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Agar is a hydrophilic colloids extracted certain marine algae of the class Rhodophyceae.

Agar is strongly gelling seaweed hydrocolloid composed of polysaccharides. The main structure of agar is chemically characterized by the repeating units of D-galactose and 3,6-anhydro-L-galactose with a few variations, as well as by a low ester sulphate content. The qualities of Agar depend of alkali treatment process. The experiment is alkali treatment process of Agar extraction from Gracilaria spp. The variation of temperature for cooked was 70C and 80C. The variation of sodium hydroxide solution was 3, 6, 8, 10% and for control without sodium hydroxide. The yield of Agar in this experiment was increased by temperature, but not significant by sodium hydroxide solution. The content of 3,6 anhydro galactose was increased but the sulphate ester group was decrease when the seaweed of Gracilaria was treated by increased the temperature and concentrations of sodium hydroxide. The gel strength of Agar was enhanced significantly by increased the sodium hydroxide solution but not by temperature. The native Agar or Agar without alkali solution was observed that yield of Agar was 8,26% at 70C and 6.58% at 80C, content of 3,6 anhydro galactose (AG) was 20,49% at 70C and 33,12 at 80 C, gel strength was 53.5 at 70 C and 59,5 at 80C, sulphate ester group was 6,26 at 70C and 5,44 at 80C. After alkali treatment: yield of Agar was varied from 8,25% to 11,76% at 70C and 6,58% to 8,12% at 80C; 3,6 AG was varied from 20,49% to 50,44 at 70C and 33,12% to 52,22% at 80C; Gel strength was varied from 53,5 to 546,5 gram/cm at 70C and 59,5 to 449,5 gram/cm at 80C; sulphate was varied from 2,74% to 6,26% at 70C and 2,42% to 5,44% at 80C. The optimal condition was obtained in treated with 10% NaOH solution concentration at 70C or 8% at 80C.

Cation exchangeable capacity (CEC) of zeolite could be determined not only based on SNI 13-3494 1994, but also Permentan No. 02/Pert/HK060/2/2006. Procedure of CEC determination based on SNI 13-3494 1994 and Permentan No. 02/Pert/HK060/2/2006 were not the same, so that CEC of zeolite from one sample of zeolite which is determined with both procedure could be different, and its CEC will definitely different. Generally, CEC of zeolite which is determined based on Permentan No. 02/Pert/HK060/2/2006 lower compare to SNI 13-3494 1994. Possible sources of error in these steps include the following: (1) in the saturation step, neither narrow ratios nor wide ratios between zeolite and ammonium acetate solution will be influential to the amount more or less ion NH4+ to enter the exchange sites, and duration of percolation, (2) the washing step, to remove ion NH4+ excess on the exchange sites with etanol 96%, (3) ion NH4+ cation exchange with NaCl or KCl. The results of this study have been found that CEC zeolite sample No. 13, 15, 19, and 21 were 83, 84, 95, and 94

cmol(+) kg-1 respectively were greater than Permentan No. 02/Pert/HK.060/2/2006 (80 cmol(+) kg-1). CEC Zeolite Agro 2000 SNI 13-34961994 (119 cmol(+) kg-1) was greater if compare to CEC Permentan No. 02/Pert/HK.060/2/2006 (25 cmol(+) kg-1). CEC Zeolite Agro 88 SNI 13-34961994 (193 cmol(+) kg-1) greater if compare to CEC Permentan No. 02/Pert/HK.060/2/2006 (25 cmol(+) kg-1). Although CEC zeolite which is determined based on SNI 13-3496-1994 always high value, but in the saturation step, the washing step and removal ion NH4+ excess on the exchange sites with etanol 96%, (3) ion NH4+ cation exchange with NaCl or KCl were constitute a critical steps for CEC determination. CEC zeolite SNI 13-3496-1994 be suggested to revised, and CEC procedure either for soil conditioner for rehabilitation soil degradation or industry must be the same procedure.

Keywords: cation exchangeable capacity (CEC), zeolite, soil degradation 3 Feasebility Analysis Realization Unit of International Standard Electrical DC Voltages for Puslit KIM-LIPI according to quantum definition with correction factor less than 0,1 ppm Hadi Sardjono

Abstract

Recently, there are two technical methods for a realization of the international standard of dc voltage unit such as conventional Josephson Voltage Standard (JVS) and Programmable Josephson Voltage Standard (PJVS). These Both methods are capable to generate a dc voltage standard by using a Quantum theory which is defined as VJ = nN(hf/2e). It is proved through this research that the realization of PJVS is more visible to be implemented in Puslit KIM-LIPI. The visibility of this PJVS is supported by it cheaper operational budget, it ordinary of operation technics, it measurement accuracy of 112 nV, and it lower accuracy ratio againts the standard cell of 0.006 : 1.

Keywords: visibility analyses, international standard, dc voltage unit 4 The Using Sugar from Indonesia for Carbon Modern Standard on the year of Radiocarbon

Darwin Alijasa Siregar

Abstract

Radiocarbon dating method is applied to date samples which are not exceeding 50.000 years in age (Quaternary). Dateable samples in this method include charred wood, organic matters contents of clay, coral, limestone (e.g. stalagmite), and molluscs. In the laboratory procedure, a modern carbon standard called the Reference Material 4990C Oxalic Acid is required as a correlation factor for the active carbon that was contained within the samples during their life time. At present, the reference carbon standard is produced by the international company called the National Bureau Standard (NBS).To obtain the material, it is procedurally difficult as well as costly. To overcome this problem therefore, an effort has been made to find a local reference material as a substitute. This work is carried out as an in house research of the Radiocarbon Laboratory of the Geological Survey Institute (GSI). This research work is conducted in order to reduce the dependence of the laboratory upon the NBS, considering that both internal and external requests for radiocarbon dating services tend to be increasing from time to time. For the abovementioned purpose, a long run research work is underway for which a locally produced sugar cane has been selected as the basic raw material. It is hoped that that the result will meet our requirement of carbon standard reference material in the routine dating activities of the radiocarbon Laboratory of the Geological Survey Institute.

Keywords: sugar, radiocarbon, laboratory procedure 5 Sorting Methode with Submersion in H2O and correlation between the power germination and conductivity values on tusam breed (Pinus Merkusii Jungh Et De Vriese) Muhammad Zanzibar

Abstract

Tusam seed is categorized as orthodoxs seed, but its viability will decrease fast if the seed is storage improperly. Seed sortation is one of methods for increasing the seed viability. The research was aimed to find the best sortation method through soakin in H2O and to know the relationship between germination and leaccheate conductivity of tusam seed. The research was using seed proviously storage for 4 months in room chamber, with viability and vigor of 50,75% and 5,70%/etmal respectively. The experiment design was completely randomized design, the analyzed factor were soaking period (0,2,3,4 hours) and the kind of seed (shifted and sunk seeds). The relationship between germination and leaccheate conductivity were analyzed with regression model. The result revealed that the best sortation method was soaking the sunk seeds in the water for 3 hours. The treatment increases the germination capacity 16,75% and the speed of germination 2,75%/etmal (47,71%). The seed had relatively low leaccheate conductivity (0.15 mSg -1) and high percentage of seeds with good quality to be distributed (63,13%). The result of regression analysis showed that the higher leaccheate conductivity the lower germination capacity, that can be expressed as Y = - 91,078 x + 78,855, R2 = 0,5536 (Y = germination capacity, x = actual conductivity).

Key words: sortation, leaccheate conductivity, viability, seed, tusam