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# Heat and Thermodynamics

Introduction

Definitions
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Internal energy
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Kinetic and potential energy Joules H= U + p x V Reference to the triple point Engineering unit H is the work done in a process J, J/kg

## Enthalpy and specific enthalpy

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More Definitions
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Work
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Standard definition W = f x d In a gas W = p x V At one time considered a unique form of energy Changes in heat are the same as changes in enthalpy

Heat
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## Yet more definitions

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Temperature
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Measure of the heat in a body Heat flows from high to low temperature SI unit Kelvin Perhaps the strangest physics concept Notes define it as energy loss Symbol S Units kJ/K, kJ/(kgk) Entropy increases mean less work can be done by the system

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## Sensible and Latent Heat

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Heat transfers change kinetic or potential energy or both Temperature is a measure of kinetic energy Sensible heat changes kinetic (and maybe potential energy) Latent heat changes only the potential energy.

Sensible Heat
Q = m c (t f ti )
! ! !

Q is positive for transfers in c is the specific heat capacity c has units kJ/(kgC)

Latent Heat
Q = m lv Q = m lm
!

## Heat to cause a change of state (melting or vaporization) Temperature is constant

Enthalpy Changes
Q = m h
!

Enthalpy changes take into account both latent and sensible heat changes

## Thermodynamic Properties of H2O

Temperature C Sensible heat Latent heat

100C Saturation temp Saturated liquid Wet steam Subcooled liquid Specific enthalpy Saturated steam

Superheated Steam

Pressure Effects

Laws of Thermodynamics
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First Law
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Energy is conserved It is impossible to convert all of the heat supplied to a heat engine into work Heat will not naturally flow from cold to hot Disorder increases

Second Law
!

! !

Heat Transfer

Q A T

4
T1

A Q = k T l

A l

T2

## More Heat Transfer

Convection Condensation

Q = h A T

Mass Flow

## Latent heat transfer from vapor

Daltons Law
If we have more than one gas in a container the pressure is the sum of the pressures associated with an individual gas.

Pc = P + P2 + P3 + ... 1

## Condensing Heat Exchanger

Steam In

P=Psaturation T=Tsaturation
Coolant Out

Coolant In

Water Out

## Non-Condensables in Heat Exchanger

Steam In

P=Psaturation+Pg T=Tsaturation
Coolant Out

Coolant In

Water Out

For You to do

## Reactor Thermal Power

QHT
Feedwater Steam to turbine

Boiler
2nd stage Reheat drains

Preheater
QP
Piping loses

QL

QM

Moderator

QSC

!

## T is an indicator of reactor power if boiling is not taking place

Q = m c T

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At boiling T stops changing In boiling channels total enthalpy increase must be calculated

Fuel Safety
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## Fuel Heat Transfer

Single phase convection Nucleate boiling Saturated (bulk) boiling Subcooled boiling Partial film boiling Full film boiling (dryout)

E B

Tcoolant = Tsat

Tsheath = Tsat

!

## Critical Heat Flux

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CHF The maximum heat flux nucleate boiling can transfer When dry patches of vapor exist on the fuel sheath

Dryout
!

Uniform Heating
Tsheath surface Tsat Tcoolant

Dryout Outlet

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## Actual and Critical Heat Flux

Channel power

CH F

Bundles in dryout

A
inlet

eat lh a ctu

x flu

Channel distance

outlet

## Critical Channel Power

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! !

CCP The minimum channel power that gives dryout Varies with coolant conditions Varies with flux shape

## Boiling and Flow

10.4 Pressure MPa(a) 10.2 10.0 9.8 9.6 Non-boiling mode Boiling mode

Boiling starts

Inlet

Channel position

Outlet

Temperature Profile
2800 Fuel melting point 2400

2000

Temperature, C

1600

1200 Fuel sheath 800 Coolant 400 Fuel pellet Coolant Fuel sheath

## More Temperature Profiles

2800 Overrating without dryout 2400 Overrating and dryout Fuel melting point Possible film of gaseous fission products (on LOCA)

2000 Temperature, C

1200

800

Coolant

Fuel sheath

Fuel sheath

Coolant

## Low HTS Pressure

a) Temperature profile
Inlet Tsat at normal pressure Coolant temperature Tsat at reduced pressure Coolant temperature at reduced pressure Coolant temperature at normal pressure Outlet

Channel position

## b) Heat flux profile

Inlet CHF at normal pressure Heat flux Outlet

## CHF at reduced pressure

eat al h Actu

flux

Channel position

Reduced Flow
a) Temperature profile
Inlet Saturation temperature Outlet Coolant temperature Reduced flow

Normal flow

Channel position

Inlet

## b) Heat flux profile

CHF at normal flow

Outlet

Heat flux

al h Actu

fl eat

ux

Dryout zone

Channel position

## Inlet High Temperature

a) Temperature profile
Inlet Outlet Saturation temperature Coolant temperature High inlet temperature Normal inlet temperature

Channel position

## b) Heat flux profile

Inlet CHF at normal inlet temperature Heat flux Outlet

al Actu

t hea

flux

Channel position

## Flux Tilt to Outlet

a) Temperature profile
Inlet Normal flux Outlet Saturation temperature Coolant temperature

Skewed flux

Channel position

## b) Heat flux profile

Inlet CHF at skewed flux Dryout zone Outlet

Heat flux

## CHF at normal flux

al h orm eat flux

Channel position

## Flux Tilt to Inlet

a) Temperature profile
Inlet Outlet Saturation temperature Coolant temperature Normal flux

Skewed flux

Channel position

## b) Heat flux profile

Inlet CHF at skewed flux Heat flux CHF at normal flux Outlet

h m al Nor

eat

flux

x at flu d he kewe S

Channel position

## Excessive Channel Power

a) Temperature profile
Inlet Outlet Saturation temperature Coolant temperature Excessive channel power Normal channel power

Channel position

## b) Heat flux profile

Inlet CHF at normal channel power Dryout zone Heat flux CHF at excessive channel power
l he rma No lux at f

Outlet

For You to do

HTS Components

## HTS Feed & Bleed

Bleed Condenser
!

Non-condensable gases
! ! !

Reduce heat transfer Steam pressure rises Increased reflux cooling Vessel appears sub cooled

Degassing Orifice

Pressurizer Control

!

## Steady State Shrink and Swell

Rise in Level Rise in Level

## Transient Shrink and Swell

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Shrink and swell from short term effects Reactor power boiler level
!

! !

## Effects on the Downcomer

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Water flow into the annulus increases Water flow out of the annulus decreases Instrumentation sees a level increase

Cyclone Separators

## Boiler Level Control

Swell Margin Constant Level Shrink Margin Shrink Margin Full Power Level Swell Margin Zero Power Level

Improper Level
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Low
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## If tubes are uncovered

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Reduce heat transfer Time in loss of feedwater events is reduced Reactor power automatically reduced
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High
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## High vapor content in steam Slugs of water to turbine Turbine trip

Boiler Pressure
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! !

Boiler pressure is the key parameter in matching heat source to sink Reactor Leading Reactor Lagging

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## Heat transfer in the boiler

Q = U A Tm

A low power levels the HTS is about the same temperature as the boiler

Rx for Warm-up
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! !

Put some energy into HTS from pumps and reactor power Increase boiler pressure Boiler temperature follows (saturated vessel) HTS temperature follows that

Rx for Cool-down
! ! !

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Heat sources are pumps and decay heat Boiler pressure is ramped down Steam energy released is greater that energy input Down go temperatures Limit around 130-150C due to huge volume of steam required

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For You to do