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Bill 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

Contents About Me.. Types and sources of waste Water pollution Poem Air pollution Acid rain Ways of disposing wastes Acknowledgement

Page 1 2~3 4~5 6 7~9 10~12 13~15 16

Stop Pollution
Pollution what a terrible thing, Pollution makes the world sing. For a solution to stop pollution, Pollution needs to be minimized. The people around the world should open their eyes. Don't wait for it to get worst, The ozone is about to burst.

About Me..
Name Ambitions Hobbies Favourite food Favourite drink Date of birth Place of birth Fathers name Fathers job Mothers name Mothers job Schools name : Harishangkari Rajasekharan : Lecturer : Watching television and serving the net : Western food : Fresh orange juice : 07.09.1999 : Tawau, Sabah : G. Rajasekharan : Estate Manager : T. Rahini Thevy : Teacher : SK. Gangga

Types and sources of waste

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Waste is any material that is no longer needed. Waste can be solid liquid or gas. Waste is disposed of in the environment. Everyday millions of tons of waste are disposed of. The types of waste and their sources are as follows. (a) Rubbish such as plastic, left-over food, paper and other solid wastes from the home.

(b) Sewage from the home and factories (c) Toxic materials such as smoke, dust, radioactive materials from factories.

(d) Pesticides from agriculture.

(e) Smoke from factories, motor vehicles and open burning.

Waste can be divided into many different types. The most common methods of classification are by their physical, chemical and biological characteristics. One important classification is by their consistency. Solid wastes are waste materials that contain less than 70% water. This class includes such materials as household garbage, some industrial wastes, some mining wastes, and oilfield wastes such as drill cuttings. Liquid wastes are usually wastewater's that contain less than 1% solids. Such wastes may contain high concentrations of dissolved salts and metals. Sludge is a class of waste between liquid and solid. They usually contain between 3% and 25% solids, while the rest of the material is water dissolved materials.

Introduction of Water Pollution

Water pollution occurs when a body of water is adversely affected due to the addition of large amounts of materials to the water. The sources of water pollution are categorized as being a point source or a non-source point of pollution. Point sources of pollution occur when the polluting substance is emitted directly into the waterway. A pipe spewing toxic chemicals directly into a river is an example. A non-point source occurs when there is runoff of pollutants into a waterway, for instance when fertilizer from a field is carried into a stream by surface runoff.


Many causes of pollution including sewage and fertilizers contain nutrients such as nitrates and phosphates. In excess levels, nutrients over stimulate the growth of aquatic plants and algae. Excessive growth of these types of organisms consequently clogs our waterways, use up dissolved oxygen as they decompose, and block light to deeper waters. This, in turn, proves very harmful to aquatic organisms as it affects the respiration ability or fish and other invertebrates that reside in water. Pollution is also caused when silt and other suspended solids, such as soil, wash off plowed fields, construction and logging sites, urban areas, and eroded river banks when it rains. Under natural conditions, lakes, rivers, and other water bodies undergo Eutrophication, an aging process that slowly fills in the water body with sediment and organic matter. When these sediments enter various bodies of water, fish respiration becomes impaired, plant productivity and water depth become reduced, and aquatic organisms and their environments become suffocated. Pollution in the form of organic material enters waterways in many different forms as sewage, as leaves and grass clippings, or as runoff from livestock feedlots and pastures. When natural bacteria and protozoan in the water break down this organic material, they begin to use up the oxygen dissolved in the water. Many types of fish and bottom-dwelling animals cannot survive when levels of dissolved oxygen drop below two to five parts per million. When this occurs, it kills aquatic organisms in large numbers which leads to disruptions in the food chain.

Protect the Earth

P: O: L: L: U: T: I: O: N:
is for pollution of the ozone layer is for open opportunities to help is for luxury of the world is for living things that get harmed by pollution is for unkind humans that are polluting the world is for the terrific oceans that are being polluted is for idiots that re polluting the world is for the ozone layer that is getting polluted is for no one caring.

Introduction of Air Pollution

As the human population grows and the quantity of energy and materials used by each person increases, it is becoming apparent that the resource whose sufficiency is most in doubt is neither space, nor energy, nor metallic ores, but rather the capacity of natural processes to maintain a hospitable environment.

Air Pollution
Every day, the average person inhales about 20,000 liters of air. Every time we breathe, we risk inhaling dangerous chemicals that have found their way into the air. Air pollution includes all contaminants found in the atmosphere. These dangerous substances can be either in the form of gases or particles. Air pollution can be found both outdoors and indoors. Pollutants can be trapped inside buildings, causing indoor pollution that lasts for a long time. The sources of air pollution are both natural and human-based. As one might expect, humans have been producing increasing amounts of pollution as time has progressed, and they now account for the majority of pollutants released into the air. Air pollution has been a problem throughout history. Even in Ancient Rome people complained about smoke put into the atmosphere. The effects of air pollution are diverse and numerous. Air pollution can have serious consequences for the health of human beings, and also severely affects natural ecosystems. Because it is located in the atmosphere, air pollution is able to travel easily. As a result, air pollution is a global problem and has been the subject of global cooperation and conflict. Some areas now suffer more than others from air pollution. Cities with large numbers of automobiles or those that use great quantities of coal often suffer most severely from problems of air pollution.

What is Air Pollution?

What is Air Pollution?

Air is the ocean we breathe. Air supplies us with oxygen which is essential for our bodies to live. Air is 99.9% nitrogen, oxygen, water vapour and inert gases. Human activities can release substances into the air, some of which can cause problems for humans, plants, and animals. There are several main types of pollution and well-known effects of pollution which are commonly discussed. These include smoke, acid rain, the greenhouse effect, and "holes" in the ozone layer. Each of these problems has serious implications for our health and well-being as well as for the whole environment. One type of air pollution is the release of particles into the air from burning fuel for energy. Diesel smoke is a good example of this particulate matter. The particles are very small pieces of matter measuring about 2.5 microns or about 0001 inches. This type of pollution is sometimes referred to as black carbon pollution. The exhaust from burning fuels in automobiles, homes, and industries is a major source of pollution in the air. Some authorities believe that even the burning of wood and charcoal in fireplaces and barbeques can release significant quantities of soot into the air. Another type of pollution is the release of noxious gases, such as sulfur dioxide, carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, and chemical vapors. These can take part in further chemical reactions once they are in the atmosphere, forming smoke and acid rain. Pollution also needs to be considered inside our homes, offices, and schools. Some of these pollutants can be created by indoor activities such as smoking and cooking. In the United States, we spend about 80-90% of our time inside buildings, and so our exposure to harmful indoor pollutants can be serious. It is therefore important to consider both indoor and outdoor air pollution.

Introduction of Acid Rain

There are many forms of acid rain that are seen around the world. In parts of the world where there is wet weather, there is acid rain, acid snow, and acid fog. In parts of the world where there is dry weather, there is acid gas and acid dust. All of the lakes and streams in the world are normally slightly acidic. Heavy rainstorms or melting snow can cause the acidity in lakes and in streams to increase.

What effect does acid rain have on sea life?

Acid rain is very harmful to the environment. Acid rain damages everything over a period of time because it makes the living things in the environment die. Acid rain affects the life in the water as well as the life on land. It is almost worse in water than on land because the fish that are in the water need the water to breathe. When the water gets polluted, then the fish get sick and end up dying. All rainwater contains some level of acidity. Acidity is measured by pH, which stands for potential of hydrogen. The pH scale measures the amount of acid in a substance. PH is measured on a scale from 0-14, with 7 being neutral. The lower the number is on the pH scale, the more acidic that substance is. Normal rainwater has a pH of 5.6. When the pH level of rainwater goes below 5.6, it is considered acid rain. All of the sea life will die when the water that they swim in gets to be too acidic. For example, all fish will die when the water goes below a pH of 4.5. Most of the frogs and insects that live around the water will also die when the water reaches a pH of 4.5. With a pH of 5.5, all of the bottom-dwelling bacterial decomposers, animals that eat the remains of the food that other animal dont want, will begin to die. When these decomposers die, they leave the un-decomposed food on the bottom of the water. This pollutes the water by making the water dirty for all of the fish to swim in. All fresh water shrimp die when there gets to be a pH of 6.0. Aquatic plants will grow the best when the water is a pH between 7.0 and 9.2. If acid rain gets to be more of a problem, then all of the sea life will eventually be gone. Some of the lakes that were once acidic are recovering, but many more are not recovering. Of the 202 lakes that were chosen to be studied in the early 1980s; only 33% of them have become less acidic.

What effect does acid rain have on the forests of the world?
Trees are also harmed by acid rain. In Germany, the forests are believed to be dying because acid rain is harming them. Scientists say that acid rain damages the waxy outer coating that protects the leaves. When this happens, it allows the acid to seep into the tree. Instead of water changing from a liquid to a gas inside the leaves, gas is taking the place of the water. This prevents the plant from taking in carbon dioxide to perform photosynthesis, and the plant will eventually die. Acid rain, acid fog, and acid vapor also damage forests by damaging the surface of the leaves and needles. This makes it harder for the trees to withstand the cold and will cause the tree to die. Acid rain also harms the soil that the trees are growing in by taking most of the valuable nutrients away from the soil. Acid rain also leaves a lot of aluminum in the soil, which can be harmful to the trees that grow there. The atmosphere deposits a lot of toxic metals into the forests because acid rain contains metal. Some of these metals are lead, zinc, copper, chromium, and aluminum. When there is acid rain, the rain releases these metals. This is believed to stunt the growth of many trees and plants. This also stunts the growth of mosses, algae, nitrogen-fixing bacteria, and fungi that are needed to help the forest grow. Forests need these because they eat the harmful things that will kill the trees, such as bad bacteria. Acid rain hurts trees because they cannot grow any more.

The disposal of garbage in the world is a problem that continues to grow with the development of industrialized nations and the growth of population. Since the beginning of time people have needed to find a way of disposing of their trash. In 18th century England and France, carters were paid by individuals to carry trash and discard it on the outskirts of town. Disposal in open pits became routine and Benjamin Franklin initiated the first municipal cleaning program in Philadelphia in 1757. Since then we have come a long way and have developed types of waste that cannot simply be dumped into a hole.

There are many different methods of disposing of waste. Landfill is the most common and probably accounts for more than 90 percent of the nation's municipal refuse even though Landfills have been proven contaminates of drinking water in certain areas. It is the most cost affective method of disposal, with collection and transportation accounting for 75 percent of the total cost. In a modern landfill, refuse is spread thin, compacted layers covered by a layer of clean earth. Pollution of surface water and groundwater is minimized by lining and contouring the fill, compacting and planting the uppermost cover layer, diverting drainage, and selecting proper soil in sites not subject to flooding or high groundwater levels. The best soil for a landfill is clay because clay is less permeable than other types of soil. Materials disposed of in a landfill can be further secured from leakage by solidifying them in materials such as cement, fly ash from power plants, asphalt, or organic polymers.

It takes time, energy, labor, and money to make new products from recycled ones. Right now it's often easier or cheaper for manufacturers to use virgin rather than recycled materials to make things. For recycling to be worthwhile, manufacturers need the technology to make new products from recycled materials, high quality recovered materials that meet manufacturers' specifications, a steady supply of recovered materials, affordable materials, and customers to buy products that contain recycled materials. Separating glass jars, aluminum cans, and newspapers and setting them by the curb or taking them to a recycling center is only part of the recycling process. To complete the recycling loop, those cans, papers, and bottles must be remade into new products that you buy and use. The best method of reducing waste disposals negative effect on society is simply to prevent its generation. If the consumers of our country were to make a firm stand against the production of useless waste and the furtherance of recycled products, the producers would have no choice but to conform to our wishes. If it means a price increase, so what? Any price increase we pay now will be worth the extra healthy years we will be able to inhabit this planet; it will be worth it for our children and their children. In a capitalistic society where politicians see no further than their next election and everything that's produced is for a profit, we are almost surely doomed to make decisions that will hurt us in the future. It is obvious we have to be our own leaders in the battle versus waste disposal, because we are the only ones who care about our future on this earth.

I would like to thank everyone who helped me to make this folio a success especially:-

a. My parents ( Mr. & Mrs. Rajasekharan) b. My Science teacher c. My sisters ( Prathiba, Sharanya & Lahvanya ) d. My school friends

And most of all God, which made everything, happen.