r6 4- - 20 rV 42 15 xV 8 . 18. 16. 220 . 4. 1820.2 9. 35. 8. ?/i 6 x llj . 13. 910. 280 -53. r 5 4. 125. 3. 05. 7. 4. 4. ^a 8. 27. 1 7 4. 1. 0. 7. 18. -. 6i. 4- 0. G. 81. in. 35. 8. 21. 5. 495. 6. />*. 19.870 m*n*. 8 4x' 2 . . (). 70.x^ 4- x8 15 x 4. xxvii 1.504. c. vy.470. 7. 5. 3. 9. 16. 10. Page 254. 16 11. 45. 6.^ x2 ^x w- ^2 ? .1. 8 . 6.120. d.5 M ' 41 fc 5 . 15. 45. ~v 9. f 7 ^ 14 x 84 4| .192. 6. 13. Ja. 12.r x>/ 7 3.15 x 4 //'?/ a5 4 J 5 4- Z> 4.5y 4 . 0. 75. 1. 70. 4. 192. Page 258. 3 4- 15 a 8 11 4- 14 a - 1 - 2 y* . 304. 410|.700. 5. 1. 22. 2. 2 1 x 4- 6x'2 12. 11. 15. 04.53. 1 14. 0. 17. . 5 13. 6|. 19. 5.419. 3.5. 4. <|. 27. 125. 18. Y11. 4. 15. 2. 5.384. 23. 15. J 2 //2 25. 8. B .12 x*y 16. 12. 8. 22. 7 x4 17. 4950 M 2 b y *. **-+-. -f y 8 + z* . 2. 6. 2i* 7f. 3. 8. 21. and 1. w9 - 8.13.5 J4 10 47- d*b 6 4- 4.^ 448 x a' 3 /') . 2. 28. Page 252. 12. 343. 7. 9|. 9. 327. sq. I. 3. 1000 aW.r 4. } $ 50. a. 005. x4 . 343. 128. 27. 3. . 1JH.6. 8. 7|. 13. 9. 4. 10. 500 x3 10 4 4- 072 a? 3 . 4. 3. . . 4.^ ?>i 24-12x4. |- 17.5 x. 17. 1. 3. 2.r^ - 280 x 4 4i^S + 6.920. 0.x' 10 . 27. 6.

49. .3 x?/ 2 1/ -4a 3 a o_a 4 -a2 +l.a. 102. 4- 65.5 3 2 y2 5 a2 4- 2 aft 4- ft-. .15 4- 62 x - 72.^a . 1 a"-*- 4- an . x 8 + x 4 y* 67. 14 x . 21. 96. 63. 2 aft 3 4- 3 ft 4 . xy-xz-yz. 105. Page 260. 110. 6 8 -j-27 4-0 ab.3 x 2 + 3 x . 80. -I- 57. x 3 4. 118. () 2 x 33. 94.4. . 99. - . 122.5 b + c .a6 2 4. . . -- + 3 x2 . . -36 + 9c-9 a x3 4- + 8. r 5 VF-Tx + vTfy + 1. 2 a. 1 + 4 xy. . 4 fee 4.36 xfy 2 a 8 ?* 3 4. . - + 16 a/> 8 - a*-2a 2 6 2 +& 4 74. 8 x* + 27 y 2 x2 2 . x2 2 .a*--ft 2 126. 72. 109. 23. 3a~2c.a' -'ft 4.5 a 2x-8 x 3 .3 a'ft-.7.2. 2 113. 16. x' . 24 a 2 6 3 x3 0. 2 . 100. 0. x } 4.9 b. a J . 13 + 2 s. +^ + ft W. 22. _55_7c 48.7 x - - 15. 9 2w 128. fi :ry 42 4 - a 2 4- a 2 ft 2 3 119. 26. -f5+7. 93. 4- 69. 5 4 4-. 0.c 3 4.1. 64.4. 4 . - 12 a.3 b . 2 2 -9 ^4 2 59. 81 ?/ 4 108 xy 3 75. x 8 - a8 . 2 a2 -4 aft -5 116. . . . x' 79. 2 x2 4. 8 .+ 4- 2 ft) -(a 4. 40. a' 111. a~b 89. 3a'2 Page 261. -9x. 76. 82. 39. 4. 3 a -5 a -5. 114. 3~ n 4. 2 . ft n . -16t/. 62. 35. 46. x3 - 15 x 2 48 ?/ . x 2 . + -f 2 2 (/) 2 34. 2 2 x2 ?/ 2 4- 63 4 ?/ . 50. 4- 4- 4 ft*" 3 4- + 2'2 ~+ 2 81 x2 134.x 2 4. -. 132. fc' 6 p'2 q - 54 ? 3 . . 29.1. 10 4. 124. 7 + 3 x-f 2. 1 121. x 8 + x 4 68. + 3 a?.15 x 6 x4 ?/ Ilx 2 ft a8 4- 8 y4 . 30. a* 4. 0. 2 2a -2 2 2(a. 3 a 44. 38. 1-x 4 x3 xt-y6 a 24 3 - Page 262. 2 53. m " + n + P3c . 4. 66.2. 120. 2 x2 108. t 81.a 2 x 2a .5 3n 4. a 4 .4. c3 4- 58. 32. + 28 x2 13x 3 56. . .3 103.1.105. 52. ^ . /> 4 83. 130. 131. 24. 2 x'V2 90.x x* - -f- 2 ax 4. 6y 2 a2 _52 4-5 = 73().18 x?/0. 4 -!- .y*. x2 -3x2/-?/ 2 112. 86.. .2 c . x8 x2 55. x 3 41.6 b. (d) x - (a) 2 x 2 ?/ 4- ?/ (ft) 2 y 2 y 2 g (c) 3 x +y 11 a: y 4- 3 2 . 127.4 x 2 . x .4. * 60.a'2 c. 12 a/. 133.x 51.3 . 3 r2 2 ?/ -2 - ax .3 mn p 2/ x 4 . - ft 3 - 13 a 4 + ll a 2 -2. a 3m 4.6 am b\ 129. &p 84.3 y. 31. .a"- xy 2 2/' 3 . ft x6 - 3 x5 4- 9 x4 - 27 x 3 1|. !! 71. 37.fee 2 4.c.x.1.4 ac. 3 a . 3 36 b c .c.ac 44- aft.5x4. 88.18 ?/ -5x4. Page 263. 15 ab 4- Oac 4- 6 be. 1 x 45. 4- 15 x 5 . 43. 4. 4- 115. 27.ft).2 x^.1w 77. . . 3 y2 2z2 ~3xy-?/. - 3 x2 . - e +/. ?/ 3. 5x 2 -2x4-3. ?/ .2 xy + 4 y2 106.2. 70. 2 q.2 x 4. 125. x?/ 2 2/V2 4- 2 x2z2 4- 92. as 20. 4- 2 . x2 -5r*x ft 5 .x4 + y'2 z 4. 4ft y-3.3 aftc. 2 . . . x2 4-71x4. . y 4 z* 0. (a + ft)" 98. 6 a2 97.1 4- jry 4- x . ft /> 78. -8x3 -8x.4-1. . ft-2ft 4 4-l. ?> . 1 . + a 4. + z. . 6 c 47. 6a6c. x2 + 4- x7 9 y2 x4 4- 4.{ 54. a2 -2 aft -2 2.9 x .4 2 4- c2 4-2 . x4 3 4- 2 x 2 4 0. 10 a -12 b. 2 2/' . x 4. 12 x.xxviii ANSWERS 19. 91. 28. 107. a* a 8 -a aftc. x4 -f- + 23 . x2 a2 1 . 2 2 *- - 3 2n 101. 2 30 -. - 4 a3 85. az 4.4 x y 87. 25. 243x4-729.5. a4 x.rty x2 4- 123.3 a 2 '6 w 4. 5 42. df.x24 73. 36. 61. x3 - 15 x 2 71 x - 105.4 x?/2 3 4. -5x + 2y~z. 3 c . x* . 4- Page 264. 104.

Or (a + 2)0e-l).1).l)(a 2 +3). 220. 244. 30 yr. 232. 36ft. (6) -40. (y + 1) a(3 + 26)(3a-2ft). 10). 236. 50. 202. 1. 235. 217. (JT y 225. 142. x(x f 3)(x+ 2). z(x-10)(x-l). 177. 30 + xyr. (ox + /)(5x-y)(x+3 y)(x-3 y). + 22). 207. 146. 231. 167. 2^. 48 h.3 y). 37 1. (y-7)(y + 188. C3 y _l)(. + 3). 12./_4). ft. 10.l)(x8 + x2 . (ab + 8) ( -7). 3.3). 224. 241. 239. 151. -1. 137. 195. ry(x (a (y + + * 221.c) + or OB (2 + 4 y) Oe* + 2 s).2). +)(x2 -x^+2. -1. 205.y + 3)(r (. 19. 12. 2 2 (a. 147. (/ 246. HI. 161. (2 198. 15. 5. 182. 208.. 186.. 211.--c2 )(-a 2 2 +2a/) + c 2 ). .2) (3 x . (x-yX^+y" )1 243. 23 18.r & (a + ary c)(a 1 2 + )- + 3y). + 7)(rt-4). (a} 59. 4. 215. 2. 18. (c) 160 C. Page 267. ( + 2y)(2x-3y). Page 266. 2.2. a 2 (15. 140. 2(x-8)(x-3). (3-2)(2a ftc v?y(x + 223. 75. (r^-x + 1). 8(a-r}(/)-27). 156. 187. yr.11) (5x 2)(2x + 3). 144. 4. 184. 190. 169. 210.6)(4 + 6). (7 c 2 ). 222. x(x + 6) 213. -. . y 245. 218. a + 2x2 ). (x + 6)(x-6). 214. (y 7f))(y 196.. 149. (x^ + x-1) 234.-4x-l). 138.1(5) 200. 2. ( jc // a- 2 (a-1). 233. (x + l)(x-l)(y + l)(y-l). 10). 163. 164. (7 x + y +y+ 2)(x . - 1. p. 12 6 panes.3) (2/-3y). 180. 218. 178. (2a + l)(a . 7. (4 x 2 + 9)(2 x 4. 1. (3a + 4?> + o(5c-rt). (3x - . . 2. 30. aft. 12 yr. 189.I2y). 176.m)(x- + a). 4- 2 ?/(x - ll)fx -3).1).6 . 3. (5 x . 201. + 6 y) (x 2 y) . 238. . 247. 209. as 194. 199. + y. (23-3). 168.y) (\r-3y). 197. 15 - a. 10 ft. 148. + 2) + 9a. 6. 21. 183. 2. ? >2 ft ?) ft 242. (x + 2)(x . 154.y)(z . y - y- 165. 32 h.3 y)(a . a. 6). (y_24)(y-5). 2 (4 x . (x . p. xxix 139. 172.9)(x-f 2). 175. 147 mi. 40 yr. fc'2a+6-2c). 22. 10 in. (8x + 3)(3x-4). 24. 12 yr. 171. 143. 6. (7x-2//) 203. (a 2 + 2a6. -k. G7|. 174. 152.ANSWEKti 135. 150. 162. -166.6) (2 x + 1). 212. 181.y2 ). . (?/+l)(y-l). 12) (j. 170. 237.3. (a& 192. 158. 1. 8 204.2). 153. ?. + 3) (x -f f>) . + 11) (a -10).r + 4). (y _ ft)(y 4. 159. (a 2 +l)(a*+ 1). 15.r . 1.l)(y + 1).y). m. (5x + 2) (3 x yfor-y) +4). (2x-3y) 3 xy(x. 193.2 )(x+y) 228. 157. (y - 17)(y + (>). 216. a(a. 230. (x 227. (at (4 a +!)( + 3). r>x 2 (4x. 20. 185. y. 160. 2a(4-2ft)(-2fo). 136. 240. (3x-2?/)(2. y-3. 219.y)(jc + 7 y). 1. (r-7y)(ai. 20. 2(-d)(rt + + c+c2). 2 xy(3 x . (x - 42 yr. Page 265. 191. 206.1).2ac + 229. 226.. Iff 145. 173. 179. (. 3(x . . 155. 1.

^ 299. 7. x-12. 0.^^-^-^^^^^. ^-^A^ + w^ n(w4 n) a 309. 305. 264. a~ ' b*). 295. (x44)(x-3)(?/47) - Page 270. a. 268. 3. *. Ca&c 1)(-M 253. -10.2* i^^ !^. *>).(x -- 4) (x4 304. 263. 260. 2. ?^ZLiZ 308. x 267. 249. &). 2x(x-)(x 4 3x44. (a 4 A)(2 x 5. 250. 254. o. 5. 279. 269. -298. + f. \')(s x - 5) (x 4 2)(x 4 . 43 -'^rJ'. o(x4l).4). 261. 251. 303. -? 1) 302. x 283. 2 4 300. (^4) (x x'2 13) -5x46 . 307. 301.^ ^-^. 3).. 258. 4 5. (7 255. 7^T 2 .1. 4 II 4 -)rt 5x4-2. 310.4) 1) (3 x .AN 8l\' Eli S Page 268. x ?/ z 1. 2 x - 3. ^/>-J. 3 - 262. x-3y 4 1)( 4 2 252. - 3xy-f x// 257. 4 11) (xJ^l^^J. (x 4 (x 4 1) 5) 275. > 4. 7 x 265. - 7. 259. 306. 0. x . (2 (x 4 (x 4 3) (x . 266. 256. 3). - - -.

y 4 -I- 340. + x 362. A^izA??r+J!j/?_ *-x 330. l'j. . 2 327. 383.-7. 406. -4. 375. 396. 407. 361. 1. 360. 398. 4 A. f. l .3. A^L-5L-. 399. 379. **" ~ 2 3 >- + 8 x* -f 2 y -4- 1 ^ 350. 3. L . 4. 2 ab - a- Page 276. Page 277. 405. 6-a. a + b + 6). 366. 382. - 1. 2(a i- 403.H ' 2wi ^-' /' . 325.. 408. 13 391.vin a /r " 337. 1. 343 00 351. 334. ?>*. 394. 395. + 335. c 402. x 54 359. .J . 385. 0. 386. * 357.1. 333. 9^. xa' 2 '-2 7/ + 4 -f- Page 273. 329. 2(q-. 393. 7/i -^ _ . 11. Page 274. 388. -1. a) A^_. ^"" 4 s . 339. 400. 4 r-w. 1. 387. <L 409. 1. 326. 12. 380. S. (a + b + c\ . 389. 2 ?/ 363. 2. ?/ + 3 332. _-*L'L+. 364. 5 ^-^K^+M^ AC^Ln?). 401. ?--=.XXXI Page 272.". -2. ^_:r f> 331. 1 i 2 ^. 377. 7. 27 ^" li'oy 3 r J // J 341.-(5 a . 370.)Cr-4)__ . j 328. 3. a-b. 336. + 4 & 4- \ b. 0. ^ 3 // . 324. a +6.1 ')_ x'2 + 4x + 381. 0. . " 4 378. 2 ). -T+^. - --1 356. . 365. 404. a 2 .!. -. 6 ?/+:>. 20. . T\. 0. 2 r36 384. 355.. 397. 376. 3. 392. If. 390. m.

501. Page283. 32. *+-. 3a- 4 5. 3. 14 miles. 448. 2. 11. 502. 426. 468. c. 4. B $ 2500.. 50. 5. 7|. 6. Page 278. 486. 508. B 4 mi. i a b 451. 0. Page 280. 429.7. - 505. <L+ 6 (.55. 492. 499. |. . .7.7. 456. 432. . 428. 4. 436. + b ' + a __ b c ' 2 w -f w 417. ^V. 412.-. Page 282. 8. 482. 40.7. 459. ' $260 at 0%. 10. 2. ISJini. 9. 483. a + + ft c. 0. ft 5. 472. (a) 1. 24 days. 2. 435. 10.2. not true. 28 yr.. 17. 12.4. 0.489. - . 7 : . '.}. !L=4. 3. 420. m.} ' c^ac-j-d} ^ fcfZ a/- ?>rf + 86 (. 442. 0.. 4.m - m+ M in. . 494. 10.te + . 506. z8 +?/ 3 431. 495. 462. 1. i. . 6 -f- c a + ? & ~ a 0. 1. 447. 5. 507. |. (a - c). 465. 1$. - 453. 5. 2. 8. (&) 443. 5. 2. 17. \. 422. - 1. 53 yr. 452. 463. . . . 455. 2. - -10.5. - 2. - f>. A 5 mi .3. --. . 444. 20 yr. 441. - 7. A $ 3500. 467. ^. 484. & 491. 2. 90. 487.1. 477. (d - 6) f. c 6-fc 10. 10. 480. fj. 7. 10. .rz Page 279. (&) true. 4. 454. . 5.}. 6. fc. L (c) I. - 1. - 7. 479. 457. 1. \ 1. 1. |. 490. 419. 10. -^r?i 434. 493. 425. 20.7. 7. 478. 21. b 449. * . 2$. 466. 427. 7. 6. 0. : />a. m- 1 : wi. (c) not true. L2 a - 6 . 8. a* 424. 3. 63. 413. 32 yr. -410.2. I. 500. 5-1. 2. a 22 -. 22. 5J. + () 433. 84. - 2. $2000 at 0%.XXX11 ANSWERS ab. 411. 485.0. 6. 439. />c c(f- be. |. 430. 8. 421. 440. (d) true.46. 460. 418. 42.4. 1 a /?$-+&?. 6. 10$. 2 a 2... . 423. 2. 503. 40| oz. 2 438. 458. 5. - 2. - 2f 504. 498. 445. 7. ISjmi.-488.-vz in. 446.3.12. 461. 1. 6. 481. . 476. 496.0. 6. 0. 18. 464. Page 281. 3 . |. 497. 2. 0. 10. 33. 450.

-1. 593. 550. (i) -3. 5. - 1. 582.25m.02. 24. 3. 232. . 518. 4.5. 2.ANSWERS Page 284. - (a) 2. 1. per hour. ft 584. - . f. - 3. (a) 74 Ib. 2 a 8 x 8 + 6 ax&fy 2 x + 12 a 2xt2 b*y'2 + 2 6 4 ?/ 4 595.7. 2. -2. 1.12. . -1. - 2. 7. 1 . i -_ 4 sc2 + 6 + 10a:8 + a-6) . 566.02. 564. 2. 8 a6 4-2x + 8x2 + 2x 8 4-x4 601. 3. per hr. 1. - J(a -f + 2c).8. 2 imag.1. a+ Page 286.24 sec. 40 Ib.83. 2 2. - 7. 6435.10. > ^ . 115 Ib. 14.8. 581. 1 .5. 3 . + 35 86 4 4 &8 3 + 589. . 2 1.3. o> . - 2 a*b + 3 a6 3 .78. da. 8.04.62.73. 569. 1. y 4.5.3.3.51. . 562. - 557. imag. x8 .55.2. <z ft 1. 530. _^ 27-54x .5+.6._ ft 523 a 2 ftc 2 524. 3. 1. f.14. 4. 553. 560. 1J.1. . 4* da. . (/) - 10 to 8. 583.10..24. . a 7 687i 588i tt e a _ _3 7 ir 7 rt e & + 2 1 a 5 ft 2 - rt 4^2 + i 3 ^254 590. + 6 tf -f 3 .6.5. (6) 3. 2 . -2. - (a) (d) 1. 578. g(rc+ 6-c).37.4. . 2. H.16. 0. 2 10. . 3.5 -f. - + + c. -8 +3 x -f 6 x2 2 a4 & 604. 5.7.38. 0000.0. 574.04.3. 536. - - (h) 8. 3.62. 552. . 571. 1 600. 1.0. 1. 3. + 26 + . (ft) Ill Ib. 551.0.83.75.15. y% Z * 586. (e) 570. 31. 1 580. - imag. J7] min.3. 2(6 597. 1.31. . 3.25.3. 559. 576. 1 1 - 2 x 7 2 -f 3 2 x' -2 + x8 -f x4 . Page 285.88.15. 531. . . 2 1.4.31.02. 529. Roots imaginary. 1$. 1. 3.8 x3^. 2 . - ft*.7. 1. 4 mi. -f36a-2-8x8 592. 3 da. 4 0.5. 509. 1.-f 1. S82 c. + 26x2 + 10 x4 ). 1. 514.53.. 3. 561.9. a + ft - a - -f c. 516. 2$. 567.54. . 527. .30. tin.3. 27 y* f\4 . 1.4 x + . 1. 554. a*-8a + 24tf -82a. ^ ft 4.00. f -?-- a -f ft __ + c C). 2.37.03. .52.xj/ -f xV . -1. (e) (c) 2.6 2. (ft) -4. (c) 3. 4. xxxin 511. 591. |.xV -f +6 a2 &2 - 4 6.75. lead. 579. 24 da. Page 287. 4. 568.03. (6) .56 sec. + 12 x . 563.1. -2. - 4. 3.4. 5.6. .02. .78. 573. (gr) -10 1.4. 3f 4f. 2. 515. 575. 533.r8 596. -3. 5. 525. l+4x+0x 2 +4x 8 -f x4 4 4 594. If 572. 556.4.15. _ 3.. 4.05. 526. -21*_. 512..20. -1. . lead. 1. - 2ft da. 598. 603. 577..% rr\* 585.8. M ft c 2 ft 3465. (c) -4. T . 555. 599.8. tin. 532. . .0.2 xt/ a4 + x3 4- 6 x4 3 xG -f-x. 2(4 602. 565. Page 288. .1. 4- 8 x2 ?/4 605. 4. .1. .24. 528. 8 mi. (d) 537.35. 513. 3. 1.33. 6. 7^ da. 4. 558.21.21 a2 + -3x + 3x2 -rA 86 3 4 ft + 35 4 + 21 2&6 fts + 7 7 rt?> 6 a^ _ 8 +^ 57.4. . _ 4.54. or 8.1. 1. 4. 3. 6. 4. -1. 510. . a -f ft + c.3. 3. .6.

2. 1. 5 3. 1m*. 2. 607. 615. . If b. . 4. . If. -8. ix 2 . . 618. - 1. 2. 2 a-b + a - &-. 637.4-3^4. 620. 670. V2. -0.002. - -3. V2. / V^+lO^M-"^-. 2 x- 4-4 ^/. 657. 634. 698. 703. 0. - 2f r 659. 703. 660. 633. 2. 641. 625. 653. 708. 624. 14. fe + a. <T! . + ~^'2 + a 1. 2092. 679. 1 V5 1. 652. 2. 627.001. 651. l-a6 2.b 686. ^. (*_ + a: 611.- 678< 682. 646. 25. 971. 643.14 If 1.2f (5 4. 645. 632. 635. i. 650. If 665. 666. ^-^ 695. a-b. 210. 1|. 4. ^ _ \/3 +^~< 2 a a -+^ 694.f 3 V^3). 669. - ft. y - 619. 10. 649. b. 2&). 706. 683.b. 661. 690. 630. V^~3). . 621. be ac \. a + b. 642.049. -6. 616. . If f 667.2f Page 290.001. n-^l +-^. a 2. . 4. a-f6-fc __ __ ( a 4. ft). 628. ^ 1. 638. 702. 898. 701.. 647.y. 2f. 0. 696. \. + 2 A (i -f- Page 291. - 13. Page 289.702. 9*. 0. - 4. 25. 5. 4 V 0. 5. (a-3&4-5rj. a ' 2 + .3. ' 674. a 4. z - 1. V"^TJ. 608.303. 1010. ab 689. 648. 3 681. 622. x3 4- 3 x x ' 4- X* 609. 2. . .XX XIV 606. . 9. 654. - 6. 8 f 3. 4$. ^. b 664. If . 5002.3. - 684.25. -11. V7. 1 2. 3 x2 . If 658. 1 ^ - 7Q7> b j(_ (_ x/^15).3f l 668. 2 a 688. 640. 662. l/'3. 1. 623. 009. 7. 1 704. 655. 692. 631. 1. 2 + 36 )K3 + ( 687. 691. 0. 677 680. - 4. 3. 672. /> 4. |o. 2 a - 6*. I}'/. 11.>A 610.04. 50. ft-a a/> ^A. 4. 1 ~a . 612. ANSWERS -(- 3 -x 2 -S 2 . 613. 4- 676. - a2 - a (ab)-. K- 5 2 V2. 2. a 1J. -if 4/> 671. . 3 a. 2 a: 4. . 629. J^-^. 1$ 639.a~- {Z 663. 705.203. . 2. 617. 2f. 626. 4330 da. 7. 8 6 fo . c.3. |. b . 2 / 2 4. 6 685. 6. 636. 3.0. 13. 614. a 673.|. 2.7/ ~ +w ( 7>) ^~ V3 ^' 3. 3. - . 656. 5.3. 700. 0. ' fe 2 ). \+ab 699. 7003. 644. 12. 78.c ) 697. 5. -a.

13ft.- 711. 33^2. 723. 15 shares. 7 - 3V5. J(v'lO-2V 791. 731. 796. 8. . a 2 - x2 . 1. 724. a 2 6^. 729.V2. 737. 710. 39. 24. a". 709. 3. -.^.. Page 293. 782 785. i 2. 4 x' 5 -x 4- 3 x~* -(- 2 ar- 1. 751. 715. VT14-V5. 25. 300. 3-2>/2. 753. 34. . 788.2 4 w" + 4 d" + Hid. 17ft. "V313. ^7x-y. 713. ^ ?->.. 1 I . 721. 777. x i f^' . ^^ -f ^3 _ r} t 2 -i-3x 4 rt + + 2u: 8'o'a +a2 3 . 24-V2. 738. 1. a:-* . 3 720. 1. 719.ANSWMHti Page 292. / 787. 4- 104 v/2.r.2. 758. iv/Jj. 3V7-2VO. VIO-\/3. 750. -5. fya-w&cu. y - 1. 5. 778. Page 294. 740.-V/^ 741. 2\/5-3V2. 718. 767. 30\/10 764.12 af -V^ 4 744. 1 -[- + '> J. 1 752. 00. 727.9.4 . 3 VlT 795. a db Va^T < 45da.r-J w L 754. 24 4 .^ 743. a + 6 +cx* 2 (t' 3 1 a*&M. 34-2V3. *+V( x 2 -"r 2 )' ^ 786. 794. 2x-3^ a. rt3 2 ^-i-^-. 716.9. 790- 2v 3-v 2.10. Hi a.-. 793. 755. 3V5-2V3. + <- 735. 725. 769.r+y-> 759. 733. 730.8. 29\/3. i^. 776. 3V7-2V3. 728. 739. VV> -L4V-34. . cr*-lr*. 712. 4-7. m-n. r. 59. 773. v'll. 722. 746. 756. 789. a- 5 .4 . 736. 734.~ . v/7 / . 768. 792. + 6 2 tf-'c. 714. ^ Ti i a*tj~ 4.1 .1 -/>--f f- + lr'~ + _L a 4 6. x-\-y. 763. 749. 717. > 748. -^ . 2 V2 . 1-^ _ 760. j 742. . 726.11.257. T%. 3-V7. -3^. 1 747. 732.. 8.

4.r-4). 1. $.l)(x .25 ?>2). 876. 851. 4. 11. 817. x. 4. 811. (2 a . 6 4- V& - e " X/^-^+A^ + 2 *a o l V 2 802. 813. 804. -X4 1). - 839..2w . 880. 2. 4. (x + y) (x -f y) (x + y) (x . (x . 829. 1 1. 6. 3. 838. 16xyV2*/^-~x2 . 3.3.l)(x + 2). 812. 2 806. 3 . 4. 0. n = - 29. 861. 858. (x*y*-ryz + z*). 899. H. 1C. 17. 23. 5. 7. | ' . 25. -f 3 866> (9 + 8 ) 81 ^3 _ 72 xy 4 04 ^). ^. ANSWERS 798. \/5.1) (a 8 .5) (x + * 853. ^ V}.1. (a 4 871. . 868. 1. 4. Va 803./>") (a'. 3. **.a 2 2 ).a 4 + 1).4. (am l)(a m + 1) 4m . (2x (r. 6+V7. o. a(-ft)( 873.l)(x . 3.XXXVI 797.om 441) (a 855. (x 845. 4 885.1) . 882.rae) (4 . 837. . Va + 6 + Vtt-"fc.0. 832. 849. (4 c 4. (x 4. Page 297. 2 (x 4-*4.+ m -f ") (a* ). 17. 833. 2 2 . 8.4)(1 -f 4 a 4 10a 2 ). 800. 7. a2 ^E*!. (. 2 . 6 $. 5. 835. 810.4) 860. Va.6 xy + 9 )(4 x 2 (9x 4l2x + 10). -1. 872. 842. + d)*. 898. (1 . 824. (x 2 . . 0. 8(?/ + 2x2 ?/ ~ x 4 ). 847. -5). 4. 848. (2 4. 2 854. (x 2 -f r . V 3. 13. '0 3 2 an 4 3(> n 6 ). . ( 869.7. 10. 2. 834. Page 296. . . - 1. 801. 2 . db 7.7).r?/ 50(i ( -2)(5 04. 7. (3 862. are extraneous. 0. Hoots are extraneous. (x + 0X0-24. b' 2 821.7). (x4-2?/)(x-2y)(4x -. 892. 841. 2. 2|. 2 j 889. 2.. 2. 6. 2 m . 888. 2 - 2. ( - ?>) (a + ^> . (x-l)(^~3)(. (a 1) (x 4. 844. 3.7 4 1) 846. m = 2. Hoots |.5 b) 4 1). 2. (2x-3?/^)(4x2 4-Ox^ + 9//%2). 1. 857. 8 09. . 836. (a + 2 ?>c)(a 2 2fl?>44 ?/V ). 825. 816..4. 11. 2 + 2)^ 3 + (a 4- 5 -f- 8). 831. (2 x + 3 y} . 814. 808. 799. 819. 4 . ^VG. - tt 815.1)(0 865. 6.a 3 " 4. . 4. a- 4-2)(x . 1. 859. 4- 1)(4 x jc jr ::} ?> ?> .a 2m W" 4 ^ m -f & 2m 870. 3. 2 *x 807. 2/ 856. 3. 2.2 ax 4. 827. (:r 11. . . J V|. 894. 0. +j!>. a* 4. 2. 3. 4.l)(x + 3)(2x4-3).7)(4 x. _ 3 ^ 860 r + 3) . m 875. (a m . 823.f. ) (a' 874.r |. a^*4l)(a-a 4 + l). 3. 5.1). 4 818. 879. 884. 843. 48. 891. 867. ((' 1). 895. 19. 826. $. 5. x . 6(a-6)(o a + + &).10 ab 4. 1 . 822. 830. o 828.3. 820. 863. 893. - + l(l^). 8. 900. . a(ry + 864. \/2. %7 ?/ ( 2 >wt 2wt ft ft 4 rc -f- 1 '* Page 298.y) 852. 4. 840. 20). 5. f. 890. 2 . jV3 -f 3. . 7. (x-3). 2. 896.2) (x 4 2). 4. . 887.3)(x + 4). ( 4 4. 897. 883. 886. 881. (x . 3. 14. (3 b .1)(V 2 .

dL 4. 7. 962. T 6. I) v/Ca^T)^ 2 5. ft. 6 . 921. 911. 922. 28. 40 16 in. 917. 961. 985. 8 . Z ^. Page 303. 4 . 28. - 26-j. 1 . 15 16 ft. 918. 0. 931. 943. 4. w 3.. ft. 2. 6 1 1. 1 XXXVll ' a 1. 952. Y. S07. 6. .073. 329. 4 6 mi. i-1" 913. 8. 963. 5l4f. 937. 6. 1 2. -f ft- -4 . V5 fj.1./hr. T3. J. 986. 3. ft.. ft. 987.. 1. 18. 7.. . 2. . 12 in. . 2. 3). a. 111.' -i-fcVira^ 2 3. 66 924. i 3. f.651. ?/i 6. Page 301. V^3). 941.. . 6. 73. J. . 2 w 914. -5 . tt2 19. 333.. 7. 9 in..V-~~3). ^y. 115. 12 mi. 0.709. 3. 930. 2. 1 + V953. 56. 6 a + 3 2 ft ' 4 3 & 928. r ft ' < Page 299. V5 T 2 . 978. 4. . 1). 28. 248. |. 12. 15 946. 480 8 sq. 980. 4. 950. 80. 108. 4 in. 2 1. 4. i(6 in.2. -333. -. 908. 2 yd. 8. 938. J(_ ft.0.01. 6. a + . 948. 60 949. 12. 960. 942. 14 . 983. Page 302. 5. 2.. ft. yd. 936. 902. 2. 984. 977. 932. 3. 3 4 . 6 a 915. 8. 0. 939. 979.760 sq. 916. '3 3 in. 1. 5. 11. 2. 2 i ' a V. 982. 2| ft. 5. 909. 12. ft. 8. 4. - 1 . 11. i 8. . 3. 10. . 8128. 2. 3.. ft. =F J. 8. . 954.. 925. 7 ft. 4. 1 _2 . 945. 4. 7. 1. 940. 6. 955. 6. 11. 280. 5. T 6. $(l 4..615. 923.. 935. 906. 3 . 959.2. 496. 8. 956.I.. 904.1 = 9. 0. 981. i>.. w. 5.. 958. 8. . 4. 3. 20 19 ft. 4.1. 8. 2. 944. . . 6. 3. v/(ai- !)(&910. 919. 920. 927. 933. 11.111. Page 300. 912. 964. 1 1. 951. 4. . . 934. 957.744. 903. 905. %* . ft. 2. . 7 or 30. |. 10. 100 rows.446. . - 1. 6 da. Va926. 947.ANSWERS oJ--V 41 6 901.

+ 448 . a- a 13 - 13 ax + 78 a3 4y*> .378 1015.. 1000. 48. . (5. 1 8 8 2. 4. 988. 1017. 12. 1009.'^^ } ( . . (6) 8(1 . 0. 994.18. 9 /> l 6 /> 6 . 1013. ~ \. . 2 . 991. 120 a. 2(2 -v/2). () 12(2+V3). X. + v 2). - W1W -JI + 1 / 1 _ -_L\ a . 72. ^f (2-f-3V2). 1(5. 12. 1003. 120 i-^l^. 3003. 192. 993. 0. (a) 2^ + --1 \/2). (J. 1006. in. - 5&7 1021. Page 304. 995. 1- 1004. 9 da.92. " 1710 rtV and 1710 252 35. 1010. 8. 108. 1019. 1007.128 I. 1012. (a) (6) -^ 1002.xxxviii ANSWERS 989. 243 ?/ 810 x 2 + y 1080 x* 4 5 ?/ 720 * 240 r 8 7 ?/ . ^Trsq.870 a 6 1011.870 z8 . 1001. 990. 5 :J2 r 10 - 14 y + 84 y* - 280 + 5(>0 - 72 C- K 4- 2 MJ--iy 8 r? -" 8 .378 <W and 92. Page 305. 1018. 1008.192rt?)r 120 *. 4 and 1020. 162.. 1005. 6 70 . 997. 32 13 (tx 4V3.51. 78 n+ a' x 2 t - 13 . r = 2. 996. 24. 1016. 992. (Z>) 999. 1014.

10 The treatment of elementary algebra here is simple and practical. All subjects now required for admission by the College Entrance Examination Board have been omitted from the present volume. without the sacrifice of scientific accuracy and thoroughness. $1. especially duction into Problem Work is very much Problems and Factoring. $1.ELEMENTARY ALGEBRA By ARTHUR SCHULTZE. To meet the requirements of the College Entrance Examination Board. very numerous and well graded there is a sufficient number of easy examples of each kind to enable the weakest students to do some work. xiv+563 pages. Half leather. than by the . xi 4- 373 pages. proportions and graphical methods are introduced into the first year's course. THE MACMILLAN COMPANY PUBLISHERS. physics. etc. great many work. i2mo. and commercial life. Particular care has been bestowed upon those chapters which in the customary courses offer the greatest difficulties to the beginner. A examples are taken from geometry. The introsimpler and more natural than the methods given In Factoring.25 lamo. The author has emphasized Graphical Methods more than is usual in text-books of this grade. which have been omitted from the body of the work Indeterminate Equahave been relegated to the Appendix. save Inequalities. Ph. but these few are treated so thoroughly and are illustrated by so many varied examples that the student will be much better prepared for further The Exercises are superficial study of a great many cases. HEW TOSS . comparatively few methods are heretofore. which has been retained to serve as a basis for higher work.D. but none of the introduced illustrations is so complex as to require the expenditure of time for the teaching of physics or geometry. so that the Logarithms. given. and the Summation of Series is here presented in a novel form. book is a thoroughly practical and comprehensive text-book. but the work in the latter subject has been so arranged that teachers who wish a shorter course may omit it ADVANCED ALGEBRA By ARTHUR SCHULTZE. The more important subjects tions. not The Advanced Algebra is an amplification of the Elementary. Half leather. 64-66 FIFTH AVBNTC.

To meet the requirements of the College Entrance Examination Board.25 i2mo. Half leather. comparatively few methods are given. book is a thoroughly practical and comprehensive text-book. The author grade. but none of the introduced illustrations is so complex as to require the expenditure of time for the teaching of physics or geometry. proportions and graphical methods are introduced into the first year's course. which has been retained to serve as a basis for higher work. not The Advanced Algebra is an amplification of the Elementary. xi -f- 373 pages. save Inequalities. 64-66 7HTH AVENUE. especially duction into Problem Work is very much Problems and Factoring. has emphasized Graphical Methods more than is usual in text-books of this and the Summation of Series is here presented in a novel form. $1. In Factoring.D. but the work in the latter subject has been so arranged that teachers who wish a shorter course may omit it ADVANCED ALGEBRA By ARTHUR SCHULTZE. and commercial life. Logarithms. but these few are treated so thoroughly and are illustrated by so many varied examples that the student will be much better prepared for further work. without Particular care has been the sacrifice of scientific accuracy and thoroughness. 12010. xiv+56a pages. Ph. so that the tions. there is a sufficient number of easy examples of each kind to enable the weakest students to do some work. The introsimpler and more natural than the methods given heretofore. great many A examples are taken from geometry.10 The treatment of elementary algebra here is simple and practical.ELEMENTARY ALGEBRA By ARTHUR Sen ULTZE. bestowed upon those chapters which in the customary courses offer the greatest difficulties to the beginner. THE MACMILLAN COMPANY PUBLISHBSS. $1. The more important subjects which have been omitted from the body of the work Indeterminate Equahave been relegated to the Appendix. physics. than by the superficial study of a great many cases. The Exercises are very numerous and well graded. HatF leather. HEW YOKE . All subjects now required for admission by the College Entrance Examination Board have been omitted from the present volume. etc.

of Propositions has a Propositions easily understood are given first and more difficult ones follow . Cloth. THE MACMILLAN COMPANY PUBLISHERS. aoo pages. under the heading Remarks". Ph. Cloth. SCHULTZE. These are introduced from the beginning 3. 80 cents This Geometry introduces the student systematically to the solution of geometrical exercises. 7 he . SEVENOAK. wor. KEY TO THE EXERCISES in Schultze and Sevenoak's Plane and Solid Geometry. The numerous and well-graded Exercises the complete book. Hints as to the manner of completing the work are inserted The Order 5. text-book in Geometry more direct ositions 7..10 L. 9. and no attempt has been made to present these solutions in such form that they can be used as models for class-room work. State: . Proofs that are special cases of general principles obtained from the Exercises are not given in detail. i2mo. izmo. Pains have been taken to give Excellent Figures throughout the book. . Attention is invited to the following important features I. The Schultze and Sevenoak Geometry is in use in a large number of the leading schools of the country. $1. PLANE AND SOLID GEOMETRY F. lines. xtt-t PLANE GEOMETRY Separate. guides him in putting forth his efforts to the best advantage. 64-66 FIFTH AVENUE. By ARTHUR SCHULTZE and 370 pages. Algebraic Solution of Geometrical Exercises is treated in the Appendix to the Plane Geometry .10 By ARTHUR This key will be helpful to teachers who cannot give sufficient time to the Most solutions are merely outsolution of the exercises in the text-book. 10. Many proofs are presented in a simpler and manner than in most text-books in Geometry 8. more than 1200 in number in 2. $1. 4.r and. iamo. Half leather. The Analysis of Problems and of Theorems is more concrete and practical than in any other distinct pedagogical value. Difficult Propare made somewhat? easier by applying simple Notation .D. Preliminary Propositions are presented in a simple manner . ments from which General Principles may be obtained are inserted in the " Exercises. NEW YORK . xii + 233 pages. 6. at the It same provides a course which stimulates him to do original time.

New York DALLAS CHICAGO BOSTON SAN FRANCISCO ATLANTA . ." The treatment treated are : is concrete and practical. Most teachers admit that mathematical instruction derives its importance from the mental training that it But in affords. 370 pages. 12mo. methods of teaching mathematics the first propositions in geometry the original exercise parallel lines methods of the circle attacking problems impossible constructions applied problems typical parts of algebra. $1. " is to contribute towards book/ he says in the preface. of these theoretical views.25 The author's long and successful experience as a teacher of mathematics in secondary schools and his careful study of the subject from the pedagogical point of view. Typical topics the value and the aims of mathematical teach- ing . . enable him to " The chief object of the speak with unusual authority. THE MACMILLAN COMPANY 64-66 Fifth Avenue. a great deal of mathematical spite teaching is still informational. Students to still learn demon- strations instead of learning how demonstrate. . . and Assistant Professor of Mathematics in New York University of Cloth.The Teaching of Mathematics in Secondary Schools ARTHUR SCHULTZE Formerly Head of the Department of Mathematics in the High School Commerce. and not from the information that it imparts. . making mathematical teaching less informational and more disciplinary. New York City. . causes of the inefficiency of mathematical teaching. . .

diagrams. supply the student with plenty of historical narrative on which to base the general statements and other classifications made in the text. $1. which put the main stress upon national development rather than upon military campaigns. The author's aim is to keep constantly before the This book pupil's mind the general movements in American history and their relative value in the development of our nation. and a full index are provided. which have been selected with great care and can be found in the average high school library. New York SAN FRANCISCO BOSTON CHICAGO ATLANTA . i2mo. Cloth. All smaller movements and single events are clearly grouped under these general movements. Studies and Questions at the end of each chapter take the place of the individual teacher's lesson plans. The book deserves the attention of history teachers/' Journal of Pedagogy.AMERICAN HISTORY For Use fa Secondary Schools By ROSCOE LEWIS ASHLEY Illustrated. An exhaustive system of marginal references.40 is distinguished from a large number of American text-books in that its main theme is the development of history the nation. is an excellent example of the newer type of school histories. This book is up-to-date not only in its matter and method. " This volume etc. Maps. photographs. Topics. but in being fully illustrated with many excellent maps. diagrams. THE MACMILLAN COMPANY 64-66 Fifth Avenue.

Master your semester with Scribd & The New York Times

Special offer for students: Only $4.99/month.

Master your semester with Scribd & The New York Times

Cancel anytime.