Você está na página 1de 18

Mata kuliah Semester SKS Kode Jurusan Program Studi

: ENGLISH ABOVE CLAUSE LEVEL READING :I :3 : SPE 4106 : Bahasa dan Sastra : S-1 Pendidikan Bahasa dan Sastra Inggris

MODULE 11
COMPREHENSION SKILLS:

UNDERSTANDING SEQUENCE OF IDEAS


Recognizing sequence in narrative text 2. Recognizing sequence signals 3. Following direction 4. Understanding selectivity of ideas 5. Recognizing flashbacks 6. Determining point of view 7. Distinguishing between a fact and opinion 8. Applying sequence skills in selections
1.

English Above Clause Level Reading : Reading for Pleasure and Skills ------------- Page 114

INTRODUCTION
Understanding what you read requires many skills that build one upon another. They range from simple to complex skills. At the base, or literal level, is the skill of reading and understanding ideas stated in the passage. Once you understand stated ideas, you can begin to recognize how they relate to one another and what the author perceived their relationships to be. Another level of understanding comes when you can infer ideas or sense unstated relationships that the author wanted you to know. In the following units you will focus on developing comprehension skills. You will work with passages grouped according to the different styles of writing: narrative, descriptive, argumentative, and analytical. In the remaining units you will work with expository material to develop comprehension and study skills related to text and test situations. It is important to remember that reading skills neither exist in isolation nor apply to only one type of passage. Rather, many reading skills are necessary to comprehend the types of passages you read in school, at home, and at work. Also, you gain a deeper understanding of passages when you recognize the special relationships central to specific writing styles or rhetorical modes.

RECOGNIZING SEQUENCE SIGNALS


Recognizing the chronological sequence of events in the development of incidents, stories, articles, and text passages helps you to comprehend narrative writing. You will understand the development of an idea when you note the sequence it follows and the words that signal that sequence. Practice Rearrange the following groups of facts in a sequence that is logical and that helps you to understand them. Group 1 Kindergarten High school Post-Graduate Elementary Junior High College Group 2 Childhood Middle age Infancy Adulthood Teen-age Old Age

________________________________________________ ________________________________________________ ________________________________________________ ________________________________________________ ________________________________________________ ________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________________________________________

English Above Clause Level Reading : Reading for Pleasure and Skills ------------- Page 115

Practice Use each sequence signal word in its logical place in the paragraph. 1. next finally before first ________________I registered for my classes, I ______________read the college catalogue. ___________, I checked my curricular requirements. _________________, I went to registration and picked up my course card. 2. second first when later My career counsellor told me that_____________i must fill out a job questionnaire. The___________ requirements was that i list my available hours by day and time. _______________ I finished that, we had an interview. _________________, we considered the opportunities that would suit me.

FOLLOWING DIRECTIONS
Sequence signal words help you to understand the chronological arrangement of events in essays, articles, and stories. Read the example to understand how sequence signals also help you to understand and follow and instructors direction for work in class, on test, and in texts. Example 1. Before you bring up your paper, be sure to review the essay. 2. Trace the path that blood follows in the body. Questions 1. In example one, what should you do first-review the essay or bring up your paper?_______________________________________________________ 2. In example two, how does the instructor indicate that a chronological sequence is required?_____________________________________________________ When you recognize that an instructors directions usually signal the order for completing work, you can better understand what your instructor requires. Following that order often simplifies the task required.

Instructor often signals the specific order in which they want and assignment or test item completed. They use words and phrases such as trace and develop to indicate that they want a sequentially developed answer. Nothing any sequence signal words can help you complete the assigned work according to your instructors directions.

Practice Read the following paragraph and answer the questions TRUE (T) or FALSE (F) based on your understanding of the chronological sequence of ideas. Professor Martin wanted to be certain that his students finished all parts of the midterm exam. Thus, he wrote very specific directions for all of parts of the rest. For part I, he told

English Above Clause Level Reading : Reading for Pleasure and Skills ------------- Page 116

students to begin by answering only those questions known to them and to omit the rest. Part II, the essay section, required more time and thought. He told his students to read carefully the four essay choices and then to select one essay. Part III was a matching question. Professor Martin told his students to work on this next before going to Part I. Students could then fill in the unanswered questions in Part I. Finally, he encouraged them to reread their essays before turning in their completed exams. __________1. __________2. __________3. __________4. Students began by answering all questions in Part I. The second instructions students received was to write an essay. Students were told to review part I before moving to the matching questions. Because the essay section required time and thought, Professor Martin instructed his students to write the essay last. __________5. Students worked on portions of the exam before they completed part I.

UNDERSTANDING SELECTIVIY OF IDEAS


Read the following example to determine how the author selects important ideas for developments in a sequence. Example It is very difficult to believe that i am finally graduating. Yet, i am sitting here, listening to speakers praise the class and urge us to continue in our pursuit of knowledge. It seems like only yesterday that i entered school, a recent newcomer to the United States. I remember how nervous and exited i was. My freshman year was filled with wonderful discoveries: new friends, courses, instructors, responsibilities, and new impressions of school life in America. By my sophomore year i had settled into a routine and began to concentrate on my courses. Perhaps i experienced my most difficult moments during the third year when i was required to make a career choice, one that would change the direction of my studies. I then settled into my senior year with a full schedule of interviews, job placement sessions, and job applications. And now, suddenly, it is all behind me. As i listen to the speakers and look at my friends and family, i am one again filled with excited anticipation about the future awaiting me.

Questions 1. List the years that were highlighted in this passage: _____________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ 2. Were the events discussed in a chronological order?_____________________________ 3. Were all the events in this studentss college career discussed?_____________________ Why?_________________________________________________________________ Authors cannot write about every event as it develops in a passage. Therefore, they select key events or ideas to highlight the development of the story, incident, article, or text passage.

English Above Clause Level Reading : Reading for Pleasure and Skills ------------- Page 117

Recognizing that authors are selective in presenting ideas and events in stories, essays, news articles, and text passages can help you to understand the ideas that are important in the development of the selection.

Practice Check the key ideas that you might select to develop each example. 1. Baking a cake is no difficult if one follows certain guidelines. ________have the proper ingredients and utensils ready. ________Follow the recipe directions. ________Listen to the radio. ________Invite friends to help select the type of cake you will make. ________Allow enough time for the cake to cool. ________Clean up afterwards. 2. There are many stages a child goes through in learning to socialize with others. ________Sleeping through the night. ________Living with brothers and sisters. ________Learning to walk. ________Going to nursery school. ________Selecting a school. ________Going to kindergarten. ________Going to elementary school. Practise For each sample statement, write the ideas you might develop in a chronological essay. 1. There are many stages one goes through in developing a relationship with a man (woman). ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ 2. My weekend routine follows a very logical pattern. ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________

English Above Clause Level Reading : Reading for Pleasure and Skills ------------- Page 118

RECOGNIZING FLASHBACKS
Authors are selective when they interrupt the chronological order of the passage to provide a flashbackan episode or idea that occurred earlier and is inserted in the middle of the passage because it illustrates a character trait or a point of development. Authors use certain sequence words to signal the flashback when it interrupts the chronological order. Example I was working across Hyde park to meet a British friend for launch, and the gravel on the broad path crunched under my feet. Suddenly----I dont know why----I remembered the feel of hard sand on New Jersey beaches when i would run out of the cold ocean to wrap myself in a great towel. I remembered the endless hours spent building sand castles. Now, I was to meet a friend around the corner from the Royal Lancaster Hotel----From Welcome back. Baby!. Questions 1. Where do the events take place that start and end the sequence?___________________ ____________________________________________________________________ 2. What event causes the author to remember her past?___________________________ 3. ____________________________________________________________________ 4. What does the author remember?__________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________

You can better understand the special sequential relationship of ideas and events when you recognize the use of the Flashback. The flashback helps to explain an idea, event, or character by interrupting the narrative with some incident that took place in the past. Practise In the following paragraphs, space is provided for a flashback. Consider the idea the author expresses and develop a flashback for that idea. I now have an excellent chance of getting a promotion with my company. Besides my years on the job and my willingness to accept greater responsibility, i am careful performing those tasks assigned to me and take great pride in a job well-done. For example, i used to have a job as_____________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ With this kind of experience, i feel confident that i will soon be rewarded.

English Above Clause Level Reading : Reading for Pleasure and Skills ------------- Page 119

I have lived in this town for two years and have learned a great deal about small-town life. It has taken me quite a while to become accustomed to the slow pace of living. I used to rush to_________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ I learned from that experience and believe that i will continue to learn from the people and their way of life in this town.

DETERMINING POINT OF VIEW


Narrative writing has a narrator, someone who tells the story. Read the following example to determine the importance of knowing who the narrators are and what personal feelings (opinions) the narrators may be expressing. Example Narrator A Over the years my husband and i have seen our neighbourhood grow and change in character. Twenty years ago the people with whom we socialized were involved in the same activities. We belonged to the same clubs, our children attended the same schools, and we shopped together. Then, some of our friends moved because of job relocations. A wonderful couple, newly arrived in this country, moved in the next door and soon began to share some of their traditions with me: new foods, music, and customs. In the past few years, people from many parts of this country, and some immigrants, have enriched my experiences. Now, as i look around, i realize how many new and interesting activities Ive become involved in. Questions 1. Who relates the experience in A?______________________________________________ 2. Who relates the experience in B?______________________________________________ Narrator B Over the years my wife and i have seen our neighbourhood change completely. Twenty years ago i knew everyone on the block, we belonged to the same clubs, shared the same ride to the office, and enjoyed each others company at social activities. Then, some of my friends moved because of job relocations. Newcomers moved in and soon set up ethnic stores, special houses of worship, and even separates schools. In the past few years, more and more new people have taken over the neighbourhood. Now, as i look around, i realize that i have nothing in common with these newcomers. I stay to myself and look forward to the day when i can get out of this neighbourhood.

English Above Clause Level Reading : Reading for Pleasure and Skills ------------- Page 120

3. Are the dame basic facts developed in A and B?____________________________________ 4. What is the key idea developed in A?___________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ 5. What is the key idea developed in B?___________________________________________ 6. _______________________________________________________________________ 7. Does each narrator express the same or a different attitude about the key idea?__________ ________________________________________________________________________ Authors often write stories, essays, and articles to express opinions about people, places, events, or ideas. By understanding who the narrator is and what the suited facts are, you can sense stated and/or unstated opinions developed by the author.

Recognizing who the narrator is and the point of view, or opinion the narrator expresses can give you a better understanding of the authors attitudes about people, places, events, and ideas.

DISTINGUISHING BETWEEN A FACT AND AN OPINION


Recognizing an authors point of view depends on your ability to distinguish between facts and opinions. Read the following example to note that distinction. Example I believe that most Americans would not want my job. I work from nine to five, six days a week. The room i work in is 14 by 20 feet. Ten people work in that space. There are no windows. Were given twenty minutes for lunch. There is no overtime pay. Questions 1. What opinion about his job does the author express? Underline it. 2. Highlight the facts that the author uses to develop that opinion. When you understand the difference between a fact and an opinion, you can begin to understand statements that express a point of view. Statements that can be directly proven or disproven with evidence are considered facts. Opinions cannot be proven or disproven. A writer can, however, persuade the reader to accept an opinion by presenting supporting facts. A fact can be proven or disproven with direct evidence. Often a writer states an opinion and expresses an attitude or feeling about people, places, events, situations, or ideas. The author can use the facts as a basis for persuading the reader that the opinion is correct. Distinguishing between facts and opinions will help you to understand a selection. You will achieve a deeper level of comprehension in your reading.

English Above Clause Level Reading : Reading for Pleasure and Skills ------------- Page 121

Practise Read the following sentences. If the statement can be proven or disproven with direct evidence, write FACT. If a statement expresses the authors attitude, write OPINION. ________________1. The federal judge dismissed the discrimination case. _________________2. The mayors landslide victory clearly shows the publics total support for his policies. _________________3. The plan to protect the people who live and work near the nuclear power plant is inadequate and may never be workable. _________________4. Dental schools across the country are finding that requests for applications are decreasing. _________________5. Our criminal justice system is in great trouble. _________________6. Three million credit cards are stolen every year. _________________ 7. Singled head-of-household arrangements are becoming very popular in America. _________________8. Polls of sportswriters show a majority favour the new baseball rules. _________________9. The robbery suspects were arrested in a twenty-mile car chase. ________________10. I feel that the closing of the factory will destroy the economy of this region.

APPLYING SEQUENCE SKILLS IN SELECTIONS


You now have the opportunity to apply comprehension skills to passages similar to those you read daily in newspaper and magazines. Before you read a selection, familiarize yourself with the vocabulary that has been previewed. Then, as you read, be aware of the sequence of ideas, the use of flashbacks, and any stated or unstated opinions. Each selection is followed by questions that focus on the skills of understanding vocabulary, stated facts, sequence of ideas, authors point of view, and predictions. Finally, you will practice using these skills as you complete a writing assignment. Selection 1 : ....And, on Shaky Grounds by Miguel C. Vocabulary Preview The following terms appear in the reading. Knowing their meanings will help you to understand the selection. Idioms Nothing off Piece-rate Suited for Take it for granted Meanings No amount of money taken from ones salary Money paid for each item worked on and completed rather than a set wage for hours worked Qualified for a certain type of employment Assume as certainty

English Above Clause Level Reading : Reading for Pleasure and Skills ------------- Page 122

Vocabulary Arrested Benefits Deductions Officially Raid Status Sweatshop Stopped the symptoms of a disease either temporarily or permanently Conditions provided for the good of the person Money taken from ones salary Legally authorized A surprise search for the purpose of seizing something The position of a person before the law A business employing workers at low wages, for long hours, and under poor conditions

I got my first job here in New York years ago, in a loft on Broadway, just up from 14th street. A fur factory. In those days, immigration used to raid the 14th street subway station. A priest warned me about this. He said: When you get off the subway, make sure youre carrying a copy of the daily news. And if anybody comes up to you and ask anything, just say, Bull-----. Then hours in that factory were eight hours a day, six days a week. The pay was all on a pierce-rate that worked out to be less than minimum wage. We got paid in cash----nothing off for taxes or Social Security. Because the business didnt officially exist : it had no books, no accounts, nothing of that kind. Since them, my wife and i have worked in many placesmostly in factories on Canal Street and Broadway that make some kind of womens clothing. The hours are still the same (though some places shut down at noon on Saturday). There are no benefits, no deductions, no union. I dont think too many Americans would want my job. Except, of course, for immigration. Working in one of these factories, you will soon be in your first raid : immigration coming down the lines, asking for your papers. Men and women diving into piles of clothes, or trying to hide in the toilets. In a restaurant uptown(other than the sweatshops, restaurants are where illegal find work), a friend of mine hid in the freezer for 20 minute.

English Above Clause Level Reading : Reading for Pleasure and Skills ------------- Page 123

The possibility of being deported, and the fear of it, is for all us the central fact. If immigration shows up at your front door, you must be ready to crawl out the back window abandon all your possessions and start over. You can never take it for granted that your home today will be your home tomorrow. It makes us, my wife and me, fugitives. Which is not something life in Ecuador had prepared us for. There, we were part of Ecuadors middle class----she was a lab technician, i worked in a Government Office. She had gone to a private schools, and had won several folk-singing contest. We may not be what you think of as the typical illegal immigrant couple, but remember, getting from Ecuador to New York requires enough money that it is really a luxury of the middle class. We came here partly because my wife had a lung condition that could not be treated in Ecuador. That got us our visas. We also came to make money. The visas have long since expired. Our one try at making our status legal, two years ago, ended with disaster. Immigrations doctor disagreed with all of us, and ruled that even though my wifes disease had not been cured, it had been arrested and so we would have to return home to Ecuador. But over the years, most of our relatives had come to New York----some with our help. What would we be going home to? We decided to move again. And so we disappeared, that time, out to Jersey city. Our lives here have been difficult in so many different ways. My wife sings as often as she can for Ecuadorean groups; yet we will never be thought of as Ecuadoreans hereat best we will be called Hispanic. No one can imagine that we might be literate; that we might be suited for work outside the sweatshops. And a real home is something we do not dare to even dream about. Yet we will do anything, and everything, up to the last minute, to stay. A friend of mine, a woman, told me as she was about to be deported: Just wait. When the plane stops in Miami, Ill walk over to the postcards, and then from there, when no ones looking..... Literal Comprehension Check the following statements that reflect information in the selection. ____________1. Men and women hide anywhere to escape immigration authorities and possible deportation. ____________2. Miguel came to America in order to make money and to get medical treatment for his wife. ____________3. Miguel and his wife are now considered true Ecuadoreans by their neighbours. ____________4. The couple will escape when the plane stops in Miami. ____________5. Because they are poorly educated, Miguel and his wife can only hope to buy a small, inexpensive house. Sequence A. Number of the following events in their chronological order based on your understanding of the sequence of events in the selection. _____The couples visas expire. _____The couple moves to Jersey City _____Miguels wife is a lab technician, and Miguel is a government employee. _____Miguel and his wife make clothing in shops that dont officially exist. _____The couple obtains visas in order to get medical treatment for the wife.

English Above Clause Level Reading : Reading for Pleasure and Skills ------------- Page 124

B. Based on your understanding of the sequence of ideas in the selection, complete each of the following statements by writing the letter of the correct answer on the line. _____1. Before the couple moved to Jersey City a. They were deported b. They were recognizing as true citizens. c. Their visas had expired. d. They stopped to look at postcards in Miami. _____2. Factory workers tried to hide a. After they had jobs in official business. b. When immigration authorities conducted a raid. c. Before the authorities raided their business. d. When they arrived at the airport. _____3. The fear of being deported a. Decrease as the years go by. b. Is felt more by people who own homes. c. Increases for Miguel in Jersey City. d. Is a constant factor over the years. _____4. Before arriving in the United States, Miguels wife a. Won folk-singing contests. b. Sang for her countrymen in Jersey City. c. Was t]thought of as Hispanic. d. Worked in illegal sweatshops. _____5. Before arriving in the United States, Miguel a. Was warned about immigration raids on 14th street. b. Was a lab technician. c. Sent all of his relatives to New York. d. Worked for his government. Fact and Opinion A. The following statements appeared in the selection. If they can be proven or disproven with direct evidence, label them FACT. If they express the authors point of view, label them OPINION. ________1. .....getting from Ecuador to New York requires enough money that it is really a luxury of the middle class. ________2. .....she was a lab technician, i worked in a government office. ________3. Our lives here have been difficult in so many different ways. ________4. But over the years, most of our relatives had come to New York. ..... ________5. Our one try at making our status legal, two years ago, ended with disaster. B. Each of the following statements is an opinion. If you think Miguel C. Would agree, label a statement YES; if he would not agree, write NO. ________1. There is pride in working in sweatshops. ________2. The authorities treat newly immigrants fairly. ________3. The Department of Immigration should deport everyone who enters the country illegally. ________4. State and local authorities should close all sweatshops. ________5. People should stop coming to the United States, for there is no hope of succeeding here. Prediction

English Above Clause Level Reading : Reading for Pleasure and Skills ------------- Page 125

Decide if each of the following statements is a likely outcome based on the facts and sequence of ideas in the selection. Place a check next to those that are likely predictions. ________1. Miguel and his wife will have to move again. ________2. Miguel will remain an unskilled labourer. ________3. Sweatshops will continue to exist in the United States. ________4. As more Ecuadoreans join the community, Miguel will be less fearful of deportations. ________5. Miguel and his wife will find it difficult to become citizens of the United States.

Vocabulary A. Use the correct idiom in each sentence : Piece-rate nothing off 1. 2. 3. 4.

take it for granted

suited for

I have studied computer technology for three years and believe that i am ________the job. Dont___________that professor Stevens will quiz us on the lectures only. The_____________is lower for the job of addressing envelopes than for ironing shirts. My check was higher this month because there was_______________for taxes. B. Match the split sentences that follow. _______When i passed the exam _______Because of the heavy rains _______The benefits of this job include _______The sweatshops owner did not give _______The doctors think they have arrested _______When the police heard of the illegal gambling house 1. The game was officially rescheduled for the next evening. 2. Raises in salaries this year. 3. I achieved status as an American Citizen. 4. The fever and can now treat the basic cause of the illness. 5. A free health plan, dental insurance, and free eye examinations. 6. They decided to raid it immediately.

Writing Miguel and his wife faced new and uncertain experiences coming to and living in the United States. Similarly, each of you has faced and will face a totally new situation, whether in a new school, a new community, a new job, or in other circumstances. Think about a new experience you have had and relate it in a short, sequentially developed essay. Remember to select the key events to develop in chronological order. You can express opinions and use a flashback to help relate the events.

English Above Clause Level Reading : Reading for Pleasure and Skills ------------- Page 126

Selection 2: The Old-Time Bakery: A still Palpable Thrill By Jerry Buckle Vocabulary Preview The following terms appear in the reading. Knowing their meaning will help you to understand the selection. Idioms Convenience Store fast-food Honest-to-goodness Winding our way Vocabulary Casualty Era Homogenization Molasses Palpable (see title) Picturesque Premises Puffy vacate Meanings a small store with a variety of items for sale Food prepared quickly and cheaply for many people Real; in an old-fashioned or original manner Moving in and out along path Meanings Any person or group harmed as a result of an act or event A period of time marked by distinctive characteristics or events Blending unlike elements to become a kike Thick, dark-coloured syrup made in the refining of sugar Easily seen, felt, or heard Charming; pleasant; interesting A building and its land Swollen; inflated Give up possession or occupancy

WASHINGTONFor the first time that anyone can remember, in a place where people have pretty good memories, there is no honest-to-goodness bakery in Geneva, the small town in upstate New York where i was born 26 years ago. Two dozen churches, five funeral homes and two movie theatres but no bakery. Oh, you can still buy baked goods in the supermarkets or in the smaller convenience stores. But its not the same. Those stores have everything from breakfast cereals to antifreeze but they dont have a master baker such as Red Visco. And they dont give out free cookies to kids with their mothers. When i was a kid, my father was paid on Thursday morning and that afternoon we would go to the Acme supermarket in the Plaza Shopping Centre to buy enough groceries to last six children and their parents for a week. After winding our way through the aisles, we would go next door to the Plaza Bakery. What i saw and smelled there made me quickly forget the other store. It started even before i was inside. The windows were filled with the bakers work; puffy jelly donuts and molasses cookies, chocolate cakes and cherry pies and bread freshly sliced. Once inside, the attraction grew. Glass display cases were filled with everything displayed in the windows and more. You could almost see the aroma coming from the kitchen in the back. There was almost always in a line, but that did not bother me. It gave me more time to think about what i would buy if i had the money. The cupcakes were tempting but i usually choose halfmoon cookies, chocolate cookies topped with vanilla icing on one half and chocolate icing on the other. Standing in line also gave me a chance to study the women as they wrapped string around the white boxes that had blue lettering and a sketch of the bakery on top.

English Above Clause Level Reading : Reading for Pleasure and Skills ------------- Page 127

When it was my mothers turn to order, i made sure i was at her side and on my best behaviour because even before my mother had a chance to speak, the woman in the white uniform would reach over the country and put a big chocolate chip cookies for the kids. This policy and the bakery lasted 16 years. But one Saturday last December the last chocolate chip cookies was handed out to the last kid and Red and Mary Visco closed their bakery door for the last time. In doing so, they closed an era. The Plaza Bakery did not close for lack of business and the Viscos had planned to stay open at least until they reached retirement age in a few years. But last November a notice arrived in the mail from the owner of the shopping centre that changed those plans. The Viscos, who had been operating on a monthly lease for years, were told to vacate the premises by Jan. 1. The supermarket next door was expanding. The bakery had to go. Red Viscos was offered another space in the Plaza. But moving would have cost at least $5,000 and the rent would have been tripled. So Red Visco, a baker for all his adult life, decided to close his business. In an age when supermarkets have become concepts in total shopping, traditional personal service does not seem as important as it used to be. Convenience is more valued than craftsmanship. The changes in Geneva since my childhood have not been dramatic but the homogenization that is evident in so much of our country today can be seen there, too. Red Visco is not the only casualty. When i was a kid, we did not go to store to buy milk; it was delivered by milkmen from one of the local diaries. They drove funny-looking trucks that did not go very fast and made strange sounds. The milkmen had names such as Andy Brown and Pete Snyder. Milk used to come in bottles, and as the trucks made their way through the streets, you could hear he clinking of the glass. The bottles went first. Now the milkmen are gone too. Geneva is now a full-fledge member of the fast-food generation. McDonalds and Burger King and Dunkin Chips is right across the street. For most of the years i lived in Geneva, a picturesque restaurant called the Lafayette Inn occupied a spot on the hill overlooking the town. The restaurant was named for the Marquis de Lafayette, who stopped to rest across the road in 1825 on his 15 month tour of the United States. But the inn burned to the ground a few years ago. The bulldozers came, then the carpenters and builders, and now theres a Ponderosa and a Pizza Hut on the site. I wonder how many of the next generation will ever hear the story of Lafayettes visit to our town or have the chance to go to a real bakery with mother?. Literal Comprehension Complete the following statements based on your understanding of the facts in the selection. ___________1. The modern stores in Geneva a. Have no baked goods b. Offer traditional personalized service c. Are moderns of convenience shopping d. Usually specialize in one type of product ___________2. As a child, Jerry Buckley a. Went to the marker to buy bread b. Received free cookies from the Viscos c. Couldnt wait to visit McDonalds and Dunkin Donuts d. Met the Marquis de Lafayette ___________3. A Picturesque restaurant occupied the spot where a. The Plaza Bakery used to stand

English Above Clause Level Reading : Reading for Pleasure and Skills ------------- Page 128

b. The Pondorosa and Pizza Hut once stood c. The Marquis stopped to rest d. The shopping centre was built ___________4. Red and May Viscos closed their business when a. The number of customers declined b. Jerry Buckley was born c. They were offered another space in the Plaza d. The owner of the shopping centre tripled their rent ___________5. The changes in Geneva include a. A shift from convenience shopping to craftsmanship b. A decline in individual services c. A loss of total shopping services d. All of the above Sequence Complete the following statements based on your understanding of the sequence of ideas in the selections. ___________1. Jerry discovered wonderful sight and smells a. Before he entered the bakery b. For the last time sixteen years ago c. Twenty-six years ago in Geneva d. Both outside and inside the Plaza Bakery ___________2. Fast-food restaurants have a. Been replaced by a shopping centre b. Replaced the Lafayette Inn and the bakery c. Carried on the tradition of personal service d. Continued to serve the same food as the bakery had ___________3. The Lafayette Inn a. Replaced the Pondorosa and the Pizza hut b. Burned to the ground in 1825 c. Was a typically old-fashioned restaurant d. Is still enjoyed by the youth of Geneva ___________4. Red and Mary Viscos are noted for a. Sixteen years of individual service and fine baking b. Opening Genevas first convenience market c. Joining the Acme supermarket last November d. Supplying todays shopping centre customers with every baked item imaginable ___________5. Some highlights of Jerrys you were a. Getting free cookies at McDonalds b. Enjoying two movie theatres in town c. Knowing the delivery men and the store owners d. Stopping each Thursday at the Burger King

English Above Clause Level Reading : Reading for Pleasure and Skills ------------- Page 129

Fact and Opinion A. If the following statements from the selection can be proven or disproven with direct evidence, label them FACT. If they express the authors point of view, label them OPINION. ________1. The cupcakes were tempting ________2. They dont give out free cookie to kids with their mothers ________3. In closing their bakery door, Red and Mary Visco closed and era ________4. Traditional service does not seem as important as it used to be ________5. The milkmen drove funny-looking trucks ________6. The milkmen had names such as Andy Brown and Pete Snyder ________7. Oh, you can still buy baked goods in supermarkets ________8. The changes in Geneva since my childhood have not been dramatic ________9. There is no honest-to-goodness bakery in Geneva ________10.Convenience is more valued than craftsmanship B. If you think Jerry Buckley would agree with the following opinions, write YES. If he would not agree, write NO. ________1. Old-fashioned bakeries provided warmth and charm to their customers ________2. Stores today seem cold and impersonal ________3. Todays youth can develop close relationships with the store owners who serve them ________4. Modernization has destroyed the friendly, small-town spirit ________5. Growing up today can be as rich an experience as it was twenty-five years ago. Prediction Based on the facts in the selections, check those statements that are likely predictions. ________1. Traditional service will continue to decline as the concept of convenience grows in value ________2. In the future, most small stores will be replaced by convenience markets ________3. Tomorrows generation will have none of the experiences that Jerry Buckley had as a child ________4. More businesses will experience the homogenization that bakeries and restaurants have gone through ________5. People will eventually lose their desire for homemade and traditionally crafted items

English Above Clause Level Reading : Reading for Pleasure and Skills ------------- Page 130

Vocabulary A. Each sentence has been divided into two parts. Based on your understanding of the new underlined words, first match the sentence parts in Group A, and then match the sentence parts in Group B. Group A ___________The construction crew ordered the 1. Stayed in the sun too long building vacated 2. The molasses cookies grandmother had ___________We were eager to sample baked ___________When a fire was discovered, we 3. Left the premises immediately ___________My eyes became puffy because I 4. And they began work on the new housing development. Group B ___________When milk is thoroughly blended ___________A new era began with the use of ___________The first casualties benefited from ___________A palpable feeling of excitement ___________From our balcony we saw a

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Picturesque village Comes with any scientific discovery It is homogenized Computer technology Immediate medical treatment

B. Use each idiom in a sentence: Honest-to-goodness Fast-food

winding our way convenience store

1. ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ 2. ___________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ 3. ___________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ 4. ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________

Writing Jerry Buckley discovered and wrote about changes in the lifestyle in his hometown. Can you imagine, or have you seen changes in the places where you spent your childhood? Trace one or more changes in the life-style in your hometown or in your current neighbourhood. Remember to select key ideas, to follow a logical sequence, and , if you wish, to use a flashback illustration or explanation.

English Above Clause Level Reading : Reading for Pleasure and Skills ------------- Page 131