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Heat and Thermodynamics

Introduction

Definitions
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Internal energy
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Kinetic and potential energy Joules H= U + p x V Reference to the triple point Engineering unit H is the work done in a process J, J/kg

Enthalpy and specific enthalpy


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More Definitions
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Work
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Standard definition W = f x d In a gas W = p x V At one time considered a unique form of energy Changes in heat are the same as changes in enthalpy

Heat
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Yet more definitions


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Temperature
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Measure of the heat in a body Heat flows from high to low temperature SI unit Kelvin Perhaps the strangest physics concept Notes define it as energy loss Symbol S Units kJ/K, kJ/(kgk) Entropy increases mean less work can be done by the system

Entropy and Specific Entropy


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Sensible and Latent Heat


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Heat transfers change kinetic or potential energy or both Temperature is a measure of kinetic energy Sensible heat changes kinetic (and maybe potential energy) Latent heat changes only the potential energy.

Sensible Heat
Q = m c (t f ti )
! ! !

Q is positive for transfers in c is the specific heat capacity c has units kJ/(kgC)

Latent Heat
Q = m lv Q = m lm
!

Heat to cause a change of state (melting or vaporization) Temperature is constant

Enthalpy Changes
Q = m h
!

Enthalpy changes take into account both latent and sensible heat changes

Thermodynamic Properties of H2O


Temperature C Sensible heat Latent heat

100C Saturation temp Saturated liquid Wet steam Subcooled liquid Specific enthalpy Saturated steam

Superheated Steam

Pressure Effects

Laws of Thermodynamics
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First Law
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Energy is conserved It is impossible to convert all of the heat supplied to a heat engine into work Heat will not naturally flow from cold to hot Disorder increases

Second Law
!

! !

Heat Transfer
Radiation Conduction

Q A T

4
T1

A Q = k T l

A l

T2

More Heat Transfer


Convection Condensation

Q = h A T

Mass Flow

Latent heat transfer from vapor

Daltons Law
If we have more than one gas in a container the pressure is the sum of the pressures associated with an individual gas.

Pc = P + P2 + P3 + ... 1

Condensing Heat Exchanger


Steam In

P=Psaturation T=Tsaturation
Coolant Out

Coolant In

Water Out

Non-Condensables in Heat Exchanger


Steam In

P=Psaturation+Pg T=Tsaturation
Coolant Out

Coolant In

Condenser Appears Subcooled


Water Out

For You to do

HTS Normal Operation

Reactor Thermal Power


QHT
Feedwater Steam to turbine

Boiler
2nd stage Reheat drains

Preheater
QP
Piping loses

Boiler blowdown HT pump Bleed cooler

QL

Fuel bundle/ HTS

Feed & bleed

End shield/shield tank

QM

Moderator

QSC

Reactor Power and T


!

T is an indicator of reactor power if boiling is not taking place


Q = m c T

! !

At boiling T stops changing In boiling channels total enthalpy increase must be calculated

Fuel Safety
! !

No overpowering Adequate cooling

Fuel Heat Transfer


Single phase convection Nucleate boiling Saturated (bulk) boiling Subcooled boiling Partial film boiling Full film boiling (dryout)

Log (heat flux)

Critical heat flux

E B

Tcoolant = Tsat

Tsheath = Tsat

Log (Tsheath Tcoolant)

Two new terms


!

Critical Heat Flux


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CHF The maximum heat flux nucleate boiling can transfer When dry patches of vapor exist on the fuel sheath

Dryout
!

Uniform Heating
Tsheath surface Tsat Tcoolant

Coolant Fuel element Singlephase convection Inlet Subcooled nucleate boiling

Saturated nucleate (bulk) boiling

Dryout Outlet

Factors Affecting CHF


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Coolant Sub-cooling Vapour Quality Coolant Velocity

Actual and Critical Heat Flux

Channel power

CH F

Bundles in dryout

A
inlet

eat lh a ctu

x flu

Channel distance

outlet

Critical Channel Power


! !

! !

CCP The minimum channel power that gives dryout Varies with coolant conditions Varies with flux shape

Boiling and Flow


10.4 Pressure MPa(a) 10.2 10.0 9.8 9.6 Non-boiling mode Boiling mode

Boiling starts

Inlet

Channel position

Outlet

Temperature Profile
2800 Fuel melting point 2400

2000

Temperature, C

1600

1200 Fuel sheath 800 Coolant 400 Fuel pellet Coolant Fuel sheath

More Temperature Profiles


2800 Overrating without dryout 2400 Overrating and dryout Fuel melting point Possible film of gaseous fission products (on LOCA)

2000 Temperature, C

1600 Nominal rating, normal cooling Light load and dryout

1200

Vapour film due to dryout

800

400 Fuel pellet

Coolant

Fuel sheath

Fuel sheath

Coolant

Bad things to do to fuel

Low HTS Pressure


a) Temperature profile
Inlet Tsat at normal pressure Coolant temperature Tsat at reduced pressure Coolant temperature at reduced pressure Coolant temperature at normal pressure Outlet

Channel position

b) Heat flux profile


Inlet CHF at normal pressure Heat flux Outlet

CHF at reduced pressure

eat al h Actu

flux

Channel position

Reduced Flow
a) Temperature profile
Inlet Saturation temperature Outlet Coolant temperature Reduced flow

Normal flow

Channel position

Inlet

b) Heat flux profile


CHF at normal flow

Outlet

Heat flux

CHF at reduced flow


al h Actu

fl eat

ux

Dryout zone

Channel position

Inlet High Temperature


a) Temperature profile
Inlet Outlet Saturation temperature Coolant temperature High inlet temperature Normal inlet temperature

Channel position

b) Heat flux profile


Inlet CHF at normal inlet temperature Heat flux Outlet

CHF at high inlet temperature


al Actu

t hea

flux

Channel position

Flux Tilt to Outlet


a) Temperature profile
Inlet Normal flux Outlet Saturation temperature Coolant temperature

Skewed flux

Channel position

b) Heat flux profile


Inlet CHF at skewed flux Dryout zone Outlet

Heat flux

CHF at normal flux


al h orm eat flux

flux heat ewed Sk

Channel position

Flux Tilt to Inlet


a) Temperature profile
Inlet Outlet Saturation temperature Coolant temperature Normal flux

Skewed flux

Channel position

b) Heat flux profile


Inlet CHF at skewed flux Heat flux CHF at normal flux Outlet

h m al Nor

eat

flux

x at flu d he kewe S

Channel position

Excessive Channel Power


a) Temperature profile
Inlet Outlet Saturation temperature Coolant temperature Excessive channel power Normal channel power

Channel position

b) Heat flux profile


Inlet CHF at normal channel power Dryout zone Heat flux CHF at excessive channel power
l he rma No lux at f

Outlet

Excessive heat flux Channel position

For You to do

HTS Components

HTS Feed & Bleed

Bleed Condenser
!

Non-condensable gases
! ! !

Reduce heat transfer Steam pressure rises Increased reflux cooling Vessel appears sub cooled

Degassing Orifice

Pressurizer Control

Boiler Shrink and Swell


!

Boilers are probably more correctly called steam generators

Steady State Shrink and Swell


Rise in Level Rise in Level

Zero Load

Low Load

Full Load

Transient Shrink and Swell


! !

Shrink and swell from short term effects Reactor power boiler level
!

Boiling increases Water flashes to steam Steam expands

Boiler Pressure boiler level


! !

Effects on the Downcomer


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Water flow into the annulus increases Water flow out of the annulus decreases Instrumentation sees a level increase

Cyclone Separators

Downcomer Annulus Expansion Forces

Boiler Level Control


Swell Margin Constant Level Shrink Margin Shrink Margin Full Power Level Swell Margin Zero Power Level

Fixed Level Control

Ramped Level Control

Improper Level
!

Low
!

If tubes are uncovered


! ! !

Reduce heat transfer Time in loss of feedwater events is reduced Reactor power automatically reduced
!

Setback or stepback and finally a trip

High
! ! !

High vapor content in steam Slugs of water to turbine Turbine trip

Boiler Pressure
!

! !

Boiler pressure is the key parameter in matching heat source to sink Reactor Leading Reactor Lagging

Warm-up and Cool-down


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Heat transfer in the boiler


Q = U A Tm

A low power levels the HTS is about the same temperature as the boiler

Rx for Warm-up
!

! !

Put some energy into HTS from pumps and reactor power Increase boiler pressure Boiler temperature follows (saturated vessel) HTS temperature follows that

Rx for Cool-down
! ! !

! !

Heat sources are pumps and decay heat Boiler pressure is ramped down Steam energy released is greater that energy input Down go temperatures Limit around 130-150C due to huge volume of steam required

Ideal Temperature Ramps


! !

2.8C a minute This rate minimizes


! ! !

Thermal stress Probability of delayed hydride cracking Feedwater loss

For You to do