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Testing and analysis of ultrahigh performance fibrereinforced concrete panels

Graham Schleyer, Stephanie Barnett, Steve Millard University of Liverpool, UK


45th UKELG One-Day Discussion Meeting University of Liverpool, 31st March 2010

Constitution of UHPFRC
very high cement content very low water-cement ratio

very high superplasticiser dosage

fine silica sand (150-400 microns)

heat treatment after setting

small-size steel fibres

UHPFRC typical properties


Property Compressive Strength, N/mm2 Flexural Strength, N/mm2 Fracture Energy, J/m2 High Strength Concrete ~ 100 < 10 ~ 100 UHPFRC 150-200 20-50 20,000-40,000

Blast performance
5 T of TNT @ 30 m

standard concrete

UHPFRC

Flexural performance of 100 x 100 x 350 mm beam specimens


35 30

UHPFRC - 6% fibres

Flexural Stress, N/mm2

25 20 15 10 5 0 0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2.0 Deflection, mm

UHPFRC - 2% fibres

High strength concrete

Fibre reinforced concrete

Hybrid fibre beam tests


40 30

Stress, MPa

20

10

3% 13 mm 6% 13 mm 3% 13 mm 3% 13 mm 3% 13 mm 0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8

steel fibres steel fibres steel/3% 6 mm steel steel/0.5% PP steel/3% 25 mm steel 1.0 1.2

Deflection, mm

Small-scale tests
500mm x 500mm x 25mm thick panels manufactured at University of Liverpool Explosion testing at University of Sheffield Buxton site

Fibres
2% mix 4% hybrid mix 6% hybrid mix

Charge sizes (g)


200-600 400-800 200-1100

Stand-off: 500mm

6% hybrid mix / 500 mm stand-off

900g charge

1100g charge

6% hybrid mix / 200g / 200mm stand-off

Full-scale tests
3.5 m x 1.3 m x 100 mm thick panels manufactured in Melbourne by VSL, Australia (Ductal) Explosion testing in conjunction with CPNI in July/October 2008 Predictive modelling using Autodyn prior to the tests
Panel # Fibres Reinforced? Stand-off (metres)

1
4 2 3

2% 13mm long
2% 13mm long 2% 13mm long 2% 13mm + 2% 25mm

YES
YES NO NO

9
7 12 12

GL Industrial Services, Spadeadam

Reinforced panels (2% fibres), 100 kg TNT @ 7 and 9 m

Panel # 1 4

Standoff (m) 9 7

Maximum deflection (mm) 110 210

Permanent deformation (mm) 20 50

Unreinforced panels, 100 kg TNT @ 12 m


Panel #2 2% fibres 180 mm perm.

NO BACK FACE SPALLING

Panel #3 4% hybrid fibres 90 mm perm.

SDOF representation
Equivalent spring-mass system Actual structure with distributed mass m, stiffness k and loading w(t)

w(t)

KL = Fe / F KM = Me / M
m, k
Transformation factors based on deformed shape, strain range,...

ke

y(t)

Me y(t) Fe (t)

Effective bi-linear resistance function


R
Effective stiffness kE is selected such that the areas under the resistance-displacement graphs are equal
M0 M0

k2
M0 (yel)1 < y < (yel)2 M0

Rm
M0 (yel)2 < y < ym

R1
kE

k1
0 < y < (yel)1

(yel)1 (yel)E (yel)2

ym

Resistance function with softening


R R2 k2 R1 R3 R4 k3 k4

k1

Moment capacity of panels based on static design


250 Moment (kNm) 2% reinforced (#1) 200

2% unreinforced (#2) 150


4% hybrid fibres unreinforced (#3)

100

50

0 0 0.0002 0.0004 0.0006 0.0008 0.001 Curvature (1/mm)

Resistance functions
Resistance vs Deflection
120

Resistance vs Deflection
120

Resistance vs Deflection
120

Panel #1/4

Panel #2

Panel #3

100

100

100

80

80

80

Resistance

Resistance

60

60

Resistance
0 50 100 150 200 250

60

40

40

40

20

20

20

0 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350

0 0 50 100 150 200 250

Deflection

Deflection

Deflection

250

Moment (kNm)

2% reinforced (#1)

200

2% unreinforced (#2) 150


4% hybrid fibres unreinforced (#3)

100

50

0 0 0.0002 0.0004 0.0006 0.0008 0.001 Curvature (1/mm)

Autodyn prediction of Panel #1 2% fibres / reinforced / 9m stand-off


100

SDOF: 117 mm @ 25 msec

Summary
UHPFRC achieved superior performance over standard concrete Increasing fibre content increased both flexural strength and toughness but the increase was disproportionate Forced orientation of fibres close to the moulded surfaces of test specimens was found to have no effect on flexural strength UHPFRC panels performed well in both small-scale and fullscale explosion tests with no rear-face spalling

Project sponsors
EPSRC
Centre for Protection of National Infrastructure (CPNI) VSL Australia manufacturers of Ductal Bekaert fibres Elkem Materials microsilica Fosroc International chemical admixtures Castle Cement Hanson

Structural Materials and Mechanics Research current projects


Novel fibre-metal laminates for blast and impact resistance

Epoxy syntactic foam

Syntactic / metal foams for reducing shock loadings


Fibre-reinforced concrete for protective engineering applications Combined blast and fragment loading behaviour of steel plates
Al foam

Pulse pressure testing and analysis of steel plates with openings


Lightweight cable supported structures subject to blast fragmentation Micro-lattice structures for enhanced impact and blast protection
Micro-lattice structure Fibre-metal laminate

Pulse Pressure Loading Rig (PPLR)

DIAPHRAGM OR END PLATE CLAMPING FRAME SUPPORT PLATE

PRESSURE CHAMBER PLATE SPECIMEN

PPLR in Static Mode

SCHEMATIC OF PPLR

Max. pressure = 800kPa Max. specimen size = 500mm square (pressurised area) ~ 9msec rise time at 200kPa

PPLR in Dynamic Mode

Pulse Pressure Loading Rig (PPLR)


Support frame Clamping ring Diaphragm Test specimen Diaphragm Clamping ring
1 0.9 0.8 0.7

Pressure (MPa x10 )

-1

0.6 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1

Pressure chamber Pressure chamber

0 -0.1 0 0.02 0.04 0.06 0.08 0.1

Time (s)

2 1.8 1.6 1.4 1.2 1 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 0 -0.2 0

0.2 bar 0.5 bar 2 bar

Pressure (bar)

8 Time (ms)

10

12

14