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9100 Base Station Product description

9100 Base Station Product description

Alcatel-Lucent

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9100 Base Station Product description

Scope This document gives a description of the evolutions of the 9100 Base Station product range. Its major purpose is to provide general information about the enhancements of the 9100 Base Station product range,to give technical data for the different BTS configurations in GSM. Technical data in UMTS, multi standard GSM/ UMTS and RAN sharing configurations, are described in document "9100 MBS Product description".:

Preliminary notice: Present edition refers only to the products that are commercially available at the time of release of the document; products (cabinets, modules) of older generation are not mentionned except when applicable; for description of these equipment of older generation (e.g. of the radio modules, that are still compatible with most recent cabinets and can be used in conjunction with recent radio modules), reader is invited to refer to earlier editions of present document. The information contained in this document is subject to change without notice. Notice of proprietary information This document contains proprietary technical information belonging to Alcatel. By accepting this material, the recipient agrees that this material will not be reproduced or used in whole or part except as otherwise agreed between Alcatel and the recipient.

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9100 Base Station Product description

CONTENTS 1. GENERAL .......................................................................................................... 5 2. MAIN PRINCIPLES ................................................................................................ 7 2.1 Overall architecture .................................................................................... 7 2.1.1 2.1.2 2.1.3 2.2 2.2.1 2.2.2 3.1 Antenna coupling level ....................................................................... 8 Transceiver (TRX) level......................................................................12 Base station Control Function (BCF) level ...............................................13 Main principles: Standardization and modularity .......................................13 Main advantages ..............................................................................14

Mechanical and interface principles ................................................................13

3. MAIN FEATURES AND CHARACTERISTICS ....................................................................15 Radio - Telecom - Transmission......................................................................15 3.1.1 3.1.2 3.1.3 3.1.4 3.2 4.1 4.2 Nominal RF performances...................................................................15 TX Diversity....................................................................................19 2 RX Diversity .................................................................................20 4 RX Diversity .................................................................................22

Operation and maintenance..........................................................................23 Indoor cabinets description...........................................................................29 Outdoor cabinets description ........................................................................31 4.2.1 4.2.2 Outdoor MBO1 Evolution and MBO2 Evolution cabinets description .................33 Outdoor CBO cabinet description..........................................................36

4. CABINET DESCRIPTION.........................................................................................29

4.3 4.4 5.1 5.2 5.3

Sub-rack and modules organization .................................................................38 External battery cabinet for outdoor BTSs ........................................................40 Standard configurations ...............................................................................46 Low-loss configurations ...............................................................................47 Multiband configurations..............................................................................48 5.3.1 5.3.2 Multi-band BTS configurations without multi-band cell ...............................49 Multi-band BTS configurations with multi-band cell ...................................49 Configuration built with several cabinets and no split of sectors over two cabinets ........................................................................................51 5.4.2 5.4.3 Configuration built with several cabinets and the cell split over two BTSs feature .................................................................................51 Clock synchronisation of collocated cabinets ...........................................52

5. PRODUCT RANGE ...............................................................................................42

5.4

Configurations built with several cabinets.........................................................51 5.4.1

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9100 Base Station Product description

5.5 5.6

Extended cell configurations .........................................................................53 Options ...................................................................................................54 5.6.1 5.6.2 Tower-mounted amplifier...................................................................54 Transmission / telecomequipment ........................................................57

5.7 5.8 5.9 6.1 6.2 6.3 6.4 6.5 7.1 7.2 7.3 7.4

TX output power at antenna connector ............................................................57 Weight of modules and configurations .............................................................58 Technical data of 9100 BTS ...........................................................................60 Environmental conditions .............................................................................63 Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC)...............................................................67 Acoustic noise...........................................................................................67 Safety ....................................................................................................67 Product Environmental Attributes...................................................................68 Introduction .............................................................................................70 Power consumptions ...................................................................................72 Backup times ............................................................................................75 Power dissipation ......................................................................................76

6. ENVIRONMENTAL AND EMC ASPECTS ........................................................................63

7. POWER CONSUMPTION, BACKUP TIMES AND POWER DISSIPATION .....................................70

8. RELIABILITY AND AVAILABILITY ..............................................................................79 9. GLOSSARY........................................................................................................81

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9100 Base Station Product description

1. GENERAL
The 9100 Base Station range is designed to ensure an outstanding quality of service through very high radio performances and minimum service interruption, and to facilitate all kinds of evolutions: Site extension or sectorization, implementation of future features by software download only, evolution from coverage to capacity mode, evolution towards IP based transmission. In addition, special attention was given to ease of deployment and maintenance. The use of highly integrated modules and state-of-the-art components results in very high compactness and reliability. The highlights of 9100 Base Stations are: Outstanding quality of service due to - Very high radio performances, in particular - Guaranteed receive sensitivity, -111 dBm, is far beyond the GSM requirement, - Best-in-class coverage solutions (Twin TRXs with TX diversity, 4Rx diversity, low-loss configurations, High Power TRXs) offer various ways of maximizing coverage of existing or new sites, - Radio (synthesized) frequency hopping and antenna diversity may be used to improve spectrum efficiency. - Very high capacity, with up to 24 TRX in MBI5 ("AB" functional variant) & MBO2 Evolution cabinets, by using the Twin TRX and Antenna Network Evolution modules. - Minimum service interruption - Very high BTS availability due to both high module reliability and system architecture, - Optimized software release migration thanks to the 9100 Base Station capability to be pre-loaded and to store simultaneously two software versions. High flexibility - Wide possibilities of extensions and sectorization can be performed within the same cabinet, e.g., the MBO2 Evolution cabinet can accommodate up to six sectors with a 24-TRX total capacity, - Outdoor cabinets modularity provides flexibility for hosting extra optional equipment (transmission, batteries, etc.), - Same cabinet and system architecture for GSM 850, GSM 900, GSM 1800 and GSM 1900; 9100 Base Station product range includes mixed configurations (e.g. GSM 900 and GSM 1800 within the same cabinet), - High modularity, with a highly reduced set of modules and a common interface, - Large panel of configurations matching every customer needs, in particular possibility to use twin TRXs in capacity or coverage mode with remote switching between both modes that does not require site visits.

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9100 Base Station Product description

Ease of deployment and site interventions - High compactness (reaching 22 litres per TRX for the indoor configurations with 24 TRXs, or 71 litres per TRX for outdoor MBO2 Evolution cabinet in footprints respectively 0,3m and 1,15m), - Outdoor cabinets extension principle allows an easy site installation, - Comprehensive set of self-tests, - Minimum maintenance space necessary due to front access only. Future proof - ready for future features, e.g. GERAN Evolutions, thanks to a software-download based evolution strategy, - ready for IP transport, - UMTS ready: the MBI5 and MBO2 Evolution cabinets allow mixed configurations with 3x4 TRX GSM and 3x4 carriers UMTS (description in a dedicated document.)

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9100 Base Station Product description

2. MAIN PRINCIPLES 2.1 Overall architecture


The 9100 Base Station is based on a three-level modular architecture, consisting of: - Antenna coupling level, - Transceiver (TRX) level, - Base station Control Function (BCF) level, for which a reduced set of very highly integrated modules was developed. The information flow between the Air interface and the A-bis interface is presented below.
Air interface

Antenna network stage


ANC or ANB (note) )1)

Antenna network stage


ANC

Antenna coupling level Combiner stage (ANY) Combiner stage (ANY)

TRX level

TRX

TRX

TRX

TRX

TRX

TRX

TRX

TRX

TRX

TRX

TRX

TRX

BCF level

Station unit module Abis interface

Abbreviations BCF TRX Base station Control Function Transceiver

Figure 1: Overall 9100 Base Station architecture

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9100 Base Station Product description

2.1.1 Antenna coupling level The antenna coupling level is the stage between the antennas and the TRX level; it handles the combining functions as well as the interface with the antennas. A single Antenna Network module performs these functions for up to 2 or up to 4 TRXs, depending on its type ("Antenna Network BiTRX" or "Antenna Network Combiner"). For configurations of higher capacity, a Combiner stage can be added. Thanks to the Antenna Network flexibility and to this modular building, the antenna coupling level can be adapted to a wide range of requirements (reduction of attenuation losses, minimization of the number of antennas). The general functions performed at this level are: - Duplexing transmit and receive paths onto common antennas; - Feeding the received signals from the antenna to the receiver front end, where the signals are amplified and distributed to the different receivers (Low Noise Amplifier (LNA) and power splitter functions); - Providing filtering for the transmit and the receive paths; - Combining, if necessary, output signals of different transmitters and connecting them to the antenna(s); - Supervising antennas VSWR (Voltage Standing Wave Ratio). - Powering and supervising TMA through the feeder. Some of those functions are only available in a given type or a given version of the modules, as described in more details in following chapters. For those modules that include combiners (ANC, ANY), the hybrid Wide-band combining technique is used, since it avoids tuning problems and is more reliable compared to remotely tunable cavities. Moreover it is compatible with the Synthesized Frequency Hopping (SFH).

2.1.1.1 The Antenna Network Combiner (ANC) module The Antenna Network Combiner module connects up to four transmit signals to two antennas, and distributes the received signals from each antenna to up to four receivers (for the normal and the diversity reception). This module includes twice the same structure, each structure containing: - one duplexer allowing a single antenna to be used for the transmission and reception of both downlink and uplink channels- hence minimizing the number of antenna - a frequency selective VSWR meter to monitor antenna feeder and antenna - one LNA amplifying the receive RF signal, and giving good VSWR values, noise compression and good reliability

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9100 Base Station Product description

- two splitter levels distributing the received signal to four separate outputs so that each output receives the signal from its dedicated antenna and from the second one (diversity) - one Wide Band Combiner (WBC), concentrating two transmitter outputs into one, only for configurations with more than two TRX - insertion of 12V DC current in the feeder in order to provide power to TMAs when TMAs are used; there is thus no need for separate Power Distribution Unit (PDU) nor Bias-Tee (Feeder Lightning protections, that come with the ANC in case of outdoor BTSs, are themselves of a new type, compatible with this DC power feeding) (This function is only available with the new Evolution version of this module; it can be disabled, even if TMAs are used, in case those TMAs have their own PDUs). Each sector is equipped with at least one such stage, which features very high sensitivity reception, low attenuation, and minimum inter-modulation products. Except when explicitly mentioned, present edition considers only the new Evolution version of this module, that is equivalent from a functional point of view to the previous one with the following improvements: - reduced module size (1/4th of a subrack instead of 1/3rd) - powering and supervision of TMAs through the antenna feeders, - new "Snap N connectors" on the TRX side (faster and more secure connection, with compatibility with exiting cables as well as with new cables themselves equipped with "Snap N connectors" It is fully compatible with the former ANC; it can be used in any circumstance the former ANC was used, e.g. as replacement or for extensions; ANCs of two generations can be mixed in the same cabinet and even in same sector and can also be used either with the new Twin TRX module or with any previous TRX generation (e.g. EDGE + TRX). The ANC can be manually configured (on site) in two modes depending on the number of TRX in the sector and on the mode in which the Twin TRX module is used: - The No-combining mode for configuration up to 2 TRX if TX Diversity is not used, or up to one TRX if TX Diversity is used (two TRX ports must then be connected to the two Antenna Connector ports of a same Twin TRX module); in these cases, the Wide Band Combiner is not needed, and therefore bypassed as shown in the figure 2:

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9100 Base Station Product description

Antenna A TXA - RXA - RXdivB

Antenna B TXB- RXB - RXdivA

Duplexer Filter Filter LNA Splitter

Duplexer Filter Filter LNA Splitter By-pass function

By-pass function

WBC

Splitter

Splitter

Splitter

Splitter

WBC

TX RXn RXd

RXd RXn TX

TRX 1

TRX 2

Figure 2 : The Antenna Network Combiner - No-combining mode & No TX Div mode - The Combining mode for configuration from 3 up to 4 TRX if TX Diversity is not used, or up to 2 TRX if TX Diversity is used (two TRX ports must then be connected to the two Antenna Connector ports of a same Twin TRX module); in these cases, the Wide Band combiner is not bypassed, as shown in the figure 3:
Antenna A TXA - RXA - RXdivB Antenna B TXB- RXB - RXdivA

Duplexer Filter Filter LNA Splitter

Duplexer Filter Filter LNA Splitter

WBC

Splitter

Splitter

Splitter

Splitter

WBC

TX RXn RXd TRX 1

TX RXn RXd TRX 2

RXdRXn TX TRX 3

RXd RXn TX TRX 4

Figure 3: The Antenna Network Combiner - Combining mode & No TX Div mode

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9100 Base Station Product description

2.1.1.2 The Twin Wide Band Combiner (ANY) module The Twin Wide Band Combiner stage (ANY) combines up to four transmitters into two outputs, and distributes the two received signals up to four receivers. This module includes twice the same structure, each structure containing: - one wide band combiner (WBC), concentrating two transmitter outputs into one - two splitters, each one distributing the received signal to two separate outputs providing diversity and non-diversity path

TxA

RxA

RxdivA

TxB

RxB

RxdivB

WBC

Splitter

Splitter

WBC

Splitter

Splitter

Tx Rxn Rxdiv

Tx Rxn Rxdiv

Tx

Rxn Rxdiv

Tx Rxn Rxdiv

TRX 1

TRX 2

TRX 3

TRX 4

Figure 4: The Twin Wide Band Combiner module (ANY) For standard configurations (for details please refer to dedicated chapter), for which each sector is connected to two antennas (or one cross-polarized antenna), the Twin Wide Band Combiner module (ANY) is only necessary for sectors with five or more TRXs as shown in Figure 5 below.
Antennas

Antenna network Combining ANC

Twin combiner stage ANY

Twin combiner stage ANY

TRXs

TRXs

Figure 5: Configuration with 1x8 TRXs

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9100 Base Station Product description

2.1.2 Transceiver (TRX) level The transceiver (TRX) level covers GSM 850, GSM 900, GSM 1800 and GSM 1900 functionalities, including full rate, half rate, enhanced full rate, adaptive multi rate, GPRS/EDGE, antenna diversity, radio frequency hopping (synthesized hopping) and different ciphering algorithms. Present edition considers only the new Twin TRX module. This Twin TRX module is an ultra-compact TRX module that can be used in configurations in all generations of BTS cabinets and can be mixed with TRX of previous generations. The twin TRX module contains the functionality of up to 2 TRXs and has the same size as a single TRX module of the previous generation :

Previous generation: 1 module -> 1TRX

New Generation: Twin TRX: 1 module -> 2 TRX

T R X

TWIN TRX

The Twin TRX can work in two modes: - "No TX Diversity", or "Capacity" mode: in this mode, two TRX (2 x 8 radio TS) are used in the twin module. The two TRXs can be connected to different Antenna Networks belonging to different sectors (Twin TRX sharing). - "TX Diversity", or "Coverage" mode: in this mode, one TRX (8 radio TS) is used in the twin module, with TX Diversity function: the two branches of the twin module send the same signal, with an optimized time delay between both signals. Thanks to on-air combining and diversity gain, this mode is equivalent to a very high TX power (up to 175 W in dense urban and GSM 900, assuming a diversity gain of 2.9 dB). For the uplink path, either 2 way (optionally with TMA) or 4 way Receive Diversity can be used in order to balance the link budget. The Twin TRX module is a product evolution that corresponds to two different strategies in the quest for profitability:

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9100 Base Station Product description

- Reducing the cost of each BTS site: As the Twin TRX module brings two TRXs for the size of one previous TRX module, highly compact configurations are possible. These more compact configurations need less floor space (thus reducing rental cost) and consume less power. The maximum configurations are: up to 6 TRX in a compact CBO (3 Twin TRX modules), up to 12 TRX in an MBO1 Evolution and MBI3 cabinet (6 Twin TRX modules), and up to 24 TRX in an MBO2 Evolution or MBI5 ("AB" functional variant) cabinet (12 Twin TRX modules). - Decreasing the number of BTS sites necessary: With its best-in-class radio performance and the very high output power (equivalent to 175 W in GSM 900) when using TX Div, less radio sites are necessary to obtain the same quality coverage. Using 4RxDiv or 2RxDiv and TMA may be required in order to balance the link budget. 2.1.3 Base station Control Function (BCF) level This level is ensured by the Station Unit Module (SUM), which is the central unit of the BTS. There is only one such module per BTS, whatever the number of sectors and TRXs is ("Station Unit Sharing"). The main base station control functions performed are as follows: - Generating the clocks for all other BTS modules; the clocks can be either synchronized to an external clock reference - e.g. A-bis link, another BTS - or generated in a pure free-run mode by an internal frequency generator. - Ensuring central BTS Operation & Maintenance (O&M) application, - Handling the A-bis transmission links (up to two or up to four (SUMX) A-bis interfaces or one Gigabit Ethernet link (SUMX) depending on the support in the software release), - Handling Operation and Maintenance Link (OML) and Qmux (transmission equipment supervision) protocols, - Controlling the AC/DC function when integrated inside the BTS (Outdoor or Indoor AC configurations), - Controlling the battery (capacity, voltage, temperature), - Setting the optimal voltage and current for battery charging.

2.2 Mechanical and interface principles


2.2.1 Main principles: Standardization and modularity There is only a single type of subracks. A common interface for all modules has been defined. No dedicated locations within the subrack for each module are pre-assigned; the module location within the BTS is defined by the engineering rules, easy front cabling, optimization of thermal dissipation, easy assembly, dismounting and extensions on site.

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9100 Base Station Product description

All active modules have their own integrated power supply. Each basic module supports hot insertion and extraction. No service interruption is thus necessary during most maintenance interventions. A connection area is provided on the top of the indoor cabinet so as to link all external connections to the BTS (A-bis, power supply, external alarms, etc.). The BTSs have been designed in such a way, that an easy disassembling for recycling is possible. All modules are fixed in the sub-racks with Cam-Locks, which can be fastened and unfastened very quickly without need for specific tools. To fulfill strong vibration requirements some heavy weight modules in outdoor BTS are additionally fastened with screws. Snap-In technology is used as much as possible as e.g. for the fan cassettes, over voltages protection for data lines and signal inputs for external alarms. 2.2.2 Main advantages The main advantages resulting from the architecture and the mechanical principles chosen are: - The Antenna Network Combining (ANC) can be changed easily on site between Combining mode and No-combining mode, - The Twin TRX can be changed remotely from coverage to capacity mode, without requiring on-site visit, provided proper cabling was done at installation stage, - The addition of TRXs, or even sectors, is possible on operational sites. This can be made easier in terms of time intervention and outage if the necessary antenna coupling devices are already pre-equipped, - The selection of a BTS cabinet type depends only on the maximum number of TRXs to be provided in future; it is not linked to the BTS configuration, e.g. omni/sectored configuration, number of antennas or TRXs per sector. - The Outdoor MBO1 Evolution BTS can be extended on site to an Outdoor MBO2 Evolution BTS, by adding an MBO Evolution extension cabinet (MBOEE). - Easy commissioning and management of various configurations, - Open for future evolutions.

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9100 Base Station Product description

3. MAIN FEATURES AND CHARACTERISTICS 3.1 Radio - Telecom - Transmission


3.1.1 Nominal RF performances Frequency bands The hardware supports the GSM 850, Extended GSM 900, the GSM 1800 and the GSM 1900 bands:

uplink GSM 850 P-GSM 900 E-GSM 900 GSM 1800 GSM 1900 Speech Codecs 824 MHz to 849 MHz 890 MHz to 915 MHz 880 MHz to 915 MHz 1710 MHz to 1785 MHz 1850 MHz to 1910 MHz

downlink 869 MHz to 894 MHz 935 MHz to 960 MHz 925 MHz to 960 MHz 1805 MHz to 1880 MHz 1930 MHz to 1990 MHz

Full rate (FR), half rate (HR), enhanced full rate and Adaptive multi rate (AMR) are supported. The half-rate, enhanced full-rate and adaptive multi-rate functioning requires that the BSS software release and the other network elements also support these codecs. Ciphering algorithms The BTS range supports A5/1 and A5/2 ciphering algorithms; A5/0 = no ciphering is always supported. The TRX are hardware ready for A5/3. Twin TRX The Twin TRX module is EDGE capable; it can be mixed with TRX of previous generations, and used with Antenna Networks and and BTS cabinets of any generation; when used with cabinets of older generations, the maximum number of TRXs is at least the same as that initially possible (i.e. when using single TRX modules), and in many cases even higher. The Twin TRX module is available in GSM 850, 900, 1800 and 1900.

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9100 Base Station Product description

TX power of TRX (at TRX output) : The TRX module supports EDGE. The modulation and the Tx power can change dynamically on a per time-slot basis. When transmitting at full power, the RF performances for the time-slot are:
Frequency band GSM 850 (*) GSM 900 (*) GSM 900 HP GSM 1800 MP (*) GSM 1800 HP GSM 1900 (*) TX output power, GMSK 45 W = 46.5 dBm 45 W = 46.5 dBm 60 W = 47.8 dBm 35 W = 45.4 dBm 60 W = 47.8 dBm 45 W = 46.5 dBm TX output power, 8-PSK (EDGE) 30 W = 44.8 dBm 30 W = 44.8 dBm 30 W = 44.8 dBm 30 W = 44.8 dBm 30 W = 44.8 dBm 30 W = 44.8 dBm

(*) Note that for the Twin TRX, the TX output powers above are in capacity mode, i.e. each of the functional TRX achieves these output powers. In coverage mode, i.e. with Tx Diversity, a significant extra gain has to be considered (see "TX Diversity" chapter) thanks to on-air combining and diversity. RX sensitivity of TRX : The 9100 BTS has an excellent RX sensitivity of down to -117 dBm. This value results from the combined effects of: - an oustanding single-branch RX sensitivity of -111 dBm for FR speech channels, without TMA; this value is guaranteed in all propagation environments and all frequency bands, independently from the number of combiner levels; it is 7dB better than 3GPP specification requirements. - 2 RX Diversity, that is available in all configurations, and for which sophisticated algorithms are implanted (see below for more details on 2 RX Diversity and 4 RX Diversity). In GPRS/EDGE, the Evolium BTS achieves also superior performances, typically between 6 and 9dB better than 3GPP requirements. It is important also to consider the reference interference levels since GPRS/EDGE throughputs are very dependent on interference. Multiband capabilities Thanks to the high flexibility of the 9100 Base Station, GSM 850 and GSM 1800 TRXs or GSM 850 and GSM 1900 TRXs or GSM 900 and GSM 1800 TRXs or GSM 900 and GSM 1900 TRXs can be located in the same cabinet with a single Station Unit Module (SUM).

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9100 Base Station Product description

Synthesizer frequency hopping Synthesizer frequency hopping (or so-called radio frequency hopping) is supported by the whole BTS range, its use being optional. Two frequency hopping modes are available: - Standard RF hopping mode: A cell with N TRXs can have N-1 TRXs hopping (the TRX carrying the BCCH is not hopping), on M frequencies (M usually > N). - Pseudo baseband RF hopping mode: A cell with N TRXs can have all its N TRXs hopping on N frequencies. Power control According to GSM: Dynamic 30 dB - step size 2 dB. Synchronization The clocks can be - generated in a pure free-run mode by an internal frequency generator, - synchronized to an external clock reference: - A-bis link (PCM-synchronized), - Another BTS (slave mode), previous BTS generation may be used; Transmission Two physical A-bis interfaces, allowing a flexible connection of base stations to the BSC in star, chain or loop configuration, are realized according to ITU-T recommendations G.703/G.704. In case high throughputs (> 2 Mbit/s) are necessary on the A-bis interface, more than one A-bis interfaces can be configured as inputs for the BTS. A third and a fourth E1 link and a Gigabit Ethernet transmission option is realized on the most recent SUM hardware (SUMX). It addresses highest traffic demands and allows IP over Ethernet on the Abis link in the corresponding software release supporting those functions. In addition, Alcatel supports a signal attenuation on A-bis of up to 36 dB, which allows that base stations can be connected with increased transmission distances without any repeater. In case of BTS power shutdown, the A-bis link is not interrupted for the following BTSs (by-pass mechanism). For A-bis termination impedance value, two standards exist : 75 or 120 . Depending on the

country and /or the operator, the A-bis termination impedance can be one of these two values. The 9100 Base Station accepts the two values. It is configured on site, during commissioning, to the value used by the operator.

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9100 Base Station Product description

Microwave integration Microwave links are one of the possibilities to provide 2Mbit/s links required for connection to the BSC or to other BTSs. Microwave equipment are typically made of two parts: - a "radio part" that includes the antenna and the associated transmitter/receiver; this part is typically installed outdoor, where the antenna must be, and is thus also called the "Outdoor Unit" (ODU). - a "baseband part" that takes in charge base band processing plus other common functions; this second part is designed to be installed indoor, and is thus also called the "Indoor Unit" (IDU) 9100 outdoor BTSs provide space (up to 3U in the CBO cabinet, up to 2x6U in the MBO1 Evolution or in the MBO2 Evolution left part; up to 3U in addition in the extension part of the MBO2 Evolution) for integration of several IDUs, more than enough for the typical needs of a BTS site. When several IDUs are integrated in the BTS a Digital Distribution Frame (DDF) shall be used to branch 2Mbit signals between SUM and individual MW links (e.g. chain configuration). The exact number of IDUs that can be used depends on the mechanical and electrical characteristics of these IDUs, and possibly on the use of other additional equipment (e.g.NTL for PCM line termination)) that would use the same resources inside the Mounting Frame for 19" equipment, power supply connectors, power dissipation limit, power consumption limit, ... As far as microwaves are concerned, the required DDF is 3U high (at least the standard one proposed for 120 Ohm transmissions); IDUs are typically 1U high each; this allows to assess the maximum number of IDU that can be used. More specifically, within the Alcatel A9400 UX range of microwave products, the following possibilities are offered: - 19" x 1U Standard Indoor Units (Standard, or Classic, IDU) giving access to the full range of transmission capacities (capacity : 2x2, 4x2, 8x2, 16x2, 34+2 Mbit/s) in 13-23-25-38 GHz frequency bands; and able to be coupled to provide 1+1 securisation,

One IDU must be used per individual microwave link; possible cases are, for example: - one IDU for a single non securized (1+0) link e.g. to connect the BTS to the BSC - two IDUs for a single link securized in 1+1, e.g. to connect the BTS to the BSC (only the Standard, or Classic, IDU can be used in this case)

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- 4 IDUs in a case where the BTS is connected to the BSC via a securized (1+1) microwave link, and is also used as a branching point for a microwave transmission network with one microwave link going for example to the next BTS on the same multidrop from the BSC, and another microwave going to another BTS site. EDGE TRX hardware is prepared for broadband data applications as EDGE (release dependent). No upgrade nor hardware retrofit is necessary inside the BTS for the EDGE functionality. 3.1.2 TX Diversity TX Diversity feature is possible with Twin TRX module in coverage mode only. In this case, the Twin TRX module handles one TRX. The two branches of the Twin TRX module send the same TRX signal to two different antennas, thereby leading to an on-air combining gain of 3dB. In order to ensure de-correlated propagation, both signals are sent with a short time delay in-between, optimized to take maximum advantage of the MS equalizer. This leads to an additional diversity gain of up to 3dB. TX Diversity works with all types of Mobile stations since it is fully transparent to the receiver; this feature takes advantage of the MS equalizer which can already handle multiple paths with different times of arrival. Consequently, the equivalent TX output power is very high, up to 6dB above the nominal TX output power, which improves the coverage and reduces the number of sites needed to cover a given area, provided the link budget remains balanced or downlink-limited The table below provides the typical gains achieved thanks to TX Diversity and the equivalent TX output power that can be considered for link budget calculations. Note that such gains are environment-dependent since they are highly related to the level of de-correlation between paths.
Environment Dense Urban (TU3) Sub Urban (TU50) Rural (RA100) Total TX diversity gain 5.9 dB 4.6 dB 4 dB Equivalent TX output power (GMSK) GSM900: 52.4dBm (175W) GSM1800: 51.3dBm (136W) GSM900: 51.1dBm (129W) GSM1800: 50dBm (100W) GSM900: 50.5dBm (113W) GSM1800: 49.4dBm (88W)

In 8-PSK, the TX diversity gain is highly dependent on the coding scheme, the environment and the level of Carrier to Interference+Noise Ratio. No significant gains are expected.

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3.1.3 2 RX Diversity The TRX module supports enhanced diversity combining in all frequency bands, which is based on several algorithms: A beam-forming algorithm to improve the received signal by steering a beam in the direction of the mobile. This is one way of doing smart antennas, An algorithm to reduce interference: this mitigates the influence of interferers by steering a null beam in the direction of the main interferer (the phase difference between the two antennas for the strongest interfering signal is estimated and then this interfering signal is strongly attenuated by summing the signals with an inversed phase). Maximum efficiency of enhanced diversity combining is achieved when the useful/desired signal and the interfering signals emanate from different directions. In interference-limited environments, beam-forming algorithms will provide a much greater diversity gain compared to traditional maximum ratio combining. The above mentioned algorithms are working together in a way to combat spatial interferer signals while keeping optimal sensitivity perfomance for undisturbed but week reception. The table below provides the typical gains achieved thanks to 2RX enhanced Diversity and the equivalent Rx sensitivity that can be considered for link budget calculations. Note that such gains are environment-dependent since they are highly related to the level of de-correlation between paths. The gains include all contributions: Diversity gain coming from the fact that the signals received on both antennas are decorrelated (this requires using Xpol antennas or largely spaced antennas) Array-Gain or Beamforming gain : coming from the fact, that co-phased signals are added (stronger combined signal power) for this direction Null Steering / Interference Reduction (with a spatial interferer) coming from a algorithm which reduces the interference (the figures below assume a standard interference margin is considered for the link budget)

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Environment Dense Urban (TU3) Sub Urban (TU50) Rural (RA100)

Total 2RX diversity gain 6 dB 5 dB 3.5 dB

Equivalent RX sensitivity (without TMA) -117dBm -116dBm -114.5dBm

2 RX diversity allows improving the uplink thereby enlarging coverage (less sites needed) for balanced or uplink-limited link budgets. This feature is provided as a standard feature for all configurations (i.e. using two vertical-polarized antennas per sector or one cross-polarized antenna). A TMA may be needed in order to better balance the link budget, especially if High Power or TX diversity is used. 2 RX diversity also provides significant benefits for GPRS/EDGE since it allows achieving higher throughputs for given radio conditions.

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3.1.4 4 RX Diversity 4 RX diversity is supported by the Twin TRX module in coverage mode only. It uses exactly the same algorithms as for 2Rx diversity, i.e. beam-forming techniques are implemented. The table below provides the typical gains achieved thanks to 4RX enhanced Diversity and the equivalent Rx sensitivity that can be considered for link budget calculations.
Environment Dense Urban (TU3) Sub Urban (TU50) Rural (RA100) Total 4RX diversity gain 10 dB 8.6 dB 6.4 dB Equivalent RX sensitivity (without TMA) -121dBm -119.6dBm -117.4dBm

4 RX diversity also provides significant benefits for GPRS/EDGE since it allows achieving higher throughputs for given radio conditions. The diagram below shows that 4RX Diversity requires two Antenna Network modules per sector, thereby needing either 4 vertical-polarized or 2 cross-polarized antennas.

TX1 RX1

RX2 0

TX2 RX3

RX4

Antenna Network

Antenna Network

TWIN TRX

Figure : Twin TRX module in TX Div & 4 RX div

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3.2 Operation and maintenance


Station unit sharing A single station unit module supports any BTS configuration, whatever the number of TRXs and sectors in one cabinet is. Recovering - initiating In case of interruptions on A-bis or of power supply, the BTS recovers automatically when the failure has disappeared. The service interruption is minimized at initiation or restart: The 9100 Base Station performs a fast restart after a breakdown (BTS software files are stored in a non-volatile memory). Only the minimum necessary files are required from the BSC. Automatic shutdown For AC powered base stations, automatic progressive shutdown is performed in case of mains power failure so as to save the battery capacity, thus increasing the backup time. In such a situation, a timer is set and when it expires, TRXs are switched off with the exception of the BCCH TRX. If the BCCH TRX is configured without SDCCH and/or TCH, the TRX which carries the missing SDCCH and/or TCH is also kept powered so that calls are still possible in the cell. When the mains comes back during battery usage, for a given time (BTS timer), the TRX previously switched off for automatic shutdown, are autonomously switched on and initialized, in order to be used by the system. The value of the timers can be modified via the BTS terminal equipment. The automatic shutdown feature can be activated or de-activated by the operator from BTS terminal. Battery backup For indoor AC cabinet, following choices are offered depending on the backup time required: - Small battery integrated in the Indoor AC cabinet, with backup time at least 3 minutes (depending on configuration). - one 90 Ah battery integrated in the cabinet itself, - up to three 90 Ah batteries in an external dedicated indoor cabinet, with no impact on the maximum number of TRX available in the Indoor AC cabinet (in this case no internal battery can be used).

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For outdoor AC cabinets, following choices are offered depending on the backup time required (with no impact on the maximum number of TRX available in the cabinet): - Up to two 90 Ah batteries can be integrated in the MBO1 Evolution or MBO2 Evolution cabinets (the space occupied by one battery can be alternatively used by a 6U Mounting Frame for 19" equipment; using two batteries thus exludes such Mounting Frames; in MBO2 cabinet, another 3U space remains available in the right part of the cabinet in any case) - one small battery integrated in the CBO cabinet, providing at least 10 minutes backup (depending on CBO configuration). - up to three 90 Ah batteries in an external dedicated outdoor cabinet (in which case no internal battery can be used). The indoor external battery cabinet can be shared between up to 3 BTS; e.g. battery cabinet shared between 2 BTS : one BTS uses one battery and another BTS uses 2 batteries (Batteries themselves cannot be shared: each one has to be dedicated to a given BTS). In order to avoid battery damage, voltage drops to 42V. For more details on battery backup (e.g. battery backup times), please refer to chapter Power consumption, backup times and power dissipation. Hot replacement / insertion of modules All basic modules support hot insertion and extraction. External alarms For all BTSs, 16 inputs can be used for external alarms. MBO and CBO have the following details : MBO: - 11 of the inputs are available for external equipment: - 3 inputs are available from outside the cabinet, with overvoltage protection, - 8 inputs are available for optional modules inside the cabinet - 5 inputs are for dedicated for equipment inside the cabinets: heat exchanger, door switch, key switch, smoke detector, water detector (the last two being optional) deep discharge protection is activated when the battery

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9100 Base Station Product description

CBO: - 11 of the inputs are available for external equipment: - 3 inputs are available from outside the cabinet, with galvanic protection, - 8 inputs are available for optional modules inside the cabinet - the other 5 inputs are pre-cabled inside the cabinet (heat exchanger, door switch), Power supply 9100 Base Stations are available in two types of configurations DC and AC, according to the following table : Power supply type MBI3 24V DC -48 V to 60 V DC 20 % 230 V AC 15 %, single phase, 47 to 63 Hz 400 V AC 15 %, three phase, 47 to 63 Hz converter modules Temperature In order to ensure appropriate cooling within the cabinets, indoor and outdoor 9100 BTS are equipped with cooling fans. The on/off and speed of the cooling fans are controlled autonomously by the BTS, thanks to some sensors. If a cooling fan fails, the BTS autonomously increases the speed of the other cooling fans, if necessary. Moreover, in order to prevent the internal BTS temperature of outdoor cabinets from rising outside limits despite heat dissipation of modules, exchange of heat between inside and outside the BTS is ensured by one of the two possible systems: Heat Exchangers (HEX) available for all outdoor cabinets (MBO & CBO), or Direct Air Cooling (DAC) available as an alternative to HEX for MBO Evolution only. Note : The outdoor 9100 BTS can also be equipped with heating unit (option). But the function of the heating unit is the opposite of the one of the heat exchangers (HEX) or direct air cooling (DAC). In fact, the heating units are used in order to increase the BTS internal temperature when required (which in fact occurs, if ever, during very limited periods of times: see below). No Yes Yes No MBI5 Yes Yes Yes No Cabinet MBI53 No Yes No No CBO No Yes Yes No MBO No Yes Yes Yes

Note :- The 24 V DC version of MBI is obtained through the use of internal 24 V/-48 V DC/DC

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9100 Base Station Product description

Heating units For outdoor configurations, heating units may have to be added according to the climate where the BTS is installed. They are in fact used in order to maintain the internal BTS temperature above 0C. Note that in general, in the climate where heating units are needed, the case where the internal BTS can be below 0C is during BTS startup. In fact, when the BTS is operational, the internal temperature increases due to heat dissipation of internal modules (e.g. TRX). The following table gives the climate types definition and the number of heating units needed for each climate type : Climate type Temperate and cold climate Tropical climate CBO 1 0 MBO1 Evolution 1 0 MBO2 Evolution 2 0

Tropical climate: Temperature range according to ETS 300-019-1-3 class 3.1 (T> +5C) Temperate climate: Temperature range according to ETS 300-019-1-4 class 4.1 (T> -33C) Cold climate: Temperature range according to ETS 300-019-1-4 class 4.1E (T> -45C) Heat exchangers (HEX) Heat Exchangers are one of the two possibilities offered to evacuate outside the outdoor BTS the heat generated by the modules due to power dissipation, and thus to prevent internal temperature to increase to unacceptable levels; heat exchangers ensure proper heat exchanges between the inside and the outside of the cabinet, while isolating the airflow within the cabinet from the outside environment; since there is absolute isolation between external and internal air, they offer a very good protection again dust and humidity; on the other hand, heat exchangers cannot decrease the gap between internal and external temperature to less than 10C. Heat exchangers include their own fans, not to be confused with the cooling fans mentioned above. Heat exchangers are available for all outdoor cabinets (MBO Evolution and CBO) Direct Air Cooling (DAC) As an alternatve to HEX, MBO Evolution cabinets can be ordered with Direct Air Cooling (DAC) equipment. As for HEX, this equipment ensure heat exchanges between the inside and the outside; but DAC system does this by direct air exchange through an efficient filter system, thus reducing the gap between internal and external temperature to virtually zero. Accordingly, the gain of maximum supported ambient temperature by BTS is increased by +10 C with regards to the heat exchanger system, which makes DAC the preferred solution when ambient temperatures above 45/5OC are requested (see chapter 6.1 for more information on maximum temperatures). Also, this decrease of internal temperature can only have positive influence on modules MTBF. Direct Air Cooling system is only available for MBO Evolution outdoor cabinets.

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9100 Base Station Product description

Unbalanced losses/powers detection and regulation The BTS is able to detect unbalanced losses/powers within a sector and automatically compensate it. This enables the use of TRXs of different power within the same sector, or the use of different combining path for TRX belonging to the same sector. The balancing feature can be disabled by operator, if the goal is to have unbalanced TRX (e.g. concentric cell functionality by using TRXs of different output power). Auto-detection (release dependent) Through internal periodic hardware polling, the BTS is able to detect any new plugged-in hardware components (TRX, coupling elements) and informs the BSC (Auto HW detection). This facility allows to simplify and speed up the BTS extension (typically add TRX), with no need for the operator to describe explicitly neither the BTS configuration, nor its hardware capabilities. Auto-identification The following parameters are stored and are accessible from the BTS terminal equipment and in a second step from the OMC-R: - Type and location for each managed module (i.e. replaceable units), - The sector to which each Antenna Network module belongs to, - The mapping TRX / Antenna Network, and the connectivity status, - The hardware capabilities, - All the installed BTS hardware and software modules. Commissioning tests In order to reduce the commissioning time, a set of dedicated autotests has been developed. These tests are used to check that the BTS will operate correctly according to the expected configuration. Two kinds of test can be run: - Checking that the BTS has not suffered a fatal damage during transport and installation, - Checking the complete BTS configuration (hardware, software, and parameter configuration). Software migration Thanks to the 9100 Base Station capability to be pre-loaded and to store simultaneously two software-versions (with the possibility of activating one or the other on request from the BSC), the software migration is performed with very minimum service interruption.

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9100 Base Station Product description

Firmware downloading All firmware are downloadable, except boot firmware.

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4. CABINET DESCRIPTION 4.1 Indoor cabinets description


Two types of Multi-Standard Base Station Indoor cabinets (also called racks) are available: - the MBI3 cabinet, with three sub-racks, - the MBI5 cabinet, with a capacity of five sub-racks, and available in either 5 sub-racks or 3 sub-racks version (see below). The MBI5 cabinet can host GSM or UMTS modules or both together, thereby allowing a very cost-effective introduction of UMTS, i.e. without impact site engineering.

External dimensions Depth Height Width Max. TRX capacity

MBI3 BTS 45 cm 130 cm 60 cm 12 T RX

MBI5 / MBI53 BTS 19" (# 48 cm) internal 45 cm 194 cm 60 cm 24 TRX 6U Subrack 6U Connection area 50 mm 1U 120 mm 19" (# 48 cm) internal 50 mm 1U 120 mm

(Top fan) Connection area

Air inlet 19" (# 48 cm) internal Subrack Connection area 1U 120 mm

1U 1U

Fan stage Air inlet

1U 1U

6U

Subrack

6U

1U

1U

Subrack

6U

Subrack

6U

Subrack

6U

Fan stage Air inlet

1U 1U

Fan stage Air inlet

1U 1U

Fan stage Air inlet

1U 1U

Subrack

6U

Subrack

6U

Subrack

6U

1U

Fan stage

1U

1U

Subrack

6U

6U

Subrack

6U

Fan stage Air inlet Stand

1U 1U 50 mm

Air inlet Stand

1U 1U 50 mm

Fan stage Air inlet Stand

1U 1U 50 mm

MBI3 BTS (3 subracks)

MBI53 BTS (3 subracks)


Figure 6: indoor 9100 Base Stations MBI

MBI5 BTS (5 subracks)

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The very compact size of modules of recent generation (TWIN TRX modules, Antenna Networks Evolution) allows to realize configurations up to 3x4 within 3 subracks only. To allow taking benefit of this advantage, while keeping the possibility to extend to higher configurations when necessary, the MBI5 cabinet is now available in two versions: - the classical version with 5 subracks - a new optimised version equipped with 3 subracks, but extendable to 5 subracks through a kit containing the corresponding subracks and fans. This provides a cost optimized solution for initial deployement of networks, when most configurations are still with at most 3x4 TRXs; at the same time, it lets open the possibility at any time, through the appropriate kit, to add the two subracks and have access to the full range of configurations up to 3x8 TRXs: investment in the needed subracks is only made when and where it is needed. When distinction has to be made between the classical MBI5 and the version equipped with 3 subracks, this latter is called MBI53: however, most technical characteristics (e.g. dimensions) are identical. These cabinets are designed for installation back to back or to the wall; installation in rows is supported. The cabinets have no side doors; the interior can be accessed from the front (all cabling is also accessible from the front side). The only distance constraints are: - Front clearance - Top side clearance 1m 0.3 m (doors opening and external connections) (external connections)

The MBI3 and MBI5 9100 Base Station cabinets are generally not fixed on the floor, but positioned on leveling plates; they can be fixed on the floor as an option. MBI3 and MBI5 are two independent cabinets. MBI3 cabinet can not then be extended to MBI5 cabinet. MBI3 and MBI5 have 12 antenna connectors, which allows up to 6 sectors. The DC version of the MBI3 and MBI5 Indoor cabinets is designed to operate from external Direct Current (DC) power supply voltages (0/-48 V to 0/-60 V +/- 20%). Therefore, external equipment must provide the appropriate current, such as power supply equipment containing AC/DC rectifiers and batteries, or solar panels.

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The AC version of these cabinets (not defined for MBI53) is designed to operate directly from external Alternative Current (AC) main supplies (230 V AC). This solution avoids the use of an external power supply equipment, which is a gain in term of cost and floor space. In case of backup need, the choice between three types of batteries is offered, depending on the required backup time: see section "Battery backup" of chapter "MAIN FEATURES AND CHARACTERISTICS" above). When equipped for AC power (which is not possible for MBI53), MBI3 and MBI5 include the necessary rectifiers: then, several possibilities may exist (with different maximum TRX capacity, as shown in chapter "PRODUCT RANGE") as far as battery is concerned: - including a 90 Ah (BU90) inside a MBI5 cabinet, - including a "small battery" (BU5), - using an external cabinet (of same mechanical characteristics as MBI3 cabinet) including up to three 90Ah batteries(BU90). Using a 90 Ah battery inside the BTS cabinet is only possible with appropriate version of the MBI5 cabinet, with the bottom subrack dedicated to this battery; the other cases are possible with both the MBI3 and MBI5 cabinets in their "standard" version, i.e. with no subrack dedicated to batteries inside the cabinet. Tables in chapter "PRODUCT RANGE" give the exact types of configurations and maximum capacity that are available in Indoor AC. MBI3 and MBI5 allow to supply external modules with in 48 V DC, with up to 500 W.

4.2 Outdoor cabinets description


Two families of outdoor cabinets are available: - the Multi-Standard Base Station Outdoor cabinets (MBO cabinets), that include the MBO1 Evolution and MBO2 Evolution cabinets; they allow a wide variety of configurations, with a lot of flexibility to extend from one configuration to another or even from the MBO1 Evolution cabinet to the MBO2 Evolution cabinet; as their name imply, they are designed taking into account the multi-standard context: the same cabinets can be used for GSM or for UMTS applications; and most of those cabinets even allow multi-standard configurations, i.e. configurations in which radio modules from both GSM and UMTS standards are simultaneously present (in fact, only the MBO1 Evolution, due to its compact size/ low height does not allow such multi-standard configurations)

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- the Compact Base Station Outdoor cabinet (CBO) that targets specific applications for which the number of TRXs per cabinet is low (6 TRX max), both at installation time and for a foreseeable future; taking such assumptions in consideration allows to define a very compact and cost effective cabinet adapted for those situations that are typical of rural application with very low density of traffic. The AC version of these cabinets is designed to operate directly from external Alternating Current (AC) main supplies. This solution avoids the use of an external power supply equipment, which is a gain in term of cost and floor space. The DC version of these cabinets is designed to operate from external Direct Current (DC) power supply voltages. This is adapted when external DC source of current is preferred, such as power supply equipment with rectifiers and batteries, or solar panels.

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4.2.1 Outdoor MBO1 Evolution and MBO2 Evolution cabinets description The Multi-standard Outdoor BaseStation cabinets MBO1 Evolution and MBO2 Evolution offer operators important flexibility with: - An easy extension on-site from the Outdoor MBO1 Evolution BTS (up to 12 TRXs capacity) to the Outdoor MBO2 Evolution BTS (up to 24 TRXs capacity), - Dedicated empty sub-racks to answer operator needs in transmission equipment, power equipment ..., - An easy site installation (or dismantling) due to the cabinets modularity; the most heavy module weights only 90 kg. - a height limited to less than 150cm (without the mounting plinth which is optional): the constraints of site implementation are thus minimized. These Evolution cabinets are an evolution of the former MBO1 and MBO2 cabinets, with which they share many technical and functional characteristics; in fact, they essentially bring still more flexibility in the choice of options and in the possibility to include additional equipment; they are equivalent as far as radio subracks are concerned so that the list of configurations that were possible with modules of former generation are also possible with the new cabinets (of course, still more configurations are possible when new modules are used). The extension cabinet that allows to extend an MBO1 into an MBO2 is not the same as the one allowing to extend an MBO1 Evolution into an MBO2 Evolution; it remains commercially available so that so that existing MBO1 configurations can still be extended into MBO2 configurations.

External Dimensions Depth (floor level) Depth (roof level) Height without plintht Height with plinth Width

Available space for either: Mounting Frame for 19" equipment (6U) Battery

MBO1 Evolution 74 cm 80 cm 146 cm 161 cm 94 cm

MBO2 Evolution 74 cm 80 cm 146 cm 161 cm 156 cm

Radio subrack

Radio subrack

Radio subrack

Radio subrack

Available space for either: Mounting Frame for 19" equipment (6U) Battery

Radio subrack

Radio subrack

A//DC conversion

Mounting Frame for 19" equipment (3U)

Figure 7: outdoor 9100 Base Station MBO Evolution

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The MBO1 Evolution cabinet includes two areas: - The area dedicated to sub-racks for TRXs, antenna coupling modules and SUM; these subracks are the same as those used in the indoor cabinets; - An area dedicated to the modules that are more specific to the outdoor context (compared to the indoor case, it is more appropriate that additional equipment can be included in the cabinet itself, avoiding the need of side cabinets): - 6U Mounting Frames for 19" equipment: such equipment might be: - NTL (for PCM signal amplification) - IDUs for microwave; these IDUs typically have a height of 1U; the DDF height (3U for the standard model) must be taken into consideration to determine the maximum number of IDU that can be used. - Battery shelves to insert a 90 Ah battery for backup. (Note that the battery consists of 4 blocks, with 12 V each (the battery nominal voltage is 48 V)). A total of up to two such preequipment can be installed, providing room for up to two batteries, or up to 12 U for 19" additional equipment, or one battery and 6U for 19" additional equipment. The MBO2 Evolution cabinet is obtained by adding to the MBO1 Evolution cabinet an MBO Evolution extension cabinet (MBOE Evolution) with three standard sub-racks and a 3U space area dedicated to 19" equipment (PDUs or NTL (for PCM signal amplification) or IDUs (for microwave), For MBO1 Evolution and MBO2 Evolution, in connection with this space for transmission options the following features are provided: - up to 1.800 W in 48 V DC are available in MBO1 Evolution and MBO2 Evolution cabinets to supply optional transmission equipment, either equipment included inside the outdoor cabinets in the areas for 19" additional equipment, or equipment outside the cabinet (external options), such as the external battery cabinet Regarding these external options, one filtered external DC input/output is available allowing to connect either an external DC source powering the BTS or an external DC load up to 500W. - 7 connectors for power supply of options inside the cabinet (e.g. IDU, NTL) The number of modules that can be installed in the areas for transmission options must thus be consistent with: - the total space available, - the total power consumption of these modules - the total number of connectors - the power dissipation budget granted to options

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9100 Base Station Product description

As a typical example, up to 3 microwave IDUs and 1 DDF can be put in the options part of MBO1 Evolution or 6 IDUs and 1 DDF in the options part of the MBO2 Evolution. MBO1 Evolution (resp MBO2 Evolution) in AC version, offers 1 service socket 230V/10A and 1 service light. The socket can be used to connect an external product (e.g. Personal Computer). In MBO DC version, one flexible service light is available. MBO1 Evolution (resp MBO2 Evolution) has 8 (resp 16) antenna connectors. The following list summarizes the equipment that are optional in the MBO, and that then must be clearly indicated in the orders: Heating unit Water detector and smoke detection Mounting Frame for 19" additional equipment (e.g. Transmission support equipment such as indoor unit of micro-wave equipment) Battery mounting kit Plinth (to be ordered separately, depending on site preparation need).

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4.2.2 Outdoor CBO cabinet description Rural/road applications in some areas present the following characteristics: - a low to medium traffic, not only at the initial network roll-out, but as far as it can be anticipated, in a longer term; - the need to have service available on large areas, despite this low traffic density, The design of the Compact Base Station Outdoor Cabinet (CBO) is an optimization based on those assumptions, allowing very cost effective solutions when the hypotheses above are met. The CBO cabinet is available AC supported cabinet version or as DC supported cabinet version. This cabinet allows up to 4 TRXs in AC configuration and 6 TRX in DC configuration, and up to 3 sectors. CBO can typically be adapted to: - coverage of wide areas with up to 6 TRXs used in "omni" configuration, - coverage of linear areas, such as roads, train tracks, etc... with 2 sectors of 4 TRX each - coverage of low density areas, where 3 sectors with up to 2 TRX each is enough. This cabinet thus allows 1x6, 2x3 and 3x2 configurations, using either the Twin TRXs or even the high power TRXs
External Dimensions Depth Height Width CBO
70 cm 90 cm 72 cm
Dummy panel S U M A TWIN TWIN Option 1U Option 1U Option 1U BU5 A N B A N B DC distribution Connections cable arrival

AC/DC

TRX

TRX

Fan Stage Air Inlet

outdoor CBO cabinet The CBO cabinet includes the following areas: - The area dedicated to sub-racks for TRXs, antenna coupling modules and SUM; these subracks are the same as those used in the other indoor or outdoor cabinets; - An area dedicated to 19" additional transmission equipment, with 3U of height available;

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- An area dedicated to DC distribution and cable arrivals. Up to 3 IDU, with reduced size of DDF, can be installed in CBO. One filtered external 48 V DC input/ output is available; either, it can be used as input for the external battery cabinet or from solar panel power system or as output for other external options with a power of up to 500 W. CBO in AC version, offers 1 connector . The service plug is limited to 5 A / 230 V and can be used to connect an external product (e.g. Personal Computer). CBO has 6 antenna connectors, which allows up to 3 sectors maximum.

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4.3 Sub-rack and modules organization


The following figure gives an example of indoor and outdoor 3x8 configuration:

TWIN TWIN TWIN TWIN

TRX

TRX

TRX

TRX

A N Y

A N Y

A N C

S U M

TWIN TWIN S U M A N Y TRX TRX

A N C

TWIN TWIN A N Y TRX TRX

TWIN TWIN A N Y A N Y A N C TRX TRX

Available space for either: Mounting Frame for 19" equipment (6U) Battery

TWIN TWIN A N Y TRX TRX

A N C

TWIN TWIN A N Y TRX TRX

TWIN TWIN A N Y A N Y A N C TRX TRX

Available space for either: Mounting Frame for 19" equipment (6U) Battery

TWIN TWIN A N Y TRX TRX

A N C

TWIN TWIN A N Y TRX TRX

TWIN TWIN TWIN TWIN

TRX
Mounting Frame for 19" equipment (3U)

TRX

TRX

TRX

A//DC conversion

Stand

Outdoor MBO2 3x8

Indoor MBI5 3x8

Figure 8: BTS/ Subrack configuration - examples The following rules apply for the different modules location (see Figure "Sub-rack layouts" below): - In order to optimize thermal dissipation as well as RF cabling, a sub-rack can be equipped either with TRXs only, or alternatively mixed with a Station Unit Module (SUM) and antenna coupling modules and TRX. - One sub-rack can accommodate up to 8 TRXs. - At the bottom of each sub-rack containing TRX modules, and at the top of MBI5 when it is equipped with more than 16TRXs, there is a fan stage which includes three fan units, with two fans each. Fans speed is controlled by SUM according to the internal BTS temperature; this results in reduced average noise level. Different sub-rack organizations are given in figure below. The following widths hold true for the different modules (taken L for one sub-rack):

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SUM Antenna Network (Combiner or Bi-TRX) Twin WBC stage Twin TRX

L/8 L/4 L/8 L/4

Legend SUM AN ANY Twin TRX

S U M

A N Y

A N Y

A N

TWIN TWIN TWIN TWIN TRX TRX TRX TRX

A N

A N

A N

A N

S U M

A N

Figure 9: Sub-rack configuration examples

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9100 Base Station Product description

4.4 External battery cabinet for outdoor BTSs


An external battery cabinet for outdoor BTSs ("EBCO") can contain up to three 90 Ah batteries and is adapted to those situation where long backup times are wanted for outdoor BTSs. This cabinet is always equipped with an air conditioning system allowing to avoid excessive temperature (resulting from exposure to sun) and thus preserving battery lifetime.
Height Width Depth Weight without batteries Weight with batteries Max. cabinet temperature at top of rack Minimum cabinet temp. 1300 mm 680 mm 830 mm <170 kg <600 kg 25 C 0 C

Maximum external ambient temp. Minimum external ambient temp

50 C -33 C

Max. external Relative Humidity Min. external Relative Humidity

100 %RH 5 %RH

DC distribution module with dedicated breakers AC distribution with decicated breakers and overvoltage protection 3 Battery shelves 12V DC Smoke Alarm Door alarm Sufficient vandalism and fire protection 230 V AC (single phase) powered: Air Conditioning Unit (ACU) integral heater

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Environmental and Testing requirements applicable to the outdoor external battery cabinet are the following:
ETS 300 019-1-4: Class 4.1E Bellcore GR-063-CORE:1995 Sec4.4.1 EN 60529 EN 60950:2001 Operational Vibration/Shock to IEC 60721-3-4 Class 4M3 Earth Quake Resistance ZONE 4 IP 55 Safety of information technology equipment

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9100 Base Station Product description

5. PRODUCT RANGE
The flexibility of the 9100 Base Station architecture allows to build a wide variety of configurations answering various needs. The purpose of this chapter is to describe them in more details. The different possible BTS configurations are sorted in families inside which common principles are shared. - Monoband configurations: - standard (with & without TX Div) - low-loss (with & without TX Div) - Extended Cell (with & without TX Div) - Multiband configurations: - without multiband cell (with & without TX Div) - with multiband cell (with & without TX Div) These families are defined as follows: - standard configurations: - a single frequency band (as opposed to multiband configurations) - an interface with the antenna system realized through one single ANC module in each sector (and then through two feeders and two antennas or one dual-polarized antenna); depending on the configuration, no ANY level or one ANY level (i.e. two modules) has to be used. - TwinTRX module in No TX Div or in TX Div mode. - low-loss configurations: - for these configurations, the interface with the antenna system is through at least two ANC modules in each sector; - this allows to decrease the losses compared to a standard configuration with the same number of TRXs, - such configurations exist only above 2 TRXs per sector. - TwinTRX module in No TX Div or in TX Div mode.

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- multiband configurations - multiband configurations are of two possible types: - multiband BTS without multiband cell - multiband BTS with multiband cell - the allowed frequency bands combinations are any combination of GSM 850 or GSM 900 in one band with GSM 1800 or GSM 1900 in the other one. - multiband BTS configurations without multiband cell have some sectors with TRXs of one frequency band, other sectors with TRXs of the other frequency band; - multiband BTS with multiband cell configurations have sectors including TRXs with both frequency bands; - within each band, multiband configurations are of standard type (as opposed to "low-loss") with TwinTRX module in No TX Div or in TX Div mode.

- Extended cell configurations - these configurations are using two sectors organized in an inner and an outer cell: - inner cell and outer cell are always Standard configurations. - Twin TRX module in No TX Div or in TX Div mode. Depending on the frequency band, all or part of those configurations families are available as described in the following tables respectively dedicated to: - Non multi-band configurations - Multi-band configurations, - without multi-band cell - with multi-band cell, - Extended Cell configurations

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The following tables give a summary of non multi-band configurations:


Sectors Min TRX per sect. AC Standard(3) no TX div Standard(3) no TX div Standard(3) no TX div Standard(3) no TX div 1 2 3 4 1 1 1 1 8 4 2 MBI3 AC 8 4 2 2 DC 8 6 4 2 Max TRX per sector MBI5 / MBI53 (Note 5) AC 8 8 4 4 AC 8 8 4 4 AC 8 8 6 4 DC 8 8 8 6 CBO AC 4 2 1* DC 6 3 2 8 6 4 2** 8 8 8 6 * No BU5 * No BU5 ** MBO1 Evo. only Low-loss no TX div Low-loss no TX div Low-loss no TX div Standard TX div & 2 RX div Standard TX div & 2 RX div Standard TX div & 2 RX div Low loss TX div & 4 RX div Low loss TX div & 4 RX div Low loss TX div & 4 RX div 1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 3 3 3 3 1 1 1 1 1 1 4 2 1 2 2 4 2 2 2 2 4 2 2 2 2 8 3 10 4 12 6 16 8 4 4 4 2 2 2 2 16 10 6 4 4 2 2 2 2 16 10 6 4 4 2 2 2 2 16 12 8 4 4 2 2 2 2 2 2 1 2 1 1 2 4 2 2 2 2 4 6 12 6 16 12 8 4 4 2 2 2 2 all all all all all all all all all all all all all MBO1 MBO2
Evolution Evolution

Notes

Frequency bands

BU5 other

BU90 BU5 Other

Summary of non multi-band configurations Twin TRX modules


Note 1: "AC other" is referring to the Indoor AC configurations without integrated battery, i.e. either with no battery, or with batteries in an external cabinet. Note 3: As described in chapter "Standard configurations" above, "Standard" is referring to configurations with 1 Antenna Network per sector, and are thus limited to 8 TRXs per sector. Configurations with more than 8 TRXs per sector need two Antenna Networks per sector; such configurations are called "Low-loss" and described in a separate section of the table. Note 5: MBI53 (the MBI5 equipped with 3 sub-racks) has the same initial capacity, in terms of configurations, as the MBI3, and the same maximum capacity as the MBI5; configurations with a capacity higher than that of MBI3 require the transformation kit from MBI53 to MBI5.

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9100 Base Station Product description

The following tables give a summary of multi-band configurations:


Sectors Sectors Min TRX in band1 in band2 per sect. (Note 3) (Note 3) band1/ band2 AC Standard no TX div Standard no TX div Standard no TX div 1 2 3 1 2 3 1/1 1/1 1/1 2/2 MBI3 Max TRX per sector (band1/ band2) MBI5 / MBI53 (Note 5) CBO MBO1 MBO2
Evolution Evolution

Notes

Frequency bands

AC 2/2

DC 6/6

AC 8/8 4/4 2/2

AC 8/8 4/4 2/2

AC

DC

AC

DC 4/2 6/6 12/12 2/2 6/6 4/4 all all all

BU5 other

BU90 BU5 Other 8/8 12/12 2/2 4/4 2/2 6/6 4/4

Summary of multiband configurations(3) Twin TRX modules


Note 1: "AC other" is referring to the Indoor AC configurations without integrated battery, i.e. either with no battery, or with batteries in an external cabinet. Note 3: The table above defines only configurations with same number of sectors in each band ("symetric" multiband configurations); configurations with different number of sectors in each band are also possible: if S is the number of sectors of the band with maximum number of sectors, the maximum number of TRX per sector in such configuration is that of the corresponding configuration with S sectors in each band. Note 5: MBI53 (the MBI5 equipped with 3 sub-racks) has the same initial capacity, in terms of configurations, as the MBI3, and the same maximum capacity as the MBI5; configurations with a capacity higher than that of MBI3 require the transformation kit from MBI53 to MBI5.

The following table gives a summary of extended cell configurations :


Min. Number Inner 1 1 of TRX Outer 1 1 Max. number Inner 8 4 of TRX Outer 8 4 MBI5; MBO2 evolution MBI3; MBO1 Evolution 900 900 Type of cabinet Frequency band

Extended Cell configurations

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Following chapters detail the characteristics specific to each of these families, especially regarding the arrangement of Antenna Network Combiners (ANC), Wide Band Combiners (ANY) and TRXs.

5.1 Standard configurations


The interface with the antenna system is through one single Antenna network combining (ANC) module in each sector (and then through 2 feeders and two antennas or one dual-polarized antenna). The building of configurations regarding the number and type of used modules, depends on the number of TRX per sector and is done in the following way: - One ANC in No-combining mode per sector for configurations from 1 up to 2 TRX in No TX Div or 1 TRX in TX Div and 2 RX div in the sector - One ANC in combining mode per sector for configurations from 3 up to 4 TRX in No TX Div or 2 TRX in TX Div and 2 RX div in the sector - Two ANC in No-combining mode per sector for configurations 1 TRX in TX Div and 4 RX div in the sector - Two ANC in combining mode per sector for configurations 1 or 2 TRX in TX Div and 4 RX div in the sector - One ANC in combining mode plus one or two ANYs per sector for configurations above 5 TRXs in No TX Div or 3 TRX in TX Div, the number of ANYs, 1 or 2, depending on whether the maximum number of TRX is respectively 6 (resp 3) in No TX Div (resp TX Div) or 8 (resp 4) in No TX Div (resp TX Div) in that sector.
Antenna Antenna Antenna Antenna Antenna Antenna Antenna Antenna

No-combining ANC or ANB

Combining ANC

Combining ANC

Combining ANC

TRX 1 TRX 2

TRX 1

TRX 4

TRX 1 TRX 2 Combiner (ANY) TRX 3 TRX 6

Combiner (ANY) TRX 1 TRX 4

Combiner (ANY) TRX 5 TRX 8

1 up to2TRX/ sector

3 up to 4TRX/ sector

5 up to 6TRX/ sector

5 up to 8RX/sector

Figure 10: Standard configurations with Twin TRX in No TX Div The number of sectors and TRXs depends on the cabinet type, with a maximum of 6 sectors and 24 TRXs in a Indoor MBI5 ("AB" functional variant) or an Outdoor MBO2 evolution cabinet (see table above for details).

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The different sectors of a given BTS can include different numbers of TRXs. Sectored sites requiring more TRXs than indicated in the table above can be achieved by means of two, three or four BTSs; 9100 Base Stations can be combined with BTSs of other generations at the same site. As an option, configurations can be pre-equipped so that the TRX extension involves a minimum outage or time intervention. For initial configuration with 1 or 2 TRXs (No TX Div) per sector, the pre-equipment is realized simply by configuring the ANC module in the combining mode. For initial configuration of higher capacity, the combiner stage is added. This pre-equipment facility is especially suitable for urban sites where capacity extensions are foreseen, as it enables to maintain the same cell-coverage radius. Standard configurations use twin TRX in either No TX Div or TX Div modes.

5.2 Low-loss configurations


The principle of low-loss configurations is to decrease the losses in one sector compared to standard configurations with the same number of TRX, by decreasing the number of combining levels, therefore increasing the number of antennas in the sector. The low-loss configurations use the Antenna Network Combining module (ANC) in the following way: - Two ANC or ANB per sector (therefore four antennas or two with cross-polarized antenna per sector) - Two ANC per sector in No-combining mode in the sector - Two ANC per sector in combining mode for configurations from 5 up to 8 TRX in No TX Div or from 3 to 4 TRX in TX Div, in the sector
Antennas Antennas

No-combining ANC or ANB

No-combining ANC or ANB

Combining ANC

Combining ANC

TRX 1

TRX 2

TRX 3

TRX 4

TRX 1

TRX 8

3 up to 4 TRXs /sector

5 up to 8 TRXs /sector

Figure 11: Low-loss configurations for more than two TRXs in No TX Div per sector

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Furthermore Alcatel proposes a 1x16-TRX configuration based on this principle, with the additional use of Twin Wide Band Combiner (ANY) modules: Antenna Network Combining module (ANC) are affected to the same sector, requiring four antennas (or two cross-polarized antennas) (Figure below)
Antennas

Combining ANC

Combining ANC

Combiner (ANY)

Combiner (ANY)

Combiner (ANY)

Combiner (ANY)

TRX 1

TRX 8

TRX 9

TRX 16

Figure 12: 1x16-TRX low-loss configuration Low loss configurations use Twin TRX in either No TX Div or TX Div mode.

5.3 Multiband configurations


All 9100 Base Stations have been designed so as to allow multi-band operation, following the 'Onecabinet concept': The same cabinets, the same sub-racks are used for all possible configurations with GSM 850, GSM 900, GSM 1800 or GSM 1900 elements. Multi-band configurations include GSM 850 or GSM 900 / GSM 1800 or GSM 1900 modules, in the same cabinet with a single Station Unit Module (SUM), which handles the control functions of the BTS (operation and maintenance, transmission, clock generation ...). Alcatel proposes two types of multi-band configurations depending on the way BCCH is handled: one BCCH in each band ("without multi-band cell"), or a common BCCH ("with multi-band cell"). From the hardware point of view, there is no difference between a configuration "without multiband cell" and its equivalent "with multi-band cell"; only the BTS/BSC configuration data different. All configurations installed in a single-band infrastructure can be upgraded for multi-band operation, in either multi-band BTS without multi-band cell or multi-band BTS with multi-band cell mode, by inserting transceivers and antenna-coupling modules operating in the second band and by downloading the relevant software version and data base. is

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As already mentioned, the 1-sector configurations - single BCCH - are similar from a hardware point of view to the 2-sector configurations of the multi-band BTS - dual BCCH; the 2-sector configurations - single BCCH - are similar from a hardware point of view to the 4-sector configurations of the multi-band BTS - dual BCCH - and the 3-sector configurations - single BCCH are similar from a hardware point of view to the 6-sector configurations of the multi-band BTS dual BCCH. Multi-band configurations use Twin TRX in either No TX Div or in TX Div mode in any band. 5.3.1 Multi-band BTS configurations without multi-band cell GSM 850 or GSM 900 / GSM 1800 or GSM 1900 bands, are affected to different sectors of the base station. It means that each band has its own BCCH. The following figure gives an example of a 4 sectors multi-band BTS without multi-band cell configuration and Twin TRX in No TX Div mode :
Antenna Antenna Antenna Antenna Antenna Antenna Antenna Antenna

Combining ANC

Combining ANC

No-combining ANC or ANB

No-combining ANC or ANB

TRX 1 Sector1

TRX 4

TRX 1 Sector2

TRX 4

TRX 1

TRX 2

TRX 1

TRX 2

Sector3 Frequency band2

Sector4 Frequency band2

Frequency band1

Frequency band1

Frequency band1 modules

Frequency band2 modules

Figure 13: Multi-band BTS without multi-band cell configuration (four sectors) 5.3.2 Multi-band BTS configurations with multi-band cell GSM 850 or GSM 900 / GSM 1800 or GSM 1900 bands are assigned to the same sector. There is only one BCCH for both bands. The following figure gives an example of a 2 sectors multi-band BTS configuration with multi-band cells and Twin TRX in No TX Div mode :

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Antenna

Antenna

Antenna

Antenna

Antenna

Antenna

Antenna

Antenna

Combining ANC

No-combining ANC or ANB

Combining ANC

No-combining ANC or ANB

TRX 1

TRX 4 Sector1

TRX 1

TRX 2

TRX 1

TRX 4 Sector2

TRX 1

TRX 2

Frequency band1/Frequency band2

Frequency band1/Frequency band2

Frequency band1 modules

Frequency band2 modules

Figure 14: Multi-band BTS configurations with multi-band cell (two sectors)

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5.4 Configurations built with several cabinets


5.4.1 Configuration built with several cabinets and no split of sectors over two cabinets If the needed site configurations (indoor or outdoor, single band or multi-band) cannot be achieved with a single cabinet, it can be done using several collocated cabinets. In that case, all the TRXs of one sector must belong to the same cabinet Hereafter are given some examples. The list is not exhaustive. Examples: - The 3x12 TRXs Standard Indoor configuration is made of: - one MBI3 DC Indoor Standard 1x12 TRXs cabinet - one MBI5 DC Indoor Standard 2x12 TRXs cabinet - The 3x8 / 3x8 outdoor (MBO2 evolution) standard multi-band configuration is made of: - one MBO2 evolution standard 3x8 frequency band1 cabinet - one MBO2 evolution standard 3x8 frequency band2 cabinet 5.4.2 Configuration built with several cabinets and the cell split over two BTSs feature It is possible to optimize the number of cabinets needed for a site configuration (indoor or outdoor, single band or multi-band) built with more than one cabinet, thanks to a feature called cell split over two BTSs. In that case, the TRXs of one sector can be split over two 9100 BTS cabinets. Various configurations are possible, the only constraint being that following conditions are fulfilled: Maximal number of TRX per cell is 16. Maximal number of cabinets between which a given cell is shared is 2. Cabinets between which a cell is shared are clock synchronised in a master / slave configuration (see chapter Clock synchronisation of collocated cabinets). Note : when used in mono band configurations, cell split feature may allow to reduce the number of cabinets with regards to the solution with one cabinet per sector; but at the expense of a more complex antenna system (two ANC, hence 4 feeders per sector instead of 2 feeders, as for "lowloss" configurations); this has to be considered before selecting such a solution.

The following figure gives an example of standard multi-band with multi-band cell 3x8/3x8 in 2 MBI5 cabinets :

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ANC

ANC ANY
TRX 5 TRX 8 TRX 1

ANC ANY
TRX 5 TRX 8 TRX 1

Cabinet1 (Standard 8,8,8TRX)


TRX 1

ANY
TRX 4

ANY
TRX 4

ANY
TRX 4

ANY
TRX 5 TRX 8

ANC ANY ANY


TRX 5 TRX 8 TRX 1

ANC ANY
TRX 4

ANC ANY
TRX 5 TRX 8 TRX 1

ANY
TRX 4

ANY
TRX 5 TRX 8

Cabinet2 (Standard 8,8,8TRX)

TRX 1

TRX 4

Sector1: 1x16 TRX

Sector2: 1x16 TRX

Sector3: 1x16 TRX

5.4.3 Clock synchronisation of collocated cabinets Clock synchronisation of collocated cabinets is mandatory: - when cells are split between those cabinets - when each cabinet is dedicated to a given sector and handover synchronisation is desired (if synchronised handover is not desired, clock synchronisation is not mandatory). Such clock synchronisation between BTSs in master / slave mode is possible both between 9100 BTSs and between 9100 BTSs and BTSs of previous generations.

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5.5 Extended cell configurations


To provide a continuous coverage minimizing the number of sites is the goal of all operators. Particularly difficult is to reach this goal in sparsely populated areas, because of the 35 kilometers limitation in cell size stipulated by GSM recommendations. The Extended-cell technology, which allows reaching a coverage range of up to 70 km, is a solution in low traffic density areas as rural areas, highways, off shore, desert areas, isles in coastal vicinity... An extended cell is composed of one BTS including two sectors. The first sector handles inner-cell traffic up to 35 km; the second sector handles outer-cell traffic, from 33 km to a maximum of 70 km. Depending on the needed traffic, each sector can include from 1 up to 8 TRX.

Extended cell

Outer cell Inner cell


35 km Sector1 35 km to 70 km

Sector2 EVOLIUM Base station Handover relationship

Figure 15: Extended cell principle

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9100 Base Station Product description

5.6 Options
5.6.1 Tower-mounted amplifier 5.6.1.1 Functional description A significant part of the benefits brought by the outstanding sensitivity of the 9100 Base Station can be lost if the losses incurred by signals along the feeder cable between the receiving antenna and the antenna coupling module (ANC) are too high. As a matter of fact the noise factor of the system is degraded by an amount depending on the feeder loss. The basic idea of tower-mounted amplification is to implement a low-noise amplifier as close as possible to the antenna (figure below), so as to compensate for all losses incurred by received signals. The TMA solution can be used in GSM 900 or 1800, indoor or outdoor configurations.

Antennas

TMAs
DUX DUX

DUX

DUX

Feeders

Antenna combining: network ANce

TRX TRX
Figure 16: Principles of tower-mounted amplification

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Tower-mounted amplification appears as an efficient sensitivity enhancement technique; however, both uplink and downlink power budgets must be considered for the calculation of the coverage range: The smallest available path loss determines the range. In that respect, tower-mounted amplification can be beneficial in those cases where system performance is limited by a weaker uplink budget (for example when using Twin TRX in TX Div mode and without the combiner module - Twin Wide Band Combiner stage-ANY). On the other hand, in the case of a balanced uplink/downlink situation, the introduction of towermounted amplification can be an efficient mean to reduce the output power level of all mobile stations. The uplink power control mechanism provided at each base station will force all mobiles to reduce their emission level. Two benefits can be obtained in that case: - A lower output power favorably impacts the standby time of every mobile station, - A lower output power can contribute to minimize the 'electromagnetic pollution' within the service area. However, the introduction of a TMA in a balanced uplink/downlink situation will generate some downlink insertion losses, thereby slightly reducing the coverage. In summary, the decision to exploit tower-mounted amplification may be influenced by system design considerations but also result from the application of the operators internal policy. The counterpart of getting a better sensitivity by means of a tower-mounted amplifier is the risk to degrade the blocking and intermodulation characteristics of the base station if the value of the amplification gain greatly exceeds the value of the feeder losses. The attention of operators is drawn to the fact that, in such a case, the site equipment might not fully comply with ETSI requirements settled in the GSM recommendation 05.05. All 9100 Base Stations are compatible with tower-mounted amplifiers, provided the following requirements are fulfilled: - The TMA shall allow for one single feeder to be used for transmit and receive signals, - The TMA shall be equipped with duplexers, allowing for the splitting of uplink and downlink signals with at least 30 dB isolation. The transmit signal shall be bypassed to the antenna and the receive signal shall be amplified by a low-noise amplifier. - Multi-band configurations are possible only if the signals used in each antenna are mono band (in fact, TMA module which is used per antenna, is mono band). TMA power supply and supervision is provided by ANC Evolution. So, external power supply elements (PDU & bias-tee) for TMA would be needed only for TMAs not compliant with ANCE power supply (12 V DC +/- 5%).

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Note that an interesting alternative to TMA may be the use of 4 way Receive Diversity, which requires extra antennas but spares the introduction of these extra active equipments. Also TMAs require supervision, which is not the case for 4 way receive diversity. 5.6.1.2 Equipment description Alcatel has in its catalogue various solutions depending on exact frequency bands and types of module (single, duplex, dual duplex). Please refer to dedicated for this. Thanks to the power supply (12 V DC +/- 5%) and supervision provided by the new Antenna Networks Evolution, no other equipment are necessary in addition: no Power Distribution Unit, no Bias Tee. Note that the LNA of the TMA has a gain depending on the frequency band (e.g. 14 dB for GSM 900), but the TMA solution gain, which takes into account all the UL reception chain (e.g. feeders loss) is typically 4 dB in GSM 900 and GSM 1800. Note that this TMA can provoke intermodulation and/or blocking in the mobile, if the antenna is installed in a height less than 20 meter.

Antennas Tower-mounted amplifier

...

...

BTS

Figure 17: TMA principle of installation (power supply by BTS)

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5.6.2 Transmission / telecomequipment For the outdoor BTS, transmission and/or telecom equipment can be integrated within one or several (depending on cabinet) Mounting Frames for 19 equipment: up 2x6U in MBO1 Evolution and up 2x6U + 3U in MBO2 evolution. Different types of equipment are possible: - Line termination equipment for 75-ohm or 120-ohm wires (NTL). The NTL equipment is used to amplify the PCM signal received from A-bis interface; - Base band unit for microwave (IDU), - Satellite modem, - IP modem, - Cell Site Optimizer equipment, for Abis optimization and IP backhauling, - ... These equipment depend on the country and customer requirements and are defined on a case by case. They must have an E1 interface complying with ITU-T recommendations G.703/G.704.

5.7 TX output power at antenna connector


The TX output power at antenna connector depends on the TRX output power and on the losses of modules and cables between the TRX and the antenna connector, according the following formula : TX output power at antenna connector = TRX output power total TX loss The TRX output power is given in chapter 3.1.1 The total TX loss is the loss of cables from TRX to antenna networks and the antenna network insertion losses. This depends on the configuration used The following table gives the typical TX losses of the different modules and cables. This table is independent from Twin TRX module mode (TX div or not) and from TX modulation (GMSK or 8PSK) :

Module or cable ANC in no combining mode ANC in combining mode ANY TRX-ANY cable TRX-ANC cable ANY-ANC cable ANC-Cabinet top Table 1 : TX modules and cables losses

Loss (in dB) 0.8 4.2 3.3 0.2 0.2 0.2 0,3

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Examples : 3x2 TRX No TX Div GSM 900 GMSK. In this configuration, we have : TX power 1 ANC in no combining mode 1 cable from TRX to ANC TX output power at antenna connector 46.5 dBm (45 W) -0.8 dB -0.2 dB 46.5 1 = 45.5 dBm

5.8 Weight of modules and configurations


The following table gives the weight of main BTS modules; modules of which the weight is negligible and/or the number is the same whatever the configuration are not listed (their weight is included in that of cabinet or of other modules); also, weight of options such are microwaves are not listed: Module Twin TRX module ANC ANY CBO cabinet MBO1 Evolution cabinet MBO2 evolution cabinet MBI3 DC cabinet MBI3 AC cabinet MBI5 DC cabinet MBI5 AC cabinet BU5 BU90 Weight (Kg) 7.2 9 3.5 93.6 188 292 86 97 131 142 15 130

These weights allow to estimate the weight of any configuration.

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Examples :
Unit MBO2 evolution 3x4 TRX-BU90 MBO2 Evolution cabinet TRX ANC BU90 CBO 2x1 TRX-BU5 CBO cabinet TRX ANC BU5 MBI5 AC 3x4 TRX-BU5 MBI5 AC cabinet TRX ANC BU5 142 7.2 9 15 1 6 3 1 93.6 7.2 9 15 1 1 2 1 292 7.2 9 130 1 6 3 1 Qty Total (Kg) 492,2 292 43.2 27 130 131.8 93.6 7.2 18 15 227.2 142 43.2 27 15

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5.9 Technical data of 9100 BTS


Present chapter gives a summary of various technical data. (This should be understood as a summary: one should refer to dedicated chapters giving more details about these technical data)
Item BTS general data Radio access Frequencies EDGE capability Receive diversity Transmit diversity Multiband Options space equipment) (for 19 TDMA / FDMA See chapter "MAIN FEATURES AND CHARACTERISTICS / Radio Telecom - Transmission / Frequency bands" Yes 2 & 4 way Rx antenna diversity Yes Yes (GSM 850 or 900 / GSM 1800 or 1900) additional 0 to 2x6 U in MBO1 Evolution and 3 U to 15 U in MBO2 evolution Integrated battery 6 in CBO 8 in MBO1 Evolution 12 in MBI3 and MBI5 16 in MBO 2 Evolution Specification

Antenna connectors

See chapters: - "MAIN FEATURES AND CHARACTERISTICS/ Operation and maintenance/ Battery backup" - "PRODUCT RANGE" See chapter: - "MAIN FEATURES AND CHARACTERISTICS/ Operation and maintenance/ Battery backup" 16 (smoke detector & water detector alarms are optional) See chapter: - "MAIN FEATURES AND CHARACTERISTICS/ Operation and maintenance/ Power supply" 3 in CBO 4 in MBO1 Evolution 6 in MBI3 and MBI5 8 in MBO 2 evolution (multiband, 4 sector per band) 3 in CBO 4 in MBO1 Evolution 6 in MBI3 and MBI5 8 in MBO 2 evolution (multiband, 4 sector per band) IP 20 for MBI IP 55 for MBO

External battery

External alarms Power supply

Maximum number of sectors in BTS

Max number of ANC in BTS

Max number of TRX in BTS Protection level

241

The number of TRX with TWIN 1900 is currently restricted to 6 TWIN modules or 12 TRX.

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Item ANC Evolution data ANC noise figure Max LNA gain TRX data TRX output power (TRX output) TRX output tolerance RX sensitivity power (TRX

Specification < 2.8 dB for up to 50 C < 3.0 dB for up to 70 C

15 dB, variable (SW) See chapter "MAIN FEATURES AND CHARACTERISTICS" / "Radio - Telecom - Transmission" output) - 0.5 / + 1 dB for GMSK and 8 PSK modulations See chapter: - "MAIN FEATURES AND CHARACTERISTICS / Radio - Telecom Transmission Combined diversity with maximum ratio combining technology Selective beam-forming combining with temporal reference algorithms and spatial reference algorithms Baseband hopping Radio (or synthesizer) hopping

Diversity algorithms

Frequency hopping Power control Speech codec Ciphering algorithms

According to GSM: Dynamic 30 dB - step size 2 dB HR, FR, EFR and AMR A5/1 and A5/2 always supported Provisions are taken for A5/3 to A5/7 when defined

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Item SUM data Clock synchronisation Internal :

Specification

Free running (internal OCXO) External : Transmission Abis link (PCM synchronized) Another BTS (master slave configuration) Abis in band signaling (HW provision taken) NTP (SUMX) G703 with 36 dB sensitivity (standard) Others (HDSL, microwave, satellite )

Technology :

Gigabit Ethernet (SUMX) Abis relay (needed for chain configuration): Yes Impedance 75 or 120 ohms Abis links 2 4 (SUMX) Configurations Clock accuracy Abis interface SUM interfaces Star, chain and loop 0.05 ppm 2 E1 : standard 4 E1 (SUMX) Gigabit Ethernet (SUMX) 2 RS232 (MMI and test) 2 Ethernet (MMI, local equipment on SUMX)

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6. ENVIRONMENTAL AND EMC ASPECTS 6.1 Environmental conditions


The environmental conditions define the limits (temperature, humidity, etc.) for BTS cabinets in operation, storage, and transportation conditions as specified in the following classes:
Indoor Base Station Operation Transportation Storage ETS 300 019-1-3 class 3.1E (see note 1) ETS 300 019-1-2 class 2.2 (see note 2) ETS 300 019-1-1 class 1.2 (see note 3) ETS 300 019-1-4 class 4.1E ETS 300 019-1-2 class 2.2 ETS 300 019-1-1 class 1.2 (see note 4) (see note 2) (see note 3) Outdoor

Note 1: The ETS 300 019-1-3 class 3.1E (temperature controlled locations) is a combination of classes 3K3 (but with low air temperature of -5 C, high air temperature of +45 C, and high relative humidity of 90 %), 3Z2, 3Z4, 3B1, 3C2, 3S2 and 3M1 according to IEC721-33. Note 2: The ETS 300 019-1-2 class 2.2 (careful transportation) is a combination of classes 2K3, 2B2, 2C2, 2S2 and 2M1 according to IEC721-3-2. Note 3: The ETS 300 019-1-1 class 1.2 (weather protected, not temperature controlled) is a combination of classes 1K4, 1Z2, 1Z3, 1Z5, 1B2, 1C2, 1S3 and 1M2 according to IEC721-31. Note 4: The ETS 300 019-1-4 class 4.1E (non-weather protected locations, extended) is a combination of classes 4Z5, 4Z7, 4B1, 4C2, 4S2 and 4M3 according to IEC721-3-4. In the following tables, the conditions for the different environmental classes are listed. Climatic conditions for indoor operation, outdoor operation and storage:

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Environmental parameter

Unit

indoor operation outdoor operation storage ETS 300 019-1-3 ETS 300 019-1-4 ETS 300 019-1-1 Class 3.1E Class 4.1E Class 1.2 -5 +45 (Note 1) 5 90 1 25 0.5 70 106 700 600 5 no no no no -45 (Note 4) +45 (Note 2) 8 100 0.03 30 15 0.5 70 106 1120 Negligible 50 yes yes 5 Splashing water yes -25 +55 10 100 0.5 29 no 0,5 70 106 1120 Note 3 30 yes yes no Dripping water yes

Low air temperature High air temperature Low relative humidity High relative humidity Low absolute humidity High absolute humidity Rain intensity Rate of change of temperature Low air pressure High air pressure Solar radiation Heat radiation Movement of the surrounding air Conditions of condensation Conditions of precipitation (rain, snow, hail ...) Low rain temperature Conditions of water from sources other than rain Conditions of icing and frosting

C C % % g/m g/m mm/min C/min kPa kPa W/m2 W/m2 m/s none none C none none

Note 1: Apart from this maximum temperature, the Base Station supports direct exposure to solar radiation, with power up to 700 W/m2. Note 2: Beyond this value specified by the standards, and with or without direct exposure to solar radiation, the maximum temperature for MBO Evolution cabinets is extended to: When heat exchangers (HEX) are used: - 45C long term, maximum power (with all options) - 50C long term, operational power (with all options) - 55C long term, operational power (no options) When Direct Air Cooling system (DAC) is used: - 50C long term, maximum power (with all options) - 55C long term, operational power (with all options) - 60C long term, operational power (no options, and for cabinets that do not include batteries: batteries themselves are limited to 55C) For CBO Outdoor cabinet, (that can be only equipped with heat exchangers (HEX)), and with or without direct exposure to solar radiation, the maximum temperature is extended to: - 45C long term, maximum power (with all options) - 50C long term, maximum power (no options) Maximum power: 100% all channels TCH 60% of time slots used at Pmax 2 dB Note 3: Conditions of heat radiation (e.g. in the vicinity of a room-heating system) Operational power: BCCH full power on all time slots per sector:

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Note 4: Minimal temperature for CBO and MBO Evolution equipped with DAC cold start up is 33 C. Mechanically active substances for indoor operation, outdoor operation and storage:
Environmental parameter Unit indoor operation outdoor operation storage ETS 300 019-1-3 ETS 300 019-1-4 ETS 300 019-1-1 Class 3.1E Class 4.1E Class 1.2 30 0.2 1.5 300 5 20 300 5 20

Sand Dust (suspension) Dust (sedimentation)

mg/m mg/m mg/(mh)

Mechanical conditions for indoor operation, outdoor operation and storage:


Environmental parameter Unit indoor operation outdoor operation storage ETS 300 019-1-3 ETS 300 019-1-4 ETS 300 019-1-1 Class 3.1E Class 4.1E Class 1.2 0.3 2 to 9 1 9 to 200 1.5 2 to 9 5 9 to 200 1.5 2 to 9 5 9 to 200

Stationary vibration, sinusoidal - Peak displacement amplitude - Peak acceleration amplitude - Frequency range Non-stationary vibration including shock - Shock-response spectrum type L, peak acceleration Static load

mm m/s2 Hz

m/s KPa

40 -

70 -

40 5

Earthquake conditions for outdoor equipment: Earthquake test conditions are in accordance with ETS 300 019-2-4 Amendment A1. As the Outdoor Base Station can be mounted on top of buildings using a structure of high rigidity, following test conditions apply:
Parameter Earthquake intensity Frequency range Excitation Description Strong/very strong Richter > 7 Severity ag = 5 m/s ZPA = 15 m/s 1 35 Hz Single axis, 30 s

The Outdoor Base Station survives test without major damage to equipment. Interruption of operation is allowed. Re-start of operation after test is possible. Minor damages, if any, can be repaired in the field. Climatic conditions for transportation:

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Environmental parameter Low air temperature High temperature, air in unventilated enclosures High temperature, air in ventilated enclosures or outdoor air Change of temperature air/air Change of temperature air/water Relative humidity, not combined with rapid temperature changes Relative humidity, combined with rapid temperature changes air/air at high relative humidity Absolute humidity, combined with rapid temperature changes air/air at high water content Low air pressure Change of air pressure Movement of the surrounding medium air Precipitation, rain Solar radiation Heat radiation Water from sources other than rain Wetness

Unit C C C C C % C % C g/m3 C kPa kPa/min m/s mm/min W/m2 W/m2 m/s none

transportation ETS 300 019-1-2 class 2.2 -25 +70 +40 -25/+30 +40/+5 95 +45 95 -25/+30 60 +70/+15 70 no 20 6 1120 600 1 Conditions of wet surfaces

Mechanically active substances for transportation:


transportation ETS 300 019-1-2 class 2.2 0.1 3

Environmental parameter Sand in air Dust (sedimentation)

Unit g/m mg/(mh)

Mechanical conditions for transportation:

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Environmental parameter Stationary vibration, sinusoidal - Peak displacement amplitude - Peak acceleration amplitude - Frequency range Stationary vibration random - Acceleration spectral density - Frequency range Non-stationary vibration - Shock response spectrum I: Peak acceleration - Shock response spectrum II: Peak acceleration Free fall - Mass < 20 kg - Mass 20 to 100 kg - Mass > 100 kg Toppling - Mass < 20 kg - Mass 20 to 100 kg - Mass > 100 kg Rolling pitching - Angle - Period Steady state acceleration Static load

Unit mm m/s2 Hz m2/s3 Hz 3.5

transportation ETS 300 019-1-2 class 2.2

2 to 9 1 10 to 200

10 9 to 200

15 200 to 500 0.3 200 to 2000

m/s m/s m m m

100 no 0.25 0.25 0.1 Toppling around any of the edges no no no no 20 5

none

degree s m/s2 kPa

6.2 Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC)


All 9100 Base Stations fulfill the requirements of the European Directive 89/336/EEC according to ETSI ETS 301 489 -1 and 8.

6.3 Acoustic noise


The 9100 base station complies with class environmentally sensitive areas to ETS 300 019-1-4 class 4.1 with a maximum sound pressure level of less than 55 dB(A) for daytime operation.

6.4 Safety
The 9100 Base Station complies with following safety standards: - IEC 215 (EN 60 215): Safety requirements for radio transmitting equipment - IEC 950 (EN 60 950): Safety of information technology equipment

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6.5 Product Environmental Attributes


Alcatel is committed to develop and improve operations and technologies taking into consideration the efficient use of energy and materials, giving preference to renewable resources, minimizing waste and adverse environmental aspects. Alcatel develops and manufactures products and services that are safe for their intended use, efficient in their use of energy, protective to the environment and that can be recycled or disposed of safely, including their packaging. Materials The above described product does not contain: - asbestos, - cadmium (in plastic materials, packaging and inks), - mercury, - ozone depleting substances, according to those categories that are already banned in the Montreal protocol - chloroparaffins with chain length 10-13 C atoms, chlorination greater than 50% contained in the mechanical plastic parts heavier than 25g, - lead contained in mechanical plastic parts heavier than 25g, - PCB or PCT, - polybrominated biphenyls and their ethers (CAS 32534-81-9, 32536-52-0, 1163-19-5, 1365409-6) contained in mechanical plastic parts heavier than 25g, in concentrations exceeding the natural background. Disassembly The system is designed for easy disassembly, by using screws and rivets for mechanical assembly of racks and modules Batteries Alcatel uses as backup batteries state-of-the-art valve regulated lead acid (VRLA) batteries with an extended service life-time. These VRLA AGM (absorptive glass mat) battery types are classified as non-hazardous. This is because in the VRLA AGM cells, the dilute sulphuric acid is absorbed in a special, highly porous micro-fibre glass separator. This, together with a high density pillar seals and hermetic container-to-lid bonding, ensures that acid is unable to leak out.

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The batteries are designed and manufactured according to recognized international standards as - IEC 60896-2 - 91/157/EEC (hazardous substances) - BS 6290 Part 4 - ICAO/IATA Special Provision a 67 - US DoT regulation 49 CFR section 173.159 The weight of the batteries backup units amounts to - BU 90Ah 130 kg (4 cells with a weight of 32,5 kg each)

Batteries, battery cases, battery acid, lead and lead compounds must not be burned; they must be disposed of in accordance with the appropriate national/international legislation, and Local Waste Disposal Authority Rules and regulations. Product packaging The packaging of the 9100 Base Stations complies with the Directive 94/62/CE concerning packaging and packaging waste. Depending on the means of transportation the BTS are packed in a cardboard or wooden box, which can easily be recycled after use. Environmental harmful materials are not used for packaging. The packaging materials are marked according to ISO 11 469. If required by the customer and agreed by both parties, Alcatel can take care of the proper disposal of all packaging materials. Take back information On request of the customer, Alcatel can take care of the take back of the depreciated equipment and of the ecological safe and appropriate disposal. For that purpose, Alcatel co-operates with qualified recycling companies. Documentation In order to reduce the paper consumption for Customer Documentation, Alcatel delivers the Generic Customer Documentation as a CD-ROM. This allows the operator to put the documentation on a server accessible by all relevant people without any additional paper copies. Additionally more specific documentation as e.g. information about products and solutions, services and support, training events etc. will be provided by means of an Extranet accessible by all customers. This will allow distribution of up-to-date information very quickly and without wasting natural resources.

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7. POWER CONSUMPTION, BACKUP TIMES AND POWER DISSIPATION 7.1 Introduction


Power consumption is a characteristic of BTS equipment that can be used for different purposes: - Assessing the requirement for internal batteries or for external Power Supply Systems in order to guarantee a backup time in case of mains power failure - Assessing the average energy requirement, and hence the average energy bill - Assessing the characteristics of the energy distribution system: e.g. how should fuse or breakers be dimensioned. Although these aspects are all related to power consumption, it's not the same kind of power consumption that should be taken into account in each case: - "DC power consumption for backup" is the power consumption to consider to determine which batteries should be used to provide a given backup time, or what backup time can be expected with given batteries; this is applicable for example to AC powered BTSs when they are running on their backup batteries; this power consumption - considers only the DC power consumption of the modules (thus, for the AC powered BTSs, it does not include the power consumption of the AC to DC conversion, that takes place only when they are not in backup situation), - considers an average power consumption: the purpose of such a power consumption figure is get a reasonable estimate of the power consumption on a long period of time (typically between 2 and 8 hours): typical assumptions are: - either "one TRX "full power", the other at 60%" in each sector", or, if Auto Shutdown feature is enabled, "one TRX "full power" in each sector" ("full power" means "with all the Time Slots used and emitted at the maximum power", which is the case for the BCCH TRX in each sector; "60%" means "with 5 out of 8 time slots used, and emitted at 2dB below maximum power", which is considered as a typical of TRXs others than the BCCH, loaded with a traffic approximately 60% of the maximum) - no consideration of power consumption of modules such as Heating Units (they are supposed to be used for a very short time at BTS start-up only; normally, they are not in operation during a backup period) or Battery Charging for the AC powered BTSs including batteries (by definition, battery charging does not take place during a backup period since the mains are not available)

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- Power consumption in normal circumstances: this figure allows to estimate the average energy bill; for DC BTSs, it is the same as the one described above; for AC BTSs, it takes into account the additional power corresponding to AC to DC conversion: - applicable to DC and AC powered BTSs (i.e. outdoor BTSs and AC Indoor BTSs) - considers the DC power consumption of the modules (as above) plus, for the AC BTSs, the power consumption of the AC to DC conversion (this additional power consumption being taken as 12% of the DC power consumption itself) - in each sector, one TRX is taken for its full power, the others for their power "at 60%" (see definition above) - power consumption of Heating Units or Battery Charging is ignored - Maximum power consumption: this figure allows to determine the characteristics of the power distribution circuit (breaker ratings and wire cross sections): - applicable to DC and AC BTSs (i.e. outdoor BTSs and AC Indoor BTSs) - considers the DC power consumption of the modules (as above) plus, for the AC BTSs, the power consumption of the AC to DC conversion - in each sector, all TRXs are taken for their full power, - in addition, one has to consider: - the power consumption associated to battery charging when, after a backup period, the batteries have to be charged to their full capacity - the power consumption of heaters (operated when temperature inside of cabinet drops below 10C) This should be used only to estimate the peak power consumption; the two additional power consumptions above take place during exceptional periods, and should not take place simultaneously: - battery charging is a permanent process; however, its associated power consumption is only significant when the battery have been discharged, i.e. after a backup period during which mains were not available - Heating Units, or heaters, are only used in very cold situations, at BTS start-up, to bring the BTS at a minimum temperature; they are not used during normal use of a BTS

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7.2 Power consumptions


The following table gives the power consumptions of main BTS modules; modules of which the power consumption is negligible and/or the number is the same whatever the configuration are not listed (their power consumption is included in that of cabinet or of other modules); also, power consumption of options such are microwaves are not listed
Power consumption (W)(1)(5) DC AC Twin TRX module 850, 2 TRX "Full Power" Twin TRX module 850, 2 TRX "60%" Twin TRX module 850, 1 Full,1 "60%" Twin TRX module 850, 1TRX "Full Power" Twin TRX module 850, both TRX idle Twin TRX module 900, 2 TRX "Full Power" Twin TRX module 900, 2 TRX "60%" Twin TRX module 900, 1 Full,1 "60%" Twin TRX module 900, 1TRX "Full Power" Twin TRX module 900, both TRX idle Twin TRX module 1800, 2 TRX "Full Power" Twin TRX module 1800, 2 TRX "60%" Twin TRX module 1800, 1 Full,1 "60%" Twin TRX module 1800, 1TRX "Full Power" Twin TRX module 1800, both TRX idle Twin TRX module 1900, 2 TRX "Full Power" Twin TRX module 1900, 2 TRX "60%" Twin TRX module 1900, 1 Full,1 "60%" Twin TRX module 1900, 1TRX "Full Power" Twin TRX module 1900, both TRX idle TRX 900 HP, "Full Power" TRX 900 HP, "60%" TRX 1800 HP, "Full Power" TRX 1800 HP, "60%" ANC CBO cabinet MBO1 Evolution cabinet MBO2 evolution cabinet MBI3 / MBI53 cabinet MBI5 cabinet Battery Charging (each BU90) (4) Battery Charging (more than 1 BU90) Battery Charging (1 BU5) Heating Units CBO (3) Heating Units MBO1 Evolution (3) Heating Units MBO2 evolution (3) 292 218 253 193 99 280 198 232 181 91 276 178 227 189 96 329 236 280 210 99 185 109 246 145 10 90 170 310 50 70 327 244 284 216 111 314 222 260 202 102 309 199 254 212 107 369 265 314 236 111 207 122 276 162 11 101 190 347 56 78 450 800 100 500 950 1 900

500 600 1 200

(1) For the various types of TRX power consumptions, it is assumed that all time slots are using the same modulation GMSK; power consumption is reduced in 8 PSK compared to GMSK; however, the situation where all time slots of a given TRX are in 8 PSK is not typical; and for all practical power consumption purposes, it is advised to consider only the GMSK case, which is a conservative approach.

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(3) Power consumption of Heating Units is given for information; it should not be considered in the assessment of power consumptions below, since Heating units are only used for a limited time in specific situations where other components of the BTS have not reached their full power (4) Temporary consumption in limitation mode. Continuous final charging power 5W per battery. (5) For the Twin TRX module, Power Consumption is given according to the different situations: - "2 TRXFull Power": when the two chains within the Twin TRX module are transmitting "Full Power" (one module shared between two sectors and carrying the BCCH of each, or one module used in one sector with Tx Diversity and carrying the BCCH) - "2 TRX60%": when the two chains within the Twin TRX module are transmitting "60%" (one module shared between two sectors and not carrying the BCCH of each, or one module used in one sector with Tx Diversity and not carrying the BCCH) - "1 Full, 1 60%": when one of the two chains within the Twin TRX module is transmitting "Full Power" and the other "60%" (e.g. one module used within one sector in non Tx Diversity mode, with one TRX carrying the BCCH)

Power consumptions of a BTS configuration according to the possible hypotheses can then be derived as follows (for the reasons given in note (1) above, only GMSK power is considered): - For "DC power consumption for backup": - only the DC power consumptions have to be considered (even for AC BTS) - as far as TRXs are concerned, two situations can be considered: - taking, for each sector of a BTS, one TRX for its "full power", the others at "60%" or - taking, for each sector of a BTS, only one TRX for its "full power" and ignoring the others. This second possibility is based on the assumption that the "Auto Shutdown" is enabled, with all TRXs except the BCCH switched off after a given time has elapsed. - For "Power consumption in normal circumstances": - DC or AC power consumptions have to be considered, depending on the type of BTS, - in each sector of a BTS, one TRX must be taken for its "full power", the others at "60%" - For "Maximum power consumption": - DC or AC power consumptions have to be considered, depending on the type of BTS, - all TRXs must be taken at their "full power" - for outdoor BTSs, depending on the conditions that are judged typical, Battery Charging or Heating Unit Power consumption may be added As an example, the power consumptions of an MBO1 Evolution 3x4 TRX1800 AC with 1 battery BU90 are:

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9100 Base Station Product description

Unit DC Power consumption for Backup"Auto Shutdown" not enabled MBO1 Evolution 3x4 TRX1800 MBO1 evolution cabinet Twin TRX module 1800, 1 Full,1 "60%" Twin TRX module 1800, 2 TRX "60%" ANC DC Power consumption for Backup"Auto Shutdown" enabled MBO1 Evolution 3x4 TRX1800 MBO1 evolution cabinet Twin TRX module 1800, 1TRX "Full Power" ANC AC Power consumption in normal circumstances MBO1 Evolution 3x4 TRX1800 MBO1 evolution cabinet Twin TRX module 1800, 1 Full,1 "60%" Twin TRX module 1800, 2 TRX "60%" ANC Maximum power consumption MBO1 Evolution 3x4 TRX1800 MBO1 evolution cabinet Twin TRX module 1800, 2 TRX "Full Power" ANC Battery Charging 190 309 11 450 190 254 199 11 170 189 10 170 227 178 10

Qty

Total (W)

1 415 1 3 3 3 170 681 534 30

767 1 3 3 170 567 30

1 582 1 3 3 3 190 762 597 33

2 527 1 6 3 1 190 1 854 33 450

This example shows how to determine the power consumptions according to various hypotheses; it also shows that TRXs constitute the main factor, due to their power consumption and their number.

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7.3 Backup times


AC BTS may include batteries that are providing a backup time in case of mains failure. For Indoor AC BTS, two kinds of batteries exist: BU5 and BU90. The purpose of the BU5 is to allow withstanding short mains interruptions, in the range of some minutes; it is not considered in that chapter, that focuses on BU90 batteries, available for Indoor AC and Outdoor BTSs, and that are designed to provide a backup time of several hours - depending on configuration. The purpose of present chapter is precisely to show how backup times can be estimated from the BTS power consumption and the number of batteries. The backup time available for a given BTS configuration, can be read on the following curves: - the x axis is the DC power consumption for backup, to be estimated as commented above (adding the power consumption of options that would be powered through the BTS) - the y axis shows the backup time (in minutes on left axis, in hours on right axis); this number has to be read on the curve corresponding to the number of batteries.
540 9

480

with 1 BU90 battery


420

with 2 BU90 batteries with 3 BU90 batteries

Backup time (minutes)

360

300

240

180

120

60

0 500

1 000

1 500

2 000

2 500

3 000

3 500

0 4 000

DC Power Consumption for backup (W)

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Backup time (hours)

9100 Base Station Product description

To assess the impact of "Auto Shutdown" feature with a given timer, one should: - check the backup times with and without this feature enabled, i.e.: - with the feature enabled and the timer set to zero (all the TRXs, except the BCCH, are switched off as soon as mains disappear), and - with the feature disabled (all the TRXs are kept operating normally, even when a mains failure is detected) - decide a reasonable value for the timer and make an interpolation As an example, backup times for the MBO1 evolution 3x4 TRX1800 using 1 BU90 taken as example above would be: - with "Auto Shutdown" not enabled: - with "Auto Shutdown" fully enabled (timer set to zero): - with "Auto Shutdown" enabled, and timer set to 155 / 2 = 78 mn: 218 mn Interpolated as (155 + 280) / 2 280 mn (for 767 W) 155 mn (as read on the curve above for 1415 W)

The last case in table above corresponds to a situation where, after mains failure, the BTS operation is not affected for the first 78 mn (= 155 mn / 2) of backup; after that time, and if mains are not back again, the TRXs others than BCCH are shut off in each sector to save power; the BTS will still be running, with reduced traffic capacity, for 140 mn (218 78).

7.4 Power dissipation


Power dissipation has to be considered e.g. for the dimensioning of cooling systems. Out of the power consumed by a BTS, part is transmitted as RF power at antenna connector, part may be stored in batteries for future use (AC BTSs) and the remaining part is dissipated as heat. To compute the total dissipated power, one has then to sum up the contribution generated by each module; for this, one must distinguish the TRXs from the other modules. Power dissipation of modules other than TRXs In such modules, all the power consumed in the module is dissipated, and is dissipated in the module itself; hence the formula: Power dissipation of the module = Power consumption of the module

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9100 Base Station Product description

Power dissipation of TRX modules: Compared to other modules, the TRXs are dissipating locally (withing themselves) only part of the power they consume; the other part is the TRX output RF power, transmitted toward the antenna connector. But then, part of this TRX output RF power is dissipated by the modules and cables between the TRX output and the antenna connector, due to their losses. Thus the dissipated power generated within the BTS due to a given TRX is the share of the power consumption that is not available as RF power at antenna connector; it is given by the following formula:
TRX power dissipation = TRX power consumption - TX output power at BTS antenna connector

Of course, the figure depends both of the power consumption of the TRX and of the arrangement of combining modules between the TRX and the antenna connector. The following table gives the power dissipation of the different BTS modules. As TX output power at BTS antenna connector depends on the type and number of antenna networks used, different values of TRX power dissipation are given depending on the type and number of antenna networks used.
Dissipated Power (W) for specified antenna network type & number DC BTS AC BTS Module ANC no combining ANC combining ANC combining + ANY ANC no combining ANC combining ANC combining + ANY

Twin TRX module 850 Twin TRX module 900 Twin TRX module 1800 Twin TRX module 1900 ANC CBO cabinet MBO1 Evolution cabinet MBO2 Evolution cabinet MBI3 / MBI53 cabinet MBI5 cabinet

226 214 224 262 10 90 110 190 50 70

262 250 252 298 10 90 110 190 50 70

278 266 266 316 10 90 110 190 50 70

261 248 258 303 11 100 123 213 56 78

297 284 286 339 11 100 123 213 56 78

313 300 298 355 11 100 123 213 56 78

It has to be noted that there is no power dissipation associated to Heating Units nor to Battery Charging:

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9100 Base Station Product description

- Power Dissipation is used to determine if a cooling system should be installed, and of what kind; accordingly, it is mostly relevant for indoor BTSs, and what is meaningful is the power dissipation in a situation where the BTS environment may reach a high temperature. - If Power Dissipation has nevertheless to be assessed for outdoor BTSs: - Power dissipated by Heating Units can be ignored, since they are precisely used in circumstances where the temperature is low and where the problem is not dissipated power. - in the battery charging process, most of the energy is used to charge the batteries, and is thus not dissipated in the environment; if there is residual dissipated power, it is at a low level, not worth considering in the computations. Also, considering the purpose of evaluating Power Dissipation, the figures given for Twin TRX modules are with the assumption "2 TRX - Full Power". Example : power dissipation of MBI5 DC 3x4 TRX 1800:
Power dissipation: MBI3 DC 3x4 TRX 1800 MBI3 cabinet Twin TRX module 1800 with ANC combining ANC
50 252 10 1 6 3

Unit

Qty

Total
1 592 50 1 512 30

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9100 Base Station Product description

8. RELIABILITY AND AVAILABILITY


Ideally, an equipment should be available for its main function (carrying traffic as far as BTS is concerned) 100% of the time. From a practical point of view, some failures may lead to an interruption of this main function; the anticipated degree of availability of an equipment can then be estimated by figures such as: - equipment unavailability, expressed as the share of time during which the equipment is not functional, - mean down time for a reference period, i.e. the average time during which the equipment will not be available out of a reference period. The process to carry out such evaluations, is the following: - a value has to be taken as hypothesis for the Mean Time To Repair (MTTR), i.e. the time during which the equipment will remain unavailable, following a failure, until it is repaired; this includes the time for appropriately skilled personnel to go to the site of the equipment; the commonly used value is MTTR = 4 hours. - the modules that have to remain functional in order for the full equipment to remain functional, have to be identified; for a BTS, these modules are: - the ANC, - the SUMA. It must be noted that since a given user is typically under coverage of a given sector, only one ANC is considered, even in a sectorized BTS, for availability assessment. The other modules are ignored, since they have virtually no failures (e.g. the BTS cabinets) or their failure have no immediate impact on the function of the BTS; e.g.: - Fans are redundant, - in most circumstances, TRXs are "redundant": loosing a TRX has no significant impact on the function of the BTS, since other TRXs are still available - the Failure Rates (FIT) of these modules must be estimated

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9100 Base Station Product description

- the total Failure Rate of the equipment is then computed as the sum of the FIT of its modules; the other following quantities may then be computed as follows: Total FIT = FIT of SUMA + FIT of ANC Total MTBF = 1/Total FIT System unavailability = MTTR / (MTBF + MTTR) MTTR / MTBF, because MTTR << MTBF System availability = 1 system unavailability. Mean Accumulated Down Time (MADT) = system unavailability x 365 X 24 (if expressed in h/year) The following table gives the unavailability and downtime for the BTS, according to the principles above; the values are those of the GSM 900 BTS, but are very similar for other frequency bands:

FIT of SUMA FIT of ANC Total FIT Total MTBF (h) System unavailability System Mean Accumulated Down Time (MADT) (h/year) System unavailability and downtime

3 328.2 x 10E-9 2 359.6 x 10E-9 5 687.8 x 10E-9 175 815 2.275 x 10E-5 0.2

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9. GLOSSARY
ACDUE ACU AD AMR ANCE ANY BBU BCF BTS CBO DAC DCDUE DDF DR E-GSM EBCO EDGE EFR FIT GPRS GSM HDSL HEX HP HR HSCSD IDU LNA MAB MADT MBI MBI3 MBI5 MBI53 MBO MBO1E MBO2E MBOEE MP MTBF MTTR NTL ODU OML PCM PDU P-GSM RFH AC Distribution Unit Air Conditioning Unit Antenna Diversity Adaptive Multi-Rate Antenna Network with Combiner Evolution Antenna Network, type y Battery Backup Unit Base station Control Function Base Transceiver Station Compact BTS Outdoor Direct Air Cooling system DC Distribution Unit Digital Distribution Frame Dual Rate Extended-band GSM (880 960 MHz) External Battery Cabinet Outdoor Enhanced Data rates for GSM Evolution Enhanced Full Rate Failures In Time General Packet Radio Service Global System for Mobile communication High-bit-rate Digital Subscriber Line Air/Air Heat Exchanger system High Power Half Rate High-Speed Circuit Switched Data InDoor Unit for microwave entity Low-Noise Amplifier Mast-head Amplification Box Mean Accumulated Down Time Multistandard BTS Indoor MBI with 3 sub-racks MBI with 5 sub-racks Same as MBI5, except that initially equipped with 3 sub-racks (modification into an MBI5 remaining possible by use of a transformation kit). Multistandard BTS Outdoor MBO1 Evolution basic rack MBO1 Evolution basic rack + MBO Evolution extension rack MBO Evolution extension rack Medium Power Mean Time Between Failures Mean Time To Repair Network Termination Link OutDoor Unit for microwave entity Operation and Maintenance Link Pulse Code Modulation Power Distribution Unit Primary GSM Band (890 960 MHz) Radio Frequency Hopping

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9100 Base Station Product description

RSL SUM TMA TRX TS TWIN TRX U UPS VSWR WBC

Radio Signaling Link Station Unit Module Tower-Mounted Amplifier Transceiver Time Slot Twin TRX module providing two TRXs in one housing Unit used in mechanic design for the height of modules: 1U = 1.75 = 44.45 mm Uninterruptable Power Supply Voltage Standing Wave Ratio Wide-Band Combiner End of Document

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