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I. nh ngha: Gii t la tieng ng lien lac gia danh t hay danh t tng ng (noun equivalents) vi cac phan t khac trong menh e. Vd: I go to school : Toi i hoc to la gii t noi danh t school vi I go II. Hnh thc gii t: (1)Gii t n: at, in, from, with ... (2)Gii t kep lien: into, throught, within (3)Gii t kep ri: out of, because of ... III.Phan loai gii t: (Kinds of preposition) (1) Gii t ch thi gian: (time) - At (vao luc): at six oclock, at noon, at midnight ... - On (vao ngay): on Monday, on July 21st - In (trong mua): in August, in Summer, in 1964 - Before (trc): before this afternoon - After (sau): after seven oclock - During (ang khi): since last week - Since (t khi): since last week - Till (cho ti khi): till five oclock ...etc (2) Gii t ch ni chon va s chuyen ong: a/ Ch ni chon: (khong chuyen ong) - In ( trong): in the room, in the yard - At (tai ni nao): at the station - On ( tren): on the table, on my hoad - Before (ang trc): before the house - Behind (ang sau): behind the school - Near (gan): near the station, near the market ... - Between ( gia): between my father and my mother ... b/ Ch s chuyen ong: - To (ti ni nao): to school, to market, to church ... - Across (ngang qua): across the street. - A long (doc theo): a long the road, along the coast - About (quanh): about me, about the village - In to (vao trong): into the room, into the box - Throught (xuyen qua): through the forest ... Trang 1

(3) Gii t ch the cach (manner): - with (vi): with pleasure, with contentment ... - without (khong): without pleasure ... (4) Gii t ch muc ch: (purpose) - To (e): he comes to see me (no en e tham toi) - In order to (e): He comes in order to see me - For (thay cho, ho): do this for me, please! (5) Gii t ch duyen c: (cause, reason) - Thanks to (nh): thanks to your help - Through (do, v): through neglect (v s y) - Because of (v): because of the rain (v ma)... (6) Gii t ch phng tien: (means) - By (nh, bang): by taxi, by car ... - Through (nh qua, trung gian): through an interpreter - With (bang): I write a letter with a pencil, eat ... (7) Gii t ch s tng quan: (relation) - According to (tuy theo): according to you - Instead of (thay v): instead of going to sleep, he goes to ... - In spite of (mac du): in spite of the rain - On, about (ve): about dogs, on science ...

Cach dung mot so gii t thong thng:

1. IN: a.Ch ni chon (place): - mot ni nao: In Viet Nam, in Washington, in Saigon ... - trong: In a box, in the house, in the room b. Ch thi gian (time) - Mua: in spring, in summer, in Autumn ... - Thang: in July, in April, in March ... - Nam: in 1960, in 1964 ... c. Ch the cach (manner): - He is danger: ong ta b lam nguy - He is badly in debt: ong ta b n nan - I am in good health: Toi khoe manh - He spoke to me in a soft tune: ong ta noi vi toi bang mot giong nho nhe d. Trong mot so thanh ng: - In one word (noi tom lai) - In short (noi van lai) - In fact (that vay) Trang 2

- In other words (noi cach khac) 2. AT: a/ Ch ni chon (place): - Tai mot a iem: at the station, at the zoo - mot ni nao xac nh: at 25 TuDo street b/ Ch s chuyen ong (motion): ti mot ni nho, thanh pho nho - I arrive at Dalat: Toi ti a Lat - I arrive in Saigon: v Sai Gon la mot thanh pho ln c/ Ch thi gian (time): - Gi, phut: at ten oclock, at ten minutes to five ... - Nhng tieng ch thi gian xac nh: at this moment, at dawn, at sunrise, at sunset, at midnight, at noon ... d/ Ch the cach, trang thai (manner): Vd: - He is at work: Ong ta ang lam viec - She was at prayers: co ta ang cau nguyen - At leizure (mot cach an nhan) - At ease (mot cach thoai mai), etc ... e/ Vi mot so thanh ng: - At first (thoat au) - At last (sau cung) - At least (t nhat la) - At once (ngay lap tc) - At any rate (dau sao), etc ... f/ Theo sau nhng ong t ch s xuc ong tam hon (verbs of emotion) Vd: - To be surprised at: ngac nhien ve To be amused at: vui thch ve ... To rejoice at: thch thu ve ... 3. ON: a/ Ch ni chon (place): - tren sat: on the table, on the ground, on the wall - Chuyen ong hng ti: the army marched on Saigon b/ Ch thi gian (time): - Ngay trong tuan: on Monday, on Wednesday, on Saturday ... - Ngay trong thang: on the ninth of April ... c/ Ch s nh vao (dependence): Vd: He lives on his parents: No song la nh cha me Trang 3

d/ Noi ve, ve (about) Vd: - A lecture on science: bai dien van noi ve khoa hoc - A talk on war: cuoc noi chuyen ve chien tranh e/ Trong mot so thanh ng: - On purpose: co y - On the sly: len, giau - On the whole: xet ai cng - On Fire: ang chay ... 4. TO: a/ Ch s chuyen ong (motion): - Ti, en (oi lap vi From: ri khoi) Vd: I go to school: toi i hoc b/ Ch thi gian (time): Vd: - He was punctual to the minute Ong ta ung mc tng phut 5. FROM: a/ Ch s chuyen ong (motion): - Xa khoi, t mot ni: I come from home: Toi t nha en - Nguon goc (origin): I am from Hanoi Toi la ngi Ha Noi This letter is from my girl friend Bc th nay la cua ban gai toi b/ Ch thi gian (time): T: from morning till evening (t sang ti chieu) c/ Ch ly do (cause, reason): Vd: He does it from fear: No lam ieu o s 6. OF: - Cua (possessive case) The legs of the table: chan ban - Co He is a man of courage: Ong ta la ngi co can am - Ve (about) He often thinks of you: No hay ngh ti anh - V (cause) What did he die of? No chet v benh g? He died of fever: No chet v sot ret - Bang (chat lieu g) Vd: This table is made of wood: Ban nay lam go - Ch nguon goc (origion) Trang 4


He comes of a good family: No thuoc mot gia nh co gia giao 7. FOR: a/ Ch muc ch: He came for dinner b/ Ch mot khoang thi gian: I have taught English for ten years c/ Cho the cho: Buy a shirt for me! 8. BY: a/ Ben canh: come and sit by the fire, he walks by me b/ Bang phng tien: by taxi, by car, by plane c/ Do, bi (trong cau b ong): He is killed by a tiger. America was discorved by Columbus d/ Trong, di: Paris by might e/ Thanh ng thng gap: - Side by side (canh nhau) - Little by little (dan dan) - One by one (tng ngi mot) - Learn by heart (hoc thuoc long) IV. Cac gii t de nham lan vi nhau: 1. AT va IN: ca hai eu ch mot ni nao nhng ngha hi khac nhau. a/ AT: tai ni nao, co the trong, ngoai, ben canh ni ay. Vd: Im at home Toi co the trong nha, ngoai san, ngoai vn ... b/ IN: ch co the trong ni nao ma thoi Vd: Im in the room I walk in the yard 2. IN va INTO: ca hai eu co ngha la trong, nhng khac nhau iem: a/ IN: trong ( san ben trong) Vd: in the room, in the garden ... b/ INTO: trong (t ngoai vao trong), bao gi cung i theo mot ong t ch s chuyen ong Vd: He goes into the room Mai fells into the river. FROM va SINCE: ca hai eu co ngha la t a/ FROM: co the dung cho thi gian va ni chon. Vd: He works from 8 to 10 He drives from Sadec to HCM city Trang 5





b/ SINCE: ch co the dung cho thi gian ma thoi Vd: I have been here since Monday - Ngoai ra, since cung co the dung nh lien t Vd: I have been here since you came SINCE va FOR: a/ SINCE: ng trc tieng ch ngay thang hoac mot iem ch thi gian Vd: I have learnt English since last year. I have waited for you since early morning b/ FOR: ng trc tieng ch mot khoang thi gian keo dai. Vd: I have learnt English for three years. I has been here for two hours AFTER va BEHIND: ca hai eu co ngha la sau a/ AFTER: co the dung cho thi gian va ni chon Vd: I come after 5 oclock He stands after me b/ BEHIND: ch dung cho ni chon ma thoi Vd: Mai sits behind Nga ON va OVER: ca hai eu co ngha la tren a/ ON (co the ung cham) Vd: I put hat on my head b/ OVER: (khong the ung cham) Vd: The ceiling fan is over my head. OVER va ABOVE: ca hai eu co ngha la tren a/ OVER: thang tren Vd: The ceiling fan is right over my head b/ ABOVE: ch bat c iem nao cao hn Vd: The moon is above me

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