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A racing bicycle, also known as a road bike, is a bicycle designed for competitive road cycling, a sport governed by according

to the rules of the Union Cycliste Internationale (UCI). The UCI rules were altered in 1934 to exclude recumbent bicycles.

The most important characteristics about a racing bicycle are its weight and stiffness[citation needed] which determine the efficiency at which the power from a rider's pedal strokes can be transferred to the drive-train and subsequently to its wheels. To this effect racing bicycles may sacrifice comfort for speed. The drop handlebars are positioned lower than the saddle in order to put the rider in a more aerodynamic posture. The front and back wheels are close together so the bicycle has quick handling. The derailleur gear ratios are closely spaced so that the rider can pedal at his or her optimum cadence. Other racing bicycles, especially those used in time trialling prioritize aerodynamics over comfort.

The wheels greatly affect the performance of a racing bike. The rim of the wheel can be shaped for greater aerodynamic efficiency making a triangular cross-section to form a teardrop with the tire. For hill climbs, however, energy losses due to the higher weight of most aerodynamic rims are greater than the aerodynamic drag reduction that they offer, so a traditional lighter box-sectioned rim is often used. Wheel moment of inertia is a controversial subject. In this article: wheel theory, the author does some calculations on wheel effects. Moment of inertia changes result in a decrease in watts of between .004 and .022%, while lower mass provided between .2 and .46%, and better aerodynamics provided between .6 and 1.8% decrease in wattage. Therefore, wheel moment of inertia effects are neither noticeable nor important. At the same time, a product launched in 2008 to dynamically alter the rotating inertia of bicycle wheels claims to have "outperformed the standard, equivalent wheel by 5.6sec/mile."[5] For aerodynamics and rotating weight, it is generally better to reduce the number of spokes in the wheel. For high-end wheelsets, the spokes can be shaped to have a bladed cross-section, further reducing wind resistance. The most common material for a wheel rim is aluminum alloy, with molded carbon fiber rims being a popular choice for pro-level racers and enthusiasts due to its weight reduction compared to a metal rim. Using exotic materials, race-grade wheelsets are very expensive. Riders who race often choose to own at least two pairs of wheels: a heavier, more durable, and cheaper wheelset for training, and a lighter, more aerodynamic wheelset for racing. To reduce both air resistance and rolling resistance on the road, tires are lightweight, narrow, and have a thin, smooth tread. They are inflated to a high pressure, typically around 8 bar (820kPa/120psi); track racing tires can be inflated up to circa 14 bar. Until recently, most racing bikes used tubular tires which have no beads: they are sewn around the tube and glued to the rim. These tires provide an advantage in weight (lacking the relatively heavy wire bead), rolling resistance, grip and pinch flat protection, but their greatest advantage lies in the ability to use a very lightweight simple box-section rim, rather than the U-shaped clincher rim. A U-shaped clincher rim must be made of relatively heavier gauge material to prevent the tire pressure from spreading the inherently weak U shape and allowing the tire to come off the rim. Advances in tire technology, however, have seen the far more practical (due to

greater ease of changeability) clincher (beaded) tire close the gap. Some manufacturers create tubular-clincher tires, where the tires are sewn around the tubes and have a bead, but there is some debate as to the effectiveness of a tubular-clincher tire. Proponents believe that it has all the advantages of a tubular tire made to fit a clincher rim, but critics argue that the design includes disadvantages inherent to both systems---the rim weight is still high, the tire is more expensive than a standard clincher tire, and repairing a puncture on a tubular clincher is as inconvenient as it is with a standard tubular tire. However, a particular benefit of the tubularclincher design is that the risk of pinch flats is very low (like the tubular tire), yet it allows the use of the more popular clincher wheel. Race bike components are collectively referred to as the groupset. The quality of the groupset determines how refined the bike feels, how much maintenance it requires, and contributes to the performance of the bike. The three major groupset manufacturers of complete groupsets for racing bicycles are Shimano, SRAM, and Campagnolo. Some companies only produce specific components of the groupset, such as Full Speed Ahead (often abbreviated to FSA). The companies have different design philosophies, and some cyclists have great brand loyalty for one or the other. In the early 1990s, Shimano introduced dual-control with a system called Shimano Total Integration (STI). STI is characterized by its combined brake and shift levers, or "brifters". Previously, the shifters were mounted on the stem, handlebar ends or the down tube of the frame. Dual control addressed the problem of having to reposition a hand to change gears. STI was followed by the competing Campagnolo/Sachs Ergolever. SRAM uses a technology known as Double Tap for their integrated shifter/brake lever. Other than this, the general design of a racing bicycle has changed little since the development of derailleurs. The road groupset levels that these companies offer are as follows, from highest to lowest level. The number in the brackets indicates the number of cogs on the freewheel. Shimano: Dura-Ace (10s), Ultegra SL (10s), Ultegra (10s), 105 (10s), Tiagra (9s), SORA (9s), 2300 (8s). Campagnolo: Super Record (11s), Record (11s), Chorus (11s), Athena (11s), Centaur (10s), Veloce (10s), Mirage (10s), Xenon (10s). SRAM: Red (10s), Force (10s), Rival (10s), Apex(10s). In the mid 1990s Mavic, known for their wheelsets, introduced an electronic shifting system which was pioneered in the Tour de France by American Greg LeMond and later on by Briton Chris Boardman, who liked the fact that the system allowed him to shift from his aerobars and his brake levers. The system did not catch on due to technological hurdles. In early March 2006, some pro riders were seen riding with Shimano electronic shifting groupsets; further testing in the pro-ranks continued during the next 2 years. In late 2009, Shimano released their electronically shifted Dura-Ace Di2 groupset, consisting of battery powered, servo actuated front and rear derailleurs controlled by electronic bar-end or brake lever integrated shifting paddles. Other components such as the crankset and brakeset are carryovers from the standard Dura-Ace 7900 group. Recently in 2010, Campagnolo officially announced the finalization of their yet to be named electronic shifting groupset. Unveiled as part of the new Pinarello Dogma Giro d'Italia road bike, the new electronic groupset appears to be similar in structure to Shimano's Dura Ace Di2 groupset in that it combines existing top of the line 11 speed Super Record parts such as the crankset and brakeset with new battery powered, servo actuated front and rear derailleurs

controlled wirelessly by an electronic Ergopower styled brake lever/shifter. No specific details about the operation, performance or pricing of the groupset have been released, but Campagnolo did announce that the Spanish Movistar cycling team will be the first professional team to use their electronic gear system in 2011. Carbon fiber has also become more popular for components. Shimano, Campagnolo and SRAM have introduced carbon fiber for their high-end shifters and brake levers, cranks, and parts of their derailleurs. Carbon fiber stems, handlebars, shoe soles, forks and seatposts are also more commonplace, including integrated stem/handlebar combinations. The advantages of carbon fiber are low weight as well as increased vibration damping leading to a more comfortable ride. my favorite food
One of my favorite food is the chicken. Since I was a child my mother gave me chicken. I like the chicken because is one of the healthiest food in the market. I eat chicken in different ways: fried, on the grill or in soup. My mother cooks chicken like three to four times a week but, I dont get bored of the chicken. In my family there are people who dont like chicken however; they have to eat it because they dont have options. When I go to the market I always choose the biggest chicken that I can find. My mother prepares the chicken in mole. Mole is a typical plate from Mexico that is serves with rise and red chilly. Many people prepare the chicken in different ways. I had tried other plates for example the Chinese food. They prepare the chicken very different but, is still delicious for me. When I lived in Mexico my family used to have farms so, we ate the chicken so fresh. The chicken that grows up in farms is healthier than the regular chicken we buy from the market. Most people like to eat chicken because is very popular and easy to cook. I like other kinds of food such as the fish and the beef. I used to eat a lot of fish when I live in Mexico because I live one mille away from the sea. I like beef but, I dont eat it too frequently because is not too healthy. The red meat is not so good for your heart however I eat red meat like two times a week. I like to try many kinds of food but definitely chicken is my first option. I love to go to the restaurant with my friends to eat chicken. Chicken is so recommendable for people who are in diet. Probably I will eat chicken for the rest of my life.

My Favorite Food There are many different kinds of food. My favorite food is fried rice.In China, most of the people in the south eat rice. And I like fried rice best. It's really delicious. When I go home from school, I am always hungry. At that time I always make fried rice by myself. I often cook it carefully and it is so delicious. It makes me happy. After eating it, I am not hungry any more. Fried rice is my favorite.
Last night I was at a Macdonals. And yes I do eat there on a regular baisis. Ok, anyway, I was waiting in line behind this really large man. Now I really felt sorry for this man. You see, when the waitress asked him if he would like to super size his meal for half price he said no. But I could tell that he wanted to say yes. It was at the tip of his tongue, and he was going to say it,

but his stern wife gave him this dirty look, so he was forced to say no. College papers on Speech on food

Fellow students. Today I am going to talk to you about food. I love food. I am also sure that everyone in this room has a passion for a certain type of food. Fellow students, I live to eat, and I am proud of it. Fellow students, may I ask, what is happening to society these days? Was the man I met at the restaurant just too scared to say that he wanted to super size his meal for half price? Is that it? Just reduce your daily intake of food for the sake of someone else? Wait a second...theres a word for that. Let me try to remember it. Oh yah, it called dieting. In my opinion, I call it peer pressure. Just because someone wants to lose weight, it doesnt mean that they have to make you lose weight too. Fellow students, stand up for your rights. Your rights to eat as you please and to weight as you choose. Fellow students, I am a foodaholic, and I am proud of it. For breakfast I eat, syrup with pankakes, now I repeat, syrup with pankakes, not pankakes with syrup and I drink coke. For lunch I eat deep fried chicken and I drink more coke. And finally for supper, I eat chips, and candy, caramel covered apples and some more coke. Now of course I snack throughout the day, eating vast amounts of candy. You name it, I eat it. As you can see, I am an asset to the blow hole. Fellow students, if you know anybody who was in the same situation as the man I met at the restaurant, please speak to me later. I will give you some additional information about my new club. Just eat it. We basically learn technique on how to stand up to non believers. For example, in the situation the man i met at the restaurant was in, we would probably say. NO I DONT CARE IF WEVE HAD A 15 YEAR REALATIONSHIP... IM SUPERSIZING ME MEAL ... SO THERE! Fellow students, I dont read the ingredients on food labels. I dont read health magazines, and I dont count my daily calories. But guess what, I am still healthy. And you can be too. Fellow students, by eating whatever you desire, you will be able to live a healthier life. I swear, I saw it on Dr. Phil show. As he once said, The eye is the controler, and what goes into you must be accepted by your eye. So I encourage you, fellow students, do yourself a favour. Go out there and live your life to the fullest. Live your life to eat.