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# Exam #3 preparation

## Coal Tar example

Coal tar vapor pressure. The table provides data on theoretical (calculated) and experimental values of the vapor pressure for dibenzothiopene. If theoretical model of vapor pressure is good model of reality, the true mean difference between the experimental and calculated values of vapor pressure for a given temperature will equal 0. Does the mean difference differs from 0?(=0.05)

Temperature (oC) 100.6 101.36 104.60 106.44 108.70 110.96 112.62 115.21

Vapor pressure Experimental 0.282 0.314 0.335 0.404 0.422 0.513 0.554 0.642 Calculated 0.276 0.307 0.350 0.390 0.444 0.505 0.554 0.640

Temperature (oC) 116.69 119.38 121.08 123.61 124.90 127.74 130.24 131.75

Vapor pressure Experimental 0.669 0.834 0.890 1.01 1.07 1.26 1.42 1.55 Calculated 0.695 0.805 0.882 1.01 1.08 1.25 1.43 1.54

Coal Tar example solution Does the mean difference differs from 0?(=0.05).
Let 1 be mean exp vapor pressure and 2 be calcul vapor pressure. We test: H0: 1- 2 = 0; Ha: 1- 2 not equal 0 What test do I use?? T test, Students t-distribution, two tailed (/2=0.025), MATCHED pairs
Temperat ure (oC) Vapor pressure Experim ental 0.282 0.314 0.335 0.404 0.422 0.513 0.554 0.642 Calculat ed 0.276 0.307 0.350 0.390 0.444 0.505 0.554 0.640 Difference exp-calc 0.006 0.007 -0.015 0.014 -0.022 0.008 0.000 0.002 116.69 119.38 121.08 123.61 124.90 127.74 130.24 131.75 Temperat ure (oC) Vapor pressure Experimen tal 0.669 0.834 0.890 1.01 1.07 1.26 1.42 1.55 Calculated Difference exp-calc -0.026 0.029 0.008 0.000 -0.010 0.010 -0.010 0.010

## 0.695 0.805 0.882 1.01 1.08 1.25 1.43 1.54

Coal Tar example solution Does the mean difference differs from 0?(=0.05).
Let 1 be mean exp vapor pressure and 2 be calcul vapor pressure. We test: H0: 1- 2 = 0; Ha: 1- 2 not equal 0 What test do I use?? T test, Students t-distribution, two tailed (/2=0.025), MATCHED pairs

Cows example
Heat stress in dairy cows. In one experiment, 31 Holstein cows in the last trimester of pregnancy were divided into two groups. Sixteen cows were given access to a shade structure and the remaining 15 cows were denied shade. Researchers recorded the 100-day milk yield (in pounds) of each cow after calving. The mean milk yield of the two groups are shown in the table. Is there sufficient evidence to indicate a difference between the mean milk yield of cows given access to shade and cows denied shade? Use =0.10. (Assume the standard deviations of milk yields are equal to 40 pounds for both groups)

## Cows example solution

Is there sufficient evidence to indicate a difference between the mean milk yield of cows given access to shade and cows denied shade? Use =0.10. (Assume the standard deviations of milk yields are equal to 40 pounds for both groups)

## Cows example solution

Is there sufficient evidence to indicate a difference between the mean milk yield of cows given access to shade and cows denied shade? Use =0.10. (Assume the standard deviations of milk yields are equal to 40 pounds for both groups) T test, Students t-distribution, two tailed (/2=0.05), Independent samples

## Orange juice example

Sweetness of orange juice. The quality of the orange juice produced by a manufacturer is constantly monitored. There are numerous sensory and chemical components that combine to make the best tasting orange juice. For example, one manufacturer has developed a quantitative index of the sweetness of orange juice (the higher the index, the sweeter the juice). Is there a relationship between the sweetness index and a chemical measure such as the amount of water-soluble pectin (part per million) in the orange juice? Data collected of these two variables for 24 production runs at a juice manufacturing plants are shown in the next table. Suppose a manufacturer wants to use simple linear regression to predict the sweetness from the amount of pectin. Find the least-square line for the data, interpret the slope of the line and predict sweetness index if the amount of pectin in the orange juice is 300 ppm.

## Orange juice example solution

Run 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 Sum Sweetnes s index (y) 5.2 5.5 6.0 5.9 5.8 6.0 5.8 5.6 5.6 5.9 5.4 5.5 5.7 5.3 5.9 5.8 5.8 5.9 135.8 Pectin (ppm) (x) 220 227 259 210 224 215 231 268 239 212 410 264 227 263 232 220 246 241 6167 1641115 34765 X2 48400 51529 67081 Etc xy 1144 1248.5 1554 Etc

## Orange juice example solution

Find the least-square line for the data, interpret the slope of the line and predict sweetness index if the amount of pectin in the orange juice is 300 ppm.

Quantum tunneling
Quantum tunneling. At temperatures approaching absolute zero, Helium exhibits traits that defy many laws of conventional physics. An experiment has been conducted with helium in solid form at various temperatures near absolute zero. The solid helium is placed in a dilution refrigerator along with a solid impure substance, and the proportion (by weight) of the impurity passing through the solid helium is recorded. The data are given in the table.
Proportion of impurity passing through helium 0.315 0.202 0.204 0.620 0.715 0.935 0.957 0.906 0.985 0.987 Temperat ure (oC) -262 -265 -256 -267 -270 -272 -272 -272 -273 -273

1) Find the least square line of the data 2) Define 1 in the context of this problem 3) Test the hypothesis (=0.05)that the temperature contributes no information for the prediction of the proportion of impurity passing through helium when linear model is used. Draw the appropriate conclusions 4) Find the coefficient of correlation and interpret it 5) Find and interpret the coefficient of determination

## Quantum tunneling solution

1) Find the least square line of the data 2) Define 1 in the context of this problem
Proportion of impurity passing through helium 0.315 0.202 0.204 0.620 0.715 0.935 0.957 0.906 0.985 0.987 Temperat ure (oC) -262 -265 -256 -267 -270 -272 -272 -272 -273 -273

## Quantum tunneling solution

3) Test the hypothesis (=0.05)that the temperature contributes no information for the prediction of the proportion of impurity passing through helium when linear model is used. Draw the appropriate conclusions

## Quantum tunneling solution

4) Find the coefficient of correlation and interpret it 5) Find and interpret the coefficient of determination

Cyanide Example
Cyanide contamination. A total of 72 of 400 gram soil specimens were sampled in Netherlands to analyze contamination with cyanide. The cyanide concentration (milligrams per kilogram of soil) of each soil specimen was determined using an infrared microscopic method. The sample resulted in a mean cyanide level of y=84 mg/kg and a standard deviation s= 80 mg/kg. Test the hypothesis that the true mean cyanide level in soil in The Netherlands falls below 100 mg/kg. Use =0.10 What is the hypothesis? What test do I use? How big is my sample size?

## Cyanide Example solution

The sample resulted in a mean cyanide level of y=84 mg/kg and a standard deviation s= 80 mg/kg. Test the hypothesis that the true mean cyanide level in soil in The Netherlands falls below 100 mg/kg. Use =0.10