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Understanding Kidney A.

Structure of Kidney

Kidney cross section

Ginjalmerupakan organs shaped like kidney beans. In humans, kidney berukur's fist-sized, long 10 Sampa is measuring 12 cm, width 5-6 cm, and thick, 3-4 cm, weighing about 140 grams. In cross kidneys, visible parts are different. The sections are from outside into the cortex, medulla, and pelvis. In the renal cortex and medulla there are about 1 million nephrons. Nephron is the structural and functional unit of the smallest of the kidney. Nephron serves as a screening tool. Nephron is shaped like a large worm-headed eagle with a body like the winding. At the head there is a fine mesh that can only be bypassed by certain substances. Blood cells and blood proteins can not pass through this filter because it was bigger. The composition of the nephron consists of the following sections. Figure kidney nephron

1) Malpighian Body, which includes Bowman's capsule and glomerulus. 2) convoluted tubules including proximal tubules, Henle, and distal tubules. Some tubular-shaped winding, and some straight. The first section of the tubular winding, called the proximal tubule. After that there is a loop of Henle. Tubule weaved again as the second bend of the distal tubule called then concatenated with the tubule reservoir across the cortex and medulla. Each nephron consists of malpighi body. In this malpighi there is a section called Bowman's capsule-shaped bowl and in it there is glomerus. In the glomerular capillaries have blood. Kidney Structure picture B. Kidney Function As one means of excretion, renal very important role and can not be replaced by other organs. If someone is experiencing renal dysfunction, then he must use a substitute to perform its functions, that is with a transplant (transplant) a new kidney. If not, then that person must undergo dialysis for life. Thus we should try to keep these organs so that no damage (interference).

In our bodies, renal function as follows. 1) Filtering / Cleaning Blood The kidney is the nephron perform this function. Without the kidneys, then someone will die because his body poisoned by impurities that produced her own body. 2) Adjust the Volume of Blood Blood may set the amount of fluid that dissolved in the blood so that the volume is maintained to always balanced in the body. Without control of the kidney, then the worst will happen in the body, the body becomes dry due to lack of body fluids or body fluids lost due to overflow due to accumulate in the body not wasted.

3) Water Recycling, Mineral, Glucose, and Nutrition Kidneys will retain important substances that come into the nephron with blood fluid, then returned to the blood circulation. But the kidneys do not reabsorb these substances if the amount of excess in the blood. 4) Set the Balance of the Blood Chemistry Ingredients One example of this regulatory function is to regulate salt levels in the blood. Salt tends to bind water so that if blood sugar levels in excess lead to excessive fluid buildup in the blood and body cavity between cell to cell. If so, then the members of the body such as face, hands and feet will swell. Another consequence of job aggravate the heart in pumping blood because of the fluid in the blood. Based on the grounds that the kidney will remove the excess salt levels in the blood to be balanced again. The kidneys also regulate potassium levels in the blood. If the levels of potassium in the blood decreases, the kidneys will reabsorb the potassium. Conversely, if the number of kidneys will get rid of excess potassium. Other substances that need to be maintained balance is urea which is a waste of protein digestion, because the excess urea can lead to poisoning disease called uremia. 5) Maintain Blood that is not too acid The kidneys play a role in maintaining blood pH that is not too acidic. 6) Producing Hormones The hormone is a hormone produced eritroprotein that serves to stimulate an increase in the rate of formation of red blood cells by the bone marrow. C. Urine Formation Process

As a means of excretion, the kidney plays a role in the process of urine formation. Formation of urine through a long series of processes and certain stages, as follows. 1) Filtration At this stage, there was a screening of toxic substances that occur in the body malpighi. In this malpighi bodies, Bowman's capsule filter substances from the blood in the glomerulus. The blood still contains a lot of water, salt, sugar, urea, and others. After experiencing filtering, formed glomerular filtrate. The filtrate is called the primary urine. In the primary urine still contained many substances that are needed by the body. These substances include glucose, urea salts, amino acids, uric acid, unless the protein is not found here. As many as 99% of glomerular filtrate is reabsorbed later still going. 2) reabsorption Primary urine from the glomerulus then channeled toward the proximal tubule. Here, the primary urine is experiencing the re-absorption of substances that are still used by the body, such as glucose, amino acids, and water. Substances that are absorbed back will be returned to the blood through the blood capillaries around the tubules, sodium absorption also occurs in the loop of Henle, the rest will form a secondary urine. In the secondary urine contained no useful substance. Here are found high levels of urea. 3) Augmentation Secondary urine that has been formed and then passed into the distal tubule. Here is a process of augmentation, ie the absorption of water and the addition of substances such as H +, K +,

creatinine and urea in the urine so the urine contains only substances that really are not useful anymore. Through this augmentation process will form a real urine. Urine will be collected through the collecting vessels into the cavity of the kidney and then flowed into the bladder or urinary vesicles, ureter through the channel. In the bladder, urine is experiencing temporary shelter there. After that, the urine will be expelled through the urethra into the hole channel of art. Is sometimes the case for the person's urine contained protein. If that happens, what part of the kidney can not function properly? Already explained above that the protein is not in the primary urine, so when there is screening at the Bowman's capsule, the glomerulus is not functioning properly. Every day about 1,700 liters of blood into the kidney. Of blood volume, causing the liquid into the nephron approximately 170 liters. From 170 liters of liquid, amounting to 168.3 liters of which is reabsorbed by the kidneys, while the remaining 1.7 liters will be issued in the form of urine. D. Composition of Urine

Urine is a waste of metabolic waste substances. Substances contained in urine, among others, as follows: 1) U U is the end result of protein metabolism. U derived amino acid that contains no ammonia acid anymore, because amoniaknya been moved to the liver. Urea secreted an average of 30 grams per day. 2) Creatine Creatine is a waste product of muscle substance. 3) uric acid Have normal levels of uric acid in the blood approximately 2-3 mg per 100 cc. From the amount of uric acid above about 1.5-2 mg are excreted in the urine each day. 4) Sodium chloride (table salt) Salts such as sodium and potassium chloride into the body through food, to offset the amount that goes through the mouth then this substance is excreted into urine. E. Factors Affecting the Number of Urine Urine is formed in the body to remove the remains of the metabolism of substances that are not useful. However, the formation of urine is greatly influenced by several factors, both external and internal parts, among others, as follows. 1) The amount of water you drink more water you drink the more the amount of urine. If you drink lots of water, as a result of water absorption into the blood a little, so that the discharge water more numerous and urine should look clear and watery. Conversely, if a little water to drink, as a result of water absorption into the blood so it will be a lot less disposal of water and urine is more yellow in color. 2) The amount of salt is removed from the blood In order to keep the osmotic pressure, the more consumption of salt is spending more and more urine. 3) The concentration of the hormone insulin

If the concentration of insulin is low, people will often remove urine. These cases occur in people who suffer from diabetes. 4) antidiuretic hormone (ADH) This hormone is produced by the pituitary gland rear. If the blood contains little water, then it will be a lot of ADH is secreted into the kidney, resulting in increased water absorption so that the urine is concentrated and there are few in number. Conversely, if the blood contains a lot of water, the ADH is secreted into the kidney is reduced, resulting in reduced water absorption, so it will dilute the urine that occurs and numerous. 5) The temperature of the environment When the ambient temperature of the cold, the body will strive to maintain its temperature by reducing the amount of blood flowing to the skin so that blood will be more leading organs, including kidneys. If the amount of blood to the kidneys samakin a lot, then spending too much urine. 6) The turmoil of emotions and stress If someone is experiencing stress, blood pressure will increase so much blood to the kidneys. Moreover, when people are in emotional state, then the bladder will contract. Thus, there arose a desire to urinate. 7) Drink alcohol and caffeine Alcohol can inhibit the formation of antidiuretic hormone. Someone who drink alcohol and caffeine, the amount of urine will increase. f.Kelainan on Kidney In front of the description has been explained that the excretion of essential made by our bodies. However, due to certain factors, the process of excretion of the kidneys may be susceptible to interference.

Renal (Kidney) Several types of disturbances that occurred in the excretion system is as follows. 1) Diabetes Mellitus In these patients, the urine contains sugar. In the body of people with diabetes mellitus, there are decreased levels of the hormone insulin. Due to lack of the hormone insulin, the blood will contain lots of glucose. Excessive glucose in the blood are not all able to direabsorbsi that still come with urine. 2) Diabetes Inspidus The disease is caused by the amount of ADH in the body of a person decreases. Think back to the function of ADH that has been described in the front! Patients with this disease will often urinate, can reach 20-30 times more than healthy people. 3) Kidney Stones Kidney stones are formed from calcium and uric acid. Trigger the disease is partly because a few drinks and often hold urine, so that the substance will settle. In addition, kidney stones can also be caused due to abnormalities in the metabolism of the body. Kidney stones are usually located in the kidney or bladder.

4) Albuminuria The disease is caused due to damage to the means of filtration in the kidneys, so it still contains urine albumin or protein compounds. 5) anuria Anuria is a disease resulting from damage to the glomerulus. Tell me, what happens if the glomerulus is damaged? Recall glomerular function! Therefore, urine can not be produced. 6) Nephritis Nephritis disease caused by certain bacterial infections in the glomerulus, the glomerulus result will have the disorder. In these circumstances, the filtrate contains many proteins, so the urine still contains protein. In addition, urea should be wasted, will go back into the blood and consequently impaired water absorption. Finally, the water will be buried at the foot causing the leg to swell, called edema. In the event of abnormalities in the kidneys causing kidney dysfunction or kidney failure then one must undergo a kidney transplant or dialysis in addition to an attempt to replace the kidney function.