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Training and Development Unit 1

Meaning of training (what is training?):

Training plays an important role in human resource development. It is necessary and useful in the case of all categories of operative employees, supervisory staff and managers. Training raises their skills and creates confidence and ability to perform the job efficiently. It also facilitates self development and career development of employees. The main purpose of training is to develop the human resources present within the employees. In brief, training is the watchword of present dynamic business world. Training is necessary due to technological changes rapidly taking place in the industrial field. Industrial training is for a short period but has wide coverage. It relates to Knowledge, information, technical skills, social skills, administrative skills and finally attitude building. Training is for developing overall personality of an employee. Training is the responsibility of the management as it is basically for raising the efficiency and productivity of employees. Expenditure on training is an investment for manpower development and gives rich dividend to employees and organisation in the long run.

Definition of training:
According to Edwin Flippo, training is the act of increasing the knowledge and skill of an employee for doing a particular job. Training may be defined as a planned programme designed to improve performance and to being about measurable changes in technical knowledge and skills of employees for doing a particular job. A formal definition of training is, it is an attempt to improve current or future employee performance by increasing an employees ability to perform through learning, usually by changing the employees attitude or increasing his or her skills and knowledge. The need for training is determined by the employees performance deficiency, computed as follows: Training need = standard performance actual performance.

Importance of training:
Growth of organization: Training contributes to employee stability in at least two ways. Employees become efficient after undergoing training. Efficient employees contribute to growth of organization. Trained employees would be valuable assets to an organization. Organizational efficiency, productivity, and progress to a greater extent depend on training. Flexibility: Training makes the employees versatile in operations. All rounder can be transferred to any job. Flexibility is therefore ensured. Efficient utilization of resources: Accidents scrap and damaged to machinery and equipment can be avoided or minimized through training. Training enables employees to make better usage of resources- men, materials and machinery which helps in reducing the cost and time wastage. Recruitment: Training serves as an effective source of recruitment. It is an investment in human resources with a promise.

Need for training:

The need for training of employees is universally accepted and practical training in the form of information, instructions and guidance is given to all categories of employees. It is a must for raising efficiency of employees. Training is necessary in present competitive and ever changing industrial world. The following points (reasons) justify the need for training: Training is needed as a good supplement to school/college education. Training at the industry level is practical and is needed for creating confidence among employees. It is also needed for personal growth and development of employees. Training is needed due to continuous changes in the field of science and technology. Workers can work as per new methods or can use new machines only when suitable practical training is given to them. Training is the only method by which the knowledge and skills of workers are updated. Training is needed in order to introduce modern methods or for the introduction of rationalization and computer technology in the industrial units. Training is needed for raising the efficiency and productivity of industrial employees. It is needed for improving the quality of production and also for avoiding accidents and wastages of all kinds in the industrial units. Training is needed for personal safety of employees and also for avoiding damage to machines and property of the company. Training is needed as it creates highly skilled manpower in an organization. Such skilled manpower is the real asset of an industrial unit. Training is needed for preventing manpower obsolescence, for improving health and safety of workers, for improving organizational climate and finally for meeting future personnel needs of the organization.

Types of training:
Induction (orientation) training: Induction training is basically for introducing the organization to newly appointed employees. The purpose is to give them the birds eye view of the organization. It is a very short informative type of training given immediately after joining the organization. For induction training, information booklets are issued and short informative films are shown. In addition, lecture by personnel manager/HRD manager is also arranged. Companies such as Blue Star Ltd., SANDOZ (India) Ltd. and TISCO take keen interest in induction training. Induction training is a simple, economical and quick method which introduces the company to newly recruited/appointed employee in an orderly manner. Job training: Job training relates to specific job which the worker has to handle. It gives information about machines, process of production, instructions to be followed, methods to be used and precautions to be taken while performing the job. This training develops skills and confidence among the workers and enables them to perform the job efficiently. Training for promotion: Promotion means giving higher position. Training must be given for performing duties at a higher level efficiently. This facilitates easy and quick adjustment with the new job and also develops new insight into the duties and responsibilities assigned. For this, training is given after promotion and before actually joining the new assignment. This training is specific, precise and of short duration. Refresher training: The purpose of refresher training is to refresh the professional skills, information and experience of persons occupying important executive positions. It gives information about new developments and techniques to trainees. This training is of short duration and is given by professional institutions such as Indian Institute of Management, productivity Councils, NITIE, etc. Refresher training needs to be given frequently due to rapid technological/managerial developments in the business world. It is useful for updating the knowledge and skills of executives. Corrective training: corrective training is necessary when employees violate company rules and procedures. For example, absence without prior sanction or smoking in a No Smoking area or not using safety devices while operating dangerous machines. Here the behaviour of employees cannot be changed simply by disciplinary action. The manager should motivate, handle the problem and criticize the act and not the individual.

Objectives of training:
To enhance technical skill and thus productivity: Knowledge and skill in the special field. Use of systems and OR techniques for assessing technical feasibility and economic viability of project and proposals. Coordination and control of resources and use of ergonomics, work study to improve working conditions. Training increases the level of learning and understanding the job. This in turn, results in over-all improvement in the performance and productivity. To enhance employee growth: A trained and experienced employee is more competent in specialized areas like production, finance, marketing etc. and stands better chances for promotion, higher earnings and up graduation in status. To improve the quality of workforce: A trained person makes less operational mistakes and at the same time takes less time to adjust to new operations, hence an improvement in quality and quantity of work performance. Better informed workers are less likely to make operational mistakes. Organizations that have a training programmed will have to make less drastic manpower changes and adjustments. To prevent obsolescence of technical skills and competencies: Training and development programmers foster the initiative and creativity of employees and help to prevent manpower obsolescence, which may be due to age, temperament or motivation, or the inability of a person to adapt him to technical changes. To improve Health and Safety: Proper training can help prevent industrial accidents. A safer work environment leads to more stable mental attitudes on the part of employees. Managerial mental state would also improve if supervisors know that they can better themselves through company-designed development programmers. Physical fitness is also an important aspect for shop-floor workers. For e.g.: At Mahindra & Mahindra six day training programmed is conducted for staff level called STRIDE. Out of these three days are dedicated to training, which mainly comprises programmers stressing on hygiene, safety, fitness etc. all workers are supposed to undergo these programmers. To develop cordial labour-management relations and thereby to improve the organizational environment. To develop certain personal qualities among employees which can serve as personal assets on long term basis. To prevent manpower obsolescence in an organisation which is quite possible if employees are not given training facilities periodically to update their knowledge and skills.

The Training Process:1. Assessment of Training Needs:Identifying the training needs of an organization is the first step in the systematic training process. All training needs should be related to the specific needs of the organization and also of the individual employees. For the identification of training needs, the gap between the existing level of knowledge, skills, performance and aptitudes of employees and the required levels of the knowledge, skills performance and aptitude should be clearly specified. Training needs can be identified clearly through the following types of analysis. a) Organizational Analysis. b) Operational Analysis. c) Manpower Analysis.

a) Organizational Analysis:- it relates to the determination of the organisations

goals, its resources and the allocation of the resources as they relate to the organizational goals. The analysis of the organizational goals establishes the framework within which training needs can be defined more clearly. The purpose of the organizational analysis is to determine where training emphasis should be placed within the organization. b) Operational Analysis:it focuses on the task or job regardless of the employee doing the job. This type of analysis includes the determination with which the worker must perform the job and the specific worker behavior required in order to perform the job effectively. The jobs are also analyzed in order to identify job contents, the knowledge, skills and aptitudes required and the work behavior. c) Manpower Analysis:- it reviews the knowledge, attitudes and skills of the workers in each position and determines what knowledge, attitude he must acquire and what adjustments in his behavior he must introduce if he is to contribute substantially to the attainment of organizational objectives. Training can be effective if the three types of analysis are carried on continuously. In addition the conclusions from this analysis should be integrated in a properly designed and executed training programme. 2. Establishment of Training Goals:After deciding the training needs, the logical steps in the training process is to set training and development objectives in concrete terms. In fact, without clearly set objectives/goals, it is not possible to design a well planed training programme which is to be executed and also evaluated for judging its effectiveness. Training objectives decided should be tangible, verifiable and measurable. Some objectives are tangible while some others are difficult to state. The overall training objective is to fill in the gap between the existing and the desired pool of knowledge, skills and aptitudes. Defining training objectives in

quantitative and qualitative terms is useful for designing, executing and also for evaluation of the training programme. 3. Designing Training Programme:After finalizing the objectives of training, the next step in the training programme is designing a training programme which acts as a base of actual training to employees. For achieving training objectives, an appropriate training policy is absolutely essential. This policy represents the commitment of top management to employee training and development. Training policy involves rules and procedures relating to training activity. Every training and development programme must address certain vital issues- who participates in programme?, who are the trainers?, what methods of techniques are to be used for training?, what should be the level of training?, what learning principles are needed? And where is the programme conducted?

Who are the trainees?

Trainees should be selected on the basis of self nomination, recommendations of supervisors or by the HR department itself. Whatever the base, it is advisable to have two or more target audiences. Bringing several target audience together can also facilitate group processes such as problem solving and decision making, elements useful in quality circle projects.

Who are the trainers?

Training and development programme can be conducted by several people, including the following: i. Immediate supervisors. ii. Co-workers as in buddy systems. iii. Members of the personnel staff. iv. Specialist in other parts of the company. v. Outside consultants. vi. Industry associations vii. Faculty members at universities. 4. Implementation of training Programme:After designing training programme, the same is to be implemented as per the details decided. This means actual imparting training to trainees who may be workers, supervisors or executives. Programme implementation involves concrete action on the following points. a) Organizing training and other facilities and deciding the location of training where training activity is to be arranged. b) Arranging the schedule of training programme which will make training effecting and also offer convenience to participants and trainers. c) Conducting training programme as per the designed prepared.

d) Monitoring the process of the training programme as well as the progress of trainees. In the execution of training programme, time factor is one more difficulty. Training for executives needs to be arranged without disturbing their busy schedule. It is also not possible to keep them away from the regular work during the training period. It is desirable to have separate administrative machinery for the execution of training programme. This ensures orderly conduct of training and maintaining records, follow-up and evaluation. Moreover, the efforts made and money invested on trainin will be wasted if the training programme is not implemented in a disciplined manner. 5. Evaluation of Training Programme:Since the huge amounts of money are spent on training and development, how far the programme has been useful must be judged/determined. Evaluation helps in determine the results of the training and development programme

NEED FOR EVALUATION:The need for evaluation of training programme is to determine if they are accomplishing specific training objectives to ensure trainee capabilities, determine their cost effectiveness. Finally, credibility of training and development is greatly enhanced when it is proved that organization has benefited tangibly from it.

PRINCIPLES OF EVALUATIONS:Evaluation of the training programme needs to be decided on the following principles: 1. Goals and purpose of evaluation must be clear and specific. 2. Evaluation must be continuous. 3. Evaluation must be specific. 4. Evaluation must provide focus for trainees to be able to appraise them. 5. Evaluation must be based on objective method and standards.


HR professionals should try to collect four types of data while evaluating training programme. 1. Measures of reactions: reaction measures reveal trainees opinion regarding the training programme. 2. Learning: learning measures assess the degree to which trainees have mastered the concepts, knowledge and skills of training. 3. Behavior Change: the behavior indicates the performance of learners. 4. Organisational Result: organisatinal result is to examine the impact of training on the work group or the entire company.


Several techniques of evaluation are being used in organization. 1. EXPERIMENTAL AND CONTROL GROUPS: each group is randomly selected, one to receive training (experimental) and other not to receive training (control). The random selection helps to assure formation of groups quite similar to others. Measures are taken of the relevant indicators of success before and after training of both groups. If gains demonstrated by the experimental group are better than those by the control group, the training programme is labeled as successful. 2. LONGITUDNAL OR TIME SERIES ANALYSIS: measurements are taken before the programme is completed. The results are plotted on graphs to determine whether the changes have occurred and remain as a result of the training effort. 3. QUESTIONNAIRE: another method of evaluation is to send questionnaire to the trainees after the completion of programme to obtain their opinion about the programme worth. Their opinion could be obtained through interviews.


There are many impediments which can make a training programme ineffective. Following are the major hindrances.


do not spend money on training. Those that do tend to concentrate on managers, technicians and professionals. The rank-and-file workers are ignored. This must change, for, as a result of rapid technological change, combined with new approaches to organisatonal design and production management workers are required to learn of new skills. 2. AGGREGARE SPENDING ON TRAINING IS INADEQUATE: companies spend extremely small proportion of their revenues on training. Worse still, budget allocation to training is the first item to be cut when a company faces a financial crunch. 3. EDUCATION INSTITUTIONS AWARDS DEGREES BUT GRADUATES LACK SKILLS: this is the reason why business must spend vast sums of money to train workers in basic skills. Organizations also need to train employees in multiple skills. Manager, particularly at the middle level, need to be retrained in team playing skills, entrepreneurship skills leadership and customer-orientation skills. 4. LARGE SCALE POACHING OF TRAINED WORKERS: trained work force is in great demand. Unlike Germany, where local business groups pressurize companies not to poach on another companys employees, there is no such system in our country. Companies in our country however, insist on employees to sign bonds of tenure before sending them for training, particularly before deputing them to undergo training in foreign countries. Such bonds are not effective as the

employees or the poachers are prepared to pay the stipulated amounts as compensation when the bonds are breached. 5. NO HELP TO WORKERS DISPLACED BECAUSE OF DOWNSIZING: organizations are downsizing and de-layering in order to trim their work force. The government should set apart certain fund from the National Renewal Fund for the purpose of retraining and rehabilitating displaced workers. 6. EMPLOYERS AND B-SCHOOLS MUST DEVELOP CLOSER TIES: B schools are often seen as not responding to labour market demands. Business is seen as not communicating its demands to B schools. This must change. Businessmen must sit with Dean and structure the courses that would serve the purpose of business better. 7. ORGANISED LABOUR CAN HELP: organized labour can play a positive role in imparting training to workers. Major trade unions in our country seem to be busy in attending to mundane issues such as bonus, wage revision, settlement of disputes and the like. They have little time in imparting training to their members.


Actions on the following lines need to be initiated to make training practice effective: 1. Ensures that the management commits itself to allocate major resources and adequate time to training. 2. Ensures that training contributes to competitive strategies of the firm. Let training help employees at all levels acquire the needed skills. 3. Ensure that a comprehensive and systematic approach to training exists, and training and retraining are done at all levels on a continuous and ongoing basis. 4. Make learning one of the fundamental values of the company. 5. Ensure that there is proper linkage among organizational, operational and individual training needs. 6. Create a system to evaluate the effectiveness of training.

Two methods of training.

A) ON THE JOB TRAINING: This type of training is also known as job instruction
training, is the most commonly used method. Under this method the individual is placed on a regular job and certain skills are taught that are necessary to perform that job. The trainee learns under the supervision and guidance of a qualified worker or instructor. On the job training has the advantage of giving first hand knowledge and experience under the actual working conditions. On the job training method include job rotation, coaching, job instruction or training through step-by-step and committee assignments.

a) Job rotation: Job rotation involves movement of trainee from one job to another. The trainee receives job knowledge and gains experience from the supervisors or trainers in each of different job assignment. This method gives on opportunity to the trainee to understand the problems of employees on other jobs and respect them. b) Coaching: In coaching superior plays an active role in training the subordinate by assigning him challenging tasks. The superior acts as a coach in training the subordinate by assisting and advising him to complete the assigned task. c) Job instruction: This method is known as training through step by step. Under trainer explains trainee the way of doing job, job knowledge and skills and allows him to do the job. The trainer appraises the performance of the trainee, provides feedback information and corrects the trainee. The process or the steps under job instruction method are as follows Step1: Prepare the employee for instruction. Put him at ease. Explain the job and its importance. Get him interested in learning the job. Step 2: Present the job. Follow your breakdowns. Explain and demonstrate one step at a time tell why and how? Stress key points. Instruct clearly and patiently. Give everything you will want back, but no more. Step 3: have him do the job. Have him tell why and how and stress key points. Correct errors and omissions as he makes them. Encourage him. Get back everything you gave him in the step 2. Continue until you know he knows. Step 4: Follow through. Put him on his own. Encourage questions. Check frequently. Let him know how he is doing. If the learner has not learnt, correct him and teach him repeatedly.

d) Committee assignment: Under committee assignment group of trainees

are given and asked to solve an actual organizational problems. The trainee solves the problem jointly. It develops teamwork.

B) OFF THE JOB TRAINING: Under this method of training, trainee is separated from the job situation and his attention is focused upon learning the material related to his future job performance. Since the trainee is not distracted by the job requirements, he can place his entire concentration on learning the job rather than spending his time in performing it. Off field job training methods are as follows: 1) Classroom method: Classroom method for training personnel includes lectures, discussions, role-playing and case study.

a) Lectures: It is common method to impart facts, concepts,

principles etc to a large group at one time. The main

advantage of lectures is that it can be used for a very large group at one time and there is low cost per trainee. b) Discussion: Combining lectures with discussion eliminate the limitation of one-way communication. In this method the trainees interact with the lecturer and any doubts or misunderstanding of the concept and principles are cleared. c) Case study: In this technique, an actual or hypothetical problem is presented to a training group for discussion and solution. It is important to note that the problem presented in cases usually do not have a single solution, but narrow mindedness of trainees is reduced as problem-solving ability is increased.

2) Vestibule training: In this method, actual work conditions are simulated

in the classroom. Material, files and equipments those are used in actual job performance are also used in training. This type of training is commonly used for training personnel for clerical and semi-skilled jobs. The duration of this training ranges from days to a few weeks.

3) Committee conference: Committees can be a method of training. The

junior members of the committee can learn from the discussion and interaction with the senior member of the committee. The senior member can also learn from the opinions and views expressed by the junior members. Committees can serve the purpose of developing good social relations. In the case of conference, group discussions and the meetings are held to discuss various issues and to provide solutions to various problems. The chairperson leads the discussion and then the participants attempt to provide solutions. The conferences act as a group interaction and exchange of views and idea. It reshapes thinking and attitudes of the participants.

4) Reading, television and video instructions: Planned reading of relevant

and current management literature is one of the best methods of management development. It is essentially a self-development programme. A manager may be aided by training department, which often provide a list of valuable books. Also there are television programme that are features towards management development. Videotapes are also available whereby important managerial discussions, debates and talks can be viewed and listened.

5) Role playing: It is defined as a method of human interaction that

involves realistic behavior in imaginary situations. this method of training involves actions, doing and practice. The participants play the

role of certain characters, such as production manager, mechanical engineer, superintendents, maintenance engineers, quality control inspectors, foreman, workers and the like. This method is mostly used for developing interpersonal interactions and relations.

Requirements of successful training programme (principles of training): 1) Training should be exactly as per the training needs: The training needs should be identified clearly and precisely before deciding the details of training programme. It is also necessary to identify the organizational constraints that are creating roadblocks in the performance. It deals with the problems due to which production efficiency reduces. Identifying training needs are the basic requirements of successful training programme. 2) Elaborate and systematic: The training programme should be elaborate and systematic. It should be directly related to specific training needs of the organization. 3) Motivation of trainees: Training programme should motivate trainees to take interest and initiative in the training process. For this some attraction should be created. This may be like pay increase, promotion or delegation of authority. 4) Theoretical and practical character: Training should be theoretical as well as practical. The contents of training programme should be prepared with the help of experts. This will make training purposeful/ result-oriented. 5) Superior in quality: The training programme should be superior in quality. There should be proper balance between theory and practice. Expert trainers should be appointed for giving training. Suitable materials and facilities such as books, workshops must be provided. 6) Provision of periodical tests for evaluation: There should be periodical test and evaluation of candidate. Progress report should be given to trainee. This facilitates the learning and encourages the trainee to take interest in training programmes. 7) Longer period training: Training programme should be of a reasonable longer duration. It should not be too short or too long as both these extremes are undesirable. 8) Training by experts: Experts with suitable qualification, qualities, experience and maturity should provide training. Professional field trainer should be invited for giving additional information and guidance to trainee. 9) Involvement of trainees: Industrial training should not be like spoon-feeding. Effective participation of trainees should be encouraged. Training should act as a tool for self-learning and self-development. 10) Periodical updating: Training programme should be reviewed periodically for updating the course content. It is necessary for removing deficiencies in the training programme and also making it result oriented. Training should be made interesting with use of films, audio-visuals and visit to industrial estate etc.

11) Provision for rewards and penalties: Rewards should be given those who show satisfactory progress and punishments to those who do not take active interest in training programme. For this instructor should maintain progress report of trainees. 12) Convenient place: The place of training should be peaceful with necessary facilities and conveniences to instructor and trainees. On the job training has certain limitation as it is given in factory premises where as off the job training is always better as the place is convenient. 13) Reinforcement of trainees: Training should be followed by promotion to higher position where practical application of training can be done. There should be suitable increase in pay and status of a trained employee. In the absence of such training will be wasted and trained person will face frustration. 14) Efficient training administration: This is also one more essential requirement of training. It includes deciding training content, types of training programmes, location of training activities and the general administration of training. For decision making proper planning and efficient execution is required by the managers. Suitable administrative machinery must be created.

DEVELOPMENT Meaning: An organization has to take steps for training programmes for supervisory staff and managers such training programs are called management development programmes. Management development programme acts as a key factor for the survival and growth of a business unit. Management development programme includes systematic review to identify the members of the management who can be expected to raise their managerial effectiveness through training and special assignments. Management development is a way to improving the culture of the organization so that it could be geared to excellence. Leading houses like Tatas, Birlas, Bajaj and others have started taking keen interest in management development. They believe that People move organizations not machines.

Definition:The term Development here refers to those learning opportunities designed to help employees to grow.

Objectives of Development

1. Attitude Tuning:- it is done to broaden the mind of employees by providing

them with opportunities for an inter change of experiences within and outside. Development helps in correcting the narrowness of outlook, emotional stability, analytical ability, acquiring long term perception, professional ethics, and social objectives.

2. Motivation:- one of the objectives of development is to boost individual and

collective moral and motivate the employees through words and deeds. decision making abilities and delegation through adaptive leadership.

3. Leadership:- To build and maintain an appropriate working climate, develop 4. Communication:- communication helps in maintaining good inter personal and
inter group relations, it also helps in Conflict settlement, compromises.

5. Paradigm Shift:- To prepare the employee both the new and the old to meet
the present as well as changing requirement of the job and the organization.

Importance of Development

1. Increase in moral and motivation of employees:- Development increases

employees moral and motivation by inculcating sense of better self confidence. Higher efficiency and productivity gives higher job satisfaction, which motivates him to work attentively. cultivate better inter personal and human relations. Development in the sense is sharing of experiences and helps in improving the quality of human relations. This facilitates smooth and harmonious functioning of the organization. and skills for doing the existing job successfully but also helps the employees with abilities and attitudes needed for higher positions. In a way development aids in contribution to growth of their personality. him to avoid mistakes. It helps an individual in making better decision and solving efficiently.

2. Better human relations:- development gives the employees an opportunity to

3. Development and promotion:- Development not only improves the knowledge

4. Accuracy:- it makes the employee more proficient and competent and enables

Techniques of development 1. On the Job Techniques

2. Off the Jon Techniques On the Job Techniques:- These are the most widely used techniques. The success of these techniques depends on the immediate supervisor and how good a teacher is. Some important On the Job techniques are;

1. Coaching: - In coaching the trainee is placed under a particular supervisor who

acts as an instructor and teaches job knowledge and skills to the trainee. He tells him what he wants him to do. How it can be done and follows up while it is being done and corrects errors.

2. Job Rotation: The transferring of executives from job to job and from
department to department in a systematic manner is called job rotation. The idea behind this is to give him the required diversified skills and a broader outlook which are very important at senior management levels. It is up to the management to provide a variety of job experiences for those who have the potential for higher ranks before they are promoted. Job rotation increases the interdepartmental co-ordination and reduces the monotony of work.

3. Understudy: - An understudy is a person who is in training to assume at future

time, the full responsibility of the position currently help by his superior. This method supplies the organization a person with as much competence as the superior to fill his post which may fall vacant because of promotion, retirement or transfer.

4. Delegation: - The performance of subordinates may not improve unless

additional responsibility and authority are delegated to them. Making the subordinates achieve a particular target through delegation will help them grow and develop independently.

5. Promotion and Transfers: - Promotion gives an opportunity to a manager to

acquire new skills required for the job at a higher level. It motivates the employee for self improvement. Transfers facilitates in broadening the view point required for higher positions. It gives an opportunity to work at different positions and develop.

Off The Job Techniques: - Trainings conducted in simulated environments, classrooms, seminars, etc are called Off the Job Training. Some of the important Off the Job techniques are.

1. Classroom Methods:- Classroom methods for training personnel include

lectures, discussion, role playing and case study.


B. C.


Lectures: - It is a common method to impart facts, concepts, principles etc to a large group at one time. The main advantage of lecture is that it can be used for a very large group and the cost per trainee is low. Discussion:- Through discussion a trainee can interact with the lecturer and clear and of his doubts or misunderstanding of the concepts or principles. Case Study: - It is a written description of an actual situation in the past in same organisation or some where else and trainees are supposed to analyze and give their conclusions in writing. This is another excellent method to ensure full and whole hearted participation of employees and generates good interest among them. Case is later discussed by instructor with all the pros and cons of each option. It is an ideal method to promote decision-making abilities within the constraints of limited data. Role Playing: - Here trainees assume the part of the specific personalities in a case study and enact it in front of the audience. It is more emotional orientation and improves interpersonal relationships. Attitudinal change is another result.

2. Simulation Training: A simulation learning situation is an imitation of reality. It

is a Technique used for creating a real life situation for decision-making and understanding the actual job conditions give it. Ensures active participation of all trainees. Can be very effective but needs good conductors.
3. Sensitivity Training:- Its main objective is the Development of awareness and

sensitivity of behavioral patterns of oneself and others. It results into Increased openness with others Greater concern for others Increased tolerance for individual differences Less ethnic prejudice Increased trust and support Understanding of group processes

4. Audio Visuals instructions:- Television and Video instructions are used in training and development programmes. Today, programmes on management problems are arranged on Tv network regularly. 5.Business games:- Here the trainees are divided into groups. One team has to consider itself as the management of an existing firm and come up with the solution of a particular problem with subjects related to production, pricing, research,

expenditure, advertising etc. and other group should assume themselves as competitors and react to their decisions. Types of Business games Morphological analysis Listing of alternative solutions to problems Ice Breaks games to get team members know each other. Team building games Exercise requiring collaborative efforts Leadership games Exercise to teach different styles of leadership Communication games Exercise to build bias free listing and talking.

Management Development in India In India, progressive and professional managements take keen interest in training and management development as it is the way for building a world class organization. They use internal as well as external methods for training and management development. Induction training is given to middle and higher executives in large majority of the companies. Expenditure on training and development is rather limited/ inadequate in large majority of companies. Also growing awareness about management development programmes in private as well as public sectors should be treated as a positive trend and healthy development in the corporate sector. Some companies such as Larsen and Tourbo Ltd. Indian oil Corporation Ltd, SAIL, ONGC and TELCO, are taking special interest in management development through different methods TELCO for example, has Engineering Trainees scheme and Management Trainees scheme for persons with outstanding academic record. There is also Tata Management Training Centre at Pune. Reliance, Birlas and other leading private sector organizations have formulated their own management development programmes as per their specific needs. Many companies including HMT, Hindustan Antibiotics, Bharat Electricals, Voltas, Hindustan Lever, State Bank in India, RBI, etc, have their own company training programmes for managerial development. The Administrative Staff College of India (Hyderabad) acts as the college for practicing managers. It is Asias foremost institution for management development research and consultancy. The Importance of training and development is now accepted by the corporate sector in India. This is due to globalisation, introduction to technologies and so on.

Formulation of Training Policy Even though training is primarily the responsibility of the HR /Personnel Department, a suitable training policy has to be evolved by the top management. It should reflect the primary and secondary objectives of the organization with relation to environment. A training policy should be able to provide answers to the following questions: 1 What do you want and hope to accomplish through training? 2 Who is responsible for the training function? 3 Should the training be formal or informal? 4 What are the training priorities? 5 What types of training is needed? 6 When and where should training be given? 7 Should training be continuous or casual? 8 How much should the employees be paid during training? 9 Which outside agencies should be associated with training? 10 How should training be related to labour policy?

Importance/signifiance of training 1: higher productivity: training helps to improve the level of performance. Trained employees perform better by using better method of work. Improvements in manpower productivity in developed nations can be attributed in to small measure to their educational and industrial training programs. 2: Better quality of work: in formal training the best methods are standarised and taught to employees. Uniformity of work methods and procedures helps to improve the quality of product or services. Trained employee are less likely to make operational mistakes. 3: Less learning period: a systematic training program helps to reduce the time and cost involved in learning. Employees can more quickly reach the acceptable level of performance. They need not waste their time and efforts in learning through trial and error 4: Cost reduction: Training employees make more economical use of materials and machinery. Reduction is wastage and spoilage together with increase in productivity help to minimize cost of operations per unit Maintenance cost is also reduced due to fewer machine breakdown and better handling of equipments. Plant capacity can be put to the optimum use. 5: reduced Supervision: well trained employee tends to be self-reliant and motivated they need less guidance and control . Therefore, the supervisory burden is reduced and he span of supervision can be enlarged.

6: Low accident Rate : trained personnel adopt the right work methods and make use of the prescribed safety devices. Therefore, the frequency of the accidents is reduced. Health and safety of employee can be improved. 7: high Morale: Proper training can be develop positive attitudes among employees. Job satisfaction and morale are improved due to rise in the earning and job security of employees. Training reduces employees grievances because opportunities for internal promotion are available to well trained personnel. 8: Personal growth: Training enlarges the knowledge and skills of the participants. Therefore, well trained personnel can grow faster in their career. Training prevents obsolescence of knowledge and skills. Trained employees are a more valuable assest to any organization. Training helps to develop people for promotion to higher posts and to develop future managers. 9: organizational climate: a sound training program helps to improve the climate of an organization. Industrial relations and discipline are improved. Therefore, decentralization of authority and participative management can be introduced. Resistance to change is reduced. Training us an investment in people and therefore systematic training is a sound business investment. In fact no organization can choose whether or not to train employees the only choice left to management is whether training shall be haphazard, casual and possibly misdirected or whether it shall be made a carefully planned part of an integrated programme of human resource administration.

Education and Training/Training and Education: Both education and training are ways of abandoning random learning routes in favour of more productive and planned routes. We have already defined training. Let us look at the definition of education. Education is defined as "activities which aim at developing the knowledge, skills, moral values, and understanding required in all aspects of life rather than a knowledge and skill relating to only a limited field of activity. The purpose of education is to provide the conditions essential to young people and adults to develop an understanding of the traditions and ideas influencing the society in which they live and to enable them to make a contribution to it. It involves the study of their own cultures and of the laws of nature, as well the acquisition of linguistic and other skills which are basic to learning, personal development, creativity and communication. Thus, both education and training are achieved by creating conditions in which the necessary attitudes, skill and knowledge are learned by a person who becomes relatively confident of applying them in real situations. The difference, however, is that: Education gives the general basis for living whereas training modifies and directs one's abilities towards a particular activity or activities.

Education deals mostly with knowledge and understanding. Training deals mostly with understanding, skills, and action. Thus a course in engineering is education, but teaching a person how to assemble two parts and tighten nut is training to do a specific job.

Philosophies of Training The vast majority of personnel and training staff do appear to believe that: 1. The organization is a learning system. 2. Employee development is essentially that part of the organizations planning activities which aims to make learning happen. 3. Training interventions can serve at the same time the individual and the organization.

Learning to learn and self-development Learning theory in the past assumed that learning objectives represent a static work state. In this case, competence depends largely upon memory and the acquisition of basic skills, which ought to last a lifetime. Knowing what and how and when is a matter of remembering what the manual (or textbook) says; and/or what worked last time. But memory cannot always be relied on if the content, and the context, of work is constantly changing. For example, if manual bookkeeping changes to computerised bookkeeping, the individuals memory of mental arithmetic wont be enough: the computer now performs this task. Confidence in the relevance of the bookkeepers knowledge base is dented, and must be replaced by some new knowledge (eg how to make the computer perform calculations), plus keyboard skills. Curiosity is a strong motivator. Learning is like opening a door in a corridor that gives a view into a room beyond. The room has other doors that had not previously been in view, and when we open these doors further doors appear. This phenomenon becomes very apparent to users of the Internet, where the skill often lies not in finding a door, but in choosing which one to open and which corridor to enter, as Martins experience in the fifth example at the beginning of this chapter shows. The Internet is full of fascinating learning blind alleys! As the Internet becomes universally available it will be an increasingly important tool for self-development. There may be conflict between a highly structured learning style of formulating and pursuing precise objectives, and one that is more open, creative and exploratory when the user is confronted with the dilemma of sticking to what appears to be totally relevant material at the expense of missing something that could lead to exciting and unpredictable learning outcomes. Sometimes the latter might well be the more rewarding in the long term by opening up new perspectives that might otherwise never have been contemplated at least that is what divergent thinkers, who like to follow their learning noses, maintain. Although an important tool for self-development, the Internet offers a lot more than the opportunity for the learner to obtain almost

unlimited information by means of a computer. It can provide continuous learning in the form of contact and exchange of views and information with people with similar interests and problems throughout the world.

Distinction between training and education: Following are some important distinctions between training and education: 1. The content and scope of training is always specific, narrow and job-related; the content and scope of education is always broad and general. 2. Training is always applied and practical; education is usually pure and theoretical. 3. Training is mostly of short duration; education is of long durations. 4. Training gives quick and apparent results; the results of education are not so quick and apparent.

Theories of the Process of Learning 1. Behaviorist approaches to learning 2. Information-processing approach to learning

Behaviorist approaches to learning The behaviourist approach has been one of the most influential in the field of psychology. It proposes that learning is the process by which a particular stimulus, repeatedly associated with, or conditioned by, desirable or undesirable experiences comes to evoke a particular response. This conditioning can be of two kinds: Classical conditioning occurs when a stimulus leads automatically to a response. Dogs, for example, salivate at the presentation of food: Pavlov demonstrated that they could also be conditioned to salivate at the sound of a bell rung before food is presented. Operant conditioning takes place after a desired response, which is then reinforced, or rewarded, to increase the probability of the repetition of the same response when the stimulus recurs. There has been much experimental research (including many animal studies) into such issues as the nature of the reinforcement (negative reinforcement, or punishment is not as effective for learning as positive reward); the schedule of reinforcement (whether fixed or variable intervals; intermittent reinforcement is more effective than continuous reinforcement). This form of conditioning is also used to shape behaviour, that is to continue to reinforce responses that approximate to the desired behaviour until that behaviour is finally achieved. We are familiar with this kind of approach to the

encouragement of fairly simple forms of learning: we use it with small children, with animals, and in basic forms of training. The S-R approach pays no attention to the cognitive processes whereby the stimulus comes to be associated with a particular response. Cognitive learning theory, however, offers a more complex understanding of learning, proposing, again on the basis originally of animal studies, that what is learned is not an association of stimulus with response (SR), but of stimulus with stimulus (S-S). The learner develops expectations that stimuli are linked; the result is cognitive map or latent learning. Hence insightful behaviour appropriate to a situation takes place without the strengthening association or S-R bonds. Social learning theory also addresses what is in the black box. It recognizes the role in learning of the observation and imitation of the behaviour of others, but as seen in the debates over the influence of the media upon, say, young peoples behaviour, there are clearly many moderating variables.

Information-processing approach to learning This approach regards learning as an information-processing system in which a signal, containing information, is transmitted along a communication channel of limited capacity and subject to interference and noise (Stammers and Patrick, 1975). The signal has to be decoded before it can be received, and then encoded to pass it on. In learning, data received through the senses are filtered, recognized and decoded thorugh the interpretive process of perception; this information is then translated into action through the selection of appropriate responses. The effectiveness of learning depends on attention being padi only to the relevant parts of the stimuli, the rapid selection of appropriate responses, the efficient performance of them, and the feeding back of information about their effects into the system. Overload or breakdown of the system can occur at any of these stages. Gagne (1974, in Fontana, 1981 : 73) expresses this as a chain of events, some internal and others external to the learner. It begins with the learners readiness to receive information (motivation or expectancy), and continues as the learner perceives it, distinguishes it from other stimuli, makes sense of it and relates it to what is already known. The information is then stored in short or long term memory. Thereafter it can be retrieved from memory, generalized to and put into practice in new situation. Its final phase is feedback from knowledge of the results obtained from this practice. Those concerned to facilitate learning in others can use knowledge of this chain to prevent failure to learn, which can take place at any one of those levels. Elements in the Process of Learning This subsection will deal briefly with other important elements in the process of learning that need to be taken into account when designing or facilitating learning. These are the need for feedback, the choice of whole or part learning, and the role of memory.

Feedback (or knowledge of results) The feedback to learners of the results of their performance is recognized as essential to their effective learning. This is discussed in Ribeaux and Poppleton (1978) and Stammers and Patrick (1975). Feedback will be either intrinsic or extrinsic (or augmented). Learners receive visual or kinaesthetic feedback (intrinsic) from their responses to stimuli in the learning situation; they need to be encouraged to listen to such bodily cues in order to improve performance. They may also receive feedback (extrinsic, augmented) form an external source while they are performing (concurrent feedback) or after it (terminal). Learners may also benefit from guidance before their performance about what to look out for during it. The sources cited above set out the characteristics, advantages and disadvantages of these different kinds of feedback. The nation of feedback is frequently discussed in terms of learning perceptual-motor or similar skills. It is still of considerable importance in the learning of the higher order skills discussed in this chapter, but here it is very complex in nature and difficult for the learner to be aware and make sense of it. However, by reflecting and engaging in the whole loop learning discussed below, the learner will have opportunity to pay attention to both intrinsic and extrinsic feedback.

The choice of whole or part learning Psychologists continue to debate the appropriateness of whole or part learning to the learning of various tasks, that is, whether the task is learned as a whole, or in parts Ribeaux and Poppleton (1978:61) report on one approach that classifies tasks according to their complexity (the difficulty of the component sub-tasks) and organisation (the degree to which they are interrelated). Where complexity and organisation are both high, whole methods appear superior; where either is low, part and whole methods are equally successful. Stammers and Patrick (1975: 85 88), however report on research that draws opposite conclusions: where the elements of a task are highly independent the task is best learned as a whole, but where they are interdependent, they should be learned in parts. It tends to be the whole method in operation when learning takes place during the performance of a job, through actions learning, or through observing others. The role of memory in learning Memory plays a significant role in learning, and some understanding of it can, therefore, be used to make learning more effective. Once again, it is not possible to do more than present an outline here, but texts such as Fontana (1981), Atkinson et al.(1993), Ribeaux and Poppleton (1978) and Stammers and Patrick (1975) give further information. Memory involves three kinds of information storage: the storage of sensory memories short-term of primary memory, and long-term or secondary memory. Unless transferred to short-term memory, and sensory memory retains sense data for probably less than two seconds. Unless incoming information is paid particular attention or rehearsed, short-term memory holds it for up to 30 seconds and appears to have limited capacity, whereas

long-term memory appears to have unlimited capacity and to hold information for years. What is, therefore, of concern for effective learning is the ability to transfer information to the long-term memory. There are two aspects to such transfer; The first is rehearsal, that is paying attention to and repeating the information until it is coded and enters the long-term store; it is other wise displaced by the incoming information. The second aspect of the transfer of information to long-term memory is coding: the translation of information into the codes that enable it to be field into the memorys filing system. Information is largely coded according to meaning ( a semantic code) or through visual images, but sometimes (where the meaning itself is unclear) according to sound. The ability to retrieve information from long-term memory depends in part upon how effectively it ha been organized (filed) in storage (for example, words may be stored according to sound and meaning), and having the most appropriate retrieval cue. We experience this when we are searching for something that we have lost; we think systematically through what we were doing when we believe we last used the lost object. Recognition is easier that recall from memory because it follows the presentation of clear retrieval cues. Difficulty in retrieving information, or forgetting, occurs for several reasons apart from those concerning the degree of organisation in storage. Interference from other information can disrupt long-term as well as short-term memory (where new items displace existing items in the limited capacity). Interference may be retroactive, when new information interferes with the recall of older material, or proactive, when earlier learning seems to inhibit the recall of later information. Forgetting also takes place through anxiety or unhappy associations with the material to be learned, which may become repressed. Unhappy childhood experiences, for example, may be repressed for many years. Finally, memory does not just operate as a camera recording what is experienced: it is an active and a constructive process, particularly when learning the kind of complex material that constitutes the world of organizations and human resource management. As well as recording its data inputs, the process of memory draws inferences from and so elaborates upon them, filtering them through the individuals stereotypes, mind-set and world view. What is then stored is this enhanced and repackaged material. An understanding of the nature of memory suggests various ways in which it might be improved to make learning more effective. The transfer of new information to long-term memory is clearly crucial: attention, recitation, repetition and constant revision (known as overlearning) are needed. The coding and organisation of material to be stored is also important: this is helped by associating the new information with what is already familiar, especially using visual imagery, by attending to the context giving rise to the information to be learned, and by making the effort to understand the information so that it can be stored in the appropriate files. Facilitators of learning need to ensure that the learning context or event does not provoke anxiety.

The Stages of Learning As we suggested above, the hierarchies of skills outlined there could be regarded as macro stages of the learning process. Here we shall examine the micro stages through which the learner has to pass within each of the levels of those hierarchies. Below we examine a related, and more dynamic, notion: that of a cycle of learning. Fittss stages of skills acquisition Fitts (1962, in Stammers and Patrick, 1975) distinguished three stages of learning, in particular of perceptual-motor skills acquisition. It is recognized that they may overlap. Cognitive stage: The learner has to understand what is required, its rules and concepts, and how to achieve it. Associative stage: The learner has to establish through practice the S-R links, the correct patterns of behaviour, gradually eliminating errors. Autonomous stage: The learner refines the motor patterns of behaviour until external sources of information become redundant and the capacity simultaneously to perform secondary tasks increases. Gagnes classification of learning Gagne (1970, in Stammers and Patrick, 1975) studied both the process of learning and the most effective modes of instruction, and has made several classifications of types of learning. For example, he identified the ability to make a general response to a signal; to develop a chain or two or more S-R links, including verbal chains and associations; to make different responses to similar though different stimuli; to achieve concept learning and identify a class of objects or events; to learn rules through the acquisition of a chain of two or more concepts; and, finally, to combine rules and so achieve problem solving. Gagnes classification allows us to identify the processes whereby skills of the all levels are acquired, and hence suggests how to facilitate learning and prevent failure to learn at the various levels. The learning curve It is recognized that there is a relationship between the rate of learning and the passage of time: managers working on the introduction of a new system, for example, may say we are on a learning curve. According to Hodgetts (1991: 99), many psychologists feel that the S-shaped curve represents the most accurate description of learning. However, since the shape of the curve must clearly depend on the nature and circumstances of the learning, this notion of a learning curve perhaps adds little of value to the understanding of learning. The S-shaped curve of learning.

Cyclical Models of Learning Learning Styles The recognition that learning is a process that may have different identifiable phases, and that more effective learning may be facilitated if methods appropriate to the various phases are used, has led to the development of models of learning as a cycle. As you will see, they offer a number of important insights to the human resource manager concerned to facilitate higher order skills in the organisation. They draw attention to the significance of learning through action and reflection, as well as through the traditional channels of teaching/learning. They recognize that individuals may prefer different phases of the cycle and have different styles: they offer means to identify those preference; to engage in dialogue about them with individuals; and to identify means of helping individuals complete the whole cycle.

DISTINCTION BETWEEN TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT Following are important distinctions between training and development: 1. Training is meant for operatives and development is meant for managers. 2. Aim of training is to improve a special skill relating to a job whereas development aims at improving the total personality of an individual. 3. Training is a one shot deal; whereas development is an ongoing continuous process. 4. Training is mostly the result of initiatives taken by management or result of some outside motivation. Development is mostly result of internal motivation. 5. Training seeks to meet current requirements of the job and individual; whereas development aims to meet the future needs of the job

Developing Training Programs: HRD is based on the faith in the inherent potential in every human which can be manifested by giving right direction and orientation. At the same time human resource is unpredictable resource which has unlimited potential. Human resource is an unpredictable resource but it has unlimited potential. HRD process maximizes the use of human resource by optimizing the competence. HRD process maximise the use of human resource by way of optimising competence of available human resource, improving the competence for future challenges and utilising unemployed resource HRD, thus performs the role of personnel management as well as training and Development department and it therefore, needs to be studied, analysed minutely and accurately before

deciding the real roles and activity of department. The roles and activities of HRD will mostly depend on the HRD mechanism being utilised, the HRD needs of the organisation and the facilities, opportunities provided. Thus the role of HRD starts from the analysis of organisational objectives/goals, in par with characteristics of available resources and desired specifications manpower planning recruitment, placement, appraisal reward, punishments and maintenance of resource is one aspect of HRD accountability, where as. organisational climate and opportunity are another.

TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT EFFORTS ARE REQUIRED DUE TO THE FOLLOWING GROUND REALITIES: 1. The rapid rate of technological and social change in society has necessitated the training of managers so that they may cope with these development 2. The introduction of automation, intense market competition from foreign countries, the growth of new markets in the under developed countries. 3. Increased recognition by business and industrial leaders of the social and public responsibilities of management has necessitated the development of managerial personnel. 4. The increased size and complexity of most organizations governmental, industrial, commercial, on-profit public services require trained managers 5. The frequent labor-management strife have necessitated the services of trained personnel 6. The changes in socio-economic forces, including changes in public policy and the concepts of social justice, industrial democracy.

THE KEY ISSUES AT ASSESSING TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT NEEDS ARE AS FOLLOWS: 1. Are all the gaps between employees and job requirements to be filled 2. through T&D programmes? 3. Should T&D needs assessment cover all employees at all levels or should it 4. be restricted to few groups of employees? 5. Should T&D need assessment take only present requirements or future 6. requirements too? 7. What model of T&D needs assessment should be applied? 8. From where and how relevant information will be collected. 9. Who will be responsible for collecting information, analyzing it and 10. reporting its results?

Managements Responsibility for training Training is the responsibility of four main groups: The top management, which frames the training policy; The personnel department, which plans, establishes and evaluates industrial programmes. Supervisors, who implement and apply developmental procedure; and Employees, who provide feedback, revision and suggestions for corporate educational endeavors.

Training A continuous process: Since training is a continuous process and not a one shot affair, and since it consumes time and entails much expenditure, it is necessary that a training programme or policy should be prepared with great thought and care, for it should serve the purposes of the establishment as well as the needs of employees. A successful training programme presumes that sufficient care has been taken to discover areas in which it is needed most and to create the necessary environment for its conduct. The selected trainer should be one who clearly understands his job and has professional expertise, has an aptitude and ability for teaching, processes a pleasing personality and a capacity for leadership, is well-versed in the principles and methods of training, and is able to appreciate the value of training in relation to an enterprise. Certain general principles need be considered while organizing a training programme. For example: 1. Trainees in work organizations tend to be most responsive to training programmes when they feel the need to learn, i.e., the trainee will be more eager to learn training if training promise answers to problems or need he has an employee. The individual who perceives training as the solution, to problems will be more willing to enter into a training programme than will the individual who is satisfied with his present performance abilities. 2. Learning is more effective where there is reinforcement in the form of rewards and punishments, i.e., individual do things that give pleasure and avoid things that give pain. In other words, after an action, if satisfier is received, the action will be

repeated. In other words, after an action if satisfies is received, the action will be repeated. If no satisfaction is received, the action will not be repeated. 3. In the long run, awards tend to be more effective for changing behaviour and increasing ones learning than punishments. 4. Rewards for the application of learned behaviour are most useful when they quickly follow the desired performance. 5. The larger the reward for good performance following the implementation of learned behaviour, the greater will be the reinforcement of the new behaviour. 6. Negative reinforcement, through application of penalties and heavy criticism following inadequate performance, may have a disruptive effect upon the learning experience of the trainee than positive reinforcement. 7. Training that requests the trainee to make changes in his values, attitudes, and social beliefs, usually achieves better results if he trainee is encouraged to participate discuss and discover new, desirable behaviour norms. 8. The trainee should be provided with feedback on the progress he is making in utilizing the training he has received. As Miller has stated, if a person with the required abilities is to improve his performance, he must (i) know what aspect of his performance is not up to par; (ii) know precisely what corrective actions he must take to improve his performance. The feedback should be fast and frequent, especially for the lower level jobs which are often routine and quickly completed. 9. The development of new behaviour norms and skills is facilitated through practice and repetition. Skills that are practiced often are better learned and less easily forgotten. 10. The training material should be made as meaningful as possible, because if the trainee understands the general principles under lying what is being taught, he will probably understand it better than if he were just asked to memorize a series of isolated steps.


TRAINING NEEDS ASSESSMENT Introduction The training needs assessment is a critical activity for the training and development function. Whether you are a human resource generalist or a specialist, you should be adept at performing a training needs assessment. This paper will begin with an overview of the training and development function and how the needs assessment fits into this process, followed by an in-depth look at the core concepts and steps involved in conducting a training needs assessment. Background Designing a training and development program involves a sequence of steps that can be grouped into five phases: needs assessment, instructional objectives, design, implementation and evaluation. To be effective and efficient, all training programs must start with a needs assessment. Long before any actual training occurs, the training manager must determine the who, what, when, where, why and how of training. To do this, the training manager must analyze as much information as possible about the following: 1. Organization and its goals and objectives. 2. Jobs and related tasks that need to be learned. 3. Competencies and skills that are need to perform the job. 4. Individuals who are to be trained.

Overview of Training and Development Process: 1. Needs assessment 2. Design phase 3. Implementation 4. Evaluation NEEDS ASSESSMENT The first step in designing a training and development program is to conduct a needs assessment. The assessment begins with a "need" which can be identified in several ways but is generally described as a gap between what is currently in place and what is needed, now and in the future. Gaps can include discrepancies/differences between: 1. What the organization expects to happen and what actually happens. 2. Current and desired job performance. 3. Existing and desired competencies and skills. 4. A needs assessment can also be used to assist with:

5. Competencies and performance of work teams. Problem solving or productivity issues. 6. The need to prepare for and respond to future changes in the organization or job duties. The results of the needs assessment allows the training manager to set the training objectives by answering two very basic questions: who, if anyone, needs training and what training is needed. Sometimes training is not the solution. Some performance gaps can be reduced or eliminated through other management solutions such as communicating expectations, providing a supportive work environment, arranging consequences, removing obstacles and checking job fit. DESIGN PHASE: Once the needs assessment is completed and training objectives are clearly identified, the design phase of the training and development process is initiated: 1. Select the internal or external person or resource to design and develop the 2. training. 3. Select and design the program content. 4. Select the techniques used to facilitate learning (lecture, role play, simulation, 5. etc.). 6. Select the appropriate setting (on the job, classroom, etc.). 7. Select the materials to be used in delivering the training (work books, videos, etc.). 8. Identify and train instructors (if internal). IMPLEMENTATION: After completing the design phase, the training is ready for implementation: 1. Schedule classes, facilities and participants. 2. Schedule instructors to teach. 3. Prepare materials and deliver them to scheduled locations. 4. Conduct the traini EVALUATION: The final phase in the training and development program is evaluation of the program to determine whether the training objectives were met. The evaluation process includes determining participant reaction to the training program, how much participants learned and how well the participants transfer the training back on the job. The information gathered from the training evaluation is then included in the next cycle of training needs assessment. It is important to note that the training needs assessment, training objectives, design, implementation and evaluation process is a continual process for the organization.

NEEDS ASSESSMENT IN DETAIL There are three levels of needs assessment: 1. Organizational analysis 2. Task analysis 3. Individual analysis. ORGANIZATIONAL ANALYSIS 1. Organizational analysis looks at the effectiveness of the organization and determines where training is needed and under what conditions it will be conducted. The organizational analysis should identify: 2. Environmental impacts (new laws such as ADA, FMLA, OSHA, etc.). 3. State of the economy and the impact on operating costs. 4. Changing work force demographics and the need to address cultural or language barriers. 5. Changing technology and automation. 6. Increasing global/world market places. 7. Political trends such as sexual harassment and workplace violence. 8. Organizational goals (how effective is the organization in meetings its goals), resources available (money, facilities; materials on hand and current, available expertise within the organization). 9. Climate and support for training (top management support, employee willingness to participate, responsibility for outcomes). The information needed to conduct an organizational analysis can be obtained from a variety of sources including: 1. Organizational goals and objectives, mission statements, strategic plans. 2. Staffing inventory, succession planning, long and short term staffing needs. 3. Skills inventory: both currently available and short and long term needs, organizational climate indices: labor/management relationships, grievances, turnover rates, absenteeism, suggestions, productivity, accidents, short term sickness, observations of employee behavior, attitude surveys, customer complaints. 4. Analysis of efficiency indices: costs of labor, costs of materials, quality of products, equipment utilization, production rates, costs of distribution, waste, down time, late deliveries, repairs. 5. Changes in equipment, technology or automation. 6. Annual report. 7. Plans for reorganization or job restructuring. 8. Audit exceptions; reward systems. 9. Planning systems. 10. Delegation and control systems. 11. Employee attitudes and satisfaction. TASK ANALYSIS

Task analysis provides data about a job or a group of jobs and the knowledge, skills, attitudes and abilities needed to achieve optimum performance. There are a variety of sources for collecting data for a task analysis: 1. Job description-- A narrative statement of the major activities involved in performing the job and the conditions under which these activities are performed. If an accurate job description is not available or is out of date, one should be prepared using job analysis techniques. 2. KSA analysis-- A more detailed list of specified tasks for each job including knowledge, Skills, Attitudes and Abilities required of incumbents. 3. Performance standards-- Objectives of the tasks of the job and the standards by which they will be judged. This is needed to identify performance discrepancies. 4. Observe the job/sample the work. 5. Perform the job. 6. Job inventory questionnaire-- Evaluate tasks in terms of importance and time spent performing. 7. Review literature about the job-- Research the "best practices" from other companies, review professional journals. 8. Ask questions about the job-- Of the incumbents, of the supervisor, of upper management. 9. Analysis of operating problems-- Down time, waste, repairs, late deliveries, quality control. INDIVIDUAL ANALYSIS Individual analysis analyzes how well the individual employee is doing the job and determines which employees need training and what kind. Sources of information available for a individual analysis include: 1. Performance evaluation -- Identifies weaknesses and areas of improvement. 2. Performance problems -- Productivity, absenteeism or tardiness, accidents, grievances, waste, product quality, down time, repairs, equipment utilization, customer complaints. 3. Observation -- Observe both behavior and the results of the behavior. 4. Work samples -- Observe products generated. 5. Interviews -- Talk to manager, supervisor and employee. Ask employee about what he/she believes he/she needs to learn. 6. Questionnaires -- Written form of the interview, tests, must measure job-related qualities such as job knowledge and skills. 7. Attitude surveys -- Measures morale, motivation, satisfaction. 8. Checklists or training progress charts -- Up-to-date listing of current skills.

RESULTS OF THE NEEDS ASSESSMENT: Assuming that the needs assessment identifies more than one training need, the training manager, working with management, prioritizes the training based on the urgency of the

need (timeliness), the extent of the need (how many employees need to be trained) and the resources available. Based on this information, the training manager can develop the instructional objectives for the training and development program. All three levels of needs analysis are interrelated and the data collected from each level is critical to a thorough and effective needs assessment. SUMMARY The purpose of a training needs assessment is to identify performance requirements or needs within an organization in order to help direct resources to the areas of greatest need, those that closely relate to fulfilling the organizational goals and objectives, improving productivity and providing quality products and services. The needs assessment is the first step in the establishment of a training and development program. It is used as the foundation for determining instructional objectives, the selection and design of instructional programs, the implementation of the programs and the evaluation of the training provided. These processes form a continuous cycle which always begins with a needs assessment. SELECTION OF TRAINEES Although it is true that in selecting persons for training a company generally gives primary consideration to its benefits and secondary consideration to the benefits accruing to the individual, yet the standards used for selecting training programme, participants should be carefully demised and communicated widely throughout the organization. Training opportunities should not be passed out as reward for a good behavior or for long service or to get relief for some time from a trouble-making employee. Fairness is applying the standards is required and can help boost employee morale. Programmes having high selection standards become high status prestige programmes which challenge the best persons in the organization to make the grade. Training a person who has no ability and willingness to learn is like sending an ass to college. All one can hope to get back is an educated mule. Whenever an individual is sponsored is sponsored for training he should be told categorically the reasons for sponsoring him and the expectations of the organization from him after he returns from the programme. Most companies do not inform the employees why they have been sponsored, such a practice reduces learning, as the employees sponsored are concerned about the reasons for being sponsored than actually getting involved in and benefiting from training. TRAINING METHODS FOR OPERATIVES: The most important type of training is On-the-job training. The worker in this method learns to master the operations involved on the actual job situation under the situation under the supervision of his immediate boss. Some important advantage of this type of training is as follows:

(i) It can be learned in a relative short period of time, say, a week or two. (ii) No elaborate programme is necessary as far as subject content is concerned (iii) There is no line-staff conflict because the workers own supervision is the instructor. (iv) It is highly economical. (v) It is not located in an artificial situation, either physically or psychologically and ,therefore, eliminates the possible problem of transfer of leaning
A training method of carrying on-the-job training which has been found to be great value is known as a the Training Within Industry (TWI) or the capsule method. The method was devised in the United States during the Second World War when a large number of people had to be trained in a short period. It involves the following steps: (a) Preparation of the instructor. This includes four steps as under: (i) Have a time-table. How much skill does the instructor expect the worker to have and by what to have by what date. (ii) Break down the job. List importance steps, (iii) Have everything ready-the right equipment, materials and supplies, and (iv)Have the workplace properly arranged as the worker will be expected to keep it. (b) How to instruct. This include the following fore steps: step 1. prepare the worker - put him at ease. - State the job and find out what he know about. - Get him interested in learning the job. - Place in correct position. Step 2. present the operation - Tell, show, and illustrate one important step at a time. - Stress each Key Point. - Instruct clearly, completely, and patiently, but no more than he can master. Step 3. Try out performance - Have him do the job-correct error. - Have him explain key point to you as he does the job again. - Continue unit you know He knows. Step 4. Follow up - Put him on his own. Designate to whom he goes for help. - Check frequently. Encourage questions. - Taper off extra coaching and close follow-up. INTERNSHIP: This refers to a joint programme of training in which technical institutes and corporate enterprises cooperate to enable the students to gain a good balance between theory and

practice. Selected Candidates carry on regular studies for the prescribed period. They also work in some factory or office to acquire practical knowledge. 1. Internship is virtually a practical training of the theoretical knowledge. 2. Sometimes it is a part of the course of study of the student (e.g., CA) 3. It is not a service contract. No salary is given during the period. Normally, very small amount called stipend is given to the students. 4. Under this training programme, the companies get people with fresh ideas and latest knowledge and they have to pay very small amount of salary (called stipend). on the other hand, the students get a chance to practice under the real work situation. APPRENTICESHIP PROGRAMME TRAINING: The workers seeking to enter skilled job (e.g., plumbers, electricians or iron workers, etc.) are sent for apprenticeship training programme which is an on-the-job method of training. In the Apprenticeship Programme, a master worker or a trainer is appointed who guides the worker or learner regarding the skill of job. The master worker performs the job and the trainee (learner) observes him performing. When the learner learns all the skills, then slowly he starts taking up the job step by step and master worker becomes the observer. 1. When the trainee becomes perfect in doing the job, the master worker goes and the trainee gets full charge of job, the master worker goes and the trainee gets full chargeof job position. 2. Generally, the time period, for apprenticeship programmed may very from 2 to 5 years. 3. During the apprenticeship period, the trainee is paid less than a fully qualified worker.


Training methods/techniques The forms and types of employee training methods are inter-related. It is difficult, if not impossible, to say which of the methods or combination of methods is more useful than the other. In fact, methods are multi-faceted in scope and dimension, and each is suitable for a particular situation. The methods of training as follows 1. On the-job-training (OJT) 2. Job instruction training (JIT) 3. Vestibule training 4. Training by experience workmen 5. Classroom or off-the-job-training like Lecture Conferences Group discussion Case studies Role playing Programme instruction T-group training

On-the-job-training (OJT) There are a variety of OJT methods, such as Coaching Under study Job rotation Internship Apprenticeship Trainee learns on the actual equipment in use and in the true environment of his job. Secondly, it is highly economical since no additional personal or facilities are required for training.

Merits of on-the-job-training

Thirdly, the trainee learns the rules, regulations and procedures by observing their day-to-day applications. He can, therefore, be easily sized up by the management. Fourthly, this type of training is a suitable alternative for a company in which there are almost as many jobs as there are employees. Finally, it is most appropriate for teaching the knowledge and skills which can be acquired in a relatively short period, say, a few days or weeks. Instruction is often highly disorganized.

Demerits of on-the-training

Job instruction training (JIT) This method is very popular in the States for preparing supervisors to train operatives. The JIT method requires skilled trainers, extensive job analysis, training schedules, and prior assessment of the trainees job knowledge. This method is also known as training through step-by-step learning. It involves listing all necessary steps in the job, each in proper sequence. These steps show what is to be done. Along side each step is also listed a corresponding Key point, which show how it is to be done and why. The job instruction training process is in four steps: The preparation of the trainee for instruction. This includes putting him at case, emphasizing the importance of the task and giving a general description of job duties and responsibilities; Presentation of the instructions, giving essential information in a clear manner. This includes positioning the trainee at work site, telling and showing him each step of the job, stressing why and how each step is carried out as it is shown; Having the trainee try out the job to show that he has understood the instructions, if there are any errors they are corrected; and Encouraging the question and allowing the trainee to work along and the trainer follows up regularly.

The JIT method provides immediate feedback on results, quick correction of errors and provision of extra practice when required. However, it demands a skilled trainer and can interfere with production and quality. Vestibule training (or training-centre training) It is a classroom training which is often imparted with the help of the equipment and machines which are identical with those in use in the place of work. This technique enables the trainee to concentrate on learning the new rather than on performing an actual job. It is a very efficient method of training semi-skilled personnel, particularly when many employees have to be trained for the same kind of the same time.

Training is generally given in the form of lectures, conferences, case studies, role playing and discussion. Merits of the vestibule training Training is given in a separate room, distractions are minimized. Trained instructor, who knows how to teach, can be more effectively utilized. The correct method can be taught without interrupting production. It permits the trainee to practice without the fear of supervisors / co-workers observation and their possible ridicule. The splitting of responsibilities leads to organizational problems. An additional investemtn in equipment is necessary, though the cost may be reduced by getting some productive work done by trainee while in the school. This method is of limited value for the jobs which utilize equipment which can be duplicated. The training situation is somewhat artificial.

Demerits of the vestibule training

Class-room or off-the-job methods Off-the-job-training simply means that training is not a part of everyday job activity. The actual location may be in the company class rooms or in places which are owned by the company or in universities or associations which have no connection with the company. These methods consist of: 1. Lectures 2. Conferences 3. Group discussions 4. Case Studies 5. Role-playing 6. Programme instruction 7. T-Group training. 1. Lectures (or class-room instruction): Lecturers are regarded as one of the most simple ways of imparting knowledge to the trainees, especially when facts, concepts, or are formal organized talks by the training specialist, the formal superior or other individual specific topics. The lecture method can be used for very large groups which are to be trained within a short time, thus reducing the cost per trainee. In training, the most important uses of lectures include:

Reducing anxiety about upcoming training programmes or organizational changes by explaining their purposes. Introducing a subject and presenting an overview of its scope. Presenting basic material that will provide a common back ground for subsequent activities. Illustrating the application of rules, principles; reviewing, clarifying and summarizing. The learner are passive instead of active participants. The lecture method violates the principle of learning by doing. A clear and vigorous verbal presentation requires a great deal of preparation for which management personnel often lack the time. The attention span of even a well-motivated and adequately informed listener is only from 15 minutes to 20 minutes so that, in the course of an hour, the attention of listeners drifts. It is difficult to stimulate discussion following a lecture, particularly if the listener is uninformed or awestruck by the lecturer. The untrained lecturer either ramples or packs far too much information in the lecture, which often becomes unpalatable to the listener. The presentation of material should be geared to a common level of knowledge. It tends to emphasize the accumulations and memorization of facts and figures and does not lay stress on the application of knowledge. Though a skilful lecturer can adapt his material to the specific group, he finds it difficult to adjust it for individual differences within a group.

Limitations of lecture system

2. The conference method: In this method, the participating individuals confer to discuss points of common interest to each other. A conference is basic to most participative group-centred methods of development. It is a formal meeting, conducted in accordance with an organized plan, in which the leader seeks to develop knowledge and understanding by obtaining a considerable amount of oral participation of the trainees. Three types of conferences are 1. Directed discussion 2. Training conference 3. Seminar conference 3. Seminar or Team Discussion: This is an established method for training. A seminar is conducted in many ways:

It may be based on a paper prepared by one or more trainees on a subject selected in consultation with the person in charge of the seminar. It may be a part of a study or related to theoretical studies or practical problems. The trainees read their papers, and this is followed by a critical discussion. The chairman of the seminar summarizes the con* tents of the papers and the discussions which follow their reading. It may be based on the statement made by the person in charge of the seminar or on a document prepared by an expert, who is invited to participate in the discussion. The person in charge of the seminar distributes in advance the material to be analysed in the form of required readings. The seminar compares the reactions of trainees, encourages discussion, defines the general trends and guides the participants to certain conclusions. Valuable working material may be provided to the trainees by actual files. The trainees may consult the files and bring these to the seminar where they may study in detail the various aspects, ramifications and complexities of a particulars job or work or task.

4. Case studies (or learning by doing): This method was first developed in the 1980s by Christopher Langdell at the Harvard Law School to help students to learn for themselves by independent thinking and by discovering in the ever-tangled skein of human affairs, principles and ideas which have lasting validity and general applicability. A collateral object is to help them develop skills in using their knowledge. In case study method the trainee is expected to: Master the facts, become acquinted with the content of the case; Define the objectives sought in dealing with the issues in the case; Identify the problems in case and uncover their probable causes; Develop alternative of actions; Screen the alternatives using the objectives as the criteria; Select the alternative that is most in keeping with the stated objectives Define the controls needed to make the actions effective; and To role play the action to test its effectiveness and find conditions that may limit it.

5. Role-playing: This method was developed by Mereno, a Venetian psychiatrist. He coined the terms role-playing, role-reversal, socio-drama, psychodrama. And a variety of specialized terms, with emphasis on learning human relations skills through practice and insight into ones own behaviour and its effect upon others. It has been defined as a method of human interaction which involved realistic behaviour in the imaginary situation.

The Role-playing method merits are: Learning by doing is emphasized; Human sensitivity and interactions are stressed; The knowledge of results is immediate; Trainee interest and involvement tend to be high; It is a useful method to project the living conditions between learning in the classroom and working on a job and creating a live business situation in the classroom. It develops skills and ability to apply knowledge, particularly in areas like human relations; and It brings about desired changes in behaviour and attitudes.

6. Programmed instruction (or teaching by the machine method): Programmed instruction involves a sequence of step which are often set up through the central panel of an electronic computer as guides in the performance of a desired operation or series of operation. It incorporates a pre-arranged, proposed, or desired course of proceedings pertaining to the learning or acquisition of some specific skills or general knowledge. The merits of the methods are: Trainees learn at their own pace; Instructors are not a key part in learning; The materials to be learned are broken down into small units; Immediate feedback is available; Active learner participation takes place at each step in the programmes; Individual differences can be taken into account; Training can be imparted at odd times and in odd places; and There is a high level of learner motivation. The impersonality of instructional setting; An advanced study is not possible until preliminary information has been acquired. Only factual subject matters can be programmed; Philosophical and attitudinal concepts and motor skills cannot be taught by this method; and The cost of creating any such programme is very great.

Demerits of the methods are:

7. T-group training: This method of training is a technique of composition of audio visual aids and planned reading programmes Audio-visual aids records, tapes, and films are generally used in conjunction with other conventional teaching methods. Retraining

Retraining programmes are generally arranged for employees who have long been in the service of an organisatoin. The retraining programme may be necessitated by the following facts: Some employees are engaged in a confined phase of a particular task and lose their all-round skills in a particular trade. Hence, to keep them active in all-round skills, such training is needed. During prolonged lay-off periods, employees on certain highly skilled jobs are given retaining when they are called back to work. Technological changes may make a particular job, on which an employee is working unnecessary, and the company may desire to retain him rather than discharge him. An employee, because of illness, accident or incapacity due to age, may no longer be able to do his share of the work he performed when he was in normal health. Economic depression or cyclical variations in production create conditions in which employment stabilization may be achieved by having a versatile workforce capable or performing more than one job.

Steps to increase to improve effectiveness of training The training programmes can be made effective and successful if the following hints are considered: 1. Specific training objectives should be outlined on the basis of the type of performance required to achieve organizational goals and objectives. An audit of personal needs compared with operational requirements will help to determine the specific training needs of individual employees. This evaluation should form a well-defined set of performance standards toward which each trainee should be directed. 2. Attempt should be made to determine if the trainee has the intelligence, maturity, and motivation to successfully complete the training programmes. If deficiencies are noted in these respects, the training may be postponed or cancelled till improvements are visible. 3. The trainee should be helped to see the need for training by making him aware of the personal benefits he can achieve through better performance. He should be helped to discover the rewards and satisfactions that might be available to him through changes in behaviour.

4. The training programme should be planned so that it is related to the trainees previous experiences and background. This background should be used as a foundation for new development and new behaviour. 5. Attempts should be made to create organizational conditions that are conducive to a good learning environment. It should be made clearly why changes are needed. Any distractions, in the way of training environment, should be removed. The support of the upper levels of management should be obtained before applying training at lower levels. 6. If necessary, a combination of training methods should be selected so that variety is permitted and as many of the senses as possible are utilized. 7. It should be recognized that all the trainees do not progress at the same rate. Therefore, flexibility should be allowed in judging the rates of progress in the training programme. 8. If possible, the personal involvement or active part of the trainee should be got in the training programmes. He should be provided with opportunity to practice the newly needed behaviour norms. 9. As a trainee acquire new knowledge, skills or attitudes and applies them in job situations, he should be significantly rewarded for his efforts. 10. The trainee should be provided with regular, constructive feedback. 11. The trainee should be provided with personal assistance when he encounters learning obstacles.

ESSENTIALS OF A GOOD TRAINING PROGRAMME: A sound training program must possess the following characteristics:

1. The training program should be designed so as to achieve pre-determined objectives and needs of the organization. 2. Training program should be less expensive. 3. Training program should be developed for all in the organization and not for a particular group. 4. Training program should be pre-planned and well organized, taking in view the objectives of training program. 5. Training program should be designed according to size, nature and financial position of the concern. 6. the program should be conducted by a senior and experienced supervisor or executive of the concern or by training director who is in charge of the training section under personnel department.

7. Theoretical and practical aspects of training should be given consideration while preparing a training program. 8. Training program should be designed taking in view the interests of both employer and employees. 9. The purpose of training is to develop the men and therefore more than one method may be followed for different groups. 10. The program should be flexible enough so that it may be adjustable to the changing circumstances. 11. Training should be followed by a reward, so that employees may be motivated. 12. Sufficient time should be provided to practice what the employees have learned. 13. The trainee should be provided with 'feedback' on the progress he is making in utilizing the training he has received.

UNIT 4 EXECUTIVE DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMME EXECUTIVE DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMME- MEANING Today, it is the growth that makes one person stay at the company. The opportunity and challenges is what keeps a person satisfied and charmed with his job. Companies have understood this fact and therefore are forming policies and procedures to develop their employees. Executive development may be referred as systematic process of growth and development by which the managers develop their abilities and managerial skills to manage. It is the result of not only participation in formal courses of instruction but also of actual job experience. Executive development programs can be organized in various situations i.e. on-the-job or off-the-job in the company or out side the company. It involves the use of many techniques e.g. decision-making skills, interpersonal skills, job knowledge, organizational knowledge, general knowledge by special courses, meetings, conferences, group discussion , seminars , get together etc. These techniques of executive development program are deployed by executive trainers, specialists, external trainers and educationists. Executive development is an in-depth professional intervention, which enhances managerial functioning through multiple interactions with key executives, one-on-one or in groups. Development is more effective when it includes senior level officials, as it then helps change mind-set, and influence behavior throughout their organizations. It is customized to the specific needs of employees, is based on on-the-job experience, has direct application to work situations and thrives on the feedback of participants. The exercise involves continual guidance, follow-ups and learning. In our country development program is confused with mentoring and is looked at in a very negative manner. It is often kept a secret, which goes against its prime objective. Executive development program usually involves three parties the instructor, the trainee and the employer, who pays for the service. It is different from conventional training, which often does not have long-term benefits, and also the mentor hired does not feel the responsibility to execute the core values. OBJECTIVES OF EXECUTIVE DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMME To develop managers to perform better on their present assignments To prepare them for higher assignments To provide a steady source of competent persons at all levels to meet future organizational needs To help them grow fast

To prevent obsolescence of managers To replace elderly executives, who have risen from the ranks, by highly competent and academically qualified professionals To create conditions and a climate which contribute to the growth process To create an understanding of the methods and problems management To enable candidates to understand the problems of a business organization To indicate how to apply to practical problems the knowledge of the physical and social aspects of business problems and management. of

The change in the individual must take place in those crucial areas, which can be considered as output variables: Knowledge change Attitude change Behavior change Performance change End-operational results

ADVANTAGES OF EXECUTIVE DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMME Executive development programs are ideal for career enhancers, including those who already have MBAs. Participants can enroll in specific topics of interest and learn from renowned business school faculty or industry professionals. In addition, these programs can: 1. Help update or broaden skills and assist in maintaining certain professional licenses. 2. Provide seasoned managers with new knowledge or exposure to the latest developments in their fields. 3. Offer training or "refresher" courses on a particular subject for individuals who are taking on new responsibilities at work. 4. Provide great flexibility in scheduling and location as well as a limited time commitment.

5. Offer open enrollment rather than a formal application process. 6. A limited time commitment. NEED FOR EXECUTIVE DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMME: Development programs offer a window of opportunity and provides a platform for young executive development professionals to present innovative and new ideas that could further stretch the envelope for executive development, besides also helping to devise effective strategies for cracking perennial evaluation issues of the development programs like retention and compensation patterns, improvement in taking the managerial decisions and skills, value creation in employee-employers relationships and bridging the generation and gender gap. Development program gives the executives extra energy and motivation at work. Executive development programs are planned learning experience that teaches the executives how to perform their current as well as future jobs more efficiently and effectively. Executive development programs are designed to improve the organizational performance through enhancing knowledge and skills of the executives. Executive development programs are designed to improve the organizational performance through enhancing knowledge and skills of the executives. It is essential that all the activities relating to executive development programs should be in time with the specific needs of both the organization and the executives. Identifying the development program needs thus forms the major crux in any organization .A variety of development programs are available and used by development institutions and organizations. METHOD OF EVALUATION OF EFFECTIVENESS OF TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT: Training managers are always hard-pressed to prove the effectiveness of the training programmes they conduct. An update on one of the most popular techniques - the Donald Kirkpatrick model Organisations are under pressure to justify various expenses. The training budget is, often, not exempted from this purview. There are a number of questions raised on the value derived from training programmesboth directly and indirectly. Business heads and training managers are under pressure to prove the effectiveness of training. One of the most popular methodologies for measuring training effectiveness was developed by Donald Kirkpatrick. This model articulates a four-step process.: 1. Reactions. 2. Learning. 3. Transfer. 4. Results.

Level 1 Evaluation Reactions Just as the word implies, evaluation at this level measures how participants in a training program react to it. It attempts to answer questions regarding the participants' perceptions - Did they like it? Was the material relevant to their work? According to Kirkpatrick, every program should at least be evaluated at this level to provide for the improvement of a training program. In addition, the participants' reactions have important consequences for learning (level two). Although a positive reaction does not guarantee learning, a negative reaction almost certainly reduces its possibility. Definition: Assesses participants initial reactions to a course. Offers insights into
participants satisfaction, or the effectiveness (value) of the training as perceived by the trainee. Usually assessed through a survey aka a "smiley sheet." Does not measure learning.

Guidelines for Measuring 1. Determine what you want to find out. 2. Design a form that allows questionnaire results to be easily tabulated. 3. Encourage honest written comments and suggestions. 4. Attain an immediate response rate of 100 percent. 5. Develop standards. 6. Measure reactions against the standards and take appropriate action. 7. Communicate participants reactions. 8. Use focus groups to acquire qualitative feedback (i.e. more specific comments) Level 2 Evaluation - Learning Assessing at this level moves the evaluation beyond learner satisfaction and attempts to assess the extent students have advanced in skills, knowledge, or attitude. Measurement at this level is more difficult and laborious than level one. Methods range from formal to informal testing to team assessment and self-assessment. If possible, participants take the test or assessment before the training (pretest) and after training (post test) to determine the amount of learning that has occurred. Definition: Assesses the amount of information (principles, facts and techniques) understood and absorbed by trainees. May use a criterion referenced test Guidelines for Measuring 1. Use a control group, if feasible. 2. Evaluate knowledge, skills, or attitudes both before and after the training. 3. Attain a response rate of 100 percent. 4. Use the results of the evaluation to take appropriate action.

Level 3 Evaluation Transfer

This level measures the transfer that has occurred in learners' behavior due to the training program. Evaluating at this level attempts to answer the question - Are the newly acquired skills, knowledge, or attitude being used in the everyday environment of the

learner? For many trainers this level represents the truest assessment of a program's effectiveness. However, measuring at this level is difficult as it is often impossible to predict when the change in behavior will occur, and thus requires important decisions in terms of when to evaluate, how often to evaluate, and how to evaluate. Definition: Assesses the amount of material used on the-job after taking the course,
e.g. a week to 6 months (or longer) after taking the course. Assesses on-the-job behavior based on the objectives of the course and assessed through tests, observations, surveys and interviews.

Guidelines for Measuring 1. Use a control group, if feasible. 2. Allow enough time for a change in behavior to take place. 3. Survey or interview one or more of the following groups: trainees, their bosses, their subordinates, and others who often observe trainees' behavior on the job. 4. Choose a statistically significant sample (n=100). 5. Repeat the evaluation. 6. Consider the cost of evaluation versus the potential benefits. Level 4 Evaluation- Results Frequently thought of as the bottom line, this level measures the success of the program in terms that managers and executives can understand -increased production, improved quality, decreased costs, reduced frequency of accidents, increased sales, and even higher profits or return on investment. From a business and organizational perspective, this is the overall reason for a training program, yet level four results are not typically addressed. Determining results in financial terms is difficult to measure, and is hard to link directly with training. Definition: Measures results, e.g. reduced costs, higher quality, increased
production, and lower rates of employee turnover. Measure 6 mos. to 2 yrs. After completing the course.

Guidelines for Measuring 1. Use a control group, if feasible. 2. Allow time for results to be achieved. Amount of time depends on course context. 3. Measure both before and after training. Repeat the measurement. 4. Consider the cost of evaluation versus the potential benefits.

UNIT 5 EVALAUTION OF TRAINING EVALUATION MEANING The application of systematic methods to periodically and objectively assess effectiveness of programs in achieving expected results, their impacts, both intended and unintended, continued relevance and alternative or more cost-effective ways of achieving expected results. Evaluation should be seen as an integral part of learning and development initiative, but research enlighten us that the majority of organizations settle for the happy sheet. Measuring the power and value of benefits such as higher competence, improved technical and behavioral skills are harder to quantify. Successful evaluation should address the needs of the organization , measure whether or not needs were met, quantify these tangible benefits and the return on investment. REASONS FOR EVALUATION
There are three reasons for evaluating training programs. The most common reason is that evaluation can tell us how to improve future programs. The second reason is to determine whether a program should be continued or dropped. The third reason is to justify the existence of the training department and its budget.

NEED FOR EVALUATION: 1. To validate training as a business tool 2. To justify the costs incurred in training 3. To help improve the design of training 4. To help in selecting training methods. PRINCIPLES OF EVALUATION: Evaluation of the training programme must be based on the principles: 1. Evaluation specialist must be clear about the goals and purposes of evaluation. 2. Evaluation must be continuous. 3. Evaluation must be specific. 4. Evaluation must provide the means and focus for trainers to be able to appraise themselves, their practices, and their products. 5. Evaluation must be based on objective methods and standards. 6. Realistic target dates must be set for each phase of the evaluation process. EVALUATION OF WORKPLACE LEARNING AND TRAINING

A vital aspect of any sort of evaluation is its effect on the person being evaluated. Feedback is essential for people to know how they are progressing, and also, evaluation is crucial to the learner's confidence too. For effective training and learning evaluation, the principal questions should be: 1. To what extent were the identified training needs objectives achieved by the programme? 2. To what extent were the learners' objectives achieved? 3. What specifically did the learners learn or be usefully reminded of? 4. What commitment have the learners made about the learning they are going to implement on their return to work? And back at work, 1. How successful were the trainees in implementing their action plans? 2. To what extent were they supported in this by their line managers? 3. To what extent has the action listed above achieved a Return on Investment (ROI) for the organization, either in terms of identified objectives satisfaction or, where possible, a monetary assessment. Organizations commonly fail to perform these evaluation processes, especially where: 1. The HR department and trainers, do not have sufficient time to do so, and/or 2. The HR department does not have sufficient resources - people and money - to do so. There are the two principal factors which need to be resolved: 1. Who is responsible for the validation and evaluation processes? 2. What resources of time, people and money are available for validation/evaluation purposes? CRITERIA OF EVALUATION 1. Measures of reactions 2. Learning 3. Behaviour Change 4. Organisational results
Technique of Evaluation Experimental and controls groups Longitudinal on Time Series Analysis Measurement are taken before, during and after the program is complete. Questionnaire Attitude Survey Tests Interviews Observations

Performance Records

PERSONS RESPONSIBLE FOR THE EVLAUATION OF TRAINING The Training Evaluation Quintet advocated consists of: Senior management Trainer Line management Training manager Student / trainee Senior management Awareness of the need and value of training to the organization. The necessity of involving the Training Manager (or equivalent) in senior management meetings where Decisions are made about future changes when training will be essential. Knowledge of and support of training plans. Active participation in events. Requirement for evaluation to be performed and require regular summary report. Policy and strategic decisions based on results and data. Trainer Provision of any necessary pre-programme work etc and programme planning. Identification at the start of the programme of the knowledge and skills level of the trainees/learners. Provision of training and learning resources to enable the learners to learn within the objectives of the programme and the learners' own objectives. Monitoring the learning as the programme progresses. At the end of the programme, assessment of and receipt of reports from the learners of the learning levels achieved. Ensuring the production by the learners of an action plan to reinforce, practise and implement learning. Line manager Work-needs and people identification. Involvement in training programme and evaluation development. Support of pre-event preparation and holding briefing meetings with the learner. Giving ongoing, and practical, support to the training programme. Holding a debriefing meeting with the learner on their return to work to discuss, agree or help to modify and agree action for their action plan. Reviewing the progress of learning implementation. Final review of implementation success and assessment, where possible, of the ROI. Training manager

Management of the training department and agreeing the training needs and the programme application Maintenance of interest and support in the planning and implementation of the programmes, including a practical involvement where required The introduction and maintenance of evaluation systems, and production of regular reports for senior management Frequent, relevant contact with senior management Liaison with the learners' line managers and arrangement of learning implementation responsibility learning programmes for the managers Liaison with line managers, where necessary, in the assessment of the training ROI. Student / Trainee Involvement in the planning and design of the training programme where possible Involvement in the planning and design of the evaluation process where possible Obviously, to take interest and an active part in the training programme or activity. To complete a personal action plan during and at the end of the training for implementation on return to work, and to put this into practice, with support from the line manager. Take interest and support the evaluation processes. ROI: Cost benefit evaluation of a management development program Measuring the Return on Investment (ROI) in training and development has consistently earned a place among the critical issues in the human resources development (HRD) field. Extension educators may soon find program sponsors and legislatures, as well as administrators, asking for ROI information. This workshop will share the return on investment model proposed by Phillips (2002) as a method for calculating cost benefit and return on investment figures. CRITERIA FOR AN EFFECTIVE ROI PROCESS 1. The ROI measurement must be simple 2. The ROI process must be economical to implement 3. The assumptions, methodology and techniques must be credible, logical, methodical and practical 4. The ROI process must be theoretically sound, without being over-complex 5. The ROI process must account for other factors, which can influence the measured outcomes after training 6. The ROI process must be appropriate in the context of other HRD programs 7. The ROI process must be flexible enough to be applied pre and post training 8. The ROI process must be applicable with all types of data collected

9. The ROI process must include the costs of the training and measurement program

RETURN ON INVESTMENT (ROI) ROI analysis allows decision makers to determine the financial return from training by comparing net program benefitsbenefits minus coststo costs. ROI is calculated by taking the net benefits of training, dividing by training/education costs, and then multiplying the result by 100. ROI is always expressed as a percentage. Return on investment% = [Net program benefits (benefits-costs)/programme costs] x 100 Program Benefits can be one or more of the following financial gains for training/education: 1. Time savings, 2. Increased productivity, 3. Improved quality of output, and/or 4. Enhanced personnel performance. Program Costs can include the following expenses related to training/education offerings: 1. Course development or purchase, 2. Instructional materials, 3. Equipment and/or facilities, 4. Salaries of instructors and staff, and/or 5. Lost productivity due to training attendance. Benefit-Cost Ratio Benefit-cost ratio (BCR) analysis allows decision makers to determine the financial return on a training/education program by comparing benefits and costs. BCR is calculated by taking the program benefits and dividing those benefits by the program cost Cost- Benefit Ratio Formula Cost- Benefit Ratio = Program Benefits/Program Costs Benefit-Cost Ratio analysis is also useful when there is a need to compare investments in training/education with other investment options available to the organization such as new equipment or technology.

ROI measurement is the process of collecting and analysing this performance data, and translating this into a measurement of real financial benefit to the organisation. This

benefit is then compared to the cost of creating this benefit through training and measurement. In many cases, ROI measurement can be linked to data collected and analysed for the purpose of Training Needs Analysis (TNA). If detailed TNA studies are done prior to the training, the data from these studies can be compared to the feedback and performance data acquired after the training takes place. In addition, the TNA is likely to highlight the expected benefits and results from the training. In this case, the change in performance may be more accurately determined. Cost-Benefit Analysis: Cost-effectiveness analysis assumes that the decision maker faces a set of alternatives from which choices must be made. This method of analysis also assumes that the criteria for making the choice must include not only what will be gained (the effects) but also the value of the resources that will be sacrificed to achieve these gains (the costs). Costeffectiveness analysis measures costs in the same way that costs are measured when utilizing benefit-cost analysis. The resources that are needed for each training/education offering are specified and assessed according to their market values or another technique that closely simulates their market value. Benefits analysis and effectiveness analysis represent different approaches to the measurement of outcomes. Benefit-cost analysis compares the benefits and costs when the outcomes can be assessed in monetary terms. KEY CONCEPTS OF COST-BENEFIT ANALYSIS The following key concepts are factors in a cost-benefit analysis. 1. Life of training. Every project needs to be measured across some time period. Technology-based training programs don't last forever. Their shelf life will be determined by things such as changes to content, changes in technology, and changes in business need. According to Hall's research conducted over the last ten years, most ROI studies show technology-based training is more expensive to develop and deliver over the short-term, but pays off over time. Typically, threeto-five years of use is an accepted time period to apply for evaluating a training program. 2. Alternate delivery options. Perhaps the most common method of showing the financial impact of technology-based training is to compare it against the costs for other forms of delivery. 3. Size of audience. With technology-based training, the cost of development is not dramatically effected by the number of students using it. The cost is basically the same to develop a two-hour CD-ROM or Web-based training program for 10 people as it is for 1000 people. The only additional costs may be in the form of CD-ROM duplication, student tracking, and end-user support. However, the size of the target audience is extremely relevant when comparing the costs against instructor-led delivery. With live workshops, the number of students has a direct impact on expenses related to instructors, locations, and travel.

4. Seat time. The total amount of time students will spend with the course is called seat time -- how long they will be in their seats. Seat time is always specified for instructor-led training, but is an estimate when given for self-paced, technologybased training. After all, a course that takes one student two hours to complete, might take another only 90 minutes. Increasingly, effective Web-based training is blurring the lines between instruction and just-in-time performance support. This factor makes estimates of seat time additionally tenuous. 5. Burdened costs. This accounting term refers to the total cost of an item, which may include some hidden costs. For example, you might quickly estimate that a classroom facilitator who earns a $60,000 salary costs $230 per day, simply by dividing the salary by the total number of weekdays ($60,000 52 weeks 5 days). But the burdened cost for the instructor will be higher once you take into account payroll taxes, insurance, and other benefits. Additionally, when calculating day rates, make sure to subtract company holidays, vacation time, and sick days to get an accurate estimate of the burdened cost for each productive workday. 6. Estimated revenue impact. Often the impact a training program has on sales and expenses is indirect, or difficult to measure. In these cases, the impact on revenue is projected or extrapolated from known data. 7. Opportunity costs. These costs are the lost revenues or increased costs associated with opportunities that will be missed because of the training program. This measure is increasingly being used in the competitive world of sales.

UNIT 6 TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT PRACTICES IN INDIA TRAINING OBJECTIVE Training in Government shall strive to achieve the following objectives: Keeping up-todate and enhancing professional knowledge and skills needed for better performance of individuals and organisations; Promoting better understanding of professional requirements as well as sensitisation to professional, socioeconomic and political environment in which work is done; and Bringing about right attitudinal orientation. TRAINING CONCERNS Social and political ambience is subject to constant change. The Government machinery would have to be continuously attuned to the changing needs. Training programmes for the Civil Services would, therefore, focus on: (a) Responsiveness:to the challenging democratic needs and expectations of the citizens and organisational and technological developments. (b) Commitment:to democratic values and concept of partnership and participative decision making. (c) Awareness:of technological, economic and social developments (d) Accountability:to ensure high performance in every professional field and cost effective methods of delivery. POLICY FORMULATION AND COORDINATION A National Training Council, headed by the Minister-in-Charge of Personnel shall be set up for advising the Government on India of matters related to training policy, training design and programmes as well as issues concerning their implementation. The National Training Council shall be assisted by a high powered committee of Directions, headed by Secretary (Personnel) in the Ministry of Personnel, Public Grievances and Pensions. This Committee shall generally oversee operationalisation of the Training Policy. It shall also ensure that Training Plans are actually drawn up by Cadre Controlling authorities, syllabi are prepared and proper planning of training activity takes place through preparation of Perspective Plans, Annual Plans and Triennial Reviews. TRAINING FRAMEWORK Training would be imparted to all rungs of the Civil Services starting from the lowest and cutting-edge to the highest in policy making. All categories of Civil Servants shall receive: (a) induction training at time of entry into service; and

(b) in-service training at suitable intervals in their career. Attendance in training programmes shall be prescribed as a mandatory exercise with possible linkages with career progression. For organised higher Civil Services, career span-specific training programmes in each progressive decade of service shall be imparted to provide scope for competence building. In order to improve the effectiveness of personnel at different levels and different sectors, area specific short-term skill upgradation/sensitisation programmes shall invariably be formulated by Ministries and Departments and specifically targeted to personnel holding specific jobs. In order to improve the effectiveness of personnel at different levels and different sectors, area specific short-term skill upgradation/sensitisation programmes shall invariably be formulated by Ministries and Departments and specifically targeted to personnel holding specific jobs. Personnel recruited to isolated posts and specialists shall receive training to improve their capabilities of general management outside their chosen area of specialisation. The in-service training programme for Group 'C' & 'D' expected at the time of movement to a higher Group may be provided in situ or through distance learning methods. Training programmes will be specifically designed to meet the requirements of the target group by the Organisation in consultation with the institutions/consultants/experts. Every Organisation shall conduct preparatory exercises like analysis of its goals and objectives, training needs analysis, job analysis, etc. with a view to determining whether the training intervention needs to be preceded, accompanied by or succeeded by one or more non-training interventions. Such an exercise will also enable development of appropriate criteria for measuring individual and organisational performance, an essential pre-requisite for the launching of an effective training programme. As possession of the right attitude plays a pivotal role in improving the performance levels of individuals, by contributing to formation of commitment in them, training programmes aimed at creating self awareness as well as team building within the Organisation shall be given utmost importance by every Organisation. RESEARCH IN TRAINING Research in training should be encouraged to evolve new methods of training, its evaluation and impact assessment. It should include areas such as : 1. Evolving methods to measure the work place impact of training, through a process starting with preparation of standard performance parameters

2. Multi skilling 3. Sustaining positive attitudes 4. Develop power-sector specific business games, case studies, computer based training etc. 5. Use of modern concepts and equipments in training Training Plan Each organization in the power sector should put in place a comprehensive training plan evolved through : 1. Preparation of matrix of standard performance parameters based on best industry practices and bench-marking. This matrix would be the basis for the training need assessment, design of training courses and their evaluation. 2. A periodical Training Need Analysis (say once in two years) for evolving an annual need based training intervention agenda. 3. Identifying planned training intervention for each level of transition in an employees career such as: a) Technical training and skill upgradation in : - Power Station (Thermal, Hydro and non-conventional) technologies and Operations & Maintenance - Transmission Systems technologies and Operations & Maintenance, - Distribution System technologies and Operations & Maintenance, - Handling critical emergencies like : cascade tripping of grid - Energy Efficiency - Energy - Environment Interface - Rural Electrification - Power Trading b) Personality Development - Human Values and Ethics - Attitudes and Behavior - Executive and Managerial Skills - Customer Orientation - Integrated Personality Development - Communication skills - Developing commercial/business outlook - Marketing skills in a competitive environment c) Organisation Development Issues - Functional management areas (such as Corporate Planning, Project Management, Financial Management, Materials Management, Human Resource Management) - Industry best practices - Bench marking - Total Quality Management - Industrial Relations in the changed scenario - Rehabilitation & Resettlement Management

- Safety and Security d) Information Technology and Computer Skills - Adequate training should be provided to make the employees IT literate MANAGEMENT DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMS Exposure to new technologies and best practices should be encouraged. At least one long term training opportunity/ program in a career should be planned for middle and senior level officers. Management development would be crucial to apex level managers of power sector to equip them to effectively manage higher as well as changing job responsibilities. TRAINING INSTITUTES IN INDIA 1. CRAFTSMAN TRAINING SCHEME (CTS) The Directorate General of Employment & Training (DGE&T) in the Ministry of Labour, Government of India initiated Craftsmen Training Scheme (CTS) in 1950 by establishing about 50 Industrial Training Institutes (ITIs) for imparting skills in various vocational trades to meet the skilled manpower requirements for technology and industrial growth of the country. 2. INDUSTRIAL TRAINING INSTITUTE: Industrial Training Institutes (ITI) is a training institute which provide training in technical field and constituted under Ministry of Labour, Union Government of India.Normally a person who has passed 10 standard (SSLC) is eligible for admission to ITI. The objective of opening of ITI is provide technical manpower to industries. These persons are trained in basic skills required to do jobs of say operator or a craftsman. The course in ITI is designed in way to impart basic skill in the trade specified. The duration of course may vary from one year to three years depending upon trade opted. After completion of desired period of training the person is eligible to appear in the AITT ( All India Trade Test ) conducted by NCVT( National Council for Vocational training ). After successfully passing AITT, the person is awarded NATIONAL TRADE CERTIFICATE (NTC)in concerning trade by NCVT. After passing ITI course a person may opt to undergo practical training in his trade in an industry for a year or two. Again the person has to appear & pass in a test to be conducted by NCVT to get the NATIONAL APPRENTICESHIP CERTIFICATE . There are both government funded and private (self-financing) ITI's in India. Most of ITI's impart training in technical trades like instrument mechanic, electrician, fitter, plumber, diesel mechanic, APPRENTICESHIP TRAINING With the changing needs of industry, the skills developed by trainees in the ITIs were not adequate and a great need was felt for on-the-job training. The Apprentices Act was therefore adopted in 1961 with a view to meeting the requirement for skilled workers in industry. The Act makes it obligatory for employers in both the public and private sectors

to engage a prescribed proportion of apprentices. The duration of training for apprentices varies from six months to four years, depending on the trade. In the case of trade apprentices, training consists of basic training followed by on-the-job or shop-floor training with related instruction throughout the period of training. During the whole period of training, apprentices are paid prescribed stipends. Enterprises employing more than 500 employees cover all the expenditure for apprenticeship training, including the stipend. For enterprises with fewer than 500 employees, expenditure for apprentices is shared between the concerned government and the enterprise. The cost of instruction is reimbursed to enterprises which provide it themselves, or is covered by the relevant government at its own cost. An apprenticeship contract is registered containing the obligations of the employers and apprentices. After the completion of training, a trade test is conducted for trade apprentices and the National Apprenticeship Certificate is issued to all apprentices who pass the test. NATIONAL COUNCIL FOR VOCATIONAL TRAINING National Council for Vocational Training, an advisory body, was set up by the Government of India in the year 1956. The National Council is chaired by the Minister of Labour, with members from different Central and State Government Departments, Employers and Workers organizations, Professional and Learned Bodies, All India Council for Technical Education, Scheduled castes and Scheduled tribes, All India Womens Organization, etc. And State Councils for Vocational Training at the State level and Trade Committees have been established to assist the NCVT. Main mandate of the NCVT, according to DGE&T, is to establish and award National Trade Certificates in engineering, non-engineering, building, textile, leather trades and such other trades which are brought within its scope by the Government of India. It also prescribes standards in respect of syllabi, equipment, scales of accommodation, duration of courses and methods of training. It also conducts tests in various trade courses and lays down standards of proficiency required for passing the examination leading to the award of National Trade Certificate etc. The following programmes also form part of the National Vocational Training System: They are
the craft instructors training programme; the advanced vocational training system; part-time training for industrial workers; supervisory training; training programmes for women, persons with disabilities and weaker sections of society, including ex-servicemen; and staff training and research programmes

NATIONAL PRODUCTIVITY COUNCIL (NPC) National Productivity Council is a national level organization to promote productivity culture in India. Established as a registered society in 1958 by the Government of India, it is an autonomous, tri-partite, non-profit organization with equal representation from the government, employers and workers organizations, apart from technical and professional institutions and other interests on its governing council. Besides providing training, consultancy and undertaking research in the area of productivity, NPC also implements

the productivity promotion plans and programmes of the Tokyo based Asian Productivity Organization (APO), an inter-governmental body of which the Government of India is a founder member. NPC is aiming to promote the cause of productivity in industry, agriculture, service, infrastructure and other sectors of the economy. It aims to help in achieving sustained all round development in India, leading to enhancement of quality of life of people in general. INDIAN SOCIETY FOR TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT (ISTD) The Indian Society for Training and Development(ISTD),established in April 1969, is a national level professional non-profit society. It has a large membership of institutions ans persons involved in the training and development of human resources, from government, public and private organisations and other bodies. ISTD has 32 Chapters throughout India with the National Headquarters in New Delhi. The society is affiliated to the International Federation of Training and Development Organisations (IFTDO), London and Asian Regional Training and Development Organisations (ARTDO), Manila. ISTD has an agreement with ASTD for sharing Resources and extending benefits to members of respective organisations. OBJECTIVES *Promoting continuing Education in Training/HRD *Designing and organising need-based training programs *Helping establish professional institutions, libraries and laboratories in HRD *Publishing Training Literature *Research & Development in HRD *Consultancy in Training and HRD CENTRAL STAFF TRAINING AND RESEARCH INSTITUTE (CSTARI) The Central Staff Training & Research Institute , Kolkata was set up in 1968 by the Govt of India , Ministry of Labour & Employment , DGE&T with the technical assistance from the Govt of Federal Republic of Germany to conduct training programmes for executive staff and to undertake applied research in the field of vocational training and also to develop , disseminate instructional materials and projected/ non projected training aids.It is mandated to improve the quality and standard of NVTS on a continuous basis. TRAINING PROVDERS IN INDIA: NIS SPARTA: NIS Sparta is a division of Mudra Communications Pvt. Ltd., a Reliance Group organisation. NIS Sparta is Asia's leading training, education and learning solutions provider. NIS Sparta offers customized solutions for top management, middle management and supervisory level. Its three business units are: 1. Enterprise Business Group (EBG) - addresses the needs of organisations in various industry verticals. The solutions offered by the business unit include training and delivery, creation of customised content, research based projects and experiential learning.

2. Employability Solutions Group (ESG) - the business unit operates The NIS Academy to create and enhance employability of individuals through a number of short and long-term educational programmes. 3. Strategic Employability Group (SEG) - the business unit fulfills our group companies training needs.