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Cable Stayed Bridges Cable Stayed Bridges

Non Non Linear Effects Linear Effects


Tony Dempsey Tony Dempsey
ROUGHAN & ODONOVAN
Consulting Engineers
Presentation Layout
1. Introduction
2. Cable-Stayed Bridges - Steel
Theory & Examples
2
Theory & Examples
3. Cable-Stayed Bridges - Concrete
Theory & Examples
4. Cable-Stayed Bridges - Composite
Examples
1. Introduction
Cable Stayed Bridges Non Linearity
Geometric Non Linear (GNL) Large Displacement
Material Non Linear (MNL) Moment Curvature
3
Material Non Linear (MNL) Moment Curvature
Non Linear Time Dependent Effects (TDE)
Non Linear Cable Elements (NLE)
Non Linear Combinations (GNL / MNL / TDE / NLE)
Cable Rupture & Plastic Analysis
Cable Stayed Bridges Static Linear Analysis
BS 5400 Part 3: Clause 10
First Principle Approach
2. Cable-Stayed Bridges - Steel
Steel Pylon Design Second Order Effects
4
Perry Robertson Failure Criteria
First Principle Approach
0
2
2
4
4
= +
dx
y d
EI
P
dx
y d
E y
E y E y



(

+ +

+ +
=
2
2
) 1 (
2
) 1 (
0.80
1.00
1.20
y
Euler Failure Curve
Mean Axial Stress
Perry Robertson Failure Curve
BS 5400 Part 3 Curve A
BS 5400 Part 3 Curve B
BS 5400 Part 3 Curve C
BS 5400 Part 3 Curve D
2. Cable-Stayed Bridges - Steel
Steel Pylon Design Second Order Effects
5
0.00
0.20
0.40
0.60
0.80
0 50 100 150 200
Slenderness Ratio
R
a
t
i
o

c

/


y
BS 5400 Part 3 Curve D
BS 449
BS5950 Curve A
BS5950 Curve B
BS5950 Curve C
2. Cable-Stayed Bridges - Steel
Samuel Beckett Bridge, Dublin, Ireland
6
Courtesy Santiago Calatrava
2. Cable-Stayed Bridges - Steel
Samuel Beckett Bridge, Dublin, Ireland
7
2. Cable-Stayed Bridges - Steel
Strabane Footbridges, Northern Ireland
8
2. Cable-Stayed Bridges - Steel
Steel Pylon Design Second Order Effects
0.80
1.00
1.20

y
Euler Failure Curve
Mean Axial Stress
Perry Robertson Failure Curve
BS 5400 Part 3 Curve A
BS 5400 Part 3 Curve B
BS 5400 Part 3 Curve C
BS 5400 Part 3 Curve D
9
0.00
0.20
0.40
0.60
0.80
0 50 100 150 200
Slenderness Ratio
R
a
t
i
o

c

/


BS 5400 Part 3 Curve D
BS 449
BS5950 Curve A
BS5950 Curve B
BS5950 Curve C
2. Cable-Stayed Bridges - Steel
Steel Pylon Design Second Order Effects
0.80
1.00
1.20

y
Euler Failure Curve
Mean Axial Stress
Perry Robertson Failure Curve
BS 5400 Part 3 Curve A
BS 5400 Part 3 Curve B
BS 5400 Part 3 Curve C
10
0.00
0.20
0.40
0.60
0.80
0 50 100 150 200
Slenderness Ratio
R
a
t
i
o

c

/


BS 5400 Part 3 Curve C
BS 5400 Part 3 Curve D
BS 449
BS5950 Curve A
BS5950 Curve B
BS5950 Curve C
Analysis A = ULS DL + SDL + Wind
Analysis B = ULS DL + SDL + Wind + Back-Stay Imbalance
Analysis C = ULS DL + SDL Wind + Construction Tolerance
Analysis D = ULS DL + SDL Wind + Back-Stay Imbalance + Constr. Tol.
2.5
2. Cable-Stayed Bridges - Steel
Samuel Beckett Bridge, Dublin, Ireland
11
0.0
0.5
1.0
1.5
2.0
-2.00 -1.00 0.00 1.00 2.00 3.00 4.00 5.00 6.00
Transverse Displacement (m)
L
o
a
d

F
a
c
t
o
r
Pylon Tip - Analysis D
Pylon M12 - Analysis D
Pylon Tip - Analysis A
Pylon M12 - Analysis A
Pylon Tip - Analysis B
Pylon M12 - Analysis B
Pylon Tip - Analysis C
Pylon M12 - Analysis C
Analysis A = ULS DL + SDL + Wind
Analysis B = ULS DL + SDL + Wind + Back-Stay Imbalance
Analysis C = ULS DL + SDL Wind + Construction Tolerance
Analysis D = ULS DL + SDL Wind + Back-Stay Imbalance + Constr. Tol.
2.5
2. Cable-Stayed Bridges - Steel
Samuel Beckett Bridge, Dublin, Ireland
12
0.0
0.5
1.0
1.5
2.0
-0.20 -0.15 -0.10 -0.05 0.00 0.05 0.10 0.15 0.20
Transverse Displacement (m)
L
o
a
d

F
a
c
t
o
r
Pylon Tip - Analysis D
Pylon M12 - Analysis D
Pylon Tip - Analysis A
Pylon M12 - Analysis A
Pylon Tip - Analysis B
Pylon M12 - Analysis B
Pylon Tip - Analysis C
Pylon M12 - Analysis C
2. Cable-Stayed Bridges - Steel
Samuel Beckett Bridge, Dublin, Ireland
13
2. Cable-Stayed Bridges - Steel
Samuel Beckett Bridge, Dublin, Ireland
14
2. Cable-Stayed Bridges - Steel
Samuel Beckett Bridge, Dublin, Ireland
15
3. Cable-Stayed Bridges - Concrete
Boyne Bridge, Meath / Louth, Ireland
16
3. Cable-Stayed Bridges - Concrete
Dublin Eastern Bypass, Ireland
17
3. Cable-Stayed Bridges - Concrete
Dublin Eastern Bypass, Ireland
18
3. Cable-Stayed Bridges - Concrete
Taney Bridge, Ireland
19
3. Cable-Stayed Bridges - Concrete
Taney Bridge, Ireland
20
Tower
Design
3. Cable-Stayed Bridges - Concrete
Pylon Design Critical Loadcase & Location
21
3. Cable-Stayed Bridges - Concrete
Second Order Effects Bending Moments
22
First order First & second order Structure
Implications for Taney Bridge
Methods and Codes
3. Cable-Stayed Bridges - Concrete
Second Order Effects Investigation
23
Simple Cantilever Strut
Methods and Codes
Cable-Stay Bridge Design - Example
Elastic theory Closed Form Solution
Numerical Geometric Non-Linear Analysis
3. Cable-Stayed Bridges - Concrete
Second Order Effects Methods & Codes
24
BS5400 Part 4
Eurocode 2
FIP / CEB
Curvature Estimation Methods
50
60
B
S
5
4
0
0

S
l
e
n
d
e
r
n
e
s
s

D
e
f
i
n
i
t
i
o
n
150
200
F
I
P

/

E
C
2

S
l
e
n
d
e
r
n
e
s
s

D
e
f
i
n
i
t
i
o
n
BS5400
FIP / EC2
BS 5400 Slenderness Upper Limit
Upper Slenderness Limit
FIP Upper Slenderness Limit
Taney Pylon - No Cables
3. Cable-Stayed Bridges - Concrete
Slenderness Definition BS 5400 / EC 2 / FIP
25
0
10
20
30
40
0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140
Effective Length (m)
B
S
5
4
0
0

S
l
e
n
d
e
r
n
e
s
s

D
e
f
i
n
i
t
i
o
n
0
50
100
F
I
P

/

E
C
2

S
l
e
n
d
e
r
n
e
s
s

D
e
f
i
n
i
t
i
o
n
BS 5400 Slenderness Limit
FIP / EC2 Slenderness Limit
BS 5400 Slenderness Upper Limit
Upper Slenderness Limit
for FIP Equilibrium Method
Taney Pylon
3. Cable-Stayed Bridges - Concrete
Taney Bridge Free Standing Tower
26
Elastic theory closed form solution
3. Cable-Stayed Bridges - Concrete
Second Order Effects Methods & Codes
27
EI
x M
dx
x w d ) ( ) (
2
2
=
Momentcurvature relationship:
3. Cable-Stayed Bridges - Concrete
Elastic Theory Closed Form Solution
28
) ( ) ( ) (
2 1
x M x M x M + =
Total Moment:
EI
x q
dx
x w d
EI
x Q
dx
x w d ) ( ) ( ) ( ) (
2
2
4
4
= +
Deflection
Equation:
Solution:
Solve for w(x)
Second Order
Moment:
) ( ) ( ) (
2
x Q x w x M =
Elastic theory closed form solution
Numerical geometric non-linear analysis
3. Cable-Stayed Bridges - Concrete
Second Order Effects Methods & Codes
29
Incremental load application
Iterative techniques equilibrium maintained
3. Cable-Stayed Bridges - Concrete
Numerical Geometric Non-Linear Analysis
30
Stiffness revision
Load deformation path history
Structural analysis packages
Elastic theory closed form solution
Numerical geometric non-linear analysis
3. Cable-Stayed Bridges - Concrete
Second Order Effects Methods & Codes
31
BS5400 Part 4
Slenderness
moment
|
|

\
|

|
|

\
|
+ =
y
e
y
e
y
ix tx
h
l
h
l
Nh
M M
0035 . 0
1
1750
2
Eccentricity at
collapse
10 /
2
u e add
l e =
3. Cable-Stayed Bridges - Concrete
Second Order Effects Methods & Codes
32
collapse
Curvature
(material failure)
|
|

\
|
+
=
d
E f
s m y u
u

Curvature reduction
(stability failure)
Eccentricity
|
|

\
|

|
|

\
|
=
y
e
y
e
y
add
h
l
h
l
h
e
0035 . 0
1
1750
2
2
50000h l
e
Elastic theory closed form solution
Numerical geometric non-linear analysis
3. Cable-Stayed Bridges - Concrete
Second Order Effects Methods & Codes
33
BS5400 Part 4
Eurocode 2
Three Methods
Numerical Non-Linear Analysis
3. Cable-Stayed Bridges - Concrete
Eurocode 2
34
Linear Second Order Analysis - Reduced Stiffness
Curvature Estimation Methods
Linear second order analysis with reduced stiffness
Reduced stiffness
3. Cable-Stayed Bridges - Concrete
Eurocode 2
35
Total bending moment
Buckling load factor
Ed
B
N
N
=
Simplified total bending
moment
|

\
|

=
1

OEd Ed
M M
Elastic theory closed form solution
Numerical geometric non-linear analysis
3. Cable-Stayed Bridges - Concrete
Second Order Effects Methods & Codes
36
BS5400 Part 4
Eurocode 2
FIP / CEB
Step 1 First Order Eccentricity at ULS
ULS
ULS
ULS
N
M
e =
Max Rd
M
e
,
=
3. Cable-Stayed Bridges - Concrete
FIP / CEB
37
Step 2 Eccentricity Watershed
Rd
Max Rd
Rd
N
M
e
,
=
Step 3 Reduced Flexural Stiffness
ty Eccentrici Small e e
ty Eccentrici e arg L e e
Rd ULS
Rd ULS
<

Max Rd d
Rd d
dM EI ty Eccentrici Small
dM EI y Eccentrcit e arg L
,
180
180
=
=
(a)
(b)
Step 4 Second Order Moment
(
= ) (

x w N M
3. Cable-Stayed Bridges - Concrete
FIP / CEB
38
Step 5 Final Eccentricity Check
(

=
1
) (
1 2

x w N M
Sd Sd
Rd
ULS
Sd
ULS
e with compared
N
M
e
2
+
Elastic theory closed form solution
Numerical geometric non-linear analysis
3. Cable-Stayed Bridges - Concrete
Second Order Effects Methods & Codes
39
BS5400 Part 4
Eurocode 2
FIP / CEB
Curvature Estimation Methods
15000
20000
25000
B
e
n
d
i
n
g

M
o
m
e
n
t

(
k
N
-
m
)
Slenderness = 40
3. Cable-Stayed Bridges - Concrete
Curvature Estimation Methods
40
0
5000
10000
15000
0
.
0
0
0
0
.
0
0
1
0
.
0
0
2
0
.
0
0
3
0
.
0
0
4
0
.
0
0
5
0
.
0
0
6
0
.
0
0
7
0
.
0
0
8
0
.
0
0
9
Curvature (m
-1
)
B
e
n
d
i
n
g

M
o
m
e
n
t

(
k
N
-
m
)
3. Cable-Stayed Bridges - Concrete
Simple Example Cantilever Strut
41
Variation of slenderness ratio
3. Cable-Stayed Bridges - Concrete
Simple Example Cantilever Strut
42
Low first order moment (slenderness = 26)
- varying axial load 5000kN 35000kN
High first order moment (slenderness = 26)
- varying axial load 5000kN 35000kN
8
10
12
BS5400 Part 4
Moment 1st Order
Elastic Theory
FIP
Numerical NL Analysis
Eurocode 2
Curvature Method
3. Cable-Stayed Bridges - Concrete
Slenderness = 12
43
0
2
4
6
8
0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 7000 8000
Moment (kN-m)
C
o
l
u
m
n

H
e
i
g
h
t

(
m
)
Curvature Method
25
30
35
40
C
o
l
u
m
n

H
e
i
g
h
t

(
m
)
BS5400 Part 4
Moment 1st Order
Elastic Theory
FIP
Numerical NL Analysis
Eurocode 2
3. Cable-Stayed Bridges - Concrete
Slenderness = 40
44
0
5
10
15
20
25
0 5000 10000 15000 20000 25000
Moment (kN-m)
C
o
l
u
m
n

H
e
i
g
h
t

(
m
)
Curvature Method
Section Capacity
5
6
7
8
9
R
a
t
i
o

S
e
c
o
n
d

O
r
d
e
r

M
o
m
e
n
t

/

F
i
r
s
t

O
r
d
e
r

M
o
m
e
n
t
FIP / Elastic Theory / Numerical NL Analysis
EC2
Curvature Method
BS5400
3. Cable-Stayed Bridges - Concrete
Summary Low First Order Moment
45
0
1
2
3
4
5
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
Buckling Factor
R
a
t
i
o

S
e
c
o
n
d

O
r
d
e
r

M
o
m
e
n
t

/

F
i
r
s
t

O
r
d
e
r

M
o
m
e
n
t
4
5
6
R
a
t
i
o

S
e
c
o
n
d

O
r
d
e
r

M
o
m
e
n
t

/

F
i
r
s
t

O
r
d
e
r

M
o
m
e
n
t
FIP / Elastic Theory / Numerical NL Analysis
EC2
Curvature Method
BS5400
3. Cable-Stayed Bridges - Concrete
Summary High First Order Moment
46
0
1
2
3
1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 5 5.5
Buckling Factor
R
a
t
i
o

S
e
c
o
n
d

O
r
d
e
r

M
o
m
e
n
t

/

F
i
r
s
t

O
r
d
e
r

M
o
m
e
n
t
25000
30000
35000
40000
45000
B
e
n
d
i
n
g

M
o
m
e
n
t

(
k
N
-
m
)
3. Cable-Stayed Bridges - Concrete
Method Comparison
47
0
5000
10000
15000
20000
25000
0
.
0
0
0
0
.
0
0
1
0
.
0
0
2
0
.
0
0
3
0
.
0
0
4
0
.
0
0
5
Curvature (m
-1
)
B
e
n
d
i
n
g

M
o
m
e
n
t

(
k
N
-
m
)
First Order Moment
BS5400 (Material
Failure)
BS5400 (Reduced)
FIP & Elastic Theory
25000
30000
35000
40000
45000
B
e
n
d
i
n
g

M
o
m
e
n
t

(
k
N
-
m
)
3. Cable-Stayed Bridges - Concrete
Method Comparison
48
0
5000
10000
15000
20000
25000
0
.
0
0
0
0
.
0
0
1
0
.
0
0
2
0
.
0
0
3
0
.
0
0
4
0
.
0
0
5
Curvature (m
-1
)
B
e
n
d
i
n
g

M
o
m
e
n
t

(
k
N
-
m
)
First Order Moment
BS5400 (Material
Failure)
BS5400 (Reduced)
FIP & Elastic Theory
30000
35000
40000
45000
B
e
n
d
i
n
g

M
o
m
e
n
t

(
k
N
-
m
)
3. Cable-Stayed Bridges - Concrete
Method Comparison
49
0
5000
10000
15000
20000
25000
0
.
0
0
0
0
.
0
0
1
0
.
0
0
2
0
.
0
0
3
0
.
0
0
4
0
.
0
0
5
Curvature (m
-1
)
B
e
n
d
i
n
g

M
o
m
e
n
t

(
k
N
-
m
)
First Order Moment
BS5400 (Material
Failure)
BS5400 (Reduced)
FIP & Elastic Theory
Determine Buckling Factor,
Determine First Order Eccentricity
3. Cable-Stayed Bridges - Concrete
Taney Bridge Pylon Design
50
Determine First Order Eccentricity
Application of Codes and Methods
3. Cable-Stayed Bridges - Concrete
Taney Bridge Pylon Design
51
Buckling Magnification
Comment Factor Factor
E I E I / 1 / 1 / 1 / 1
Flexural Stiffness (EI)
Deck Pylon
3. Cable-Stayed Bridges - Concrete
Taney Bridge Buckling Factor
52
Gross properties EST IG EST IG 13.5 1.08
E
ST
= Youngs modulus short term
I
G
= Uncracked second moment of area
Buckling Magnification
Comment Factor Factor
E I E I / 1 / 1 / 1 / 1
Flexural Stiffness (EI)
Deck Pylon
3. Cable-Stayed Bridges - Concrete
Taney Bridge Buckling Factor
53
Gross properties E
ST
I
G
E
ST
I
G
13.5 1.08
FIP (pylon) E
ST
I
G
5.5 1.22 0.22E
ST
I
G
E
ST
= Youngs modulus short term
I
G
= Uncracked second moment of area
Buckling Magnification
Comment Factor Factor
E I E I / 1 / 1 / 1 / 1
Flexural Stiffness (EI)
Deck Pylon
3. Cable-Stayed Bridges - Concrete
Taney Bridge Buckling Factor
54
Gross properties E
ST
I
G
E
ST
I
G
13.5 1.08
FIP (pylon) E
ST
I
G
5.5 1.22
Deck Creep ( = 2) = 2) = 2) = 2)
0.5E
ST
I
G
5.2 1.24
0.22E
ST
I
G
0.22E
ST
I
G
E
ST
= Youngs modulus short term
I
G
= Uncracked second moment of area
Buckling Magnification
Comment Factor Factor
E I E I / 1 / 1 / 1 / 1
Flexural Stiffness (EI)
Deck Pylon
3. Cable-Stayed Bridges - Concrete
Taney Bridge Buckling Factor
55
Gross properties E
ST
I
G
E
ST
I
G
13.5 1.08
FIP (pylon) E
ST
I
G
5.5 1.22
Deck Creep ( = 2)
0.5E
ST
I
G
5.2 1.24
FIP (deck)+Creep ( = 2) = 2) = 2) = 2)
3.3 1.44
0.22E
ST
I
G
0.22E
ST
I
G
0.06ESTIG 0.22ESTIG
E
ST
= Youngs modulus short term
I
G
= Uncracked second moment of area
Buckling Magnification
Comment Factor Factor
E I E I / 1 / 1 / 1 / 1
Flexural Stiffness (EI)
Deck Pylon
3. Cable-Stayed Bridges - Concrete
Taney Bridge Buckling Factor
56
Gross properties E
ST
I
G
E
ST
I
G
13.5 1.08
FIP (pylon) E
ST
I
G
5.5 1.22
Deck Creep ( = 2)
0.5E
ST
I
G
5.2 1.24
FIP (deck)+Creep ( = 2)
3.3 1.44
EI
S
(deck)+Creep ( = 1.72) = 1.72) = 1.72) = 1.72) 5.0 1.25 0.48E
ST
I
G
0.22E
ST
I
G
0.22E
ST
I
G
0.22E
ST
I
G
0.06E
ST
I
G
0.22E
ST
I
G
E
ST
= Youngs modulus short term
I
G
= Uncracked second moment of area
EI
S
= Secant Flexural Stiffness
Cable-Stayed Span
Buckling Mode Shape 1
Anchor Span
LUSAS Modeller 13.3 January 15, 2003
3. Cable-Stayed Bridges - Concrete
Taney Bridge Buckling Factor
57
Anchor Span
T IT LE:
30
35
40
45
P
y
l
o
n

H
e
i
g
h
t

(
m
)
3. Cable-Stayed Bridges - Concrete
Taney Bridge First & Second Order Moments
58
0
5
10
15
20
25
-
8
0
0
0
0
-
6
0
0
0
0
-
4
0
0
0
0
-
2
0
0
0
0
0 2
0
0
0
0
4
0
0
0
0
6
0
0
0
0
8
0
0
0
0
Bending Moment (kN-m)
P
y
l
o
n

H
e
i
g
h
t

(
m
)
First Order Moment
BS5400
FIP
Eurocode 2
Numerical NL Analysis
Section Capacity
2.0
2.5
3.0
R
a
t
i
o

S
e
c
o
n
d

O
r
d
e
r

M
o
m
e
n
t

/

F
i
r
s
t

O
r
d
e
r

M
o
m
e
n
t
FIP / Elastic Theory / Numerical NL Analysis
EC2
Curvature Method
BS5400
FIP (Taney)
Numerical NL Analysis (Taney)
EC2 (Taney)
BS5400 (Taney)
3. Cable-Stayed Bridges - Concrete
First & Second Order Moments
59
0.0
0.5
1.0
1.5
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
Buckling Factor
R
a
t
i
o

S
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Low first order moment & buckling factor > 3
Recommendation: Use EC2 or FIP Recommendation: Use EC2 or FIP
High first order moment & buckling factor > 3
3. Cable-Stayed Bridges - Concrete
First & Second Order Moments
60
High first order moment & buckling factor > 3
Recommendation: Use EC2 / FIP / BS 5400 Recommendation: Use EC2 / FIP / BS 5400
Buckling factor < 3
Recommendation: Curvature Methods Recommendation: Curvature Methods //
Geometric & Material Non Geometric & Material Non--Linear Analysis Linear Analysis
3. Cable-Stayed Bridges - Concrete
Second Order Effects Extradosed Bridges
61
4. Cable-Stayed Bridges- Composite
Monastery Road Bridge, Dublin, Ireland
62
4. Cable-Stayed Bridges- Composite
Waterford Footbridge, Ireland
63
4. Cable-Stayed Bridges- Composite
Waterford Footbridge, Ireland
64
4. Cable-Stayed Bridges- Composite
Narrow Water Bridge, Ireland / Northern Ireland
65
4. Cable-Stayed Bridges- Composite
Narrow Water Bridge, Ireland / Northern Ireland
66
4. Cable-Stayed Bridges- Composite
Narrow Water Bridge, Ireland / Northern Ireland
67
4. Cable-Stayed Bridges- Composite
New Wear Bridge, Sunderland
68
Courtesy TECHNIKER / SPENCE
Thank You
69
Thank You