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bclo*v.
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
LTD.AS  BOSTON CHICAGO SAN FRANCISCO MACMILLAN & CO. LONDON LIMITKU HOMBAY CALCUTTA MELUCK'KNK THE MACMILLAN CO. . OF TORONTO CANADA.THE MACM1LLAN COMPANY NKVV YORK PAII.
FORMERLY ASSISTANT PROFESSOR OF MATHEMATICS. NKW YORK ITNIVEKSITT HEAD OF THK MATHEMATICAL DKI'A KTM EN T. HIH SCHOOL OF COMMERCE.ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA BY ARTHUR SCJBULIi/TZE. NEW 1 ORK CUT THE MACMILLAN COMPANY 1917 All rights reserved . PH.D.
May. 8. January. 1910. 1917. Cushlng Co. Norwood. Mass. Published Set up and electrotyped. . Reprinted 1913. IQJS January. J. 1910 . BY THE MACMILLAN COMPANY. May. August. September. 1910.A. 1915.COPYRIGHT. . 1916. 1911. July.' February. .. U. Berwick & Smith Co. September.S.
not only taxes a student's memory unduly but in variably leads to mechanical modes of study. Elementary Algebra. shortcuts that solve only examples real value. omissions serve not only practical but distinctly pedagogic " cases " ends. All parts of the theory whicJi are beyond the comprehension of the student or wliicli are logically unsound are omitted. " While in many respects similar to the author's to its peculiar aim. All unnecessary methods and "cases" are omitted. specially 2.PREFACE IN this book the attempt while still is made to shorten the usual course in algebra.. but "cases" that are taught only on account of tradition. chief : among These which are the following 1. Until recently the tendency was to multiply as far as possible. and conse . owing has certain distinctive features. in order to make every example a social case of a memorized method. Typical in this respect is the treatment of factoring in many textbooks In this book all methods which are of and which are applied in advanced work are given. The entire study of algebra becomes a mechanical application of memorized rules. giving to the student complete familiarity with all the essentials of the subject. Such a large number of methods. however." this book. manufactured for this purpose. are omitted. and ingenuity while the cultivation of the student's reasoning power is neglected. etc. All practical teachers know how few students understand and appreciate the more difficult parts of the theory.
two negative numbers. however. the following may be quoted from the author's "Elementary Algebra": which "Particular care has been bestowed upon those chapters in the customary courses offer the greatest difficulties to the beginner. TJie exercises are slightly simpler than in the larger look. enable students who can devote only a minimum This arrangement will of time to algebra to study those subjects which are of such importance for further work. a great deal of the theory offered in the avertextbook is logically unsound . all elementary proofs theorem for fractional exponents. especially problems and factoring. hence either book 4. In regard to some other features of the book. may be used to supplement the other. in particular the requirements of the College Entrance Examination Board. For the more ambitious student.g. are placed early in the course. differ With very few from those exceptions all the exer cises in this book in the "Elementary Alge bra". e. and it is hoped that this treatment will materially diminish the difficulty of this topic for young students. " The book is designed to meet the requirements for admis sion to our best universities and colleges. Topics of practical importance.vi PREFACE quently hardly ever emphasize the theoretical aspect of alge bra. there has been placed at the end of the book a collection of exercises which contains an abundance of more difficult work. The best way to introduce a beginner to a new topic is to offer Lim a large number of simple exercises. etc. Moreover. The presenwill be found to be tation of problems as given in Chapter V quite a departure from the customary way of treating the subject. as quadratic equations and graphs. This made it necessary to introduce the theory of proportions . all proofs for the sign age of the product of of the binomial 3.
and hence the student is more easily led to do the work by rote than when the arrangement braic aspect of the problem. But on the other hand very few of such applied examples are genuine applications of algebra. McKinley than one that gives him the number of Henry's marbles. but the true study of algebra has not been sacrificed in order to make an impressive display of sham life applications. such examples. The entire work in graphical methods has been so arranged that teachers who wish a shorter course may omit these chapters. an innovation which seems to mark a distinct gain from the pedagogical point of view.' This topic has been preit is sented in a simple. is based principally upon the alge . are frequently arranged in sets that are algebraically uniform. but they unquestionably furnish a very good antidote against 'the tendency of school algebra to degenerate into a mechanical application of memorized rules. and they usually involve difficult numerical calculations." Applications taken from geometry. in " geometry .PREFACE vii and graphical methods into the first year's work. " Graphical methods have not only a great practical value. physics. of the Mississippi or the height of Mt. viz. By studying proportions during the first year's work. to solve a It is undoubtedly more interesting for a student problem that results in the height of Mt. the student will be able to utilize this knowledge where it is most needed. Moreover. nobody would find the length Etna by such a method. elementary way. and of the hoped that some modes of representation given will be considered im provements upon the prevailing methods. and commercial are numerous. while in the usual course proportions are studied a long time after their principal application. based upon statistical abstracts.
1910. edge of physics. is such problems involves as a rule the teaching of physics by the teacher of algebra. Manguse for the careful reading of the proofs and many valuable suggestions. pupil's knowlso small that an extensive use of The average Hence the field of suitable for secondary school tations. . however. April. genuine applications of elementary algebra work seems to have certain limi but within these limits the author has attempted to give as many The author for simple applied examples as possible. NEW YORK. desires to acknowledge his indebtedness to Mr. William P.viii PREFACE problems relating to physics often offer It is true that a field for genuine applications of algebra. ARTHUR SCHULTZE.
SUBTRACTION... III 22 27 Signs of Aggregation Exercises in Algebraic Expression 29 CHAPTER MULTIPLICATION Multiplication of Algebraic Multiplication of .... and Hoots Algebraic Expressions and Numerical Substitutions . AND PARENTHESES 15 15 10 .. ............ Powers. 34 35 36 Multiplication of Polynomials Special Cases in Multiplication 39 CHAPTER IV DIVISION Division of Monomials 46 46 47 Division of a Polynomial by a Monomial Division of a Polynomial by a Polynomial Special Cases in Division ix 48 61 ... Numbers Monomial Monomials 31 31 Multiplication of a Polynomial by a .. .. II 6 7 10 CHAPTER Addition of Monomials Addition of Polynomials Subtraction ADDITION...CONTENTS CHAPTER INTRODUCTION Algebraic Solution of Problems Negative Numbers I PAGB 1 1 3 Numbers represented by Letters Factors.
114 . .X CONTENTS CHAPTER V PAGE LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS Solution of Linear Equations Symbolical Expressions Problems leading .. Form x'2 f px f q Form px 2 f qx + r f .63 55 67 to Simple Equations 63 CHAPTER VI FACTORING 76 I... HIGHEST COMMON FACTOR AND LOWEST COMMON MULTIPLE 89 89 91 CHAPTER VIII 93 93 97 FRACTIONS Reduction of Fractions Addition and Subtraction of Fractions Multiplication of Fractions Division of Fractions 102 104 * .. .. The Square of a Binomial x 2 Ixy The Difference of Two Squares Grouping Terms of Factoring . Type III. .. .. Type Polynomials. Type V. 108 108 112 Problems leading to Fractional and Literal Equations .. Complex Fractions 105 CHAPTER IX FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS Fractional Equations Literal Equations . Type VI.. All of whose Terms contain a mon Factor Com77 . 80 83 84 86 87 Summary CHAPTER Common Factor Lowest Common Multiple Highest VII ... Type II.... /^ . * . Quadratic Trinomials of the Quadratic Trinomials of the 78 . Type IV.
.. Two Unknown 129 130 133 138 Quantities Problems leading to Simultaneous Equations . 1*78 178 181 189 191 Form 193 .. ..... CHAPTER XI CHAPTER X PAGE 120 120 121 Proportion SIMULTANEOUS EQUATIONS OF THE FIRST DEGREE Elimination by Addition or Subtraction Elimination by Substitution Literal Simultaneous Equations Simultaneous Equations involving More than ... . 171 CHAPTER XV QUADRATIC EQUATIONS INVOLVING ONB UNKNOWN QUANTITY Pure Quadratic Equations Complete Quadratic Equations Problems involving Quadratics Equations in the Quadratic Character of the Roots .. CHAPTER XIV 169 .CONTENTS XI RATIO AND PROPORTION Ratio ... Evolution of Polynomials and Arithmetical Numbers . 148 164 Graphic Solution of Equations involving One Unknown Quantity Graphic Solution of Equations involving Two Unknown Quantities 168 160 CHAPTER INVOLUTION Involution of Monomials XIII 165 165 166 Involution of Binomials EVOLUTION . Evolution of Monomials 170 ........ 140 143 CHAPTER XII GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS AND EQUATIONS Representation of Functions of One Variable .
xii
CONTENTS
CHAPTER XVI
PAGK 195
THE THEORT OP EXPONENTS
Fractional and Negative Exponents Use of Negative and Fractional Exponents
....
195
200
CHAPTER XVII
RADICALS
Transformation of Radicals Addition and Subtraction of Radicals
Multiplication of Radicals Division of Radicals
205
206 210
.212
Involution and Evolution of Radicals
.....
214
218
Square Roots of Quadratic Surds Radical Equations
219
221
CHAPTER
THE FACTOR THEOREM
XVIII
227
CHAPTER XIX
SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS
I.
......
.
.
.
.
232
232
II.
Equations solved by finding x +/ and x / One Equation Linear, the Other Quadratic
.
.
234
III.
Homogeneous Equations
Special Devices
236
237
IV.
Interpretation of Negative Results
and the Forms
i
,
.
.
241
Problems
243
CHAPTER XX
PROGRESSIONS
Arithmetic Progression Geometric Progression
Infinite
.
246
24(j
251
Geometric Progression
263
CHAPTER XXI
BINOMIAL THEOREM
.
.
.
.
.
.
..
.
.
255
BEVIEW EXERCISE
.
268
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
CHAPTER
I
INTRODUCTION
1.
Algebra
it
may
arithmetic,
treats of
be called an extension of arithmetic. Like numbers, but these numbers are freletters,
quently denoted by problem.
as illustrated in
the following
ALGEBRAIC SOLUTION OF PROBLEMS
2.
Problem.
'
The sum
x
is five
times the smaller.
Let
two numbers is 42, and the greater Find the numbers. the smaller number.
of
Then
and
Therefore,
5 x = the greater number, 6x the sum of the two numbers. 6x
= 42,
and
3.
x = 7, the smaller number, 5 x = 35, the greater number.
A problem
An
is
a question proposed for solution.
4.
equation is a statement expressing the equality of
two
quantities; as,
5.
6 a?
= 42.
In algebra, problems are frequently solved by denoting numbers by letters and by expressing the problem in the form of an equation.
6.
Unknown numbers
;
are usually represented
as, x, y,
z,
by the
last
letters of the alphabet
but sometimes other letters
are employed. B
1
2
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
EXERCISE
The sum
1
Solve algebraically the following problems
1.
:
of two
times the smaller.
2.
numbers is 40, and the greater Find the numbers.
is
four
twice as
and a carriage for $ 480, receiving for the horse as for the carriage. much did he receive for the carriage ?
sold a horse
A man
A
much
How
3.
and
B own
a house worth $ 14,100, and
capital as B.
A
has
in
vested twice as
invested ?
4.
much
How much
is
has each
The population
of
South America
9 times that of
Australia, and both continents together have 50,000,000 inFind the population of each. habitants.
and fall of the tides in Seattle is twice that in and their sum is 18 feet. Find the rise and fall Philadelphia,
5.
The
rise
of the tides in Philadelphia.
6.
6 times as
7.
Divide $ 240 among A, B, and C so that A may receive much as C. and B 8 times as much as C.
A pole 56 feet high was broken so that the part broken was 6 times the length of the part left standing. .Find the length of the two parts.
off
8.
The sum
If
two
of the sides of a triangle equals 40 inches. sides of the triangle are equal, and each is twice the A remaining side, how long is each side ?
A
9.
The sum
triangle is are equal,
of the three angles of any 180. If 2 angles of a triangle and the remaining angle is 4
times their sum,
there in each ?
how many
degrees are
is
G 10. The number of negroes in Africa 10 times the number of Indians in America, and the sum of both is 165,000,000. How many are there of each ?
B
INTRODUCTION
11.
3
twice as
12.
Divide $280 among A, B, and C, so that much as A, and C twice as much as B.
B may
receive
twice as
13.
Divide $90 among A, B, and C, so that B may receive much as A, and C as much as A and B together.
A
is
which
14.
line 20 inches long is divided into two parts, one of long are the parts ? equal to 5 times the other.
How
travels twice as fast as B, and the tances traveled by the two is 57 miles.
A
sum
of the dis
How many
miles did
each travel ?
15.
4
A, B, C, and
does
A
take, if
B
D buy $ 2100 worth of goods. How much buys twice as much as A, C three times as
much
much
as B,
and
D
six times as
NEGATIVE NUMBE
EXERCISE
1.
2
Subtract 9 from 16.
2.
3.
Can 9 be subtracted from 7 ?
In arithmetic
why
cannot 9 be subtracted from 7 ?
"*
\
4.
The temperature
is
What
5.
noon is 16 ami at 4 P.M. it is 9 the temperature at 4 P.M.? State this as an
at
at
of subtraction.
The temperature
4 P.M.
is
7, and
at 10 P.M.
it is
10
less.
6.
What is the temperature at 10 P.M. ? Do you know of any other way of
below zero) ? What then is 7 10?
(3
expressing the last
answer
7.
8.
Can you think
of
any other
practical examples
which
require the subtraction of a greater
number from a smaller
one?
7.
Many
greater
number from a smaller
practical examples require the subtraction of a one, and in order to express in
a convenient form the results of these, and similar examples,
4
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
it becomes necessary to enlarge our concept of number, so as to include numbers less than zero.
8. Negative numbers are numbers smaller than zero; they are denoted by a prefixed minus sign as 5 (read " minus 5 "). Numbers greater than zero, for the sake of distinction, are fre;
quently called positive numbers, and are written either with a prefixed plus sign, or without any prefixed sign as f 5 or 5.
;
The
fact that a
thermometer falling 10 from 7 indicates 3
be expressed 7 10
below zero
may now
= 3.
is
loss of $ 60,
Instead of saying a gain of $ 30, and a loss of $ 90 we may write
equal to a
$30
9.
$90 = $60.
number
is
The
absolute value of a
the number taken
without regard to its sign. 5 is The absolute value of
10.
6,
of f 3 is 3.
It is convenient for
many
discussions to represent the
positive
a line
numbers by a succession of equal distances laid off on from a point 0, and the negative numbers by a similar
series in the opposite direction.
,
I
I
lit
4
to
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
6
5
3
2
1
+\
4,
+2
+
3
+4
45
+6
y
Thus, in the annexed diagram, the line from
the line from
4 represents
etc.
to 4 6 represents 4 5,
resented by a motion of "three tion of 8 by a similar motion toward the
The addition of 3 is repspaces toward the right, and the subtracleft.
Thus, 5 added to
1
equals 4, 5 subtracted from
1 equals
6, etc.
EXERCISE
1.
3
If in financial transactions
we
indicate a man's income
by
a positive sign, what does a negative sign indicate ?
2. State in what manner the positive and negative signs may be used to indicate north and south latitude, east and west
longitude, motion upstream
and downstream.
INTRODUCTION
3.
5
If north latitude
is
indicated by a positive sign, by what
is
south latitude represented ?
4.
If south latitude
is
indicated by a positive sign, by what
?
is
north latitude represented
5.
the meaning of the year 6 yards per second ? erly motion of
is 6.
What
20 A.D. ?
Of an
east
A
his total gain or loss ?
7.
merchant gains $ 200, and loses $ 350.  350. (b) Find 200
(a)
What
is
higher, is 8
 +7? 8. A vessel
(6)
If the temperature at 4 A.M. is 8 and at 9 A.M. it is 7 what is the temperature at 9 A.M. ? What, therefore,
starts
sails
38 due south,
(a)
from a point in 25 north latitude, and Find the latitude at the end of the
journey.
9.
Find 25 38.
A
22
sails
vessel starts from a point in 15 south latitude, and due south, (a) Find the latitude at the end of the
(b)
journey,
10.
Subtract 22 from
15.
18.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
From 30 subtract 40. From 4 subtract 7. From 7 subtract 9. From 19 subtract 34. From subtract 14. From 12 subtract 20. 2 subtract 5. From 1 subtract 1. From
19. 20.
21.
22.
23.
24. 25.
To 6 2 To To 1 From 1 To  8 To 7 From
add add add
12.
1.
2.
subtract 2.
add add
9. 4.
1 subtract 2.
Add
1 and 2.
26.
the one of
Solve examples 1625 by using a diagram similar to 10, and considering additions and subtractions as
motions.
27.
(a) 28.
Which is the greater number lor 1? (b) 2 or 4?
:
By how much
is
7 greater than
12 ?
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
29.
Determine from the following table the range of tempera:
ture in each locality
NUMBERS REPRESENTED BY LETTERS
11. For many purposes of arithmetic it is advantageous to express numbers by letters. One advantage was shown in 2 others will appear in later chapters ( 30).
;
EXERCISE
1.
4
is
If the letter
t
means 1000, what
the value of
5t?
a=
2.
3.
What is the value of 3 6, if b = 3 ? if b = 4 ? What is the value of a + &, if a = 5, and 6 = 7?
if
6,
and
b
=
4?
is
4.
5.
What
If a
the value of 17
c,
if c
= 5?
ifc
= 2?
marbles,
many
6.
boy has 9c? marbles and wins 4c marbles has. he ?
Is the last
how
7.
How
8.
9.
merchant had 20 much has he left ?
A
answer correct for any value of d ? m dollars and lost 11 m
dollars.
What
is
the
sum
of 8 &
and G
b ?
Find the numerical value
If c represents a certain
of the last
answer
if b
= 15.
10.
number, what represents 9 times
that
number ?
INTRODUCTION
11.
1
From 26 w
subtract 19 m.
12.
if
What is the numerical
From 22m
if
value of the last answer
if
m = 2?
m = 2?
13.
subtract
1
25m, and
find the numerical value
of the answer
14.
m=
2.
Add
13 p, 3p, 6p, and subtract 24 p from the sum.
15.
16. 19.
From
10 q subtract 20
q.
17.
18.
Add lOgand +20 q. From 22# subtract 0.
7 a=
From subtract 26 Add  6 x and 8 x.
x.
20.
From
Wp subtract 10^).
is
What sign, therefore, 140. 21. If a = 20, then understood between 7 and a in the expression 7 a ?
FACTORS, POWERS, AND ROOTS
12.
The
and equality have the same meaning
in arithmetic.
13.
signs of addition, subtraction, multiplication, division, in algebra as they have
If there is no sign between
two
is
letters, or
a letter and a
number, a sign of multiplication
6
is
understood.
written win.
x a
is
generally written 6 a
;
m
x n
Between two
(either
figures,
x
or
)
however, a sign of multiplication has to be employed as, 4x7, or 4 7.
;
4x7 cannot be
14.
written 47, for 47
means 40
f 7.
A product is
=
the result obtained by multiplying together
two or more
Since 24
Similarly,
quantities, each of which is a factor of the product. 3 x 8, or 12 x 2, each of these numbers is a factor of 24.
7, a, 6,
and
c are factors of 7 abc.
15.
A
power
is
thus,
aaaaa
6 aaaaaa, or a ,
is the product of two or more equal factors called the " 5th power of a," and written a5 " the 6th is power of a," or a 6th.
;
;
The second power is also called the square, and the third 2 power the cube; thus, 12 (read "12 square") equals 144.
8
16.
ELEMENTS OF ALQEBEA
The
base of a
power
is
the
number which
is
repeated
as a factor.
The base
of a 3
is a.
17. An exponent is the number which indicates how many times a base is to be used as a factor. It is placed a little above and to the right of the base.
The exponent
of
m
6
is
6
;
n
is
the exponent of an
.
EXERCISE
1.
5
find the numerical value of the square of 7, the cube of 6, the fourth power of 3, and the fifth power of 2. Find the numerical values of the following powers :
2.
3.
Write and
72
.
6.
42
.
10.
11.
.
8
(i)
.
14.
15.
2
.
25 1
.
2*.
7.
8. 9.
2*.
O
9
.
.0001 2
.
4. 5.
52
83
.
10 6
I 30
.
12.
(4)
(1.5)
16.
.
l.l 1
.
.
13.
2
17.
22
+3
2
.
If
a=3, 6=2, c=l, and
18. 19.
3
ci
.
d=^
22.
a*.
find the numerical values of:
24.
2
.
20.
21.
c
10
.
3
(2 c)
ab.
.
26. 27.
2
at).
b2
.
d\
23.
(6cf)
25.
(4 bdf.
28.
If
29.
30.
= 8, what is the value of a? If m = what is the value of m ? = 64, what is the value of a ? If 4
a3
2
jJg,
In a product any factor product of the other factors.
18.
is
called the coefficient of the
In 12 win 8/), 12
19.
is
the coefficient of
is
mw 8p,
12
m is the coefficient of n*p.
A
17
numerical coefficient
a coefficient expressed entirely
in figures.
In
aryx,
17
is
the numerical coefficient.
is
When
stood ; thus a
a product contains no numerical coefficient, 1 1 a, a Bb 1 a*b.
under
=
=
INTRODUCTION
9
20. When several powers are multiplied, the beginner should remember that every exponent refers only to the number near which it is placed.
3 9
2
means 3
3
aa, while (3
2
)
=3ax
3 a.
= 9 abyyy. 2* xyW = 22.2.2. xyyyzz.
afty
1 abc*
7 abccc.
EXERCISES
If
a
= 4, b = 1, c = 2, and x = ^, find the
numerical values of
:
21. root is one of the equal factors of a power. According to the number of equal factors, it is called a square root, a cube root, a fourth root, etc.
3
is
A
6
is is
the square root of 9, for 32 = 9. the cube root of 125, for 6 8 = 125. the
fifth
a
root of a 5 the nth root of a".
,
The nth
Va,
is
fifth root of a,
indicated by the symbol >/""; thus Va is the is the cube root of 27, \/a, or more simply the square root of a.
root
is
A/27
Using
this
(Va)
22.
n
= a.
The
symbol we
may
is
express the definition of root by
the
index of a root
number which
indicates
what
root is to be taken.
sign. In v/a, 7
23.
It is written in the opening of the radical
is
the index of the root.
The
[ ]
;
signs of aggregation are
:
the parenthesis,
.
( )
;
the
bracket,
the brace,
j
j
;
and the vinculum,
find the numerical value of: Vff. 6. 7 = 2. some number is . as in arithmetic. ALGP:BRAIC EXPRESSIONS 24. Val \fi?. a polynomial of two terms. [6c] 3 . 10 x [4 by 4 + 1 or by 5. A polynomial is an y. V3 . e. 11.10 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA They are used. V^a6. 4(a 6(6 + &). 14. A binomial is 62 . V36". (cfd) 4. 5Vl6c. are trinomials. 27. 26. 12. \/c. 15. 0. d 7. is 28. c = 1. 4V3~6c. 17. 13. 6. 8. V2a. A trinomial a polynomial of three terms. 2 . 9. 6 a26 7 Vac ~* 2 f 9. aVc^. separated by a sign (6 + c + d} is o c ^and (6 + a monomial. since the parts are a . or 9 Vx. b = 3. x 9. + M f c 4 f d 4 are polynomials. + c). A monomial or term f an expression whose parts are not as 3 cue2. 10 x 4"+T indicates that (a b) is sometimes read "quantity a b. + 1]. 3. 10. 16. AND NUMERICAL sym SUBSTITUTIONS An algebraic expression is a collection of algebraic bols representing 25. Each 10 is of the forms 10 to be multiplied x (4 f 1). c f d). !^f\/03 3 ft. a2 + and   \/a are binomials. to indicate that the expres* sions included are to be treated as a whole.g. 2." EXERCISE If a 1. v'Ta. expression containing more than one and a 4 term.
multiplication. ' f & f c 3 8 d s . __ E. c=l. 6.19 a 6cd 3 2 3 find the numerical value 6 aft 2 .9 aWc + f a b . Find the value of 4 28 +5 32  *^. d=Q.810 + 150 = . .9 a& 2 c + f a 6 .19 = 6. c = 2. 2 3a& 2 + 3a2 6a&c2 . * For additional examples see page 268. 4.. EXERCISE 8*  . a 2 6.9. Otherwise operations of addition. 2 of 6 ab If a = 5. 16. . 10. 5=3.99. 5. 14. Ex. a2 11. find the numerical value of: 9. 1. 11 if it In a polynomial each term is treated as were con tained in a parenthesis. 4 . Ex. 6.2 + I126. 8.390. 3a + 56 a 2 . 3 4 . l 13. 5 means 3 4 20 or 23. 12. 5c6 2 +6ac3 a 3 17c3 hl2o. (a (a f b) 7.5 ax 50 a6cd. and division are to be performed in the order in which they are written all from left to right.9 5 32 2 + ^ 5 8 3 . a=4.30 = 270 . . d = 0. 4a6fVaV2^. a2 f + (a + 6)c 6+ a (2 2 c 2 . 5c +d 2 . i. 6a2 +4a62 ~6c' 27 c 3 +12a(i *15. 52 . 2. 3.INTRODUCTION 29. = 32 + 4527 = 50. subtraction.g.4 6^9 ad. x=^. . + 26+3 c. 5.e.19 a 2 bcd = 6 5 32 . 2 ). each term has to be computed before the different terms are added and subtracted. 2. b = 3. 5a2 2 a2 46cf2^^ + 3 a& +. 3 2 If 1.
6=2. 30.6 f c) (6 a + c). 38. 37. 6 = 2. a a=3. Express in algebraic symbols 31. 23. 6 = 7. Six 2 . 34.12 17 & * ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 18 ' 8 Find the numerical value of 8 a3 21. 30. and other sciences. 6 = 4. a.c) (a . 26. a =4. sible to state Ex. Six times a plus 4 times 32. 1014 The representation of numbers by letters makes it posvery briefly and accurately some of the principles of arithmetic. and the area of the is triangle S square feet (or squares of other units selected). Read the expressions of Exs. 22. . The quantity a 6 2 by the quantity a minus 36. a =3. then 8 = \ V(a + 6 + c) (a 4. physics. = 3. 12 cr6 f 6 a6 2 6s. 33. Six times the square of a minus three times the cube of Eight x cube minus four x square plus y square. 6 = 3. a = 2. of this exercise? What kind of expressions are Exs. and If the three sides of a triangle contain respectively c feet (or other units of length). if : a = 2. 27. 28. a = 4. geometry. 26 of the exercise. 6 = 6. Twice a3 diminished by 5 times the square root of the quantity a minus 6 square. 6 = 1. 6 = 6. 29. 6 = 5. a = 4. a = 3. 6. w cube plus three times the quantity a minus plus 6 multiplied 6. 35.6 . 25. 6. : 6. 24. 6 = 5. a = 3.
if v : a. 2. 13.seconds. 9 distance s passed over by a body moving with the uniform velocity v in the time t is represented by the formula The Find the distance passed over by A snail in 100 seconds. and 13 inches. then a 13. Find the height of the tree.16 centimeters per second. A carrier pigeon in 10 minutes. = (a) How far does a body fall from a state of rest in 2 seconds ? (b) * stone dropped from the top of a tree reached the ground in 2J. b.g. S =  V(13hl4fl5)(13H1415)(T314i15)(1413f15) = V421214. . and c 13 and 15 = = = . count the resistance of the atmosphere. An electric car in 40 seconds. and 5 feet. b 14. (b) 5. 12. 15 therefore feet. 84 square EXERCISE 1. and 15 feet. 14. if v = 30 miles per hour. the three sides of a triangle are respectively 13. d. (c) 4.16 1 = 84. if v . if v = 50 meters per second 5000 feet per minute.INTRODUCTION E. By using the formula find the area of a triangle whose sides are respectively (a) 3. the area of the triangle equals feet. i. How far does a body fall from a state of rest in T ^7 of a (c) A second ? 3. 4. A train in 4 hours.e.) Assuming g . c. A body falling from a state of rest passes in t seconds 2 over a space S (This formula does not take into ac^gt 32 feet.
square units (square inches. 32 F. of this formula : The The interest on interest $800 for 4 years at ty%. (c) 8000 miles. (c) 5 miles. and the value given above is only an surface $= 2 approximation.).14 4. If cated on the Fahrenheit scale. (c) 10 feet.) Find the surface of a sphere whose diameter equals (a) 7. denotes the number of degrees of temperature indi8.). Find the area of a circle whose radius is It (b) (a) 10 meters. fo If i represents the simple interest of i p dollars at r in n years. 5. $ = 3. then =p n * r %> or Find by means (a) (b) 6.14 square meters. 6 Find the volume of a sphere whose diameter equals: (b) 3 feet. (The number 3. . (c) 5 F.14d (square units). then the volume V= (a) 10 feet. on $ 500 for 2 years at 4 %. If the (b) 1 inch.14 is frequently denoted by the Greek letter TT. to Centigrade readings: (b) Change the following readings (a) 122 F. the equivalent reading C on the Centigrade scale may be found by the formula F C y = f(F32). If the diameter of a sphere equals d units of length. the area etc. : 8000 miles. diameter of a sphere equals d feet. This number cannot be expressed exactly. the 3. ~ 7n cubic feet. is H 2 units of length (inches. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA If the radius of a circle etc. 2 inches. meters.
in algebra this word includes also the results obtained by adding negative. or that and (+6) + (+4) = + 16 10. Since similar operations with different units always produce analogous results. AND PARENTHESES ADDITION OF MONOMIALS 31. In arithmetic we add a gain of $ 6 and a gain of $ 4.$6) + ( $4) = ( $10). .CHAPTER II ADDITION. but we cannot add a gain of $0 and a loss of $4. or positive and negative numbers. While in arithmetic the word sum refers only to the result obtained by adding positive numbers. SUBTRACTION. Thus a gain of $ 2 is considered the sum of a gain of $ 6 and a loss of $ 4. we call the aggregate value of a gain of 6 and a loss of 4 the sum of the two. Or in the symbols of algebra $4) = Similarly. we define the sum of two numbers in such a way that these results become general. In algebra. the fact that a loss of loss of + $2. of $6 and a gain $4 equals a $2 may be represented thus In a corresponding manner we have for a loss of $6 and a of loss $4 (. however.
(17) 15 + (14).16 32. 5. 19. is 0. of: 20. Thus. EXERCISE Find the sum of: 10 Find the values 17. '. . c = 4. if : a a = 2. 4. is 2. add their absolute values if they have opposite signs. 6 6 = 3. = 5. c = = 5.  0. the average of 4 and 8 The average The average of 2. 5. subtract their absolute values and . 24. 18. 21. 33. (_ In Exs. find the numerical values of a + b f cjc?. the one third their sum. 10. 4 is 3 J.3. 2326. of 2. (always) prefix the sign of the greater. 12. lf(2). + (9). ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA These considerations lead to the following principle : If two numbers have the same sign. 23. The average of two numbers is average of three numbers average of n numbers is the is one half their sum. + 12. 22. d = 0. and the sum of the numbers divided by n. d = 5.
\\ Add 2 a. Find the average of the following temperatures 27 F. 11 (Centigrade). 4. 09. 33. = 23. 6. 12.. 35. ' 1? a 26. $500 loss. 31. }/ Add 2 a.5. and 3 F.. 37. and 4. : 48. : Find the average temperature of Irkutsk by taking the average of the following monthly temperatures 12. 4 F. : 34. 36. $7000 gain. 42. 32. 7 a.5. 41. 66. 7 a.. 32. : and 1. 27. 34. 6. . . 1. 5 and 12. d= 3. $3000 gain. c = 0. and 3 a. 55. 2. & = 15. 60. . 13. 2.7. 5 a2 & 6 ax^y and 7 ax'2 y. 39. or 16 Va + b and 2Vo"+~&. and 3 a. Find the average temperature of New York by taking the average of the following monthly averages 30. 6. . 74. 40. 10. . 7 yards. .7. Find the average gain per year of a merchant. = 22. which are not similar. Similar or like terms are terms which have the same literal factors. What number must be added to 9 to give 12? What number must be added to 12 to give 9 ? What number must be added to 3 to give 6 ? C* What number must be added to 3 to give 6? **j Add 2 yards. 29. AND PARENTHESES d = l.3. Dissimilar or unlike terms are terms 4 a2 6c and o 4 a2 6c2 are dissimilar terms. 25. and 3 yards.13. are similar terms. 3. = 13.4. . $1000 loss. or and .ADDITION. affected by the same exponents. ^ ' 37. ' Find the average of the following 34. c=14. 72. sets of numbers: 13. 3 and 25. and $4500 gain. 0. 10. 38. if his yearly gain or loss during 6 years was $ 5000 gain. and 8 F. SUBTRACTION. 10. 43. . 30. & 28.
The indicated by connecting and a 2 and a is is f a2 .ii. 5Vm + w.18 35. in algebra it may be considered b. either the difference of a and b or the sum of a and The sum of a.sign. 11. While in arithmetic a denotes a difference only. ab 7 c 2 dn 6. or a 6. and 4 ac2 is a 2 a&  4 ac2. 12 2 wp2 . 11 2 a +3a 4o 2. EXERCISE Add: 1.13 rap 25 rap 2. 12Vmfn. 3a . 2 a&. sum of two such terms can only be them with the f. f 4 a2. 2(af &). : 2 a2. b wider sense than in arithmetic. 9(af6). 12 13 b sx xY xY 7 #y 7. The sum The sum of a of a Dissimilar terms cannot be united into a single term. 13. The sum x 2 and f x2 . 1 \ f 7 a 2 frc Find the sum of 9. 7 rap2. In algebra the word sum is used in a 36. 2 . . b a f ( 6). + 6 af . Algebraic sum. Vm f. 5l 3(af6). 14 . 10. 5 a2 . 12(af b) 12. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA The sum of 3 of two similar terms x2 is is another similar term.
2 2 2 31. ra 19. l^S 25. a a8 ZL **. xyz + xyz 12 xyz + 13 xyz + 15 xyz. 32. 4x9' 10x38 ADDITION OF POLYNOMIALS Polynomials are added by uniting their like terms. m n ^ 2 Add: 18. It convenient to arrange the expressions so that like terms may be in the same vertical column. Simplify : AND PARENTHESES 19 15. 2a 4a4 + 6a 7a 9a2a + 8. without finding the value of each term 34. and to add each column. +m """ 20. 37. 21. 33. 30. 35. 3a76 + 5a + 2a3610a+116. + / + 3 Va. 2/ : Add. n x* 2 22. i xyz co* mn mri Simplify the following by uniting like terms: 29. 5x173 + 6x1733x1737x173. SUBTRACTION. + y. "Vx + y Vaj + y 2 2 Vi + + 2 Va. 17c + 15c8 + 18c + 22c3 +c3 3 3 .ADDITION. is . 6 23. 36. 17. 2 7 1 26. c 2 ^24. 1 27.
of that letter. s. = . 4 = 7.8 & c~15&c 12a&4l5a&c 20c2 flO&c .3 a f 4 the sum a = 1.3 + 8 + 5 = 1 0. cording to descending powers of EXERCISE 12 Add 1. 7 4.15 abc .g. NOTE. x of x. 4 2. 9 q 4. the erroneous answer equal 7. . Numerical substitution offers a convenient method for the addition of checking the sum of an addition.3 s. f 110WS: 26 aft. 2 Thus. 3. therefore the answer is correct. 6=2. 2z2 4?/ 2 f2z 2 5 3ar 22/2 4 4 3 /.o c and 4. and J 2 s.2 6 + 4 c = 1 +4 a. 5 . to show any error. a 4.10 6c 6 c 2 and 7 a&c 4. V3.2z and 0^9 z * For additional examples see page 259. 46 4z 7 c. 3 a f 4 1) 4.15 6c. it is convenient to arrange the terms according to ascending or descending powers 39.4 6c + c 2 we proceed as .g. 6 a7 4 5 x"2 + 7 x* 4 5 7a &+4a fi 5 4 is 6c 8 arranged according to ascending powers 4 7 a&<d? + 9 6 5 4 e 7 is arranged ac aW a. 3a 2? . the following polynomials : 2a 3646 t c.8 abc .12 a& 4. 2 025. and 2 .2 a 26 To check c assign numerical values to then .7 2 . 5. to add 26 ab . c = 1. 2 Sum. 2 .6a& 7 6ca a5c + 4 be 6c 4 26 ca c' 9a& 38. .41 = 3. .20 c 5 ab 4. While the check is almost certain an absolute test e. It is not also a406 4c would In various operations with polynomials containing terms with different powers of the same letter. 2c. f 5 c f But 7 = 10 . ft any convenient and c.c= 2. 4a46 12 q 5 2 a. e.20 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA .
19. 11. </ AND PARENTHESES 2i 14d15e + 2/.3 5 Va 2 2 3 3 2 . . and and 13. 6 # 2 2 2 2 2 2 . a 4ar ! byb 8 c^c 8 . 2 3(c f a). a. ^2 1 e. . 3 2 tf 2 l 2 ^_. and v 15. + 50 + 62 .12(a 4. SUBTRACTION.2n 2 2 3 rz . 2(6 + c) + (c f a). 18/+6y + d.3 ay 6 afy + 6 ay/ 4 10 and .12.a 3a 9 y\ 3 afy .1 a 4 1 0. 8. and 8 3 . and 5 Vb 18. a2 2 14. 7 4 5 x*y 2 y?y* 3 xf. 56 w. .a. . and .12 6 ~5 a . and 1 4 a . w* 4 3 m n 4 3 m?i 4 2w . 4(a .8 m 2m 12.VS 4 2 Vc.9(a + &) .a . + a + 1. 2xy + 4:XZ}5yz. d.and 6. v/20.(b + c) 1. a 4 a . 10a +lOa 6ll& 10. and 12a 4 15& 20c .5 cr& + 7 6 9.7v/if. 7(a + 5) 4 2 and 6 4 a. .3 mn 2 2 n8 .6) + 14(a 4 6) 4 10. a + 1> 8 2 2 .1.a. a) y ^/.15 5. . . a 4 a . . 2 and 9m 48m 4.5 c ll& 7c 6 4. 2 ?/. 2 2 . .4:xy xz 6yz. 6 # 4 5 z 4 2 7. 3 2 2 3 9 .Va 4 2 V& 4 6 Vc. m 4 6. 4 8 3 4 4 . ?/ .4 Va . 6a 5a &47a& 4& and 7.2 #?/ 4 5 a + 4 aft . 4 3 . a2 a. 2 a. 4 + 6)  5 (a + 6) + 3.10 Vc. xy3xz + yz. . 4. e a4 /.7m .5a^6 f 6) .6. 16e + 17/90. d and / 3 ? 12. 4 Vc.ADDITION.7^ 2iB 8 + 2y + 2 8 8 . 4 o^?/ 4 y\ and a. in 8 3 m n 4. 7ar + 3B 5. 16. 2 ?ft ?/z. 4 ajy 17. 3 ?/ 3 ? 2 j and a 2 4. 4 3 3 ^* f h <l. 2 2 and .a 4 a 4 1. a4 6(a a a2 f a f 1. 8 2 2 3 s 2 3 .Ga 43x45.
22 21.ra + m. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 4 w + 3 m + 2 m. how 1. 1.11 xy + 12. If from the five negative units three negative units are taken. The sum and ? 1.3 taken from 2 ? 5. what to obtain the same result ? total of the units f 1. 8 f3f a n2<w +n . f number may be added 3. 1. What other operations produce the subtraction of a negative number? same result as the 6. 1/ . What is therefore the remainder when 3 is taken 5? Instead of subtracting in the preceding example. 1. 45a6 2 . 2 8 n + <w 2 . a 6 2 c.9aj 2. + 1. 5 } and 3 m 3 7 m. 1.. is 2. . and 3^2 SUBTRACTION EXERCISE 1.3^* 2n 2 .5< 3 2 s 4^4. . does he thereby become richer or poorer ? . and 6 + 9 x + 12 26.4 2tn* Sic 2 . 4^ + 3t*n l2aj 2 a. 12 xyz. What is therefore the remainder is when 2 is taken from 2? When . 8 . and 2 24. 13 1. 1. 2 a3 a 4 3 af^. a s f3o $ xy and 5+a\ ^ "27. 22.17 + 4 ?nfy . 2fa 3 4 a +7a. 1. . What away is the value of the sum if two neg ative units are taken ? If three negative units are taken away 4. f 1. +d a. and e + 6y . 6 f c 2 23. f 1. m 3 3 5y 3 8 . + n*. and 25.m 4m ?/?/ d. 5 3 f 4 ?n 4 2m+2m e. SM/Z + 2 a:?/ f x y bxyz~lx. 16m 7/12my d+e a 6. T8a. c 3 3 3 2 3 . many negative units re main ? from 2. If you diminish a person's debts. s .
from What 3. 7. From 5 subtract to . 1. 41. a. and the required number the difference. ( 6) ( = . The results of the preceding examples could be obtained by the following Principle. ab = x. 3. may be stated number added to 3 will give 5? To subtract from a the number b means to find the number which added to b gives a. In subtraction. 5 is 2.2. Ex. change the sign of the subtrahend and add. Ex. Or in symbols. if x Ex.3. and their algebraic sum is required. In addition. SUBTRACTION. the given number the subtrahend. two numbers are given. . The student should perform mentally the operation of chang8 2 6 from 6 a 2 fc.ADDITION. Subtraction is the inverse of addition. From 5 subtract to The number which added Hence. AND PARENTHESES 23 subtraction of a negative positive number. 3 gives 3) The number which added Hence. This gives by the same method. From 5 subtract + 3. the other number is required. To subtract. Therefore any example in subtraction different . NOTE. called the minvend. 3 gives 5 is evidently 8. +b 3. 6 (3) = 8. State the other practical examples which show that the number is equal to the addition of a 40. ing the sign of the subtrahend thus to subtract 6 a 2 6 and 8 a 2 6 and find the sum of change mentally the sign of . the algebraic sum and one of the two numbers is The algebraic sum is given.g. may be stated in a : 5 take form e. 2.
Ex.5 x + 8.3 x* . Check. If x = l = 2 t .24 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA we change the subtract 2 x sign of each term 42. From _6ar3 3z + 7 2 6ar3 3o2 +7 2 or3 .3 r*5o. To subtract polynomials of the subtrahend and add.f 8 .
From 16 + a3 subtract 8 2 a + a2 f a3 From a 4 . ?/ 3 #?/ 2 y2 . 2. 44.ADDITION.5(6 + c) 4(c + a) subtract 7(af&) REVIEW EXERCISES 1. tract 4 x 3. f 2 aa 7a 2 ?/ 2 subtract a3 take 11 a 2 :c + 2 a .b h c and a & f c subtract a _ 6 _ 2 c. 96 subtract 10 b 2 From From 1 f & take 1 f b f & s . 52.6)f. c f d. From 6(af. 2y 2 . of x2 4x f 12 and 3 a2 3 # 3 sub From a3 + 2 a2 4 a subtract the sum of a 3 } a2 2a and a 2 + 4. 49. 41. 43. 4v From 6 subtract lt2af3& + 4<7. From a3 From 6a 1 subtract f a + b 3 1.4 a^ 4. From 5a(>& + 7c From 2 x2 8 a?y + 2 From mn f ??/> 8d 11 cf 17 d. 58. 45. . 6 4 a. and 3 7/ . 50. From 2 a take a & j.2.4 a*& + 6 a & .5 #?/ 2 and check the answer. From From $ a 3 7 x 2 ?/ 5 a/ + ?/ subtract f ar f 7 a 2 ?/ . +3x f & f 12 take 3 f ar f 4 x + 11. check the answer. 47.a From 3 or 2 a:// + 2 subtract 2 1. 53. 2 + 4 a& 3 f 6 4 .& 4 subtract a 2 2 4 +4 8 6 6 a& 59. AND PARENTHESES from 14 a 25 Subtract the sum of 2 m and 7 m c 10m.w>t. From 5 a 2 2 ab ?/' subtract 2 a 2 + 2ab . 42. 6 6 2 2 ?/ . From a3 subtract 2 a3 f. 51. From From x2 the sum sum 7. 46. + a the 2 a. of a 4. f 12 b f From 10 a 12 & f 6 subtract 5 c.c. 57. take 2 8 o# + qt c mt subtract a2 f mn f wp f.a 2 j. 54.7 a . 48. 55. 56. SUBTRACTION.
6 17. a a + c. 9.15. a 2y + z. of # 2 8. What must be added to b 4^ + 4^ + 2 z. What expression must 8a3 2a7? What What be added to 7 a 3 +4a 2 to pro expression must be added to 3a + 56 cto pro duce 14. +4 and 4 a +1 +a 2 and a2 a. Subtract the sum of 5 a2 + 2 7 and 2a2 + 3a and from 2 a2 + 2 a 7. years ago ? How old was he a b years ago? . Subtract the difference of a and a Subtract the sum + f and + 6 + c from a + b + c a +2 y from 2 2 2 ar* 2 */ 10. n years hence ? A c How old will he be 10 years hence ? a +b is 2 a years old. + 6 + c. To the sum of 2a + 66 + 4c and a 2 c. Subtract the sum s of 6 m +5 m +6m 8 4m* 5 m +4m 2 from 2 ra + 7 m. 4 6 2 c add the To the 3 sum a3 4 a2 3 between 5 a 12. + 2. A is n years old. a + 6.26 4. +a add the difference duce 13. 19. 10 a + 5 b sum of9ci66 + c and 11. sum of Subtract the x2 + 2 and 6 a iE 3 2 from x3 + a^ 4 6. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA From the difference between a? a? 3 j +5 a: 2 + 58+1 + cc and 4 a? 2 +4x 5. 6. subtract # + 1. 2 m 21. ~2a6 + 2c? expression must be subtracted from 2 a to produce a+6? v . to produce find : 0? = x +g c =x 18. 16. 20.
may be written as follows: a f ( 4. 45. A sign of aggregation preceded by the sign f may be removed or inserted without changing the sign of any term.a f = 4a sss 7a 12 06 6.6 b f (.g. AND PARENTHESES 27 SIGNS OF AGGREGATION 43.ADDITION.c.a^6)]  } .b c = a a & f f. 4a{(7a + 6&)[6&f(2&. A moved w may be resign of aggregation preceded by the sign inserted provided the sign of evei'y term inclosed is E.2 b . we may begin either at the innermost or outermost. . SUBTRACTION. 6 o+( a + c) = a =a 6 c) ( 4. a+(bc) = a +b .a~^~6)]} = 4 a {7 a 6 b [. the sign is understood. I. changed.c. Ex. The beginner will find it most convenient at every step to remove only those parentheses which contain (7 a no others. Hence the it is sign may obvious that parentheses preceded by the f or be removed or inserted according to the fol: lowing principles 44. & f c. (b c) a =a 6 4 c. If we wish to remove several signs of aggregation. 46. tractions By using the signs of aggregation. 66 2&a + 6 4a Answer. If there is no sign before the first term within a paren* f thesis. II.& c additions and sub + d) = a + b c + d. Simplify 4 a f + 5&)[6& +(25. one occurring within the other.
17. ? 11. 2. In the following expression inclose the second and third. m f ft) a. 2 2 2 a(. find the numerical value of { 1422 .1422) J ] .7i h jp) (m ?*. 2 2a. 16. 21. (m a2 f. may be inserted according to 43. 2m 4af 2 2 2 10. m+n + [# (6 (m (r + M> + w n p) ___ ( m~n\p. Ex. 14. 2a (4a 26 +c ). 13. 18. .y (60. 3 3 f 7. Signs of aggregation 1. a (a + 26 c ). 6.28 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 15* Simplify the following expressions 1. 8. last three Inclose in a parenthesis preceded by the sign terms of the See page 260. 3.+ 6)f (a2 b). 271 + (814 . a(3b a3 3 2 2 2c).)]. 5. 6) 2. + (2a 6 + c ). 4. 19. 15.[271 47. [36+ (a 2c]. a (a + 6).: Ex. 2a 2 + 5a(7f 2a )f (55a).) 5 . 9. 7 6)+ {a [a: 22.(a + 6). : x + (2yz). a a c) + [3 a {3c (c 26 a)} 6a]. By removing parentheses. the fourth and fifth terms respectively in parentheses. a f (a a .
ADDITION. 8. first. terms 5. 9. EXERCISE AND PARENTHESES 16 29 In each of the following expressions inclose the last three terms in a parenthesis : 1. The minuend is always the of the two numbers mentioned. 6. 6 diminished . The square of the difference of a and b. 7. The sum of tKe squares of a and b. 2mn + 2q3t. Nine times the square of the sum of a and by the product of a and b. The product of the sum and the difference of m and n. The sum of the fourth powers of a of and 6. a\l> > c + d. )X 6. 4 xy 7 x* 49 x + 2. 2. The The difference of the cubes of m and n. ' NOTE. 12. The product The product m and n. of the cubes of m and n.4 y* . and the subtrahend the second.2 tf . 3. In each of the following expressions inclose the last three in a parenthesis preceded by the minus sign : 27i2 3^ 2 + 4r/. 4. difference of the cubes of n and m. II. 10. The difference of a and 6. The sum^)f m and n. Three times the product of the squares of The cube of the product of m and n. 5. 3. 7. 5^2 _ r . . SUBTRACTION. z + d. p + q + rs. y f 8 . 5 a2 2. m and n. m x 2 4. EXERCISES IN" ALGEBRAIC EXPRESSION 17 : EXERCISE Write the following expressions I.7fa. 13.1.
30 14. difference of the cubes of a and b divided by the difference of a and 6. 6 is equal to the square of b. The sum The of a and b multiplied b is equal to the difference of by the difference of a and a 2 and b 2 .) . 16. 6. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA The sum x. The difference of the squares of two numbers divided by the difference of the numbers is equal to the sum of the two numbers. dif of the squares of a and b increased by the square root of 15. 18. d. and c divided by the ference of a and Write algebraically the following statements: V 17. a plus the prod uct of a and s plus the square of 19. (Let a and b represent the numbers. b. x cube minus quantity 2 x2 minus 6 x plus The sum of the cubes of a.
If the two loads balance. what force 31 is produced by tak( ing away 5 weights from B ? What therefore is 5) x( 3) ? . applied at let us indicate a downward pull at by a positive sign. weight at A ? What is the sign of a 3 Ib. 5. weights.CHAPTER III MULTIPLICATION MULTIPLICATION OF ALGEBRAIC NUMBERS EXERCISE 18 In the annexed diagram of a balance. A A A 1. 3. and forces produced at by 3 Ib. is by taking away 5 weights from A? 5 X 3? 6. what force is produced by the Ib. force is produced therefore. 4. weight at B ? If the addition of five 3 plication example. what force is produced by the addition of 5 weights at B ? What. 2. is 5 x ( 3) ? 7. two loads balance. weights at A ? Express this as a multibalance. If the two loads what What. By what sign is an upward pull at A represented ? What is the sign of a 3 Ib. If the two loads balance. let us consider the and JB. therefore.
a result that would not be obtained by other assumptions. 4 x(8) = ~(4)(4)(4)=:12. 4 multi44444 12. (5)X4. becomes meaningless if definition. Multiplication by a positive integer is a repeated addition. Practical examples^ it however. . To take a number 7 times. This definition has the additional advantage of leading to algenumbers which are identical with those for positive numbers. ( (. (. NOTE. x 11. however. or plied by 3. 48. Thus.9) x 11. or 4x3 = = (_4) X The preceding 3=(4)+(4)+(4)=12. 9 x ( 11).4)(4) = + 12. 5x(4). the multiplier is a negative number. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA If the signs obtained by the true. and we may choose any definition that does not lead to contradictions. 9 9.4)(. examples were generally method of the preceding what would be the values of ( 5x4. such as given in the preceding exercise. 4 multiplied by 3.4) x braic laws for negative ~ 3> = (. Multiplication by a negative integer is a repeated sub traction. ( 9) x ( 11) ? State a rule by which the sign of the product of two fac tors can be obtained. 4x(3)=12. In multiplying integers we have therefore four cases trated illus by the following examples : 4x3 = 412. times is just as meaningless as to fire a gun tion 7 Consequently we have to define the meaning of a multiplicaif the multiplier is negative. make venient to accept the following definition : con 49.32 8. thus.
5. 23.MULTIPLICATION 50. 4 . 13.2.3. is 6x7. 8.2 f+x 2 . 3. 9. . 7. 14. 22. 12.4. +5. Ua b 28. EXERCISE 19 : Find the values of the following products 1. b = 3. 11. 4a f26 2 2a + 3&2 6c* . If a cal = 4a6c. 8 4 . 30. 6 2. x. 4. 3 a2?/2 . 17. 2. NOTE. X(5). Formulate a law of signs for a product containing an even number of negative factors. . (. _3. find the numeri values of: 21. Formulate a law of signs for a product containing an odd number of negative factors. 33 We shall and negative integers the assume that the law illustrated for positive is true for all numbers. 2a 2 6c. and obtain thus product of two numbers with like signs in signs is negative.3) (1) 7 2 . the parenthesis frequently omitted. _2. 3. 1. x= 0. 6.(4J). 19. 4 a2 . 15. (4)X(15). . 1. the product of two numbers with unlike &) (a)(+6) = a&. (4)'. (2)x9. etc. 3 aW.7. 10. 32. z s 11 aWcx. Law Thus. 26. 8 31. and y = 4. c = 25. 24. of Signs: TJie positive. about fac (2)X If 6. _2^ 3.2f 18. (10) 4 . 6. tors is no misunderstanding possible. . 5x3. (7) X (12).(a&c) 2 2 . 20. 27. 29. 16. 2a6 c . (c#) . . (2) 8 (.a)( =+ a&.
100. 200. 4. 10. 13. . 5(711. 9 . . Or in m and n are two positive to factors) f n) factors.35). 5 = 2..(12) . only one of the factors is multiplied by the number.503).3). (a6) (a5) 9.(7). i. Ex. 2 2 3 6 .34 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA of 8 Find the numerical value 33. 4. In multiplying a product of several factors by a number. 11. 53. 7.7. B.  2 2. By 3 definition. This 52. Ex. 2 3 . 2 x (2* 5 7 2 )= 26 5 7 2 . 2. 3 2 . 2 2 2 . 2(14. a 23 =2 Hence 2 x 2 general. EXERCISE 20 : Express each of the following products as a power 1. 3. 6. 36. m*. = 2. known as of Multiplication : The Exponent Law The exponent of is the product of several powers of the same base the exponents equal to the 8 (ft sum oj Ex. or 2 . 127  127 9 7 . IB. 5 3 5 3 2 . &*) c d*. am Xa n = (a =aa is m (a a to n factors) (m X fl w = fl /w +w . + 2/). 12 U U .. 6 = . & = 3.2). of the factors. 1. 5 . a 2 2 . =2 a *. a = 3. 3 3 4 . 50(112. 2. : 3a7abc. 5.12 Perform the operation indicated 12.e. 6 = 1. 2(7. . 6 aWc x . 16. 78 . a= 1. 4 x (2 25) =8 25. a8 a=2.m a 3  4 .6 if 35. 34. .2 2 23 + 5 . 14.(2. 6" 127 U .1 2 a 6 f 6 aW .  and 2 25 8 . 17. . 4.7 &*# =(6  7) (a 2 a8 ) . if =2 a a to  2 2 x2 2 2. MULTIPLICATION OF MONOMIALS 51. 3. a = 2. fl*" integers.<?.257). a 5 (a) (^ + 14 8 2/) (a? + 4 2/) (aj .
. called the distributive law. . 17(10041042). 28. (. 2 32.2 3 aft ).M UL TIPLICA TION 18. 3. 11(3. . 7. Similarly the for quadruple of a 4 2 b would be 4 a f 8 54. 4 aft 5 aft 2 . 27. .7 w'W (8 n^W). To multiply a polynomial by a monomial.3 win ) . 23(10004100420).3 a2 6(6 a*bc + 2 be  1) = 18 a 4 6 2 c .5 xy 19 aW lla ( 3 3 tfy 2z*. c(4a ftc ). ax /) 2 4 1 (. .4a#. 6 e/ a ( ( 2 a2 ) 3 . 35. 35 4 7(6. and then adding : 1. 24. 26. 5 aft 3 ( ftc ( 2 2ac). = (a + 26)+(a + 2 ft) f (a 4 2 ft) + (a + 2 ft) 55. (. 23.4 (2 a 2 ft 3) 2 3 . 12( + 1 4 i). 29. 5. 19.A). 7p*q r*. by first multiplying.f 2). . 5 2 aft (6 e 8 C a 2ftc). 4 9 afy 2 a3 ?/ ). 25. 31. /). but we shall assume it for any number. 22. ) 2 33. tet^m f c) = ab +ac. is evidently correct for any positive integral multiplier. If results ft. 2 19 ' mV 2 ft 5  2 ran4 30. _4aft.6. EXERCISE 21 Find the numerical values of the following expressions. MULTIPLICATION OF A POLYNOMIAL BY A MONOMIAL we had to multiply 2 yards and 3 inches by 3. 3(124342). 2(645410). 4. This principle. 20.7pqt. multiply each by the monomial. Thus we have in general a(b 56. 6.6 a2 62c f 8 a2 6. 21. 34. 2(5fl5f25). 2. the would obviously be 6 yards and 9 inches. 6(10420430).
6 (6 2 +6 +6 10. 2 m(mhn \p). 26. be multiplied to give 4o. 7 3 (7 3 f7 +7 10 ).we b) (x law. 29. 22. .3 aftc). 30. 4 13 (4 9 4 5 4). 2 27. Find the factors of 6 ary . . Thus to multiply a write (a + y z) and apply the distributive z. 5(5 + 52 + 2 2 5 7 ).^ c + 2 . . 9. Any it closing x +y (a polynomial may be written as a monomial by inb by within a parenthesis. By what 25. : expression must 24. ~2mn(m +n p ).5 x 7).60 a& 10 aft. 17.5 w*V f 7 wn). 5 x\5 pqr + 5 pr 5 x2 . 7 a 6 c(. 5). 28. 11.2 mn(9 mV . ofy 2 4 +8 2 4 a.3 x2y 2 + 3 xy. 2 4 %Pq\ 14. 19.36 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA : Express as a sum of several powers 8. Express 3a^ Find the factors of 3x + 3 y + 3z. MULTIPLICATION OF POLYNOMIALS 57. 3 ). 12.asa product.6 a6).6) (x f y z) = x(a = (ax b) + y(a b) z(a (az b) bx) f (ay by) bz) by az + bz. Perform the multiplications indicated: 13. 23. f7a. 21. Find the factors of 6 Find the factors of 2 or* f 3 x* f arty 3 a4 . Find the factors of 5 a 6 . . 2 2 16. 5 aW( 3 2 2 aW + 3 a 2 2 ?/ 6 c 2 . 20.
Since errors.4. 1 being the most convenient value to be substituted for all letters. as illustrated in the following example : Ex. Since all powers of 1 are 1. this method tests only the values of the coefficients and not the values of the exponents. 2. Multiply 2 a . a2 + a8 + 3 . 2a3b a66 2 a .a .a6 4 a 8 + 5 a* .3 ab 2 2 a2 10 ab  13 ab + 15 6 2 + 15 6 2 Product. multiply each term of one by each term of the other and add the partial products thus formed.1. 59. Ex. the work becomes simpler and more symmetrical by arranging these expressions according to either ascending or descending powers. If the polynomials to be multiplied contain several powers of the same letter.3 b by a 5 b.3 a 3 2 by 2 a : a2 + l.M UL TIP LICA TION 37 58. The most convenient way of adding the partial products is to place similar terms in columns.3 a 2 + a8 .3 a 2 + a8 a a = = I 1 =2 f 2 a 4. are far more likely to occur in the coefficients than anywhere else. Multiply 2 + a a. To multiply two polynomials. .2 a2 6 a8 2 a* *  2" a2 7 60. the student should apply this test to every example.a6 =2 by numerical Examples in multiplication can be checked substitution. Check. however. If Arranging according to ascending powers 2 a .
11. 4. . . (6xy + 2z)(2xy 27. 4 2). OQ OO. 26. 7y). 2) (3 A: 1).1 . 10. 7. 41. I (mfn)(m4. 1).38 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 22* Perform the following multiplications and check the results 1. (6i7n)(llJn). 2  37. 30. 32. 36). 12)(a?^2l). ^ 2 . a 5c)(2a6c). 6. 5. 13. 6 2 (6a&c5) 3a6f2)(2a6~l). 2 . (9m2n)(4m + 7tt). (llr + l)(12r (rcya (2m (a (4 a 2 . 35. 2. (a&c 2 + 7)(2a&c3). (2s 3y)(3a? + 2y). 20. 31. (6p (2 f 21. 29. (2w 19. 16. (2 x* x 2 . 8. 9. 40. (13 A.4) (mnp 4. (ajf6y)(aj 23. l)(raf 2). (4af 76)(2tt (4ra fra (5c2d)(2c3d). 3n)(7m f6<7)(5^) + 8n).4) (x + 1).2 ^/ ' 2 mnp f. 15. 3<7). 2 (a al)(2a?fl). 2 . + & + 1f a^faj 1). (6a~7) 2 .2). 2 (m?n?p (x (a //)4 lA/ //j. * For additional examples see page 261. (a^26) .n)(m 8 n)(m n). 12. 25. 22. 17. 36) I) 14. QQ O7.2m)(l m). 24. (a 2a + 2)(a3). 28. 18. 36. (4a 2 33. (8r7*)(6r39. 3.
(6 12) (6 f. 2 5 b z) (a2 f 4 (a 2 4. 14. plus the product 62. + 60)(f2). _3)(a _4). i.13). 20. (1001) (100 (1000 + 2). + 2) (a f 3). 12. (ra. + 9)(m+9). 1005x1004. 7. 3. 11. 17. 3 (a 7) 3 (a 8). 2) (1000 + 3). plus the product of the two unequal terms. in of the two unequal terms. Find two binomials whose product equals 3x + 2.4). (a 102 x 103. (a (a (a. 99 (a + 2 6) (a 6). . 8. 6 ft) (5 a 9 ft) is equal to the square of the common term. 24. (a3)(a + 2). 15.2 6) (a f 6). 39 The product of two binomials which have a common term. . 22. (wi 2^*12)(ajy 6. : 23 2. (ofy* f 3) (tfy* (a5 2 ). (10+ (1000 (2. 2 6) (a 3 6). 18. X 102. (*. + 3) (a 7). (5 a plus the sum of the unequal terms multiplied by the common terms. 75 ab f 54 ft .25)(y+4). ft 16. 1) (10 + 2).e. 28.n)(wf w). 16 ft) (5 a) 75 ab. 27.!!)( (a + 21). (p12)(p + ll). . (!)(* 5). 19. (a 9) (a + 9). (J 23. i. 26. + 5) (1000 + 4). 6. 25 a 2 . 13. plus the sum of the two unequal terms multiplied by the common term.e. 9. (100 +2) (100 + 3). = + EXERCISE Multiply by inspection 1. 25. 21. 10.MUL TIPLICA TION SPECIAL CASES IN MULTIPLICATION 61. 2 a? 29. The product of two binomials which have a common term equal to the square of the common term. ( 2 Hence the product equals 25 a'2 54 ft 2 .
30. of the second. second. i. 37. 9. III. 16 y* t plus twice the product of the i. 77ie square of the of the first. plus sum of two numbers the square II. (a26) 2 . . (4 x3 + 7 2 i/ 2 is )' equal to the square of the first. .15. + 6) (a + 2) a) 2 . 3. i. is The product of the sum and to the difference the difference of two numbers equal of their squares. EXERCISE Multiply by inspection 1. plus the square of the second. 2 (a (*5) 2 . (ain general language : Expressed is equal to tlie square I. 6. 49 y*. p 2 p. 33. 35. . a2 2 w + 2 w . 7 a + 10. oft x 3 y'2 plus the square of the Hence the required square equals 16 xP f. 7. : ar'Sz + a 2 G. w 2 ro . 31.e. : 24 (a 2. III. and the second. 32. (II) is only a The student should note that the second type special case of the first (I). Some special cases of the preceding type of examples : deserve special mention II. 2 5. minus twice the product of the first and the 71ie second. m2_ 3m _ 4 2 36. (x+3i/) 2 . <J>7) J .e. 34. (a2) (p a .66 s. n2 10ii+16. 4.40 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA of each.e. of the following expres Find two binomial factors sions 30. 8j/ 2 + 49 y4 first .15. square of the difference of two numbers is equal to the square of the Jirst. Ex. 8. 63. + 6 a + 8. plus twice the product of the first and the second. + 3) 2 .
24. 29. 2 J ). 2 2 . 54. + 5)(5+a). a2 9. 41. 2 (4a36) 2 13. . 2 11 # ) 2 20. 32. a 2 + 10 ab f 25 b\ Pind two binomial sions 50. + 5). 22 2 . . 34. G> +5g)*.MULTIPLICATION 10. n*6n+9. (6afy 2 5) (a. 991 2 2 . 4 53. I) 2 . (100 + 2) (100 2). 998x1002. 16aW25. 15. x*+2xy+y\ a 2 2a6 + & 2 m 2 2mhl. 44.30 ab + 25 6 64. 21. 45. 17. 99x101. ( 27. 2 2 (5 (a r*2t ) 2 5 (cd 5)(c d 2 . The product of 57. two binomials whose corresponding terms are similar. 104 2 37. (^. a 2 8a6+166 2 . 35. + 3z) 2 2 . 28.998 39. 52. 38. (1000 2 . 40. 9 a2 . 2 . . we have 3x 5x + 2y 4y 2xySy* . : factors of each of the following expres y?f. 31. (m f 2 tt n)(ra w ) 26  (^ (2m + 3)(2m3). 2 + 11 2 (5 r 2 2 2/ ) 2  Z ) 2 2 (5 r f 2 2 . . 55. By actual multiplication. (2x3yy. 103 36. 22. 18. 23. 42. n 2 f4n+4. (3p 9) (6a 2 2 2 . 2 . 7)(a 2 2 f 7). 2 2 5c ) 2 2 19. 2 .ll^X^+lly (100 30. 33. 46. 12. ). 48. 25 a 9. 11. 2 9a 496 2 56. (m 27i )(m + 2n 2 5 ). (a 3) 2 2 2 . 51. + 1) (100 + 2) 2 . 2 (2a6c) (2a# (4 a 6 2 2 . 47. 7& ) 25. (20 f 1) . : Extract the square roots of the following expressions 43. 41 16. 49. m 2 16. 14. 62 25n 2 .
4. sum of the cross products. 2 2 2 2 (2a 6 7)(a & + 5). 11. (100 + 3)(100 + 4). that the square of each term is while the product of the terms may have plus always positive. and are represented as 2 y and 4y 3 x. or The student should note minus signs. 7%e square of a polynomial is equal to the sum of the squares of each term increased by twice the product of each term with each that follows it. 2 2 + 2) (10 43). 5. 7. ((5a? (10 12. The middle term or Wxy12xy Hence in general. (3m + 2)(ml). 3. The square 2 (a 4. : 25 2. 14. (5a4)(4al). 2 10. plus the product of the EXERCISE Multiply by inspection 1. 8.42 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA of the result is obtained product of 5 x follows: by adding the These products are frequently called the cross products. (x i 5 2 ft x 2 3 6 s). 2 (2x y (6 2 2 + z )(ary + 2z ). 65. ) (2 of a polynomial.& + c) = a + tf + c . (4s + y)(32y). . (2a3)(a + 2). 6. 13. plus the last terms. 9. 2 (2m3)(3m + 2). the product of two binomials whose corresponding terms are similar is equal to the product of the first two terms.f 2 a& f 2 ac + 2 &c. (5a64)(5a&3).
3) .i2&c) 2 . + 6 )2(6 + &)~(&4& ).3)(z.24] . (xy+z)*.(>. = . 12. 5. (  2 4) =  20 a. 3. 4(* + 2)5(3). + 6)( . Ex. EXERCISE 27 : Simplify the following expressions. 5. 2 m 2 + n2 2 "f jp f 2 mn 2 ?wp 2 np. 13. 8 2(m 3(6 3 n) 2 3(m + n)H. If x = 1.3) (x .8 x + 15] . (a2)(a3)~(al)(a4).(= [ Xa + 2 .4) . 8. 4. Hence. 6~2(a + 7). + 65) . Simplify (x + 6) (a . In simplifying a polynomial the student should remem.M UL TIPLICA TION EXERCISE Find by inspection 1.1 5 = 10 . n).5) = (7 . Find the square root 11.4) .X2 + 2 x . (a (. 6(a 2. 3. : 43 26 (mf n+p) 2 2 .y? + 8 .24 . 4(aj2)h3(7).29. (mf n)(m+2)3m(n + m).39. (2a36 + 5c) (3 (. 7.[a? . ber that a parenthesis is understood about each term. 66. the beginner should inclose the product in a parenthesis. 4y sf n) 2 . = 10 x . Check. 2)6.(m 2 6. 8. 9. (u4& + 3c'.(x . of z : 10. 2 2. 6. .39. s? + y + z + 2xy + 2yz + 2 xz.5). after multiplying the factors of a term. 4. a. 7. and check the answers !.r _ 2 .
44
9.
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
10. 11. 12.
13.
4(m + 2)
(a?
+ 5(w
3)
5)(oj2)
(a;
(n f 5) (w
 2) + (n  7) (n + 4)  2 (n*  2)
14.
15.
6(p+2)7(p9)2(i> + l)(pl).
16.
17.
x 2 y)(3 x f 2 y)  (4  y) (a3 (a f 6)  4 (a + &) (a f 2 6) + (a (5
2
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
2
(a
faf
1)
(
a  1)
 (a + 1) (a  1).
8
CHAPTER
DIVISION
IV
is the process of finding one of two factors and the other factor are given. The dividend is the product of the two factors, the divisor the given factor, and the quotient is the required factor.
67.
Division
if
their product
is
Thus
by
f
to divide
12.
12
by
+
3,
we must find
is
the
;
number which
3 gives
But
this
number
4
hence
_
multiplied
12 r +3
=4.
68.
Since
f
a

f b
fa
_a
and
it
f
a
= f ab = ab b = ab b = ab,
b
f
follows that
4a
=+b
ab
a
ab
a
69.
Hence the law
:
of signs
is
the same in division as in
multiplication
70.
Like signs produce plus, unlike signs minus.
Law
of
,
a8 5 a5
=a
3
for a 3
It follows from the definition that Exponents. X a5 a8
=
.
Or
in general, if
greater than
m n, a
f
and n are positive integers, and m ~ n an = a m a" = a'"", for a
<
m
m
is
45
46
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
71. TJie exponent of a quotient of two powers with equal bases equals the exponent of the dividend diminished by the exponent
of the divisor.
DIVISION OF MONOMIALS
7 3 72. To divide 10x y z by number which multiplied by number is evidently
2x y
6
2
,
we have
z
to
find
the
2x*y
gives 10 x^ifz.
This
Therefore,
the quotient
*
,
=  5 a*yz.
is
Hence,
sign,
of two monomials of their
part
coefficients,
is the
a monomial whose
coefficient is the quotient
preceded by the proper
literal
and whose
literal
found
in accordance with the
quotient of their law of exponents.
parts
73. In dividing a product of several factors by a number, only one of these factors is divided by that number. Thus (8 12 20)?4 equals 2 12 20, or 8 3 20 or 8 12 5.


.

.

.
EXERCISE
Perform the divisions indicated
'
:
28
'
2
.
76H15.
39* 3.
2
15
3"
7
7'
3.
4*
'
4.
5.
j2
12
.
4
2
9
5 11
68
3 19 j3
5
10.
(3
38

2 4 )^(3 4 .2 2).
56
'
11.
3
(2
.3*.5 7 )f(
2
'
12
'
2V
14
36 a
'
13
''
yfflg
35
5.25
12 a
2abc
15
42^
'
56aW
'
UafiV
DIVISION
lg
47
^1^. 16 w
7
20>
7i
9
_Z^L4L.
22.
10 iy.
132 a V* 14 1
*
01
240m
120m
40
6c
fl
/5i.
3J)
c
23.
2 (15 25. a ) = 5.
25. 26.
(18
(
.
5
.
2a )f9a.
2
24.
(7 26 a
2
)
f
13.
DIVISION OF POLYNOMIALS BY MONOMIALS
To divide ax} fr.ef ex by x we must find an expression which multiplied by x gives the product ax + bx J ex.
74.
But
TT
x(a
aa?
Hence
+ b e) ax + bx + ex. + bx f ex = a 4 b +
\.
,
.
c.
a?
To divide a polynomial by a monomial, cfc'wde each term of the dividend by the monomial and add the partial quotients thus
formed.
3 xyz
EXERCISE
Perform the operations indicated
1.
:
29
2.
5.
fl
o.
(5*
_5* + 52)
5.
52
.
3.
97
.
(2
(G^G^G^iG
(11 2
4.
(8 3
+
11 3
+ 11
5)* 11.
18 aft 27 oc
Q y.
9a
4
25 2 )^2
<?
2
.
+8 5 + 8
7) *8.
5a5 +4as 2a
2
a
14gV+21gy
Itf
15 a*b

12
aW + 9 a
2
2
3a
48
,
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
22
4,
m n  33 m n
4
s
2
f
55
mV
 39 afyV + 26 arVz 3
 49 aW + 28 a W  14 g 6 c
4 4
15. 16.
2 (115 afy f 161 afy
 69
4
2
a;
4
?/
3
 23 ofy
3
4
)
5
23 x2y.
(52
afyV  39
4
?/
oryz
 65 zyz  26 tf#z)
5
13 xyz.
f
,
17.
(85 tf
 68 x + 51 afy  34 xy* f 1 7
a;/)
 17
as.
DIVISION OF A POLYNOMIAL BY A POLYNOMIAL
75.
Let
it
be required to divide 25 a
 12 f 6 a  20 a
3
2
by
2 a 2 f 3 a, divide
4
a, or, arranging according to
2
descending powers of
6a3 20a
f
25a12
2 by 2a 
The term containing the highest power of a in the dividend (i.e. a 8 ) is evidently the product of the terms containing respectively the highest power of a in the divisor and in the quotient.
Hence the term containing the highest power
of a in the quotient is
If
the product of 3 a and 2
2
4 a
+
3, i.e.
6 a3
12 a 2
f
9 a, be sub
8 a 2 f 16 a tracted from the dividend, the remainder is 12. This remainder obviously must be the product of the divisor and the rest of the quotient. To obtain the other terms of the quotient we have
therefore to divide the remainder,
8 a2
f
16 a
12,
2 by 2 a
4 a
+
3.
consequently repeat the process. By dividing the highest term in the new dividend 8 a 2 by the highest term in the divisor 2 a 2 we obtain
,
We
4,
the next highest term in the quotient. 4 by the divisor 2 a2 4 a Multiplying
I
+ 3, we
obtain the product
8 a2
16 a
12,
which subtracted from the preceding dividend leaves
the required quotient.
no remainder. Hence 3 a
4
is
DIVISION
The work
is
49
:
usually arranged as follows
 20 * 2 + 3 0a 12 a 2 +
a3
25 a
{)

12
I
2 a2 8 a

4 a 4
a
_
12
+3
I

8 a? 4 16
a
76. The method which was applied in the preceding example may be stated as follows 1. Arrange dividend and divisor according to ascending or
:
descending powers of a common letter. 2. Divide the first term of the dividend by the first term of the divisor, and write the result for the first term of the quotient.
3.
Multiply this term of the quotient by the whole divisor, and
subtract the result
4.
from
it
the dividend.
the same order as the given new dividend, and proceed as before.
Arrange
the
remainder in
as a
expression, consider
5.
until the highest poiver
Continue the process until a remainder zero is obtained, or of the letter according to which the dividend
is less
was arranged
the divisor.
than the highest poiver of the same
letter in
77.
Checks.
Numerical substitution constitutes a very con
venient, but not absolutely reliable check. An absolute check consists in multiplying quotient and divisor. The result must equal the dividend if the division
was
exact, or the dividend diminished by the remainder division was not exact.
if
the
Ex.
1.
Divide 8 a3
f
8 a
 4 + 6 a  11 a
4
2
by 3 a
,
 2.
^ _ _
,
Arranging according to descending powers,
6 a4 6 a4
,
,
+ 8 a8 4 a3
12 a 8
11
a2 a2
f
8a
4
I
3 a
2 a8
2
f
=
a _+ 2
.
7rl,
4 a2
=
7
+
11

3 a2
3
a'
2
+ +
8 a 2 a
4 + 6a  4
50
Ex.
2.
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
Divide a4
 46 6a6
4
3
f
9
2
6
2
2 l by 26 3a& + a
.
Arranging according to descending powers of
a,
we have
a<a4
6 a36
fr
f
f
9 a2 6 2
2 a2 6 2
2
2
46*
I
a2
a*

8 ab 3 ab
 3 a8


+ 2 6^  2 62
46*
 3 a^ + 9a 2 6  6 ab 8
+ 6 a& a  4 6 4  2 a^a + 6 aft  4
Check.
ft*
The numerical
it
substitution a
=
1,
&
=
1,
cannot be used in this
either to use
example since
larger
renders the divisor zero.
Hence we have
a
number
for a, or multiply.
2  8 ab + 2 & 2 ) ( a _ 3 ab  2 6 2 ) (a = [(a2  3 aft) + 2 62 ] [(a2  3 a&)  2 62 ] = (a 2 3 aft) 2 4 6* = a2  6 8 6 + 9 a2 6 2  4 5*.
EXERCISE
30 *
:
Perform the operations indicated and check the answers
2. 3.
(jf_2y15)i<y6).
2 (15 a
2
4.
5.
6.
 46 a# f 16 ) _ 26 mn 4 5 n ) (5 m
2
i/
5
(5
a5 w).
2
*
(m
7.
(6^53^ + 40)^(6^5).
(56
2 a; f
8.
19 x
15) (8
3).
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
2 (25 a
 36
2
ft
)
j
(5
a
f
6
6)
* See page 263.
2) (3 a .11 a + 9 a . 51 15.81 c8 f ' ISVftQc 8 64 ' a2 166 2 ' a? 10 1 . v/17. c + 3* ' v7 169 a<6 2 ' . . Division of the difference of two squares. (3 a 13 m + 47 m + 35 w (1 (5 m f (6a 2 & 2 2 2 3 2 f 2 3 f ) 5 1) . (aj 3aj2)^(oj2). 16. .2). (81 m + 1 .18 m 2 ) f (1 G m f 9 m 2 ). 20. SPECIAL CASES IN DIVISION 78.DIVISION 14. (a? s 8) 4 *( 2). + 23a& + 20)*(2a& + 6). b f b by the difference or by the sum Ex. the difference of the squares of two numbers is divisible of the two numbers. 19.l. (8xy + lo22x' y)+(2x y3). . 18. a I. (a f b) (a V) Since =a a 2 b 2 .e. EXERCISE Write by inspection the quotient 31 of : 2 x 1 c 2 6 ' 3 ^.
: the following w a 4 !. 10. 14. 9& 2 .000. 121a a 16 100 11. 100ry. . 12. 36 a4 ?/ 4 .52 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA of Find exact binomial divisors of each expressions 9.49. r/ 1. aW 12 a.0001. . 16 . 4 b. 15. f 13. 16. 1.
in Thus x 12 satisfies the equation x + 1 13. (a + ft) (a b) and b. the first member is 2 x + 4. .r f9 = 20 is true only when a. is said to satisfy an equation. Thus. An equation of condition is usually called an equation. =11. in the equation 2 x 0. the 80. An identity is an equation of the letters involved. 81. which is true for all values a2 6 2 no matter what values we assign to a Thus.CHAPTER V LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS 79. y = 7 satisfy the equation x y = 13. x 20. y y or z) from its relation to 63 An known numbers. The first member or left side of an equation is that part The secof the equation which precedes the sign of equality. An equation of condition is an equation which is true only for certain values of the letters involved. . second member is x + 4 x 9. ond member or right side is that part which follows the sign of equality. 83. ber equation is employed to discover an unknown num(frequently denoted by x. A set of numbers which when substituted for the letters an equation produce equal values of the two members. The sign of identity sometimes used is = thus we may write . hence it is an equation of condition. . (rt+6)(aft) = 2  b' 2 . 82.
4. the sums are equal. 90. If equals be added to equals.2. Transposition of terms. 85. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA If value of the an equation contains only one unknown quantity. A 2 a. . To solve an equation to find its roots.b. E. 2. 89. the quotients are equal. the remainders are equal. the known quan x) (x f 4) tities are = . If equals be divided by equals. 87.e. NOTE. the divisor equals zero. Axiom 4 is not true if 0x4 = 0x5. A term may be transposed from its sign. 9 is a root of the equation 2 y +2= is 20. called axioms 1. A numerical equation is one in which all . fol A linear equation is also called a simple equation. 3. the products are equal. If equals be subtracted from equals. 5. expressed in arithmetical numbers literal is as (7 equation is one in which at least one of the known quantities as x f a letters 88. (Axiom 2) the term a has been transposed from the left to thQ right member by changing its sign. . A linear equation or which when reduced first to its simplest an equation of the first degree is one form contains only the as 9ie power of the unknown quantity. = bx expressed by a letter or a combination of c. x I. If equals be multiplied by equals. but 4 does not equal 5. The process of solving equations depends upon the : lowing principles. an^ unknown quantity which satisfies the equation is a root of the equation. 86.54 84. a.g. 2 = 6#f7. one member to another by changing x + a=. Like powers or like roots of equals are equal. Consider the equation b Subtracting a from both members.
transpose the unknown terms to the first member. 4fl = 12fl = 13 3. and the known terms to the second.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS Similarly. Dividing both members by 2.2.3 y) + y 2 = 2(11 + i)^ V= 2) 1 4 = 26 i +  = 26 f f = 26$ JI . The first member. Uniting. x = 3. x = 93. Check. Transposing. The sign of every term of an equation without destroying the equality. Dividing by Check. if a x = b. Ex. Qx 6# = 4x + l + 6. a= a 6fc. y) (5 y) unknown Ex. The second member. 2(11 . (4y)(6.9 y + y2 = 22 . The first member. Solve the equation Qx 5 = 4 f 1. may be changed Consider the equation Multiplying each member by x\1.y) = C4 + })(5f The second member. SOLUTION OF LINEAR EQUATIONS 1.8.9 y + 6 y = 20 f 22. b Adding a to both + a. 91. x = (Axiom 3) 92. b c. Uniting similar terms. (Axiom 1) The result is first member to the same as the right we had transposed a from the member and changed its sign. Hence the answer. 3 y . f If y 20 . Subtracting 4 x from each term. To solve a simple equation. = 2 (11 3 y) + #*. 6a5 = 185 = 13. and divide both members by the coefficient of the quantity. if 55 x members. . Unite similar terms. 2 x = 6. is correct. 4x 1 + 6. (Axiom 4) When x = 3. Solve the equation (4 Simplifying.2 y= f . a? Adding 5 to each term.6 y f y\ .
17 9 x + 41 = 12 8 17. x x 1 .7. 24. 3. Instead of dividing by \ botli members of the equation \ x would be simpler to multiply both members by 0. : 5# = 15+2a. 8. 7. 9 9a? = 7 13. x = 18. 20. etc.56 Ex. 19. 4y 10. 22. 13a? 3a?. = 3. 4. f Simplifying. 11. . + 7(3 + 1) =63. 247y = 68lly. 2. 16. 32 = 264. 3. 17 + 5a. 14y = 59(24y + 21). BXEECISB 32* Solve the following equations by using the axioms only 1. it NOTE. 4a + 5 = 29. + 24) = 6 (10 x + 13). =2 = 3. 13 y 99 = 7 y. aj * See page 264. 14. 11 ?/ a? 18. {(x (x The The member right member left . 87 9(5 x 3) 6(3 a? = 63. 17 7 a. . and check the answers 9. v23. 12. 21. 3)= 9(3 7 a.7a: = 394a. = 5a?+18. a? a?. a. 50. 3 = 17 3 a? a?. = 2 ?/. a?. = 60 7 = 16 + 5 : Xx 7 = 14. If x = 18. + 16 = 16 + 17. 7a? 5..4) = + 3) = \ x 14 x 21 = 7. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Solve the equation  (x 4) = \ (x + 3). 7 (6 x 16). Solve the following equations by transposing. \x x 2^xfl. J.69. = 7. + 22. Dividing by Cfcecfc. Transposing. Uniting.17 + 4y = 36. 6. 3 7 a. 15.. a.
40.(14 x + 1) + 7) = 285 + 21 a* (z + 2) (a5) :=2. Suppose one part of 70 to be a?.  +6= aj (4 t t t 1 (5 x (a? 2 2 2 2 2 2 (a? . + 7) (. and let it be required to If the student finds it difficult to answer find the other part.1) (a (a? + 3) = . 39. 38.g. + 4).7) (7 x + 4) . 27. 42. 2 2 * Jaj.3) + . . . .7. WJienever the student is unable to express a statement in algebraic symbols.4) (x + I) + (x + 2) = (x 2(* + l) (2J3)( + 2) = 12. Evidently 45. this question. 30. Hence if one part the other part 70 x.32.5)5(7a>8)=4(123a5) + l.4) + 4 w . he should first attack a similar problem stated in arithmetical numbers is only. 6(6a. and apply the method thus found to the algebraic problem. 41. .(2 + 6) (4 .1 0) = 0. : One part is of 70 is 25 . 5) (as (a. .5) + 199. 25. (a. he should formulate a similar question stated in arithmetical numbers only. e. 57 734* = 13*~2(5*12). 7) (a. 34.2) (M . .LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS 25. 29. a? 43.3) + 14. or 70 a?. .3) .1) (u . 31. (6 u =5 44. .12) (2 + 5) . is the other part. + 1) 8(75 a?) +24 = 12 (4 .14 = 0. 36.5(2 u . a? 28. (aj 37. find the other part. 33. 7(7 x y 26.5) = (a. SYMBOLICAL EXPRESSIONS 94. . 35.
By how much does a exceed 10 ? By how much does 9 exceed x ? What number exceeds a by 4 ? What number exceeds m by n ? What is the 5th part of n ? What is the nth part of x ? By how much does 10 exceed the third part of a? By how much does the fourth part of x exceed b ? By how much does the double of b exceed one half Two numbers differ by 7. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA What must be added to a to produce a sum b ? : Consider the arithmetical question duce the sum of 12 ? What must be added to 7 to pro The answer is 5. 17. and the smaller one parts. is d. is a? 2 is c?. The difference between two numbers Find the smaller one. Find the greater one. one yard will cost 100 dollars. or 12 7. 9. Divide a into two parts. 3. 10. EXERCISE 1. $> 100 yards cost one hundred dollars. one part equals is 10. 33 2. so that one part Divide a into two parts. If 7 2.58 Ex. 14. greater one is g. Divide 100 into two 12. find the cost of one yard. two numbers and the and the 2 Find the greater one. 1. Hence 6 a must be added to a to give 5. 4. 11. is b. so that one part The difference between is s. 13. smaller one 16. a. 7. Ex. x f y yards cost $ 100 . 15. so that of c ? is p. 6. What number divided by 3 will give the quotient a? ? What is the dividend if the divisor is 7 and the quotient ? . 5. 6. one yard will cost  Hence if x f y yards cost $ 100.
If B gave A 6 25. How many years A older than is B? old. rectangular field is x feet long and the length of a fence surrounding the field. and spent 5 cents. and B has n dollars. How many cents are in d dollars ? in x dimes ? A has a dollars. The greatest of three consecutive the other two. find the of their ages 6 years hence. 20. smallest of three consecutive numbers Find the other two.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS 18. and 4 floor of a room that is 3 feet shorter wider than the one mentioned in Ex. Find 35. How many cents has he ? 27. 32. ?/ 31. 26. 19. Find the area of the Find the area of the feet floor of a room that is and 3 30. sum If A's age is x years. Find the sum of their ages 5 years ago. 59 What must The be subtracted from 2 b to give a? is a. 33. A dollars. find the has ra dollars. 24. A feet wide. square feet are there in the area of the floor ? How many 2 feet longer 29. amount each will then have. y years How old was he 5 years ago ? How old will he be 10 years hence ? 23. is A A is # years old. b dimes. 28. 28. A room is x feet long and y feet wide. A man had a dollars. What What What What is the cost of 10 apples at x cents each ? is is is x apples cost 20 cents ? the price of 12 apples if x apples cost 20 cents ? the price of 3 apples if x apples cost n cents ? the cost of 1 apple if . and B is y years old. and c cents. 22. and B's age is y years. 34. numbers is x. Find 21. How many cents had he left ? 28. feet wider than the one mentioned in Ex.
Find x % % of 1000. If a man walks ? r miles per hour. The two digits of a number are x and y. What fraction of the cistern will be second by the two pipes together ? 44. 46. A cistern is filled 43. A cistern can be filled in alone fills it by two pipes. how many miles he walk in n hours ? 37. . The first pipe x minutes. 48. a. he walk each hour ? 39. in how many hours he walk n miles ? 40.60 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA wil\ 36. b To express in algebraic symbols the sentence: " a exceeds much as b exceeds 9. miles does will If a man walks r miles per hour. m is the denominator. per Find 5 Find 6 45. . If a man walks 3 miles per hour. Find the number.50." we have to consider that in this by statement "exceeds" means minus ( ). find the fraction. The numerator If of a fraction exceeds the denominator by 3. of m. Find a 47. 49. How many x years ago miles does a train move in t hours at the rate of x miles per hour ? 41. of 4. and "by as much as" Hence we have means equals (=) 95. as a exceeds b by as much as c exceeds 9. How old is he now ? by a pipe in x minutes. If a man walks n miles in 4 hours. Find a. and the second pipe alone fills it in filled y minutes. how many how many miles will he walk in n hours 38. c a b =  9. % % % of 100 of x. A was 20 years old. What fraction of the cistern will be filled by one pipe in one minute ? 42.
5. c. 3. of x increased by 10 equals x. a is greater than b by b is smaller than a by c. of a and 10 equals 2 c.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS Similarly. 2. of a increased much 8. 80. 8 b ) + 80 = a . 6. equal to the sum and the difference of a and b sum of the squares of a and gives the Twenty subtracted from 2 a a. the difference of the squares of a 61 and b increased } a2 i<5  b' 2 ' by 80 equals the excess of a over 80 Or. 9. a exceeds b by c. thus: a b = c may be expressed as follows difference between a : The and b is c. by one third of b equals 100. Four times the difference of a and b exceeds c by as d exceeds 9. c. third of x equals difference of x The and y increased by 7 equals a. 4. etc. The product of the is diminished by 90 b divided by 7. cases it is possible to translate a sentence word by in algebraic symbols in other cases the sentence has to be changed to obtain the symbols. double of a is 10. The excess of a over b is c. EXERCISE The The double The sum One 34 : Express the following sentences as equations 1. In many word There are usually several different ways of expressing a symbolical statement in words. same result as 7 subtracted from . The double as 7. = 2 2 a3 (a  80. 80.
A gains $20 and B loses $40. 17. 3 1200 dollars.62 10. In 3 years A will be twice as old as B. first 00 x % of the equals one tenth of the third sum. 16.. as 17 is is above a. and C's ages will be 100. m is x % of n. sum equals $20. and C's age 4 a. 18. express in algebraic symbols : 700. express in algebraic 3x : 10. (c) If each man gains $500. In 10 years the sum of A's. amounts. the sum and C's money (d) (e) will be $ 12. . a third sum of 2 x + 1 dollars. of 30 dollars. and (a) (6) A If has $ 5 more than B. B's. Express as : equations of the (a) 5 (b) (c) % a% of the second (d) x c of / a % of 4 sum equals $ 90. A is 4 years older than Five years ago A was x years old. is If A's age is 2 x. A If and B B together have $ 200 less than C. (e) In 3 years A will be as old as B is now. 6 % of m. the first sum equals 6 % of the third sura. #is5%of450. (a) (b) (c) A is twice as old as B. 5x A sum of money consists of x dollars. (d) In 10 years A will be n years old. x is 100 x% is of 700. a. B's age 20. 11. B's. and C have respectively 2 a. the first sum exceeds b % of the second sum by first (e) % of the first plus 5 % of the second plus 6 % of the third sum equals $8000. pays to C $100.000. 50 is x % of 15. symbols B. a second sum. 12. x 4 If A. a. B. >. they have equal of A's. they have equal amounts. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Nine is as much below a 13.*(/) (g) (Ji) Three years ago the sum of A's and B's ages was 50. 14.
In 15 years 10. etc. Check. Let x The (2) = A's present age. exceeds 40 by as much as 40 exceeds the no. 6 years ago he was 10 . x+16 = 3(35). 3z40:r:40z. NOTE. 23 =30. Three times a certain number exceeds 40 by as Find the number. A will Check. Let x = the number. . The equation can frequently be written by translating the sentence word by word into algebraic symbols in fact. much as 40 exceeds the number. In 15 years A will be three times as old as he was 5 years ago. Dividing. be 30 . Ex. equation is the sentence written in alyebraic shorthand. The solution of the equation (jives the value of the unknown number. 15. x = 20. 1. 3 x + 16 = x x (x  p) Or. number. Uniting. Three times a certain no. The student should note that x stands for the number of and similarly in other examples for number of dollars. 4 x = 80. by 20 40 exceeds 20 by 20. Write the sentence in algebraic symbols. Transposing. x + 15 = 3 x 3x 16 15. the required . Transposing. x= 15. 3 x or 60 exceeds 40 + x = 40 + 40. Find A's present age. = x x 3x 40 3x 40 Or. Ex. In order to solve them. 2. but 30 =3 x years.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS 63 PROBLEMS LEADING TO SIMPLE EQUATIONS The simplest kind of problems contain only one unknown number. be three times as old as he was 5 years ago. Uniting. number by x (or another letter) and express the yiven sentence as an equation. verbal statement (1) (1) In 15 years A will may be expressed in symbols (2). number of yards. denote the unknown 96. Simplifying. the .
Forty years hence his present age. then the problem expressed in symbols W or. Dividing. 3. Find the number. Find the number whose double exceeds 30 by as much as 24 exceeds the number. twice the number plus 7. 47 diminished by three times a certain number equals 2. Six years hence a 12 years ago. Find the width of the Brooklyn Bridge. A number added number.64 Ex. Let x 3. A train moving at uniform rate runs in 5 hours 90 miles more than in 2 hours.2. A will be three times as old as toda3r . How long is the Suez Canal? 10. 5. How many miles per hour does it run ? . Four times the length of the Suez Canal exceeds 180 miles by twice the length of the canal. . 120. Uldbe 66  x x 5(5 is = *. to 42 gives a sum equal to 7 times the original 6. Find the number. How old is man will be he now ? twice as old as he was 9. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 56 is what per cent of 120 ? = number of per cent. 11. 300 56. What number 7 % of 350? Ten times the width of the Brooklyn Bridge exceeds 800 ft. 4. 14. % of 120. exceeds the width of the bridge. Hence 40 = 46f. by as much as 135 ft. Find 8. 13. Find the number whose double increased by 14 equals Find the number whose double exceeds 40 by 10. 35 What number added to twice itself gives a sum of 39? 44. 14 50 is is 4 what per cent of 500 ? % of what number? is 12. EXERCISE 1.
two verbal statements must be given. B will have lars has A now? 17. A and B have equal amounts of money. If the first farm contained twice as many acres as A man number of acres. How many dollars must ? B give to 18. If A gains A have three times as much 16. How many dol A has A to $40. The problem consists of two statements I. Vermont's population increased by 180. five If A gives B $200. During the following 90 years.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS 15. . 14. F 8. In 1800 the population of Maine equaled that of Vermont. and Maine had then twice as many inhabitants as Vermont. then dollars has each ? many have equal amounts of money. Ex. The other verbal statement. which gives the value of 8. how many acres did he wish to buy ? 19.000. The sum of the two numbers is 14. If a problem contains two unknown quantities. One number exceeds the other one by II. and B has $00. Ill the simpler examples these two lems they are only implied. the second one. Maine's population increased by 510. Find the population of Maine in 1800. statements are given directly. and as 15. x. written in algebraic symbols. 65 A and B $200. numbers (usually the smaller one) by and use one of the given verbal statements to express the other unknown number in terms of x. 97. 1. and another which lacked 25 acres of the required number.000. B How will loses $100. times as much as A. make A's money equal to 4 times B's money wishes to purchase a farm containing a certain He found one farm which contained 30 acres too many. One number exceeds another by : and their sum is Find the numbers. while in the more complex probWe denote one of the unknown x. is the equation.
26 = B's number of marbles after the exchange. A gives B 25 marbles. = B's number of marbles. unknown quantity in Then. 2x a? x j = 6.= The second statement written the equation ^ smaller number. 2. + a f f 8 = 14. the smaller number. in algebraic i symbols produces #4a. A has three times as many marbles as B. . o\ (o?f 8) Simplifying. Then. consider that by the exchange Hence. expressed symbols is (14 x) course to the same answer as the first method. 26 = A's number of marbles after the exchange. to Use the simpler statement. x = 8. Uniting. = 14. and Let x = the Then x +. 25 marbles to B. I. . To express statement II in algebraic symbols. x x =14 8. B will have twice as many as A. Let x 14 I the smaller number. which leads ot Ex. 8 the greater number. the greater number. If we select the first one. < Transposing.66 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Either statement may be used to express one unknown number in terms of the other. Dividing. . The two statements I. B will have twice as viz. Another method for solving this problem is to express one unknown quantity in terms of the other by means of statement II viz. A will lose. terms of the other. 8 = 11. has three times as many marbles as B. = 3. although in general the simpler one should be selected. If A gives are : A If II. the sum of the two numbers is 14. = A's number of marbles. / . x 3x 4 and B will gain. Let x 3x express one many as A. Statement x in = the larger number.
Dividing. . is 70. 50(11 660 50 x )+ 10 x = 310. x = 6. greater is . dollars and dimes is $3. have a value of $3.5 x . 40 x . 6 times the smaller. B's number of marbles. 2. 67 x f 25 25 Transposing. consisting of half dollars and dimes. 60. Uniting. Simplifying. Dividing. the number of half dollars. Selecting the cent as the denomination (in order to avoid fractions). 3. . the price. cents. x = the number of half dollars. Find the numbers. * 98. 6 dimes = 60 = 310. 50. etc.$3. The numbers which appear in the equation should always be expressed in the same denomination. Never add the number number of yards to their Ex. Uniting.10. and the Find the numbers. w'3. differ differ and the greater and their sum times Two numbers by 60.10. The value of the half : is 11. we express the statement II in algebraic symbols. Simplifying.. (Statement II) Qx . Check. 1.10. The number of coins II.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS Therefore. Eleven coins. 11 x = 5. 45 .25 = 20. 3 x = 45. 15 + 25 = 40..550 f 310. the number of dimes. Two numbers the smaller. of dollars to the number of cents. Check. x x + = 2(3 x = 6x 25 25).240. Find the numbers. 50 x Transposing. by 44.75. * ' . x from I. their sum + + 10 x 10 x is EXERCISE 36 is five v v. The sum of two numbers is 42. Let 11 = the number of dimes. x = 15. 6 half dollars = 260 cents. but 40 = 2 x 20. then.. A's number of marbles. How many are there of each ? The two statements are I.
and the greater increased by five times the smaller equals 22. United States. the night in Copenhagen lasts 10 hours longer than the day. What is the altitude of each mountain 12. and twice the greater exceeds Find the numbers. of volcanoes in Mexico exceeds the number of volcanoes in the United States by 2. 6. and in Mexico ? A cubic foot of aluminum. Find Find two consecutive numbers whose sum equals 157. A's age is four times B's. 7. Everest by 11. How many hours does the day last ? . Mount Everest is 9000 feet higher than Mt.. and in 5 years A's age will be three times B's. McKinley. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA One number is six times another number. Two numbers The number differ by 39.000 feet. tnree times the smaller by 65. What are their ages ? is A A much line 60 inches long is divided into two parts. and four times the former equals five times the latter. one of which increased by 9. Twice 14. 11. 2 cubic feet of iron weigh 1600 foot of each substance. and B's age is as below 30 as A's age is above 40. the number. 9. How many 14 years older than B. find the weight of a cubic Divide 20 into two parts. it If the smaller one contained 11 pints more. How many volcanoes are in the 8. would contain three times as pints does each contain ? much 13. McKinley exceeds the altitude of Mt. as the larger one. How many inches are in each part ? 15. 3 shall be equal to the other increased by 10. On December 21. cubic foot of iron weighs three times as much as a If 4 cubic feet of aluminum and Ibs. and twice the altitude of Mt. the larger part exceeds five times the smaller part by 15 inches. Find their ages.68 4. ? Two vessels contain together 9 pints. 5.
If A and B each gave $5 to C." To x 8x 90 = number of dollars A had after giving $5. 19.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS 99. The third verbal statement produces the equation. times as much as A. Tf it should be difficult to express the selected verbal state ment directly in algebraical symbols. first According to 3 x number number and according to 80 4 x = the express statement III by algebraical symbols. original amount. 5 5 Expressing in symbols Three times the sum of A's and B's money exceeds C's money by A's 3 x ( x _5 + 3z5) (904z) = x. then three times the sum of A's and B's money would exceed C's money by as much as A had originally. If 4x = 24. are : C's The three statements A. 1. . x = 8. and the other of x problem contains three unknown quantities. B. = 48. and C together have $80. and C together have $80. II. Ex. sum of A's and B's money would exceed much as A had originally. B has three times as much as A. If A and B each gave $5 to C. has. 4 x = number of dollars C had after receiving $10. then three times the money by I. A and B each gave $ 5 respectively. the the number of dollars of dollars of dollars A B C has. number of dollars of dollars B C had. let us consider the words ** if A and B each gave $ 5 to C. B. try to obtain it by a series of successive steps. they would have 3. and B has three as A. and 68. has. The solution gives : 3x 80 Check. 8(8 + 19) to C. 69 If a verbal statements must be given. three One of the unknown num two are expressed in terms by means of two of the verbal statements. = number of dollars B had after giving $5. or 66 exceeds 58 by 8. number had. bers is denoted by x. I. number of dollars A had. III. Let x II.
85 (x 15 (4 x I + 4) + 8) = the number of sheep. A and the number of sheep was twice as large as the number How many animals of each kind did he buy ? of horses and cows together. The total cost equals $1185. 9 cows. according to II. The I. The number of cows exceeds the number of horses by 4. = the number of dollars spent for sheep Hence statement 90 x Simplifying. 28 2 (9 5). first the third exceeds the second by and third is 20. 90 x f 35 x + GO x = 140 20 + 1185. and each sheep $ 15. Dividing.140 + (50 x x 120 = 185. x 35 f + = + EXERCISE 1. + 8 90 x and. 90 may be written. 4 x f 8 = 28. 185 a = 925. 9 5 = 4 . Uniting. The number of cows exceeded the number of horses by 4. Find three numbers such that the second is twice the 2. 37 Find three numbers such that the second is twice the first. 2. number of horses. each cow $ 35. and the difference between the third and the second is 15 2. x Transposing. first. according to III. the third five times the first. number of cows. and 28 sheep would cost 6 x 90 f 9 + 316 420 = 1185. + 35 (x +4) f 15(4zf 8) = 1185. x = 5. each horse costing $ 90. and Ex. = the number of dollars spent for cows. cows. number of sheep. 2 (2 x f 4) or 4 x Therefore. + 35 x 4. 1 1 Check. three statements are : IT. sheep. 28 x 15 or 450 5 horses. x f 4 = 9.70 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA man spent $1185 in buying horses. and. The number of sheep is equal to twice tho number of horses and x 4 the cows together. = the number of dollars spent for horses. Let then. III. x j = the number of horses. and the sum of the . number of cows.
v  Divide 25 into three parts such that the second part first. what is the population of each city ? 8. Find three consecutive numbers whose sum equals 63.000 more inhabitants than Philaand Berlin has 1.000. and the third exceeds the is second by 5. 13. what are the three angles ? 10. first. and the sum of the first and third is 36. the first Find three consecutive numbers such that the sum of and twice the last equals 22.000 more than Philadelphia (Census 1905). A 12. women. men. 7. and is 5 years younger than sum of B's and C's ages was 25 years. and the pig iron produced in one year (1906) in the United States represented together a value . If the second angle of a triangle is 20 larger than the and the third is 20 more than the sum of the second and first.000. If the population of New York is twice that of Berlin. New York delphia. twice the 6. increased by three times the second side. and the third part exceeds the second by 10. twice as old as B. If twice The sum the third side. equals 49 inches. the third 2. the copper. the second one is one inch longer than the first. 71 the Find three numbers such that the second is 4 less than the third is three times the second. how many children were present ? x 11. and children together was 37. The gold. "Find three is 4. what is the length of each? has 3. 9. In a room there were three times as many children as If the number of women. A is Five years ago the What are their ages ? C. first. The three angles of any triangle are together equal to 180. and of the three sides of a triangle is 28 inches.  4. and 2 more men than women. is five numbers such that the sum of the first two times the first. v .LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS 3.
= 5. California has twice as many electoral votes as Colorado. Find the value of each. 3x + 4 (x 2) = 27. width. or time. A and B apart. has each state ? If the example contains Arrangement of Problems. how many 100. 3 and 4. = 35. Dividing.g. and Massachusetts has one more than California and Colorado If the three states together have 31 electoral votes.e. we obtain 3 a.000. 7 Uniting. and distance.000. start at the same hour from two towns 27 miles walks at the rate of 4 miles per hour. statement "A and B walk from two towns 27 miles apart until they meet " means the sum of the distances walked by A and B equals 27 miles.000 more than that the copper. 3z + 4a:8 = 27. 14. Let x = number of hours A walks. Hence Simplifying. Since in uniform motion the distance is always the product of rate and time. . then x 2 = number of hours B walks.000. B many miles does A walk ? Explanation. The copper had twice the value of the gold. together. First fill in all the numbers given directly.72 of ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA $ 750. i. but stops 2 hours on the way. of arid the value of the iron was $300. and 4 (x But the 2) for the last column. number of hours. and quantities area. speed. number of miles A x x walks. such as length. of 3 or 4 different kinds. and A walks at the rate of 3 miles per hour without stopping. it is frequently advantageous to arrange the quantities in a systematic manner. 8 x = 15. After how many hours will they meet and how E.
A sum invested larger at at 5 % terest as a sum $200 4%. were increased by 30 yards.01 = = .05 x x ." gives (2.06 = $ 40. 73 of a rectangular field is twiee its width. If the length The length " The area would be decreased by 100 square yards. $ 1000 x . 70x10 Ex. Multiplying. and the width decreased by 10 yards.M(x . original field has Check. 2   and transpose. Check. $ 800 = 800. x . l. 10 x = 200. . z = 20. + 8. What brings the same is the capital? in Therefore Simplify. . Cancel 2 # 2 (a 10) = 2s 100.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS Ex. The an area 40 x 20 =800. + 10 x 300 = 2 z2 100.x + 00) 2 x2 Simplify. 2 a = 40. x + 200). $ 800 = required sum. x . the second 100.04 8. Find the dimensions of the field.053. But 700 certain = 800 2. Transposing and uniting. fid 1 The field is 40 yards long and 20 yards wide.04 = $ 40. or 700. the area would be 100 square yards less.
If the silk cost three times as For a part he 7. How many pounds of each kind did he buy ? 8. each of the others had to pay $ 100 more. and the cost of silk of the auto and 30 yards of cloth cost together much per yard as the cloth. 2. were increased by 3 yards. Ten yards $ 42. as a 4. but as two of them were unable to pay their share. but four men failed to pay their shares. Twenty men subscribed equal amounts of to raise a certain money. 1. paid 24 ^ per pound and for the rest he paid 35 ^ per pound. and how far will each then have traveled ? 9. and the sum Find the length of their areas is equal to 390 square yards. Six persons bought an automobile. A sum ? invested at 4 %. and its width decreased by 2 yards. A sets out later two hours B . 3. the area would remain the same. and a second sum. and follows on horseback traveling at the rate of 5 miles per hour. What are the two sums 5.55. of coffee for $ 1. and in order to raise the required sum each of the remaining men had to pay one dollar more. Find the dimen A certain sum invested at 5 % %. A If its length rectangular field is 2 yards longer than it is wide.74 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 38 rectangular field is 10 yards and another 12 yards wide. A of each. How much did each man subscribe ? sum walking at the rate of 3 miles per hour. mobile. how much did each cost per yard ? 6. invested at 5 %. twice as large. After how many hours will B overtake A. A man bought 6 Ibs. Find the share of each. The second is 5 yards longer than the first. sions of the field. together bring $ 78 interest. sum $ 50 larger invested at 4 brings the same interest Find the first sum.
and another train starts at the same time from New York traveling at the rate of 41 miles an hour. and B at the rate of 3 miles per hour.will they be 36 miles apart ? 11. The distance from If a train starts at . how many miles from New York will they meet? X 12. and from the same point.LINEAR EQUATIONS AND PROBLEMS v 75 10. A and B set out direction. but A has a start of 2 miles. Albany and travels toward New York at the rate of 30 miles per hour without stopping. traveling by coach in the opposite direction at the rate of 6 miles per hour. After how many hours. how must B walk before he overtakes A ? walking at the rate of 3 miles per hour. A sets out two hours later B starts New York to Albany is 142 miles. walking at the same time in the same If A walks at the rate of 2 far miles per hour.
a2 to 6. a. expression is rational with respect to a letter. it contains no indicated root of this letter . it is composite. An expression is integral and rational with respect and rational. 5. 76 . \ V& is a rational with respect to and irrational with respect 102. consider 105. a factor of a 2 A factor is said to be prime. but fractional with respect 103.CHAPTER VI FACTORING 101. as. + 62 is integral with respect to a. f db 6 to b. we shall not. J Although Va' In the present chapter only integral and rational expressions b~ X V <2 Ir a2 b' 2 2 ?> . The factors of an algebraic expression are the quantities will give the expression. irrational. if it contains no other factors (except itself and unity) otherwise . if. if this letter does not occur in any denominator. a. if it does contain some indicated root of . 6. at this 6 2 . An after simplifying. this letter. 104. An expression is integral with respect to a letter. if it is integral to all letters contained in it. a + 2 ab + 4 c2 . vV . which multiplied together are considered factors. The prime factors of 10 a*b are 2. stage of the work.
for this result is a sum. x. POLYNOMIALS ALL OF WHOSE TERMS CONTAIN A COMMON FACTOR ( mx + my+ mz~m(x+y + z). it fol lows that every method of multiplication will produce a method of factoring. 1. TYPE I. .9 x if + 12 xy\ 2 The greatest factor common 2 to all terms flcy* is 8 2 xy' .3 sy + 4 y8). Factor G ofy 2 . 01. 110. Factor 14 a* W 21 a 2 6 4 c2 + 7 a2 6 2 c2 7 a2 6 2 c 2 (2 a 2 . ?/. 2 4 x + 3) is factored if written (x' would not be factored if written x(x and not a product. 77 Factoring is into its factors. 8) (s1). it follows that a 2 .3 6a + 1). or Factoring examples may be checked by multiplication by numerical substitution. factors of 12 &V is are 3. Since factoring the inverse of multiplication. dividend is 2 x2 4 2 1/ .FACTORING 106. 109. since (a + 6) (a 2 IP factored.9 x2^ + 12 sy* = 3 Z2/2 (2 #2 . An the process of separating an expression expression is factored if written in the form of a product. Divide 6 a% . 107. E. 2. The factors of a monomial can be obtained by inspection 2 The prime 108.62 can be &). in the form 4) +3. It (a.) Ex. 2. x. y.9 x2 y 8 + 12 3 xy f by 3 xy\ and the quotient But.g. or that a = 6) (a = a .62 + &)(a 2 . 55. Hence 6 aty 2 = divisor x quotient. . Ex. 2.
51 x4 2 6 xy s .45 afy . &{20a 6 4 &3 2 .12 cdx. 2. a(mf7i) + & ( m + 3 (a + 6) 3 /(a + 6). 2 Or. 7i 13.3. 15. and to multiply 3 and 5 to obtain the term which does not contain x or (x 3)(x f 5) 15.16 a'V f 48 ctfa^ 2 s 4 : + 34 X 8 a*b f 8 6V . a6c. 4 8 . 8. QUADRATIC TRINOMIALS OF THE FORM 111. the y factored expression is (x }m)(x + n).30 aty. 4. + llm llm. two numbers m and n whose sum is p and and if such numbers can be found. 7a & 10. 14a 4 5. 34 a^c 8 . 3 2 .5 x*y 2 17 a? .4. we had to add tain the coefficient of x. obviously. e.5 + 2. 3. ) 22  2. to find two numbers whose product is 15 and whose sum is f. . In multiplying two binomials containing a common 3 and 5 to obterm.6. 2 6. 11. 3x*6x*.2. 4 tfy f. 19. 13.3. x2 f2 x = 15 we have. 18. 16. in general. f In factoring x2 2x we have to find whose product is g. 2 + q. 32 a *?/ .8 c a 15 ofyV . (as 3) and (ccf5). in factoring a trinomial of the form x f/>#f q. 5f 2 . 14. 17.78 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 39 Resolve into prime factors 1. 20. : 6 abx . . TYPE IT. 2 23. a a 'Ja . Ilro8 9. 2 2 . 15 2 7. q*q*q 2 a.4. 12.g. 3 3 5 6.5 + 13 8.51 aW + 68 21.
+ 112. Ex.FACTORING Ex. . Hence fc f 10 ax is 10 a are 11 a  12 /. Therefore Check. determine whether In solving any factoring example.a).4 x .11 a 2 . 2. + 30 = 20. and (a . but only in a limited number of ways as a product of two numbers. Hence z6 ? oty+12 if= (x 3 y)(x*4 y ).30 = (a ..6 = 20. is The two numbers whose product and 6. 2 6. the student should first all terms contain a common monomial factor. tfa2  3.5) (a 6). Factor x? . it is advisable to consider the factors of q first. as p. or 77 l. or 7 11.77 = (a. Since a number can be represented in an infinite number of ways as the sum of two numbers. but of these only a: Hence 2 . .G) = . of this type.1 1 a tf a 4.5) (a . can be factored.11. Factor + 10 ax .4 .11) (a + 7). EXERCISE Besolve into prime factors : 40 4. 2 11 a?=(x + 11 a) (a. 5. Factor a2 . the two numbers have both the same sign as p. however. m 5m + 6. 11 7. If 30 and whose sum is 11 are 5 a2 11 a = 1. . 77 as the product of 1 77. or 11 and 7 have a sum equal to 4. a 2 . If q is positive.11 a + 30. If q is negative. the two numbers have opposite signs. 11 a2 and whose sum The numbers whose product is and a. 79 Factor a2 4 x . 3. 4.1 afy 8 The two numbers whose product is equal to 12 yp and whose sum equals 3 8 7 y are 4 y* and 3 y*. Ex. and the greater one has the same sign Not every trinomial Ex. We may consider 1.
16. 25. 31. 29. such that The The first last two terms are factors of 6 x 2 two terms are factors of 5. in factoring 6 x2 + 5. . + 44.70 x y . (4 x + 3) (5 x 20 x2 is the product of 4 a. 6 a 18 a + 12 a 2 2 ?/ . 2 ?/ 22. ra + 25ra + 100. ay 11 ay +24. 14. 24. 21. ITT. 32. + 30. 15. + 400 x aft a4 4 a 2 . 2 ?/ 28. a2 . 36. and the sum of the cross products equals 13 x. + 5<y 24. 13. 20. 33.500 x + 600. 2 .17 + 30. TYPE 113. 8. + 2xS. 26. 2 2 . 18.180 a. we have to find two bino mials whose corresponding terms are similar. y_ 6y +6y 15?/ 2 ?/ 10. 19. 2 ?/ 5?/14. 100 xr . 35. . ELEMENTS OF ALGEBEA x*2x8.2) = 20 x2 + 7 x . 30.6. 21 a 2 2 . QUADRATIC TRINOMIALS OF THE FORM According to 66. 17. x*y ra 2 2 4xy 4 wia 2 2 21y. 2 2 a' 34.48 + + 446 200. 6 is the product of + 3 and 2. 10 x y 2 200 x2 . By actual trial give the correct we find which of the sum of cross products. +7 Hence a? is the sum of the 13 x cross products. 9. 6 8 8 4 2 a. 27. ^ </ 2 2 7p8. factors of 6 x 2 and 5 . 2 . a? + 5 + 6 a. 16. a 2 +11 a a? 16. 3?/4 + a' 2a&24& n + 60+177> a + 7 a 30. 2 . 12. + 4?/21.80 7. 4 2 . and 5 x. 17a& + 7(U 9a&226 + 8 a 20. 11. or . . x2 23. 4 3 2 . a 2^ 2 a2 + 7ax 18. a 7 a 30.
83 x f 54. Since the first term of the first factor (3 x) contains a 3. If py? \qx\r does not contain any monomial factor. we have to reject every combination of factors of 54 whose first factor contains a 3. sible 13 x negative.31 x Evidently the last 2 V A 6. then the second terms of have opposite signs. 3 x and x. the If p and r are positive. 2. 11 x 2x.FACTORING If 81 we consider that the factors of f 5 as must have is : like signs. . 18 x 3. . which has the same absolute value as the term qx. If p is poxiliw.5) (2 x . The work may be shortened by the : follow ing considerations 1. Factor 3 x 2 . 64 may be considered the : product of the following combinations of numbers 1 x 54.13 x + 5 = (3 x . 3.5 . a. The and factors of the first term consist of one pair only. exchange the signs of the second terms of the factors. or G 114. Hence only 1 x 54 and 2 x 27 need be considered. and r is negative.e5 V A x1 3xl \/ /\ is 3 a. If the factors a combination should give a sum of cross products. and after a little practice the student possible should be able to find the proper factors of simple trinomials In actual work at the first trial. none of the binomial factors can contain a monomial factor. all it is not always necessary to write down combinations. 54 x 1. viz. the second terms of the factors have same sign as q. Ex. the signs of the second terms are minus.1). 2 x 27. X x 18. 6 x 9.17 x 2o?l V A 5  13 a combination the correct one. 9 x 6. but the opposite sign. all pos combinations are contained in the following 6xl x5 . and that they must be negative. 27 x 2.
+ 2/3. 2i/ * 2 2 x 27.260 xy . 19. 2 ar* 2 i/ . 35. 20. 10a?2 2 33. 2 28. 2 fc . 11. 9.77 xy + 10 y 23afc + 126 . 3a + 13a. IV) are special cases of In all examples of this type. 2 2 2 23. 16. f go.30 y 6 4 . 25. 9 y + 32^16. 2 26. 100^200^ + 100^. 2 . 9a. 6n + 5?i4. 12.290 xy f 144 y* 4x 8 ofy + 3 y 2 2 4 2 4 f . 2x* + 9x5. + 11 or 2 + 12 a. and the monomial factors should be removed.2) (x . X 27 . 7.10 4a? + 14oj + 12. 21. arranged according to the ascending or the descending powers of some letter. 10. 4a2 9tt + 2. 2 2 2 . 12^17^16.27). 2 31. 10a2 G a2 2 .83 x = (3 . 5 a6 2 2 9 a .19 a f 6. 3. 144 x .7. 5m 26m f 5.83 x . 2 . 13. h r is 2 the most important of the trinomial types. 6n 2 f 13w + 2.82 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 3xl 3s2 x X 115. 34. 4.179. 15. 14 a fa 4. SoJ + llay 15 aj* 40*. 90 a 8 2 . 6.163 x 2 . 2. since all others (II. 22. . 18. Sar' + SaG. 3x*Sx + 4. 10 a .13 xy + 6 y2 12 x 7 ay. + 4. Therefore 3 z + 64 The type pa. 8. 5. 29. 12y 2/6. 32. x54 a. EXERCISE Kesolve into prime factors 1.2 a 90 x*y . 2m t7w + 3. the expressions should be it.300 ab 2 f4 250 . : 41 2. 30. 17. . . 14.y + 172/9. 2 f3y 4y 40a 90aV + 20aV. 24.
and factor whenever possible : 1. 16 y? The student should note that a term.  2 xy + if = (x 2 ?/) . however. 24 xy + 9 y' 2 is Evidently 10 & 24 xy a perfect square. THE SQUARE OF A BINOMIAL 2 Jr 2 xy +/. 2. it is more convenient for that type. 6. 4. 13. and a perfect square. Expressions of this to factor them according a2 to 65. i. form are special cases of the preceding type.3 y) 2 is 2VWx 2 x V0y2" = 24 xy. a flOa&46 4 wi f 2 2/ 2 . 11. 9. 25 7. 3. 10. connect the re square roots of the terms which are squares by the sign of the indicate the square of the resulting binomial. 116. m 14ww + 49n 2 16 a . 2 2 . 2 . x> 2 a 2_4 a & a 2 + 462. must have a positive sign. and the remaining equal to twice the product of the square roots of these in order to be a perfect terms. square.e. EXERCISE 42 per Determine whether or not the following expressions are feet squares. 4 6 m*ti f 9 n*. A term when two is trinomial belongs to this type. for + 9 y2 = (4 x . it is a perfect square. .FACTORING 83 TYPE IV. 8. . 12. and may be factored according to the method used In most cases.20 xy f 4 y\ . To factor a trinomial which maining term. m + 2mn + n c 2cdd 2 2 . 2 9 10gf25. 14. x* . of its terms are perfect squares. 9 +6a6 2 2 f a4 . 9 10a625.26 ab + 9 6 2 .10 x f 16. 5.
e. 26. 1. 225 ofy . 2 . THE DIFFERENCE OF TWO SQUARES JT 2 /. prime.6 m* + 9 m. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 16a 2 24a&4.9& 2 3<> 4 2 . 10 a 2 4 2 . 6 2 . 3 Make the following expressions perfect squares by supplying the missing terms : 21. a.84 15. 2 20. 16. ^//c to the Ex.2 ofy + ofy m . 27.3 * ). 2 . 6. 2. 100a2 68 a2 & 2 121. 9a2 . !Gar 9 ( )+25. ). + GO + 25. 2. V. 9. a4 a2 2 f 6 is . x*Sx + ( 64 a 4 100w +( )+49. ). +( )f816 30. 4 2 23.20 ab + 10 b a . According to 65. 3. m 4a + 12a + ( 2 4m 2 20 f ( ). 36 2 4. 25. 149 a 81 8. . TYPE 117. 18. 29. 22.9 z* = (2 ary + 3 z ) (2 1G a . aV . 2 . 4 3 4 ^ 3 8 10 8 10 ) 4 5 4 5 Ex. Ex. .60 a# + 4. 48 a +( ). 5. product i. ). EXERCISE Resolve into prime factors 1. .4 6 = lG(tt +2Z> )(a 26 ). 19. 16&*. 2 f b 2 2 2 ) (a NOTE. a2 24. difference of the squares of two numbers is equal of the sum and the difference of the two numbers. 7. a. 3. 17. * 2 . : 43 tfy\ a 9. u2 6& + 2 ( ).  + 6a + ( 9a ( ) + 144 a 2 28. 4a2 l.64 6 = 16(a .6 = (a 4 b) = (a* + b*)(a + b)(ab).
One or both terms are squares 1. (m 3n) 2 ( 2 2 . 2 .(c + d) 2 = (a + c + cZ) (a .(I) .d) 2 . Resolve into prime factors and simplify EXERCISE 44 Resolve into prime factors 1. 6. (x f 3 9 2/ 2 . 8. Factor a 2 .(c 4. Ex. 2. 11. (m7?) y. (a x? f 6) 6 2 . (2a (2s + 5) (3a4) 2 2 . 36> . (2a5&) (5c9ef) 2 3. of polynomials. 2 2 : (mfn) _p 2 . (?/ 2 cc (x y)*. 2 . 14. 9. 5. 4. a2 . 2 ?/) 16 2 (y f 2 . T. 2. 25a (&c) (mh2n) 2 2 . Ex. 16p 2 . a:) 12.c . 13.FACTORING 85 118. (m f # 2 2 n) 42:) 10.
14.VI. 6. 5. 8. : 45 ax + bx + ay+by. ma ?*a + m& nb. Ex. After grouping tain a the terms. Factor 9 x*y*4:Z 2 f 4 yz. 7.y + 2 2). + bx + ay + by = x(a + &) + y(a + 6) Ex. 119. 2. GROUPING TERMS By the introduction of parentheses.(x  5) EXERCISE Resolve into prime factors 1. . 1. + x + 2x + 2.6z2 + 5 = z2 (. 4:cx . 10. 4 B. the expression becomes the difference of two squares.a a . a5 + ab 6 . 9. raV + nV 3 a 2ic 2 m ?/ 2 n 2an3&n + 2ag3&?.7 c + 2c . + 4cy5dx 2 5dy. .4 6 x f 3 a y 2 4. By grouping. Factor or 5 5 x2 x x f 5. 5) . a 26 2 2 3 . ive find that the new terms con common factor. x8 . a? 11.and trinomials.1. A. which may be factored according to types I. 2. Factor ax ax f bx f ay f by. a3 c 3 10ax5ay6bx + 3by. polynomials can frequently be transformed into bi.86 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA TYPE VI. 3.r. 12.2 ) (3 x .ab + bx. = (3 x + y . Ex.
although frequently the particular cases II and IV are more convenient. : m 2 2 16. 8. m Gw + 9n * See page 266.10 xy + 4 y\ 2 . Binomials are factored by means of the formula a 2 6 2 III. II. 36 9 m . 2a3/ 7. 6 6. Polynomials are reduced to the preceding cases by grouping terms.12 aaj 4 6y. l~a 2a56 2 2 . SUMMARY OF FACTORING I. 4. 3.9 a2 4 v* 2 . IV. a 2 10a6 4 2 + 256 2 x ar 2a. : 46 x* 2. EXERCISE 47 MISCELLANEOUS EXAMPLES* Resolve into prime factors !. 4 a2 . 5. 6a4 12a2 + 6. Arranging the terms. 2. + 2xy + y*q*. Trinomials are factored by the method of cross products. 6. First find monomial factors common to all terms. . .62 + 9 _ 4 _ 12 ax + 4 6y 2 = 4 a 2 . 8.FACTORING Ex. w m 2. 2 7. 3. 6a4 + 37a2 + 6.l.6 ww + n 2 2 < a 2 4a6 + 46 25.12 ax + 9 a2 + 4 &t/ 4 y2 = (4 a 2 . +c+ 2 2 2/ . 87 f Factor 4 a2  6 2 + 9 tf . 8ra 2 + 16. $ a8 .* */2 ft EXERCISE Kesolve into prime factors 1.4 f . 2. 4. = (a + 6)(a6).12 z + 9 x2)_ (&2 _ 4 ty + 4 ^2) a.
25 a + 25 aft . 3 a2 23. 19. 3 25. a5 a 1 4 2 39. 18. any V 2 ( 51 xyz + 50. 42 s 2 .85 xy + 42 y 10 w 43 w 9. 10 a 2 4a 4 26. 4 2 2 ft ft 2a + a*l. 29. 5a' 20.24. (^ 34. (a. 35. 80 a 2 ft 38. + 6 aft + 3 . a + a + a + l. 12. 2 a 128. a3 156. 20 >r + 2 ?<s __ G4. 32. 2 17. or 3 7#2 . 13. 30. 3 41. 4 8 tt 2 z . 2 3#4 3a2 36. 32 aft + 6 4ft 4 . ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA x*xif. 49 a 4 4 42 a + 9 a 20a 90a 50. __ ft)2 n Qy 2 . 48. 14. 22. 2 ft . 24. + 14. 3 2 . 42 x . a6 36. 256 4 2 2 ?/) . 1 ?v _w 8 2 33. 40. 50^ + 45.156. 13 c . 28. a. 4 a.13 c .310 x .40. 11. 27.88 10. . 5 a. 6 :J 2 2 ft 2 16.
find by arithmetic the greatest common factor of the coefficients. F. 2. F. of the algebraic expressions. C. C. of 6 sfyz. C. F. 3. 121. F.  23 3 . of aW. the algebraic factor of highest degree common expressions to these expressions thus a 6 is the II. EXERCISE Find the H. of two or more monomials whose factors . 5 2 3 . 8 . of a 7 and a e b 7 . and prefix it as a coefficient to H. Thus the H. and GO aty 8 is 6 aty. F. F. The H. C. If the expressions have numerical coefficients. 3 . 122. 13 aty 39 afyV. 25 W. 33 2 7 3 22 3 2 . The highest is common factor (IT. are prime can be found by inspection. 6. 12 tfifz. 24 s . aW.) of two or more . of (a and (a + fc) (a 4 is (a + 6) 2 . The student should note H. C. 5. C. F. C. + 8 ft) and cfiW is 2 a 2 /) 2 ft) . 5 s 7 2 5. 15 aW. II 2 . C. C. F. of a 4 and a 2 b is a2 The H. of : 48 4. The H.CHAPTER VII HIGHEST COMMON FACTOR AND LOWEST COMMON MULTIPLE HIGHEST COMMON FACTOR 120. F. 89 . is the lowest that the power of each factor in the power in which that factor occurs in any of the given expressions. expressions which have no are prime to one another. 5 7 34 2s . 54  32 . 2 2 . F. . Two common factor except unity The H. C.
and apply the method of the preceding article. 4 ?io. 6 a2 y? .6. 15 xy^ 2 10 arV . a3 9a. 6 mx .^9. 9. 7.5 y).6 a' + 2 a& + 6 . 4a f 4a2 2 2 a 2  . 225 4a 9 .90 7.?/ . 8. 75 a&X 15 bed 11 . 16. . 10. Ex. y + 3y64. 5. . 4 7/i 3 n2 10 4 mV. 6 3 a. a2 ar* 4. 3 .y) 123. 2 . . 6(m+l) (m+2).6 . of polynomials. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBEA 6 rarcV. a2 . 5 a6 5^ 2 a. F. ^a + 5^ + 6. 15.5 x3?/ 2 6. 13. . 11. F. 8.# 4 afy f 4 . 95 2/V. 49 C. 12. a2 + 7af!2. ^707 + 12. 3). 8 a 10 . (a7 ?/) . 7/ EXERCISE Find theH. To find the H. C. 12.3 xy + 2 y* = (x .y) . a 3a4. . 24 a 2 . ^2 2 . a.y + y42. 8(?/ifl) 14. 2 . 9 aj*(a? .7 xy + 10 2 = (x . 15 3ao. 14. . 9. 38 #y. 30 mu\ 39 afyV. 8 6. 3^ 2 4 . x* x2 Hence the H. of: . 52 oryz4. aWd.6 a&. 12 w*nw 8. of + 4 if. 25 m27i. 65 zfyV. a2 + 2a3. Find the H. x2 ^4^ and tf 7 xy + 10 f.8 a + 16. 4(m+l) 3 . 12 . C.12 as 66 . 57 a>V. a3 16 a. 4 a3 6 4 8 a663 . 3. = x 2 y. 2a f5af 2. 13. C. F. 2 .y)\ O+ 0^(0. F. 4(m f ?i) 3 3 5(w + w) 5 7(m + n}\m 2 ri). 2 . resolve each polynomial into prime factors. 0^80:416. 10. 1. ^f a. 11.5 + 6. 1. 16 a . 2.2 ?/) (x .2 y) (a.
C. C. Hence the L. To find the L. The lowest common multiple (L. C. M of the algebraic expressions. C. two lowest common multiples. ory is the L. but opposite . Ex. 128. =4 a2 62 (a2 . is equal to the highest power in which it occurs in any of the given expressions. M.C. L. C. Ex. 4 a 2 &2 _ Hence. . . of 4 a 2 6 2 and 4 a 4 4 a 68 2 . 1. 6 c6 is C a*b*c*. NOTE. A common remainder. a^c8 3 .6 3 ). M. resolve each expression into prime factors and apply the method for monomials. of several expressions which are not completely factored. 127. 2 multiples of 3 x and 6 y are 30 xz y. C. C. M. 60 x^y' 2 . L. C. of as &2 a2 + 2a&f b\ and 6a. &) 2 M. 126. M. C. M. = (a f last 2 &)' is (a  6) . thus. Obviously the power of each factor in the L. C. Common 125. The L. 2 The The L. each set of expressions has In example ft). Find the L. find by arithmetic their least common multiple and prefix it as a coefficient to the L.(a + &) 2 (a have the same absolute value. M. of the general. of tfy and xy*. Find the L. If the expressions have a numerical coefficient.6)2.LOWEST COMMON MULTIPLE 91 LOWEST COMMON MULTIPLE multiple of two or more expressions is an which can be divided by each of them without a expression 124.) of two or more expressions is the common multiple of lowest degree. etc. M. which also signs.M. M. 300 z 2 y. of 12(a + ft) and (a + &)*(  is 12(a + &)( . of 3 aW.C. 2.M.
2. 8. 6b 2 . a 2 fa6. a !. afc'cd 2 . ic 23. 24. 5. 6 y. 40 abJ. 3 . a. a f 2 19. Find the L. 2 . G a. b 2 . 24 x. (For additional examples see page 268. 3(a + b). x2 + 4 a f 4. 3. 13. + 2 7i) . M. 3 f2. 2 a . 3(m + n) 4 m 2 . bx a? 8 2 lOajflfi. + 2.1. 14. 4 a 5 6cd. x2 5 f 2 3# 5 + 2. a 2 f 4 a +4. x2 2 + 5 a + 6. a& 4 +& 2 . of: 4. 18. 11. 2(m 2 . 3. a { a~b. by. y*. a 1. 2 a. ax {ay ~ 3 a 3 b. 2 a?b\ a + 2ab + b' 2a2b. ) . a. . . 8 afy. 2 . a2 ~ab 1. 3 (a2)(a3) ( a 3)(a4) 2 2a?b'2ab 2 a. 8 d 5 . a f 3. 2 a . 20. a?b. a^1. 5 a? 5 a? y. a2 4. 4 a f 2. 2 7ic+10. or f 3 a 15 #. 1. 6. + 6. 3 6 xif. 4 a . 7. (a 4)(a2) 12. 2 ic 3 4a 8 a. 2 x \2 y.1. xy\ .92 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 50 C. afy.f 6. x 2 5 a. f b. 5 a 2 ^ 2 15 . 17. ic 2 ?/. 9. 20 9 a. 3 ab. 2 . 30 a. 16. 3 Z> . 2 10. 15. 21. a 2 a3 . a. 6 a. x* ~5a. #. T a 3 a 2 . 22.
only positive integral numerators shall assume that the all arithmetic principles are generally true for algebraic numbers. however. C. and i x mx = my y terms A 1. rni Thus 132. TT Hence 24 2 z =  3x . a b = ma mb .CHAPTER VIII FRACTIONS REDUCTION OF FRACTIONS 129. F. 130. Ex. 131. as 8. thus  is identical with a divisor b the denominator. A f fraction is b. Remove tor. the value of a fraction is not altered by multiplying or dividing both its numerator and its denominator by the same number. Thus. common 6 2 divisors of numerator and denomina and z 8 (or divide the terms . and denominators are considered. All operations with fractions in algebra are identical with the corresponding operations in arithmetic. a?. but we In arithmetic.ry ^ by their H. Reduce ~ to its lowest terms. an indicated quotient. If both terms of a fraction are multiplied or divided by the same number) the value of the fraction is not altered. successively all 2 j/' . fraction is in its lowest when its numerator and its denominator have no common factors. The dividend a is called the numerator and the The numerator and the denominator are the terms of the fraction. etc. the product of two fractions is the product of their numerators divided by the product of their denominators.
6 24 a2 to its lowest terms.6 a + 8) 6 d\a* . 3. Never cancel terms of the numerator or the denominator. To reduce a fraction to its lowest terms. Ex. Keduce a* ~ 6 a' 4 *8a 6a qs _. tf a*  n2 + 8 a 24 a* _ ap 2 . Keduce 62 ~ 2 62 a2 to its lowest terms. 2. cancel factors only.4) Ex. and cancel all factors that are common to both. resolve numerator and denominator into their factors.33 7 a 36 arV 18 x2^' 39 a2 6 8c4 * See page 268. _Q 2 6 EXERCISE 51* Reduce i to lowest terms 3 : 95 2 *' o 3 * 3T5"** T^ 12a4 " 3 K 6 ' 32 78 ' ' 2. .94 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 133.
11 ^ Mtr f . .' 32.7 . 3a ^ ^ "^ 2 9 . * OQ 3 a3 _6a a/i 2 2 5 ?tt +6 ^. 5^10 y 30. + ' 4 2 ?/ 27. 23. x1 15 ' ft< 4 xy //(/ _. 'M 3 ??i 2fi 25. nx 17. ~__ 9n _ 22 9.n 8 + T> ? wn + n 2 ?i 2 m " *7 . ^+3*.. 19. _ 3 7i rt< 26. 12 15 m m 2 2 7 w. 29. ny 4 18. g J 21. ^" a. LJZJ^JL. .*. 9x + "a" 10. n h ' m11 2 m 3 8. """. . 04 !l 9 or 2 6 it*?/ +y 2 12. ' ^ .10 a + 3 2 14. ^' rt ^  31. 16.FRACTIONS 7 95 22 a 2 bc 1 4 ^.
3)O  Dividing this by each denominator. take the L.M. . 1). and 135.by 3 ^ A 2 ' . multiplying the terms of 22 . ELEMENTS OF 'ALGEBRA Reduction of fractions to equal fractions of lowest common Since the terms of a fraction may be multiplied denominator. Ex. 2> . Multiplying these quotients by the corresponding numerators and writing the results over the common denominator. To reduce to a fraction with the denominator 12 a3 6 2 x2 numerator ^lA^L O r 2 a 3 ' and denominator must be multiplied by Similarly. 1.96 134. we have the quotients (x 1). and the terms of ***. Ex  Reduce to their lowest common denominator. 3 a\ and 4 aW is 12 afo 2 x2 . we have M^.  by 4 6' .C. and Tb reduce fractions to their lowest common denominator. M. we have (a + 3) (a 8) (!)' NOTE. C.  of //* 2 .3) (!)' = . Divide the L. . we may use the same process as in arithmetic for reducing fractions to the lowest common denominator. C.r 2 2 .D. by any quantity without altering the value of the fraction. multiply each quotient by the corresponding numerator. Reduce ^. . + 3). =(z (x + 3)(z. of the denominators for the common denominator. and (a 8). and 6rar 3 a? kalr . we may extend this method to integral expressions. by the denominator of each fraction.~16 (a + 3) (x. Since a (z 6 + 3)(s3)Ol)' 6a. TheL.M. ^ to their lowest com The L.C.1^22 ' . mon T denominator.
If the given fractions have different denominators.oj o* or / . 5a 3 zl ' _ 2al n. .T n"> ^' 5c 3 26 o atf o> 5 77" ' . .T 3y Ga1 ax 9 ' 2a .^1.FRACTIONS EXERCISE 52 97 . fractions having a common denominator are added or subtracted by dividing the sum or the difference of the numerators by the common denominator. 8 i i. a? 1 5 > ^* . 2aj ~ . . . they must be reduced to equal fractions which have the lowest common denominator before they can be added (01 subtracted). i. ?y2" m^ S? m 2 7^ m S* **. common denominator 6. Since {c c = 5L^ c (Art.a+2 ' a 2 3af 2 ADDITION AND SUBTRACTION OF FRACTIONS 136. 7i 2 ab* ". 74). o o a.Reduce the following to their lowest 1. 22 a2 5a * .. 3. j y 3. bxby g ! a 5 ' a f5 a2 25 ?. 2.. 137. 5?. 18. JL. 2 ay IB. 2 3 9a ~l' 3al 6 8 a ' 2 a8 * 5 4a 8' ' a jj + 6 a 9 ^ . .
The results of addition and subtraction should be re duced to their lowest terms. (2 ~ a ft) a(a  + 7 ft)fa ft)(a 2 ft)  ft) a(a 2 ft) NOTE. 2.4 aft + ft ft ) a(a  ft)(a 2ft) 2 =a . ^ is 2^JT) .aft) Ca2 . ft). (a ft). 4(2 a 3 ft).ft) (a ft ft)~. e. (a8ft)(a~ft) 8 2 2ft) 2 =a 4 2 + 2 (2 a 4. a 3 2a + "~ a2 ft). T? Ex. cr \t Simplify _T__ r* + .2 ' 2 _.. D. we obtain 2 a the terms of 2(2 a +3 3 ft 6 a f ft _ 2(2 a + ft) 3 ft) (2 a ft) 4(2 a 3 4(2 a ~~ + 3 ft) f (2 a . D. and adding. 2 ^.2 = a(a .20 aft 3ft) f 3 ft 2 4(2a3ft)(2af 4 aft f 21 2 138. (a 3 ft) In simplifying a term preceded by the minus sign. Multiplying the terms of the first fraction by 2(2 a the second by (2 a .98 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA  Ex ' Sim C.3 ft 2). (a . a2 ab ft2 Hence the a a2 f 2 6 a2 . write 2 the product in a parenthesis. as 4 aft f.(a 2 6).g.ft)(a .3 . ft) ft ft a(a ~ 3 aft + 2 ft2 a2  2 aft _(a + 2ft)(a2ft) +a (2q + a(a . C.7 . understood about terms ( 66) hence he should. The L. ^ _ ^ a3b ft).3 ft).aft  _ 3 ab + 2 = ( a _ ft)( _ 2 a 2 2 aft :=(.. 4 6 + 2qg+6~agf4a&8 a(aft)(a 2ft) ft 2 a2 a(a + 5 aft .3 ft)(2 a + 3 ft) ft ft) (6 a ft) _ 8 a 2 f 24 aft 20 a 2 f f 18 2 + ft 12 a 2 .3 ft)(2 a f + : Ga6 + 3 ft). in the beginning. L. the student should remember that parentheses are .
24. + a "" 2 6 ' . a 36 ++. 9m + 7n 3 6m 5n 2x + 3y 3x 15 y x + 2y 45 8. 2. + . 15. A+2_3. a2 a + 3* 2 a 7 af1 ' 2) * See page 270. t3 m2* a _2 6 a 4. 30 u +? + i _H_ + _*_. 23. 1 f q * 1 m m . 6 c 3a 7. 5a76 4a 106 9. 46 2a 4a 12. 36 3u 2v v 5 wv 8v 12 uv 13. 1* 1 + mf 3 1 M. 6a116 13 a 15a26 116 e ' 6 2 10. a+6 a 6 2 14. 1 1 f w 16. 18 v 19. 20. j>0 i> 21.FRACTIONS EXERCISE 53* Simplify : 99 2a4 5 3. 2L + 2a 1 17.5 18 ^4f25.
_ + a? ?/ + y. af 1f /j. 2 af1 32. 43. x + 3y x3y Gx x2 2x .9. / IIlNT: Let a 1  39. _m & 2 i +m 6 i _w 36 a2+ a ^_2&2 35. 3a 9 +. 1 34. ic 1 + 1.9 79 6 2 i. a. x2 Q 3 /Yl Qfi ou L "I "I \_ L I * 7 ITi ~T~ 7 TTo O :_ ' i 37 _ 9 <1  1 i 1 '> a2 . a 4 31.LOO ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 26  x*3x + 2 x2 5x 27 ' ~. 42. 41. a 30. ^2^+6m 3 45 ' 44. a ?^ 40. ! n. a 2 ^> 2 x2 7x+12~x l7x + 4:~ ' } . _ ' a +b +a= ( 38.
Reduce .FRACTIONS 139. To reduce a fraction to an integral or = + ceo 2 * * (S74) v ' Hence 5a2 15a7 = 5 a2 oa 5a 15a oa 7 5a =a 3 . 2 x2 + 2 g 4. 101 mixed expression.'3) 2 EXERCISE expression 54 to a Keduce each of the following fractions : mixed or integral a a +1 9a2 6a + 2 3a m 2 * 5 m f 6 4 m 7 n 2 + 7n + 14 fi . T.6 + 4x 4 x2 . . 1. 2 + 4tf 3 17 .  4 or 3 2a. .6 x + 10x4 x2 17 Therefore x y 3g .7 5a v Ex. .17 (2^ + 2x f 53 (2x. 2x 4 x3 to a mixed expression.  .
102 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA MULTIPLICATION OF FRACTIONS 140. each numerator and denomi nator has to be factored. Since  = a.g. integer. 2. expressed in symbols: c a _ac b'd~bd' principle proved for b 141. we may extend any e.) Ex. Simplify 1 J The expreeaion =8 6 . (In order to cancel common factors. !. x b c = numerator by To multiply a fraction by an that integer. multiply the 142. Common factors in the numerators and the denominators should be canceled before performing the multiplication. and the product of the denominators for the denominator. 2 a Ex. Fractions are multiplied by taking the product of tht numerators for the numerator. fractions to integral numbers. F J Simplify . or.
. 53 *38 " ' 4 ' 14 b* ' 10 a 8 ' " 4af86 76 5c 36C2 10 (a 7a216 a2 2 q~. 5n a2 43a4 a2 3 a 4 a 2 5ah4 <  x2 + x (x 2 I) 17. _G x 7 a2 5a6 a. 4 8.FRACTIONS EXERCISE Find the following products ' 103 55 : 2!v! 2 4 5 8 a2 " ' ^ ' 36^ 21m* ' 17 ab ' ' 2 48 as b*' 34 ab 2 14m4 .20 3a 2 6 ' GoA ai> 56 2c " ar " ' 4 ac2 V V 3m " " +1 " " o?f 2 ~ ' _ 9m JO. 2 25n 2 1 3m +&n 15. 2 f 5 a. 5# 56 / c& 4. 6) 12 ot 2 ab + 2 fc a b* o. 14. aj 5 1 a? 18.6 12 d6 4... 50 .
1. x a + b obtained by inverting reciprocal of a fraction is the fraction. The reciprocal of a number is the quotient obtained by dividing 1 by that number. Divide Xn?/ . To divide an expression by a fraction. 8 multiply the Ex.y3 + xy* x*y~ f y 8 y f 3 2/ x3 EXERCISE 56* Simplify the following expressions 2 x* '""*'*' : om 2 a2 6 2 r  3 i_L#_i17 ar J 13 a& 2 5 ft2 ' u2 +a . Integral or mixed divisors should be expressed in fractional form before dividing. : a 41 ab * See page 272. . invert the divisor and multiply it by the dividend.104 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA DIVISION OF FRACTIONS 143. * x* f xy 2 by x*y +y x' 2 3 s^jf\ = x' 2 x* . and the principle of division follows may be expressed as 145. 144. expression by the reciprocal of the fraction. The The reciprocal of a is a 1 f reciprocal of J is  . To divide an expression by a fraction. The reciprocal of ? Hence the : +* x is 1 + + * = _*_.
A complex fraction is a fraction whose numerator or denominator. t ' a^3^4 ? 4* ' a?~ab > a 2 a 4a 4 4 a: +3 m 12 2 f. c ab 2 4 &c* & a . a a2 4. or both.&c 2 ~ a 4 a2c 4.6 s + 064. mm 5 a a2 6 2 4g2 2a 2 4g20 25 . a 6 _6 c c ac a6 2 4.5 ??i 80 50 . Simplify <! c a a2 c 4 L 4._ # ~ y ' 45 14 in^o 2 ?/ ^y "xy 15 a2 + (Jf fr a b . ga2 4 8 5 a .1 5 w + 56 a 2 w a2 2 4.T ?/ 4 2 a*?/ 15 #4. l.^c 2 2 . are fractional. Ex.FRACTIONS 105 .afr 4.6 COMPLEX FRACTIONS 146.' ' * ' ^5^+4 .10 ?/ _.
. B If the numerator and denominator of the preceding examples multiplied by a&c. C. 2. i. JL. . . y X 4* 2 y 3. a m "" .16 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA In 147. Simplify x }. of their denominators. the expression becomes (x EXERCISE Simplify : 57 x 2. many examples the easiest mode of simplification ia multiply both the numerator and the denominator of the mplex fraction by the L.y 32 .?/ x y _x^_l X ~V x+y . x* 4. & . c +6. Ex. 10. xy x +y Multiplying the terms of the complex fraction by (x y). 9. the answer is directly obtained. . n a 8.a ^c c _^ a . 6. M. 7i+~ 7.
) .FRACTIONS 107 1 i m 11. m^n* n L a 17. 1 i 1 2 5 . : . 1 + 1+ 1 ti flgfl a?l ic+1 a. i ~T" * ~ 1 y 19 4 ' !^5n a "~ 12. 2 & a 20  a46 13. o 15. 1 +2 1 i " f " ( a + 1 /*_i_i 4 14. sy 18.~l (For additional examples see page 273.
148. 108 .1. of the denominator. = 6.48. 5 x2 + 20 x + 15 15 .28 a = 5 x2 . + 1) (a + 3) . Bx 12 Qx. . Solve ^2^ = 63 2 x 12 * + **. 14 z 2 + z 2 + 20 x . Transposing.42 + 9.CHAPTER IX FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS FRACTIONAL EQUATIONS If an equation contains fracbe removed by multiplying each term by the may L. = 6. a.8 x = .l)(z + 3) = .28 x + 42 = .9 x2 + 9. 2z2a.f3# + C:E=6f7212. 9x x Check. each member is reduced to Ex. 5(3 85 Check. x = 6. these Ex. each member is reduced to 1. 2 3. Uniting. Solve 5 I 14 x +1 x +3 I). Uniting. !)(&+ 1) (x + 3). 4 4)  x. 1. 2.  2(x 2 + 3) Removing parentheses. If x 6. C.14 (a. 2x Transposing. Multiplying each term by 6 (Axiom 89). If = 64. Multiplying by (x Simplifying. M. tions. 6 = = 72 72 3 (a.9(se + !)( 14 x 2 . Clearing of fractions.
16. +1 = 5. = xx a? a? hi x +^ + 3 = 11.= 2. ^' 2. +4 14.FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS EXERCISE Solve the following equations : 109 58 ^ 4 3 _ +7 a? 32 3 10. 18. '  4 13.1 _77 a. o ""~TiT" ' 3 12. ^1 = 9. 1 *> = 2. 3 a? '2 4 "  2 a? "T"" 4 4. a/  5 a/ = 12. . a: 7 a. 15. a. . 1+5 & ^0 ^ a? = 19 1 11. 4 y 2 ^ 16 20 +2 334 y2 y3 == on .
11_4 x 149. . y+3~2 29. 26 26. 27 .110 ELEMENTS Of ALGEBRA 24. ^^ ' 39 7 ' x. and" the remaining one a polynomial. 32 6 . 3x 35. 2^12 = 2 = 34. 2 20 x+3 x3 3 o^ 28 . it is advisable first to remove the monomial denominators only.  2  13 _J_ = _J3 . J_. 4a4l4* + l~._ _ . 3 3x2 51 3x*2x 23 x 3x2 22 36. . 33. and after simplifying the resulting equation to clear of all denominators. If two or more denominators are monomials. 31 31. .  38 = 40. . ?_=_. + 26 2^43 1 4^9 1 2a?3 A* 37. 25.
FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS Ex.r7 5 +l 6afll~~ 3 6xflO ' 5 2a?~25 15 17a?~9 14 28 6414 .  5 = 20 x 45. f 13 8#f 2__ 2x 5 7 15 ~~716* 6a? 44. 5x x : = 9. . = 9. a. of the monomial denomina~ &Q =: n 16 x 2( +3~ x 16 x  2. Transposing and uniting. Dividing.29 50712' 9 18 . 5 = 20 g 5 a: ~ Jff 1 . 60.2 3 ~  == 7a. 10 x f 6 __ 4a. Solve the following equations 41 : 5a.. 24 a. C.1. Transposing and Multiply ing by 6 uniting. M. 26 a. each member is reduced to ^. Check. 5# 10.2 42 9 43. 1. the 1 5 L. If a. Solve 111 10 Multiplying each term by tors.
Ex. If 3ac L= = a ? . and multiplying by a(9 b 4 c 4 c) = 7 &c.3 6 2 = a' . a. When the terms containing the unknown quantity cannot be actually added. b a a a z Clearing of fractions. 5> a. l to = !=?_=^6? a f 6. It frequently occurs that the x.m bx 2 mn) x. Ex. bx f 6)z = 3 & 2 ab.2 62 2 ab. + 2 ac 9 a& 3 ab Simplifying. to Transposing all terms containing a 6 ab 6 ac one member.c) (3 a ac 6(rtfc)(ac) 6 a2 6 a& +6 6c = (2a + &)(3ac). = 2 f b 2 . fr Reducing lowest terms. ax + bx ax (a f IP Transposing.be. = 6 a2 . 4 ac 1. they are united by factoring.1. 2. find a in terms of b and c.m 2* = (a f 6) mnx = (1 4. 3(ac) c) Multiplying by 3 (a . jr.2 ac + 3 aft . unknown letter is not expressed by or z. Literal equations ( 88) are solved by the same method as numerical equations. Dividing. = = 6 6c 7 6c. Uniting the Dividing. = l^ 9 b 4 .112 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA LITERAL EQUATIONS 150. ax f x f. y. Thus. f ~ 5c. . Uniting.& . =a 2 151.
a. q solve for/. . iw 21.= n. and n the number of years. + xx = 1. If ^^ = a 1 32. t. denoting the interest. _ 2. 17. p the principal. . 3(* 8. * Solve the same equation for^). s = Vt solve for v.FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS EXERCISE Solve the following equations : 113 59 *. in terms of other quantities.i l . 11. + 3a. 3. f ^o. 29. 5) is t =^. 12. solve for . 31. m a? x . = 5. c 18. If s (wi n) x =px + q. c. i The formula for simple interest ( 30. r the number of $>. 30. mx = n.= H. 4. ^ ax a^ 26. 3(2a + aj) 25 ?+l '~~ a/ 1 = 2L . . 34. The The i time. rate. 6. 14. 15. If s If 16.= c a Z> . Ex. = 8 4 #. = vt. = 6 (m f n) = 2 a + (m?i)a?. a? x!7  a ITo x T _ ~ 2 8. solve for a. a + 26+3aj=2o + 6 + 2a?. Find the formula for: () The (6) (c) principal. a. 13. IIL n b + &o. If * 33. f P =+!. = 3 (6 a). 4. 10. 2 solve for y a. . = rt. co?. 9. 1 f. = 2(3a = aajffta? + 7^ = 0*+^ 4 (a x) 1 a).
Ex. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA (a) Find a formula expressing degrees of Fahrenheit terms of degrees of centigrade (<7) by solving the equation (F) in (ft) Express in degrees Fahrenheit 40 If C. 1. Multiplying by Dividing. Find R in terms of C and TT. hence the question would be formulated After how many minutes has the minute hand moved 15 spaces more than the hour hand ? Let then x x = the required number of minutes after 3 o'clock. 2. is 36. days by x and the piece of work while in x days they would do respectively ff ~ and and hence the sentence written in algebraic symbols ^. = 16^. . 2 3 . A can do a piece of work in 3 days and B in 2 days. of minute spaces the hour hand moves Therefore x ~ = the number of minute spaces the minute hand moves more than the hour hand. . PROBLEMS LEADING TO FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS 152. ~^ = 15 11 x ' !i^=15. = the number of minute spaces the minute hand moves over.minutes after x= ^ of 3 o'clock. and 12 = the number over. x Or Uniting. 100 C.180. In how many days can both do it working together ? If we denote then / the required number by 1.. When between 3 and 4 o'clock are the hands of a clock together ? is At 3 o'clock the hour hand 15 minute spaces ahead of the minute : hand. Ex. 12. A would do each day ^ and B j.114 35.. C is the circumference of a circle whose radius R. then = 2 TT#.20 C.
= the x part of the work both do one day. and the statement. Solving. fx xx* = 152 +4 (1) Hence = 36 = rate of express train. then Ox j 5 a Rate Hence the rates can be expressed. in Then Therefore." gives the equation /I). But in uniform motion Time = Distance . Ex.FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS A in symbols the following sentence 115 more symmetrical but very similar equation is obtained by writing ** The work done by A in one day plus the work done by B in one day equals the work done by both in one day." : Let x  = the required number of days. 32 x = . 4x = 80. 180 Transposing. The speed of an express train is $ of the speed of an If the accommodation train needs 4 accommodation train. the required number of days. u The accommodation train needs 4 hours more than the express train. the rate of the express train. hours more than the express train to travel 180 miles. = 100 + 4 x. 3. or 1J. what is the rate of the express train ? 180 Therefore. Clearing. Explanation : If x is the rate of the accommodation train.
by 6. fifth Two numbers differ 2. 9 its A post is a fifth of its length in water. of his present age. Twenty years ago A's age was  age. make 21. are the The sum of two numbers numbers ? and one is ^ of the other.116 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 60 1. a man had How much money had he at first? . and one half the greater Find the numbers. Find A's 8. by 3. and 9 feet above water. Two numbers differ l to s of the smaller. and J of the greater Find the numbers. How did the much money man leave ? 11. J of the greater increased by ^ of the smaller equals 6. and found that he had \ of his original fortune left. The sum 10 years hence the son's age will be of the ages of a father and his son is 50. A man lost f of his fortune and $500. 3. is oO. Find a number whose third and fourth parts added together 2. Find two consecutive numbers such that 9. money and $10. How much money had he at first? 12 left After spending ^ of his ^ of his money and $15. ceeds the smaller by 4. length in the ground. to his daughand the remainder. its Find the number whose fourth part exceeds part by 3. is equal 7. to his son. ex What 5. and of the father's age. A man left ^ of his property to his wife.  Find their present ages. one half of What is the length of the post ? 10 ter. which was $4000.
ounces of gold and silver are there in a mixed mass weighing 20 ounces in 21. A has invested capital at more 4%. A man has invested J of his money at the remainder at 6%. and has he invested if his animal interest therefrom is 19. 117 The speed of an accommodation train is f of the speed of an express train. at 4J % and P> has invested $ 5000 They both derive the same income from their How much money has each invested ? 20. How much money $500? 4%. after rate of the latter ? 15. and an ounce of silver fa of an ounce. A can do a piece of work in 4 clays. what is the 14. An ounce of gold when weighed in water loses fa of an How many ounce. air. investments.) At what time between 7 and 8 o'clock are the hands of a clock together ? 17. Ex.) 22. 2. A can A can do a piece of work in 2 days. ? In how many days can both do working together 23. At what time between 7 and 8 o'clock are the hands of ? a clock in a straight line and opposite 18. and B in 4 days. If the accommodation train needs 1 hour more than the express train to travel 120 miles. Ex. If the rate of the express train is f of the rate of the accommodation train. 152. 1. what is the rate of the express train? 152. and it B in 6 days. 3.) ( An express train starts from a certain station two hours an accommodation train. .FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS 13. and B In how many days can both do it working together in ? 12 days. At what time between 4 and ( 5 o'clock are the hands of a clock together? 16. ^ at 5%. In how many days can both do it working together ? ( 152. and losing 1* ounces when weighed in water? do a piece of work in 3 days. Ex. and after traveling 150 miles overtakes the accommodation train.
Find three consecutive numbers whose sum Find three consecutive numbers whose sum last : The two examples are special cases of the following problem 27. To and find the numerical answer. 6 I 3 Solve the following problems 24. A in 6. make it m 6 A can do this work in 6 days Q = 2. .e. . B in 5. 2. Find the numbers if m = 24 30. and apply the method of 170. by taking for these numerical values two general algebraic numbers. and n = 3. B in 12. Answers to numerical questions of this kind may then be found by numerical substitution.009 918. A in 6. 3. n x Solving. m and n.g. is A can do a piece of work in m days and B in n days. they can both do in 2 days. The problem to be solved. B in 16. Ex. is 42. it is possible to solve all examples of this type by one example. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA The last three questions and their solutions differ only two given numbers. 25. Find three consecutive numbers whose sum equals m.414. we obtain the equation m m . A in 4.= m f n it Therefore both working together can do in mn f n days. e. . B in 30.118 153. Then ft i. therefore. is 57. if B in 3 days. Hence.= . 26. In how in the numerical values of the : many days If can both do we let x = the it working together ? required number of days. : In how many days if can A and it B working together do a piece of work each alone can do (a) (6) (c) in the following number ofdavs: (d) A in 5.
squares 29. 33. and the rate of the second are. (b) 35 miles. last three examples are special cases of the following The difference of the squares of two consecutive numbers By using the result of this problem. solve the following ones Find two consecutive numbers the difference of whose squares : find the smaller number. Two men start at the first miles apart. (b) 8 and 56 minutes. squares 30. 4J miles per hour.721. (b) 149. Find two consecutive numbers the difference of whose is 21. 3 miles per hour. After how many hours do they rate of n miles per hour.FRACTIONAL AND LITERAL EQUATIONS 28. 34. . is (a) 51. is ?n . (c) 16. meet. If each side of a square were increased by 1 foot. 2 miles per hour. 119 Find two consecutive numbers the difference of whose is 11. : (c) 64 miles. 3J miles per hour. two pipes together ? Find the numerical answer. the area would be increased by 19 square feet. respectively. respectively (a) 60 miles.001. Find the side of the square. (a) 20 and 5 minutes. 5 miles per hour. After how many hours do they meet. The one: 31. A cistern can be filled (c) 6 and 3 hours. same hour from two towns.000. 2 miles per hour. 88 one traveling 3 miles per hour. and how many miles does each travel ? 32. and how many miles does each travel ? Solve the problem if the distance. (d) 1. the rate of the first. and the second 5 miles per hour. the second at the apart. d miles the first traveling at the rate of m. the Two men start at the same time from two towns. by two pipes in m and n minutes In how many minutes can it be filled by the respectively. if m and n are.
The ratio  is the inverse of the ratio . a ratio is not changed etc. antecedent. the antecedent. Ex. b is the consequent. 158. 1. " a Thus. The ratio of first dividing the two numbers number by the and : is the quotient obtained by second. b.CHAPTER X RATIO AND PROPORTION 11ATTO 154.or a * b The ratio is also frequently (In most European countries this symbol is employed as the usual sign of division. : A somewhat shorter way would be to multiply each term by 120 6. all principles relating to fractions if its may be af)plied to ratios.) The ratio of 12 3 equals 4." we may write a : b = 6. b. instead of writing 6 times as large as ?>. Thus the written a : ratio of a b is . 6 12 = .5.g. the symbol being a sign of division. the denominator The the 157. A ratio is used to compare the magnitude of two is numbers. : : 155. term of a ratio a the is is the antecedent. terms are multiplied or divided by the same number. The first 156. E. b is a Since a ratio a fraction. is numerator of any fraction consequent. Simplify the ratio 21 3. the second term the consequent. . In the ratio a : ft. etc.
AND PROPORTION ratio 5 5 : 121 first Transform the 3J so that the term will 33 : *~5 ~ 3 '4* 5 EXERCISE Find the value of the following 1. 3 8. : ay . : is If the means of a proportion are equal. 4. Simplify the following ratios 7. 6. 16a2 :24a&. b. 10. A proportion is a statement expressing the equality of proportions. proportional between a and c. and c is the third proportional to a and . 18. either mean the mean proportional between the first and the last terms. 7:4 T T 4 . 27 06: 18 a6. : 1. and the last term the third proportional to the first and second 161. term is the fourth proportional to the : In the proportion a b = c c?. 17. b and c the means. equal 2. The last term d is the fourth proportional to a. terms.RATIO Ex. b is the mean b. 7f:6J. : ratios so that the antecedents equal 16:64. 8^ hours. 3. 12. 61 : ratios 72:18. a and d are the extremes. In the proportion a b : = b : c. 3:1}. Transform the following unity 15. 16. and c. extremes. 3:4. 5 f hours : 2. 62:16. 11. two  ratios. J:l. 16 x*y 64 x*y : 24 48 xif. the second and fourth terms of a proportion are the and third terms are the means. 4:5f : 5. 159. The last first three. 1. = or:6=c:(Z are The first 160. 9. $24: $8.
!. and the time necessary to do it. 3 4. " we " NOTE. Hence the weight of a mass of iron is proportional to its volume. = 30 grams 45 grams. Clearing of fractions. ccm. If the product of two numbers is equal to the product of two other numbers^ either pair may be made the means. t/ie product of the means b is equal to the Let a : =c : d. of a proportion. if the ratio of any two of the first kind. then 8 men can do it in 3 days. : c. 2 165. and the other pair the extremes. 6 ccm. 163. : : directly proportional may say.) mn = pq. Instead of u If 4 or 4 ccm. pro portional. 163. The mean proportional of their product. briefly. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Quantities of one kind are said to be directly proper tional to quantities of another kind. In any proportion product of the extremes. are : : : inversely proportional. of iron weigh 45 grams. q~~ n . or 8 equals the inverse ratio of 4 3.__(163. and we divide both members by we have ?^~ E. if the ratio of any two of the first kind is equal \o the inverse ratio of the corresponding two of the other kind.122 162.30 grams. of iron weigh .'* Quantities of one kind are said to be inversely proportional to quantities of another kind. then G ccm. a b : bettveen two numbers is equal to the square root Let the proportion be Then Hence 6 =b = ac. Hence the number of men required to do some work. ad = be. is equal to the ratio of the corresponding two of the other kind. If (Converse of nq. i. If 6 men can do a piece of work in 4 days. 164.) b = Vac.e.
PATIO Ex. V. AND PROPORTION x = 12 : 123 Find x. Determine whether the following proportion 8:6 = and 5 x 7 7 : true rn 8 x t: 4. ad ( 163. Change the proportion 4 5 = x 6 so that x becomes the : : last term.) = f f = 3 J.) Any is of these propositions may be proved by example : a method which illustrated by the following To prove This is b if d true ad  Or if But Hence ^ =^' o = be = be. d d. ad = be. is 4$ = 35. I. + b:b = c + d:d. By inversion 5 : 4 =6 : x.) a b b=c b = c)d:c d. (163.) II. Or IV. then =d c. (Composition. I. 2. is Ex.) d 167. bd bd. 12x Hence a? = 42.) (Called Alternation. . = 35 . hence the proportion true. a+b a (Composition and : : : Division. (Frequently called Inversion. a:c=b:d.) a + b:a = c + d:c. 1. a III. These transformations are used to simplify proportions. 166. If 6 : a a : 6 =c : : d. if 6 : 7. (Division.
V. To simplify m 3n ? = + *. .:J 62 : Determine whether the following proportions are true 1. 3. E. 5. EXERCISE 5^:8 = 2:3. i. 9. the consequents by 7. its ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Alternation shows that a proportion is not altered when its consequents are multiplied or divided by antecedents or the same number. 13 = 5f llf : : n 2.g. 3n JJ =n x NOTE. = 2:x. 8ajy:17 = i^:l^. mx tin Apply composition and division. x = 2. A parenthesis is understood about each term of a proportion.!=!*. to simplify 48:21=32:7x. To simplify the proportion 11 : 5:6 =4 x : x. : 3 = 5 f x : x. 10. = 12 5ft. 72:50 m n (m n) = (m + rif m 2 : 18:19 6 2 : = 24:25. 8. 4. Apply composition. : x. = ^2x x Or Dividing the antecedents by m. 1 : 3 3 Divide the antecedents by : = = 5 1 : jr. . 3:3 1:1 divide the antecedents by 16. and determine whether they are true or not : 6. 2. To simplify the proportion 8 Apply division.e. Or III. 6 =4 : x. = 180:125. = 2:3. 11 : 5 : 15:22=101:15. 120:42 2 2 7. = 20:7. IV. 5 5. Simplify the following proportions.124 IT. = 7:2f 3J.
. = 3 43 + x. ratio of y. 46. 34. 13. : 53. = l^:18. 12. 43.x: 6:5 a : x. 9 x = 2 y. 2= 5 x x. a 2 and ab. b. a. 21 : 4z = 72 : 96. 112:42 = 10:a. 14 and 21. 22: 3 19 2 : : 49. 23. 35. 3. rap. f. 27. (a : : 45. 5.RATIO AND PROPORTION Determine the value of x 11.6 : : Find the fourth proportional 19. 31. Find the third proportional 24. form two proportions commencing with x : = xy. 26. 2. 5= 18 a? : a?. 18. 22. and 2/. 4 and 16. 1. 14. 6 x = y. 51. if : 40. 17. 39. terra 2:3 = 4. 44. y : b y : =x 1 =x : a. 42.8:1.:ff. 2. 03:a?=135:20. ra + landra 1. to : 9 and 12. + fyx = cy. : 125 40:28 = 15:0. 16 and 28. 25. x:5 = y:2. 4 a*:15ab = 2a:x. to : a and 1. 28. = 2 + x: x. : . 20. 3t. 29. 8 a 2 and 2 b 2 Form two x 10 If ab proportions commencing with 5 from the equation 6 36. mx = ny.j>. 6. 52. 1 and a. w. 21. 33. Find the 37. 16. ra. 50. 16 n* x = 28 w 70 ra. 2 3 = y #. = 15o. 2 a and 18 a. 6x = 7y. = 5 x 12. . 4. 7iy = 2:x. rag. 38. : : Transform the following proportions so that only one contains x: 48. a?:15 15. to: = 35:*. Find the mean proportional 30. 41. 47. 3. ra 2 . x m = y n.  32. : a2 .
and the area of the rectangle. State whether the quantities mentioned below are directly or inversely proportional (a) The number of yards of a certain kind of silk. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBEA State the following propositions as proportions : T (7 and T) of equal altitudes are to each. what 58. (c) of a rectangle of constant width. the volume of a The temperature remaining body of gas inversely proportional to the pressure. othei (a) Triangles as their basis (b and b'). under a pressure of 15 pounds per square inch has a volume of gas is A 16 cubic feet. (c) The volume of a body of gas (V) is circles are to each inversely propor tional to the pressure (P). (b) The time a The length train needs to travel 10 miles. (d) The areas (A and A') of two circles are to each other as (R and R'). (d) The sum of money producing $60 interest at 5%. areas of circles are proportional to the squares of If the radii of two circles are to each other as circle is 4 : 7.126 54. 57.inches long represents map corresponds to how many miles ? The their radii. and the time necessary for it. and the time. The number of men (m) is inversely proportional to the number of days (d) required to do a certain piece of work. the squares of their radii (e) 55. and the speed of the train. 56. A line 7^. 1 (6) The circumferences (C and C ) of two other as their radii (R and A"). the area of the larger? the same. and the area of the smaller is 8 square inches. A line 11 inches long on a certain 22 miles. What will be the volume if the pressure is 12 pounds per square inch ? . (e) The distance traveled by a train moving at a uniform rate. and the : total cost.
Therefore 7 = 14 = AC. is A line AB. Let A B AC=1x. 2 x Or = 4. x = 6.RATIO AND PROPORTION 69. it is advisable to represent these unknown numbers by mx and nx. AB = 2 x. . 4 ' r i 1 (AC): (BO) =7: 5. produced to a point C. 11 x = 66 is the first number. 18 x = 108. 11 x f 7 x = 108. as 11 Let then : 1. : Ex. 7 x = 42 is the second number. 11 x x 7 Ex. When a problem requires the finding of two numbers which are to each other as m n.000 168. 127 The number is of miles one can see from an elevation of very nearly the mean proportional between h and the diameter of the earth (8000 miles). so that Find^K7and BO. Divide 108 into two parts which are to each other 7. x=2. = the second number. 4 inches long. What is the greatest distance a person can see from an elevation of 5 miles ? From h miles the Metropolitan Tower (700 feet high) ? feet high) ? From Mount McKinley (20. Then Hence BG = 5 x. 2. Hence or Therefore Hence and = the first number.
Gunmetal tin. The three sides of a triangle are respectively a. Divide 20 in the ratio 1 m. Divide 44 in the ratio 2 Divide 45 in the ratio 3 : 9. find the number of square miles of land and of water. and the longest is divided in the ratio of the other two.128 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 63 1. 6. : 4. 13. 11. cubic feet of oxygen are there in a room whose volume is 4500 : cubic feet? 8. : 197. 7. : Divide 39 in the ratio 1 : 5. If c is divided in the ratio of the other two. and 15 inches.) . and c inches. of water? Divide 10 in the ratio a b. How many 7. What are the parts ? 5.000. consists of 9 parts of copper and one part of ounces of each are there in 22 ounces of gun metal ? Air is a mixture composed mainly of oxygen and nitrowhose volumes are to each other as 21 79. m in the ratio x: y % three sides of a triangle are 11. How many ounces of copper and zinc are in 10 ounces of brass ? 6. 14. 12. Water consists of one part of hydrogen and 8 parts of If the total surface of the earth oxygen. Brass is an alloy consisting of two parts of copper and one part of zinc. How The long are the parts ? 15. How many grams of hydrogen are contained in 100 : grams 10.000 square miles. 3. 12. The total area of land is to the total area of is water as 7 18. 9. what are its parts ? (For additional examples see page 279. : Divide a in the ratio 3 Divide : 7. How many gen. A line 24 inches long is divided in the ratio 3 5. 2.
If satisfied degree containing two or more by any number of values of 2oj3y = 6. =. y = 5 /0 \ (2) of values. if there is different relation between x and * given another equation. there is only one solution.L x If If = 0. the equation is satisfied by an infinite number of sets Such an equation is called indeterminate. x = 1. y (3) these unknown numbers can be found. which substituted in (2) gives y both equations are to be satisfied by the same Therefore. values of x and y. 2 y = . Hence 2s 5 o = 10 _ ^ (4) = 3. such as + = 10. is x = 7.y=.e. a? (1) then I. An equation of the first unknown numbers can be the unknown quantities. From (3) it follows y 10 x and since by the same values of x and to be satisfied y. the equations have the two values of y must be equal.. Hence. etc. if . However. expressing a y. The root of (4) if K 129 . y = 1.CHAPTER XI SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS 169.
Substitution. = . The process of combining several equations so as make one unknown quantity disappear is called elimination.24. 21 y . By By Addition or Subtraction.X.3 y = 80. Any set of values satisfying 5 x + 6 y = 60 will also satisfy the equation 3 x f. ELIMINATION BY ADDITION OR SUBTRACTION 175. x H 2y satisfied 6 and 7 x 3y = by the values x = I. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA A system of simultaneous equations is tions that can be satisfied a group of equa by the same values of the unknown numbers. 30 can be reduced to the same form f 5 y Hence they are not independent. Independent equations are equations representing different relations between the unknown quantities such equations . y I 171. for they express the x f y 10. Therefore. 26 y = 60. 4y . ~ 50. 172. 6x . and 3 x + 3 y =. E. viz. (3) (4) Multiply (2) by  Subtract (4) from (3). to The two methods I.26. for they cannot be satisfied by any value of x and y.130 170. of elimination most frequently used II. unknown quantity. for they are 2 y = 6 are But 2 x 2. The first set of equations is also called consistent. 3. 174. Solve y=6x 6x f Multiply (1) by 2. cannot be reduced to the same form. the last set inconsistent. same relation. A system of two simultaneous equations containing two quantities is solved by combining them so as to obtain unknown one equation containing only one 173. are simultaneous equations. 6 and 4 x y not simultaneous. y = 2.
37. 8 2. coefficients If the signs of these if unlike. are like. whose coefficients In general.3 1 = 47. y = 2. add the equations. subtract the equations. x = 10.14 =8. Check. eliminate the letter have the lowest common multiple. y = 1. Multiply (1) by Multiply (2) by 5. 5 13 .SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS the simpler one (1). 3. 131 Substitute this value of y in either of the given equations. 25 x . Transposing.15 y 39 x + 15 y Add (3) and (4). + 2. 10 . preferably 3x Therefore + 4 = 13 x = 3. 3. = 235. EXERCISE answers: 64 Solve the following systems of equations and check the ' .3 y = 47. 64 x = 040. 60 . Hence to eliminate Multiplyy if necessaryy the equations by such will make the coefficients of one unknown quantity equal. Therefore Substitute (6) in (1). 3y = 3. = 406. 10 + 5 1 = 135.2 = 9 + 4 = 13.2 = 6. Therefore Check. by addition or subtraction : numbers as (3) (4) (6) 176. x = 10.
' 12. _. = 6. [2o.3. + 2/ 17. I i 3 a. . J I y = 1U. 13 61 l7a. I oj 5y = 17. 13.1ft is 1 fl<>* r A + 22/ = 40.4. i 3.5 y = 2.f2/ ' = 50. = 24. f 3# ?/ = 0. v ^ = ll. 9 1 r 20.ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 5. I . x 11.9 *. * + 3 y = 50. O t K 8.3. 7 ' 1fi fl . ' 94 ^4 ' 15 ' ^  25 * 60. + 3?/ { 3 x f 2 y = 39. I ~ y~~> 22. f 3X 7x 14. = 41.v 23. ] ^ . 19< I a.
= 13. I3ar + 2y and dividing by . x ) ^"" 13. 133 Solve 7 y in (1) (27. = 2y + 10. . = 60. EXERCISE Solve by substitution : 65 f5aj l3a. 3. tity in the Substitute this value for one unknown quan other equation. (1) (2) Transposing 2. Hence to eliminate by substitution : Find in one equation the value of an unknown quantity in terms of the other. and solve the resulting equation. Substituting this value in (2) 3 7 ( ?/ t " 8 +2y= + 4 y 25 y Clearing of fractions.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS ELIMINATION BY SUBSTITUTION 177. 8. = 2. = 4#8. 21 y 24 Therefore y = 26. This value substituted in either (1) or (2) gives x 178.
6)7(y7)==18. 3 (1) Ex. and check the answers: + 5(y + 5) = 64. 2 y = . f8(z8)9(y9) = 26. 4* + 3y = 19. \ \6(a. 29 x = 29. 21z6y=9. (7) (7) (8) . (4). 43 + 8f3y + 7z From (3). (4t(x\) ' ""^IT 3. Solve 2 7 (2) Multiplying (1) by 12 and (2) by 14. . x = l.134 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 179. 3. 7 y = 6.3. + 212y4 = 14. simplified before elimination is possible. (8) 1 +8 2 _ 7 EXERCISE 66 Solve by any method. From 9 = 36. Substituting in (6) . it is advantageous to do so in most cases. Whenever one unknown quantity can be removed without clearing of fractions. the equation must be cleared of fractions and . (3) (4) (6) (6) Multiplying (6) by 2 and (6) by Sx + 6y = Adding and 3S. 7x_2y=3. however.
a. yM a. 10. 2 4^ ~ 3 = 13.f2 2. 4(5 x l2(315 8 8. . J 9. a.1) = 121. ff "*" _13 ~ 4 2' 15. 16. 4~2v 3a?2^4 3 1 18. . 135 "25 ' 6 ' tsjj ' r4(5. 4 11. +y 2 . 14. 12. = 3. .SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS 3x 4.1) + 5(6 y . 10 2a?5 17.
f y . 22.136 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 4_1 2' 19. e. 3x\" 1 23 24. <X + 20. 180. {. ?~y . but some expressions involving x.and x y . and y. l_3 4' 2/41 2 a. . * ((* (( .Q ^ 4 21. In many equations it is advantageous at first not to consider x and y as unknown quantities.#.
Dividing by 11 3 = #. 137 Solve y y (1) . y. etc. 33 = 11 x. . y 4. y 1. 15 y + 8 x .4 x = 4 xy. (4) (6) (6) (7) 2x(5). (2) (3) a. EXERCISE Solve : 67 2' 1. (4) + (G). 1.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS x Ex. Clearing of fractions. 2* * x 2. however. by the regular Clearing (1) and (2) of fractions.3 xy. Therefore y=4. x 3. . can also be solved Examples method. of this type. x 2x(2). Substituting x = 3 in (1).
138 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 4 6 K .= 5. y MOi y a. 253 7. Ex. 6w3 + bny = 6p. bmx = en anx anx + bny (3) (4) ftp. x y 331 9. 6. . x y 5. = en. x 8. n. 4 13. 1. Solve (1) (2) (1) (2) (8) x x (4). 21 9 .= o 6. LITERAL SIMULTANEOUS EQUATIONS 181. 10 " 12 25 U y 6.
and I. 6. Dividing. . amx + bmy amx f any = any (an cm. (1) (2) (7) an bm (6) (7) x w. and I if 13. f 6^ [ nx f my == m. a Find a and terms of n. s in 11. Uniting. x 12.W. d. fax f = l. . apan cm. 139 (an bm)x = en bp. ap. W . d. . ny = fy/ I sc 1. x a. 14. ax + by = 2 a&. x f my = 1. w.y = = 9a + 46. From and L the same simultaneous equations find d in terms of a. From the same equations find s in terms of a. f 5.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS Uniting. .cm y= EXERCISE 68 bm f 6y = c. bmy bm}y ap cm.
four equations containing four unknown quantireduced to three equations containing three unknown quantities. 182. f 3y 12 =s 8. 20. by 3. x + 12 y .12 y + 6 z = . 4. 8B12y + 17 x 16z z = 32 Oa + 12?/.lf> z .15z=12 Adding.25. y =* 2.2 + 4. (1) (2) (3) Eliminate y. Multiplying (2) + = 20 12 2 10 (4) Multiplying (3) Adding. Multiplying (1) by Multiplying (2) by 4.8 = 1. 1. Ex. 3. . (4) (5). 8 x . ties are Similarly. (6) + 3 Therefore Substituting the values of x and z 2 x = (7) in (1). 17 x 100 z Therefore Substitute this value in (4).3 = 8. 4. 3y = Hence Check.140 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA SIMULTANEOUS EQUATIONS INVOLVING MORE THAS TWO UNKNOWN QUANTITIES three unknown quantities three simultaneous independent equations must be given. (8) 2. = 30. 1.1+4. 3.2 + 3.13. = 3. To solve equations containing By tions.9z =11 x (6) Eliminating x from (4) and (5). 6. l. etc.16.by 2. the to the solution problem reduced of two simultaneous equations containing two unknown quantities. Solve the following system of equations: = 8. eliminating one and is the unknown quant iff/ from any pair of equasame unknown quantity froni another pair.3=4.
49. f 2 i/ f z = 14. k 2/ f 2 x a. == 6. 2 . a? 11.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS EXERCISE 10 x 69 141 1. a? + 709 = 26. 2 4. 2z = 40. + y f z = 15. 14. y f ?/ M 2? = 4. 8. 7. 12. 4 = 42. x 13. 15 2 = 45. 10. ~6?/ 5. + 2 y f 2 = 35.
142 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 15. . ? = llz. 32. ^ = 2. ?/ 3x = 0. 22. 27. 4.3 y + . . 19. (3 _.6 2. = 8*. =s 20. 60.42 = 2.2 a. 23. x _2 3 ' 0742! J 18.. 1510 4 17. 84 21. . 16. = 5.
symbols: x + y +z 8. 1 digit in the tens place. and to express In complex examples. Check. the first and the last digits will be interchanged. Problems involving several unknown quantities must contain. = l.2/ 2/ PROBLEMS LEADING TO SIMULTANEOUS EQUATIONS 183. 1 = 2. either directly or implied. Ex. The three statements of the problem can now be readily expressed in . unknown quantity by every verbal statement as an equation. ( 99. . (1) 100s + lOy + z + 396 = 100* + 10y + x. however. = 2 m. +2+ 6 = 8. + z = 2p. M=i. The digit in the tens' place is  of the sum of the other two digits. 2 = 1(1+6). Simple examples of this kind can usually be solved by equations involving only one unknown every quantity. and if 396 be added to the number. and Then 100 + 10 y +z the digit in the units' place. Obviously of the other . The sum of three digits of a number is 8. 2 = 6.y 125 (3) The solution of these equations gives x Hence the required number is 125. y 31. . # 4. as many verbal statements as there are unknown quantities. Find the number. z + x = 2 n. to express it is difficult two of the required digits in terms hence we employ 3 letters for the three unknown quantities. the number. y * z 30.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS 143 x 29. 1. x : z =1 : 2. Let x y z = the the digit in the hundreds' place.) it is advisable to represent a different letter. + 396 = 521.
2. 5_ _4_ A. the fraction is reduced to  and if both numerator and denominator of the reciprocal of the fraction be dimin ished by one. who travels 2 miles an hour faster than B. x y = the = the x denominator . B. C. x 3x4y = 12.144 Ex. 8 = xy + x xy = xy f 3 x 2 y = 2. Ex. and C travel from the same place in the same B starts 2 hours after A and travels one mile per hour faster than A. (3) C4) = 24 miles. ELEMENTS OF ALGE13KA If both numerator and denominator of a fraction be . By expressing the two statements in symbols. direction. 3+1 5+1 4_2. = 8. Find the fraction. From (3) Hence xy Check. = the fraction. + I 2 (1) and These equations give x Check. (1) (2) 12. starts 2 hours after B and overtakes A at the same How many miles has A then traveled? instant as B. the distance traveled by A. xy a: 2y 4y 2. increased by one. = Hence the fraction is f. we obtain. . 3 xand y I 1 (2) 5. 6 x 4 = 24. the fraction Let and then y is reduced to nurn orator. Since the three men traveled the same distance. 2. x 3 = 24. Or (4)2x(3). 3. 4 x = 24. y = 3.
5. Half the sum of two numbers equals 4. it is reduced to J.) added to a number of two digits. Find the numbers. the value of the fraction is fa. 6. Five times a certain number exceeds three times another 11. if its numerator and its denominator are increased by 1. . the digits will be interchanged. the fraction equals .SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS EXERCISE 70 145 1. 1. 183. the fraction is reduced fraction. If the denominator be doubled. If 27 is 10. fraction is reduced to \. to the number the digits will be interchanged. and the numerator increased by 4. If 4 be Tf 3 be is J. Four times a certain number increased by three times another number equals 33. and the fourth 3. 2. the number (See Ex. tion ? 8. ? What 9. and four times the first digit exceeds the second digit by 3. added to the numerator of a fraction. Find the fraction. Find the numbers. both terms. Find the number. If the numerator of a fraction be trebled.}. Find the numbers. part of their difference equals 4. The sum of the first sum of the three digits of a number is 9. If 9 be added to the number. and the second increased by 2 equals three times the first. and the second one increased by 5 equals twice number. and the two digits exceeds the third digit by 3. to L <> Find the If the numerator and the denominator of a fraction be If 1 be subtracted from increased by 3. its value added to the denominator. the last two digits are interchanged. the Find the fraction. A fraction is reduced to J. Find the number. and its denomi nator diminished by one. number by the first 3. and twice the numerator What is the fracincreased by the denominator equals 15. The sum 18 is is and if added of the digits of a number of two figures is 6. 7.
the rate of interest? 18. What was the amount of each investment ? 15. the rate of interest ? What was the sum of A sum of money at simple interest amounted in 2 years to $090. . and money and 17. the annual interest would be $ 195. bringing a total yearly interest of $530. and in 5 years to $1125. and the 5% investment brings $15 more interest than the 4 % investment. in 8 years to $8500. Find the weight of one cubic centimeter of gold and one cubic centimeter of silver. What was the sum and rates est The sums of $1500 and $2000 are invested at different and their annual interest is $ 190.146 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 11. partly at 5 %.grams. Two cubic centimeters of gold and three cubic centimeters of silver weigh together 69 J. much money is invested at A sum of money at simple interest amounted in 6 years to $8000. If the sum of how old is each now ? at invested $ 5000. 14. If the rates of interwere exchanged. and partly at 4 %. and The 6 investment brings $ 70 more interest than the 5 % % 4% investments together. Twice A's age exceeds the sum of B's and C's ages by 30. Find the rates of interest. and 5 years ago their ages is 55. A sum of $10. What was the amount of each investment ? A man % 5%. A man invested $750.000 is partly invested at 6%. 19. 13. a part at 6 and the remainder bringing a total yearly interest of $260. and 4 %. Ten years ago the sum of their ages was 90. respectively ? 16. Find their present ages. now. Ten years ago A was B was as as old as B is old as will be 5 years hence . 12. How 6 %. partly at 5% and partly at 4%. 5 %. Three cubic centimeters of gold and two cubic centimeters of silver weigh together 78 grains. and B's age is \ the sum of A's and C's ages.
23. for $ 740. A r ^ A circle is inscribed in triangle sides in D. triangle Tf AD. ED = BE. and GE = CF. BE. 25. and their difference by GO . E. angle c = angle d. andCL4 = 8. On /). but if A would double his pace. The sum of the 3 angles of a triangle is 180. and sheep. three AD = AF. . How many did he sell of each if the total number of animals was 24? 21. 24. 1 NOTE. respectively. and F '(see diagram). $ 50 for each cow. and angle e angle/. is the center of the circum scribed circle. and e. If one angle exceeds the sum of the other two by 20.SIMULTANEOUS LINEAR EQUATIONS 147 20. the three sides of a triangle E. If angle ABC = GO angle BAG = 50. The number of sheep was twice the number of horses and cows together. what is that = OF. then AD = AF. BC = 7 inches. and $15 for each sheep. and F. In the annexed diagram angle a = angle b. cows. c. . receiving $ 100 for each horse. and CF? is a circle inscribed in the 7<7. and CE If AB = G inches. and AC = 5 inches. Find the parts of the ABC touching the three sides if AB = 9. what are the angles of the triangle ? 22. points. are taken so ABC. and F. BC=7. BD = HE. and angle BCA = 70. the length of NOTE. B find angles a. A farmer sold a number of horses. Find their rates of walking. It takes A two hours longer 24 miles. he would walk it in two hours less than than to travel B B. An C touch ing the sides in D.
is the abscissa. (3. the ordinate of point P. It' Location of a point. 2). Thus the points A. and whose ordinate is usually denoted by (X ?/). lines PM the and P^V are coordinates called point P. (2. two fixed straight lines XX' and YY' meet in at right angles. B. The of Coordinates. 186. 3). the ordinate by ?/. and respectively represented Dare and by (3 7 4). ?/. (7. Abscissas measured to the riyht of the origin. first 3). The abscissa is usually denoted by line XX' is called the jraxis. is The point whose abscissa is a. (2. PN are given. * This chapter may be omitted on a 148 reading. then the position of point is determined if the lengths of P P3f and 185. YY' theyaxis. or its equal OM.. jr. . and PN _L YY'. PM.CHAPTER XII* GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS AND EQUATIONS 184. and r or its equal OA is . hence The coordinates lying in opposite directions are negative. and PJ/_L XX'. and ordinates abore the xaxis are considered positive . and point the origin. PN.
e. (0. 2). 2). Plot the points (6. 6. (4. (4. (0. 11. 4) and (4.4).2). all all points points lie lie whose abscissas equal zero ? whose ordinates equal zero? y) if y 10. 3). (4. (5. paper ruled with two sets of equidistant and parallel linos intersecting at right angles. Plot the points: (4. =3? is If a point lies in the avaxis. (1. Graphs. 3. 4. What Draw is the distance of the point (3. (4. 1). 0).3). 1). .) EXERCISE 1. What is the locus of (a?.1). !). and measure their distance. (4. 71 2). Draw the triangle whose vertices are respectively (l. (2.GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS The is 149 process of locating a point called plotting the point. Where do Where do Where do all points lie whose ordinates tfqual 4? 9.and(l.(!. 8. 0). 3). Plot the points: (4. 6. two variable quantities are so related that changes of the one bring about definite changes of the other. which of its coordinates known ? 13. Graphic constructions are greatly facilitated by the use of crosssection paper. 4). i. 4). 0). 4) from the origin ? 7. 0). 2. (See diagram on page 151. 12. the mutual dependence of the two quantities may be represented either by a table or by a diagram. (4. . 2J). (3. What are the coordinates of the origin ? If 187. 3). the quadrilateral whose vertices are respectively (4. Plot the points : (0. whose coordinates are given NOTE.
however. A. 1. from January 1 to December 1. and the amount of gas subjected to pressures from pound The same data. we obtain an uninterrupted sequence etc. 15. may be represented graphby making each number in one column the abscissa. D. A graphic and it impresses upon the eye all the peculiarities of the changes better and quicker than any numerical compilations. 188. ically each representing a temperature at a certain date. ure the ordinate of F. Thus the first table produces 12 points. in like manner the average temperatures for every value of the time. By representing of points. but it indicates in a given space a great many more facts than a table. and the corresponding number in the adjacent column the ordinate of a point. Thus the average temperature on May on April 20. or the curved line the temperature.. we meas1 . . may be found on Jan. 10 . ABCN y the socalled graph of To 15 find from the diagram the temperature on June to be 15 .150 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA tables represent the average temperature Thus the following of New volumes 1 Y'ork City of a certain to 8 pounds. representation does not allow the same accuracy of results as a numerical table. B. C.
Whenever a clear. the graph is applied. the rise and fall of wages. etc. the merchant. as the prices and production of commodities. uses them. concise representation of a number of numerical data is required. EXERCISE From the diagram questions 1. Daily papers represent ecpnoniical facts graphically.GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS 151 i55$5St5SS 3{utts33<0za3 Graphs are possibly the most widely used devices of applied matheThe scientist uses them to compile the data found from experiments. . physician. (b) July 15. (c) January 15. The engineer. (d) November 20. and to deduce general laws therefrom. the matics. : 72 find approximate answers to the following Determine the average temperature of New York City on (a) May 1.
(d) 9 0. When What is the temperature equal to the yearly average of the average temperature from Sept. During what month does the temperature decrease most rapidly ? 13. is 10. When the average temperature below C. 1 ? does the temperature increase from 11. ? 9. How much. During what months above 18 C. June July During what month does the temperature increase most ? rapidly 12. 1? 11 0. from what date to what date would it extend ? If . (c) the average temperature oi 1 C.. on 1 to the average. At what date is the average temperature lowest? the lowest average temperature ? 5. (freezing point) ? 7. At what date is the average temperature highest the highest average temperature? ? What What is 4. (1) 10 C. ?  3. 1 to Oct. 15.. During what month does the temperature change least? 14.152 2. From what date to what date does the temperature increase (on the average)? 8. ELEMENTS OF ALGEKRA At what date (a) G or dates is New York is C. is ture we would denote the time during which the temperaabove the yearly average of 11 as the warm season. How much warmer 1 ? on the average is it on July 1 than on May 17.? is is the average temperature of New York 6.. Which month is is the coldest of the year? Which month the hottest of the year? 16.
One meter equals 1. Construct a diagram containing the graphs of the mean temperatures of the following three cities (in degrees Fahren heit) : 21. 153 1? When is the average temperature the same as on April Use the graphs of the following examples for the solution of concrete numerical examples. a temperature chart of a patient. NOTE. Draw . From the table on page 150 draw a graph representing the volumes of a certain body of gas under varying pressures. Draw a graph for the 23. Represent graphically the populations : (in hundred thou sands) of the following states 22. 20.09 yards. in a similar manner as the temperature graph was applied in examples 118. Hour Temperature .GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS 18. 19. transformation of meters into yards.
5 grams. 3. 29.50. 2 8 y' + 3 y is a function of x and y. if 1 cubic centimeter of iron weighs 7. represent his daily gain (or loss).) On the same diagram represent the selling price of the books. e. 9.154 24. binding..50 per copy (Let 100 copies = about \. If dealer in bicycles gains $2 on every wheel he sells. Represent graphically the distances traveled by a train in 3 hours at a rate of 20 miles per hour. 28. . A 10 wheels a day. 1 to 1200 copies. if x assumes successively the tively values 1. the value of a of this quantity will change. 4. etc. An expression involving one or several letters a function of these letters.g. Represent graphically the cost of butter from 5 pounds if 1 pound cost $. x* x 19. +7 If will respec assume the values 7. function If the value of a quantity changes.inch. 2 is called x 2 xy + 7 is a function of x. 26. 2. x increases will change gradually from 13. gas.. 3. amount to $8. Show graphically the cost of the REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS OF ONE VARIABLE 189. and $. books from for printing. the daily average expenses for rent. etc..50. to 27. (Assume ir~ all circles >2 2 . from R Represent graphically the = to R = 8 inches.) T circumferences of 25. then C irJl. x 7 to 9. 2 . if he sells 0. if each copy sells for $1. to 20 Represent graphically the weight of iron from cubic centimeters. 190. The initial cost of cost of manufacturing a certain book consists of the $800 for making the plates. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA If C 2 is the circumference of a circle whose radius is J2. 2 x f 7 gradually from 1 to 2.
The values of func192. may. Q.0). 2 (1.GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS 191. To obtain the values of the functions for the various values of the following arrangement be found convenient : .g. hence various values of x The values of a function for the be given in the form of a numerical table. 1 the points (3. If a more exact diagram is required. and (3. a*. x a variable. (1^. 9). while 7 is a constant. (2. Graph of a function. 9). 4). 3 50. ( 2.1). 155 A variable is a quantity whose value changes in the same discussion. (1. Thus the table on page 1G4 gives the values of the functions x 2 x3 and Vsr.e. as 1. 2). it is In the example of the preceding article. and join the points in order.2 x may 4 from x = 4. construct '.1). etc. however. values of x2 nates are the corresponding i. Draw the graph of x2 f. for x=l. Ex. be also represented by a graph. to x = 4. E. plot points which lie between those constructed above. 4). is A constant a quantity whose value does not change in the same discussion. to con struct the graph x of x 2 construct a series of 3 points whose abscissas rep2 resent X) and whose ordi1 tions . . 3 (0. may . J). is supposed to change. 2.
and join(0. the function is frequently represented by a single letter. hence two points are sufficient for the construction of these graphs. Thus in the above example.156 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Locating the points( 4. = 0. etc. Ex. and joining in order produces the graph ABC. rf 71 . the scale unit of the ordinatcs is taken smaller than that of the x. 2. 7 . 2 4 and if y = x f. A Y' function of the first degree is an integral rational function involving only the power of the variable. 4J..2 x . straight line produces the required graph.. 194. (4. as y. 5). It can be proved that the graph is a straight of a function of the first degree line. = 4. if /* 4 > 1i > > ?/ = 193. (2. . or ax + b f c are funclirst tions of the first degree... If If Locating ing by a 3) and (4. j/=3.. (To avoid very large ordinatcs. y = 6. 1). 4). Draw y z x the graph of = 2x3.) For brevity.20).4). r */ +* 01 . Thus 4x + 7. (3.
2J. (a) (6) (c) (d) (e) The values of y. a? 1. 2. 12. (d) (^) 1 to and from 2 . 1J. Draw the graph ofy=2j2# and from the diagram determine : #2 from # = 2 to a?=4. y = 2x = 4. The smallest value of the function. The values of a*. (/) Vl2^ (0) V5. i. a? 2 4. a* 13. 15. 3 a 8. xz + x. a? the graphs of the following functions: + 2. Draw the graph of : from #= 4 to 05 = 4. from x VlO'S". 6. .GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS EXERCISE 73 157 Draw 1. The roots of the equation 2 {2x a*2 = l. if"a. + 4. 14. . 6 fa. 2 2 a. (/) The roots of the equation x The roots of the equation a2 4 x f 2 = 1. (7i) (c) 23. 2 a. a ar. The roots of the equation 2 f 2 a a*2 = 0. 3. (C ) (2. 2. 1J. 2 4 x f 2 = 0. 2 or 2 20. the diagram find (a) (e) (3. 23x.e. 18. 19. 1 8 10. 22. 2J. 4a? I. 1. = 4. x+1. The value of x that produces the smallest value it* of the function.or. l. (</) The roots of the equation x2 4 x f 2 = 2. 7. 11. xl.5)2. a?. Draw the graph of or from the diagram determine: 4 a? +2 a. the function. J. if y = 2.5)2. (ft) (_ 1. and (a) (6) (c) (d) The values of the function if x = \. 16.8)'. if a. Jar . 9. a. (If) Va25. The values of x that make 2 4 a? + 2 = 0. 4 a. ?/ a. 21. 8. 2 a.2 4 # + 2 equals 2. 3. fa 17. 2x + 3x a?. 1J. = The values of a*. 2 2. The values of a?. if the function equals zero. 5.
e.24. if c Draw the locus of this equation = 12.where x c is a constant.158 24. .) scale are expressed in degrees of the Centigrade (C. Represent 26. we have to measure the abscissas of the intersection of the 195. what values of x make the function x2 + 2x 4 = (see 192). 1 C.. that graph with the o>axis. 25. C. GRAPHIC SOLUTION OF EQUATIONS INVOLVING ONE UNKNOWN QUANTITY Since we can graphically determine the values of x make a function of x equal to zero. then y = . 9 F. 14 F. i. If two variables x and y are directly proportional. to Fahrenheit readings : Change 10 C. From grade equal to (c) the diagram find the number of degrees of centi1 F.. then cXj where c is a constant. 32 F. A body moving with a uniform t velocity of 3 yards per second moves in this seconds a distance d =3 1.. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Degrees of the Fahrenheit (F. that the graph of two variables that are directly proportional is a straight line passing through the origin (assume for c 27. If two variables x and y are inversely proportional.) scale by the formula (a) Draw the graph of C = f (F32) from to (b) 4 F F=l. the abscissas of 3. it is evidently possible Thus to find to find graphically the real roots of an equation.. Therefore x = 1..24 or x = P and Q. Show any convenient number). y= formula graphically.
a2 2a. 13. is called a quadratic equation. 3. viz. 2 and 1. = 0. (0. and determine the abscis 1 sas of the points of intersection with the graph. draw through 1) a line parallel to the #axis. 197. or 5 2. 12. the points may be found otherwise by inspection.7 2 a 5 = 0. 6. z 2 4x 6 a2 6. Such equations in general have two roots. and c represent \3 2 1 1/2 known quantities. An equation of the the form ax2 bx c 0. 11. 4. 0. (a) (6) 9. 14. (a) x2 = 0. a: (a) (6) (c) 6a. 8. crosssection paper is used. 7. Y' EXERCISE 4x_ 7 74 : Solve graphically the following equations 1.f 9 = 0. 10. + + = where a. 6. . tion x 2 159 To +2x solve the equa4 1. de = termine the points where If the function is 1.GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS 196.
Hence. If x = 0. produces the 7* required locus. 0).2 y ~ 2. Hence we may join (0. 3x _ 4 . == 2.e. If the given equation is of the we can usually locate two y. locate points (0. 199. T . unknown quantities. 4) and them by straight line AB (3. if y = is 0. 1) and 0). Ex. i. y y 2. . solve for ?/. fc = 3.160 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA GRAPHIC SOLUTION OF EQUATIONS INVOLVING TWO UNKNOWN QUANTITIES 198. and joining by a straight line. = 0. Draw the locus of 4 x + 3 y = 12. y= A and construct x (  graphically. Ex. Represent graphically Solving for y ='"JJ y.2. 2). Hence if if x x  2. Graph of equations involving two unknown quantities. first degree. ?/ =4 AB. Equations of the first degree are called linear equations. (f . NOTE. 4) and (2. represent graphically equations of the form y function of x ( 1D2). and join the required graph. ?/. we can construct the graph or locus of any Since we can = equation involving two to the above form. because their graphs are straight lines.1. that can be reduced Thus to represent x   L^ \ x =2  graphically. X'2 Locating the points (2. y = l. Thus If in points without solving the equation for the preceding example: 3x s .
linear equations have only one pair of roots. 201. (2) . 3. The coordinates of every point of the graph satisfy the given equation. The every coordinates of point in satisfy the equation (1). viz. we obtain the roots.GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS 161 200. AB but only one point in AB also satisfies (2). The roots of two simultaneous equations are represented by the coordinates of the point (or points) at which their graphs intersect. P. Since two straight lines which are not coincident nor simultaneous Ex. the point of intersection of the coordinate of P. equation x= By measuring 3. Graphical solution of a linear system. 202. and every set of real values of x and y satisfying the given equation is represented by a point in the locus. To find the roots of the system. AB y = .15.57. parallel have only one point of intersection. 203. and CD. Solve graphically the equations : (1) \xy\. By the method of the preceding article construct the graphs AB and and CD of (1) (2) respectively.1=0.
(4.e.5. The equations 2 4 = 0. (2. they are inconsistent. intersection. we of the + y* = 25. . i. and + 3). Measuring the coordinates of P. 4.y~ Therefore. 5. there are two pairs of By measuring the coordinates of : P and Q we find 204. 4. 0) and (0. 3. etc. Solving (1) for y. 4. 3. 4. which consist of a pair of parallel lines. the point we obtain Ex. 2. There can be no point of and hence no roots. e. 1. 3x 2 y = 6. y equals 3.162 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA graph. the graph of points roots. 3.9.0). (1) (2) C. 5. Since the two  we obtain DE. Locating the points (5. In general. 0. 0. and .g. (4. (1) (2) cannot be satisfied by the same values of x and y. Inconsistent equations. 3). AB the locus of (1). Locating two points of equation (2). 2 equation x 3). parallel graphs indicate inconsistent equations. 4.  4. 1. This is clearly shown by the graphs of (1) arid (2).5. if x equals respectively 0.. 2.0. Using the method of the preceding para. 4. 4. 4. = 0. construct CD the locus of (2) of intersection. x2 . V25 5. and joining by a straight line. Solve graphically the : fol lowing system = = 25. obtain the graph (a circle) AB C joining. P graphs meet in two and $.
state reasons. \ 2x + 3^ . 1 6* + 7 y = 3. 9. 16 22. as 2^3 and 3x f ==l 2y =6 tical have identical graphs. 7. EXERCISE 75 Construct the loci of the following equations: 1. vice versa. Draw system. the graphs of the following systems. y 2 4. and solve each If there are no solutions. 8. idengraphs indicate dependent equations. a. 20. y=x + 5. 17. . x~y=0. 10. if possible. and. 16 23.GRAPHIC REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTIONS 205. 2. y = 4. 4.. 2x 3?/=6. 5. y= a2 2x y6. a+r/=6. 3. 6. '163 Dependent equations. 19.
26. CUBES. 29 . TABLE OF SQUARES.164 24. 30.14 y = . AND SQUARE HOOTS .y). 3 31. 4 a = 3(6 . ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA "~ U # . 28. Show that the same values of x and y cannot satisfy the : three equations x f 5y = 5. 25.8.
2. Law of Signs. All even powers of a negative quantity arc positive. ^4/? it According to 50. involution repeated multiplication. ( 3 2 6 3 )* = ( 3 a2 6 8 ) . 52. According to 1. follows that 3. a = a3 . ( a) is positive. fa. 2. a2 6 6 = ?> 2+2 5 5 + 2 = a. ( 3 a268 ) ( a 8 = _ (2m ) (8 ____ 16 *)"" 27 n 165 . a special kind of product. = a2 5 =6 (5 )* n m n (a ) = a (a 2 3 ) a2 b5 . Involution is the operation of raising a quantity to a Since a power effected positive integral power. is may be by 207. INVOLUTION OF MONOMIALS 208. 8. . powers of a positive quantity are positive. ( 2 aft ) 9 is negative.CHAPTER XIII INVOLUTION 206. on to in factors 4. etc.faa a a a Obviously 1. 3 f a = f a = +. To find (#(**&)" is a problem of involution.a2 . All odd powers of a negative quantity are negative. = 6+ 5 + +fi = fi 62.
a product to a given power. raise ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA the exponent of the power of a power. (a ) 2 5 . 2. 6. V V/ 13. (a ) 2 4  3. (^^) 2 .6) = a .3 a 6 f 3 a6 . The square of a binomial was discussed in 63. 210. . 4. (2ar). (277171 )*. 16.6 (a 8 8 . 5. 76 : (>y. multiply tht raise each of its factors to given exponents. 4 /2mV. 2 11 (afc ) . V 3xy )' INVOLUTION OF BINOMIALS 209. raise its terms to the required EXERCISE Perform the operations indicated 1. the required power. ' 27 ' / _4_ _4_V ' 11. 24. 15. The & cube of a binomial (a 3 3 _j_ we obtain by multiplying (a 2 2 + 6) 1 by + and = a + 3a 6 + 3a6 + * 6) . \ 3 J '  MW 10. raise a fraction to a power. amVy) 3 .166 To find To To power. 3 2 2 8 . ^/2?n?A 4 ' 30.
18. 3. nent of the binomial. 6. 15. Ex. 3 . a. (3 x . 12. + a 2 a.27 ay + 9 x y2n 2 EXERCISE 77 Perform the operations indicated: 1. examination of these results shows that : The number of terms is 1 greater than the exponent of the binomial. 8 (a??/) 3 . 5 5 4 2 2 3 s . 21. 3 3 + 3(2aO*(Sy) + 3(2aj)(3y)> + 36 z2y + 54 xy* + 27 y3 . and decreases in each succeeding term by L . (m2) 8 (w+w) 3 8 10. 2. + 4aj) 3 . pansions. etc. 1. 2 a8 3a2 + 3al.INVOLUTION Ex. . 9. (aj7) . An 1. 2. 2 . 4 4 2 2 3 4 .3(3 a*)a(y = 27 a . 23. = s= (2s) 8 a.6 2 8 ft) . 211. (3a (a (4 62 l) 3 . . (5 (1 a) 3 . 86 3 w + 3 w + ra8 126 + G6l.) 14. (afl) . or*  Find the cube root of 19. 7.y) = (3 y?y . 8. 3 8 .  lx  (7 a (1 I) 3 17. (a + &)8 . 167 Find the cube of 2 x f. Find the cube 2 6 n of 3 x* . 5. 4. (6m+2w) (3 8 .y . (3af26) 8 . The higher powers of binomials. (3 (l I) 2 8 . frequently called ex. + 3a 6 + 3a& f& ^Sx^ + S^ ^ 3 2 2 3 .3 y. 16. are obtained by multiplication. TJie exponent of a in the first term is the same as the expo2. 1 f 3 2 3 . : a 20. as follows : + 6) = o + 3 d'b + 3 a6 + + 6) = a + 4 a?b + 6 a & + 4 a6 + b (a = a + 5 a 6 + 10 a*b + 10 a 6 f 5 aM + 6 (a + 6) 8 8 2 (a b*. +5a) 22. 13.
* 2 4 ) 16 ic 8 . (mnp 5 I) 5 . (m 2 + n) 8 . (l 8 . 6. mn 5 2 5 ) . . 18. 1. 14. The The coefficient coefficient of the first term is 1.81 y 2 8 9 8 4 ) . 5. Ex. (m fl) 2 20. The minus. 15. (lfa 6 2 ) 5. . 13. (2a5c) (1 f 2 4 a:) 4 . 23. 24. .96 ^y f 216 o?y . 10. Ex. 12 EXERCISE Expand: 1. (w 4 ?i) 4 . (3a f5) 5) 4. (?/i~w) : 16. 78 s . (af 5) . Expand <? 2 (2 #  3 y3 ) 4 2 . 3. Expand (x = ic 5 f 5 x*y + 10 ^V + 5 . (m 5 I) 2 22. (a~^) 5 . 25. 3. (2 a 4 . 10 x*y* + 2 5 xy* + y5 . 17. of the second term equals the exponent of the binomial 6.a) 3 19. (tff1) (cfd) . (2w 2 2 fl) 4 . and the result divided by 1 plus the exponent of b. . Ex. Expand (a??/) x5 5 x4 y + 10 x'2 (and odd + 212. and the powers negative. (1 + 4 ?/) . (p + q) 4 * 7. 21. (?>i?i f c)*. 9. is the coefficient of the next term. 4 (1for) 5 . TJie coefficient of any term of the power multiplied by the exponent of a.4(2 * )'(3 *f) f 6(2 ^) (3 y ) 8 . (mJ) 4 11.168 3. (2 4. . 2.4(2^(3 ^'+(3 y . 8. ( &) 5 . 4. 4 . (la&) 4 12.216 a^ 4. .2. 5. and increases by 1 in each succeeding term. since the even powers of signs of the last answer arc alternately plus y are positive. . ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA T7ie exponent ofb is 1 in the second term of the result.
Since even powers can never be negative. 109 . and all other numbers are. = x means = 6. or x &4 . V9 = + 3. It follows from the law of signs in evolution that : Any even root of a positive. it is evidently impossible to express an even root of a negative quantity by Such roots are called imaginary the usual system of numbers. 215. called real numbers. or 3 for (usually written 3) . Every odd root of a quantity has same sign as and 2 the quantity. \/"^27=3. Evolution it is is the operation of finding a root of a quan the inverse of involution. \/a = x means x n = y ?> a. 4 4 . and ( v/o* = a. for (+ a) = a \/32 = 2. tity . V \/P 214. 2. 27 =y means r' = 27. for distinction. 1. a) 4 = a4 . which can be simplified no further.CHAPTER XIV EVOLUTION 213. for (f 3) 2 ( 3) equal 0. (_3) = 27. quantity may the be either 2wsitive or negative. etc. numbers. or y ~ 3. Thus V^I is an imaginary number.
(. 2. V?. 9. 2 .lL. 6. 8. 7. roots of the numerator \/18 . VT8226 = V25 2 729 . . 7. 3i . 9. V25 9 16. Ex. Find (x/19472) Since by definition ( v^)" = a. 3/0** = am . extract the and denominator. 62 = V2* . . = 199 + (_ 198) . 5.125. we have (Vl472) 2 Ex. fy 5 3 . Ex 5 a" . Ex.64 5 4 .4. EXERCISE 1. To extract the root of a power.for(*Siy = 3 3 6 c* \ c*J 2 2 b' ?*243 ft^c20 216. 3. Ex. for (a 3 )* = a 12 .201) = 2. 8. To extract a root of a fraction. Ex. 6. index.  100 a 2 . V5 v/2 7 2. 79 2 v/2 5 . v^SjW 3 = 2 a ^/gL^g = * c* A 82 &c*. 10. \/2 4 9 . 7 . 4 v.200 .9 = 136. 6 7 = 030. 82 . for (a")" a = a mn 3. v/^i2 = a*.170 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EVOLUTION OF MONOMIALS The following examples root : are solved by the definition of a . Ex. 7 . divide the exponent by the A root of a product equals the product of the roots of the factors. = 19472. v/2^.1. 3 33 53 . . Ex. 14 63 25 = V2 3* = 2 32 6 . 2. = V26TIT81 = 53. V36 9 4. for (2 a 2 6c4 ) 8 = Ex.
2. 45 V5184. 5. ^40^4. 2 .EVOLUTION 171 28. V20 . V9216. A trinomial is a perfect square if one of its terms is equal to twice the product of the square roots of the other terms.(V200) f ( VI5) 2 . 3.) 4 3 EXERCISE 80 : Extract the square roots of the following expressions 1.4/. 31. 6. 2 . 32. 116. 2 f ( V240) 3 . (V2441) ~(V2401) 36.3 . V8. Find the square root of a2 . In such a case the square root can be found ( 116. 2yh2/ 4  9^ + 60^ + 2 2/ . 1. 30. (Vl24) { 2 EVOLUTION OF POLYNOMIALS AND ARITHMETICAL NUMBERS 217. \/d \Vab r + b\ 9.3 y2) ( vV .6 ofy 2 f 9 y4 . ( VI5) x ( VT7) 2 2 2 2 x ( V3) 35. . Ex.) by inspection. a* 4 8 2 .75. 34. ( VH) + (Vl9) 2 2 . 29. 33.6 tfif + 9 y = O .98. a f2 l 2 + l. Hence _ 6 ary f 9 y = (s ./).3.
.e. and b. 2 49a 8 16 a 4 9. 14. a f. the given expression is a perfect square. a2 + & + c + 2 a& .172 7.> 13. 10.2 &c. mV14m??2)f 49. it is not known whether the given expression is a perfect square. In order to find a general method for extracting the square root of a polynomial. a\b is the root if In most cases. i. The term a' first 2 . 2ab . 8 . 12. The work may be arranged 2 : a 2 + 2 ab + W \a + b .2 ab + b .b 2 2 to its square. + 6 + 4a&. multiplied by b must give the last two terms of the as follows square. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBEA 4a2 44a?> + 121V2 4a s . let us consider the relation of a f. second term 2ab by the double of by dividing the the socalled trial divisor.2 ac . 2 . 15. 2 2 218. #2 a2  16. the that 2 ab f b 2 = we have then to consider sum of trial divisor 2 a. however.72 aW + 81 & 4 . and b (2 a f b). 11. term a of the root is the square root of the first The second term of the root can be obtained a.
is As there is no remainder. Arranging according to descending powers of 10 a 4 a. double of this term find the next is the new trial divisor. 8 a 2 Second complete divisor. Multiply the complete divisor Sx' 3y 3 by Sy 8 and subtract the product from the remainder. and so forth. 2. By doubling 4x'2 we obtain 8x2 the trial divisor.24 afy* f 9 tf. 173 x* Extract the square root of 1G 16x4 10 x* __ .24 a + 4 12 a + 25 a8 s . We find the first two terms of the root by the method used in Ex. 219. As there is no remainder. . Explanation. the required root (4 a'2 8a + 2}. . . 10 a 4 8 a. of x.  24 a 3 + 25 a 2  12 a +4 Square of 4 a First remainder. Extract the square root of 16 a 4 .EVOLUTION Ex. we obtain the next term of the root 3 y 3 which has to be added to 2 the trial divisor. 1. 8 /. the first term of the answer. The square . . Ex. and consider Hence the their sum one term. 8 a 2 . Second trial divisor. by division we term of the root. 2 Subtracting the square of 4x' from the trinomial gives the remainder '24 x'2 + y. 24# 2 y 3 by the trial divisor Dividing the first term of the remainder. First trial divisor. . 1. 8 a 2  12 a +4 a f 2. 4 x2 3 ?/ 8 is the required square foot. The process of the preceding article can be extended to polynomials of more than three terms. \ 24 a 3 4f a2 10 a 2 Second remainder. 6 a. Arrange the expression according to descending powers root of 10 x 4 is 4 # 2 the lirst term of the root. 8 a 2 2. */'' . First complete divisor.
2^43^42^ 46 5 4 a.16. 16 _^ + 2 JX XT 4a. 17. 9. 13#4 413ar 44a. 4 4?/ 42x 4 3 j/ 2xif 6 a5 4.40 a 22 . 12.12 m 4. 16x6 4. 4 . x 6 4 4 0^4. 729 4.73 a8 .42 a f 49 a 6 16 a4  24 a3 4 J 2 3 3 4 4 .24 or . 3 a2 a4 4 2a + a4 2 or 41 3 2 a3 + 1.42 a*& 4. 6 6 2 49 a 4 . 25 x 4 f 40 afy 446 x 2 if 4 24 a^ 8 4 9 4 i/ . 15.174 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 81 : Extract the square roots of the following expressions 2.9.9m 4 20m3 30m 4.a 6 x*y 2 . 36a 460a 473a 440a 416a 3 2 13.V430^425^ 4m 4. 19. 24.37 a ^ . 3.73a4 440^436^460^.10 x2 4. 4 36 a 2 12 4 4 16 a4 4 46 a 4 4 44 a 8 f 25 a h 12 a 4 4 25 a6 4. 5 4 16 4 iK . 16. 436^?/469a. 2 x2 3 2x. + 81 a 454 a + 81.20 J or 2 16 x 4. l 4.162 a2 60 a10 4.14^44 ic 4^ 3 12^.4 x 4. 14.54 a 40 a 6 4 9 a4 . 6 11. a? 2 . 2 4. 18.6 . > 7. 10. 25 m 20 w + 34 m . 412 a& f 37 a' 6 .25. 20. 1 4.20 o 4. 5. 8. 6.25 x 4 4. 36it.12m 5 4.12 a6 2 2 3 4 4 64 . .
the first of which is 9 the square root of 21'06'81 has three digits.000. square root of arithmetical numbers can be found to the one used for algebraic Since the square root of 100 is 10. Hence if we divide the digits of the number into groups. and the square root of the greatest square in units. the square root of 7744 equals 88. Hence the root is 80 plus an unknown number. Ex. beginning at the and each group contains two digits (except the last. The is trial divisor = 160. As 8 x 168 = 1344. the integral part of the square root of a number less than 100 has one figure. and the first remainder is. of 1.000 is 1000. the first of which is 4. the consists of group is the first digit in the root.. 2.1344. 7744 80 6400 1 +8 160 + 8 = 168 1344 1344 Since a 2 a Explanation. Find the square root of 524. a 2 = 6400. first . two figures.EVOLUTION 220. Ex. Therefore 6 = 8. the preceding explanation it follows that the root has two digits. = 80. a f>2'41 '70 6 c [700 + 20 + 4 = 724 2 a a2 = +6= 41) 00 00 1400 + 20 = 1420 4 341 76 28400 = 1444 57 76 6776 .000 is 100. Thus the square root of 96'04' two digits. 1. From A will show the comparison of the algebraical and arithmetical method given below identity of the methods. which may contain one or two). the first of which is 8. then the number of groups is equal to the number of digits in the square root.000. of a number between 100 and 10. of 10. and we may apply the method used in algebraic process. Find the square root of 7744. etc. and the complete divisor 168. etc. 175 The by a method very similar expressions.176.
688 4 45 2 70 2 25 508 4064 6168 41)600 41344 2256 222.10. places.70 6. Find the square root of 6/. 3. we must Thus the groups 1'67'24. annex a cipher. The groups of 16724. 12. Roots of common fractions are extracted either by divid ing the root of the numerator by the root of the denominator. in . or by transforming the common fraction into a decimal. and if the righthand group contains only one digit.0961 are '.1T6 221.GO'61. ELEMENTS OF ALGEKRA In marking off groups in a number which has decimal begin at the decimal point.7 to three decimal places. EXERCISE Extract the square roots of : 82 .1 are Ex.
31. = 3. 39. 35. feet. Find the side of a square whose area equals 50. feet.EVOLUTION Find 177 to three decimal places the square roots of the follow ing numbers: 29. Find the mean proportional between 2 and . 37. 33. whose area equals 48. J.58 square 38. JT .4 square when R = radius and 11. 5.1410. 13.22. T\. 1. .) 40.01. 34. TT Find the radius of a (Area of a circle circle 1 equals irR . 32. 36.53. Find the side of a square whose area equals 96 square yards. 1. 30.
6#2 = x* 24. quadratic equation is one which contains both the square and the first power of the unknown A quantity.CHAPTER XV QUADRATIC EQUATIONS INVOLVING ONE UNKNOWN QUANTITY 223. 224. Solve 13 x2 19 etc. 2)* + 5 = 33. + bx f c r= is a complete quadratic ax 2 = m is a pure quadratic equation. is A quadratic equation. absolute term of an equation is the terra which / does not contain any In 4 x 2 unknown quantities. . 226. 1. 2. = 4. The 7 equation. A pure quadratic is solved by reducing it to the form and extracting the square root of both members. or affected. is 12. complete. but no higher power e. Dividing. x = + 2 or x =2. ax 2 + bx + c = Q. 178 . an integral rational equation that contains the square of 4x the unknown number. 6 y2 = 17. x f 12 = the absolute term PUKE QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 227. 2 ic = a. This answer Check. Transposing. or incomplete. = 7^ + 5. quadratic equation contains only the square of the axt unknown quantity.g. Extracting the square root of each member. or equation of the second degree. A pure. 225. Ex. is frequently written x 13( 2)2 = 7(  19 = 33 . x 2 7..
15^5 = 6. 19 + 9 = 5500. 4. 2 2 a. ' =: y? b* b .25. s3 ? + oj x +3 = 4. 5.=g x2 4 a2 Clearing of fractions. or Therefore. . 2 4fc 5' 18. 8. 7. EXERCISE Solve the following equations 1. Dividing by Extracting the square root. 10. 3. Solve 179 . 4 ax. o.2. 0^ + 1 = 1. + 4 ax = ax + 4 a 2 + x2 f 2 x2 = 8 a 2 4 a2 x2 = x = V 4 a2 x= x = . 7 = 162.QUADRATIC EQUATIONS Ex. : 83 2. 6(2)=10(ajl). . ax Transposing and combining. 2. 16^393 = 7. (a? 9.
27. 24. solve for r. 3. opposite the right angle is called the hypotenuse (c in the diagram). If a 2 4. 9 & { c# a x +a and c. its area contains =a 2 f b2 . 4. solve for d. is 5(5. 84 is Find a positive number which equal to its reciprocal ( 144). If 2 f 2 b* = 4w 2 f c sol ve for m. r. 108. If 22 = ~^. and the two other sides respectively c 2 contains c a and b units. 28. Three numbers are to each other as 1 Find the numbers. 2 : 3. .) of their squares 5. 26. and they con tain together 30G square feet. EXERCISE 1. is one of _____ b The side right angle. The sides of two square fields are as 7 2. Find is the number. may be considered one half of a rec square units. : 6. ' 4.180 on __!_:L ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA a. = a 2 2 (' 2 solve for solve for = Trr . The two numbers (See is 2 : 3. 2 . 228. find a in terms of 6 .b 2 If s If =c . Find the numbers. then Since such a triangle tangle. 29. and their product : 150. Find the side of each field. If the hypotenuse whose angles a units of length. If s = 4 Trr ' 2 . and the sum The sides of two square fields are as 3 : 5. solve for v. 25. 2. 22 a. If G=m m g . and the first exceeds the second by 405 square yards. A right triangle is a triangle. A number multiplied by ratio of its fifth part equals 45. Find the side of each field. . 2 . 2a f 1 23.
9. 181 The hypotenuse of a right triangle : is 35 inches.) COMPLETE QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 229. 24. (b) 44 square feet. To find this term. 8. . The following ex ample illustrates the method or of solving a complete quadratic equation by completing the square. its surface (Assume ir = 2 . member can be made a complete square by adding 7 x with another term.2 7 . Find the unknown sides and the area. of a right triangle Find these sides. is and the other two sides are equal. The area $ /S of a circle 2 . 2m. in how many seconds will a body fall (a) G4 feet. we have of or m = . The area : sides are as 3 4. passes in t seconds 2 over a space s yt Assuming g 32 feet. make x2 Evidently 7 takes the place 7x a complete square to to which corresponds m 2 . x* 7 x= 10.) 13. J = 12. let us compare x 2 The left the perfect square x2 2 mx f m to 2 . 7r (Assume and their = 2 7 2 . A body falling from a state of rest. and the two smaller 11. . Find these 10. sides. the radius of a sphere whose surface equals If the radius of a sphere is r. The hypotenuse of a right triangle is 2.QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 7. add () Hence 2 . 8 = 4 wr2 Find 440 square yards. Find the sides. The hypotenuse of a right triangle is to one side as 13:12. Method of completing the square. .7 x f 10 = 0. 4. (b) 100 feet? = . the formula = Trr whose radius equals r is found by Find the radius of circle whose area S equals (a) 154 square inches. and the third side is 15 inches. Two circles together contain : 3850 square feet. and the other two sides are as 3 4. Solve Transposing. radii are as 3 14. Find the radii.
62 x 5 = f. or x = 2.182 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 2 Adding ( J) to each member. x x2 x x2 + 2 a2 x f a = 2 ax. (*~8) a = at . 22 7 2 + 10 =0. 2 ax f 2 o) s a . Simplifying. Ex. = .1. Extracting square roots. Transposing. Hence to solve a complete quadratic : Reduce the equation to the form x*\px==q. 230. adding member). 15 x 2 Dividing by 9. Complete the square by adding the square of one half the coefficient of x. Hence Therefore Check. Ex. 80^69^2 = 9 x2 sc Transposing. 7 5 + 10 = 0.e. a. = \ # = ff. = x\ = 2. 2 a* a. Transposing. Therefore. Extract the square root and solve the equation of the first degree thus formed.  x Q) 2 to each Completing the square (i. a Clearing of fractions. . or J. Or (*i) x Extracting square roots. 2  . = 6.a.2 a2 . Uniting. J.2.x(l = .  \..
4 ~ a2 Transposing.QUADRATIC EQUATIONS Completing the square. Extracting square root.1+2?= "*"   Vl . x = l+ * a = 1 +2 <* V IT * Therefore * Vl < EXERCISE 85 . x . 183 Simplifying.
and c in the general answer.c = 0. =0. . Solution by formula. any quadratic equation may be obtained by 6. x la 48. article. Solving this equation we obtain by the method of the preceding 2a The roots of substituting the values of a. ao. 2x 3 4. \bx\.184 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 45 46. o^ or } 3 ax == 4 a9 7 wr . 49. 2 Every quadratic equation can be reduced to the general form. 231. =8 r/io?. = 12.
3 x 11 + 10 = 0. 10. 16.  . 14. 5 x2 Transposing. 2 .4 4 5 .15 x9 25x* = 21 . b =  + 20 == = 0. 2or } 5o. c p.. 185 Solve 5 x2 = 26 x5. 6 . 7. 2 o. 6 Ex. : 86 + 2 = 0. 11. 9. 12. 1. 3. 7^ + 9 x 90. = 12 . Hence Therefore =p 1 t b = (p 2 + 1). 6^+5^ 56.QUADRATIC EQUATIONS Ex. c = 5. 2. TIO. 6 10 2024 =6or 10 l. a. ?i 2 . Solve 2 j>o? p*x x px* a 2 p. V^tT)* . 6m = 7 m + 12 = 64 7 x2 2 2 a. 6.  P + VQ^+T? ^4^ EXERCISE Solve by the above formula 1. 2 a. 8. 26. 6. 2. 15. 2# 11 + 15 = 0. 21. 13. 4. 18. 20. 20 x Hence Therefore a = 5. = 64120?. 19.25 x. 2 a? = 44 x . 17. Reducing to general form.
24. 2S3x 1 2 .4) = .186 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA to Find the roots of the following equations places : two decimal 22. 233. orz roots. 1. Eesolving into factors. x(x <2 . a? 28  7al=7s be required to solve the 232. =7 x se 2 2 + 16 x. }. member can be Ex. Bx 1 1. 5 = 0. 2a^7x sc(2 16rc Therefore a = 0. 26. Let it e(l uation: 5^ + 5=26*. (5 a? !)(. 23. Solution by factoring. and 6.x. we x obtain the roots =^ or x = 5. = 0.2. Evidently this method can be applied to equations of if one member of the equation is zero and the other factored. factors Now. if either of the uct is zero. x2 = 1 . 25. ar>8o. Transposing. transposing terms to one member. or # 5 is zero.5 Solving (1) and (2). 27 x== 42a. the prodif x has (1) (2) such a value that either or a?. a=:i^^. = 0. Factoring. all or. Therefore the equation will be satisfied 5x _. Hence the equation has three + 3) (x 2xf3=0. Clearing for fractions. = 0. Solve a*= 7a? + 15x 2 2* . any degree. = 14.5) =0. 5) = 0. 0. 3x?+x = 7. .
E. 13. members by x But evidently the value x 3 3. 3) = 0. the resulting expression equation contains fewer roots than the original one.= 24. a* 10a=24. 0^ ar> 11. a?10a=:24. Or Hence the 234. (aj4)(a. 2. + 9 f 20 x = 0. ar'Sa^ 12.QUADRATIC EQUATIONS Ex. 4. Therefore x =3 = 2. a?. and the equation thus formed be solved. 16. (*2)(x + 2)(a3)=0. 0^ + 21 = 10 10.g. x2 f 2 x . Form an equation whose roots are 4 and 6. 8. 6. 3. + 10 a = 24.6)) = 0.  3) 2 4 (x = 0. 0(02) = 7(02). } 2 2 (5 . evidently (x Or 4)(x . In order If both to obtain all roots of the original equation. 5. The equation I.3 =5 or = 2 3 obtained from the 5 (x or x equation x (x = is also a root. 3# y 5 = 0. for a: . 3^ = 0(1106). 4)(z3) = 0. 2. 14.:=0. Ex. 187 Solve x? 3x x*(x 2 4x + 12 = 0. 4or + 18a f 8a. 5 = 0. 3. 9. + 100. 3 or 2 a. members of an equation are divided by an involving the unknown quantity.24 = 0. EXERCISE Solve by factoring 6 2. 3) Factoring. let it be required to solve If or x we divide both = 2. O roots are 2.e. 2o3 f9a. : 87 = 0.3)(x + 3 3. is 5) = 0. 3^ 25^ + 28 = 0.(. + 8=s: 7. aj( 15. + 6)=0. such a common divisor must be made equal to zero. we 9 obtain x 4. 7. 12.
a 2 =(x a)b. 22. '3a!J  . 25. w(w x2 2 w)=6tt. 27. f ELEMENTS OF ALGEKRA tt(3tt + 7tt)=6tt.188 17. uz + u 21. (2a? 3) (a 24. + 2)= (y( j_ ? (+ 3)(a?+2). 23. 20. 50.3) = (s + l) (3 a). (a + 1) (a. 18. or 3 a 2 2 a? 26. 2. ara + ft + c*. 19.
Find a number which exceeds its square by is . Find the sides. 52. 57.9. is Find two numbers whose product 288.3. 2. 56. 6. and the difference Find the numbers. and equals 190 square inches. 2. and whose sum is is 36. but frequently the conditions of the problem exclude negative or fractional answers. feet. What are the numbers of ? is The product two consecutive numbers 210. .0. 1. 3. Find the numbers. Divide CO into two parts whose product is 875. Find two numbers whose difference is 40. 2. : 3. 2. 189 the equations whose roots are 53. Twentynine times a number exceeds the square of the 190. area A a perimeter of 380 rectangular field has an area of 8400 square feet and Find the dimensions of the field. 5. and consequently many prob 235.1.3. EXERCISE 1. 2. 4. 58.2. 8.3. The difference of .QUADRATIC EQUATIONS Form 51. 55. number by 10.0. Problems involving quadratics have lems of this type have only one solution. 5. 3. Find the number. 0. two numbers is 4. PROBLEMS INVOLVING QUADRATICS in general two answers. 1. of their reciprocals is 4. 7. 54. The 11. and whose product 9. 88 its reciprocal A number increased by three times equals 6J. its sides of a rectangle differ by 9 inches. 2. G. The sum of the squares of two consecutive numbers 85. Find the number.
What did he pay for each apple ? A man bought a certain number of horses for $1200. vessel sail ? How many miles per hour did the faster If 20. 13. The diagonal : tangle as 5 4. Find the rate of the train. ABCD. start together on voyages of 1152 and 720 miles respectively. watch cost sold a watch for $ 21. and lost as many per cent Find the cost of the watch. watch for $ 24. of a rectangle is to the length of the recthe area of the figure is 96 square inches. it would have needed two hours less to travel 120 miles. and lost as many per cent Find the cost of the watch. he would have received two horses more for the same money. What did he pay for 21. At what rates do the steamers travel ? 18.10. Two steamers and is of 420 miles. and Find the sides of the rectangle. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA The length 1 B AB of a rectangle. he had paid 2 ^ more for each apple. A man bought a certain number of apples for $ 2. c equals 221 Find AB and AD. and the slower reaches its destination one day before the other. Two vessels. A man A man sold a as the watch cost dollars. 19. had paid $ 20 less for each horse. 15. 17. sold a horse for $144. If he each horse ? . a distance One steamer travels half a mile faster than the two hours less on the journey. . 14. he would have received 12 apples less for the same money. If a train had traveled 10 miles an hour faster. dollars. ply between the same two ports. A man cent as the horse cost dollars.190 12. and gained as many per Find the cost of the horse. as the 16. and the line BD joining two opposite vertices (called "diagonal") feet. one of which sails two miles per hour faster than the other. exceeds its widtK AD by 119 feet. other.
(tf. and working together. the two men can do it in 3 days. and the unknown factor of one of these terms is the square of the unknown factor of the other. Find and CB. If the area of the walk is equal to the area of the plot. a point taken. Find the side of an equilateral triangle whose altitude equals 3 inches.) 25. In how many days can B do the work ? = 26. Solve ^9^ + 8 = ** 0. By formula. as 0. or x = \/l = 1. is On the prolongation of a line AC. A rectangular A circular basin is surrounded is  by a path 5 feet wide. B AB AB 2 191 grass plot. 27. 1. Ex. ^3^ = 7. =9 Therefore x = \/8 = 2. so that the rectangle. 23 inches long. Find TT r (Area of a circle . of the area of the basin. 24. EQUATIONS IN THE QUADRATIC FORM An equation is said to be in the quadratic form if it contains only two unknown terms. 237. how wide is the walk ? 23. and the area of the path the radius of the basin. constructed with and CB as sides. The number of eggs which can be bought for $ 1 is equal to the number of cents which 4 eggs cost. Equations in the quadratic form can be solved by the methods used for quadratics. . 30 feet long and 20 feet wide.I) 4(aj*l) 2 = 9. contains B 78 square inches. How many eggs can be bought for $ 1 ? 236. A needs 8 days more than B to do a certain piece of work.QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 22. is surrounded by a walk of uniform width.
EXERCISE Solve the following equations 1. stitute ELEMENTS OF ALGEBEA In more complex examples it is advantageous to sub a letter for an expression involving a?. = 1. 8. Ex. 4. a. 4 a. 19. 3 a4 44s + 121=0. a4 5o. Solving. y8)=0. Hence Le. 18. 4 2 4 37aj 2 = 9. 2 h9:=0. aV+9o 4 =0. or y = 8. 6. 2. ^^ ~ 28 (a? ^ 2:=Q> . 4 6. a? 15 1=2*. 4 : 89 10a. 7.T 2 2 . 12. 2 16 a^40 11. 9. 436 3. >. T 17. 2 (^Z)  "3 14.192 238. = 13. Let x + 15 = J < Then or or rf 15 = 0.)+72=0. 16. (a: +aj) 18(x2 +a. 4 8 = 2 a* 2. a 21or=100.2 =4. 10.
Determine the character of the roots of the equation 4 x2 . the roots are unequal. b 4. Hence the roots are real. rational. 2. 1. ( 2a Hence 1.12 x + 9 = 0. negative. and equal.bx 4.QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 193 CHARACTER OF THE ROOTS 239. it 2a follows 2 : 2.bx 4 by ' i\ and r2 then . 2 4 ac 2a Hence / 1 4r2 = a Or .c 4 ac is called the discriminant of = 0. Ex. Ex. the roots are rational. Ifb 2 Jfb 2 is zero. the roots are irrational. are denoted __ Tl If the roots of the equation ax2 4. The discriminant =(. 241. rational. a perfect square.2) 2 4 3 (.5) = 04. 3. and unequal. . kac 4 ac is 'not a perfect square. Relations between roots and coefficients. Since ( 12) 2 4 4 9 = 0. the roots are imaginary.f> = 0. the roots are real. Determine the character of the roots of the equation 3 a 2 . The quadratic equation oa/* 2 f bx f c = has two roots.Vfr 2 4 ac T* b Vi . The expression b 2 the equation ay? 4. c the roots are real. 240. If b Ifb* 2 If b Iflr 4 ac is is is 4c 4 ac a positive or equal to zero.2 z . is 4ac not zero. the roots are equal.
21. (b) The product of the roots equal to theubsolute term. + 18 2 8. 5oj aj + l = 0. 10 x = 25 x + 1. 2 7. 12. Sa^ + 2 Ooj 2 Solve the following equations and check the answers by forming the sum and the product of the roots 19. 17. the sain of the roots of 4 x 5 x 3 =: is j. 9a3 = 0. EXERCISE 89 a Determine without solution the character of the roots of the following equations 1.2 + 4a: + 240 = 0. 2 a. 5a 26a? + 5 = 0.194 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 2 a? these results If the given equation is written in the form may be expressed as follows : x +a += a 0. 23. f 2 E. = Q. 60 2 = 0. ar + ^ + 2^2 = 0. 5aj 9. 4. their product isf. 9x2 ~ the In each of the following equations determine by inspection sum and the product of the roots: 13. 6. 22. + 2a. 12~x = x 2 . x2 7 10. + 12 2  . 3a. = 0. 2a 4z5 = 0.. 24. 14. o. If the (a) coefficient ofx 2 in a quadratic equation is is unity. x2 4 x 0^ or j + 205 = 0. ^12. The sum of the roots equal is to the coefficient of x with the sign changed. tfmx+p^Q. x2 !i>x + 2 z2 2 16. 18. n a?3 ' ~ == l 5. 2x* + 6x + 3 = 0. : a 2 .19 # 20. = 5x. 2. = 0. 15. + 2a15 = 0.g. or + 10 + 4520 = 0. = 0. 2 : 3. lla.
m IV. hence. We assume." means "is greater than" 195 similarly means "is . It is. very important that all exponents should be governed by the same laws. (a m ) w . a m a" = a m+t1 .* III. for all values 1 of m and n. we let these quantities be what they must be if the exponent law of multiplication is generally true. no Fractional and negative exponents. (ab) . that a an = a m+n . The following four fundamental laws for positive integral exponents have been developed in preceding chapters : I. II. = a"" < . instead of giving a formal definition of fractional and negative exponents. while the second of the first. the direct consequence of the defiand third are consequences FRACTIONAL AND NEGATIVE EXPONENTS 243. such as 2*. however. provided w > n. (a ) s=a m = aw bm a . > m therefore. and . we may choose for such symbols any definition that is con venient for other work. 4~ 3 have meaning according to the original definition of power. The first of these laws is nition of power. 244.a" = a m n mn . Then the law of involution. ~ a m f.CHAPTER XVI THE THEORY OF EXPONENTS 242. must be *The symbol smaller than.
To find the meaning of a fractional exponent. Write the following expressions as radicals : 22. as. 0?=^. (bed)*. a*. 25. ml. 24. = a. a?*. 245. Assuming these two 8*. or zero exponent equal x. . Let x is The operation which makes the fractional exponent disappear evidently the raising of both members to the third power. at. laws. m$. fractional. a\ 26. Hence Or Therefore Similarly. n 2 a.  we find a? Hence we define a* to be the qth root of of. 28. 31. since the raising to a positive integral power is only a repeated multiplication.196 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA true for positive integral values of n.g. ^=(a^) 3* 3 . 4~ . etc. 23. disappear. 29. 3*. '&M A 27. a . (xy$. we try to discover the let the meaning of In every case we unknown quantity and apply to both members of the equation that operation which makes the negative. 30. e.
e.g. a * a2 Or a=l. is The operation which makes the zero exponent disappear 2 evidently a multiplication by any power of a. 7z* Find the values of 47. is Therefore the zero power of any number NOTE.g.THE THEORY OF EXPONENTS Express with fractional exponents 32. hence is . v/o&cT 34. = 2. 3* = 27. v'mT 36. 64* + 9* + 16* + (32)*. 43. 41. a. 35. 44. 49. 45. 37. ty?. 40. a . To find the meaning of zero exponent. 46. 246. 38. Solve the following equations 39. Let a = a. : 2' 4* = 4. \fi?. the base is zero. 5L is indeterminate Indeterminate.\/n. \/xy \/m. 27* = 3. 50. a* * = 3. = 49. : 4* + 9* + 16* + 25* + 36*. = 2. If. 42. 5 a* = 10. however. e. 48. : 197 33. equal to unity. Vo5 .
an x = a. consider the following equations. or the exponent.2 = a2 . . Let x= or". ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA To find the meaning of a negative exponent. in which obtained from the preceding one by dividing both members by a. cr n.198 247. vice versa. Or a"# = l. Factors may be transferred from the numerator to the denominator of a fraction. each is The fact that a if = we It loses its singularity 1 sometimes appears peculiar to beginners.g. a a a = = a a a a1 1 a. by changing the sign of NOTE. e. Multiplying both members by a". a8 a 2 = 1 1 . etc. 248.
6 or 2 ^^ ^. f (2w)~i 1 . 44. c 32. 36. : * 31 l> ' <W* arV 8 30. : or 5 . 37. a^ 41. . 40. Write with radical signs and positive exponents 35. 2m~i 43. 39. 7~ l a 2b 2 . 1 L ?>i""i 3 cci . 25. m . 66 45. 2 . 3 a? * 42. 22. : mi m~^. ^L. a. * 24. ."* 38. ""^T"*' Write without denominators 29.THE THEORY OF EXPONENTS EXERCISE Find the values of: 91 199 Express with positive exponents 21. rfS. 27. 2 . ^?2 y' 34. 3 a.
48. = ^. 57.343)* + (. 47. 55. and we shall hence assume that all four laws are generally true.(.008)* + A. + 1~* f 21 . 10* Find the values 56.001. 58. = l.81 f (a .200 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA : Solve the equations 46. Examples relating to roots can be reduced to examples con taining fractional exponents. z 5or*=10. 52. 53. = . It can be demonstrated that the last three laws for any exponents are consequences of the first law. 54. of: 3ll4~* 60. It then follows that: Fractional and negative exponents may be treated by the same methods as positive integral exponents. 49. 61.6). 1. 2 =f 3* = f x~ l 50. ar = i. 250. 5  75 USE OF NEGATIVE AND FRACTIONAL EXPONENTS 249. = 5. (81)* + (3f)*(5 TV)*3249 + 16 * . 10* 5* = . 17' 2 51.26)* 1 (I) 2 . (.1. Ex. + A_.9*. . 59. z* = 1. (a*&~*)* + (aVM = a*&~* + V ' = '*&* Ex 2 .
/ 7fv 7. #* a. 3. 79 . 14an (4**(Va) 4 .4 2 a? 2 ar 1 .$*. remove the fractional exponents.3 aj" a. 17. 16. __ 29 /m '=V a9 ia.$". ' 11. 7~ 6 . Perform the operation indicated. EXERCISE Simplify : 92 2.4 . (d) If required. 16.4 a8 . 7~ 5 27  . etc.^/5^5. 4 x^. S'sS8. 6 *.&.5. 10. a. 23. 8 ' 9. 6a. Remove the negative exponents. 27  28. 12. are performed.7*. 25 26  2~ 8 2~ 9 22.THE THEORY OF EXPONENTS 251. 72 . 201 Expressions containing radicals should be simplified as : follows (a) (6) (c) Write all radical signs as fractional exponents. . 26. 95 ^9i 5**. &. OA 20. 7*. 3 a. 13.6 *' 6 *25.. NOTE.7i. Negative exponents should not be removed until all operations of multiplication^ division. 3sVS. 6. . 7. 4 5. . V5.&. 14.5a. 18.7W.
202 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 32. 40. V ra 4/ 3 \/m 33. 1. Divide by ^ 2a 3 qfo 4. 2. the term which does not contain x may be considered as a term containing #. 6 35. lix = 2xl =+1 Ex. If powers of a?. 1. 34. Arrange in descending powers of Check. The 252.2 d . 1 Multiply 3 or +x 5 by 2 x x. we wish to arrange terms according to descending we have to remember that. powers of x arranged are : Ex.
THE THEORY OF EXPONENTS
EXERCISE
93
203
Perform the operations indicated:
2.
3.
4. 5. 6.
(7r8Vr + r>)(9 Vr7). 2  1 ). (a + a f 1) (a~ + a
2 2 2
7.
8. 9.
10.
11.
(4
a 3
 24 a  9  3 a~ )
1
2
r
1
(a"
 3).
12.
13.
14.
+ + 47i) + 35V5?)*(5Vp + l). VS" ^ ( Vo Vft) H (a~ f 7 a ^a~ + 1C a*b~  33 a 6~ + 14 a(3 a _&)*. (^? + ^/^ + */fr^ 15. 16. (a6 + 2V6c c)^(Va+V6 Vc). 17. y^TTOa; f 13  12 * + 4 aF*.
(13Vp
5
l
(Va^f aV^&Va
l
3
)
3
2
2
^>~
3
2
1
1
)
(
1
18. 19.
Vor
2
2 x h or
2
2 or
1
f
3.
V25 #
 2()"ar r+ 34  12 x f 9 x*.
20.
^^
l
21. 22.
23. 24.
25.
+2
a?
8
(l+4^flO^ + 20oTf 25^T f24\/i?f 16
(1+V2)V2. (2+V2)(V22). (5+V3)(52V3).
26. 27.
)*.
(13VS)(2 + V5).
(VU  V2)(Vn~3V2)
204
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
:
Find by inspection
28.
29.
(x*
+ 3)(tf*f 2).
35.
36.
8 (a;*
yi)
.
a*
+ 3l5.
V2
(5*2*
2
.
30.
31.
32.
38. 39.
(3^
(#* ^
(fl
2*)
f
.
33. 34.
5) (x*
5).
40.
(m
n)
f
(m*
11
f
n 5 ).
CHAPTER XVII
RADICALS
253.
A
radical is the root of
a quantity, indicated by a
radical sign.
254.
The
radical is rational, if the root can be extracted
exactly; irrational, if the root cannot be exactly obtained. Irrational quantities are frequently called surds.
^9
4^
\/2,
(*
+ V) *
are radicals.
= 2, V(a + 6) 2 are rational.
V4af
b are irrational.
255.
root.
The
order of a surd
is
indicated by the index of the
va
\/2
/
.
is
is is
of the second order, or quadratic. of the third order, or cubic. of the fourth order, or biquadratic.
Vc
256. A mixed surd is the product of a rational factor and a surd factor; as 3Va, a;V3. The rational factor of a mixed surd is called the coefficient of the surd.
An
257.
factor.
entire surd is
one whose coefficient
is
unity; as
Va,
Similar surds are surds
3v/2 and 6
which contain the same irrational
are similar.
av^
3V2 and
3 V8 are dissimilar.
206
206
258.
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
Conventional restriction of the signs of roots.
All even roots
e.g.
may
be positive or negative,
VI = + 2
or
2.
Hence
6. which results in four values, viz. 14, 6, To avoid 14, or this ambiguity, it is customary in elementary algebra to restrict
the sign of a root to the prefixed sign.
Thus
5 V4 4 2 V4
= 7 VI = 14.
If the object of an example, however, is merely an evolution, the complete answer is usually given thus
;
=
(oj 2).
259.
Since radicals can be written as powers with fractional
exponents, all examines relating to radicals
may
be solved by the
methods employed for fractional exponents.
Thus, to find the nth root of a product ab we have
T
1
1
(a6)"==a"6"
I.e.
(242).
to extract the root of a product, multiply the roots of the
factors.
TRANSFORMATION OF RADICALS
260.
Simplification of surds.
A radical is simplified when the
expression under the radical sign is integral, and contains no factor whose power is equal to the index.
Ex.
1.
Simplify
= \/25~a~ Vb = 6 a*VS.
4
Ex.
2.
Simplify
v/16.
J/lB^^.
4/2
= 2^.
RADICALS
.
207
261 When the quantity under the radical sign is a fraction, we multiply both numerator and denominator by such a quantity as will make the denominator a perfect power of the same
degree as the surd.
Ex.
3.
Simplify V.
Ex.
4.
Simplify
EXERCISE
94
208
ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA
/s
37.
39.
j
*x+y
38.
n
\ 2m
262.
An
same manner
imaginary surd can be simplified in precisely the as a real surd thus,
;
42.
V16a
:
,
2
.
44.
2\
Simplify and find to three decimal places the numerical
values of
47.
48.
VJ.*
49.
50.
Vf.
VJ.
VA
263.
Reduction of a surd to an entire surd.
Ex.
Express 4 a V& as an entire surd.
EXERCISE
Express as entire surds
1.
:
95
4V5.
3.
2\/lL
5.
6.
7.
2.
3V7.
4.
3^5.
a VS.
8.
* See table of square roots on page 164.
RADICALS
264. Transformation of surds to surds of different order.
209
Ex.
1.
Transform \/uW into a surd of the 20th order.
Ex.
2.
Transform
\/2,
V3, and
\/5 into surds of the
same
lowest order.
V2 = 2* = a* = '#64. ^ = 8* = 3A= ^gi. ^5 = 6* = 6* =^125.
1
Ex.
3.
Reduce the order of the surd tyaP.
Exponent and index bear the same relation as numerator and denominator of a fraction ; and hence both may be multiplied by
same number, or both divided by the same number, without changing the value of the radical.
the
EXERCISE
Reduce
1.
96
:
to surds of the 6th order
2.
Va?.
fymn.
3.
\/ v
4.
v'c?.
5.
\
z
\
^3
6.
mn.
Reduce
7.
8.
to surds of the 12th order
9.
:
V2~a.
\/a4 6 2c.
\/3ax.
11.
12.
\/oP6.
13.
14.
a.
^v/mV
10.
\/5a5V.
Express as surds of lowest order with integral exponents and indices
:
15.
v/o
5
.
16.
\/oW.
17.
v/IaT .
2
18.
\/
20.
A/^
22.
VSlmV.
24.
3. ^4. (i. 26. 32. connect them by proper 1. Simplify V~ . Simplify/a35 ~ o . 31. 36. 3  s/ / 3ft 2  3 ^y Ex. V2. Simplify V + 3 VlS. subtract surds. Ex. </3. 5V2. signs. 4^/4. V2. V5. v/3. To add or form.3\ . V3. \/7. terms their If the resulting surds are similar. ^3. 2\ 3*. V2. ^6. reduce them to their simplest add them like similar add their coefficients) . 38. ^30. ^2. 33. v/3. 29. Ex. 37. ^/IT. 27. 28.210 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA : Express as surds of the same lowest order 25. ^5. ^2. </20. ADDITION AND SUBTRACTION OF RADICALS 265.2 V50. \/5.e.10 V2 =  V2. V3. 3: \/=^8 v~ 8ft 2 s/a. A/2. ^4. if dissimilar.2 V50 = V2 + 9 V2 . in order of magnitude : \/7. ^2. v^S.2. </2. 34. Arrange 35. v/4. 30. + . A/3. 39. s!/3. ^7. ^126. I VJ + 3VT8 . VS. 40.
11.J a6 V4 aft. 13. 10. 2V87Vl8f5V72V50. 6. VJ+V8V1 + V50.3V20 + 6V5. 9. 4V805V45. V45c3 3 abv'ab V80~c~3 f V5a c + c 2 + 3 aVo^ 3 Va^ . . 8VT8J2V32 7. VT2 + 2V27 + 3V759V48.RADICALS EXERCISE 97 : 211 Simplify the following expressions 2. 8. 6. 4. 12. 3. V175V28+V634V7. V18+V32VT28+V2. 14. + 3V835V2.
Ex. y* = Ex. Ex. Multiply V2 by 3\/l.6V35 106 460V35100 . 98 ab ^" fab 1 " .100 = f 44 VS6 6 + 44\/36.2 VS by 3 Vf + 10 VB. . for a~\/x b~\/y ab^/xy.2v/6 + IPV6 105. 23. and then multiplied. 26^ . 2. 3.fab V \~\ jab FW MULTIPLICATION QEJRABIQALS 266. . 5 4/6072 = 16^6272. the Surds of the same order are multiplied by multiplying product of the coefficients by the product of the irrational factors. 6*. Multiply 5 V7 8\/7 6\/7. Dissimilar surds are reduced to surds of the same order.212 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA . 1. Multiply 3\/25^ by 5\/50Y 3v / 2 .
18. + VB)(2V5). (VmVn)(Vm+Vn> 33. 3. 7. aVa. 14. 38. V3 V6. 2. 41. ( Vm \ 1 Vm) (Vmf 1 6(Vaf Va { Vm). 37. Vll. a?. 10. v/18 v"3. V3 Vl2. 39. (VmVn) (V3V2) 8 . v/4. 6 V4 5. 8. \/3 \^). (5V58V2)(5V5 + 8V2). 40. (V2+V3+V4)V3. 34. 9. V42. (V6 + 1) 1 . V2aV8^. (5V22V3CVS)V3. 13. 213 98 11. 12. (6V23V3)(6V23V3). 4. VlO V15. VTO. fWa 17. 15. V5 Va VaV?/ V Vr 16.RADICALS EXERCISE 1. 21. 40 10 30. V2 V50. . 6. (Va Va 36. 6. V20 V30. 2 .^/2. (2V3) 8 . 27. 28 . 25. 19. (3 20.VSS.
ELEMENTS OF ALGEHRA (3V55V3) S . 52. (5V72V2)(2VT7V2). 60. all monomial surds may be divided by method. 46. 49. (3V32Vo)(2V3+V5). the quotient of the surds is If. Va v/a. is 1 2.y. V3 . 44. a VS f a?Vy = \/  x*y this Since surds of different orders can be reduced to surds of the same order. (2 45. it more convenient to multiply dividend and divisor by a factor which makes the divisor rational. a fraction. (5V2+V10)(2V51). (3V52V3)(2V3V3). . (V50f 3Vl2)4V2== however. 47. Ex. Ex.214 42. 53. 51. E.V5) ( V3 + 2 VS). 268. 43. Monomial surdn of the same order may be divided by multiplying the quotient of the coefficients by the quotient of the surd factors. v/a  DIVISION OF RADICALS 267. 48.
4\/3~a' 36 Ex. we have V3 But if 1. Hence in arithmetical work it is always best to rationalize the denominators before dividing. is Since \/8 12 Vil = 2 V*2.73205.73205 we simplify JLV^l V3 *> ^> division Either quotient equals .by the usual arithmetical method. .RADICALS This method. Divide 4 v^a by is rationalizing factor evidently \/Tb hence. arithTo find.. . metical problems afford the best illustrations. the rationalizing factor x ' g \/2. VTL_Vll ' ~~" \/7_V77 . is illustrated by Ex. Divide 12 V5 + 4V5 by V. by V7. Divide VII by v7. we have to multiply In order to make the divisor (V?) rational. The 2. 3. /~ } Ex. however. . To show that expressions with rational denominators are simpler than those with irrational denominators. + 4\/5 _ 12v 3 + 4\/5 V8 V8 V2 V2 269.g. the by 3 is much easier to perform than the division by 1.57735. 1. e. called rationalizing the the following examples : 215 divisor. Evidently.
To rationalize the denominator of a fraction whose denom inator is a binomial quadratic surd. 271.2361. V5 270. 14. i. 272. and Given V2 = 1. V8?^ V7 xy T 13 11 n V7 ~ VH 5 2.4142. 23 .. V5 = 2. . The product of two conjugate binomial surds is rational . ^/H . V8 JL. 20. they differ only in the sign which connects their terms. V3 = 1.7320. VffV?. multiply numerator and denominator by the conjugate surd of the denominator.216 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 99 Simplify : 1. . 2V5 ' 2 V3 o vfi* ' ^ Va 12. V48 25. A. Vn V7 ' * 8. V8 12. V2 22 . Va + Vb and Va Vb are conjugate surds. if 4=V50 Two binomial quadratic surds are said to be conjugate. 21. 7. A. find to four decimal places the numerical values of: 19. Vll 212*. V3 24 .
1.2.vffi^T _ . .Vs2 . Ex. V82 2V3 1fVS . . V2+2 _ V2+2 2\/2+l_6 + 6\/2. Ex. Find the numerical value of : V2 + 2 2V21 e .07105 = 7 7 2V21 2V21 2V2 + 1 EXERCISE Eationalize the denominators of : 100 . 3. 217 Simplify 2V3V2 ' V3V2 ~ = 4 + V5.RADICALS Ex.1 xVtf a. s Simplify a.= 18.
Given V2 1. V5V7 18> ^SVg. it can easily be shown that VcT = ( V) w Hence 3 V25~ = ( V25) 3 . 27. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 13 ~3 V51 14 A 16. find to _!_.5 3 = 125. 24. Vo1 26. V21 = 25 . V32* to 1 Find the third proportional + V2 and 3 f 2V2. 2V5V18 mVm Va 22. 6V7. 19. V52 17 1Va? Vg+v/2 5V77V5 ' V3V2 15. By the use of fractional exponents .7320.2361. . four places of decimals 23 . V3 + 1 1+V5 _ 3V5 ' V5+2 31. J?_. INVOLUTION AND EVOLUTION OF RADICALS 273.W3. v 2V3 28.218 6 . = V3 = 1. : and V5 = 2.4142.
the If. 9. Simplify Ex. 11. we had to find problem would be quite simple if presented in the form v52V3 5 + 3. . on the other hand. 2 12. 1. SQUARE ROOTS OF QUADRATIC SURDS 275. \/125" . 2. 3. According to G3. To find the square root of a binomial square by inspection. v8f 2\/15. it to this form. 5. To reduce is two numbers whose sum 5 and 3. ( V5 + V3) = 5 + 2 V5~^3 + 3 2 = 8 + 2 VIS. viz. 3 (V2~u)  7. 4. we must find 8 and whose product is 15. : 101 (3Vmw) 2 . V643 .RADICALS 219 274. \/l6*. 2. introduce fractional exponents : Ex. In other examples of involution and evolution. 8. Find the square of EXERCISE Simplify 1. V255 .
2 \/20. +2 Ex. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA l.6 A/2 = Vll Find two numbers whose sum numbers are 9 and 2. EXERCISE 102 : Extract the square roots of the following binomials .6 V2. 2. These Ex. Find V4 + VJ8. Find Vll . and whose product is 18. ^TT. 12 and whose product is 20.2 A/2 = V9A/2 = 3 . is 11.A/2. The Hence ^11 .6\/2 = ^9 . Find Vl2 4. 3. coefficient of the Irrational Write the binomial so that the term is 2.220 Ex. 2 \/18. is Find two numbers whose sum numbers are 10 and 2.
\/x Vx = + 3 = 7. they are transto formed into rational equations. are radical equations. 4. A radical equation is an equation involving an irrational root of an unknown number. 4x x = 2. first involution. Dividing by Check.. Before performing the involution. x2 = x f 2. VT . V4 + V12 RADICAL EQUATIONS 276. by raising both members equal powers. : 221 Vl32V22. Radical equations are rationalized. 8. The value x =2 reduces each . i. r 22. If all radicals do not disappear through the the process must be repeated. Transposing and uniting.e. V48 23.V48 4 20. examples to simplify the equation as it is necessary in most as possible. member to 2. a. much and to transpose the terms so that one radical stands alone in one member.RADICALS Simplify the following expressions 18.1. Ex. 19. * 4 * 2 V6 VT 4. 5. = xa + 4 x f 4. Solve vVf!2a = 2. (2x xrf 1. Transposing Vsc2 + f 12 12 Squaring both members. +=. 277. .
they may be extraneous roots. Factoring. = 12 = 144 24\/4# + 1 = 120. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBltA Solve V4 x + 1 f V4 f 1 . Vitf 4x f 25 f 25 4x f 1 25. Transposing and uniting. Therefore CftecAr. 3. the roots found are not necessarily roots of the given equation 279. radical equations require for their solution the squaring of both members. 4#f 4 = 9. an equaSquaring both members we obtain or 1. 278. . = 9 x2 18 x + 8x 2 25xf3 = 0. tion usually introduces a new Squaring both members of an equaThus x 2 = 3 has only root. Transposing and uniting. viz. Transposing. viz. Squaring both members. Therefore Check. 2 Vx^ Dividing by 2. 5. x = J. . x + 1 + 2 Vx'2 + 1 x + (. Extraneous roots. f 25 = 12. Dividing by 24. member =\/2 + jV2=v^. The results of the solution of radical equations must be substituted in the (jlren equation to determine ivhether the roots are true roots or extraneous roots. Ex. a socalled extraneous root.1) = 0. V4afT~l. \/4 jc~+~l = 5. . tion which has two roots. 24 \/4 # Transpose V4 x Squaring both members. Squaring both members. the first member = V2. or = VzMx2 7 x f f 7 x + 9.3. V24~+~l = 0. one root. 5 and The squaring of both members of the given equation introSince duced the new root 1. f V/2TT25 = 5 + x 7 = 12. (x 3) (8 x x = 3. a.222 Ex. 2. It = 3 x . at . Solve Vx f Squaring both members.
223 x = 3. viz. . the right member = V2. If the signs of the roots were not restricted. Squaring.2 r. + 6~ieT~3 . 4. Therefore. both members reduce to 5. or x *j. tlie Jeft both members reduce member = 12T V2.48 x + 2 x2 53 f 141 = 0. * Exclude all solutions which do not satisfy the equation or which make the given radicals imaginary. = } would be a VaT+T Ex. Hence x = the only root. NOTE. Hence there is only one root. ViTie 4 z2 . for it satisfies the equation . equation it is an extraneous root. . is x V. Check. 2 Clearing of fractions. Transposing. x root of the preceding equation.47) = 0. . Solve the following equations : = G. (x x = 3. \ does not satisfy the given. 4 VxT~0 = \/8 x f 1. Factoring.3) (2 x . V2x' 8 42x43 Transposing. If If x 3 = 3. 2 z 2 4 6 x 4 3 = 144 .12 . = 3.RADICALS Hence x If a. Solve Vz+T + V2aT+3 = + "b"x f A5_ 15. and to 5.
33 af* + 32=0.224 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 280. Factoring. Many 1. Therefore . radical equations may be solved by the method of 238. Ex. Solve af*.
5.i~24 = 0. x + Vx a? = 6. for 6 and 3 are the roots of the may 2 equation Vx' 8x it positive values. Substituting. some of the roots be extraneous. while 6 and 3 are extraneous roots. x Since both =9 or 1. Ex.35 = 0. + 40 = Vz2 $x + 40 = y. 45 14VJB = . 4.8 x 2 Hence y' 2y = 35. o. But as the square root is restricted to cannot be equal to a negative quantity. it will be found that 9 and 1 satisfy the equation. 3 6. Solve x* 8x x* Adding 40 to both members. = 26. 2_8z 440 = 49. Vi 2 8a. members of the equation were squared. x =6 or 3.8 z40 = 7. or y or Therefore 2 y = 5.RADICALS Raising both members to the  power. . 225 x = 32~* or 1"* = ^ or 1.*2a. 2Va. 2.8 x + 40 = 36. This can be seen without substituting. = 0. _ 2 y . Let 8 x f 40 . 2. 412a* = 16. + 40 = 6. make the given radicals * Exclude extraneous roots and roots which imaginaries. Q . y then x2 .f40= 5. 3. = 7. EXERCISE 104* its Solve the following equations: 1.
ar fll x 3x 12 V5l? +1 1^7^30 = 1 ^ + G V2^"^I + 2 = 4. +3= 6. 16.a 440 = 35. a^x2 5 2 13. 18. 6 Va?~3o~ = y? 3 x f . 15. 4 V SB* 4 a. or 2 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 8a f 40 2 V* 2 8. 2 7a?HV^ 3 7a. 20. 17. 19. +x . 14.f 18 = 24. 2. a.226 11. 12.
Let then find the remainder obtained z = 3. " Or.CHAPTER XVIII THE FACTOR THEOREM 281. 227 . find the remainder when m. ax4 4. Without actual division. Ex. 3 2 Ex.4 a. 2. If x* .2) Q . f 8 = (a? 2) x Quotient f Remainder. does not contain a?. a? R = x* . = 2. we can find the value of R by making x = 2. even if Q is unknown. Without actual division. then (x 2)Q 0. no matter If. R = am* + 6m3 + cm2 + tZw + e.3 x + 4 + 8 As 72 (a? . could.2 + 4.2 + 80 = 12. substituting Q " and ani^ ^ 2 respectively for Quotient " and Remainder. we make a? what the value of Q. E = ax + &z + m) Q." transposing.<fo f e is divided by x Let then 2 4 8 ca: f (to + e (x = w. 1. ^ = 381+2. if Q was known. by dividing 3 x* f. then or* 2 and there is a 3 x2 f.3 x~ + 4 x + 8 is divided by x remainder (which does not contain a?). Hence.2 x 5 by x 3.360 = 244. assign any value whatsoever and would always obtain the same answer for R. however. to x we # = 2 3.bx? + ex2 4.
hence (x divided by x 4. 5.3)f 11 =. x is divided by x The remainder 6 sion involving If an integral rational expresm.8.949. of the division 3) is m in place of x. 2 j 7. x5 a^ 7 b 5 by x 6. x*x + 4x Tx + 2\)y x + 2.4(. EXERCISE Without actual division dividing : 105 find the remainder obtained by 2. Only factors of the absolute term need be substituted . 5 (4x . 3 x2 4) is a factor of x    00 *.228 282. + 6. + ^by x + b. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA The Remainder Theorem. The remainder obtained by dividing (x + 4)4 _ (3 + 2) ( X  1) +7 by x  1 is 6* 3 . x* s 2 4.4x411)^0 + 4 ( 3) . The Factor Theorem. + 7 = 632. the divisor is a factor of the dividend. a100 50 a47 4 48 a2 b. } 2 by a1. + 3x3 2x* 32x12 by a?3. x m is factor of the expression.8'= 0. 8. fora?. If the remainder is zero.g. ing x becomes zero x8 3 x2 2 4 when 2 x If a rational integral expression involvm is a is written in place of x. the remainder equals 8 2 x . if 8 42  . the remainder is obtained by substituting in the given expression E. 3. 43 3 E. a f b 7 by a ^14y ~132/  283.g.
a^8^ + 19a. p 5^ + 8p 4. + 27 + 27. 2 2. m 4 n4 25 mV + 19 ran 13.7 f 5a 18 divisible by x 2. x* 34 ar 5 225 is divisible by x 5.1.49 = 0. + ttt15 = 0. oj 5x2 f3a. Let x = 1 then 7 x + 7 a. Resolve into factors 4.13m + 30 10. we obtain 7  7 x2 + x + 16 = (x + l)(x 2  8 a. 8. & p*. 18. 1ft : ar*f 6aj 2 o?5ar 3 l + lla. 3.1. 4m p~m p + 16m^ 12.r6 = 0. . are f 1. 17. f 3. ^ + 7y + 2y40 = 0. 7 2 a? 2 f 7a?f 15. 23.12. f 15 does not vanish. 8.7 x + 15 = 0. 229 1. 2. or 5 4 + 3^ . 1. _ .e. m f m n 14.9^ + 23^15. Therefore x ( 1). then x8 7 x'2 4. 7 46 = 0. f 5. 5 Solve the following equations by factoring 15.7 + 16 . a 8a f 19 a 12. 2o? m 6ra fllm 6. 9. Factor a? 15. a. or x 4. 106 division. a 5x 6. a + 32. + 15. 2m 5m . show that divisible 4x 2 j +3x 2 a? 2 2 as 5 is or 2 by is a. f 16) EXERCISE Without actual 1. x8 By dividing by x a?8 f 1. The 5. i. x 4o8 + 2a^ + 4a?~3 =0 4^ or* f 9 or* 2 a? aj? a? a? 2 4 3 . 3 2 : 7. Let x = . 25. 8 }3 3 2 3 s 2 3 4 8 2 2 4 s 3 t .12 = 0. 20. 11. is a factor. 24. 6. ^10^429^20=0. a? 19.TEE FACTOR THEOREM Ex. a 2a + 4. 5. 1. 21. 15. factors of the absolute term.
it follows from the Factoi xn y n is always divisible by x y." . 2 Ex. 2. Two special cases of the preceding propositions are of viz. if w is odd. is odd. 1. if n For ( y) n f y n = 0. : importance. If n is a Theorem that 1.y n is divisible by x f ?/. xn y n y n y n = 0. For substituting y for x. 286. actual division n. xn f. Ex. if n is even.  y 5 = (x  can readily be seen that #n f either x + y or x y. and have for any positive integral value of If n is odd. It y is not divisible by 287. 2. Factor consider m m 6 n9 . ar +p= z6 e. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA positive integer. The difference of two even powers should always be considered as a difference of two squares. x* f/ = (x +/)O . 2 8 (3 a ) +8= + 288.230 285. Factor 27 a* f 27 a 6 8. By we obtain the other factors.g. We may 6 n 6 either a difference of two squares or a dif * The symbol means " and so forth to.xy +/).
a.THE FACTOR THEOREM ference of two cubes. 28. preferable. since it more directly to the prime factors. Factor a 12 EXERCISE Resolve into prime factors : 107 Solve the following equations: 25. leads 231 is The first method. x3 8=0. 27. as 27=0. however.= . 3. 26. y 3 +8=0. f n)(m 2 mn f w 2 )(wi .i mn f w 2). Hence = (m Ex.
y4 is of the fifth degree. can be solved by the methods degree. & + 2 xy + = 25. (5) Combining (5) with (1). xywe have 3. Hence " /  X y = =} 4. xy x*y f y = 4 is of the second degree. = 6. * A I. the third one can be found by means of the relation (ojjy) 2 4 xy Ex. Squaring Solve (1). 290. (4) Hence. in general.1. 232 . x y. If two of the quantities x f y. however. *The graphic solution of simultaneous quadratic equations has been treated in Chapter XII. 4 xy = 16. + 6 a?V . EQUATIONS SOLVED BY FINDING x +y AND xy 291. xy are given. of quadratics. ==5 > 1^ = 4.CHAPTER XIX SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 289. 2 2/ (1) (2) (3) (2) x 4. to equations of the fourth few cases. Simultaneous quadratic equations involving two un known quantities lead. The degree of an equation involving several unknown quantities is equal to the greatest sum of the exponents of the unknown quantities contained in any term.
1. F* Lx ' 2 (1) ' (2) (3) (4) 2 + 3 = 293. the answers of the last example are : r*=2. = . 108 2. EXERCISE Solve: 1. 3.g. ^. 12. ' 10. b=3. I I x + y=7. In many cases two of the quantities x f y.SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 292. x and xy are not given. roots of simultaneous quadratic equations must be e. 233 y. r (" 1 = 876. The arranged in pairs. " "' "' { r 8. but can be found.
~ y = 5. THE OTHER QUADRATIC 294. EXERCISE Solve : 109 47/ = 0. 7 . 19. 4 y = 20.20) = 0. + 29 = 0. Factoring.?/ i = 6. ^ f or* f 4 xy = 28. ( \ ~^V\ + 2 / 2y 2 ?/' . or JJ. 5. x " (3) 49 etc. or y = 1 . I x+y = a. 3. 9 y2 17 y 2 + ) 8 (y  40 y (17 y 1 Hence Substituting in (3).a.  . .. . r^ 2 as ] f.o 18. Substituting in (2) Simplifying. Solve 2 x + 3y = 7. la. ' ' .  f J.i/ = r 13.  42 y + Transposing. 2 (1) From (1) we have. A system of simultaneous equations. Ex. I* Jj ^ [.4 [ ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA x 4. 6 "I 14. =^ 18* ONE EQUATION LINEAR. can be solved by eliminating one of the unknown uantities by means of substitution. aj = 2. one linear and ne quadratic.
4 f + 2 y = 3. one equation of two simultaneous quadratics is homogeneous. x2y. (1) (2) 7 xy + G if = 0. 4^ 3 x 2 y 3 y3 A and # 2 2 xy 5 y2 are homogeneous equations. 235  > ' 1 lla 8 12~ 10 13. 10.SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS y 7. ' x*. (x to solve the 2t/)(2 x = ( Hence we have two systems (3) (1) From (3). 8 V~80 Hence y =1 y . y* + 2y = 3.3 2x 2 Ex. = 1 3 3. ':il e :) . quantities. HOMOGENEOUS EQUATIONS homogeneous equation is an equation all of whose terms are of the same degree with respect to the unknown 295. 3 y2 Substituting in (1). 9. 3y) : Factor (2). III. 1. Solve . the example can always be reduced to an example 296. If of the preceding type.
= 0. Solve 2. (rc2/)(llx5y) 16 xy f 5 y 2 (3) Hence solve : (2) From (3).236 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 297. (1) Eliminate 2 and 6 by subtraction. j Substituting y in (2). 11 a2 Factoring. 2. 2 .2 ^ EXERCISE Solve: 6ar 7aK/427/2 ==0. the problem can be reduced to the preceding case by eliminating the absolute term. y = 110 f 10^370^ + 7^ = 16^7^ . (1) (2) x x 5. 15 x2 . } VI09. = 0. 109 a.20 xy + 15 y 2 = 2 x 5. If both equations are homogeneous with exception oi the absolute terra. (3) (4) Subtracting. = Ex.
Bxy9. E. Some of the more frequently used devices are the following: 299.125 ay = . " IV. .y = 7. SPECIAL DEVICES Many examples belonging to the preceding types. Division of one equation by the other. ' ^ 15. Equations of higher degree can sometimes be reduced to equations of the second degree by dividing member by member. 150 */2 . 298.6. which in most cases must be left to the ingenuity of the student.!.xy 4. (4) (3). ' <"" =m _ 14 ' &. f 1 150 a?. 2 (3) (4) Squaring (2). A.175 ay = 12. and others not belonging to them.3^42^=43. y? a? f .SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 237 m U. can be solved by special devices. Solve * + '* { Dividing (1) by (2). 2 xy + y2 = 10.
i ^ *>.238 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 111 Solve * : fajy=152. at first it is unknown quantities. xy. Therefore x = 16. f^ + 3 7/ = 133. considering not x or but expressions involving x and as the as x . = 12 J. x +y y etc. Considering V# + y and y as quantities and solving. * ' 300. Vx y 4 or V^^y = 3 x 4 or But the negative roots being extraneous. i" <Vx f ' unknown 6. Some simultaneous ?/. y = 3. (1 > (2) 1. 2. quadratics can be solved by ?/. from (2). B. we obtain by squaring. we have from (1). x 2 .. jc~ y = 9. = 189. Solve Ex. In more complex examples letter for advisable to substitute another such expressions. y .
4. Hence we have 7 x 4 to solve the two systems U) : x ! + */ = 17. Solve (1) (2) Let Then r __ 17^ + 40. 6. [2x + : y= 17. 36* 2. 239 Ex. F+y+ . Hence = V or = 4. The solution produces the roots EXERCISE Solve : 112 5. I e. M6. .SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS . 2. 7.
240 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Solve by any method : far' 9 + a^lSG. 2 or 5 CCT/ + 3 f + 3 . ' x2 1 6 xy = 15.4 y = 47 a. . 19 ' 26. ' ** 5x+ 7y = 13 ' ' 1 f. f 18. 16. 25. = 198. ( xy (7 m 2 n*. x 1 20' = 41 400' =34. = y 1 y* . * . + o5)(6hy) = 80. 27. .21 ^ = 15.
= 48201. . oo 301. ~\ OK OO. or ~ indeterminate. 3 a2 38. hence may be any finite number. 30. . Interpretation . 7' j/ 39. . 32. . The results of problems and other examples appear sometimes in forms which require a special interpretation.SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS i 241 y . Q 7. 203): ix y Solve graphically (see 40. as a . ^ oo . 25 34. finite  =x y if = x. etc 302. 31. etc. INTERPRETATION OF NEGATIVE RESULTS AND THE FORMS OF 5 . y % 9 f*K 36. 33.of  According to the definition of division.  But this equation is satisfied by any is value of a?.
The solution x = indicates that the problem is indeter If all terms of an minate. as + l. I. however x approaches the value be comes infinitely large. . customary to represent this result by the equation ~ The symbol 304. the answer is indeterminate. while the remaining terms do not cancelj the root is infinity. TO^UU" sufficiently small.g. or that x may equal any finite number. great. be the numbers.242 303. equation. The ~~f fraction . ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Interpretation of ? e. 1.can be If It is made larger than number.x'2 2 x = 1. and . the If in an equation terms containing unknown quantity cancel. or infinitesimal) This result is usually written : 305. i. (1) = 0. (1).decreases X if called infinity. creases.i solving a problem the result or oo indicates that the all problem has no solution. Hence such an equation identity. Hence any number will satisfy equation the given problem is indeterminate. of the second exceeds the product of the first Find three consecutive numbers such that the square and third by 1. (a: Then Simplifying. Let 2.e.e. without exception. Interpretation of QO The fraction if x x inis infinitely large. + I) 2 x2 ' f 2x + 1 x(x + 2)= . = 10. Or. it is an Ex. i. By making x any * assigned zero. oo is = QQ. is satisfied by any number. 306.000 a. and becomes infinitely small. (1) is an identity. x f 2. . 1.increases if x de x creases. ToU" ^100 a. cancel.
Solve . Solve x a. EXERCISE PROBLEMS 1. and a. * 6. the second exceeds the product of the first and third by 2. 113 is One half of a certain number equal to the sum of its Find the number. The sum is of squares 2890. Solve (aj + 1) : (x + 2) = ( + 3) 114 : (a? + 4). = oo. 3. 2.e. 42 and' their product is 377. z = 1 Substituting. no numbers can satisfy the given system.SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS Ex. Solve ~o 3 x v ~K 6 x r x 6 4. Hence /. . 4 3 x x5 a2 . and the sum of Find the numbers. EXERCISE 1. (2).2 y = 4. Find three consecutive numbers such that the square of 2. 243 Solve the system : (1) (2) From Or. y finite QO. Solve  9 7. two numbers is 76. The sum of two numbers Find the numbers.8 x + 15 6. 1=0. third and sixth parts. is their 2.
of a right triangle is 73.) 53 yards. The volumes of two cubes differ by 98 cubic centimeters. and the sum of ( 228. . Find two numbers whose product whose squares is 514. equals 4 inches. 103.) The area of a right triangle is 210 square feet. The hypotenuse is the other two sides 7. 9. p. The area of a nal 41 feet. Find the side of each square. Find the edge of each cube. and the side of one increased by the side of the other e. is the breadth diminished by 20 inches. the area becomes f% of the original area. rectangle is 360 square Find the lengths of the sides.quals 20 feet. is is 17 and the sum 4. Find these sides. and the edge of one. 190. and the diago(Ex. 8.244 3. 148 feet of fence are required. 13. and is The area of a rectangle remains unaltered if its length increased by 20 inches while its breadth is diminished by 10 inches. Find the edges. The sum of the areas of two squares is 208 square feet. and the hypotenuse is 37. two numbers Find the numbers. and its The diagonal is is perimeter 11. Two cubes together contain 30 cubic inches. 146 yards. 12. 6. Find the sides. increased by the edge of the other. the The mean proportional between two numbers sum of their squares is 328. is 6. Find the dimensions of the field. 255 and the sum of 5. and the edge of one exceeds the edge of the other by 2 centimeters. But if the length is increased by 10 inches and 12. Find the other two sides. of a rectangular field feet. To inclose a rectangular field 1225 square feet in area. Find the sides of the rectangle. 10. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA The difference between is of their squares 325. Find the numbers. 14.
by the product of 27 be added to the number. irR *. Find the number. their areas are together equal to the area of a circle whose radius is 37 inches. and the equal to the surface of a sphere Find the radii. differ by 8 inches. the quotient is 2. (Surface of sphere If a number of two digits be divided its digits. 245 The sum of the radii of two circles is equal to 47 inches. is 20 inches. The radii of two spheres is difference of their surfaces whose radius = 47T#2.) 17. and if the digits will be interchanged.SIMULTANEOUS QUADRATIC EQUATIONS 15. . Find the radii.) (Area of circle and = 1 16.
is derived from the preceding by the addition of a constant number. 16. The common differences are respectively 4. except the first.. 3 d must be added to a. To find the nth term / of an A... 15 is 9 f..1) d.. 12. 19.. the first term a and the common difference d being given. progression. An arithmetic progression (A. 2 d must be added to a. f . a 3d.. to A series is a succession of numbers formed according some fixed law. 4.. of the following series is 3. The terms ARITHMETIC PROGRESSION 308. series 9. Since d is a f 3 d. to produce the nth term. The first is an ascending. to produce the 3d term. The common Thus each difference is the number which added an A. . to each term produces the next term. 309. of a series are its successive numbers. 17. The progression is a. P. a + d. 11. P. and d. 3. P. a f d.11 246 (I) Thus the 12th term of the 3 or 42. Hence / = a + (n . a. added to each term to obtain the next one. . + 2 d. to produce the 4th term. . 10. a + 2 d. (n 1) d must be added to a.. the second a descending. : 7.) is a series. . each term of which. a 11.CHAPTER XX PROGRESSIONS 307.7..
. the last term and the common difference d being given.. 7. 8. 5.. a = 2. Find the 10th term of the series 17. P. 6..8. P. 3. 1. 9.. Adding. 19.3 a = l. 6. 24. 1.' cZ == . = 2. 115.. . 9. . 3. P. 7. 7. Or Hence Thus from (I) = (+/). = a + (a Reversing the order. 247 first To find the sum s 19 of the first n terms of an A. 2 EXERCISE 1. = I + 49 = *({ + . 1J. . 99) = 2600. 6. d = 3.. 2*=(a + Z) + (a + l) + (a + l) 2s = n * . 3. if a = 5.16. ? (a) 1. 2 sum of the first 60 I (II) to find the ' ' odd numbers.. . Find the 5th term of the 4. 2J. . Find the 12th term of the 4. 5.. 2.. d . 3. series . 5. Find the 101th term of the series 1.. 8. Find the nth term of the series 2. first 2 Write down the (a) (6) (c) 6 terms of an A. the term a. 4^. 10. 4... Which (6) (c) of the following series are in A. .. 2. Find the 7th term of the Find the 21st term series . 3... = 99.. series 2. 5... (d) 1J. of the series 10.PROGRESSIONS 310. 6 we have Hence . 5. 8. .4. 21. (a + + (a + l) l).
1+2+3+4H Find the sum of the first n odd numbers. 11. (i) (ii) . 8. striking hours only. 17. Sum the following series 14. Q^) How many times in 12 hours ? (&fi) does a clock.(# 1 2) f (x f 3) H to a terms. to 20 terms. 15. 1. . 13. 11. 16. P. 18. 15.. 11.7 f to 12 terms. 1. : 3.248 Find the 10. 4. > 2f 2. 31. '. to 20 terms. to 8 terms.1 f 3. In most problems relating to A.5 H + if f to 10 terms. 33. to 10 terms. 11. 15. How much does he receive (a) in the 21st year (6) during the first 21 years ? j 311. 6. 20. 1. to 7 terms. . rf. to 16 terms. Jive quantities are involved. 3. 1J. 21. 2J. to 20 terms. to 15 terms. $1 For boring a well 60 yards deep a contractor receives yard thereafter 10^ more How much does he receive all together ? ^S5 A bookkeeper accepts a position at a yearly salary of $ 1000. + 2f3 + 4 H hlOO. 7. hence if any three of them are given. . 16. 23. . 2. and a yearly increase of $ 120. 7. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA last term and the sum of the following series : . 29. strike for the first yard. 12. (x +"l) 4. 19. . the other two may be found by the solution of the simultaneous equations . 12. . 22. . 7. + 3. . \n. and for each than for the preceding one.
From (1). 3 n2 52 n + 204 = 0. a = 49 6(71 . 89. Solving. I. or if x Solving. 78. Substituting in (2).6 n). = 1014. the and the sum of all terms 1014. 6. or 144 = 12 + 12 d=ll. 312. = 13. . P. is Thus x the arithmetic mean between a and a=b x. #. = 144. d = 6. is 12. 12. 122.104 w + 408 = 0. x=  4 the arithmetical mean between two numbers is equal to half their sum. 100. 111. l)e?.1). a = 12. 2. = n(104 . 23. = 1014.~n~\ 408 6). = a + (w. 67.1) . 49 (1) (2) Substituting. 144. the second one mean between the other two.PROGRESSIONS Ex. Find the series. When is called the arithmetic three numbers are in A. s 24ft last term 144. and b form an A. 1. 45. hence n = 6. Findn. 2 (2) From Hence (2). I Substituting in (I) and (II). if a. 6 n2 . 204 = ^ (a + 49). P. n = 6. Ex. 204 = ^ (98 . But evidently n cannot be fractional.. if s = 204.. The first term of an A. 78 n Substituting in (1). .e. P. 133. 34. or 11 J. (1) 1014 = ^(12 + 144). The series is.6. J = 49. 56. n d.
= 1870. = 45. A $300 is divided among 6 persons in such a way that each person receives $ 10 did each receive ? more than the preceding one. 17. How many terms How many terms Given d = 3. a+ and b a b 5.250 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA EXERCISE 116 : Find the arithmetic means between 1. 10. = 83. 8. a x f b and a b. 74. y and #f5y. 14. How much . and all his savings in 5 years amounted to $ 6540. man saved each month $2 more than in the pre 18. n = 13. f J 1 1 / . produced.3. Find d and Given a = 1700. and s. I Find I in terms of a. = 16. 3. 4. n = 20. s = 70. = 17. has the series 82. Find d. Find a and Given s = 44. Given a = 4. 78. Find?. . Between 10 and 6 insert 7 arithmetic means . = ^ 3 = 1. 12. = 52. Find a Given a = 7. ceding one. 16. 6? 9. of 5 terms 6. P. m and n 2. n has the series ^ j . s == 440. Given a = . 15. n = 16. Find n. 13. f? . Given a = . 11. d = 5. n = 17. 7. Find d. n. T? ^. I. Between 4 and 8 insert 3 terms (arithmetic is means) so that an A. Given a = 1. n = 4. Find w. How much did he save the first month? 19.
called the ratio. ar8 r. A geometric progression first. The progression is a. . ratios are respectively 3. is 16(f) 4 . (I) of the series 16.) is a series each term of which. or 81 315. (II) of the 8 =s first 6 terms of the series 16. 4 (1) . 2..PROGRESSIONS 251 GEOMETRIC PROGRESSION 313. 4. of a G.g.. 36. ar... a?*2 To obtain the nth term a must evidently be multiplied by . NOTE. To find the sum s of the first n terms term a and the ratio r being given. is it (G. r n~ l . Therefore Thus the sum = ^ZlD. P. 2 arn (2) Subtracting (1) from (2). +1. .. The 314. fl lg[(i) l] == 32(W  1) = 332 J.. 2 a. and To find the nth term / of a G. 36. If n is less : than unity. . .. <zr . 24. g== it is convenient to write formula' (II) in *. E. Hence Thus the 6th term l = ar n~l . 4.. 12. I. P. s(r 1) 8 = ar" 7* JL a. . rs = s 2 . 108. the first term a and the ratios r being given. 24. 36.arn ~ l . or. except the multiplying derived from the preceding one by by a constant number... the first = a + ar for ar f ar Multiplying by r. . P. the following form 8 nf + q(lr") 1 r .
the other two be found by the solution of the simultaneous equations : may (I) /=<!/'. 80. . . To insert 5 geometric means between 9 and 576. .. 36. Hence n = 7. Write down the first 5 terms of a G. . 20. \ t series . Jive quantities are in.*. is 3. 676 t Substituting in = r6 = 64. 2 term 3. . first term 4. .. .252 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 316.l. .. r^2. l. Hence the or series is 0. 25. 288.. 7. fa. 676.18.288. P. 18. series . 9. 4.. f. hence.6.. a = I.72.. EXERCISE 1.. Find the 6th term of the series J. (b) 1. if any three of them are given. .18. 144. is 16. Find the 5th term of a G. P. volved . (it. 1. 72. series 5.. (d) 5. . Find the 7th term of the Find the 6th term of the Find the 9th term of the ^... 9. 4. 144. whose and whose second term is 8. 6.4. first term is 125 and whose common . 3. P. Ex. 144. P. series Find the llth term of the Find the 7th term of the ratio is ^. I = 670. . whose . 117 Which (a) of the following series are in G.. And the required means are 18. 10.5. whose and whose common ratio is 4. Evidently the total number of terms is 5 + 2. . 576.5. ? (c) 2. 9. . 0.. f. 36. 72._!=!>.. or 7.54. In most problems relating to G. i 288. series 6. + 5. P. first 5. +f%9 % . 8. Write down the first 6 terms of a G. . fa. 36.
14. to 6 terms. 42. of r n decreases. + 4 . to 6 terms. J. P. J. >"> . .i a9 . . Find a and n = 4. 81.J and 270.. 24. s = 605. . to 7 .. 14. Find a and Given r = Given r = 2. to 5 terms. J. 81. Find a and 4. 19. a. J. 1. = 3. 16 . may be than any assignable number. Therefore 8^ = 1 i =1 1 '. 48.. Given r = n Z 5. 2. . the value The formula for the sum may if n increases* = _ fl flf made taking n sufficiently large. to 6 terms.. 12. be written If the value of r of a G. is less than unity. = 3. Find the geometric mean between 7. Prove that the geometric mean between a and b equals Vo6. Consequently the sum of an infinite decreasing series is By n less r^Ex. . n = 5. Z s. 4. 36. Find a and Given r = 3. I. 20. s = 310. to 8 terms. 54. 12 terms. INFINITE GP:OMETRIC PROGRESSION 317. 15. 1. and hence ~ r .nV> i*> !718.. . 25S series : 32. n = 5. 72. 243. r . Find the sum to infinity of the series 1. to 7 terms. 13. to G terms. 21.PROGRESSIONS Find the sum of the following 11. == 160. a^. 27. 22... 126. 23. M.
272727..= _4Z* .01 ^ . 4... If a = 40... P. The terms afteAhe first form an infinite G. and the first term is Find 17. 1 r = . . . 12. = a .. 12. Find the sum to infinity. ..3121212.00072 f .072. 9. .99 . P. 1. 6.)7?7272 . 13.. is 16. 118 : infinity of the following series 3. 4. . 40. first and the common term. Hence . P.. 8. 16.37272 .. 6. = 990 .. 1. If the side of the first square is 2 inches. . 7... i. The sum r.555. . the diagonal of each equal to the side of the preceding one. 250..191919. Given an infinite series of squares.. =A+ 10 i..3 + . of an infinite G. of all squares ? ... is J.072 + . . .717171. what is (a) the sum of the areas. . r = j. 2. = . 10. ..... is 9. 8... .. Find the value 9. 5. 9. 3.3727272 . ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Find the value of .. I. 14. .Ql..27777 . (6) the sum of the perimeters. .72. 1. ratio 15.. of: 11... 66 Therefore . 100. 65 = 1L 110 EXERCISE Find the sum to 1. 1.= . 2..1. .254 Ex.. 5. . i i J.. . 16. The sum Find the of an infinite G. = .
11. Find the middle term of (m ri) 16 Find the 99th term of (a + b) m im Find the 1000th term of . (a + b) . .a2) 25 Find the 5th term of f Vx + ^r 18. (s + i).b) w (a (a f (1 . 14. : (1 + xy. (z2 ^ Simplify 9. 15.6) 20 . Find the middle term of f f x }\8 : ) 27. 28. Find the 6th term of (x . (a2) 6. 26. . l 2. (xy) : 6 . 16. coefficient of . 25.6) . /2a+Y\ 8.b ). 13. Find the 4th term of (w Find the 5th term of 12 ri) 11 . . 5. (\ 9 . 20. a4 b 12 in (a f 6)16 Find the coefficient of a5 b 15 in (a .BINOMIAL THEOREM EXERCISE 119 257 Expand the following 3. 12. Find the coefficient of a?V" in (a Find the coefficient of 23. 2 2 24. + a) Find the 4th term of 7 (a f 2 b) . 21. (a 100 . 4 7. Find the middle term of (x + y) 4 Find the middle term of (a b)\ . Find the 3d term of fa f V ^Y Va/  19. 4. Find the Find the u 13 coefficient of a?b in (a f 5) . . 10. 7 . 4 (1+V#) + (1 Va) 4 . 22. a6 8 16 in . Find the 5th term of Find the 3d term of + b) . 17. 29.
3. a8 + ~T 3 2 ft' a2 + + 3T r C + + c2 + 2 . 2.a(a 4.c )(fta) 1. 2. + 1. if a ft c = = = 4. 3. 3. 1. a ft c = = 2. 2. . 2. c if 7 . 3. (ca)(cft)' 4. 4 *2  4 xy  4 ^+ a: ?/ 2 ?/ + 2 3. 6. 24 4. 5J lj 2j 3} 8 4j y 8 . 1. 4. 4. of : 27 x* ~ 27 xy or f 9 xy~ 1 # 8 . 2 . 1. 5. 4 (2 a  13 a a b + a ft 31 a 2 ft 2  38 3. 3. 2. if = = = 2. 4. if = = 2. 2.] a 2^ aft + r 3 a l} 2 be 4. 1. 4. 4 ft  c) 2. 2. 2. 5. 2J 4J 16 x* 32 afy 24 afya 1. 3. 3. 2. 3. + c(a  c). 6. 1. 4. 2. 1. 2. 3. 3.  8 ^ 2. 1. 2. 2. 2. 1. 3. 3. ^+^ 3. 3. 4. 5. . 4. y 3. 5. 1. 2. 4. 5. 2. 3. 3. 3. (ft c)(c 4 ) 3. 2. i (aft)(ac) a 6 (ft. 2.f ac 1. 3. 2. 1. 2. c = = = 2.  a)(a 1. l. aft 3 + 4.  2. if y=2j 2. 5. 1. 1. 1. 5. 1. + 2. 6. (c 3. 3. 2. 3. 4. 3. 6. 1. 4 2. 1. 5. ft 4 ) 5. ft) . 1. 2. 5. 3. 2. 2. if x^l. + 2. 6. *=M  M 3J f 2 2 ] 2 ] 2 1 3 1 3 1 M. 4. 7. 3. 2. 2. 1. 4. 5. = 2. 2.258 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA REVIEW EXERCISE Find the numerical values 1. 1. 4. 3. 2. 2 (2 a  3 aft f 4 2 ft ).  2. 3.
= 2.259 x c) . x 2 +  2 ax* f a zx + 2 ?/ a8 . 2.3 a?y . 21. a 4 + 11 a .\ yz + xz.a 4 . 5.7 + . 26. + 2. 7. 10 z 8 12  6 2 8.10. 6 a4 4 a8 . ~c)(b.r 6 x  4 xy .11 x 5 12 z 7/ 3 ary. 4 a 5 9 4 2 */. if a 6 = = c = 3. 2 x 8.2.a 5 a . 8.3 xyz. 2 2 x2 + and 9 2:2 y' xy. 11 x 8 + 14 x^ij .2 a?y + 3 aty . + 3 y 2* .5 xy 3 + + 4 . or .7 y 2* 4. 25. 3.x 5 4 . 4.a) . x = 4. 6. a: . . 7 xy 3 .5. 17. 6 y4 y 4 + 3 z8 . 2 .' 4 x2 2  5 z3 8 .8 3 + 7 x4 . c)(x a} .4. x C 4 4x y + .2 x2 . . 11 z 4 x4 12 17. 4 x 4 . c(x (c g)(x 6) = 1. 2.4 xyz + 4 xy'2 . + 4. 3.8 y y 5 4 * 8y.2 x?/. b(x (b 1. 2  + 12 a 8 . 10.  a) (c 2. + 4 ?y . + 8 x4 *y .8 + 2 // . 29. x3 f 3 ax'2 . 9. 40.c' 2 4 / . + x/y 2 + + y'2z + 2 3 x 10 y'2 + 5 z2 . 16. 5. Add the following expressions and check the answers : 10. 4. 24.a8 . f 8. 7y 4 . 21.x 2 + 4 2 ~ 10 z 2 + z 2 + 11 yz + 8 2:2 . and 3 y 8 f 12 z 8 . a /> 3.  2 x 2// + 3 2 x?/  7 y3 .2. 20. xy 2 12 xy* + G y4 4 xy*  zy + 12 xy*  4 y4 . x3 2 a2 . c = 3. 15. 18. 4 z . 1 + 3 x + 2 x 8 . 41.11 z 3 4 4 ?p 2 . 2 a3 7 y4 3 // f ax'2 . r> . + 1. 9. 4a + 9 a2  3 a5 . 8 . 2. 1. by The and c is represented radius r of a circle inscribed in a triangle whose sides are by the formula Find r.4 x'2 f 12 x and 5 2 + 7 x8 . a. 1. 5. a. . ' b) + 3.1. 12. 4 y 13.4 yz\ 7xy* + z 3. 2. x 3 11. (5. 5.7 ys. 15. x 3 x' 14. 4.2 z8 4 x. .
{2 x 2 .. and 7 x a 2x 2 ax'2 4.5 10 b 3 \ G 11 = ft x4y42. 4vTT~y 3.n/ 4 4 12 x 5 4 4 x?y 4 2 x6 f 4 x 4 ?/ x// 5 ?/ .2 . 4 2 x2 23.[4 x 4. 4 4 4. 35.[3 if  (3 _^ ft 6 ft f c)}] a: .3 . x'2 . (/) a +  ft 4 6 +  rf.5. : a x .3 x 3 from G a 8 2 a 2x  4 x8 22.(4 x 2 . sum of . [4 I 2a47c(7ft44c)[6a3ft4 2~c44c{2a(ft2T2)}].260 19. ft 25. Simplify 31.2 a . Take the sum of 3 x 4. From of 2 the 4.x . 3 x2 133ft[l7a5ft^[7fl3ft{4fl~4ft(2a3ft)}]]. 4 3 5 y/ . . 34. . Take the sum 4x 4.(a . of a.4 ft) 4.5 .2 3 ax 2 .4) . c =x y }~ z.x .6 x ] .] 26. 2 x2 + 2 y5 24.(4 * . and a ft 4 ft 3 c take  6 a. and d= c c 4 x4#4z </.3 . 36. Find what expression added the ft to 3 x 2 2 x 4 3 will give 27. Take the sum of G a8 4 4 4 a 2x 4 .(7 x 4.(x* . 2 x 32. 2 xy 4 the ^V 4 G x5 From take 4 sum sum 2 c of . Add 9 Ifcc 2 7 12 . 3 4 5 10 2  7 12 . 7 12 . 542 x 2 and .1)}] . 29. 33.2) .4 x 8 from ax 2 4 6 x8 4 21.x 4. 7 x x the ft 4 x2 11 x.x 2 4.3 x . ft. and 4 4 2 xs 4 and 5 x 3 y 5 .1).2 _[5ft{^ 2 8 4 x* . 6 VI ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 4X5V14.?> x 4 20.8 3 4.[4 z 8 .2 . . 5 10 4 G 11 4. take the sum of G x 5 . f ft.c 4 3 a. 3 ft. a  ft + c. of 2 x 8 4 4 x2 4 9 and 4 x . .3. c 4ft. (*) a  c.1 and x 8 G 11 4 3 x2 +  from G x2 4 x. 3 x Subtract the difference of x 8 4 . 5 10 + 7 . find (a) a (ft) (c) a 4(</) 4. 4 .(x 4. 5 4 7 12 .c. x8 x2 2 a'2x. and a 2 ft 4 ft 3 c take sum  2 c 4 2 a and 2 a 5 x c. / x5 2x 4 # 3 y5 G x a 4 3 5 x*. = x y ft z.c 3 a.4 Vl 4.4 x from the sum of 9 x 2.#48.x2 . .(5 y .a ft.4.{G * 2 . 4 3 From 44 the 3 // and G x 4y 2 x2 2 . the From sum of 2 1 sum 2 c of ft 4.(5 c . c 4.27~~7)}]. and .7. 4 2 x8 x 4 4. . 2 c  2 a  and 2 a 3 x2 28.c. 0" 30.2 x 8y2 44 . and 2 Vl 4*/ 2VT+7 .4\/i + x 3Vl 4.6T .
[2 . 54. 63.4 a 2 + a 4 ).(6 .r 2 + !>ar + 3)(^ 2 . (/> 4 . (a 2 + 2 + 9 .& + {. 2 53.JT^T+1)} + (2 . 2 a) (2: + 7/ a)(x 2 2 66.3 yz)(2 a (* 2 ft ft ft ft ft ft ?/ ft ft ft ?/ a: 61.3).(2 a + 5 a .12).3 z 2 ). (a:2)(r4)(a:9).rf)} + a [.3 a + 3 + aft)(a + 3).c). (a 2 + 2 + c 2 + aft + ac .[3 y [2 ft 2 z + {4 (3 a ar 40. (.b (c . . (1 ar+a. 2 f [3 c 7 a .* 2 + (x + x + l)(a: (z 1). +  ^+ y)(x 2 ) (x + a 2 )(a: 4 + a 4 ). 43. 'J 44. a .2x + 3). 13 a . .7).2)(1 . .2 <?)} 13 ft ft _[&{2c(3d + Perform the operations indicated 47. 5a(7ft+4c) + [6 a.3 c)].3~ft f 2 c + 4 ^ .be) (a 58.3c). 60.{3 c . 50.1). (x . .  2 a  {3 2x a . 68. 3 x 42.3)(*5)(* 7). 4 + 2 2 + 1). 2 52. )(lz a ).ab .3T~2~s)} + 5 2]. (4 z 2 + 9 2 + ^ 2 .[4 x  5 .(2 . (5 a 39. + 2)  (4 x 2  2 x 7)}]. 2 ft 41. (. .[7 a 36 {4 a 46 (2 a 3 ft)}]]. (2 x 2 3 ar+ 1)(3 z 2 x+ 1).(5 y . (4 + 3a 2 .[0 a 5a + 2 c + 4 c . 45.2c(V/ .6c) (a + f c).6 xy . (x 2 + 4 y 2 + 3 z 2 ) (.6 x + 5 x'2) (2 . (r (1 (a. . (a 2 + 2 + c 2 .(2 a 2 .2 2 + 1)(7.{2 a (ft .ary + 2) (^ 4 ?/ *V + *)(! + ar)(l + ^ 2 )(1 + **).(7 i + 4 r:) . + 4x + 5)(j.e '/)}] (2a + 2b . 46.2 2 .56. 59. + *+!){> + 2).2a .0)} . 2 2 x + !)(* . 67.(4 d . 49.96 [17 a. 64. 7 a 2 261 {5 2 a2 2 a + (2 a 2 i j 38. 62.5)} + (3 a 2 .5 )}] + {4 c . .r 2:c+ l)(ar. 2 : 7e)a}]. (ar + 7)(ar + 5)(a: + 3).a~^~c)K].Z . .{2 a . 48.6)}].2 zz . 51. (x. (1 55.c 2 .(7 a.REVIEW EXERCISE 37.3 *). 56. a {. 57. . 65.ac .(2 x2 .4 a .
ar . 92. 2 + a 2 ). 89. .y'*4y 2m )OK y I)(a m ).3 (ft .:y)( a. p(p + ?) + 4 A) (a . 83.2 (a . ft ft ft a}.m np c . (a (2 b)*(a 4. 90. by multiplying out each 4 side of the equality. 70.x + y + z). 79.9y2).n pc). 4.2ft) 8 ( + 2 ft).v) 4.ft) + 4(2 .z) . ft" l Simplify 80.a) 2 .(a 48 8 8 4.c)].z\x 4.a) (a? 4(c 4 y) (y c)(ar 2 ft + 8 a).z)(x y + z)(.5 . f 72.(a? 4 y)*(x  y). + (rtP+i 4 2 6)(a^+ .y). 71. 86. 88.c)} . . ft /.6*y . ft 95.2 (y 4. b 4. O (x (a 2 + 4 y y) 2 a J 4 . 84. 77. ft 8 ft) 4 ft 8 4.(ft 4. 94.{3 a .r 2 .c . 4 (a + ft)(a 2 81. Prove the following 8 4. (a 2 ft 2n 4.c) 2 . 75.<f(p .262 69. 74.3 a .a) (2 + 7(7> ~ 'y) 2 4.> 2 2 + 2 3 9). 87.c .b 4.ac b + n~ + /? 2c n ft n an b c)(a"* ?n + + c).c 8 4 3(6 c)(c 4 a)(n + 2 ft). 8 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA (a 2  z 3) (a 8 2 a + z 3 )(a 6 2 + a: 6 ) (a 12 a (a  + l)(a 2 f 2a + l)(a + + ( a: 12 ).(c 4.y + z)(x + y . 82.O (a 4(a 4.(^ 4 y 2 )  4 ^/(.(a 2) (s 4 ft.3y) a (* 2 4. 93.2 ft}) f (3 a .(x 42 y) O 2 4 y) (^ 44 y ). . (x (x ( + *) . _ ft) (a: + a)(x + b) + (bc)(x + ft) (a: 4. 1). 76.y)\x y). 85.(/>  3 v)^(. (x 4 2 y) (2 ^ 3 y)2(/ y) (^ 3 V)  . (p 2 . 2 (x 2 .ft) 4 .q). 4 4 .am&t 4 A 2 *).c c 2 4 2 am 20 (??2 + : n 6 f p ) (w . ft 78.(4 .c) . 1). 73.c) . (.c) 4) (ft 4.2y)(.r3y)4l)y( a :y)^2y)418 // (2ry)46 8 // . a (a 2 2a + + " 4 l)(u 2a n f (:r a. 3[a{2 a (a 4ft 4 2 2 ^>) c) 44 a2 a8 4 2 4. xy y 2 ). (a) (a (ft) a8 4 ft 8 4. 91.c) j. a(2 + 4 3ft) 2 (2a 4 4 8 ^) .c) rr identities.
(a 8  8 68 8 4. 4 (6 x 4 23 x s 33 z 43 42 a.3 a"+ 4. (80 a 112.2 2% 4. 1O4.9 x 2 . 114.5 xy). 25 4 .REVIEW EXERCISE Simplify : 263 96.(7 xi/ . 3*.2 y 2 ) 3 xy (25 .&) 8  5(a n 4 2 6) ] 5(a 4 &) 6 (a 4. 121.'30) ~ (4 ^  5 x 4 10). 110.c 4 6 afo) f + ^ 4 ).y 4 .*) (x 8 .y 4 ) . 10). (4 4 3 a  4  5 a 3 . r . . 105.6 ) (a** (a (x 10 3 J 1 a  1). 118. (.35 x 2 2 ) . 116. 102. . Cr (z 27y l9a:y) (a:3yy 6 ) r 2 (a: 4 xy 4 y 2 ). a*. (a 8 ^4 + 8 & 8) (  2 2 119. (20 x*  4 72 x 2  35 4. 103. 120.r 4 4.1).(2 a 2 .6 y 4 4. 1). 20) * (3 a* 4 4 a? + 5). 113.(y 2 ~ (a 2 ) 5 y 6 a  12).(a 1 2 8 . 109. 2 4 41 x 4a. ( y 8_o7)^^2 + 3 y + 0). 124. 2 (a+ .21 x*if) (4 ^ 2 .4 aft .xy 4. 26 (a 4 c).b) 98.2y 2 4.16 a 6 4.y 2 4.y 2 ) 4 a 2// 2 /> 8 a. [10( 4. 108. 122. (2< 107.27 x* .5 a 21 (10 a 4 5 a*) Qafl^ = 5 a*.2 xy 8 .40 />) .) . (8 x* 115.5 b*).&). 117. 99 100. (2 y 44 2 y 2 4 02 y 23 a 4 3 16 y a 50 4 48) 2 111. O3a n O2a 4~ i O4a 2a T (3' 3m n ~*~ 3 3n 3") 3". 106.a".v/ ~ // = a: .(x 2 . (x* 4 9 ax 8 44 12 . 123. 4 (a 8 44 16 a 2 4 4 256) s ~4 2 (a 4 4a ^ 4 16).
(9 x + 10) (a:  3) .2) (a: + 3). 5 146.27 a 3" .r>) .(x f 9).a:)]}. 2(3 x + 4) 8 [2 (a: .9) + 3. 129. .3) (3 x 4.G) .  9)  7(0 x a?  32) + 5 = 4x  3(2 j  3).3). x 147.3 a (1 + * l l 1 3 f 2 &).x+ + x a ) ~ (x a + + x). 2 4(ar . 138.n . 7(2 x .2(10 x . 137. 5(2 x . 1) . 1 o + 5 + 1=15. .8 6 .2(j: .4(0 x . 136. 1) = 2(* .12 M 132.2) = 3 .3(2 z . . (4 x .5) = 12(4 x . o o 140. y (* l x.2) + 2(ar + 4).3 a#z) (ar + y + s). 142. 10(2 x 141. 128.(x . 3(2 x 134. 135. (1 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA + a8 3  G ax z8  8 z 8) 5 (1  a  2 x).7) = (7 x  1 1) (3 x .7) = 4 .5).l)(ar + 2) (a: (ar (2ar 2 4} = 2(3 x . remainder when a 4 3 a b B + 12 a 2 6'2  b* is divided By what expression must a: f 3 be multiplied to give 4 x*7 8 a*b + 4 a 131.19) + 5 = 4 . What is the 2 by a*ab + 26 ? 130.2 {3 8)} ^ 5(13 4(j = 5{2 x . By what expression must 3 a 2 ab + & 2 ? be divided to give the quotient 3 a 2  2 6 2  8 ttfc 8 + 2187? .(x + 3) ] . .18 *&) (1 . with 8 as remainder? Solve the following equations and check the answers: 133.1) .3(* + 4) + 9} .264 125.4) . By what expression must x* + G x2  4 a: 1 be divided to give x2 + 5 # 9 as quotient.7(4 * . 143. . 10(2 x 5 x + 3(7 x . (*+ + .(3 a? 2 [2 x + (x 4.3) = 12 .2(4 .4) .2(5 . (5a: 150.3 a:). .3 x).9) 4. 126.(1 .3).1) (a? . 42(3ar 145.22. 3) = x\x . 148. 127. 139. 149.(j a? 144. 3) a: a: a: +?+4= o 13. .2 7^~5] + 1).5{.r + 7[or .
2(x ~ 1) + 12 = 0. and the third twice as many as the first.2 x) = (1 .5*) + 47. these two angles would be equal. 157. Find five consecutive numbers whose sum equals 100. 156. 161. 163. and if 15 were taken from the third and added to the first. 154. (b) At what temperature do the Centigrade scale and the Fahrenheit scale indicate equal numbers? (c) How many degrees C. . + 4) (2 x + 5). A man is 30 years old how old will he be in x years? 168.24.j Write down four consecutive numbers of which y is the greatest.T)O .5 x) = 45 x .9) + (a.8) = (2 x 4. (a) If C. + 5) = (9 . (3 O + . = 15.2) (7 *) + (*.2 x) (4 . 159.2).3) = (3 x .) readings of a thermometer into Centigrade readings is C.2) a + 7(x .r + 3) . . (a . There are 63 sheep in three flocks.5)(.1) (s + 3). How many 170.l)(z . (x (x a. .a:) + 229.7) (a.14) (a: + 3).3)(* (ar 2 7)  113.3) (3 . how wide is the picture ? surrounded 108 square is 172. 5(ar x .(5 x .1) O + 4) = (2 * . angle of a triangle is twice as large as the first. . f^ + ^sO. 162. 158. The sum What 171. transformed into F. + 10) (ar .7) (1 x .3) (a: . 160.3) (3 . will produce F.29) 2 = 1. are the three angles? is A picture which is 3 inches longer than wide by a frame 2 inches wide. 155.z) (4 . a: ar a. ^ + ?=13 + 2o 10 o . The second contains 3 first. 2 4 . sheep are there in eacli flock Y The second of the three angles of a triangle is 180.5(x . (2 .17) 2 + (4 x .2) (j? + 1) + (x . The formula which transforms Fahrenheit (F.76. By how much does 15 exceed a ? How much must be added to k to make 23? 167.REVIEW EXERCISE 151.4) (a .(* + 2)(7 z + 1) = (* . + 5) 2 (4a:) 2 =r21a:. =  (F 32).5) = (3 . (a. find the value of F. 165.25) 2 . 166.? . 164. = 2 C. 265 152.19) + 42. If the area of the frame inches.3) (j. sheep more than the 169. 153.6 x) (3 .. . (7 14 . + 2) + (5 .
6 in each row the lowest row has 2 panes of glass in each window more than the middle row. The length is of a floor exceeds its width by 2 feet. dimension 182. 176. 186. A boy is father. Find the dimensions of the floor. train. 180. 3 gives the 174. A each 177. 189. respectively. two boys is twice that of the younger. z 2 92. 187. 10x 2 192. and the middle row has 4 panes in each window more than the upper row there are in all 168 panes of glass. 181. side were one foot longer. same result as the number diminished by 175. and 5 h. The age of the elder of it three years ago of each. sister . younger than his Find the age of the father.56. A house has 3 rows of windows. ll?/102.266 173. 2 2 + a _ no. A the boy is as old as his father and 3 years sum of the ages of the three is 57 years. 13 a + 3. is What are their ages ? Two engines are together more than the of 80 horse 16 horse power other. . Find the number. the ana of the floor will be increased 48 square feet. 190. 15 m. An The two express train runs 7 miles an hour faster than an ordinary trains run a certain distance in 4 h. x* 185. What is the distance? if square grass plot would contain 73 square feet more Find the side of the plot. + 11 ~ 6. the sum of the ages of all three is 51. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA A A number increased by 3.36. was three times that of the younger. 188. number divided by 3. +x 2. . + a. 3 gives the same result as the numbet multiplied by Find the number. 12 m. and  as old as his Find the age of the Resolve into prime factors : 184. and the father's present age is twice what the son will be 8 years hence. power one of the two Find the power of each. 178. aW + llab2&. Four years ago a father was three times as old as his son is now. Find the age 5 years older than his sister 183. 4 a 2 yy 42. . z 2 + x . if each increased 2 feet. father. 7/ 191. 179. How many are there in each window ? .
x*y 223.21 a:  54. 5 x 2. 15 x 2 + 26 x a . a. 209. 3 x 2 . a: 231.REVIEW EXERCISE 193.3 c/> + 6 cq. 2 x 2 . 239.10 y a x* . a.6. x* + 8 2 + 15. 217. (a + . 227.x + 1. 9a4a6 (a 2 + b . 235.y) y) 6 a 2 + 5 a . 216. 245. a+a* + o a +l. 195. 206.14 2 .c) 2  (a . *2 234. + 30 x.8 6 2. 11 2 + 10 20 x 4 . 201. a a: a: 237. 233. 2 200. 207. # 2  29 y + 120.28.77 y + 150.19 a . 3 ap 2 . 2  5 xy 13 y a. 2 + x 2 ) 2 . 238.c) 2 . + 198. 2a te 3% ly 247.a 2/A 214 12 x*y . 8 a: ar. 229. . . xm+l 243. 14x 2 25ary + Gy 2 3 x* x 2 . 267 199. 208. z + 5x 2 . a: 236. + 8.10 xy. 2 afy 13 28 a: ary + 66 y. 8 a.6 aq . 3y 248.(a + z2 ) 2 (a 2 3 (x (r + y + a. 2 a: 2 + 4y2) 2 + 240. 2 2 y f 1. 5 ?/ + 1 1 a*b .22 z + 48. (13z 2 5# 2) 2 2 2 (a 6 (12 c 2 ) 2. 211. 230. x 219. 2 . 244. 2 a 2 .6 y2 + 4. 4 f yx* + z*x + z*y. z 2 2.20 z 8 a: 220.6 2 ?/ . a: . 24 2 + 2 .r?/f y 2 9.xm y + xym  + (a c)  (c rf) 242.6s.(b + rf) 2 .19 z 4 204. 203. y 2 194. 4 m +^.3 xy. wiy + la mx + aw. . 3 x V . .12 * . 213.10. 246. 7a 228. + 3a 196. 60 a 2  a: // 205. a^a 226. 7x 2 225. 218.64.1. a 2 . 12 x +4. 221. x 5 . 16x 4 81. 4a 2& 2 241. 6 197. . 2 a 8 . + G *2#2 + 9 x*y\ 6 x* + 5 a:y . 222. 210. 212. 215. 224. a: 4  a: 2 a: V 2 . . 3y 2 + ary . 202. 23 12. ifWy+b. . 232.3 xf + 3 * 2y . + 2 . a. a.
3 x .17 x + 6 * 14 273 P a 5y>+4.(55. + 8 x + 5.ry 21. G(x+  l)'\ 9(x 2  1). x 2 263. .12. 2 . x 2 + 4 + 3.268 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 249.a + 2 4.M.r + a# + az f 2 6z fry 4.48 afy 2 . a? a: a: // 262. 2 z 2 f 13 x + 1 5. x* . 2 8 . 254. 270. 251. * 2 .13. F. 22x2 a. of: 266. of: 253. 2 2 + 39 xy 4.r .3. 269. 8 2 + 10 x .73 xy .23 + 12.15.5 ab f 2. 2 x2 . 30 ^ . 15 # 2 z/ /. a: .9 x + 14. x 2 4. x 2 + 5 f . ^27/7 + 12 2?6 28 x 2 12 Jr 2__7^/_ J/ 2 + 3 . a. 28 2 f 71 x . x 2 . a 3 a 2 2 .1 9 . * 2 . Reduce to lowest terms 271.18 xy + 5.36. x 2 f 9j: + 20. 10 a. 3 a% 2 . a 4. + 20 x 4.2/ 2 . C.10 a 4. + 3 x + 2.11 x f 28. x*y* 4.23 x f 20. _ 40 y 2 272 f f 2 !8a: . 252. 18 x 2 .C. 260.16 x .2 ax 2 + 2 for 2 . ft a. z 2 267. x* .9 x . 258. 265.4 ab + 1.8.&z. : x2 4 a: ~ + a. I Find the II. 2 + 7 r f 2. 7 ax 250.9 xy + 14 y 2 ar ar a: . 257.2 aft*. 3 ay 4.x .10.ry . * 2 .11 a 2 . * a . 2 a. x 2 + 2 x .G7 x f 33. 8 xf < 3 xy + a.15 + 30. 3 #2 255.4.120. 1 x ar Find the L. 261.18 ry + 32 y 2 2 .9. 10 x 2 . 6. 5 x 2 256.7 f 5.a 2 />c 2 f 3. + 8. 264.77 + 77 ' 2?5 5 ' 2 5 a: 2 7 . z 2 268.2 z . + 23 x f 20.80. 7 12 2 2 .14 bx a%% 8 .91. 259.6 by.3 abc .
*2 " 2 + Oge. 285 z4 n* + a..2* + 3 x* 280.J' 4 2 2 w mp .ar 1 279. m 4. z2 (a 2 + c)a.2 22 + 2 2 yz 4 2 zx 2 + ary _ _ 22 _ 292 ^  ?/. 8 .n 2 )P * 287 " 281 2 q^( 2  a: 2 ) m 288 ' .(y 2 z) * t (j.  9 ' 2Q4 4 *2 ' 8x+8 ' 278. 289 ' .rL.REVIEW EXERCISE 277 8 agg 269  6 a. y)' z2 283 t 290 ' x'2 2 y* + z2 + 2 0:2 291 *2 + y 2 + 0. _ "* m ~n w 4 + 2 7w% 2 f sa . a. + ac .!/. fr 293 ' y <? 294 2 2 2 + 2 cV + 2 a 2^ 2  4  ft* ~ c4 295 296 ' 297 ' .2c a: 282.. 9 286 1 1 + 2* 3 x f *2 ar + a .
Lnl + ar 2 a. ^. x + 3 ^ "" 310 x a: 2 a: 2 2 a:  17 a:2 ar3 x 2 5a:i6" . ^n m+n "*" + n) 2 g 309. 6) _ ~ i 305. * 19 23 19(23 23. a (: a) (x 2. ^_2*(m 308. 4 3 301. 2 + 7 _ 44 3. (a: 1 + l)(ar + 2) (x + l)(ar + 2)(* + 3) 302. O(ca) 306. a? __ + *_ + + la?la? * a l 303. + 19) 2Lz + 3 x " 2 99 ' i x +4 *3 a +7 300. x x ~~ +^ i ^ ~ ''^ . X2 (ca)(ai) 1 x2 4 (a +9 i_ 20 a .270 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA : Find the value of 298 23. _L + 12 x 1 + 35 1 307. x 7. (a 1 1 + a b c) (a + ^ ct) (a + a c)(a f e) 304.
(a . 1 _.2 1 f 1 + : *2 1  2 x' 316. ._ '(a6)*(a:r)a 323. nl g(jL+ 2 ) ^^^_ 318.*) + * 2) 321  c) 2 . _ x8 . 2ft 2 a8 3 314. 1a: + y a. } .+ a 10 z 2 2 *2 9*+ 20 *2  8* + 15 315.. i 271 + b a2 + ft 2 312. Dx x(l *) * 8(1*) 4(1 +*) 2 8(1 + 4(1 . (a? 4 2) 317.ft) 2 322.BE VIEW EXERCISE 311. (1 . 2 + y 2 319. a: 1 313. . 1 x2 + + a. ( ftc g~ft ( 6_ c) 2_ (a.
9 *// + 27 . * 3a.5 a . 20 44 333. 2 ?/ 4g~0yg 10 o# 2 ~ x 6 a* x' 2 24 y 2 1 .2 +lOar 2 a./  3 y  6 ( 331 g gy ' f a 3y ~ 6 q  9 G 2 y/ + 5 ?/ 6 G fl y~4y+ 15 ^e  10 6y 332 3 a: +lly10 4 xy 8 2  a. 2 ^ "" 1B x + 40 y *2 + 5 x  3.2 y2 ' 334 *2 ' + 2 y 8 a.19 xy + 6 y 2 8 x* a: ?/ ' ~" 6 y 333.. ' a: 2 2 5 sy a: f zy + 4 y* . z2  4 x  ^ "" 12 *. 4 y2 2 5 x8 2 z6 3 y 10 a: 2 + 8 2 .28 8 2  11 2 + J?_ x fl^^ffjje _ 2 12 a 4 a + a  4 6~7** 27^12^7 .V  + y  x 3y a . .B ~ 1037  329 4 a.a: ' 2 + 0^ + ^2^7 a.7 xy + 12 x .272 Simplify: ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA ~ 324.4 x?/ 2 ^_ G x 2 + 13 gy_+ . 250 5 10 2 325..15 33 .6* t 328. 2 lOx 5x. 2 x* 8 x2 4 r8 i + 2 a.ll. 2 a2  2 a  ' 03 i^+^T 42 ^2 _ l5rt~+~54* 327 8 ' ^ . a: 2 x* . .y20  2y + 4 2 .7 acy + 12 y2 + 5 a:y + y 2 .y 2 x (a?4y) 3(2 x  ' _ ^/ 3 y) 2 8 330 .
' 2 "l 5 . + ni + . +^ a: y x . w \. ** i. 344. : 1+ i.r 5 2 . 338. (ar \ 346.+ r . a: 349 _ o. 5 343.y. (aWi + iJ. ?_2 ^ . aj 339. xi 347. (af2/.13 13 s 11 Find the numerical values of 351. Simplify : 353 ^3 * 2 L pE+1 a /2x~l V 5a:~2 10 4 354. a>74 . 278 C  ~ a c* \ c* ~ b a2 q2 h c 5 5 ~ a c b q  q c 6 * \ : f 1 \  { 337. ' ~ ~ x2 + 8 + 76 2" 350. + l + IV. 7 ( ?f!?.. if a = 3. 352.) 2 . ( 342. 348. \5yl 341. \x yj 340. (a \ + lV. 1 345.1V. fl.REVIEW EXERCISE 336. f V.
1+2 362. i+5 1+1 9 x2 f 363. a2 4 .274 355 f 5 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA U<>3) 356 fl V ___ _/ 2(*l)J + ya xl x 1* YTx 2 110*W*1 1** JUal + xy 357. + x x a . y360. ar xy + yl x* 358. (a a b yx c yabc 361. I  I f 366. _ + l a 359. (~ 364. W?* (* + 1 + 2x) \3a _ 1 + 2x \3a 1 365.
b c 368. . \b* + c* b + b b*c*)^ c ^\ b (b* f c*) } c 4 c a b . 2  m 373 "1*7 374. 6 a c b a b b 1 ' ~ _^ . a + . 370 ' 1 (/')(&o) 1 a 372.REVIEW EXERCISE 2 275 f 367. (1 +ab)(l+bc) 369.
2(3 x (x + 4) + 10) + 1 (x + 7) = 0. 20 iLf5 + !*=! = 2 J. + 6)+  (* + J = _j_ j(* v/ O + 5)10 ^\:) / 380.276 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 375. # k 1 _j j a: 2 a: 3 383. 3 Solve the equations : or a: 2 (a. 5*8. ^ . r 1  3(* + 1)} ! ' . <3 378.^^ + x f o 51) +2J = 0. 379. a: r ~ 2 + 5"^  10 xf x  382. 4(* . 8  376. 5 {2 x 381. __4 2x 3_ = !.*2 = 15. """ 2J 7 ' + 2 28 ear7 + i3JTo^ . . . 5 3 vC 7 a: 385 10 17 387 * L*J> _ 14 1 7ar = (5 ar 10ar + 15 . + 1) 45 O 377. J !__7. 1 + 16ar_63 24 g 2T~~~ia 7 12f a 8 a' 389 5  14(arl) 18 105 390.
3* 177. 396. l)(x  a) (a:  3) 42 3(4 *  2)(ar + 1). 277 x 4 _x 5 _ _ a: ar.  ft) = 2(ar  ) (a.. 6 7 7 ^ 2 1(5 a. a: a)(a:  &)(>: + 2a +2&) = (a: + 2 a) 408. c . 397. 400.6~a: 7 _ x 8~a. 40.  8 9* x ~r.8 = . (x ~ a)(x f 6) f c = ^ (z a: + 2 a)(a: a: 5 i). _____ .25.5 x =r f .  J). "i 2 37370 ^ x i x x + 1 a?  R  7 ~r * 1 a.75 x f . . ^ (a . u '2 a. (8 x  3) (x 2  1) = (4 x a: 1) (4 x  5). a. JLg:== 7wa: c c } q. .6  .. n a 4O5 b b x f (a:  a) + a(a. f 1 1 + a 403. y ~ rt ^= & ~ 402.5 ^ ~ a: a. 401. + 4 a.2 a:  1.25 x + .* 2 + *2 " 2 ~ ^ H. 399.1 .147. b 404.REVIEW EXERCISE 391.5 1 f 1 x  2 = x . m x 398.
418 ~jo. mx ~ nx (a ~ mx nx c d d c)(:r lfi:r a b)(x . A in 9 hours B walks 11 miles number of two digits the first digit is twice the second. In a if and 422. 411. (x . 4x a a 2 c 6 Qx 3 x c 419. the order of the digits will be inverted. down again How person walks up a hill at the rate of 2 miles an hour. and was out 5 hours. f a x f x f c 1 1 ab b x 415. 18 be subtracted from the number. a x ) ~ a 2 b 2 ar a IJ a. and at the rate of 3^ miles an hour.278 410. 2 a x c x 6 f c a + a + a + 6 f walks 2 miles more than B walks in 7 hours more than A walks in 5 hours.a)(x b b) (x b ~ ) 412. a x a x b b x c b _a b f x 414.(c rt a)(x  b) = 0. x 1 a x x1 ab 1 1 a x a c + b c x a b b ~ c x b 416 417.(5 I2x ~r l a) . Find the number of miles an hour that A and B each walk. hour. 420. Tn 6 hours . he takes 7 minutes longer than in going. (x f ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA a)(z  b) = a 2 alb = a (x f b)(x 2 .  a) 2 6 2a. A man drives to a certain place at the rate of 8 miles an Returning by a road 3 miles longer at the rate of 9 miles an hour. 421. far did he walk all together ? A .c) . Find the number. How long is each road ? 423.
279 A in 2 lowed steamer which goes at the rate of 264 miles a day is foldays by another which goes 286 miles a day.46 2): (15a 2 . 430. z 2 y. Which ratio is greater. 432. a + 5. ax is \ by  ex + dy. (a + 6 ) (a + ft) = (a (3a 2 2 : : fc : : : . find the angles of the triangle. : If is one equal 434. When will the second steamer overtake the first? 425. 3 and 1J. : m n(n x) =p : m n(p : x). if .6 8 ). 435. The sum of the three angles of any triangle is 180. Prove that the number of miles one can see from an elevation of h feet is very nearly equal to ^  miles. Find the fourth proportional 426. . 2 2 8 2 . Find the length of the parts. Find the ratio x 5x : = 7y . a  t>.iand 22 22 I a .49 63). wi* + y= ny. a8 f 2 ab f 6 2. 5 7 or 151 208? 437. 428.2 (a + &*) (a h & ) = (a ) (a 6). b. 438. find : a : c. : i. y. . d. Find two consecutive numbers such that the sum of the fifth and eleventh parts of the greater may exceed by 1 the sum. A line 10 inches long divided in the ratio m:n. Which of the following proportions are true? (9 c. 8 8 5 ~ a*b + a*b* . + 4ft):(Oo + 86)= (a26):(3o46). a.& 5 ) (a 8 . Solve 436.a 2^ 8 + aft* . 433. z2  y\ x* xy + y*. of the sixth and ninth parts of the less. and : b : c = 14 : 15. Find the mean proportional to 429.31 afc + UV ) = (15 a 2 + 31 ab + H 6) (25 a2 . 431. . angle of a triangle is to another as 4 5 and the third angle to the sum of the first two. If a b : =5 n : 7. x 427.REVIEW EXERCISE 424.
. what is the weight of a sphere of the same material having a diameter of 3 inches ? 440. 8 x + y = 19. 457. 454. /) ar a. . 5z4:# = 3. . + 5y = 59. 28 = 5 a . Solve the following systems: 441. 7 a: . 8 . a: a: + 5y). 42 = 15y + 137. 451.7 y = 25. 458. ft. 9/> = 2 .(or l(*2y)=0. 5#+ 10 = 27 a.55 y = . ?/ 447. 3 a. 21 7 = 27 + Op.rf2# = l. if 2 ft : 439.3 y = 3 5 f 7 . 448. of two spheres are to each other as the cubos of a sphere 2 inches in diameter weighs 1:2 ounces.. />(. 5 2 = 7 . 15ar = 20 + 8y.89 = q. c. 453. 446. ax + ly = 2 a*x + & 2# = a + b. 7a?y = 3. 29(a + &) : x = 551 (a 3  ) 19(a  &).59 = 3 z. 455. 1(3  a. . 20y + 21 18a = 50 + 25y. 443. 16. 3 . ft.11 y = 95. . ox f &// = 2 + y) = a + 8a + 21+3ft = 0. 450. 9ar7# = 71. 7jr9y = 17.280 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA x. a. 456. 449. 2 (3 a + 2 ab  8 ft) : 2 (5 a f 4 ai  12 ft 2 ) = a? : (5 a  6 ft).*. 452.4 12 . Find the value of a. 5j + 7 7 = = 2. 7 442. x + 17 # 53. 444. The volumes If their diameters. x + 5 y = 49 3 x . a: 2y= = 1 .11 7. = 25. 33 x + 35 y = 4 55 * . 445. 5x+4y=lQ. 56 + 10y = 7a. 459.35. 4 = 5 y + 29.
475. 3 x 28i + 7 ~~~^ = 5. ' a: + 2 g + 3 y _ 467. 468.  = 2. i = 5. 473. _ & +y 3 dx+frj c\ . car = 4 rf cte  ey =/. 8 461. i 47O _ 3~12 } 4* 471.REVIEW EXERCISE 460. ^ + i^ = 7. ax by = c \ 472. 465.2y) (2 = 2J. x y 474.7.c=563y.?/ + 1 .. 3 a? _ y 7 a? 3 y _ 1 12 15 ~~10 4 __ 10 "10 463. _ 469. ax cx by = m. 4 g ~ 2 7g + 3 . (or . + eyn.+ =2.
How much money less 484. years. 479. Of the ages of two brothers one exceeds half the other by 4 is equal to an eighth of 482. and if each be increased by 5 the Find the fraction. whose difference is 4. also a third of the greater exceeds half the less by 2. There are two numbers the half of the greater of which exceeds the less by 2. fraction becomes equal to . A spends \ of his. if the sum of the digits be multiplied by the digits will be inverted. least The sum of three numbers is is 21. 486. . 487. In a certain proper fraction the difference between the nu merator and the denominator is 12. by 4. and the other number least. and in 20 months to $275. 483. and 5 times the less exceeds the greater by 3. Find the numbers. age. 481. Find the number. half the The greatest exceeds the sum of the greatest and 480. and in 18 months to $2180. and becomes when its denominator is doubled and its numerator increased by 4 ? j 478. A sum of money at simple interest amounted in 10 months to $2100. thrice that of his son and added to the father's. If 31 years were added to the age of a father it would be also if one year were taken from the son's age . 485. Find the fraction. A sum of money at simple interest amounts in 8 months to $260. latter would then be twice the son's A and B together have $6000. to . What is that fraction which becomes f when its numerator is doubled and its denominator is increased by 1.282 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 476. Find the sum and the rate of interest. A number consists of two digits 4. had each at first? B B then has J as much spends } of his money and as A. Find two numbers such that twice the greater exceeds the by 30. If 1 be added to the numerator of a fraction it if 1 be added to the denominator it becomes equal becomes equal to ^. Find their ages. the Find their ages. 477. Find the numbers. Find the principal and the rate of interest. and a fifth part of one brother's age that of the other.
: Solve the following systems 491. 490. *i. 3 a: + 5=84. 2 ar + 3 y 2 z = 8 . + # +z= 35. 489. ifi = x a. ~ 507. 7. 1+1 = 6. a: + ?/ 2z = 15.REVIEW EXERCISE 488. . y Solve : x +z= 5. Find two numbers whose sum equals is s and whose difference equals d./ 504. * + 425  = . 7 4#+ 3z = 35. 496. . There is 283 digits which is equal to seven times the digits be transposed the new number Find the will exceed 10 times the difference of the digits by 6. 7 + 2 z .z = 12. 2y + 3a = ll.z = 20. 4 497. 2y + 2z = a: 2. of two the sum of the digits also if number. a. 5 + a. 4 506. The sum of two numbers squares is b. 4z+3z = 20. 8. 498./ f z =a. 1. x s + y z = 18J . 5^ 9z = 10. z y x 25 . 3ar 503. = 15. 2 e. . z y ifi = z x 502. . \ . a: + // = 11. a: 499. = 209. 2 a. and the difference of their Find the numbers. 493. x y f z = 13. a: f z = 79. 2 2 = 41. 3 x 500. 30 2^ 3^ = ' ' 4r=9. = 20. a. 2a:f 7. a number . 495.5#+2z = $x a: G. f + 3 y 62 4 y 4a.? + 2y = 8. 494. 492. + y 5 y = 101 . x f y f z 29 . 2/>3r = 4. .
z z =3a&c. 36 + c. ll" . ra? + y 2 + 524 x \ +y + = + t jx [y + 9 = 3af& + r.284 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 516. !f == 2800. 523. 517. i=a + 6 c. + : = 1472. + + 3579 2+?.
Two persons start to travel from two stations 24 miles apart. if L and Af in 20 minutes. and CA=7. it is filled in 35 minutes. 37 pounds of tin lose 5 pounds. and B together can do a piece of work in 2 days. touches and F respectively. and 23 pounds of lead lose 2 pounds. 532. What are their rates of travel? . Find the present ages of his father and mother. An (escribed) and the prolongations of BA and BC in Find AD. his father is half as old again as his mother was c years ago. How long will B and C take to do . BC = 5. if and L.REVIEW EXERCISE 285 525. In how many days can each alone do the same work? 526. the first and second digits will change places. A can do a piece of work in 12 days B and C together can do the same piece of work in 4 days A and C can do it in half the time in which B alone can do it. AB=6. sum of the reciprocals of of the reciprocals of the first of the reciprocals of the second and the sum 528. CD. M. A vessel can be filled by three pipes. in 28 minutes. and losing 14 pounds when weighed in water? (b) How many pounds of tin and lead are in an alloy weighing 220 pounds in air and 201 pounds in water ? in 3 days. Find the numbers. A boy is a years old his mother was I years old when he was born. L. 527. B and C and C and A in 4 days. (a) How many pounds of tin and lead are in a mixture weighing 120 pounds in air. they would have met in 2 hours. . . If they had walked toward each other. In circle A ABC. 90. if the number be increased by Find the number. Tu what time will it be filled if all run M N N t together? 529. When weighed in water. Throe numbers are such that the A the first and second equals . E 533. A number of three digits whose first and last digits are the same has 7 for the sum of its digits. and third equals \\ the sum third equals \. and one overtakes the other in 6 hours. it separately ? 531. 530. AC in /). N. Tf and run together. and BE.
of Draw a graph for the trans The number in of workmen Draw required to finish a certain piece the graph work D days it is from D 1 to D= 12.  3 x. 543. The values of x if y = 2. z 2  x x  5. x 2 544. d. GERMANY. The value of x that produces the greatest value of y. e. The values of y. 546. Represent the following table graphically TABLE OF POPULATION (IN MILLIONS) OF UNITED STATES. 550. i. 545. 536. b. Draw the graphs of the following functions : 538. The roots of the equation 2 + 2 x x z = 1.e. to do the work? pendulum. FRANCE. x 2 + x. The greatest value of the function. 2.286 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA : 534. 540. x 8 549. 2. the function. 3 x 539. x*  2 x. 2  x  x2 . if x = f 1. 542. from x = 2 to x = 4.3 Draw down the time of swing for a pendulum of length 8 feet. 2 541. formation of dollars into marks.  7. 2 x + 5. x*. the time of whose swing a graph for the formula from / =0 537.10 marks. . + 3. 548. Draw the graph of y 2 and from the diagram determine : + 2 x x*. x *x + x + 1. How is t / long will I take 11 men 2 t' .  3 x. AND BRITISH ISLES 535. then / = 3 and write = 3. c. One dollar equals 4. a. . 547. If to feet is the length of a seconds.
558.10 x 2 + 8 = 0. x* .G .15 = 0. 557. 3 x . h. = 5.0. 2. x 4 . 2 x 2 560. 563. 553. 15.11 = 0. 2 ~0a: + 9 = 0.r 1 561.11 x* + + 2 8 569. Solve// = 0. + 10 x .6 + 3 . g. a? 4 x . if y =m has three real roots.= 0. . 555. x 2 ~ 2 . 3 x* . .5 x .' 2* + Z  4 = 0.r a: a: x a. z 4 . r?. 287 by a falling body is The formula 2 ] f/f for the distance traveled a. a: 559.REVIEW EXERCISE 551. Which negative value of x produces the greatest value of y ? : Solve graphically 570 ' 571. c.4 = 0. Determine the number of real roots of the equation y Determine the limits between which m must lie.3 x . . 564. 572. 18 x  4 = 0. e.) How In far does a how many body fall in 2^ seconds? seconds does a body fall 25 meters? Solve graphically the following equations : x*"2x7 = Q. Find the greatest value which ?/ may assume for a negative x. J. c. 565.3 . \ to t = 5. 2 a. a. 568. Find the value of m that will make two roots equal if y = m. 2 567. j. 562.3 = 0. i. Represent meters.13 = 0. If y +5 10.= 0. ' = 8.4 x 2 + 4 .7 = . 566. a.17 = 0. f. 556.r .3 x .  2 1 a: a.9 = 0.4 . 3 . 2 8 . z 2 . x 5 . graphically from t = (Assume g = 10 scale unit of the t equal to 10 times the scale ^ 2 . + 5 . 2 554. Solve 552. and make the unit of the b. a. // Solve y Solve y = 5.1 = 0. 3 + 3 z .
5 a*. . a 8 606.288 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 4. 2 611. 597. a: f ~+ x [ 10 ^i  1 V 6x + 4 + 610. 1 .  128 a 10 6 30 3 a: + 2 ?/ ' 100 a 8 /.frf : 583. 4 .48 a*h + 6 a: ?/ 10 6. 3 (f. 4 a. (a.4 + 4 a 8^6 + 9 a a^e _ 6 aW + 8 9(5 a: 7 // fe .2 & 2 ) (4 a: ?/ 14 a: 1 2 2 ?y 4 a: 10 2 + x^f . 2 943 ++ ~bx. (a  8 ft) . 4 (1a:) 3. 600. + + 4 . (1 + x a. 3 . + . jj+.4 8 f 4 4 + i 2 ) 2 f (a 1 . 2 (2 a ft 6 + + 4 a 6& 2 + x f 13 2 .2 2 + y.128 a*^ + 04 aty 10 3 5 zy . 2 + f 9 6 + 25 c 2 10 ac  a6. a 612. a: . 48 xf + a: 4  04 aty 6 a: // 16 2 605. + %) (a* + *) 5 . 608. x [ ?/ 577.x + 2 )'2 601. x + z2) 8 . (1 (1 (1 . 595.5 xy = 0.2 6a: + 30 &c a. 598. + jf:ji f590> (2 (3 (1 Perform the operations indicated 584.4 x*y* + 3 4 6 . a:. 9  4 fSb 607.a:) 6 (1 2 2 (2 + 3 x + 4 ) f (2 3 x + f. 582. 2  100 aW + 100 aW. 6 + 1) . 579. (# 2) . {f_7l j? 2* + ''. Extract the square roots of the following expressions: 602. f ^s_ 14 a 4/. . 592. 604. 599. 585 594. fMV  586 ' ^ (a + 6)T ' 587. f ?>) 3 591. : y* or 25. 2  2 aa: 2 . 596.%) 4 (aa. (aiy. a. 593. xY. 2 2 a:' ) + x' )'2 . 609. j^f = 3. [ y =10. 64 a 12 603. a 2a. 589. a: f 2 2 aAa: + 2 ?/ .(1 . = 2 \*> + a: [ ^ = 4' = 581. <r)3  2 3 a:) .4.o 2 [ ?/ > 3'  578. 588. + ^) + (air%)8. + + 4 x) (l 2 ^) .
643. f 4 aft 8 + 4 ft . a 8 10 a* 8 aft 7 + ft 8 . 629. the cubes of the distances of the planets from the sun have the same ratio as the squares of their periods of revolution about the sun. 4J.49. Find the square root of 619.V250 . 035. = 87.2. 625 : 621. 40. 0090. 942841. 633. 210.30. 7) 2. 3a. 25023844.*. 650. 4370404. 49.871844. Find to three decimal places the square numbers : roots of the following 627. f (x + 5) 2 = (x + . x 2 f x ~  16 = 0. GGff. V950484 . + 112 a 8 . 644. /. x 2 . 44352.448 z + 1120 a: 4  1792 x* + 1792 2 . 2 + 189 z = 900.191209.15174441. 614. = .8 aft 6 + 8 21G. 2 + 21Ga. + 24 a 2 4 . 630. and the Earth's period equals 3G5J Solve the following equations : 640. According to Kepler's law. 9g. = 70. 651. 4 289 of : 4 4 a*b + a2 2 /. x2 + 9x _ 5x _ 22 66 ? * + 9 . 637. 620. + 54 'x*y* . 624. 371240. + 2 21 x = 100. : 5. VOIOOD + V582T09. 10 a 4 32 fe 2 + 81.\/4090. 638. a 8 of:  8 tvb + 28 a 6 //2  50 a c ft 8 + 70 a 4 ft 4  50 a 8 ft 6 + 28 a 2ft 618. 626. 632. find Jupiter's period. 49042009. a 642. 634.12 a?y + y*. 639. 9a. = 0. ft .1024 x + a: 256. Find the eighth root 617. 628. (x 9 x 646. x 2 641.150. 21. 32 631. 645. V 635. 2. If the distances of Earth and Jupiter from the sun are at 1 days.2410. 622.53 x ~ . 10:r 4 + 9G* 3 + HI x s  108 afy 616. 2 2) 2 +x = 14. 615. 8*' + 24* = 32. 623. *+* = 156.REVIEW EXERCISE Find the fourth root 613. 636. 494210400001. 647t x 2 648 649.
290 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA """ ar a x b ab .
+ ~T~ * a + b x = rj* 2 4(5 4 x + + Ox + 4 691. 695.bx . 2 2 .a a )jr . 707.2 a(l + & )z fa 2 (1 ax + to f ru: 2 . .REVIEW EXERCISE ~ 291 X+ x 1> a +c ~ a i~ i c ~ b  ~ " x 690. 1 __ : )'*' _i. 699.ax . 692. 2 2 697. 708. ax 2 698. 2 ft 2 2 fi 2 = 0. 706. 693. . a. 696. (x 2 +3a:) 2 2a. 4 a: + 4 ^^ 6a:x2 8 701. ex abc= fx 0.c = 0. 2 702. 1 + V* 2bx + a 2 + 2 ax . 2(4 :r 7r\O /'r'S = a: 0.2V3:r 2 V5 a: f + fa + 1 = 0. 7^^ ^3" ^^ ^T 704. 694. 2 (:r + :r)O 2 + :cf 1) = 42. = 0. 2 ' 3 2 a:)  28 + 21 + 5 '^ = 0.
in value. 723. ___ _ 2* 5 3*27 715.40 a 2* 2 + 9 a 4 = 0. The difference of the cubes of two consecutive numbers is find them. Find the altitude of an equilateral triangle whose side equals a. needs 15 days longer to build a wall than B. 12 4*+  8. Find the price of an apple. 3or i 16 . 725. 717. sum is a and whose product equals J. Find two consecutive numbers whose product equals 600. 721. 16 x* . A equals CO feet. 716. In how many days can A build the wall? 718. a: 713. Find two numbers whose 719. 729. and working together they can build it in 18 days. What two numbers are those whose sum is 47 and product A man bought a certain number of pounds of tea and 10 pounds more of coffee. The area the price of 100 apples by $1. How shares did he buy ? if 726. 727.292 709. he many 312? he had waited a few days until each share had fallen $6. . if 1 more for 30/ would diminish 720. If a pound of tea cost 30 J* more than a pound of coffee. of a rectangle is 221 square feet and its perimeter Find the dimensions of the rectangle. paying $ 12 for the tea and $9 for the coffee. 2n n 2 2 f2aar + a 5 = 0.25 might have bought five more for the same money. 714 2 *2 ' + 25 4 16  25 a2 711. Find four consecutive integers whose product is 7920. 217 . 724. What number exceeds its reciprocal by {$.l + 8 8 + ft)' (J)* (3)* + (a + 64 + i. A man bought a certain number of shares in a company for $375. 722.44#2 + 121 = 0. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA +36 = 0. **13a: 2 710. what is the price of the coffee per pound ? : Find the numerical value of 728.
31. (4 x~* + l 3 ar 2 + 2 2 ) a. 33. 35. 40.2)(x2 4. 1 6. 36. 46. + a*x* x*)(a* /^ (a* (rrr + c^ s M ' + x*). 38. f + M 6* f 6) (a* U*") 4 a*6^ (<i* &*).1 f ^ 2). +   c* + 2 + ^ + cbf 44.l). (x* (i* (a2 (a(1 1 4 d*).1 + x.2 d*m* + 4 d)(w* + 2 rfM + . (x* 2 a M+ f a8) (x*  2 aM" a).aft* 1 + a 2*.1 + c.2? 50. (v/x). 43.REVIEW EXERCISE implify : 30. +w 5 n* +w n 3 + n )(m* 3 n^). . + &2)( a 2_ 1 j2). 42. + a^ 1 + a 26" 2 )(l . 48 ^i? x T ^ ^2? x sT~ x . (^ (a* (a^ ary* + x^y f y*) * + * (x*  y*). n. 39. 293 (y* (a* + f y* + y*+l)(y*.)(ai + &. 52. 1 + l)(>r 2  i + 1).2 ). 41.1 f c" ). (4 a: 2  12 x* 28 x + 9 x*  42 x* + 49)*.X . (64 x~ + 27 y r (4 x~^ + 3 y"*). 34. 37. . 32.aM ?n^n^ f ft*c*)(a* + 6* + c*).
2V2 2V3 . 754. 757. [1r^ T 1 i . 4\/50 4 SVlOOO. ~ r* x .. 2^3(^2^21 + 4^3^:0. vff + V^~ 4^ 2^/2 776. 758.1+J 756. JU. + V22 + + 12 V2b8  760.294 753. \/G86 v/lGv/128. 768. 761. 759. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 755._ 1 4j "r O/lf * ^ ^ II r* 4"*" 1 A "1 1.
2 V30. 794. 13 799. . c 792. 789. 3812VIO.2V3* ^ 807. . 103 788. . Find the square roots of the following binomial surds: 784.VlO. 14 791. 806. 7512V21. a 9442V5. 10 785. x 782.IIEVIEW EXERCISE y/a 295 f 780. + 2V21. 87 ac + 6t  12 ^ + 2 Vab Simplify 801. f x Va z Va f x + Va a. 787. Va 809. 3J .12VIT. 793. 92VI5. y/a + Va Va x x + x 781. 16 + 2V55. 7 + 3 V5 ( 7 7  3 V'5 ( 2 4 73V5 + 3V5 + V3 + V3 4  5 .4 V(j. 790. 786. . 783.
830. 819. 831. 818. 812. (x a: 2 ) 4 .Vc^lJ . Va: . 814. 829. V3 f 1 V4a. Find the sum and difference of (ar + V2yx 2)* and 1.g. 9 7 3 + V3a:+ = 0.13 = 0. 3 x + 2 . f 2 VaT+1 1 a: 832. x/aT+l . 815.28 = 4 V2 ar 14. V14 a. = 1. \/2(r+ /3 a: 1) + v/2 x + a: 15 = 13. \/12 a. VaT+lJ f ^l .296 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA . V2a: Va: + 3 + ar 2 Vx f 1 834.1 V* + 60 = 2 Vx~K5 + V5. /9ar a: = 17. Va: + 28 f + V9 x . 833. + 103Var. 836.  5 + V3 f 12 817.f 5 = V5x + 4. 2\/^"+~5 + 3Vor7 = V25 .79.4 = 0.V2 ar 10. 816. 811. + Vx . 820.V? = 813. + ViTli + V7 .\/2y  810.
a 8 873. f 12. z*y 8 l64a. 16 859. 853. 5 x* f 297 9) 11 x . 8 2a.12. 851. 863. 855. 64 a 866. a.1. 8 a. 876. 845. x 11 a^ J 13 854. + . 4 x* 847. 875. 8 8 848. 839. 8 8  13 a. 5 a 4 7 a8 . 856. +3 4 +  4. a.  3x a. 4 a: 2 842.1000 6. a.ab9 ft*. + 1. 840.3 . a: 849. 852.10 = 118. 6 2 f 3 6 s. . 870. a: : Resolve into prime factors 843. 844. . 8 + a: 5 8 a. 4o. 8 + 4 4 ar 2 2 a. 4 a. 846. f b**. a 18 4. a: 2 + 4\/3^~. 8 860.1)+ + Vo: 2 + 3 x f 5 = 7 . 4 x 8 858. a*" & 6n . 8^27^. a l0m . . 2 x 3.12\/(ar44)(5z~ = 36. x 6 x4 f + + a: x f 1. a 8 869. y 4. 729 867.KEVIEW EXERCISE 838. 861.a. a 872. a. . . x 8 2 857. 8 4a: 8 a. V4 x 2 .7x + 3 = 3ar(a. x 4 + f 2 a. a 8 850.3 a:.28 a 4 xy 8 80. a. 19 x 14.x*y + 3x f 2. x* 8 ^ 8 2 a#* a. a. 40 x 2 7 f 49. 64. 6. 2 f 2 18a: f + 16.3 Va: 2 .10 x f 1 = 10 x + L * 2 . 871.3 x . 2 f" + a/ 15. a* * 1 + a8 8 a. a: . 27 y 8. 864. 8a: 2 4 f 8 a: + 2 19a. 2 a: 64 y*. + 216 rt aty a 10 . 865. 9. 275 8 l. f 841. 8 . 868. 27 862. + 512 y8 874.
2 f ary = 8 + 3. z 2 898.18. . : x 3? Solve the following systems 881.298 877. y y 2 y 2 1121. a: 884. f ?/ a: a: . . For what value m is 2 #3 mx* by x  880. y = 28. 2 + y 2 . x 8 3 = 13:3. 2 = 2 + 5.sy = 198. y 2 4. x a: lI = xz . 900. 2 2 = 16 y. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Show Show 3 ? that 99 + 1 is divisible by 100. y*+ xy . + ary + 2 = 37. 889. 3 x 2 . = ? + p"iaL+L=13.y 2 = 2 y + 2. a: 2 897. a# f + xy = 126. 901. xy 2 a: a: ?/ a. 895. +y f y = 7. .y 2 + V(j.15. . 887. f a: a: 4 ?y = 481. a:y . . a: + y 2 = 34. 2 + 2 f = 17. xy(a:y + 1) = 6. 2 3 2 z3 xy + y = 7.y = 2 ay + a a# = 2 aa: + 6 a.1 = 2 a#. M1 891 1 . 2 + 3 y 2 = 43. 899. x*xy. xy + y = 32. ar(ar + y ) 2 2 2 2 xy . 896.Vi' + 1 1_3.35. a: a. 886. 5x 3 exactly divisible 879. 878. a. a: 888.5 xy + 4 f = 13. a: 1 1 _ 5 892. 2 + ary = 8 y + 6. 2 . 894. 2 + xy = 10. 4 2 2 + afy 2 + f ary + y = 37. 885. 5. y(a:2 + y 2 ) = 25 x. What must be the value of m and n to make 8 + mx 2 + nx f 42 exactly divisible by 2 2 and by a. 8 8 + y y 9 9 a: = = 37 a: 152. a.xy + y 2 = 19. a. . 1 x 893. 890. 2 + xy = 28.y 2) = 20. y 2 2 8f. that 1001 79 of 1 is divisible by 1000. 883. + 2y=\2. 2 . x 882.
y + a:y = 180. 2 * 2 ~ g. ary y = 8. x* + ary f y 2 = 9. y 2 + xy = b 2 925. x + y 2 = aar. *y .REVIEW EXERCISE 902. xy + 2 y 2 = 65. 920. xa 903. x 4 299 xy z 904. + 2 y) (2 + ?/) = 20. = 8.16 y 3 8 = . + 2 a:y + = 243.23 = 200.y) (a? . 923. 2 913. 910. a: y zx 12.y2 = 22. x + y}(x + y) = 273. a o o 2 j + a:y = 2.6. xy 2 2 x 2y 2 = 0. 914. 2 2 f 4 a: ar// or f a.V + y 2 = + xy + y a = (a? . + a.x) = 21.y = a(ar + y).#y + 2 = 27. 7 + 4 y f 6 ary = 0.y)^ 03 926 12 +y +y 927.r a. 906. 917. y # 2 2 f f y = 84. (a. 908. 2 y 2 f ay/ = 16.3)2 = 34. y . 912. (!) * . or or a? a: a: . L/ay = a: + 5? + g = ^ + g. y 2 + 3 ary = 2. 2 + y = 2 a 4. . xy + x= 15. a: * a: a: ar 928. (* 918. 2 2 2 916. f y 2 x 2 y = 1.2 y) = 49 2 919. # + xy + y = 7. y 3 2 2 922.3(* + y) = 6. x 2 ry + y = 3. + y)(a. 7 y . x f 2 a:y = 32. 9 f 8 y f 7 ay/ = 0. 2 915. ^ 2 + 2 a:y = a a 2 3 a: a: a. Vary + y = 6. (0 Vx f 10 f v^+T4 = 12.y) = 33. + y 8 = 189. yz = 24.y). 23 x 2 . 905. a: a. (o. 921. 911. 909. 4 (a. ?/ ^: ^f!i^2. 3 y 8 ) =1216. * + y = 444. a:y xy 929.y) (3 y . + 2 ary = 39. . a. 3 y 2 + xy = 1. + y = 9. y 49(x 2 2 = 6 2 (x 2 + y 2). y x 2 = by. (3 x . 2 924. + ary = a*. ^ 2 . + ?/) . 3 :r(3 . 907. 2 5 xy = 11.3) 2 f (y . . ny ft ma: = * a 2 m*.
the The sum of the perimeters of sum of their areas equals 617 square feet. *(* + #) =24. z(* + y + 2) = 76. Assuming = y.000 trees. A and B run a race round a twomile course. and the sum of their cubes is tangle certain rectangle contains 300 square feet. (y + *) = . 943. find the radii of the two circles. = ar(a? f y + 2) + a)(* + y 933. 942. and 10 feet broader. 937. and also contains 300 square feet. two squares equals 140 feet. Find the sides of the rectangle. and the sum of their areas 78$. 2240. the area of the new rectangle would equal 170 square feet.square inches. If each side was increased by 2 feet. (y (* + y)(y +*)= 50. there would have been 25 more trees in a row. The perimeter of a rectangle is 92 Find the area of the rectangle. How many rows are there? 941. is 3 . A plantation in rows consists of 10. The diagonal of a rectangle equals 17 feet. + z) =108. A is 938. is 20. 944. much and A then Find at what increases his speed 2 miles per hour. 931. The sum of the perimeters of sum of the areas of the squares is 16^f feet. and B diminishes his as arrives at the winning post 2 minutes before B. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA (*+s)(* + y)=10. and the difference of 936. (3 + *)(ar + y + z) = 96. The difference of two numbers cubes is 513. y( 934. feet. rate each man ran in the first heat. In the second heat A . In the first heat B reaches the winning post 2 minutes before A. 152. the difference of their The is difference of their cubes 270. 935. y(x + y + 2) = 133.102.300 930. The sum of two numbers Find the numbers. The sum of the circumferences of 44 inches. Tf there had been 20 less rows. two squares is 23 feet. diagonal 940. 34 939. feet. + z)=18. Find the numbers. two numbers Find the numbers. Find the side of each two circles is IT square. Find the length and breadth of the first rectangle. . and the Find the sides of the and its is squares. a second rec8 feet shorter. s(y 932. is 3.
unaltered. is 407 cubic feet. The area of a certain rectangle is 2400 square feet. and its perim 948. at the same time A it starts and B from Q with the design to pass through Q. 950. . The square described on the hypotenuse of a right triangle is 180 square inches. Find the number. Find its length and breadth. A number consists of three digits whose sum is 14. and if 594 be added to the number. A certain number exceeds the product of its two digits by 52 and exceeds twice the sum of its digits by 53. triangle is 6. 949. at Find the his rate of traveling. When from P A was found that they had together traveled 80 had passed through Q 4 hours before. and the other 9 days longer to perform the work than if both worked together. A and B. The area of a certain rectangle is equal to the area of a square side is 3 inches longer than one of the sides of the rectangle. Find the number. the square of the middle digit is equal to the product of the extreme digits. Find the eter 947. The sum of the contents of two cubic blocks the of the heights of the blocks is 11 feet. A rectangular lawn whose length is 30 yards and breadth 20 yards is surrounded by a path of uniform width. if its length is decreased 10 feet and its breadth increased 10 feet. The diagonal of a rectangular is 476 yards. P and Q. . Find two numbers each of which is the square of the other. set out from two places. . sum Find an edge of 954. 952. Two starts travelers. the area lengths of the sides of the rectangle. What is its area? field is 182 yards. its area will be increased 100 square feet.REVIEW EXERCISE 301 945. the digits are reversed. the difference in the lengths of the legs of the Find the legs of the triangle. If the breadth of the rectangle be decreased by 1 inch and its is length increased by 2 inches. Find the width of the path if its area is 216 square yards. and travels in the same direction as A. and that B. that B A 955. Find in what time both will do it. distance between P and Q. Two men can perform a piece of work in a certain time one takes 4 days longer. whose 946. overtook miles. 951. 953. was 9 hours' journey distant from P. each block.
. the terms being in A. . Sura to 24 terms. 974. 971. 4 4 to 7 terms . Find n f (ft) . 4. = 4. *" 968. 1G series . \ . 12434+ j I 967. 5. + (iiven a +  4 d . '. 3 + 5 7 + . n to n terms. 969. Find an A. fourth of the unity. J. are 1 and sum of 20 terms. 958.4142 .v 973. Sum Sum Sum to 10 terms.. 975. (x 4 to n terms.454.. ^ 1 . Find n. 970. P.. 3 . are 29 and 53..141414. (to 2 n terms).x*(x 3 f 8) + y) + (2x + f) + (3 x + y 8 ) 4. !Ll^ + n . P. f + 1 .. .1 4 f j$V . Evaluate (a) . Find the Find the common 977... the first term being Find the sums of the 960.. such that the sum of the 1 terms is one sum of the following five terms.. to n terms. ^1 + Vj 1 2  . ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA Sum to 32 terras. and 976. (x + O 2 4 y 2 ) + O 8 + y*) + y) + x(x 2 4 y 2} 4.>/) to infinity. Find the difference between the sums of the series 5 n + !Lni n " 4 4.. 957. Sum to 20 terms... s  88. 966. 9th and llth terms of an A.. 964. to infinity.321? 965.. P. 1 to n terms. P. 961. difference.to infinity. .302 956. 18th terms of an A. 36 963.  2. 5. How many Sum Sum terms of the series 1 + 3 + 5 + amount to 123... x(x to 8 terms. 16 962. Sum Sum to infinity. 972.. : + f 24 21 24 4f 32 36 1G 10. ^ Vfirst five 959. to 7 terms.3151515.V2 . Find the sum of 4. . first ? n+l(n + l) The 10th and The term and the T + ( + +!) V (to J' infinity).
REVIEW EXERCISE 978.001 4. and the common difference. 5 11. Find n. to oo.. P. doubling the number for each successive square on the board. Insert 22 arithmetic means between 8 and 54. Find the first term. of n terms of 7 + 9 + 11+ is is 40. to 105? 981. Find four perfect numbers. who rewarded the inventor by promising to place 1 grain of wheat on Sessa for the the 1st square of a chessboard. 303 979. The sum 982. of n terms of an A. v/2 1 + + + 1 4 + + 3>/2 to oo + + . The term. named Sheran.) the last term the series a perfect number. "(. P..1 + 2. The Arabian Araphad reports that chess was invented by amusement of an Indian rajah. all A perfect number is a number which equals the sum divisible. P.. Find the value of the infinite product 4 v'i v7! v^5 . If of 2 of integers + 2 1 + 2'2 by which is it is the sum of the series 2 n is prime. 992. to n terms..3 ' Find the 8th 983.. 985. is 225. What 2 a value must a have so that the sum of + av/2 + a + V2 + . then this sum multiplied by (Euclid.001 + . 0. : + 9   V2 + .04 + . How many sum terms of 18 + 17 + 10 + amount . to infinity may be 8? .+ lY L V. 989. such that the product of the and fourth may be 55. Insert 8 arithmetic means between 1 and .01 3. Find four numbers in A.2 . 987.. 980. 990. and the sum of the first nine terms is equal to the square of the sum of the first two. 986. 2 grains on the 2d. The 21st term of an A.. 4 grains on the 3d. and so on. and of the second and third 03. first 984. . Find the sum of the series 988. 1.. Find the number of grains which Sessa should have received.
AB = 1004. One of them travels uniformly 10 miles a day. Under the conditions of the preceding example. 512 996. (6) the sum of the infinity. pump removes J of the of air is fractions of the original amount contained in the receiver. and so forth to Find (a) the sum of all perimeters. in this circle a square. The fifth term of a G. 1003. The sum and sum . find the series. Each stroke of the piston of an air air contained in the receiver. (I) the sum of the perimeters of all squares. 998. . (a) after 5 strokes. P. In an equilateral triangle second circle touches the first circle and the sides AB and AC. and if so forth What is the sum of the areas of all circles. the sides of a third triangle equal the altitudes of the second. ABC A A n same sides. 997. Insert 3 geometric means between 2 and 162. are unequal. Two travelers start on the same road. areas of all triangles. (6) after n What strokes? many 1002. Insert 4 geometric means between 243 and 32. at the same time. and G. If a. The sides of a second equilateral triangle equal the altitudes of the first. in this square a circle. ft. and the fifth term is 8 times the second . Find (a) the sum of all circumferences. The other travels 8 miles the first day and After how increases this pace by \ mile a day each succeeding day. 994. third circle touches the second circle and the to infinity. 1001. and so forth to infinity. 1000. after how strokes would the density of the air be xJn ^ ^ ne original density ? a circle is inscribed. of squares of four numbers in G. many days will the latter overtake the former? . 995. The sum and product of three numbers in G.304 ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA 993. P. P. P. is 4. are 28 and find the numbers. prove that they cannot be in A. are 45 and 765 find the numbers. 999. c. The side of an equilateral triangle equals 2. inches. In a circle whose radius is 1 a square is inscribed. P.
Find the 9th term of (2 al 1010. 1014. 1006. . 1012. Find the two middle terms of 1013.REVIEW EXEHCISE 1005. Find the fifth term of (1  a:) 1015. 2 ) 5. Find the two middle terms of (a *2 x) 9 . Find the middle term of (a$ bfy. Find the two middle terms of ( ( 9 .ft) 19 . Find the middle term of ( . Find the eleventh term of /4 x >> . 1008. a: 8 7. (1 1018. Find the middle term of (a + b) 1016.l) w f . . Find the middle term of 1020. Find the coefficient a: X  \88 1 in 1019.iV 2i/ 5 . 1011. + lQ . 1009.o/) 14 . Write down the 1 5a  6 V . x) 18 . Write down (x the first four terms in the expansion of + 2 #). ) 1021. Write down the (a first 305 three and the last three terms of  *)". Expand  2 a. Write down the expansion of (3 1007. coefficient of x 9 in (5 a 8 7 . (12 #) 7 .
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.. Discriminant Discussion of problems Arrangement of expressions Average . 19.. . .. 49 Clearing equations of fractions 108 8 ' graphic solution. Constant Coordinates Cross product 155 148 41 " Alternation 123 Antecedent Arithmetic *' 120 Degree of an equation Difference . . . ... .130 .. . . ..... 123 . graphic tion of representa .. ... .. .] Abscissa Absolute term ... simple simultaneous .. .. 232 169 807 . . . 148 178 Conditional equations Conjugate surds .178 Completing the square .. numerical .. .. 249 246 20 10 23 193 . 54. 129 54. t 53 120 . .108 160 " . 232 mean progression . Brace Bracket Character of roots .. 97. quadratic . Checks Coefficient 20. . lowest ratio " '* . 246 91 " multiple.. ...241 45 45 Dividend Division Divisor Axiom . .210 130 " Addition value 4 15...181 105 " Complex fraction " Evolution Composition ...INDEX [NUMBERS REFER TO PAGES. 8 . .. 112 54 54 251 . linear literal Common ** * difference ..Base of a power Binomial " theorem 54 8 45 130 10 255 9 Elimination Equations ' 63 consistent fractional . 129. Aggregation. . sum Consequent Consistent equations 210 27 10 18 . . . . ...193 11 ... 160 in quadratic form 191 . 158.. . 37. 9 ** . signs of Algebraic expression . 9.. . ..
. 120 Lowest common multiple 70 . .251 Graphic solution of simultane. 180. Inconsistent equations . Negative exponents 11 . 246 251 121 Inversion Involution Irrational Proportion 105 Proportional. Insertion of parentheses . Graphic solution of simple equations Graph of a function Grouping terms Highest . 45 Laws of signs . 109 102 . . 63. 84. . Mathematical induction . 195 4 13 ous equations 100 158 . 195 Extreme Factor " theorem " II. Fourth proportional Fractional equations u Fractions. 17 65. Integral expression Interpretation of solutions Progressions. C Factoring 222 Literal equations .. 83 10 19 Polynomial Polynomials.105 Monomials 03 Multiple... 253 28 70 1. 45. Imaginary numbers . addition of " square of . 243 7 .. . numbers . .. . 91 .. . 45. 23 10 91 102.. 1 Quadratic equations Quotient Radical equations Radicals . law of Extraneous roots . . . arithmetic .31. 178 45 221 205 Law of exponents . . 114. L. .. . . 120 Member.808 Exponent Exponents. . P . 205 148 148 27 86 Ordinate Origin . 89 235 Parenthesis Perfect square 53 . 130 9 Power Prime factors Problem. directly. . Mean " 81) proportional Mean. . Known numbers . 34.. Like terms Linear equation . 212 . 227 geometric . 42 7 Independent equations Index . . . G. 205 . .108 Minuend . 9. . 241 123 geometric .154 Order of operations " of surds . . . 143. 112 .. . . inversely 122 numbers . .. arithmetic 346 120 338 341 53 70.... 227 .. 184 54. 189. . first and second . 195 33.. . Product '* 76 Infinite. exponent . common factor Homogeneous equations Identities .C Multiplication . INDEX 8 . Geometric progression . .
255 120 54 10 sum and product of ...INDEX Ratio national Rationalizing denominators 76. polynomial . 129... 1 Simple equations Simultaneous equations Square of binomial 205 Value... 23 18 228 27 9 205 10 Term " absolute 54 193 178 Theorem. . 232 Vinculum Zero exponent 40 42 197 Printed in the United States of America... 45 Trinomial 240 .. ... 9. . absolute 54 Variable . binomial Third proportional Transposition . 27 17 Unknown numbers .. algebraic Surds .. Sum. 193 Rule of signs Series Signs of aggregation Similar and dissimilar terms Similar surds 33.... 4 155 9 " of . ... ... ... . . 309 171 133 120 Square root Substitution 205 Real numbers Reciprocal 215 Subtraction 169 Subtrahend 104 22 Remainder theorem Removal of parenthesis Root Roots of an equation " character of " ...
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MANGUSE STrtn gork THE MACMILLAN COMPANY 1918 All rights reserved .ANSWERS TO SCHULTZE'S ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA COMPILED BY THE AUTHOR WITH THE ASSISTANCK OP WILLIAM P.
December. U. Set up and electrotypcd. NorfoooS J. Mass. Gushing Co.COPYRIGHT. ..A. Norwood. 1913. 1916. Berwick <fe Smith Co. BY THE MACMILLAN COMPANY. 1917. 1910.S. Published September. August. Reprinted April. 8. 1910.
7. 15. . 1.00000001. 1. 8. 20. 6* 16. B $20. 512. 18.  22 20.000 negroes. 14 11. 5.  2 p. 16. 1. 9.. A 15. b. 20 \. 0. 3. 10. 19. 1. 16. C $ 16. 16f 2. 28. 6. A 38 mi. 2. 14. 10. i .$9400. 0. 11.3.000. c. 150. 32. in.. 37. 2. 192. 3. 10. 15. 21. 13. 26z. westerly motion. 72 = = 216. 128. = 5 81. 1. 8 ft. 5000. _ 32. 3.000. 13. 6. 3. 14. 12. sign. 3. x. 26. 18. 25. Australia ft. 106. 25.150. 64. 37 S. 21..  1.C. 24. 6 yd. 5. 5. 30?. 14. 3. 29.1. 12. 3.12. V 23. 5. 1.000. 10g. 8 13. 13. 27. 73. is $10. A $90.ANSWERS Page phia 8 in. Ot 15. Page 13. $160.. 3. 28. 12. 6. 3. 27. 10.. 2. 2 5. 20 jo. 25. 9 m. 126. 1. 2.  13. 19 4. 12. 3. 12. 3. 18. 13. 7. 4.000 Indians. B $80.8. 16. 3. 30. 8. 14. Page 8.. 13 S. 17. 10. 10. Page 1. ^.000. 12. 3 below 0. 14. 16. 4. 32. }. 89. 6. 9. 576. 2 ~ 15. 6. in. 22. 1. 24. 4. 7. 8. ft. South America 46. 20 B. 16. 144. 13. 4. 1. 20. 16. 15.000. 4. 18. 10. 19. 8. 4. 9. Multiplication. 7.21 24. 3. + 1. 4. 15. sign. 23. $100. 20. 1. 12. per sec. 59. . C $60. 9. Not 5. 1. 7. 25. 256. . 5. 18. 22. 14. 32. 20. 11. 16. 3 m. 5. C $1(50. 2  Page 8. in 12.000. $40. 11. 9. 7. B $4700. 7. T . 16. 1. 13 V. 210. 19. 13 d. 8. 7. 115. 1. 9 = 4. 2. 2. x. 2. 49. 9 16  larger than 7. 6.000. A Bl 7. 17.2. 8. 12. 1 16. 9. 36. 21. 16 in. 2.000. 10. 6. 11.. 9 14. 3* 7. 17. arithmetic. 6.. Seattle 12 Philadel 9. Page?. 6. 9. 12. 7m. 2. 9. 9. 2. 24. 2. 6. B $ 128. 6. 8. 2. 85. 2. 14. 3. 16. 49. . 32. A . 18. 12. 3. B 10 mi. 3. . loss. 1. 14. Page 4. 5. 29. 17. $ 1 50 10. 5. 1.. 17. Page Page Ilis expenditures. 11. (a) (/>) 1. 15. 48 ft. 27. 16 in. 6.  1. 7. 2. 3. Yes.
4. + 5. :J!>r'.  2 4 13 ft 2 . 17.. 21. 18. 23. (ft) $40. r+l.  40. 8. 20(.5 (ft) sq. . ft. 19. 3a. yyz+xyz*. ft f 19. 4. Pagel4r. 42. 15. 24. 28. 7. arty 1 20. 2. 8. 28. 12.4  2ft 2 33. 6. 15a. . 27. = 81. 33. 29. ft. . 24. 23. i:5.<>Gq. 33. 3 a* + 2 at*. +/2(/. 2x' 2 5 . 30. $80. a2 4 15^44. 1. 8.. 20. 1. 4 9/^/rl 2.000 . 31. 35. 14. 0. 37. 38 ab. 7.r 2 . 17. 6. 173. . _ 4 . 8. 1. 21. 1. 7.32 c2 > ft 3 . 32. 11.000 sq. 31.4 ft..'JO ft.GOG.x. 57. rt. 15. 41. 92. 3.9?/2 8. 9. 5. 11. 14. 3. 00 24 04 ft. 11. 21^. 28. 25. 13.. 8. 9. 14:). 12. 21 a 3 4 10. 0. (a) <> sq. Page 18.  1. 32. 8. I. ft n. 36. = ()501. (r) 2G7. 4. 16. Va'+Y2 8^2 . jrif 4 9. (r) 2. Page 31.'J. 18. WIN + wiw. 11. 12. 30. 2.~4. (a) r>23ifcu. 12 a. 0. 22( 19. 3. $3000 Page 6. 14. 1. 6. 22... 22. 3. (ft) 7. 27. 16. 8. 15. 26. o^ft. 49.q 4. ft.14 sq. 51 f. 13. 0* Page 3 w" 0.a . + v> 2 . 16. w. 27.1. 43w//2 17. 3 . x^ 20. 19. f  5e 35. 3rf 27. 4. . 16. ft' 3 . 3. 16. 2. 12. 27. 27. :. 22. 15. ft)  3 /A  8x :i (/* 4 ft)(X 36 2 "'* ~ 5V (a ft).  0.  3. ]*. 19. . II. ft. Page 21. 04. #1111. 29. 13. 8. 3 y v> <Mft 3* 2. (a 4 4. 20. t. 4 y/ . 12. (c) 8. ??i??. Monomial. 27.  12. 0. 36. 14. (<7) (a) 314 sq.ft. 1. vi 14.r~ f 34. a3 a2 4 a 4 1. Polynomial. 1. 17. 13 cu. 2oVmf?i. 5. 3. 35.ab.... 13. 0. It. 2.. 58.6) 38.900. (ft) mi. ft. 39. ^). 7. Binomial. (r) 2000 m. 5.rty8. 4. (a) 200. 7. 13. (59. v'ft a4 4 a a 41. 2V^4^/ 8 x* 6. . 0. 3(c4a). mi... 240. 30. r/ \(\xyz. (c) S(i. $r*y 4 3x?/ 4 m* run  . (a} 100 1(5 cm. 0. 17. 10. 34. in. //'.94(>. 26. 35. 18. 25. 2. 22. 1. (V) (rf) (ft) 50. (ft) 12. 12yd. 2. 0. 5. 31.  xV 3 y. a ft c. 0. (b) 135 mi. 237. 9. 6<t. 10.5f> sq. 20.r f 15. in. 3. 7 7.3 * 10 r5 <3 . 15. 18. 25. . 10. 3. 14. in. 15.ii ANSWERS Page 11. <i~ 26. ^. in. 32 2 ftc. a 32. 5. 314 sq. y. 34. 5. 9.ft) 4. + ft). 13. Page 23. sq. \'\ 4. (a) 50. 4. c. 21. 17. . 38.. 5x+3. 5. 5. 4<> 2 ?t Vc. 50. m 24. 104. Polynomial. 18. 2ftx. 9. m + 3(a. (ft) Page 2.  11. Page 7. 1. 3. 14. r:A 29. (r) 78. Trino inial. 14. 12.
a f 54. 24. x  + 3z. ?> 22.l. 15. 59.r 2. 2m(4? 2 4ir#(2. 2. 2. 8.3x 2 2 tf. 25.  a: 2. Page 8.11. 1. 8 + 2 a . 2x 4 a 13.  1. 22..(2 x2 . 10. 35. (w4w)(ww).  12. n*. 3 m. f 2 ?/  2. 30. a 3 . 51.abc. 2 2 2 6.2 . 42. 11. 37. 2a. 6. ar. 2 6. 2. 6.a*. 13. \ :{ 2 a 48. &. 50. 24. 26. _ Page 30. 21. _5a<>&43c. a 52. 4r 2 . 7 a5 1 . 3. lOrt 15w4. 31. ( 7. a2 24. /> Zmn + qt G/ 4 . 4. 14. 2 3. ab a.2 a2 2m 2 4.4x. 2. a). 8. 2. 21. 22. 28. 7  # + 12. (5x47 3. 11. ?/i 13. 8 8 . 58.2 a. c. x a8 1. . 7. .4.a .x f 1 2 . 2. ft Exercise 17. (2n' 43p 47 ). 14. 2 2. _2?> 2 + 3 x 9. 4. + 8.AXSH'EJtS Page 23. 4. Exercise 16. '  . 19. 4 21. + c 4 d x + 6 e.3 6. Page 28. 24 b 46. 17. 2// 16. a  49.. . 0. 13. 2 17. 3. a + a. 15. 0. c2 . 4ft ~.h. ri\ 18. a f 2 f 2 9. 0. 17.  23. 2 a 37. + 4 m4 4 8 7?i 8  G m. . 14. (yz~d}.  14 afy .aft. 26. 1. 3 nv> w 3 a 24 npy . 1. 364c. 10. 2 + a4l). a 3& . a 6 2 .2 57. 6.(a f 6) + 4(1 + c) . . 12.'U4j>. 5 2 Page 29. ?/.2 ft 2 r2 10. 20. 24. 34 39. 2 . 5. a 3a 4 2 &. j)(g1.r' 2 z2 2 4 a 1. s_r>a5. 1 4.Oa: + 10.1. (mn} 11.a~. 2m. 33. G. . + 6. 3. . 25. Page 7. a 10w. 7  a + 2 + c. ?>4tl 53. 7. 2 3x f z. Page 44. a4 4 4. a 4 + ft. . 12. 20. 2. 14.(7x2 Ox2). !  </ .  17. 1 + 45. 34.5. 3 a3 & 41.c. 4. 2a: 2 4x. 8 b.1 . w* ( . 12. . . 43. . 25 47. 1.6 x + 0) 16. 814. 25. M + 10. 5.  b* 4 r 1 . f ft 9.  b. mn. . 1. 8. ' 12 m?/'2 27. . 5. 56. 26. 8a*b8<tb'\ a + /> fc + 4 r. 7. 19. 9. 36.4c 3 8 8 J. . 3 a . 2.8(c + a). w 17. 21. 3m2 n 9 (a + $) 2 . x3 . + 4 c. . 8 . 36. 20. :5 41.2. 31. 10. 32 w 2 w. 2. 16. 4. 2 y' 4 . 18. a2 4 2 ft 4 Ve. a2 9. a' 4ab + ?/. 38.4 d. 29. 2. 19. 16. 6.ws 2 ft) . 40. a. 5. 2 4 5 2 a3 1.7. 15. 2 4. 32. 18. 55. 10 m.5 4 2 3 ?/ . r. 10 x. a  ISjfat. 3 Ji 8 . a + (ftc4df). 2 a f 6 414. 18.r 2 + 4?/ 4l). ti.r. .5 z?/ + 3 y . G a bd. 12. 1. a a. 4wipg>' 27. 2m + 2w.  4 b 17 y*. 5x 2 rt ft. 7. 4. + 2y.  G J8 r  4 a <?.a'2 . c. ii\ 22. 2 . ^ <. + a 2 f 2 a 4. m*  n*. t). 11.
21. 210. 30 ? 49 p*qh*t. 4aWy. 161b. 24. 42. 13. . 6. 15. 8. 4 a8 . 0. 5. 17. 33. (+3)x6=+16. 4. Ox a 5 . 3. Page 35. 16. . 5. 27. 2. 3.1. 21. 24. 1. 20. 6. 3300. 9.7(50. 6. 19.. 13. 27. ISartyW e*f*tj.21. 770. n (a6) 125. 2.r% 2 2 ry. 8. 4. 20. 2. 27. 14 m 2 . Page 7. 3 a 3 . Page 5.25 x* + 25 x + 20 . 8. 6. + 58 . 37. 8. 2 w +2 2 . 9. . 1400. . x2 xy42^. 29.000. 30.6) =a2 31. 16. 7. 04. 20 aW. 2 ).10 3 30 a a 4 c f 15 aWc . 30. a.64 190 p6. 7. 9z 8 16z2 9z + 10. . 16. etc. . . 28. 343. ?> 4 . 20. 4.15. 6 . 7.26. 14f 5. . 2 ll9HH 2) + .r + 7 1S + 2 mp. 19. 2. 20. 31. 23. 2 2 +2621ft 2 . fa 2.19p" + 19^ 10 . 25. 8. 28. 38wiw. 32. 64. .20 xyz .35 a*b*c8 f 14 a?/e . 23. ^^ = 20. 40 r 2 . 18. ft 17. 1. 1. 84. 1.6 wiw 24 n 2 36 + 65 ww . a. 13.32 y s s G . 11. 11. 17. Page 36. +15. 30 n?b*c*. 2*8f x2 6x4. ll 2 i. 4 7> 4 :j !} . 7 + r/m 4^4^414.3 a 2 6 + 3 aft 2 . s 9 ww.14 ?/i r?/6j/ 5. 19.iv ANSWERS + &)(. 30.19 + 2.11 xyz . 17. 60. 161b. 216. //. 36. 14. 1. 2''. 127"'. 2 ). ! 2. 35.12. 30. 14..22 ac + 30 c2 + 43 2 2 8. 22. 14. . a + ft. 33. 14. 29. a. 7G . 18. 12. 108.14 xyz + 14 a:y0. 18> ^* = a . 2 wiw 8 + 2 wiwp 2 2 x*y* 15. 28.8 12. 9 w 2 + 13 n . 15 q\ 6. 24. 16 lb. 28. 12. 34. 5aft(a 126 2). 66 8W 34. 22. 21.>(/ r . 2 2 2 . 4 m3 + 9m2 + m. 21 a'&c. 120. 13. 4 fc. 13. 30. 10. 16. 3(*+0 + 2). 2 . 2 a2 (y 2 . 16. . 25. 25. 1904. 12. 0.8 4a12 a2 ftf 5aft2 f 6 6. 2 a*62 c2 + 11 a&c . 9 13. 23.12. 15. 3 ?i w 1(5 pag'V 2 W 2 . 18. 4200.32. Page 38.18 w w + 10 WI M . 4 jcy*z*>. 10c 2 19rd+0c? a I' . 26. 2 7t A. 17.6 2 . Page 3. 60.14 . r' 2 a: j/ (? ft . 10. 2 8 xy f 4 a. 90. 102. 29. iSx8 . 16 51. 4. 34. 15. (x f ?/)  a 12 10. 83 In + 1 n*.28 p'^/.. ci 5 . . 18a% y. 108. 2 * 80 . 11. 23.44 aWc 16 abxy.(3x2_4^+7). 52 + 6s 12.25 + 14. 6". 4. 18. 31. 33. + 7. a: 3a: 2 (2a:f iHa. 27. + O4 66 . 25.14 a 2 _6g8 + 9 2_i2g + 8. f 26. 26. 3. 24. a: . 20. a 8 . 12 x2 2 . 38 a*b 6 : 24. 4. 12 ^. 15 lb. 2 + aft 4 ft 2. 18.16 a 2 + 32 a . 19. 8 . 10. 30 j9 jt?g j .2.69 rt + 21 132 + r . a*b*c. 2z 8 s 2 3zl.. . 15. 1. 25 4 4. 2 n8 29 a + 30. 3 a 2 46. 1.14 w 2 2 . ?/ .36 35. 20. 34. 76 8 a' 1 . 3. +.16 x2/ 5 4. 10. 360. 32. 66 39 k* . 42. 9. m. 22. 7.:>/ . 30. 15.57 p6 3 2 4 25. 4 a2 . 24. 29.21 a 3 c2 21. 216. 27. . 18. 11. 22.
4 x2 13. 24. 4x21. 29.5 ?i m #2 4 ?7i%'2 4 . 9. V + o ft . 21 2 .4 12. 6. 10. G a6 2.3. (w4)(w + l). +  m' 1. p 2 . +   5). ' 46.500. 35. a + 25.2 y*. a2 >2 2 2  84 a a + 49. . 7.5 ~ 81. 2). 10. x 4 ?/4 + ab . a 2 . 3. 9. 16.008. 25 a 2 6 2 . 2 12. 7 .606.009. + a2 12 ab 2 8 0. r. 10.098. 166. 2 j3 Z . 2 +10s281. + 4 a +4.+ l5J x// + 9 2 2 4 ^ 4 ()Or 2 20. . 28. 6 2 + 6lf>0. (m + 6)(m3).996. ) 4' 6/ 49. 10 p 2 g ?> 2 ?/ + 49 & 4 2 16.6 y4 10. 10.ri 17. 20a 2 21a + 4. . m 2 . 10. 4 . .2 6 + 13. 52. 24. 31. (p 2. 23.r . r*d< x/2 ?/'2 18. 9990. fo*. 25. 22 x 2 ?/ 2 y + 121 x4 29. 8. 2 1: 21. 36. 2 . n2 a4 6. ft' 11. 44. 2 (5 a 3). 35.16 a3 f 50. . ^V^4 . (46c + 5) (4 abc 43./ . 1. m 3 j) 3 . .4 n. 33. 4 2 //. 34. y. 9999. 15.001. 10.20. a4 4 ?/ . 31. 484. 56. 37.994. ~ 6 20 . 2 4 2 2 64 . x2 GiC+5.009. 45. 1. 15. 1. 2 a4 6 4 +8 a2 6 2 2x4 +7x 2 6 2 15 6 4 36. 14.10 35. a + 25. 4 m'2 40 (i V2 c 2 + 25 r 4 22. p4 + .2 x + 2 x. . 27. 19. 9 4 /> . 4.8. 10. 12 x2 . (r ?/) (x 6 (b + 5 ?i)(& 50. x*2^f I. 55. 10. 40. 10 a 4 ?. 2. 32. 41.54 p 2 + 81. 27.. 30 x + 19 x3 . . +4 34. (n 2 5. + <z 22 2 4 20 rt2 32. 39. .6. Page 39. ?/H)0. + 10 + 121 y*. 4. m'2 +18?rt 2 ' + 81. w'n 2 //^ + 25. 26. 38. 30. 34. (w+4)(m4).r* 2 30. 10 a' 2 . 5. 7.84 a' 9. 11.1.. 2 a' + 2 ?/ 5 + a 3. 8 38. 998. + 4 t*.<* &2 + 106 + tt + . 8 a W .712.810. 33.004. + 7 6)(3a~76>. 2 m3 + 4m2 .ab . . 2. 30 /><. 4. ( 5) O5)(w + 3).15. a + 56. 19. 6. + 3)(3). 3. ^' J  7 f 12. 990. 1. n + 2. 2 6' . . . 8.000.00 + 37. 26. 2 .m 30 6 4 1.020. 2 (6 a + 3) (3a66)(3a6&). 31. 4 + 25 q*. . 1.25. 2 a' y' . 2 fr . 36. 41.r .6 x2 13. 18. a2 ' + 48Z100. 2 4 a + 4.p132.35 ab 9. 25 r 4 ?/i 30. 4 21. 29.^ + a? + 1. 14. 10. 441. . 1). 53.^V"' . 4 a&c + c2 30 x 4 ?/ 23. x 48.x2y22. 2 62 V2 132. 1. 25 25. (x  2) (x Page (rt2).6 xy . 6 x6 + 13 x3 .020. + 2 9.x2 + 6 x2y 2 . a3 0. 8)(?i (x2)(x3). x 2 f xy + 9 41. x* . + 12. (a + 4) (a + 2). ^/> 8 4 . 14. 7> .404.^. 7.201. 24 ab + 9 & 2 . 2xV+6x2y2^2 +22. 51. 32. ab. 39. Page 12. 10. 2 0)(p + 5). 2 a 2 + a .000. 36.4 a&+ 4 &*. 37. . 10. (a (3 54. 4 . I/).2. .14 jp + 49. s rc 47. 57. 11. . ab .49. 3wi2 m Page 42. x4 28. 5. 36 a 4 . x4 4 121 4 ?/ . 40.  12 xy +9 2 >2 ?/ 2. 42. 9801.10 x + 25. lflrt 2 8 + l. 40. + 2 fz& + 2 i> + p + 9.ANSWERS 28. 17. a' . 8. 33. 999. Om2 4 6m 6.
13. 11. 4 ac.x^. 3.2 . 4. 8. 1. 9. .2 . 8. 13. 6x 3. 6 <z 2 4 ft 3 . x 2 + 2r f J. a2 x 8 4 ft 8 .1. 12. 2 2 + 2 a. 6. 5. 2 ? 14 . 4. 12. 1. +w . Page 13.1. 3 aft 20. aft 4 tt ac 2 ftc.4.  5 z* . 2 . 13. a r'43 ll'a^S 15. 14.8 y. . 8 x . 12. 21.2 2 . 4 a 2 4. 4ft. + x?/ 2 1.VI ANSWERS 43. ti'jry1 7. 3.8. ft* ft / . 12. Exercise 27. a 2 . 14.24 . + 4. 2 ?/' . . 22.r?/.3^V. // 19. 2. 3. 5.3 ry.15. 5. 20 15. Page 22. a 8 4. 47.  . i 2 tji.1. 10.r" 20 S? .  12 y 25. 4x43?/. 01. 13. m L 4.2 . 4 pq. 16.3 x 2 2 4. *3 y 4 . 1. 2 ft 2 ?nc w . 5 aft 4 ft 2 4 8. 8. . 5. aft. 16. 5. . 8 ?/ . 4 a* 4 9 11. 125. 19. 2. 5 4 a Oft.y3. 19.rw f 8 . 3 l48m47?n 2 20. r//. c3. Page 48. 1/*. 4.11 _ 5x _ _ o 18. 3*y2 w + 1. 9 5 4a' 2 ft 6. 2 a 3 ft. 13.2 wZ 4. G. f>r* 4.5 a . 4. 2 4. x' u' 2 2 z~ 4. 3. x 4. 12. 46. /r .7 arty 4 4 x 2 //V2  3 Z2 3 1. 10 ft. 8. 15.3 3. 7 r . 2 4 2 x 4. 8. i 9.rw. 6 x 2 t/ 2 4 . 8. 9.9 d. 14 r 2 . '. _ 2 a .> 10. a 2 ft 4 9 c3 .5 mp. 18. l 4 . 2 12.2. 21.27 x 2 4.n.3 a 41. a 2 410 + 9 r 8 + w2l ftc. 17. . 10. 13.lit x + 4. 1. 1000 1000 . 7. . ft 17. 2. 5 a  (5 ft. . w .2 ac . 2.2 aft 4. 135. . 3 a.  11.000. 18. 5. 7a3ft. c 12. 4. 9.2 1 //.r'^ 15.3 w 4*7 m 2 3 mn . 5^418(7. 6. 14.r' ~ 16. 24. 8 ?/ . 4. 6. 2 4 3 9. 6.+ 77 15. + c 2 4 aft2 ac + 4 ftc. aft 12. 16.30 ftc. 2 . 50. 4. 49.8 <r 2 2 ?/' ./ 4. Page 51. 1.1.2 2 2 8 . abc 7. 2 m2 4 2 w2 7. . 2 ?/ ft Page 2. 5.21 2 2 f + . 4 n2 4 +p ft 2 42 2 aft 2 mn + 2 mp 4 10 a ft \ x* 4 4 2 z2 + 2 jrz a2 2 2 f 25  2 np. 2. 1. 3 5 a4  4 a2 4.34. a 10.8. y 7. .r ?/ ??i ?).2 ftc . .3 5. ft ? ft' ft ft. 9.7.1. 20. ?/2.29. + 3.10 xy*. .8 yn . :r !>. r 7. .w. 11 4.10 2 + z 2 410.12 aft 4 20 ac .6 :rs 4. 4 d 2 4.9 4. 4 x. 2 ^r ???' 2 . r ft. 44.  10. w 2 .c ft*/ 1  ft' ?/ . 14. 3. 15. a. sr 11. 5. 5.r?/ j/. z.23. Page 7. 4xy + 13 <) . 17. 4 x y 2 7 x + 5.2 ar. ??. 9.1.25 c . 2 ?/ 4. j) . aftc 52. 7a 2 ftc 4 4c42a. x4. a 2 44 a2 ft' 4 ft 2 2 4. m'2 3. as _ 10 16. . 14.r . 6. Exercise 2 a:// 26. 23. 2 1. 75 a 2 29. 3. 11.2 <</. 8 x5 ? + 4 1. yfl. Osy. .5 n*. 26.15 21. 9w 2 + 0m+ 1.1*5 2 r 2 . r/2 4. 4. 10. a 4 4 ft. 17. + 16 r 4 + 12 a'2 //2 . ft. 1.  3 c. 4 c m .25. 2. Page 11.yar 4 */ ?/ Page 50.1. 8 r<ft 4 2 .
33. 5. 25. 8. 35. 0. 29. 4.000. 6. ct. / + y + a// 12 yr. (2 a. 4(a ft) c = 8. 46. l. I. x + 1=a. 40.rr2. x y $ 6 yr.. 41. b. + 3x + 2y + 32. 10 yr. 30. 6. 42. ? 43. Page 13. 7. 16. 44.r ct. Page 6. + f + b 2. 27. 4^ = 100. 100 2. 3. </ 20. y 2z p= 3 (a c. 9. 10. 10) (6) 2 zf 20 3^740. + 10 b + c ct. x 49. lO. 3x2. 4 f 39. 26. 58. 13. 23. xy ft. 4. 38. 17. 22. 2. 6. 2.  6 10. 1. 5. ] 2 ri 42. "mi. 33. 16. % 4. 36. 47. . r tx mi.(3x+ = rraxlO. X 60. 'nj 100 a 28. 8 n  10 yr. 100 d ct.  1$. 14. 11. fix.r1. + 3 = 2(3* . 25. ^ 12 sq. 45. 10. d. rn mi. Page 31.  />) a = all. 800 = x + 1300. 7. 10 x sq. 13. 28. 10 a. 39. I. 2b. 23. 9. y yr. 10.ab a. ct. 3x  1700) = 12. 17. 31. d + !. 5. 7. 37. 21 2. 43. 18. ft. 3 9. (</) 2a. x 2y 10 act. .. y 100 a 24. 19. 24. (d) 2a + 10 = n. 6. (a) ' 12. (A) 3 x f (4 x . 50= L 100 15.. a 8. 12. x 48. 1. . = 5 ?i x 460. . 19. 10) + = (a) 2 x .6 = *. 60 25 1. 3.x700. 2x + 35. <>. r>?imi. 2. 16. (> 27. 15. ft. iL*. m=  100 2x=2(3x~10). 100= ^. f = eZ 2 x. 2 ct.10) 100. ct. x = m. m+ 11. 11.  9 = 17 a. 1. sq. vil 56. Page 40. lOx 10 + w. 90 7 2 + 10 = c. (c) 2x. 2. 32. m +~m 3. 10 >_&. 7. s. 4.  2\. 2=10. 18.100. 14. 3. 1. " lir. 34. n M. (c) 2a? + 3 (/) (2fl58)h(8aria)=60. 1&. 2. . ( a f 4. 30. 0. (c) (2zf 600) (3 =4. a 10. 7. # + 20yr. + (d) 2 x + (3 sc 700) = (x f 1200)  x. 20. 38. 2. 41. 100 14. + 4x 3y 34. 59. 5. 7x 2 Page 21. 10. 7. (>. 22.7). . 12.200) f(^ + (e) 200. f 6)(o 62. 4. v (6) 2x. 44. 20. ) 2^ x 20 =a 7.ANSWERS Page 9. ft. 00. 29.. 20. 5. 1.p+7. Jj12. 2b 22. '^ . 5.(3x  700) = 5. }f. 17. 7. !). 13. 15. 11. y ?>i x + 26. 57. 36. . 4. 37. b. y 50. x. f (I. Page 61. 6. 8.
11 w(w' + wi . k ' _ ft v J (d) 100 100 ' V ' ' 100 100 100 =^8000. 2. 8. 4.000.000.000 Phil. 2 3 6 7. 2.000.. 23. 1. 2.000 gold. 15. 9. 14. 71. ? 2  = SJL+J10 13. (2a63?2_4 a /^) 16. 11. Page Page 4.000. 67. (6) (6 a 30) =20.0.. (yll)(y4). 90. 14. 20 yr. 1313. . 14. .000. 3. 150. 20.. (a + 6) (a + 3). 6. Oaj(o62cd).. 6 aty (3 + 4 6) 2. 11. 6rt 2 11.000 Berlin. MOO HXT 100 100 ^~ (5z30) =900. 45 in. 10 yr. Page 7. 10.5. 2. 12. 8. 13. 75. 480. Page Page 4. '2 > 10aVy(2a 2 ay43y 2 ). 3 hr. ~=90. 6. 8 2 19.(5z . 10 yd. 13.vili ANSWERS (a) V J^. 9. 30. 14. 70. 78. ( + 4)(*2). 25 yr.16. (c) ^ v ' . 78... 13 a 8 4 * 5 (53 xyz + x y'W). 5 lb. 12. 250. 200.. 2.5p + 7 g ).. (y 13. 8.. 1250. 42yr. 5. 8. 12.000 ft.3. 8(a6 2 +6c2 c2 a2 ). 8 12. 11 in. 18. 7. 9 in. 1. w (/) 64.. 5. 15. 30. 3x (3r. 100 1. 52. (ro3)(w2). 55. 11 pV (2 p8 . (z5)(z2). 20. 20 yr. 5. + 7)(y3). 600. 2). ^ . 300.8.000. 80 A.. 1200. 16. 14. (m + n)(a + 6). 28yr. 6. 50. 2. 6. 18. 1. 1 lb. 8. 1. 10. 6. 70^. 8 in. 17. 2$. 3.210^. 15 yd. 3 (a +&)(*. 180. 10 Mass.  PageSO. 74. 6.21. 29. 13. 18. 40 yr. 4. 12 mi. 15.10. 12.3aftc + 4).. 7. Pace 65. 10. 5. 7 hr. 4. 7. = _?_(2ar + 1). Y. 7a*fe(2a & l). (y8)(y + 2). ?(g ? g+ 1). (e) i* + A. 11. 3.3).2. 10.000. 4. 4. 2 2 2 5. 6. (a + 5)(a + 6).y"). 8. 3.6). 19. . 2. 200. 1. 12. 10.000 copper. 15 mi.3. Ib. (a + 4)(a + 8).2). (a5)(a4). 68.1). 17. 2 2 ?/ 21. . $40. 9. 3. 7.000 N. 5$ hr. (y7)(y + 2). 3. 13. 13. 25. 100. (p + 7)(3a5&). 15. 10.000 ft. 22. 5pt. Page Page 480 12. 160 lb. 25. Page 79. 11. a 12. 1. 90 mi. by 12 yd.30) + (2s + 1) v v ' ' 5 18. 4pt. 30 yr.. 12. 10 yr. 10 Cal. 14. 3. (y + 8)(y2). 7.7. 5.. (*4)( + 11. 15. 5 Col. 21. 05. (a 4) (a. 8. 4. 10. 30 mi.24.79. 24J. Page 5.5.11.411. z?/(4^ + 5xy . 72. 9. 82 mi. 20. 20 yd. 1. 8.22. 6. 7. a a (a 8 a+l).000 pig iron. 9. 17 7>c(2 a'^c2 .13. 85 ft.0. 1200. Page 7.. 15 in. 9. 9. 17z8 (l3z + 2x')..
12. 19. 23. 20. + 0(90 Page 85. 10x2 (y9)(y + 2). 36. (a 4 10) (a 4 + 3). 24. 2. 21. 10. (2 *+!)(* 9). Yes. 13x(a + ft)(aft). 7. (a2 + 10) (a2 2). 103x97. 2(2s + 3)(a: + 2). (3#y)(+4y). 28. 16. Yes. 3)(3a.11 ft)(a6). (5x .2). (m + n + 4p)(w + . 24 9. 100(x. (3a. (y8) 2 2 .c 2 ). 6. 21. 10 y2 (\) x + l)(x~ 3). a.w*)(l 2 n 2 ). (2yl)(y + 9). 8. (2 a? 4.2 ft). No.4p). 21. 3. a .7)(2z f 1). 9. (a 6 6) (a 4. 27. Yes. a*(5a f l)(flr . (5a4ft)(2 a~3 ft). (7 a + 4) (2 a . (2o + l)(2l).1). 34. (m7n) (a. (y + 4)(yl). (az + 9)(ox2). . 100 (a. 7 6) (a 10 6).4 6). . 27.4. 25. + 2y). (x + y4 )(x . 16. 16. (5xy ) 3 ft 8 B 2 (12+ y 2 )(12y 2 ). (4y3)(3y + 2). . + 9^)(oxy . 8. 3a. + 4) (a. 15. (10 aft + c 2 (10 aft . 5. 2).6) 2 2 . (4al)(a2). 12. 25. 7. 20. 3. (w + 20)(w + 5). (4 18. Yes.2 by2 6. (a + 8)(a3). 10(3 5 6) 2 .3)(z2). (7 ay + 8) (7 ay 2 2 13.3). (w* (3a26). 40 x. 13. 4. . 18.+4 y)(3x4 y). 21. (l + x )(l + x )(l + x)(lx). . 9. . (5a +l)(5a l). Yes. + 3?i) 2 (5x2y) 2 . No. 9. 26. . 7. (w ~ n (x . 1. y) (a. 26.1). (15a + 46*)(16a46). (m + w) 2 5. . 6. 9ft w(?3) 140 w 2 27. Yes. 11. ( 2 4 19. Yes. . 25. y(x.. (0 (l+7a)(l7a). No. (6n + l)(+2). 2 y' (2y3)(2yl).6) 2 1. 13x7. Yes. 30. a 2 (w7)(w + 3).1). 22. 12. (:52y)(2a!3y). 27. Yes. 10(2 30. 5. . 200 (x + l)(x + 1). 29. 18. 20. 10. + 3). (3*2)(. 10. 8) (a. 11. 17. 14. 1. 32.5y)(3a. ix 18. 3.2). 2(9a:8y)(8a:0y). 2 2 15. 33. x\x 24. 2 3 by2 Yes. (4 13. Page 83. 28. 2 No 4. 25. Oa 2 (a2)(al). (n2 + 12)(n 2 + 5). (a a: 19. 26. (5wl)(m5). y) 2 29. 32. 4. 14. Yes. 4 (a . No. 33.ANSWERS 16. 26.y) 2 aft. (13a +10)(13a 10). (ft + ll)(aftll). (m + n +p)(m + wp).8). (4a. 9.r2). 23. + 8)(g3). + y + . 23. 2. 24. 31. 25. 22. Yes. 10(a . 11. No. (a (p8)0> + l). (0 + 6)(66). (15z2y)(x5y). 28.3 y 2 )(2 a: 2 f y'2 )2 3 Yes. + 2 )(a + ft)(aft). (5 a 2) (2 a 3).y4 ). 17. 2. 35. (6 a. 24.7) (a. + 3)(c44). + 5) a. 10 a 2 (4 .  x (5 a. (a.y (6x + 4)(5x4). (10a + ft)(10aft). 17. Page 84. 1. 8. (* + y)(zy).1). (g . 2 y(ll x 2 + 1)(11 x2 . . 31.9*). 29. x (z + 2)(x + 3). (<7 20. 9. . (9y4)(y + 4). x(x +y)(x y). 30. 10.2 y). (15ay2) 2 . (2w+l)(ro + 3). 15. (2xl)(x + f>). 19.* (2 y + 3)(y. Yes. (ay8)(ay3). 10(a + ft)(aft). Page 82.   . (a 3 + 10)(a. 23. (3 n + 4) (2 (3x+l)(x + 4). 34. f 2). 14. a(2u. 2 17. (a*& + 9) (aft + 3) (aft 3). . 22.11 6) (a 4. 35. 216 aft. 22. 3(x + 2)(zl).
8.a + (< (3 7>)(3  a l fo).3. (.7s) (2 a. 2 + .//)(5y x(x4ti<0.1) 3. Page 90. ?>).8) n 43*). . 4. b) (r 4. 19.1). a 4. 2. 2 y) ^ . 11. 24.4). y6. 3 x4 .8) ( (16. 15. 9. (r420(4 10. a (a + 2 6). (5 al) 3) (f> a/> 15 ?>).2)(x 1. Page 92. (a />. ?i(w 4y) . 2 21. 4 a8 . 6. ANSWERS r)(4x (4x 4. (5 31. 6 f c). (5 26. (^ + ?>_8). . . a8 . 2. y )(. a x 3 10. 11. ( { &). (a &4.X 5.y. ah}. + 2 //). 28. 12.3.?/). 11.3)(x 4. ( (<> r4y3 . 32.5 <:  9 </) (2 a 12.2 y). O + ?/4<?)O ?> 4 q). 6. 12 m 2 (m n) 2 . 30. 5  (2 2 . Gp). 450. 12. (c. 8). x  1). 8. fi(c426).&).  (m3n + a + b)(m 3nab). (14. 6. 11. 37. 14. 17.y). (a + (2a3fc)0*+ tf)Or 41) (^42). 4. a 4. 2 k (wi 4. (5a+l)(9a).8). Exercise 46. 2 . 27.42 x 4. 2 5 a 2 6c 2 3. ( rt 23. 3. (w4w) 2 1. K + l) a (a 5 />z 9. 8. (* _ 2 )(a 4. Page 12. c 5 b 5 + 9 iZ) . 19 13> (7rt3)(7a~3). 20.e 4. 8x. 4. 10. Page 87. 36. 4 3. 8 4 15 ?>)(a 34. 2. (^ 7. 7.  WIM. 8.^46) a?/ 2 /> + o) (ff n 2 T>).4. 7. (> 1.w )(l 4 w 2 )(l 3 + ( y) r)(x ( . (5^4. x43.) j). 2(5 a  ft) (a 3 ?>). 14. (!__/>). 8. . l. y(2x?/).r(3x' 2 4 (14.  29. 7. 42). 15 M. 1.n). 5.i4l)(x4l)(x~l). (a 4. 4. ofc)( fid). ( y)..l)( a 25. 13( 33. 2. 4& 2 )(tt4/>)('e 62 2 2 4l)(a' & &) 5). 12. 4. (a 9. ( a ^)(^3. 15. r x 2 */3 .'})(c . 5.9). 14. 42a 3 x. 39. y). (7/1 2) (m 41). 35. 9. 4. 4. 2 (a 4. Page 86. 6. 8. 22. 7. 13. a + a b. + 3. 2 2 10. 2 1. 13 x 8 2 . x 4. (2 a ~ f> b 4. 18. 40. 17(x43//)(x2y). 7. .b.^ 48. 10(2 (3 4. (x//. 2.y (m + 2 u + (\p)(m + \ . 1(V/ 88. 4 6. 4. 2(m4l)' . 14. a 2 (a9).0+ 12). 41. 5. 7. 3(47>44)(^4'> 22/)((3x). 2 a 2 13x 3 y. 13. 2 8(w .4)(?  5 (6a 4l)(a +)2( 2x2/)(x2?/). 10(8x' 4l) 4. (Ox  7 ?/)(7 x4 y/). 3x(x?/) 4.'/)('< 4. ( 4 1 ) (2 m . 8. (x. 13. 4 a s &8 .4.?>) H. 2 2 3 .1). 3p (^9)(j) 4). 5.5 m2 x2. Exercise 47. 6. (2x7)(x 2 2). . x . (f> + fo 7.2). a(a 2 + !)(+ !)( . (16 4  2(5 n . 4  9.))(x  ^OC 1 1). (w * .>*)(:> 4 lj 4.'J)(' .  (w' 4. 16. (m  I)' 6. 6. 80a6 4 40 aV>*>c >d\ !)&(<* 4.4). 5 x8 3. a 41. (xf!/)' 3 4 w)(m.& (a 5 & 4#  2 y) (a 1. a 2_rt4l)(a rt 1).36).^ c)((> 4 3 (3 w 2 w 4 m  ).!) (x42)(x2). n  r)(5a 10. 3(. x(x f y)(jr . 4).?50)(xt/z.y '2 2). 16. 2 2 (3a 4// )(x4>/).7)(^ {I 12. ^ . Page 89.&).2). 24x sy s 9.y)(fi a . 38.
11. 6a2&(rt6). (a2y2 (a3) 2 (a4) 2 14. x 24.6). 2(2al) + l). +5 1. 18. 1). a 10 25. b ! 21. +8b a 4 3 / ^.  1). + &)(&) ( . + y) (a: y). // m+1 !+*?. 13. + &) 2 ( . x 22. (a2)(a + 2)2. 30(3 2 (a 15.ANSWERS 10. ?_!&. x 12. a 23. w 2 ^ (!L 5 +2 3 i + 63 3^1 rr Pace 991 20 .
r > 'a2 f an f ft' ' 2(czft) (x 2. i^. w + _ i + _J? a w+4+ ? 3 8. 2 a. a 2 ft 2 + 21 ft' 1 4m m2 26 9 fi 7 . a 5. 3a 2 2) ' i (x ' t+3) 5x (wi8)(w go a 3ffl + 13 + *2)(x + 3)' 19 ' rtv+Ji:'. 2x1 + 5x 12 + ^. rt 3a2 + ~3a a 3. ab121 12 ft 2 8 a 2 196 a2 8.  **/* + 84 _. c 8. . 4 L 8 2 . 7. ' 2 7. _*^p5_^^_. 0. 26.y~ z ' ] 5 x2 y + :j y.80 MP 2 30 ?/ r + t S ^ 2ft "' 180 wv 15. ^i 2n a 22 9x * T 94 4<i ^ 33 9 ^ 37 (a 2 b)' (a + ft) a 42.50 ~ 1/2 . 6.Xll ANSWERS 21 2 . ^~ 29. + lH + . xy 43. w1 + ac w 4 7. A^. i. ^iie^+JoJ^^ilOa bc 9 11 92 aft  1>*  10 12 + qc + ab ' 238 . Page 101.2g ftc 46 ?t ~ 30 y . 1. 28. + ^8 1 a 2 1 ~ 41. 11. 4. 6. + 2H 1 ^. 4c 10.. 6a5f^. 30. Page 100. 6.
8. ' 6. 0. 19. 2 re +3y mn 10 lo. 14. pf n 6 1. J. 44. 5. 25. 10. . (y + (z 12. 11. ?+_!?>. an 18. 6. 17. 39. b a f +c 14. j L . 1. 6 .ft . . 4.L+ft. n 16. c 8. 3. 4. 12. 5 6 Q 5 a 12. 14. 0. 7. Page 113. b 2. . 11. 35. 1. 5. 1.^_.y 7. 2ft a i m x. 1^)2 ' 2 1) 2 13. 16. 21. 12. 5. 23. a2 2. 12 28. 11. 14. 7. J. ?. 45. x\. 9.^U\WF### X<6. 6. 3. J.  V o 4. 4a3ft. 21. 1. 11. 46. 5. 2 47. 17. 6. 1. m 9. 1. 34. 7. 4. 10. (>. 42. 3. 3. f 7. ft 2 f 1 + a + 1 Page 109. ac mp lf> n 12. 32. w^x 2 b Page 105. 33. y(x + x ?/). 1. 6. 37. Page 106. 18. 9. Of. 29. 1. 8j_m 7 3. n . 38. xiii in <l ~ 2b 18. A. 3. 20. 6. ! 4 20. n m a + 13. 41. + f. 5 be _J_. f Page 107. Page 110. +3 ( + 15. 8. x 1. x 05m ' 5. ^_. 4. 24. 21. 16. 1. ft. 15. 3.  10 X + u. I) 2 3z 1. 4. 2) 19. 31. 43. . Page 111. ^i 11. 4. 13. 27. 3 7 i o. 11. 1. (a + y) 2 Page 104. 26. 7. 36. a 17. 40. flf. 30. a. 15. 15. 9. 4.
$40. (ft) 28.000. 15. 7. 00. 9ft. after 20. Page 124. (d) 4 da. 8.9.137. 31. Yes. 10. Yes. 21.. (c) 8300. 21ft min.002. 5. 33. 10.. 3 da. 26. 5.. (ft) 5 da. w 18. 1:1 = 1:1.} da. P+ ^ 33. $00. 16. 8301 hr. 9.. 21. (a) 12 hr. 15. 15. (ft) (r) 8 hr. 8. 1^'.15. 300./hr. 30. 28. a 4 ft 3 T 29 30 ' 5T (a) ^ 10 (ft) 31. 16. . Yes. 19. 19. $0. 12. 8. 2 20. 10. 30 mi. . Page 125. 14. 15. 300. 38ft min. 14. 3. 1. 10 yrs. 3. 4. 15. ft. 14. 4~r~ n .000. 17. 23< &n b ' . 10. 3:2.. 3. f . 7T 2 Page 116. 20. 4. 10^ oz. . 40wn. () 2. 17. 24 mi. 2:1. Page 121. 1 da.. = A's. 4. 34.10.. 13. 17. Page 117. 36. 40 yrs.  C . 7 .  29. ANSWERS 16. 16. Page 118. 7. 8. 1:1 = 1:1. 3.. 5ft 30mi. [>> ^ a . 81. (ft) 5 hr. 5. 10. 26 30. ~m . #V ~~ 34. 1:1=1:1. . 18. " 0. 15. 11.001. Yes. :2.2. n 32.2. after 18. jj. 11. 5.000. 17.139.XIV '/ .x + y. 4fl M_. 9$. ^m . 3. 5 25. No./hr. Yes. 19.000. xy. 55 mi.004. $45. 9. 10. Yes. 20. 12. 11. (a) 4 min. after $12. 74. 2x:3y. 9J oz. 32.. 40 mi. 7. _JL. gold. 14. 13. (c) 2 hr. dn ~ mi. r/ i  PM xx HXH />/ Page 114. ^?i min. No. 18.11.000 If da. 7. 12. 2. (ft) 104. Yes. 35. 1. 1:4. 1. 1. 3 : 19 = 4 : 25. 75 . 24. 1 : 12. 4..138. 8. 10. f. (d) 500. min. 10. * 7:9. 13. 212. 19. 7. 20. 11 hrs. w 44. 22.003. J. 1:3. $30.0 & . b 25 ' mft 26 ' w 27 ^ ' ~i~ ^ . 10. Page 119. 30 yrs. . 24. 4. 9. '"I 22. 0. nm. 2. 1:1 = 1:1. 5 2. a 4 ft. Yes. 15. 27. 7.000 1 = 23. 6. 18. 6.0. (r) 3^ da. 3. min. (a) 30. 26 mi. . 33. w 21. 1: ~. (a) 25. silver.  + . 4x'2 :3?/ 2 1 . . 275:108. 500. 30ft. 6. 13. 9. 7} 18. IV s. 300. J ^'. ^p^ r ~ 7.
22. (a) Directly. 5. 5. 127. mi. . : : . 1. Page 131.li.5. cu. 1. 30. 2. 14.3. 53. : 23. 2. 3. 5. 23. 2. Page 137.4. 55. 8. 20 cu. 7. 7.3. 10. ft.1. 8. 6 10 = 12.5. 2. 41. J.7. /. 2. 2. 14. 9  15. land.  ?. I.1. J. 11. *. water.1.1.5. tin. 7. l. in n. 11 5 . 19 3 .2 x. : />. 3. 7.4. . 9. 4. 40. 5:0 = 10:12. 39. 7. 3. 2.9.a.7. 22. 2. 16. 13.ANSWERS 22. ' 55. 19 OJ. 12.6. J pq. (b) C C' = fi JR'. 1. 22. lo mi." ^ 2.2.2. 10. . copper. 7. 4. Of. 4. 24. Page 135. 12. 2. 20 20 J ^. 6. 15. 2. . + b 7 . 13. 1. 7. \. 2. 54. a +b 1.8 oz. 3. 41. 2. 7. 10.12. 4. 3. 3. 141. 46. Page 133. 6. = 7 b'. 1.15. 58. .2 oz. 1(5. 4. y ./':</ c a f :y=2:9. 4. 7. (<l) A A (e) m m = d> (. 13.5. 13J. 24. x y = 1 = 3 2. 28. 43. 174+ Page 128. 5.5. . 5. x +y x + 74 7 \. 13. 38. : : T 1' : /> : . 1. 7. 11. 2. Page 136. 138. 4. 9.12. 4.4. mi. Page 134. w 8. 2.46. 31J. 2. 7. 17. x 42.5.000 sq. 5. 2. 2.160. 3. ig 6. = R~ R>'\ V V = P> P. . J.J.x a. 9. 23. 32+ mi. t 5. + m* <7^' 10 7)C 14. 3.^ 0?j ' gms. 20. 56.36. 59. 32  <>' 33  4 <^: 34 : : . 11. 3. 3. 3. 1 rt * vm^1. y :y =. . () 7 Page 126. 3 2=3 x. .3..5. 2 n .3. +m ' 12 3_a ' 7^ 10 ' 1 . 25. 18.15 x. 5. 16. 5. 21.  28. b x 37.3. 2. OJ. 27. 30.57. : .3. 1 1 : : : : : : (I.) 31. y 1. 8. 24 1 (e) Directly. . . $. 7. 47. 9.J 3. 3. 4. 19. OJ. 2. Page 9. 1. 5. 2. 4. 19. 49. 2. 5. (</) ft. 3}. 6*. Page 5. 8. 12. 15> 9.3. Inversely. 7^. (I. 2. 6. 9. 17. 2.  19. s<i. 11 w a 13. 44. 10. x:y a: b. . a~. + W. 2. 4.2. i. ~ 1. 25.5. 14. 7. 6. in. 25. 29.5. 9. 21. 8. 1 18 = 3 51. 1. 36. 4. y a y = 7 0. Page 132.17. a 3. 200 mi.000 sq. jc:y = n:m. 15. 1.*. 26.3.. (b) Inversely.1. 5 2. 45. 3  24. 8. 35. 945 11 10 .' : : : : <>. x y y . 20. 1. a f 2 2 = 5 x. 7. 50."2:1. 4. 26. : XV 27.840. ini. : : : ?/ : tf : ?/ : : : : : : : : : sr..20. 7. 31.3.2. 4.4. w.]. 9. 12. 8. 9.3. 3.4. () Directly.C ?/ a . 6. 17. 32j. \\. 4. 2.r. 14. 5:3 = 4: x.3. 11. 48. 2. 7. . 36. 40. 5. . 16. "lO. 11. 19. 3. + 7>i//  ft 1 . 52. 57.
2. 17. $4000. $500. 3. 5. 11. Page 143. ^. 15.4. 25. . 23f . . About 12f. 6.  Zn  "(^ll 14. 6.9.3. 4. 3. 11. July. 10. 24. B's 15 yrs. Jan. 4. & part of Sept. 23. (ft) 20. Page 142.$2000. 1.  17. 24.33. 3. 100. C's 10 yrs. ad AzA. . 1 (c) Jan. 3.^. (ft) 23 J. 2. 31.. 24. ft 3. 9. 17. 30. 13. 5. 3. (a) Apr.8. 25. 0. A a parallel to the x axis. a =J (n  1) rf. 5. 5. 7. 23. 30. 40. Apr. at 15. 1. 13.10. 8. 19. $900 5%.. 90. 2. 3. 1. 5.3. 7. SL=J o ft r^2. 6 cows. Page 146. 9. 4. 9. 4./hr. 2. 2 a.l. 4. 11..$5000. 6. 20. ' . & May. 5. 3. Page 153. 10^ gms.. 11. 147. Nov. &. 17. 423. 2. 4 ' q. 0. Page 22.65. Jan. 2. 30. Nov. A's 30 18. On the y axis. Page 149. 4. On 11. 1. .XVI Fagel39. ad _(?jrJL. .0. 1. On the x axis. 24. B's 40 yrs. 5. 6. 20. 19 gms. 11. parallel to the x axis 0. 3. 2t2. 2. 00. m f 9. 3. yrs. 5. Apr. 1. 14. (a) 12.n + p.3. 4. 16. 8. 3. Jan. 10. m . 14. The ordinate. $ 1000. 7. June. A's 50 13. 15. 10. 26. 3. Nov. u 2ft. 14. 4. 4. M 2. 10 sheep. Page 151. 32. . 1. 20 to Oct. 3. 8. 3). 16. 2. afcd ae ftd 8 ft. 2. m + n p. 4. C's 30 yrs. 27.7. 3.4. 18. 21. 25.& w_ i ae 22 5 L=. 16. . 20. (<f) 13. Apr. 9. 5. July 20. 1 (d) Apr. 4 mi.. 28. 16 to July 20. 8. m f 8. (c) . . 9. 20. . 3. . 72. Jan. 2. 15. 7. be 7.2. 2. ' w_i 7 fr^ m w ' 2 m+w .1J. . . be 10.0. 1. 3. 7. $6500at3Ji%. <*ft/ bd 1. J. 6. 12. 4. 2. 16. 21. 2. 1. 20. $3000. 4. 2. Feb.  11. 4. 10.1. yrs. 11. 26. 3. 2. July.1. 2. 10. (5. a. 7. 19. 25. Oct. 6%. through point (0. 12. 7.4. ' 6 3 a. May 5. 2 horses. 22. Nov. 29. 7. 16. & part of Feb.2. Aug. 40. 4. 6. 4. Jan. 3. 18. 1. 0.. 12. 7. 5%. 12. . 3. Page 152. 18. 1. 6. 7. 13. 2. 16. Page 145. 2. 3. 18. 20 & Oct. = ^ a Page 141. $250. 6. 9. 5. 1. 12. 3.
f12 wi 9. 25. 1. .1. . 5. 4.3. 1. 3. . 1. Page 158. H.34F. 19. 2. 12. Indeterminate. . (a) 2. 1. +3 4. 1.2 (ft)  1. 4wn8 + n4 5. xW. 1. 2.41 and 23. ft . f4p 7+6p g f4pg 6.25.5. 1.4 aft h a 2 ft 2 .3. 2. 2. (ft) 2. 5. Inconsistent. 125a 28. 2. Indeterminate.73 ami .73. 17.59 . xy. 1 4. 13 . 4. 14. 10 C. 1. a 6o&i85 c i5o . a 29. 4}. 1. 147 a 4 ft 21 a 2 12.1.17 (ft) (c) 2. 5. (c) 2. _ 9 x ^27 1 . . 3. 6. 22. 15.73. 81 ". 3. 3.6. 10. 16. 2. 1 23.4. ft 2 4. 13. . 125 a 8 12. jgiooyiio 17. SlstyW 7.7. 13. a + ft.3 aft 2 + 8 ft .87 (0) 3 (c) and and 1 2. 12. 24.4 a^ft 4*/ 3 + t/*. 1. 3. 20.  12 ft xW  26 31. 4. . . 3. 27 27 81. Page 159. 11. 04 x 12 */ 1 '^ 1 2 t  9 11. 2 a&m Page 167. 5. 20. G.83. 3. (/) 3. 26.  1. 8 1 f f g*. 2ft4 Page 168. xg . 2. (ft) (d) 2. 15 . 11. 27. m. (c) 14 F.. 2.25. 30.  . 3. 1. 27 19. 1. i/* 25 a8 343x30 ' 1 125 29. 18. 2. 5. . . 30. . 8.24. 24. 32F. . ImW. 28. 5.59. 1. \ft) 5. 2. 1. 13C. 9. Page 164.64.. a 10 ' a ll V&. 14." 23.27. 8mW. 7. 14. 21.AN WE US 'S xvii Page 157. . 9 and Page 166. 44 + 6t/2 m4 4m8 H6m2 4m4l. 2. m4 1/ m%+6 w2 n f 2. 4.79. 22. 15.13.5. 5. f 10. 2.84. . H. 1. (gr) 21. 19. (c) 7. (e) 3. 4.24. 1. (e) 2. (a) 5. 10. . 27 a6 ft  9a 2 1. 2. 4.41 and . 2. 3. * 16. 2. . Inconsistent. 2. . aH64 a2 + 36 aft 2 +8 8 27a135a2 ft4225aft2 125ft8 . (ft) and (d) 2. Page 163.  1. 18C. 1. .8 n 27 a 4 ft 4 f 8. 2 2 22. . f.25.. I21a 4 ftc 2 18. (a) 12. 6. 8 a1. 8. 9.73. 8.64. () (rt) 3. 1.25. 3 . 0. 3. 64_ a 12 ft 27 ' a 121 81 a 4) ft 44 a 4TO a3 l. 3. 2.24 . x*f 4x 8 + 6x2 f4 xf 1. 125 16. 27a 3 27 343 a 6 27 2 +9al. 14. 3. 0C.75.. . ' :=_!. (ft) (ft) 2. 3. 1.75 (ci) 3^. m + 8 m% f 60 win2 4. 3. 3. x3 3x2y + 3x?/2 2 a 3 +3a 2 +3a + m8 6w _ i. . 4. 11. 2.25.67. . + a 4 ft* . (<?) 2. . f. . 2. 3. 10. 15. 83. 3. (/) 3. . (a) 4. 4 ) 21.75.75. 3.79. 13. 3. . 5 and 2. 2 l.83. 1^. 1 + I5a 3 + 75a6 + 150 126a 9 ft .5 (ft) 3.
(48 + 6. 11. 5. 3. 30. 20. 19. 3. 1 + 5 a?b* + 10 a 4 b* + 10 a& + 5 a/> + a 10 10 i c5 . 8. 98. + + ?V 22. 3 2 8 3 12. ( Page 174. 20. 14. rt . + i)). 2(> + ( 2 7>). 978. 21. 24. 70. ). 5. + Z). (x + y\ 90. (5^ + 4x?/ + 3?/ ). 36. 3 6 23. 25 19. 6. 16. (ly). 10*. m* m*>n + 16 w 4 2 +5 c*d+ 10 c 3 tf2 + 10 c 2 d+6 c<74 + d5 20 in s + 15 w 2 w 4 G mw 6 + w 6 11.7 /)). 5. (6a + 4a + 3a + 2). a 7 + 7 b + 21 + 36 4 & 8 + 35a 3 & 4 6 6 7 . 9. 26. 16. ( x + 2 x 2z + 4). 1. w w + 5 W w c + 10 19. wi 8 + 3m 2 . 10 x G a 4 . 1. (x' l). .1.+3^ + 4. I 8x2). a. 57. 2 4 8 2 . 1247. 18. 2 2 7. (1 (x2y). 180 . 64. 6 (\x 3. Page 172. 3. 00. . (7 (2 2 3 2 16. ^i. 1 + 8 z + 24 2 + 32 r + 10 x 4 25. 3. 14. (2 a + ft). 18. Zll. 15. ??i ?i . 4. 6. ro 12 + 4 m+ w + 4 w + l. 90. 21. + (win . 9. . 763. 40.94. AN S WE no . 9. 14. 84.x ). 35. (a + y+l).r 2 + 6jt). 20. 25. + 4 x2 + Ox4 +4^ + x8 10. 19. 12. (27 + 3 a xy 8 21.1. 2. (Gn + 5 a + 4 a). GOO 2 c 2 . 23.037. 90. 15. 4. 17. 8. 99. 9.GO a c + 23. 8. 300.5. 22. 7. 6. 101. + 29. 2. (a + 2 +l).a b 22. 9. 2. 32 r^ 10 + 80 w 8 + 80 wt c + 40 m 4 + 10 m'2 + 21. 28. 20. (a 2. 18. 2 ?>i?< >2 10. 1. 4.83.i c 6 15.f 1 m 9 16. . ?7i 1 1 3 1. (23 alt + 7 (4rt +3 (5m 2 Cm + 3). 237.1000 ac 3 + (J25 c 4 24. . ? . 9. fe *?>' ?> fi . l lV (l+? + & + x J x V s 24. 11. 12. 2 2 4.5 a 4 + 10 a9 .6. 14. 17. 15. a: l . 33.XV111 7. Page 170.2). (ab + c). 0. . 5. .3 ab + 2 2 ). 2038. . 1. 6.5). 7. 11. (4a2 9& 2 13.r 2 + S:r2/2 ). 3 2 ^. 72. 8 /. (l + x + . 71. 1 w + 5 m' G 7 w. 3M. (6 a + 5 a + 4 a ). Page 176. 309. 27. + y). 11. 31. 10. f 21 rt'6 + 7 f 6 13. ? : 1 . + l). 8. /> 4 ). (:' + (2a3a: 2 + a. 2 49 . 32. 16 6 w . 81 + 540 + 1360 a 4 + 1500 a 2 + 025.  +X '. a ). c 10 6 :l 20. .10 a~ + 5 a . 10. 7. w 8 + 8 in n + 28 5 5 4 4 3 8 2 w c + 10 w 2 2 c 3 + 5 mwc 4 + r5 18. 5.y2 ). 119. 8 4 se 1 1 :J . 100 *6 + GOO x 1000 2 + G25. m 13. 3 w 2 H2 + 3 4 n 4 . 16. 34. 4. 15. a.  x. +3 + 5 4. 420. r> 4 : 1 . 32+ 80 a +80 a* +40 a 3 + 10 a 4 fa 5 14. 8. +35. 13. (Gx + (i + 2a. 2. 10. 5 5 8.^). j/^/t^/' wi n 4 p*+ 10 w 8 w y 10 wi 2 w 27> 2 +6 w/ip. 17. fr ft i/ /> ^  23 . . (rt' (2 a (7 4 10. 30. 13. +(^ 2 3^ + 2). a 2 . 76. 247. 2 12. 12. (3a. Page 171. 1 1 ?>).+ 50 m*w* + 70 w 4 4 + f>6 ?n *w 6 +28 >/* + 8 mn + w 8 17. 2. 6.
6. 8.*. 25 J.ANS WERS 22. 2. 24. 4. 27. 1. 1. f 3. f. 7}. 9. 31. 27. f . 5. 20. 34. 4. 37. 21. 9 15 ft. 12. ^^7m. 6. 12. . 8. 41. 4. >i 27. 35.. 4 TT M 28. 2. 4 W**.5. 7.236. 32. 1. 1. 44. 23. 4. 35. 4.367.916 yds.  1. 39 in. V35 1. 5. 10. 11. 2.798 yds. 1. 28 in. 19.  5. 11. 37. . 7. 30. 6J. 16. \/3. 7. . 29. 14..Sn. 28. 14. 23..?. 7. 10.522 38. 3. 3. 3. 6561. 5. . 1. 5f.. * 1. 6. 5083. Page 185. 6. {. 42. 16n.6. 29. 21.. 1&. f ^ is.. 1. 1.6. l~8. 3. 10.005. 15. Page 180. 32. . 16. a + 61. 6yds. 33.. 48. m. 31. 15 1 10. 21 28 ft. 20. 7. 9. Af^. 5. 2. 21yds. 4. 49.6. 12. V. 1 f Vl3. 2] see. V2. 16.  3. 5. ft. If ^. 2. / 11. 6V21. >TT 26. (6) Vl4 3. a. 1.i.}. 15.13. /. 10.6. 9. 4. 3. 2. 3. 12. 11. 5. 14. J. 4. 7. 7 45. w. 14. 3J. 15.60. 4. 2. 2. 29. 3.  f.4. . V J l. 6 f !. 10. 7. 21. Page 179.1. 13. 13. . 3. 1 38. 5. 17.935. 13. 8. 46.469. 12.  f. *. 36. 40. 9. (< + ?>). 3. 5.5. 39. " ^_ 22. 15. i ^. JJI. 5. ii :J _7. 1. 8. . 6V'2J.  2.a. 6. 9. 5. V2. 2. 14. v 17. (afl). 2. ^. 1. 4 n. 28. 33. > w ft. 6. 10. 4. 11.. xix 26. ZLlAiK 19. 23. 7563..18. 3. 40. 17. 2. 12. 24. 1 7. .  43. vYb. 12. 3. 7. 4 a. 3. 16. ft. V17. or 5. ft. 5. 2. 6. . 8. 7 in. Page 177. 10. 4. 270 sq. 21 in. 4J.. 4.742 in. _ iVaft.925 ft. 4. 7. 17. 25. 18. 36 in. . ~ V^3. Page 184. 5. 25. 50. 8. 12. 7. 13. m. 6.w 18. Page 181. 7. () 2. .4. 9. 47. 36.  14. 11. 15. i. 18. 19. 10. f. 22. 9. 9.V 8j. ^.1. 26. 39. 3.690. vV'TA 24.645. }. 2. 13. 3. 34. f f V. 5.6. Page 183.243. or 3. 2 sec. 10.4.237. 5. 20. 30.
0. 3if. 20. 22. unequal.10.23. '  f 5. 120 ft. 1. 1. rational. .  2.  9x <). 10.2. 39. 1. 24. 3. (5 10. 0. 40.  1. 0. ANSWERS 22.Oa. V7. 6V64. 13. 19. 35. 10. unequal.a.5 x + 6 = 0. 30.  1.l.]. 2. 7. unequal. 0.1. V^~2. 3. ' 1. Real.2. 16. Page 188.  5.12 = 0. 7. 18. 18. 24. 27.4. 9. 1 . . 23. 7. 26. rational. 1./hr. 2. 4. 36.2. 26. 2.70. 2. 55. Page 191. + 7 x + 10 = x*x 2 6x = or .12. = 0. 57. Imaginary. 26. 14. 53.2. 6. 12. 0.74. . 20 eggs. 3. 2 ft. 19. 5.  2. 20. a. 3. 21. 1.  1. v^^fcT"^. . 3. Imaginary. 46. 6. .'. 4.7. 4. a + 6. equal.17. 26. 1.59. 8.48. 0. 10. x 14. 4. _ 19. 4. 2.2. 6. 3. 1. 7. 4 da. 12. Real. Real. 5. 1 3. s 11. + 11 x. 2. 2. ft. x2 + B . 3. . Real. 3. 0. 20 nii. 15. 12. equal. . 0. . 0. 6^2 in. 5. 0. 3. 1. x*4x=0. . 3.  5. . 25. 2 . 1_^L ft 14. 6. 0. 2.2. Real. . 9. rational. Page 189.6. V ~ 16 4 2. Imaginary.. 22. jr . 19 in. 10 mi. 50.  1. $80.2. irrational.  24. . 25. 20. f. 9.02. 16. 1. 8. 2. unequal. If. U. 3. 28. unequal. 2 V3 in. in. 7.3. Real. 47. Page 192. 12. 3. . unequal. 3.  6. Imaginary. 5. 2. 23. V^l. 5. 9. 8 or 12 mi. 5 ft. 1. equal. 14. a. ./hr. 21.7. 7. 1.4. 7. 3. 32. 2. 42.2 x2 . 33. 2. 44. 43. unequal.. Real. 48. . 2. 8. VV11. . 2. 58.. 25. 2. 6. 7. 1. 3. . 45. 0.  13. 0. 18. 24.7. %. 28. 4.4. 11.4. 2. 28. 6.2.  i. 12. 2 4jr + x2 8 3 = 0. $ 120. 2. Real. i . 2.. 10 mi. AB = 204 ft. r* i. a + 1. *'' 12. 13. 1. $30 or $70. 27. V^l. 16. 6. H. f. 10 or 19. . 1. 1. 21. 11. 37. ^l/>> = 85 ft.. . V2.. f 6 52 a. 3.48 3. x* 51. 3. 38. 1.5. unequal.41.2. 31. 2. 25. 29. 15.2. Page 187.  Page 194. 3./hr. 1. 0. 49. 6. 3.23. 1. 2. 64. rational. 0. 3. 4. unequal. 8\/2 17. orf. 3.XX Page 186. 15 ft. 2. .6 = 0./hr. irrational. 17. 1).5^. 15. 27.62. 3. 3.* 2. 41. 6. 34. i.37.1. 1. AB = 3. t is. 56. . rational.3. 64c. 6. 52. 1. Page 190. 2. 4. 8.4. . 10 in. 0.3. 70 ft.a.a 3 a.$40 or $60.1. 2. a8 . #<7=3. 4.  1. 35.0*8. 4. V2. 23.
a. 28. . 57. 2. Page 200. 5." 17. 30 a. 41. 4. .  J j. &. 3. 2. 9. J. 24. 4.  a'2 . 6. 1 39. . 4. 27.6. 8. fx'^z'l 23. 13. 9. ) 2 >J i 10. . 3. . 3. v'frc 18.  f . 1. 24. 8. i. 40.. 33. 23. 19. 2.//^. 37. 15. a 18 . 51. y . \ . \/. J. 28. 50. 18. JV37. Page 197. 13. 0. 16. 3. 14. 27. r*. 19. 2. J 3. 2. 16. p. 'J.  5. 38. 0. 60. Page 199. r. z + 22. 54. 49. *V. 22. 48. \a\ \/^. 29. 44. 12. 7 . x/25. 5.^7. aW\ 40. 9. 3. . 49. 30. 2. . v^T4 m.  48. x. 35. 13. 2. 36. \. . 21. 1. 5. 10. 1. v. 5\/5. 4. ). V^ 34. 3. 7. 53. 1V1. 17. 1. 1. 1. 10. 21. 9. $7. 15. wA 46. 3. 16.1 5 15. 3. 1. Page 201. \/3. 2. n\/* Page202. 16. 20. 22. 125. xxi 15. Page 196. 20.  f. 7V7. \/r\ 11. 21. 3. 29. 20. 2. vV. 19. 52. \. 0. 1. 9. 7. 8. : . 6  AAf. 4. 31. 2 L ( V. 8. I. 29. 25. 14. 59. . 30. 84. 8.32. 25.2. 4. x$. m'. 17. ifa. 5. ^49. 33. 46. 49. v'frW. 45. 18. y. 5. 50. m. 14. 2. 20.17. jV 10. 2. 43. 8. 47. ^Sf 3 38. ? . l  5 12. 18. 42. 55. 39. 25. J. 12*2 61. 13. 11. 12. 1. 3. 31. 26. Jb \. 32. 23. 32. 17. 9. 3. 5. 4. 11. 3 4 11. 8. 1. 7. 2V a. 15. (m 26. 10. 8. v/3. 56. 4. 14. 49. 33. vm. 10. 1. J. 1. 19.ANtiWEUS rational. 3. 47. 6. ar 1 . 58. _! V3. Vr. 243. 24. .
19. 17. 38.f. V63. 3^2. Va 2 "ft.rV:r. ^: V2c.r^ 5 a~ 2 ft~ 1 + Vft. 24. yV35. r c . 30. 2 '"V5. . 10.12 *^ + x 7/> x  a** + or " 2 + 1. 37. . 2. + 2). x. 32. + . 3 4\/2. 36. 21. k/2. 4.). a 4 +* + !. 41. 5.632. ^88". x%  3 ^+ 1. abVab. 3 a~ 3 (x (. y (a + ft) V2.2 18. 7. Page 203. 101 1. 03r* 7. 5 ( . 22. ^7 \AOx. JIV6. m* n*. 20. 3. 13 35. a^ + 2^+1. + Vic + 25. 3 42. 5. 8. 10. 12. V. 40. 1. 9 .3 + 40 3 . 19. 11V3. v/^r 5  A/^~. x 25. 50. 3 x^y 33. T. 3. . 9. V. 195V3. 6. 2v (T 2aVf. v'TM.'\ 14. 2 a?>V2 a. 29.x^y* + y%. 4 or + 3 9 <r + 12. V2 + 4 V22. . x + 5 x3 + 0. 11. ftV 46. x 7  34. + 2 V22. 3. 13. 9. l 5..XXii ANSWERS 1. 7. . Va a + 2 a^b* 14. 2>X2. r 17  Page 204.692. 16. 2 4 z2 l 3. 3^ + 2). 62V(J. ?tV?w. a2 4.r. V 5 47. 33. 8V/) 15. 1) 3V3. x y. . + + ft. 49.2 VlO. 2. 13 a.yl : .  a Vft 2 121 b. 15. . 6. 11. . ). 2 x* 15. 3 \ 39. 24.577. y. (x' (l 1+x). 34 r 6. Page 207. 2. 31. Vz2 ?/ 2 44. 4. 2. 37. (a 27. 2. + 2 ar 1 ). + 1. 5 22. 28. 34. / V3. 9. 32. 8a6V5. 135V6. 16. 21. 18. 26. 20&V6. 10. 27.  2 3:r. + 2 Vzy + y 1. 1+2 v/i + 3\/!^ + 4 x. Vr 8. Page 208. 43.Vxy 35. 2. 8. 23. v^.648. 45. 25. a 3. 28. 48. 1 2 or 1 ?. x^ . 30. (Va (5xJ Vft+Vc). 17. 51. 3V^T. 3V5. 39.707. 26. 13. 31. 4aV^J 16. 40. 2\/7. V80. (o* 2. 20. 29.
40. Page 214. 37.r v/^ v^fr*. Page 216. 9. 1. ^v 7 15. 15. 3. 23. Page 210. x/8l. 3\/2. 5. b. V5. ^\/3. 18. 4VO. x/4. 8  \/15. 6. 49. 12. 5V2. 41. VLV/ ^i?i= a: . 42. \/abc*. 38. 14c 4 V5. 11. 25. 2. v^f. a^\/a7>. 7. ^27. 3 V15  47. Page 213. x/3. 30. 18. 8. 40. 6 2\/0. 4\/5.J Page 212. 22. . V8. w?i. v"5. \V3. 32. 2 \/2. V2. 5 \/2. V/. "v/wi ??. 33. v/l2. 4 a*. v/i). 12. 2 ate. 19. 7\/(l 7VTO. 35. 24. 3\/wi. 6. 51. 25. 21. ^9. . 29. 52. 38. 3. \XOfl6Vi5. 3\/15  6. v 25^4714 V2"a. v7^. 7. ab 4. 39. 2. 14. 10. D 45. a2  b. 27. r)\/(l Vrtr. \/04a. v^30. v/lO. 9. 0. 3v^2. 8v2T 12. 43. fl^Vac. \/2. 14. 2. 0. 28. aVa. \^r^bVabc. xx 1. / \/w/t 4 13. "^8000. 1V5. 35. 3. 11. x/8. m ?i2Vm/t. 23. 4. 26. V3. x/w^ 8. 36. a\/5c. 26. 6V2. VT5. Vat. 30 Vl4. 5. 5v/2. 31. 4 >/3. 6aV2\^. 16. : ^32. Vtf +3+ 33. v/8. 2\/7. 3 V2. 2 28. 53. 17. x/27. 32. 2 1. 44. W). v^O. 16. . \^6. VJla. 22.T*. 9 VlO + 4. 6. x/125. 17.ANSWERS _ Page 209. ^ 3 b 5 24. 15. 8V73\/IO. v^4. . 13. 1. __ rw 3 \~s~' ] * . 20. % 29. 6+2V5. 17. 2yV2?/. 21 23. + 20. 27. 4. . Vn. 39. 13\/3. v^a. 18. 46. 14. 19. 3. Page 211. 32m27n. 6. 11. 13. \^6. 16. V2. 48. 10V(). + VlO  v y (5. 50. 3. 31. Vdbc. \/128. V3. 9. 36. 2. 7.30 2. rtv/5. 21. 5V2. . 2. 24. 8V2. 6x2?/. v^lf. x/8L v/27. V3"m. 37. 34.. 2 V'3. vT). v/9. 1. 3 Vl5 30. 74\/Jl 120 46. . 10. v"3. 5. 34. 10. 6.  3. 8. V5. \/a6c. '. \/8.
18. 29.5. 17.7083. 5 + 2 vU 17. 29. (VllV2).389.732. 2. 19.  13.601. 31. 3. 11. 12. J. 6. {. 23. . (V5f 5.2. 17. ^r. _^JflJ?. 32. 81. 21.4722. 10.6. \/57t. Page 218. 14. . 22. 5. +3 V2). 23. . 11.625 10. 9.81. 4. 7. 9. 5 f. 30. . . nVTl. 8 V3V2. (2Vll). 17. ^. 0. m f. 15. 6 V. 5. Page 219. 15 f 3 V2L 4. 16. 9 mn.  2. 4. 2x^2^. (V51). \/3). 4.64. 2. . 1. (2. 9.2828. i^ ~ 1 v ^. 25.V3). ^\/2. 4. 35. 2. . Page 225. 13. xy 2.1805. n*. f. 11. 10. ' 22 i . (V21). 18.\/TO). 33. 5. 512. 18. 11. 4. 1. 4. 19. 28. 25. 25.9. 18.W + 12 v/7  3 \/15 . 2ajV2*. (Vf + (4 V2). 4. 24. ^. Page 226. 5. (V6 + 2V2). 8. 3V23. 21 ' Vob 26. 15. 6. Va. Va. (\/3f 1). 23. 2. ~ Vac _c 0. 24. 1. 1. 23. 7. 10. Page220. 25. 16. V6c. 4. V3. 7 Page221. !^ 6 4. 11.XXIV 7. 2 . 7. i^Lzi. 12. 12. 216. K>/0 + \/2). 15. 16. 20. 15. 25. 8. 17. 14.464. 64. 2.3. 34. 4. 36. 8. 8. 6. 10. 2V3. (2f V"5). 20. 18. 6. + 6) 2 . 2!5_. 16. i(Vf Vft). 3.^ (\/22 4. fV2. (\/5V2). (2V2). 19.13. 19. (VaT^v a). 20. 4. V5. 2. 13.. V3. 27. 7. 12. 21. (V8 + V2. 1.732. 4 14. 6 (V2 + 1). 8. 22. V3 . 3. 81. 1. ANSWERS 8. 12. 5.  f. j.1547. . 4. 224. 26. 1. V35.4142. 37. 3. 24.2. 27. 3. 1. 2. 7 f 5 4. 8. 3. 100. V3. 15. * 3. 125. Vf6fVtf. Page 28. 7.1. 4. 1. x 20. (a 1. 4. 0. 6. 5. 10. 25. 9. 9. 9.0606. 30.3535. V. ^(VlO\/2). Page 223. 19. 9. V2. 26. 20.7071. 4. 4V3 + 6. 8. 10. 7. 5. 5. Page217. p 6 13. 22. 5 V65. (3+ v/2). 5. 3. 4. 12. . 13. .  . 2V3. 3(7+3V5). 27. 1. j 15. 9. 25. 24. 14.5530. 11. 21. 23. \. 14. 7. 9.6 V3. 2V2. 16. + 5V2. J.w 6. 1. 8. 7. . 16. 16.3. 10. 16. V^TTfc. A .
15.  2. b . (a2)(:iB2 f 2a44). 10. 8. 5. 10. (w . 13. . 19. 3.10. 9. 2. 11.22.  1. 30 30.3). 12. 3. (a + l)(a*a 8 + aa + l). 2 . 5. 25. 15. 1. . . 5. & + 6 2 ). 2. 6. 3. 23. . 87 . 2.2. 4. 3. 2. 4. 3. 25.  . 5.4. t/ 23. .3. 11. . 5.5. 15. 4. o& (3m 3 7)(9w 6 +21m*+49). 5. 21.12. 4. 56l).4. 4. (xy + 5) (x*y* .  3. P. 2. 0.3. 2. (pl)(p2)(p2). . 14.3. ~ f7. 9. 2. o. 0. ( 16. 2. 6. 1. 10. . y. 2. 2. 2 > 1. 2 . 3. 17. J. 19. 2 &. 3. 4 .+ ^)( 4 a 2 6 2 h6 4 ). 4. 1.l)(z 2 + z + 1). l. 1 . 5. Page 236.3. 7. 24.l)(a 2 + a f 1).Y.2. 2. 0. 1. 73. 14. 3. 19. 4. 2 6.1. 16. 3 . 5.2)(* . 11. 2 6. (wp)(w2p)(wi3p)(w*42p). 13. 13. 1. 12. 7.  f .r . 8. 30. 4.a) (04 + 8 a + a 2 ). . 12. 0. Page 234. 1. 10.1)(4 a + 2 a + 1). 3. 4 . 6. (+!)( 2) 10.  1. 1 .0. (2a + l)(4a*2a + l). 30 . J Page 235. 18. (4 mn . (a+&)( 2 14. 1 .l)(a3)(a . 17. 17. 25. 1 . 6. V3. 5. 1. 2. 5. (w2)(m3)(2m + 5). 11.7. .  5. 3. 1.2 + (row)(w4w)(w a + 6mw f w 2 ). 1. 20. 2. (a + 2) (a Page 229. f . 3. 4 1. 2. (&y2a#H4). 3. 3 9. XXV 4. 1. 8. 30.3. a: :} .  16).1. 3.  J. 1. 2.f 2)(sc 2 2 r + 4). ' J. 16. 22. 73. 6. 4. (la&)(l46 + 2 & 2 ). f>. 2. 4 20.5 xy + 25) 22. 4. a  .ANSWERS Page 228. 3. (B43). 1. 2. 4. 100. (1 +a 2 6 2 )(l a 2 6 2 +a 4 6 4 ). 1. 5. 4. 2 <? 4a2 . 3.2. . 4. (2 a.nl^EI. //. 4. 1. 2 . 2. a .  4. 1 . (8. (s + l)(x2 :r + 1). 0. a(. (r.w 4 + 1). (a. 3. 2 . 7. 4. . (63)(6' t 18. 2. . J 24. 8. a(l+a)(l_afa 2 ). 2 V^ .l)(m . 3. 2. 1. 26.^a. 2. J.4). 13. 1. 3 5. 0. 4. (10 #0(100 + 10^ + 4 ). . 1 3. 7. 28. 1. 5.  3. (a 4. 11. 25.l)(a 4 + a + a 2 f a f 1). (a. 5. \/0. 2.2)(m. 4. 3 . 1 (?> x/^3. 7. 12. 4. 20. 0. 22. 3. 2. 7. 2. . (m 4 + l)(ro. 3. + 6 4 )(a*a' 6 + a 2 6 2 a& 8 H6*). 4 4. 3. 10. 2. 12 24 y . 21. 9. 6. 0. . 6. 3. 4. =A^Z3. 2. 7. . 11. 20. 2. (pl)(p3)(p6).4.3. 10.. 18. 14. Page 233. 8. 1. 7. 8 6 & 0. (rt. 3.  3.3 2. 2. 12. 3. . . (a . . . 1 6. 3 . 24. 1.2 ) ( 10 w 2 n 2 f 4 winy 2 Page 231. . 3. . 5. 6 2 2a + 2). 8. 50. qpl. 3. 1. 13. 27(2 a 4fc)( 4 2 2 (a 4 &)(* + 4 & + !&*).8a 18.
3. 8ft. 26.4. 5. 35^ 5. 1.. 4. i'ljVU. 2. Page 243. 5. 4. . 3 3. 39. 12. 7. Page 245. \/6. . 1 . 2. 2 ft. . 2. in. 3. 1.020. 14. 13. 1. 4. 16. $. 6. 2>/3. 20. 17. 5. _ 7. oo. 8 . 2. 2. 12. 55. 5050. 8. 12. $46. x 4. 4 8. . 38.xxvi Page 237. c. . 5. 4. _ 5. 4. 1. Page 241.. 4. 2. 1. . 1. 12ft. 13. 14. 23. i j. Page 238.1. ft. 5. 1.13. 2. 5. 2V7. 201..2. _ 13 (0 6. 2.. 40 in. 14. 20 in. 31. 2 1. Page 247. 2.18. 17.. Page 248. 14. \. 5 cm. 12. 40 1} 9 3 ft. oo . m + n.136. 10. 2. 2 16. 21 30. . 8. 3. 3. n. 1J. 7. 6.. 2. 7 3.. (a) 5. 69. (/>) "_. tn 2. i i i . 1 . 5. 2. 512. 4. 1. m28. (>. 37. 35 a. 15. f. 400. 4. 3. 1. 3. . 5. . 3. 14. i. 7.3. 10. .  11. 2 . 14. 5. 20. 2. 2. 2 2. 17. GO . 2. } . 3 2. 16. 18. 3. 30. 5.4. Indeterminate. 1. 5. 2. 288. 1. . .200. 15.5. 9. 3. . 3. 20 7. 4. 8.3. 50. 14.6. 5. . 2 Y> V . . 11. 12. 1. 41. (a) $3400. ^~2. 1. 10. 3. 3 .3 . 3. 24. 5 4.5. 1. 5 . 1 . in. no co . 12 d. 1. ri*. 1 . Page 244. 3. . 4. 5. 84. 4. 2. 2. . 17.. 1. 13. 11. 1. 125 125.4. 1. 21. 15.3. 37. 24. . 15. 15.  . 18. in. Page 240. 3. Exercise 113. 31. 22. 2 . 9. 4. . 22. 36. 18. 3. 1. 33. f*. 17.e. 6. 9. 2n. J. 1. 1.1. J. 7. 4 . 11. 15. 21. 37. V7. 900.0. 3. J. 3 4. 11. 3. 4 34.  2 .. 0. 1 . 3. 3. ( 3. +  n. 2 . ft. 11. 4. in. 2. 25. 35 ft. 19. J. 3. 10. . 1. 3. 3V5. 2. ft. . n .30.3. 1. Exercise 114. 3. . 4. 1. $VO. Indeterminate.0. . 78. co . 40. . 512.y. . oo . }. (&) 2. jj. m27. 1. Page 239. 1. 7f solution. f>. . 15. . 7. 45yd. 7. 1. 2.1. 1.  1. 30 13. 1. 6. . 50. 9. $. 1 2. 3 .3. 11. 40 25 in. '>. 0. 4. _ 10. 1. 19. ANSWERS 2. 4. 30. 12. 35. 5. 32. . 3. 3 . 1. 5. 8. . 5. 8 3. 8. 29.6.. = QO 6.3. 48. 4. 7. 8.4. 12 ft. 5. 2. 23. 4. 9. 3. 8. 4.3. . 4. 6. 0. . 17. in. . 3 cm. 4 6. . 1. ^ }. ' j. 3. 3. 2 26. 5. 28yd. V3~. 12 1. and _ 4. 16. 4. . 9. . 2 10. 4. j. 2. 8.
495.^ ?>i 2412x4. } $ 50. 8. 18.2 9. sq.5 x. ' 1. 16 11.x' 10 . 2. 1. 7. 8. 4. 45. (?>) 4 8(2 V2). 1. ~ an . A. 500 x3 10 4 4 072 a? 3 . 2. . 0. 4. . f r6 4  20 rV 42 15 xV 8 . c. JSg.870 m*n*. . Page 259. a4 4 14. 12. 75. 16. ^a 8. . 2. 220 . 53. f y 8 + z* .6 . 12. ~v 9. 125. x + Vy. 8. 2. 0. 7. 12. 16. 2. 405. 6. 44. . 25. . 3. 10. 3. 26. 10 14. **+.5. 343. 4. 5. 4. Jj? 45. 343. 8J.504. 4. 6. 4 0. 4.^ x2 ^x w ^2 ? . 04. 35.ANSWERS Page 250. 3. 7. 3. 48. 4. 1. 1 7 4. . 15.192. 22. Page 254. 50. 5. . 5. 2. and 1. 9. 21. 17. 3. 10.r 4. 125. 4.<2 4. 005.  101. 8. 327. />*.5y 4 . 6. . 4. x r 4. 8. 0. 10.2 45 a 8 /). 20. 7. 2i* 7f.^ 448 x a' 3 /') . 3. 1. 6. 4. 16. B . G. 70.0. 8. 16. 7. 5. 27. 2. 120 aW. 20.4 &z x>&. 100. 9. 19. (). 410. 4. 6. 708. 2.130 x30 189 a 4 24.920.13. 9.53.170. 5. 21. REVIEW EXERCISE . 6i. 27. :r 4 4 8 x 28 x~ 60 . i 10.x^ 4 x8 15 x 4. 4. 43. 1. \ w 4 . 5. 3. 2. 192. 0. 0.12 x*y 16. 6. <. Ja. 0. 7 2 x 4 x8 . 6.5 M ' 41 fc 5 . 0. 3. 7. 45 Page 257.120. 3. &' 14. 11. 8 1. 3 4 15 a 8 11 4 14 a  1  2 y* .680.419. 32. 10.r* 4 70 . 17. 1. 1 14.K 4 4 50 x 5 4 28 x 4 4 ^8 1 g ! . 9. .700. Page 258. ?/i 6 x llj . x4 . 4. w9  8. 11. 4. 3. . 5 13. 12. 7 x4 17. I. 9.r^  280 x 4 4i^S + 6. 8. d. 18. 10. . 15. 28. 6. 8. 2. 29.r x>/ 7 3. . 128.470. 55. r r j. 4. 910. 13. 3. 70. 20. 2 1 x 4 6x'2 12. 1. 6. 23. f 7 ^ 14 x 84 4 . y ^ 5  ^\ ).5. 1. % 4 20 ab* 42 330 x 4 15. 15.384. 18. 8 . 35. 2. 18.10 a 3 ?/2 10 4<J aW 4. 16. 27. 10. 16. 5. . r 5 4.8. 2. xxvii 1. 16.5 J4 10 47 d*b 6 4 4. 9.  17. 12. 12. . 17. 12. 8. 22. 3. 7. 11. 3. 1. 5. Y11. 15. 4. 05. 5. 280 53. 2. vy.7 10.1. 15. 5. 1820. J 2 //2 25. 70. 04.3 ays. a.4. in. 304. 81. 1. 14. 1000 aW. '23.  20 flW. 1JH.v Page 253. 0. 8 4x' 2 .210. 8. 45. 7. 0. 5. 1. 105.5*7 + ^4 1 12 w 4 10 x' 2 //^.6. 13. . Page 252. 13. 4. 12. 19. 27.15 x 4 //'?/ a5 4 J 5 4 Z> 4. 19. 4950 M 2 b y *.
1 .  e +/. !! 71. . df. 131. 1 121.fee 2 4.4. 0. 107. 5 42. . I 57. x . 72. 2 2a 2 2 2(a. 4 115. .rty x2 4 123. 3 c . 4 15 x 5 . 38.4. (d) x  (a) 2 x 2 ?/ 4 ?/ (ft) 2 y 2 y 2 g (c) 3 x +y 11 a: y 4 3 2 .1. . 66. 2 a. 14 x .2 c . 4 69. ?/ 3. 26.3 aftc.a' 'ft 4. 3a'2 Page 261. 91. 4 65. 5x 2 2x43. 3~ n 4. 12 a/. 99.41. 2 a2 4 aft 5 116. ?/ . 64. 4 ! . 1x 4 x3 xty6 a 24 3  Page 262. a J .6 b. . x2 + 4 x7 9 y2 x4 4 4. 6y 2 a2 _52 45 = 73().x x*  f 2 ax 4. 80. a2 2 aft 2 2. . 8 . 82. r 5 VFTx + vTfy + 1.x 51. 40. x?/ 2 2/V2 4 2 x2z2 4 92. 49.c 3 4. 88. as 20. 2 x'V2 90. 28. ft2ft 4 4l. x 2 .  + 16 a/> 8  a*2a 2 6 2 +& 4 74. x* . 12 x. 3 a 44.c. 2 .2 x 4. 2 x2 4. . 22. ft x6  3 x5 4 9 x4  27 x 3 1. x3  15 x 2 48 ?/ . 39. 102.36 xfy 2 a 8 ?* 3 4. . 4 Page 264. 3 a 5 a 5. Page 260. 2 . 32. . xyxzyz. 4.4 x 2 . 5x + 2y~z. x2 3x2/?/ 2 112. . + f 2 2 (/) 2 34. 76.  + 3 x2 .5 b + c .ft). ft n .{ 54. +^ + ft W.  3 x2 . 43.a*ft 2 126. 104. . 0. .5.x 2 4.1.a6 2 4.2. 1 + 4 xy. x' . 133.a 2 x 2a . x' 79. c3 4 58. a' 111. . * 60.3 x?/ 2 1/ 4a 3 a o_a 4 a2 +l. . a* 4.  ft 3  13 a 4 + ll a 2 2. 24.3 a'ft. 46. x 8  a8 . .  4 a3 85.ac 44 aft. a 4 . 3 r2 2 ?/ 2  ax . 105. 6 a2 97. 37.4 ac. 62. 52.6 am b\ 129. 23. 13 + 2 s.1w 77. x 3 4. ft /> 78. 3 a .xxviii ANSWERS 19. 3a~2c. . 10 4. 9 2w 128.1. fi :ry 42 4  a 2 4 a 2 ft 2 3 119. az 4.5 3 2 y2 5 a2 4 2 aft 4 ft. 109. x } 4. 2 53. 1 a"* 4 an . x 8 + x 4 68. 3 y2 2z2 ~3xy?/. 93. &p 84. . 2 2 9 ^4 2 59.c.9 x .a'2 c.5x4. 4 .4. 2 q. . + z. 10 a 12 b.a" xy 2 2/' 3 .18 ?/ 5x4. 36. (a + ft)" 98.15 x 6 x4 ?/ Ilx 2 ft a8 4 8 y4 . m " + n + P3c .+ 4 2 ft) (a 4. _55_7c 48. 21.^a . 27. 9x.1 4 jry 4 x .4. 86. 2 .3 mn p 2/ x 4 . 2 30 . 0. 3 36 b c .7 x   15. 2 113.  12 a. 30. 4ft y3. 29. 2 2 *  3 2n 101. fc' 6 p'2 q  54 ? 3 . x 8 + x 4 y* 67. 7 + 3 xf 2. 2 aft 3 4 3 ft 4 . 110.7. 243x4729. 63.1. 4. + 28 x2 13x 3 56.4 x y 87. 2 2/' . 35. /> 4 83. 24 a 2 6 3 x3 0. . 8x3 8x.x24 73.x. 114. . 6 c 47. 61. ^ .3 .2 x^. 2 x2 108. 4. x2 a2 1 . 2 2 x2 ?/ 2 4 63 4 ?/ .9 b. . 16.3 y. x2 471x4.. 81 ?/ 4 108 xy 3 75. 130.y*. Page 263. a 3m 4.5 3n 4. 70. x2 5r*x ft 5 . x8 x2 55.5 a 2x8 x 3 . 122.2. x4 3 4 2 x 2 4 0. + a 4.a. . f5+7. a~b 89. 25. . x4 f + 23 . t 81. x2 2 .4 x?/2 3 4. a* a 8 a aftc. a4 x. 4 2 . 31. x 3 41.2 xy + 4 y2 106. .3 x 2 + 3 x . 94. x3  15 x 2 71 x  105. x 4.x4 + y'2 z 4.2. 1 x 45.18 x?/0. 50.105. 127.3 103. 124.3 b . 16t/. () 2 x 33. 125. 4 4 4 ft*" 3 4 + 2'2 ~+ 2 81 x2 134.4 2 4 c2 42 . 6 8 j27 40 ab. 120. 6a6c. 132. 100.  . 15 ab 4 Oac 4 6 be. y 4 z* 0. 118. 8 x* + 27 y 2 x2 2 . 36 + 9c9 a x3 4 + 8. 5 4 4. + 3 a?.3 a 2 '6 w 4.15 4 62 x  72. 96. ?> . 4 fee 4.
l)(y + 1). 4. 182.1). 5. (5x + 2) (3 x yfory) +4). 179. . 157. + 11) (a 10). 178. 2. y 245. (?/+l)(yl). (7 x + y +y+ 2)(x . (JT y 225.c) + or OB (2 + 4 y) Oe* + 2 s). + 3) (x f f>) . 174.2 )(x+y) 228. 160.9)(xf 2). + 7)(rt4). 146. 10). 22. 154.y) (\r3y). 215. 212. 216. 185. 19. 197. 2 2 (a. z(x10)(xl).3. + y./_4). 1. 151. 193. 218.ANSWEKti 135. a + 2x2 ). 167. + 6 y) (x 2 y) . (3x2?/)(2. 23 18. 2 xy(3 x . 4 2 ?/(x  ll)fx 3). 8(ar}(/)27). 15. 161. (233). 140. 232. 226. (6) 40. 206. y3. .y2 ). 152. 155. 163. 218. (8x + 3)(3x4). a(a. 137. r>x 2 (4x. (x + 2)(x . k.6) (2 x + 1). yr. fc'2a+62c). 147. 142.4xl). 184. 2a(42ft)(2fo). p. 240. 217.y). 1. 10. 1. (x^ + x1) 234. 75. 143. 20. (4 x 2 + 9)(2 x 4. 147 mi. 210. y  y 165. 171. 1. 159. + 22). 195. 186. x(x f 3)(x+ 2). (ab + 8) ( 7). 150. 15. 1. x(x + 6) 213. (7 c 2 ). . (x + 6)(x6).3 y)(a . 205. (c) 160 C. 3(x . 231. 183.11) (5x 2)(2x + 3). 1. 4. HI. ( + 2y)(2x3y)..r & (a + ary c)(a 1 2 + ) + 3y).I2y). (3a + 4?> + o(5crt).1).r . . 239. 2^. 36ft. (2a + l)(a .2).2).y)(jc + 7 y). 168. 173.. 1. C3 y _l)(. + 3). 241.y + 3)(r (. .1(5) 200.2. ?. 6. (y  17)(y + (>).3). (at (4 a +!)( + 3).2) (3 x . 169. 2(d)(rt + + c+c2). aft. Page 266. ( jc // a 2 (a1).y)(z . (. ry(x (a (y + + * 221. 208. (x . 138. 175. a. (/ 246. 153. 2. 7. 148. 214. a 2 (15. (y _ ft)(y 4. 30 yr.  1. 30. 20. 149. (y + 1) a(3 + 26)(3a2ft). 1. 32 h. 12 yr. Or (a + 2)0el).3 y). 170. 6). (a& 192. 219. 237. Page 265. 236. 199. 37 1.6 . 10 ft. 21. 10). (x 227. . (x + l)(xl)(y + l)(yl).c2 )(a 2 2 +2a/) + c 2 ). 233. 144. as 194. m. 230. 12 yr. 3. 224.m)(x + a). (ox + /)(5xy)(x+3 y)(x3 y). 158. (a 2 +l)(a*+ 1). + 2) + 9a. 244. 176. 3. y. 30 + xyr. (3x  . 18. (a 2 + 2a6. (7x2//) 203. 50. (r^x + 1). 189.. 207.3) (2/3y). (xyX^+y" )1 243. 2 (4 x . 2. 164. 2. 209.l)(x8 + x2 . 247. Iff 145. 181. ? >2 ft ?) ft 242. 12. 201. p. 2. 15  a. 191.2ac + 229. 156.. 40 yr. (32)(2a ftc v?y(x + 223. . 48 h. 10 in. 136. (5 x . (2x3y) 3 xy(x. (r7y)(ai. 177. 12. (y 7f))(y 196. G7. 12) (j. (2 198. 190. 180.6)(4 + 6). 24. 6. (y_24)(y5).l)(a 2 +3). 222. 2(x8)(x3). xxix 139. +)(x2 x^+2. 162. 172. 238. 12 6 panes. 220. (y7)(y + 188. 187. 8 204. ft.1). (a} 59. 235. (x  42 yr. 211.r + 4). 166. Page 267. 202.
? 1) 302. x12. (a 4 A)(2 x 5. 298. 306.1. 295. 5. ^/>J. &). 2x(x)(x 4 3x44. 260. 43 '^rJ'. \')(s x  5) (x 4 2)(x 4 .  7.4) 1) (3 x . 310.^^^^^^^^. 3). Ca&c 1)(M 253. (2 (x 4 (x 4 3) (x . 3). (7 255. 268. 3. ^^A^ + w^ n(w4 n) a 309. (x 4 (x 4 1) 5) 275. 0. 0. + f. o(x4l). ?^ZLiZ 308. 4 5. *>). 2 x  3. (x44)(x3)(?/47)  Page 270. 249. x ?/ z 1. 301. 7^T 2 . 7. o. 269. 279. a~ ' b*). 10. 305. 250. 2.^ ^^. *. (^4) (x x'2 13) 5x46 . 254. 3  262.(x  4) (x4 304. x3y 4 1)( 4 2 252.  3xyf x// 257. 263. 4 II 4 )rt 5x42. x 283. > 4. x . x 267. 256. 261.. 259. 251. 2 4 300.AN 8l\' Eli S Page 268. 266. 258. ^ 299. 303.4). 307. 7 x 265.2* i^^ !^.   . a. 4 11) (xJ^l^^J. 264.
* 357. 365. 4 A. . 0. 1 i 2 ^. 393. 5 ^^K^+M^ AC^Ln?). + 335. 1. l . 7/i ^ _ . 399. 2 ab  a Page 276. 1. 0. 383. 401. 386. 360. (a + b + c\ . x 54 359. a 2 . j 328.. . 370. . 2 r36 384. 405. 326.XXXI Page 272.7.H ' 2wi ^' /' . xa' 2 '2 7/ + 4 f Page 273. a + b + 6). 329. 343 00 351.3. A^izA??r+J!j/?_ *x 330. 2(q. 2. 4 rw. 380. L . 334. 397. <L 409. . ?=. 392. 375.vin a /r " 337. ab. 387. If. 1. + 4 & 4 \ b. 407. 339. 2 ). 388. 13 391. 1. 3. A^L5L. 2 ?/ 363.". 2(a i 403. 361. 325. . ?>*. 400. + x 362. 9^. 2. T+^. a +6. 394. 3. 379. c 402. ?/ + 3 332. 396. 20. " 4 378. ^"" 4 s . a) A^_. 398. 27 ^" li'oy 3 r J // J 341. T\. _*L'L+. 390. ^_:r f> 331. 3. 6a.1. 4. 376. 0. 364. 7. 385.)Cr4)__ . 333.!. 11. 1. 336.  1 356. ^ 3 // . 366. 4. **" ~ 2 3 > + 8 x* f 2 y 4 1 ^ 350.J .1 ')_ x'2 + 4x + 381. 404.. l'j. S. f. 355. y 4 I 340. Page 277. 12. . 382. 6 ?/+:>. 324. 2 327. 377. Page 274.(5 a . 406. m. 395. 408. 0. 389.  1.
fj. 450. 33. . 479. 486. a 22 . (&) 443.4.te + . a* 424. fc. 5. 5J. 10. 2. 7. 53 yr. 432. 10. 464.  2. 2$. 17. 411. 0. 9.3. ISjmi. 1 a /?$+&?. . 3 . 51. 472. 422.7. 484. Page 278. . c 6fc 10. . A $ 3500. 454. 1. 442. ' $260 at 0%. . : />a.  7. 1.12. 2 a 2. 10. 423. 8..489.  f>.} ' c^acjd} ^ fcfZ a/ ?>rf + 86 (. />c c(f be. 466. 494. . 24 days. c. Page 282.  7. 1. 8. 40. 4. 7 : . 22. not true. 17. 2. 32. (d) true. 3a 4 5.0. 436. 506. 421. .  453. 496.}. 3. 0. 5. 428. 10. 467.55. 7. 418. 445. 503.}. <L+ 6 (.  2. 90. (d  6) f.2. 476. 447. 441. 448. 10.. !L=4. 487. 2 438. \ 1. 18.1. 14 miles. 4. A 5 mi . 446. 459. 2. 435. 32 yr. 465. 10.vz in. 1. 3.m  m+ M in. 21. 28 yr.. 429. (c) not true. + b ' + a __ b c ' 2 w f w 417. . Page 281. ^V.. 452.  10. 508. 8. 5. . 8. 6 f c a + ? & ~ a 0. 0.488.XXX11 ANSWERS ab.4. 0. 495. z8 +?/ 3 431. 427. 481. 7. 6. i.7. . 3. 6. 0.7. 40 oz. ^. 2. b 449. 463. 458. B $ 2500. 84. * . 2. 4. 477. 492. 6. 499. . 502. 439.  505. 4. m 1 : wi. ft 5. 430. . 42..rz Page 279. 0. 11. .  1. 20 yr.  2. (&) true. 497. 419.7. 5. 0. 420.  . 468.46. + () 433. 501. & 491. 6. 2. Page 280. 1$.  2f 504. 63. 50. .2. 10$. 482. 483. 493. 5. 2. 457. B 4 mi. 5. 6. 410. (a  c). 455. 485. L (c) I. 500. 461. \.3. 1. a + + ft c. 412.. 7. i a b 451. L2 a  6 . 425. 490. 6. 6. 2. 12. 480. 413.7. 507. 426. '. 444. . 456. ^r?i 434. $2000 at 0%. . 7. Page283. . . 462. 478. 2. *+. 440. 460. .0. 10. 20. m. ISJini. 2.5. 498.  1. (a) 1. I.
 2. 4. 571.78. Roots imaginary. 1. 27 y* f\4 . 1.88. 603.6 2. (c) 4.  557. 582.. _ 3.15.5. y% Z * 586.7.05. 3. 515.51. 581.1. lead.  J(a f + 2c).25m. 593.  . .02.6. . + 12 x . xxxin 511.  imag. 3 .83.r8 596. 4. 1. 5. f. 527. . 562. + 6 tf f 3 . 576. 2 2. 1 . 24 da. 5. ^ ft 4. 553. .7. Page 287. 4. Page 288. If 572. 513. 509.. 510.  2 a*b + 3 a6 3 .6. . 573. 2 10. 566. per hour. . 4* da. 1 580.. tin. 565.5. imag. 1.02.  ft*.9. . 3.2 xt/ a4 + x3 4 6 x4 3 xG fx. 5. 1 600. 1.0. (/)  10 to 8.1.20. 2 a 8 x 8 + 6 ax&fy 2 x + 12 a 2xt2 b*y'2 + 2 6 4 ?/ 4 595. 4 8 x2 ?/4 605.  1.04.83. 564. or 8. M ft c 2 ft 3465. 2.4.% rr\* 585. 569. + 35 86 4 4 &8 3 + 589. 31. 4. 1. 567.52. 4. 2. 3. 528. 4.75. 7. 1.1. _ 4. f ? a f ft __ + c C). 21*_. 529. x8 . + 26x2 + 10 x4 ).  + + c. . 574. 8 mi. (e) 570. 512. 3. 2.  3.04. 1.3. 2$. . .14. 516.37.5.5+. 2. 598. + 26 + . 3. 40 Ib. . 518. l+4x+0x 2 +4x 8 f x4 4 4 594.38. 1J. 552. 559.1.8 x3^. 232. 6435.6.24. 1$.24 sec.78.1.0. 5. (d) 537. 1. . 530.62. (gr) 10 1.62. 3 da.30. 3. a f ft + c.55.  4.4. 1. da. 561. f. 560.4 x + .37. (i) 3.3. 3. 3. 577. lead. f36a28x8 592.31. _^ 2754x . 551. 2.53. 554. .4.3. . 555.ANSWERS Page 284. 8 a6 42x + 8x2 + 2x 8 4x4 601.1. Page 285. ft 584.31. (ft) 4. g(rc+ 6c). 2 imag. 575. 2 . (6) .3.3. per hr. a 7 687i 588i tt e a _ _3 7 ir 7 rt e & + 2 1 a 5 ft 2  rt 4^2 + i 3 ^254 590.7. 1 . .03. 563.. o> . 3. 533. 0000. 2. 531.00. 1. 2 . (e) (c) 2.2. (c) 3.8. 1. 2. 599.. 0. 24. 2 1. 532. 514. 1. 4 0. y 4. 8 +3 x f 6 x2 2 a4 & 604.3. S82 c. H. 3f 4f.xV f +6 a2 &2  4 6. tin. 2(4 602. 1.21 a2 + 3x + 3x2 rA 86 3 4 ft + 35 4 + 21 2&6 fts + 7 7 rt?> 6 a^ _ 8 +^ 57.03. 2 1. 558. (a) 74 Ib. . 1.  (a) (d) 1. . a+ Page 286. 115 Ib. 583.10. 550. 525. 1. <z ft 1. a*8a + 24tf 82a.16.xj/ f xV . 7^ da. a + ft  a  f c. 1. 4. (6) 3. .10. 2(6 597.75. 6.  7.5.54. 1.15. 536.25. > ^ .21.8.5 f.02.6. 1.15. 1 1  2 x 7 2 f 3 2 x' 2 + x8 f x4 .4. 3. 14. 3.  (a) 2.33.3. 4 mi.73. 6. .02. J7] min. 3.  2ft da.f 1. 2.4. . 526. T .5.   (h) 8. 3.0. 4. 1.4. 2._ ft 523 a 2 ftc 2 524.0. . 8. 568.54. . 591. 1.8. i _ 4 sc2 + 6 + 10a:8 + a6) . .56 sec. 4. .24. 3. 1. .8. . 578. 579.35.3. . . (ft) Ill Ib.12. 556.
25. ^. 626. If f 667. 0. 618. . 5. 643.702.3. 9*. 3 681. 1m*. . 11.. 1010.  4. . 1 704. 638. 2. 14. a 1J. a. y  619. 1$ 639. 1 ~a .0. 622. 641. z  1. 647. I}'/. 25. 608. 5. 652. ix 2 . 607. be ac \. 660. . 692. if 4/> 671. fta a/> ^A. . J^^. 635. af6fc __ __ ( a 4. 1.303. 2. If 658. 634.049. If. 2. 0. n^l +^.  1. V"^TJ.b 686. 6 685.25.2f (5 4.3. ' fe 2 ). 657. 2.43^4.  2f r 659.04. 629. \.3. 620. . ANSWERS ( 3 x 2 S 2 . 1 2.001. 636. 2f.3f l 668. 3 x2 .14 If 1. 621. ^ _ \/3 +^~< 2 a a +^ 694. 644. 637. 703.. b . 703. 1. 9. ft). 2. 50. 11. 662. . 616. la6 2. 642. /> 4. If 665. If b. 640. ^^ 695. 2. 678< 682. 4.f 3 V^3). 612. 7. 2f. 614. 6. 661. 653.3. 633. K 5 2 V2. 632. ab 689. \+ab 699. V7. 13. 623. 701. 898.203. 971. (a3&45rj. o. 649. 3. 3 a. . 4. 4 676. a 2. 669. Page 289. ' 674.7/ ~ +w ( 7>) ^~ V3 ^' 3. 645. 613. 2092. 615. 4.a~ {Z 663. l/'3. 627. .  3. a 4. 5. / V^+lO^M"^. V2. 625. . 3. 8 6 fo .XX XIV 606. 2. 2 / 2 4. 8. i. 651. 1. b. 5. If .  684. + ~^'2 + a 1. x3 4 3 x x ' 4 X* 609. 10. 706. 1. . 670. 009. 0. 628.  6. 705.001. 666. 4330 da. 656. <T! . 702. + 2 A (i f Page 291. 2&). 690. 683. (*_ + a: 611. 12.002.  4. 7. 4 V 0. 631. a ' 2 + . 78. 1 V5 1. 655. 0. 654. 1 ^  7Q7> b j(_ (_ x/^15). b 664.2f Page 290. . 3.  ft. 6. a + b. 2 a  6*. 4$. 691.b. V2. 648. 2 x 44 ^/. . 0. 630. ^. 617. 2 a 688.  . 2. 5002.c ) 697. 650. 624. fe + a. 700. c. 708. V^~3). 672. 8 f 3.y. 2. 646. ^ 1. .>A 610.  13. 677 680.  a2  a (ab). ab. 2 + 36 )K3 + ( 687. 210. 679. 696. 4. 2 a: 4. a 673. 2 ab + a  &. 5 3. 7003. 0. 698.
789. ^ Ti i a*tj~ 4.257. 4 104 v/2. 2\/53V2. 24 4 . 3. 724.V2. 730. . x i f^' . 8. a db Va^T < 45da. > 748. 718. 300. 8. a + 6 +cx* 2 (t' 3 1 a*&M. 59. 788. 717. 719. 728.1 />f f + lr'~ + _L a 4 6. .1 . a". 709. 782 785. 30\/10 764. a:* .4 . 731. 39. 736. 3V52V3. 00. ^ ?>. . x\y. 729. 3V72V3. ^ . a 2  x2 . J(v'lO2V 791. 29\/3. 13ft. 726. . VIO\/3. r. 32>/2. 739. 711.9.9. 793.^ 743. / 787. j 742.2 4 w" + 4 d" + Hid. 740. fyaw&cu. 721. 24. 1 752. 4 x' 5 x 4 3 x~* ( 2 ar 1. 732. 769. 796. 3 VlT 795. 777. 1 [ + '> J. 723. v/7 / . 5. 1 747. . 342V3. 3^. Page 293. 15 shares. T%.8. a 5 . 710.. cr*lr*. 714. a 2 6^. Page 294. 1. 33^2. y  1. 768. 776. rt3 2 ^i^. Hi a. 1^ _ 760. 758..11. 790 2v 3v 2. 47. 3V72VO. 1 I .~ . i^. 25. 24V2.^. v'll. 5.ANSWMHti Page 292. 738. 753. 3 720. 746. VV> L4V34. iv/Jj. 767. 2 V2 . ^^ f ^3 _ r} t 2 i3x 4 rt + + 2u: 8'o'a +a2 3 . 2x3^ a..4 . 17ft. 755. *+V( x 2 "r 2 )' ^ 786.. 734. 34. "V313.rJ w L 754. 751. 773. 750. 792. 7  3V5. 778. VT14V5. 1. 713.10. 722. mn. 3V7.V/^ 741. + < 735.r+y> 759.r. 712. 715. 733. 1. 727. ^7xy. 794. 749. 716.12 af V^ 4 744. 737. + 6 2 tf'c. 756.2. i 2. 763. 725.
1. (:r 11. m 875. 6 $. 14. 841. 884. (x . 4 885. Hoots are extraneous.l)(x + 2). . 1. 4. 7. 898. 826. 4. 900. 1 1. 0. 829.XXXVI 797. 813. m = 2. Page 296. 4. 4 . 840.f. (a 1) (x 4. (a m . %7 ?/ ( 2 >wt 2wt ft ft 4 rc f 1 '* Page 298. 843. . 868. 892.6 xy + 9 )(4 x 2 (9x 4l2x + 10). 4. (x 2 f r . 842. 23. 8 09.7). 2 j 889. (1 .7). (x3). 858. o.r . 2 . 8. 848. 879. a^*4l)(aa 4 + l). 867.l)(x + 3)(2x43). .0. (am l)(a m + 1) 4m . 827. ^VG. V 3. 810. 844. 883.. 3. 819. 886.1) . a 42)(x . 1 . (x . 2  2.  839. 893. Page 297. 2 .om 441) (a 855. X4 1). ((' 1). **.25 ?>2). f. 836. . 4.3. 2/ 856. (2 4. 6. 16xyV2*/^~x2 . 4. 820. (x + y) (x f y) (x + y) (x . 1. 801. (2x (r. 10. 5. 2. 887. b' 2 821. (2 x + 3 y} . x. 808. 799. f 3 866> (9 + 8 ) 81 ^3 _ 72 xy 4 04 ^). 872. 882. 2 2 . 830. (. 2.1)(0 865. a(ry + 864.l)(x . 2 *x 807. 3. H. 6.2) (x 4 2). 895. 1C. 3. . 835.  tt 815.a 2 2 ).4. 20). (a + 2 ?>c)(a 2 2fl?>44 ?/V ). 6+V7. 7. 3. 2. (3 b . 881. 1. (x + 0X024. jV3 f 3.+ m f ") (a* ). 2. (x42?/)(x2y)(4x . ( 4 4. . (a 4 871. +j!>.1)(V 2 . n =  29.3. \/5. 2. 17. . 11.  ' . 4. 3 . . 2 + 2)^ 3 + (a 4 5 f 8).10 ab 4. 863. Va + 6 + Vtt"fc. 11. 4. 896. (xl)(^~3)(. 6(a6)(o a + + &). 891. o 828. (x 2 . 4. ANSWERS 798. 5. 838. 890. 3. 857.rae) (4 . Va. 5. 3. 13. \/2. 0.3)(x + 4). 3. 4 1)(4 x jc jr ::} ?> ?> . 2 m . 25. 0. 2.y) 852. 861.1) (a 8 . 834. 825. 2. 847. (x 845.1. 6.a 3 " 4. (  ?>) (a + ^> . 831. (x*y*ryz + z*). 17. 5. 8(?/ + 2x2 ?/ ~ x 4 ).4) 860.a 2m W" 4 ^ m f & 2m 870. 19. ( 869.2w . $. 2. (3 862. a(ft)( 873..4. 812. 4. 3. 2 854. . 7.4)(1 f 4 a 4 10a 2 ). 837. 859. ) (a' 874. 822..5) (x + * 853. 814.7 4 1) 846. (2 a .5 b) 4 1). 4. J V.2 ax 4. 2 . '0 3 2 an 4 3(> n 6 ).  1. 851. x . 880.7)(4 x. 800. (x 4. $. 824. 816. 0. a* 4. 876./>") (a'. . 3. 849. 811. 6 4 V&  e " X/^^+A^ + 2 *a o l V 2 802. are extraneous.  + l(l^). 888.1). . 832.r4). 804. 823. 48. 2. Va 803. 2 806. 899.a 4 + 1). (2x3?/^)(4x2 4Ox^ + 9//%2). 5). 5. 7. 8. + d)*. ^ V}. . 2. _ 3 ^ 860 r + 3) . (4 c 4. 3. Hoots . 894. ^. a2 ^E*!. 1. . 897. 2 (x 4*4. 833. 4 818.r?/ 50(i ( 2)(5 04. 817.l)(x .7. db 7.
3. 943. 3. .. 958. f. 12. v/(ai !)(&910. 12. 28. 2. 944.  1 .1 = 9. 8. 66 924. 957.073. ft. 4. 4.V~~3). 911. r ft ' < Page 299. 2. S07. 912. 1 XXXVll ' a 1. 40 16 in. 932.. 11. i 3. 6 a + 3 2 ft ' 4 3 & 928. . 8. 931. 80. 108. 6. 7 ft. tt2 19. 909.1. 2. 10. . 939. . 6 da. 918. 987. . I) v/Ca^T)^ 2 5. ft.I. 904. w 3. Page 300. ?/i 6. Page 301. 920. 2. 6.744. 917. 4 in. 4 6 mi. 8. 5 . T 6. . 496. 6. Va926. 4. f ft 4 . .' ifcVira^ 2 3.. 20 19 ft.760 sq. 938. . 7. V5 fj. 5.. yd. 947. 978. 11. 960. 3. 3. 5. 981. 1 1. Page 303. 1 _2 . 11. 333. 2 ft. 15 946. 115. 6. 936. 4. $(l 4. 12. 4. 3 . 979. 2 1. 952. 945. 18. 4. . 329. 56. 1 . 8. 248.. 2. 28. a + . 4. 921. 2. 923. 5l4f. i1" 913.0. 480 8 sq. 964. i(6 in. 954. T3. a. J. 7. 1 + V953. 12 mi. 5.. 100 rows. Y. 1. 963. 925. 962. . =F J. 956. 3. 7. . 982. 983. 5.1. 2. 6 1 1. ft. 8.2. 0. 12 in. 927.. 11. . 5. 333... 4. 919. 2 yd. 14 .. ./hr. ft. 937. 906. . 3). ft. 2.709. . 10. 2. i>. 984. 902. 961. 280. Z ^. J(_ ft. 73.111. T 6. 7. 933. 4. 959. 9 in. 986.. %* .01. 930. 6 . 8128. 4. 1 2. 934. 0. 935. 8. 980. . 922. 2.. '3 3 in. 6. 905. 1. 2 w 914. .2. 941. . i 8. 908. 3. 985. 3 4 . 942. 0. 8..651. 6 a 915. 1. 3. 60 949. 1).. 6. w. 8 . 977. 0.  26j.  1. 2 i ' a V. ft. 940. V5 T 2 . 950. 28. Page 302. J. 916.ANSWERS oJV 41 6 901. 111. dL 4. . .615. 4 . 6.. 948. 7 or 30. 955. 15 16 ft. V^3). ft. 8.446. ^y. 903. ft. 951.
(a) 2^ + 1 \/2). 1009. Page 304. 0. 993.'^^ } ( . " 1710 rtV and 1710 252 35. (5. 120 a. 997. 990.128 I.xxxviii ANSWERS 989. 995. 32 13 (tx 4V3. 4 and 1020. () 12(2+V3). 1010.92. 0. 8. Page 305. 1006. 991. (a) (6) ^ 1002. 9 da. 12. 108.18. 1017.. 1016. 120 i^l^. 1014.  5&7 1021. 994.192rt?)r 120 *. 1000. ^Trsq. ^f (2f3V2). (J. 12. 1005. 243 ?/ 810 x 2 + y 1080 x* 4 5 ?/ 720 * 240 r 8 7 ?/ . 4. ~ \. 2(2 v/2). 9 /> l 6 /> 6 . a a 13  13 ax + 78 a3 4y*> . 988. 1008. 192. . 5 :J2 r 10  14 y + 84 y*  280 + 5(>0  72 C K 4 2 MJiy 8 r? " 8 . (6) 8(1 .  W1W JI + 1 / 1 _ _L\ a .51. 996. 1(5. r = 2. 1013. X. 1007. 1018. 72. 1 1004. 3003.. in.378 <W and 92.870 z8 . (Z>) 999. . 1019. 2 . . + v 2). 1001. 1003. 162. 24. 48. 1 8 8 2. 992. + 448 . 78 n+ a' x 2 t  13 . 1012.378 1015.870 a 6 1011. 6 70 .
proportions and graphical methods are introduced into the first year's course. physics. All subjects now required for admission by the College Entrance Examination Board have been omitted from the present volume.ELEMENTARY ALGEBRA By ARTHUR SCHULTZE. save Inequalities. etc. and commercial life. comparatively few methods are heretofore. To meet the requirements of the College Entrance Examination Board.D. Half leather. Ph. given. than by the . Particular care has been bestowed upon those chapters which in the customary courses offer the greatest difficulties to the beginner. great many work. THE MACMILLAN COMPANY PUBLISHERS. which has been retained to serve as a basis for higher work. 6466 FIFTH AVBNTC. Half leather. which have been omitted from the body of the work Indeterminate Equahave been relegated to the Appendix. so that the Logarithms. i2mo. but none of the introduced illustrations is so complex as to require the expenditure of time for the teaching of physics or geometry. The more important subjects tions. very numerous and well graded there is a sufficient number of easy examples of each kind to enable the weakest students to do some work. $1. A examples are taken from geometry. but the work in the latter subject has been so arranged that teachers who wish a shorter course may omit it ADVANCED ALGEBRA By ARTHUR SCHULTZE. book is a thoroughly practical and comprehensive textbook. $1. especially duction into Problem Work is very much Problems and Factoring. but these few are treated so thoroughly and are illustrated by so many varied examples that the student will be much better prepared for further The Exercises are superficial study of a great many cases. xi 4 373 pages. xiv+563 pages. and the Summation of Series is here presented in a novel form. without the sacrifice of scientific accuracy and thoroughness. The introsimpler and more natural than the methods given In Factoring.10 The treatment of elementary algebra here is simple and practical. The author has emphasized Graphical Methods more than is usual in textbooks of this grade. not The Advanced Algebra is an amplification of the Elementary. HEW TOSS .25 lamo.
bestowed upon those chapters which in the customary courses offer the greatest difficulties to the beginner. not The Advanced Algebra is an amplification of the Elementary. than by the superficial study of a great many cases. xi f 373 pages. comparatively few methods are given. To meet the requirements of the College Entrance Examination Board. The author grade. proportions and graphical methods are introduced into the first year's course. 12010. The introsimpler and more natural than the methods given heretofore. but none of the introduced illustrations is so complex as to require the expenditure of time for the teaching of physics or geometry. HEW YOKE .D. without Particular care has been the sacrifice of scientific accuracy and thoroughness.10 The treatment of elementary algebra here is simple and practical.ELEMENTARY ALGEBRA By ARTHUR Sen ULTZE. etc. $1. has emphasized Graphical Methods more than is usual in textbooks of this and the Summation of Series is here presented in a novel form.25 i2mo. 6466 7HTH AVENUE. The more important subjects which have been omitted from the body of the work Indeterminate Equahave been relegated to the Appendix. but these few are treated so thoroughly and are illustrated by so many varied examples that the student will be much better prepared for further work. great many A examples are taken from geometry. physics. so that the tions. there is a sufficient number of easy examples of each kind to enable the weakest students to do some work. Half leather. xiv+56a pages. especially duction into Problem Work is very much Problems and Factoring. The Exercises are very numerous and well graded. but the work in the latter subject has been so arranged that teachers who wish a shorter course may omit it ADVANCED ALGEBRA By ARTHUR SCHULTZE. save Inequalities. which has been retained to serve as a basis for higher work. HatF leather. Ph. $1. THE MACMILLAN COMPANY PUBLISHBSS. All subjects now required for admission by the College Entrance Examination Board have been omitted from the present volume. book is a thoroughly practical and comprehensive textbook. and commercial life. In Factoring. Logarithms.
of Propositions has a Propositions easily understood are given first and more difficult ones follow . lines. 6466 FIFTH AVENUE. $1. 9.r and. Algebraic Solution of Geometrical Exercises is treated in the Appendix to the Plane Geometry . xii + 233 pages. ments from which General Principles may be obtained are inserted in the " Exercises. 7 he . textbook in Geometry more direct ositions 7. Ph. guides him in putting forth his efforts to the best advantage. Cloth. The Analysis of Problems and of Theorems is more concrete and practical than in any other distinct pedagogical value. under the heading Remarks". 6.D. These are introduced from the beginning 3. By ARTHUR SCHULTZE and 370 pages. more than 1200 in number in 2. NEW YORK . at the It same provides a course which stimulates him to do original time. $1. aoo pages. . 4. 10. State: . iamo. Proofs that are special cases of general principles obtained from the Exercises are not given in detail. wor. Cloth. Attention is invited to the following important features I. i2mo. SEVENOAK.10 L. The numerous and wellgraded Exercises the complete book. THE MACMILLAN COMPANY PUBLISHERS. and no attempt has been made to present these solutions in such form that they can be used as models for classroom work. Half leather. Hints as to the manner of completing the work are inserted The Order 5. SCHULTZE. Difficult Propare made somewhat? easier by applying simple Notation . Preliminary Propositions are presented in a simple manner . xttt PLANE GEOMETRY Separate. Many proofs are presented in a simpler and manner than in most textbooks in Geometry 8.. izmo. KEY TO THE EXERCISES in Schultze and Sevenoak's Plane and Solid Geometry. Pains have been taken to give Excellent Figures throughout the book. The Schultze and Sevenoak Geometry is in use in a large number of the leading schools of the country. 80 cents This Geometry introduces the student systematically to the solution of geometrical exercises.10 By ARTHUR This key will be helpful to teachers who cannot give sufficient time to the Most solutions are merely outsolution of the exercises in the textbook. PLANE AND SOLID GEOMETRY F.
and Assistant Professor of Mathematics in New York University of Cloth. Students to still learn demon strations instead of learning how demonstrate. . . of these theoretical views. enable him to " The chief object of the speak with unusual authority. Most teachers admit that mathematical instruction derives its importance from the mental training that it But in affords. . New York City. New York DALLAS CHICAGO BOSTON SAN FRANCISCO ATLANTA . . causes of the inefficiency of mathematical teaching. 12mo. THE MACMILLAN COMPANY 6466 Fifth Avenue. 370 pages. methods of teaching mathematics the first propositions in geometry the original exercise parallel lines methods of the circle attacking problems impossible constructions applied problems typical parts of algebra. and not from the information that it imparts. . . $1. a great deal of mathematical spite teaching is still informational.25 The author's long and successful experience as a teacher of mathematics in secondary schools and his careful study of the subject from the pedagogical point of view." The treatment treated are : is concrete and practical. making mathematical teaching less informational and more disciplinary. . . " is to contribute towards book/ he says in the preface. Typical topics the value and the aims of mathematical teach ing .The Teaching of Mathematics in Secondary Schools ARTHUR SCHULTZE Formerly Head of the Department of Mathematics in the High School Commerce.
$1. diagrams. The book deserves the attention of history teachers/' Journal of Pedagogy. which have been selected with great care and can be found in the average high school library. All smaller movements and single events are clearly grouped under these general movements. i2mo. which put the main stress upon national development rather than upon military campaigns. supply the student with plenty of historical narrative on which to base the general statements and other classifications made in the text. Studies and Questions at the end of each chapter take the place of the individual teacher's lesson plans. An exhaustive system of marginal references. photographs.AMERICAN HISTORY For Use fa Secondary Schools By ROSCOE LEWIS ASHLEY Illustrated. is an excellent example of the newer type of school histories.40 is distinguished from a large number of American textbooks in that its main theme is the development of history the nation. and a full index are provided. New York SAN FRANCISCO BOSTON CHICAGO ATLANTA . Topics. Cloth. " This volume etc. but in being fully illustrated with many excellent maps. This book is uptodate not only in its matter and method. Maps. diagrams. The author's aim is to keep constantly before the This book pupil's mind the general movements in American history and their relative value in the development of our nation. THE MACMILLAN COMPANY 6466 Fifth Avenue.
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