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1

AND

L

p

, 1 < p <

SERGEI V. ASTASHKIN AND LECH MALIGRANDA

Abstract

We show that if X is a rearrangement invariant space on [0, 1] which is an interpolation space

between L

1

and L

and for which we have only one-sided estimate of the Boyd index (X) >

1/p, 1 < p < , then X is an interpolation space between L

1

and L

p

. This gives a positive

answer for a question posed by Semenov. We also present the one-sided interpolation theorem

about operators of strong type (1, 1) and weak type (p, p), 1 < p < .

1. INTRODUCTION

Let X be a rearrangement invariant (r. i.) function space on I = [0, 1]. If any linear operator

T is bounded in the spaces L

p

and L

q

(1 p < q ), and the space X is such that the Boyd

indices satisfy the estimates

1

q

< (X) (X) <

1

p

,

then the operator T is also bounded in X. We can shortly say that X is an interpolation space

between L

p

and L

q

. This theorem was proved by Boyd [B67] in 1967 under the assumption that

the space X has the Fatou property (cf. also Boyd [B69], Bennett-Sharpley [BS], Th. 5.16) and

Lindenstrauss-Tzafriri [LT], Th. 2.b.11 when the space X has either the Fatou property or is

separable (cf. also [JMST], p. 215). For arbitrary r. i. X this can be proved by using Calderons

estimate, as in the Boyd proof, and then Semenovs Lemma 4.7 from [KPS]. Implicitely this result

also follows from Th. 6.12 in [KPS].

In the case when q = , i. e., one space is the extreme space L

estimate for an r. i. space X

(X) <

1

p

, 1 p < ,

we obtain that X is an interpolation space between L

p

and L

proved even for Lipschitz operators).

E. M. Semenov posed the following question about the extreme space L

1

: Let X be an r. i.

space on [0, 1] with either the Fatou property or absolutely continuous norm. Is the one-sided

estimate on the Boyd index (X) >

1

p

enough for the interpolation property between L

1

and

L

p

, 1 < p < ?

2000 Mathematics Subject Classication: 46E30, 46B42, 46B70

Key words and phrases: L

p

-spaces, Lorentz spaces, rearrangement invariant spaces, Boyd indices, interpolation

of operators, operators of strong type, operators of weak type, K-functional, Marcinkiewicz spaces

Research supported by a grant from the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences for cooperation between Sweden

and the former Soviet Union (project 35156). The second named author was also supported in part by the Swedish

Natural Science Research Council (NFR)-grant M5105-20005228/2000.

1

We rst show, by using duality arguments, that the answer is positive.

After this answer a more general question appeared. Namely, is it true that if X is an

interpolation spaces between L

1

and L

1

p

, then X is

an interpolation space between L

1

and L

p

?

The answer to this question is also positive and the proof is suprisingly not very complicated.

Finally, we were able to get also the one-sided interpolation theorem for operators of strong

type (1, 1) and weak type (p, p), 1 < p < .

The paper is organized as follows. In Section 2 we collect some necessary denitions and

notations.

Section 3 contains two proofs of the answer to the Semenov question. The rst proof is

going via associated duality arguments and the second one is using estimates typical in the real

interpolation theory.

The main result of the paper is Theorem 2 showing that one-sided estimate (X) >

1

p

on an

r.i. space and interpolation property of X between L

1

and L

property of X between L

1

and L

p

. The second assumption that X is an interpolation space

between L

1

and L

Section 4 deals with operators of strong type (1, 1) and weak type (p, p), 1 < p < . We are

proving an one-sided interpolation theorem for such operators.

2. DEFINITIONS AND NOTATIONS

We rst recall some basic denitions. If a Banach space X = (X, ) of all (classes of)

measurable functions x(t) on I = [0, 1] is such that there exists u X with u > 0 a.e. on I

and x y whenever |x| |y|, we say that X is a Banach function space (on I = [0, 1] ).

A Banach function space X on I = [0, 1] is said to be a rearrangement invariant (r. i.) space

provided x

(t) y

X

y

X

, where

x

[0, 1] X

L

1

[0, 1]. By X

0

we will denote the closure of L

[0, 1] in X.

If

A

denotes the characteristic function of a measurable set A in I, then clearly

A

X

depends only on m(A). The function

X

(t) =

A

X

, where m(A) = t, t I, is called the

fundamental function of X.

Given s > 0, the dilation operator

s

given by

s

x(t) = x(t/s)

I

(t/s), t I is well dened

in every r. i. space X and

s

XX

max(1, s). The Boyd indices of X are dened by (cf.

[KPS], [LT], [BS] )

(X) = lim

s0

ln

s

XX

lns

, (X) = lim

s

ln

s

XX

lns

.

In general, 0 (X) (X) 1. It is easy to see that

X

(t)

t

XX

for any t > 0, where

X

(t) = sup

0<s<1,0<st<1

X

(st)

X

(s)

. A Banach function space X with a norm

X

has

(a) the Fatou property if for any increasing positive sequence 0 x

n

x, x

n

X with

sup

n

x

n

X

< we have that x X and x

n

X

x

X

,

(b) absolutely continuous norm if for any x X and every sequence x

n

of measurable

functions on I = [0, 1] satisfying |x| x

n

0 we have x

n

X

0.

Note that X is separable if and only if the norm of X is an absolutely continuous norm. From

the Calderon-Mitjagin theorem it follows that the r. i. space X with either the Fatou property or

separable one is an interpolation space with respect to L

1

and L

bounded in L

1

and L

XX

C max(T

L

1

L

1

, T

L

)

for some C 1 ([KPS], [BS] ).

2

The associated space X

surable functions x(t) on I = [0, 1] such that

_

1

0

|x(t)y(t)|dt < for every y X endowed with

the norm

x

X

= sup{

_

1

0

|x(t)y(t)|dt : y

X

1}.

X

with x

X

x

X

for every

x X. Moreover, X = X

with equality of the norms if and only if X has the Fatou property

( cf. [KPS], [LT]). If a Banach function space X is separable, then the embedding X X

is

isometric and X

= X

is also a r. i. space.

Among classical r. i. spaces with the Fatou property we mention Lorentz spaces L

p,q

, Lorentz

spaces

and

p,

, Marcinkiewicz spaces M

are M

0

and E

, the closures of L

in Marcinkiewicz space M

, respectively.

For other general properties of lattices of measurable functions and r. i. spaces we refer to

the books [LT], [KPS], [BS].

3. STRONG INTERPOLATION OF L

1

AND L

p

, 1 < p <

Our rst proof will use the notion of the associated operator. This notion was considered in

Banach function spaces with the Fatou property, for example, by Gribanov [G].

Lemma 1. If X is a separable Banach function space on I = [0, 1] and T : X X is a bounded

linear operator, then there exists an associated operator T

: X

given by

_

1

0

x(s)T

y(s)ds =

_

1

0

Tx(s)y(s)ds (1)

for all x X and y X

The proof is clear since the dual space X

.

Note that T

is unique and T

X

= T

XX

.

Theorem 1. Let 1 < p < . If an r. i. space X has either the Fatou property or is separable

and (X) >

1

p

, then X is an interpolation space between L

1

and L

p

.

Proof. We will rst show that if T : L

1

L

1

is a bounded linear operator such that T = T

|L

p

:

L

p

L

p

is bounded, then

T = T

|X

0 : X

0

X

(2)

is also bounded, where X

0

means the closure of L

in X.

Let T

1

be the associated operator to a linear bounded operator T : L

1

L

1

and T

2

the

associated operator to T

|L

p

: L

p

L

p

. Then, for all x L

p

and y L

, we have

_

1

0

Tx(s)y(s)ds =

_

1

0

x(s)T

1

y(s)ds =

_

1

0

x(s)T

2

y(s)ds.

Hence, T

2|L

= T

1

and we can consider T

= T

1

= T

2

. Then

T

: L

p

L

p

and T

: L

+ 1/p = 1. (3)

Since X is isometrically imbedded into X

it follows that (X

) = 1 (X) < 1

1

p

(cf. [KPS],

Th. 4.11 ) and by the Boyd interpolation theorem we have that X

is an interpolation space

between L

p

and L

. Therefore,

T

: X

is bounded. (4)

3

In view of (3) and Lemma 1 there exists the second associated operator T

: L

p

L

p

, which is

bounded.

We can extend T

1

. In fact, if x L

and y L

p

, then by (3)

T

y

1

= sup

x

1

_

1

0

x(s)T

y(s)ds

= sup

x

1

_

1

0

T

x(s)y(s)ds T

y

1

.

Since L

p

is dense in L

1

it follows that T

: L

1

L

1

is bounded. The uniqueness shows that

T

L

p

and for all y X

and x L

p

we have by (4) that

Tx

X

= sup

y

X

1

_

1

0

Tx(s)y(s)ds

= sup

y

X

1

_

1

0

x(s)T

y(s)ds T

X

x

X

.

Thus,

Tx

X

T

X

x

X

for all x L

p

X, which gives (2).

Now, let X be a separable r. i. space. For every x X we can nd a sequence {x

n

} L

p

such that x

n

x in X. From (2) we obtain Tx

n

Tx in X

. Moreover, {Tx

n

} L

p

X.

Since {Tx

n

} is a Cauchy sequence in X

it follows that

{Tx

n

} is a Cauchy sequence in X and so Tx X.

Suppose that the r.i. space X has the Fatou property or equivalently X = X

. Let y = Tx,

where x X and T : L

1

L

1

is a bounded linear operator such that T = T

|L

p

: L

p

L

p

is

bounded. Then

K(t, y; L

1

, L

p

) CK(t, x; L

1

, L

p

) t (0, 1]. (5)

There is a sequence of step-functions {y

m

} such that y

m

|y| a. e. on [0, 1]. We can take, also,

the truncations

x

n

(s) = min{|x(s)|, n}, n = 1, 2, . . . .

Since x

n

|x| a. e. on [0, 1], it follows that x

n

x

(5) and the Holmstedt formula (cf. [H], Th. 4.1 )

K(t, x; L

1

, L

p

)

_

t

p

0

x

(s)ds +t

__

1

t

p

(s)

p

ds

_

1/p

with x L

1

and 0 < t 1, we can show that for every m = 1, 2, . . . there exists n

m

N such

that

K(t, y

m

; L

1

, L

p

) C

1

K(t, x

n

m

; L

1

, L

p

) t (0, 1]

with a constant C

1

> 0 independent of m. Since (X

0

) = (X) >

1

p

(cf. [KPS], p. 143), then,

by above, the separable space X

0

is an interpolation space for the couple (L

1

, L

p

). But (L

1

, L

p

)

is a K-monotone couple (see [C], Th. 4). Therefore, from the last inequality we have

y

m

X

= y

m

X

0 C

2

x

n

m

X

0 C

2

x

X

.

with some constant C

2

> 0. Since X = X

, it follows

y

X

C

2

x

X

,

4

and this completes the proof.

Remark 1. Using results from [Ms] the proof of Theorem 1 can be a little shorter. Once

we have proved that the associated operator T

and L

p

, and the

second associated operator T

= T

is bounded in X

. In this paper we can also nd some sucient conditions under which from

the interpolation property of the space X between spaces X

0

, X

1

it follows the interpolation

property of its associated space X

0

, X

1

.

Theorem 2. Let 1 < p < . If X is an interpolation r. i. space between L

1

and L

, and

(X) >

1

p

, then X is an interpolation space between L

1

and L

p

.

Proof. If T : L

1

L

1

is a bounded linear operator such that T = T

|L

p

: L

p

L

p

is bounded,

then

K(t

11/p

, Tx; L

1

, L

p

) C

3

K(t

11/p

, x; L

1

, L

p

) C

3

K(t

11/p

, x; L

1

, L

p,1

)

for any x L

1

and all 0 < t 1, where L

p,1

is the Lorentz space generated by the norm

x

p,1

=

_

1

0

t

1/p1

x

(t)dt.

Using Holmstedts formulas (cf. [H], Th. 4.1 and Th. 4.2) we obtain an estimate

_

t

0

(Tx)

(s)ds C

4

__

t

0

x

(s)ds +t

11/p

_

1

t

s

1/p1

x

(s)ds

_

(6)

for any x L

1

and all 0 < t 1. For the linear operator

Mx(t) = t

1/p

_

1

t

s

1/p1

x(s)ds, 0 < t 1,

we obtain, by using the Fubini theorem,

_

t

0

(Mx

(s)ds =

_

t

0

s

1/p

__

1

s

u

1/p1

x

(u)du

_

ds

=

_

t

0

(

_

u

0

s

1/p

ds)u

1/p1

x

(u)du +

_

1

t

(

_

t

0

s

1/p

ds)u

1/p1

x

(u)du

= p

__

t

0

x

(u)du +t

11/p

_

1

t

u

1/p1

x

(u)du

_

K(t

11/p

, x; L

1

, L

p,1

).

Therefore, in view of (6),

_

t

0

(Tx)

(s)ds

C

4

p

_

t

0

(Mx

(s)ds (7)

for all 0 < t 1. We show that in any r. i. space X with (X) > 1/p we have the estimate

Mx

C

5

x for x X. (8)

Note that Boyd proved (see [B68], Th. 1, [B69], Lemma 2 and [BS], Th. 5.15) the boundedness

of the operator M in r. i. spaces X with the Fatou property. He showed that the operator M

is bounded in X if and only if the lower Boyd index (X) > 1/p. In particular, this result gives

the estimate (8) but only for r. i. spaces with the Fatou property.

5

To show (8) in general we rst note that the assumption (X) > 1/p is equivalent to the

property that there exist > 0 and A > 0 such that

XX

As

1/p+

for all 0 < s 1. (9)

For t (0, 1) we have

Mx

(t) = t

1/p

_

1

t

s

1/p1

x

(s)ds =

_

1/t

1

s

1/p1

x

(st)ds

=

_

1

s

1/p1

x

(st)

(1,1/t)

(s)ds

n=1

_

2

n

2

n1

s

1/p1

x

(2

n1

t)

(1,1/t)

(s)ds

n=1

2

(n1)(1/p1)

x

(2

n1

t)

_

2

n

2

n1

(1,1/t)

(s)ds

n=1

2

(n1)(1/p1)

x

(2

n1

t)2

n1

(0,1)

(2

n1

t)

=

n=1

2

(n1)/p

x

(2

n1

t)

(0,1)

(2

n1

t).

The space X is complete so we can apply the triangle inequality to innite sums in it and using

(9) we obtain

Mx

n=1

2

(n1)/p

x

(2

n1

t)

(0,1)

(2

n1

t)

n=1

2

(n1)/p

x

(2

n1

t)

(0,1)

(2

n1

t)

n=1

2

(n1)/p

2

n+1

XX

x

A

n=1

2

(n1)/p

2

(n+1)(1/p+)

x

= A

n=1

2

n+

x = A

2

1

x,

and the proof of the estimate (8) is complete.

Recall now the Calderon-Mitjagin theorem (see [KPS], Th. 4.3) which is saying that an r. i.

space X is an interpolation space between L

1

and L

satised: there exists a constant B > 0 such that if y X, x L

1

and

_

t

0

x

(s)ds

_

t

0

y

then x X and x By.

Putting together the estimates (7), (8) and the Calderon-Mitjagin theorem we obtain that

if x X, then Tx X and Tx C

6

x. Therefore, X is an interpolation space between L

1

and L

p

and the proof of Theorem 2 is complete.

6

We give a counterexample showing that in Theorem 2 we cannot omit the assumption that

the r. i. X is an interpolation space between L

1

and L

.

Example 1. This is the Russu example of the space with a slight modication of function

(see [R], Th. 1 or [KPS], Lemma 5.5). Let be an increasing concave function on (0, 1] with

(0

+

) = 0, lim

t0

+

(2t)

(t)

= 1 and its upper dilation exponent

= lim

t

ln

(t)

lnt

= 0. As a

concrete we can take, for example, (t) = ln

1 e

2

t

.

In the Marcinkiewicz space M

M

= sup

0<t1

1

(t)

_

t

0

x

(s)ds

we consider a linear space

G = {x L

1

: sup

0<t1

x

(t)

(t)

< }

and as the required space G we take the closure of

G in M

. G is an r. i. space. Since

GG

=

t

= t

) = 1

1 < p < . The space G is not an interpolation space between L

1

and L

[KPS], Lemma 5.5), all moreover G is not an interpolation space between L

1

and L

p

.

Remark 2. We can similarly, as in the proof of Theorem 2, show a more general result: Let

1 r < p < . If X is an interpolation r. i. space between L

r

and L

1

p

, then X

is an interpolation space between L

r

and L

p

. In the proof, it is enough to see that there exists

a constant B > 0 such that

_

t

0

(Tx)

(s)

r

ds B

__

t

0

x

(s)

r

ds +tMx

(t)

r

_

B

_

t

0

[x

(s) +Mx

(s)]

r

ds

for any x L

r

and for all 0 < t 1 and to use the fact that the couple (L

r

, L

) is K-monotone

(see [LS], Th. 2).

4. STRONG TYPE (1, 1) AND WEAK TYPE (p, p) INTERPOLATION

We have observed, after when the proof of Theorem 2 was done, that even more general

result is possible to prove. A linear operator T is called of weak type (p, p), 1 p < if T is

bounded from L

p,1

into L

p,

, where the spaces L

p,1

and L

p,

on I = [0, 1] are generated by the

functionals

x

p,

= sup

tI

t

1/p

x

(t), x

p,1

=

_

I

t

1/p1

x

(t)dt.

A bounded linear operator T : L

p

L

p

is called of strong type (p, p) and, of course, every

operator of strong type (p, p) is also of weak type (p, p) but not vice versa since L

p,1

L

p

L

p,

.

Boyd [B69] proved in 1969 that any linear operator T which is of weak types (p, p) and

(q, q), 1 p < q < , is bounded in a r. i. space X if and only if

1

q

< (X) (X) <

1

p

.

His result is proved for r.i. spaces X with the Fatou property (see also Bennett-Sharpley [BS],

Th. 5.16 and Lindenstrauss-Tzafriri [LT], Theorems 2.b.11 and 2.b13). This result however

is true for arbitrary r. i. spaces X (cf. our discussion in the Introduction or Th. 6.12 in

[KPS]). In the case when q = , i. e., for any operator T of weak type (p, p) and strong type

(, ), 1 p < , the one-sided estimate (X) <

1

p

characterizes the boundedness of T in X

(see [M81], Th. 4.6; cf. also [M85], Remark 5.9(a) ).

In the case of another extremal space L

1

the one-sided interpolation theorem about operators

in L

1

and of weak type (p, p), 1 < p < needs some extra assumption.

7

Theorem 3. Let 1 < p < . Any linear operator T which is of strong type (1, 1) and weak type

(p, p) is bounded in an r. i. space X if and only if (X) >

1

p

and X is an interpolation space

between L

1

and L

.

Proof. The suciency follows immediately from the proof of Theorem 2 since the estimate (6)

is still true. We must only show that if (X) >

1

p

, then L

p,

X. By Theorem 5.5 in [KPS],

it is enough to prove that

_

1

0

x

(s)

X

(s)s

1

ds C

7

x

p,

for all x L

p,

. The assumption (X) >

1

p

gives (9) and since the estimate

s

X

(s)/

X

(1)

is clear, we obtain

_

1

0

x

(s)

X

(s)s

1

ds A

X

(1)

_

1

0

x

(s)s

1/p+1

ds

A

X

(1)x

p,

_

1

0

s

1

ds =

A

X

(1)

x

p,

.

Necessity. The operator M is of strong type (1, 1) and of weak type (p, p). Moreover,

Mx

p,

x

p,1

for every x L

p,1

and Mx

1

p

x

1

every x L

1

. Then M is bounded in

X by assumption. If 0 < < 1/M

XX

, then the operator (I

X

M)

1

exists and is bounded

in X. Moreover,

(I

X

M)

1

x(t) =

n=0

n

M

n

x(t),

where the series converges in the operator norm and M

n

denotes the nth iteration of M. We

have

M

n

x(t) = t

1/p

_

1

t

s

1/p1

ln

n1 s

t

(n 1)!

x(s)ds

and the operator

M given by

Mx(t) = M(I

X

M)

1

x(t) =

n=0

n

M

n+1

x(t)

= t

1/p

_

1

t

s

1/p1

_

n=0

n

ln

n s

t

n!

_

x(s)ds

= t

1/p

_

1

t

s

1/p1

(

s

t

)

x(s)ds

is bounded in X. Since, for 0 < < 1,

Mx

(t) t

1/p

_

t/

t

s

1/p1

(

s

t

)

(s)ds

(0,1)

(t/)

x

(t/)

(0,1)

(t/)t

1/p

_

t/

t

s

1/p1

(

s

t

)

ds

=

(t)

p

1 +p

1/p

(1

1/p+

)

it follows that

x =

(

1

p

+)

1/p+

1

1/p+

Mx

(

1

p

+)

1/p+

1

1/p+

M

XX

x

8

and so

(X) 1/p + > 1/p.

We should also show that the r.i. space X must be an interpolation space between L

1

and

L

. If T : L

1

L

1

is bounded and T = T

|L

: L

Riesz-Thorin interpolation theorem T is of strong type (p, p) which implies that T is of weak

type (p, p). The assumption on X gives that T is also bounded in X, and the proof is complete.

Remark 3. Theorem 3 can be generalized (cf. Remark 2): Let 1 r < p < . Any linear

operator T which is of strong type (r, r) and weak type (p, p) is bounded in an r. i. space X if

and only if (X) >

1

p

and X is an interpolation space between L

r

and L

.

Remark 4. Theorems 2 and 3 can also be proved when the r. i. spaces are on the interval

(0, ). We then only need to control that (X) >

1

p

implies L

1

L

p,

X L

1

+L

p,1

, which

is in fact true. Note also that Theorems 2 and 3 are valid for quasilinear operators.

REFERENCES

[BS] C. Bennett and R. Sharpley, Interpolation of Operators, Academic Press, Boston 1988.

[B67] D. W. Boyd, Spaces between a pair of reexive Lebesgue spaces, Proc. Amer. Math. Soc.

18(1967), 215-219.

[B68] D. W. Boyd, The spectral radius of averaging operators, Pacic J. Math. 24(1968), 19-28.

[B69] D. W. Boyd, Indices of function spaces and their relationship to interpolation, Canad. J.

Math. 21(1969), 1245-1254.

[C] M. Cwikel, Monotonicity properties of interpolation spaces, Ark. Mat. 14(1976), 213-236.

[G] Ju. I. Gribanov, Banach function spaces and integral operators. II., Izv. Vyss. Ucebn.

Zaved. Matematika 1966, no. 6 (55), 54-63 (Russian).

[H] T. Holmstedt, Interpolation of quasi-normed spaces, Math. Scand. 26(1970), 177-199.

[JMST] W. B. Johnson, B. Maurey, G. Schechtman, and L. Tzafriri, Symmetric Structures in

Banach Spaces, Memoirs Amer. Math. Soc. 1979.

[KPS] S.G. Krein, Yu.I. Petunin, and E.M. Semenov, Interpolation of Linear Operators, Nauka,

Moscow, 1978 (Russian); English transl. in Amer. Math. Soc., Providence 1982.

[LT] J. Lindenstrauss and L. Tzafriri, Classical Banach Spaces, II. Function Spaces, Springer-

Verlag, Berlin-New York 1979.

[LS] G. G. Lorentz and T. Shimogaki, Interpolation theorems for the pairs of spaces (L

p

, L

)

and (L

1

, L

q

), Trans. Amer. Math. Soc. 159(1971), 207-221.

[M81] L. Maligranda, A generalization of the Shimogaki theorem, Studia Math. 71(1981), 69-83.

[M85] L. Maligranda, Indices and interpolation, Dissertationes Math. 234(1985), 1-54.

[Ms] M. Masty lo, Interpolation of linear operators in the Kothe dual spaces, Ann. Mat. Pura

Appl. 154(1989), 231-242.

9

[R] G. I. Russu, Symmetric spaces of functions that do not have the majorization property,

Mat. Issled. 4(1969), 82-93 (Russian).

DEPARTMENT OF MATHEMATICS, SAMARA STATE UNIVERSITY

AKAD. PAVLOVA 1, 443011 SAMARA, RUSSIA

E-mail address: astashkn@ssu.samara.ru

DEPARTMENT OF MATHEMATICS, LULEL

A UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY

SE-971 87 LULE

A, SWEDEN

E-mail address: lech@sm.luth.se

http://www.sm.luth.se/lech/

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