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ch42 Practice test

Multiple Choice: Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. ____ 1. What would be expected if the amount of interstitial fluid surrounding the capillary beds of the lungs were to increase significantly? a. The amount of carbon dioxide entering the lungs from the blood would increase. b. The amount of oxygen entering the circulation from the lungs would increase. c. The amount of oxygen entering the circulation from the lungs would decrease. d. The pressure would cause the capillary beds to burst. e. Both C and D would be expected. 2. Which is a correct statement concerning the insect circulatory system? a. The circulating fluid bathes tissues directly. b. Blood is always contained in a system of tubes called tracheae. c. Blood transports oxygen and nutrients to all the tissues. d. There is no heart, or pump. e. There is no blood, or circulating fluid. 3. Organisms in which a circulating body fluid is distinct from the fluid that directly surrounds the body's cells are likely to have a. an open circulatory system. b. a closed circulatory system. c. a gastrovascular cavity. d. branched tracheae. e. hemolymph. 4. In which animal does blood flow from the pulmocutaneous circulation to the heart before circulating through the rest of the body? a. annelid b. mollusc c. fish d. frog e. insect 5. Three-chambered hearts generally consist of which of the following numbers of atria and ventricles? a. one atrium; one ventricle b. two atria; one ventricle c. three atria; no ventricles d. no atria; three ventricles e. one atrium; two ventricles 6. Which of the following are the only vertebrates in which blood flows directly from respiratory organs to body tissues without first returning to the heart? a. amphibians b. birds c. fishes d. mammals e. reptiles 7. To adjust blood pressure independently in the capillaries of the gas-exchange surface and in the capillaries of the general body circulation, an organism would need a(n) a. open circulatory system. b. hemocoel. c. lymphatic system. d. two-chambered heart. e. four-chambered heart.

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8. A human red blood cell in an artery of the left arm is on its way to deliver oxygen to a cell in the thumb. From this point in the artery, how many capillary beds must this red blood cell pass through before it returns to the left ventricle of the heart? a. one b. two c. three d. four e. five 9. Through how many capillary beds must a human red blood cell travel if it takes the shortest possible route from the right ventricle to the right atrium? a. one b. two c. three d. four e. five Refer to the diagram of the human heart in the figure below to answer the following questions.

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____ 10. Blood is carried directly to the lungs from which of the following? a. 2 b. 3 c. 4 d. 5 e. 6 ____ 11. A patient has a blood pressure of 120/75, a pulse rate of 40 beats/min, a stroke volume of 70 mL/beat, and a respiratory rate of 25 breaths/min. This person's cardiac output per minute will be a. 500 mL. b. 1,000 mL. c. 1,750 mL. d. 2,800 mL. e. 4,800 mL. ____ 12. Why is the velocity of blood flow the lowest in capillaries? a. The capillary walls are not thin enough to allow oxygen to exchange with the cells. b. Capillaries are far from the heart, and blood flow slows as distance from the heart increases.

c. The diastolic blood pressure is too low to deliver blood to the capillaries at a high flow rate. d. The systemic capillaries are supplied by the left ventricle, which has a lower cardiac output than the right ventricle. e. The total surface area of the capillaries is larger than the total surface area of the arterioles. ____ 13. Average blood pressure is lowest in which structure(s)? a. the aorta b. arteries c. arterioles d. capillaries e. venae cavae ____ 14. What can be expected to happen to the blood pressure of a healthy individual during inhalation? a. The systolic pressure would rise and the diastolic pressure would decrease. b. The extra pressure exerted by the inflating lungs will increase blood pressure. c. There will be a transient decrease in blood pressure. d. Blood pressure will initially increase and then immediately decrease. e. Nothing will happen in healthy individuals. ____ 15. What is the reason that fluid is forced out of systemic capillaries at the arteriole end? a. The osmotic pressure of the interstitial fluid is greater than that of the blood. b. The hydrostatic pressure of the blood is less than that of the interstitial fluid. c. The hydrostatic pressure of the blood is greater than the osmotic pressure of the blood. d. The osmotic pressure of the interstitial fluid is greater than the hydrostatic pressure of the blood. e. The osmotic pressure of the blood is greater than the hydrostatic pressure of the interstitial fluid. ____ 16. If, during protein starvation, the osmotic pressure on the venous side of capillary beds drops below the hydrostatic pressure, then a. hemoglobin will not release oxygen. b. fluids will tend to accumulate in tissues. c. the pH of the interstitial fluids will increase. d. most carbon dioxide will be bound to hemoglobin and carried away from tissues. e. plasma proteins will escape through the endothelium of the capillaries. ____ 17. If a person were suffering from edema, which of the following conditions would help to reduce the accumulation of interstitial fluid? a. decrease of plasma protein production by the liver b. constriction of the smooth layer of the arteriole c. removal of an obstruction in the lymphatic system d. decrease of the systolic blood pressure e. enlargement of clefts between capillary endothelial cells ____ 18. Human plasma proteins include which of the following? I. fibrinogen II. hemoglobin III. immunoglobulin a. b. c. d. e. I only II only I and III only II and III only I, II, and III

____ 19. Which of the following is not a function of plasma proteins in humans? a. maintenance of blood osmotic pressure

b. c. d. e.

transport of water-insoluble lipids blood clotting immune responses oxygen transport

____ 20. Cyanide acts as a mitochondrial poison by blocking the final step in the electron transport chain. What will happen to human red blood cells if they are placed in an isotonic solution containing cyanide? a. The cell shape will be maintained, but the mitochondria will be poisoned. b. The cells will lyse as the cyanide concentration increases inside the cell. c. As a protective mechanism, the cells will switch to anaerobic metabolism. d. The cells will not be able to carry oxygen. e. The cells will probably be unaffected. The following phrases refer to the five terms below. Each term can be used as an answer once, more than once, or not at all. A. B. C. D. E. low-density lipoproteins immunoglobulins erythropoietin epinephrine platelets

____ 21. speeds up heart rate a. A b. B c. C d. D e. E ____ 22. part of the cellular elements of the blood a. A b. B c. C d. D e. E ____ 23. stimulates the production of red blood cells a. A b. B c. C d. D e. E ____ 24. involved in the early stages of blood clotting a. A b. B c. C d. D e. E ____ 25. The meshwork that forms the fabric of a blood clot consists mostly of which protein? a. fibrinogen b. fibrin c. thrombin d. prothrombin e. collagen ____ 26. Which of the following is not a normal event in the process of blood clotting?

a. b. c. d. e.

production of erythropoietin conversion of fibrinogen to fibrin activation of prothrombin to thrombin adhesion of platelets clotting factor release by clumped platelets

____ 27. Why is gas exchange more difficult for aquatic animals with gills than for terrestrial animals with lungs? a. Water is denser than air. b. Water contains much less O2 than air per unit volume. c. Gills have less surface area than lungs. d. Only A and B are correct. e. A, B, and C are correct. ____ 28. Which of the following is an example of countercurrent exchange? a. the flow of water across the gills of a fish and that of blood within those gills b. the flow of blood in the dorsal vessel of an insect and that of air within its tracheae c. the flow of air within the primary bronchi of a human and that of blood within the pulmonary veins d. the flow of water across the skin of a frog and that of blood within the ventricle of its heart e. the flow of fluid out of the arterial end of a capillary and that of fluid back into the venous end of the same capillary ____ 29. Countercurrent exchange in the fish gill helps to maximize a. endocytosis. b. blood pressure. c. diffusion. d. active transport. e. osmosis. ____ 30. Where do air-breathing insects carry out gas exchange? a. in specialized external gills b. in specialized internal gills c. in the alveoli of their lungs d. across the membranes of cells e. across the thin cuticular exoskeleton ____ 31. An oil-water mixture is used as a spray against mosquitoes. How might this spray also affect gas exchange in other insects? a. The oil might coat their lungs. b. The oil might block the openings into the tracheal system. c. The oil might interfere with gas exchange across the capillaries. d. Only A and B are correct. e. A, B, and C are correct. ____ 32. All of the following respiratory surfaces are associated with capillary beds except the a. gills of fishes. b. alveoli of lungs. c. tracheae of insects. d. skin of earthworms. e. skin of frogs. ____ 33. If a molecule of CO2 released into the blood in your left toe travels out of your nose, it must pass through all of the following structures except the a. right atrium. b. pulmonary vein. c. alveolus. d. trachea. e. right ventricle.

____ 34. Air rushes into the lungs of humans during inhalation because a. the rib muscles and diaphragm contract, increasing the lung volume. b. pressure in the alveoli increases. c. gas flows from a region of lower pressure to a region of higher pressure. d. pulmonary muscles contract and pull on the outer surface of the lungs. e. a positive respiratory pressure is created when the diaphragm relaxes. ____ 35. Which of the following occurs with the exhalation of air from human lungs? a. The volume of the thoracic cavity decreases. b. The residual volume of the lungs decreases. c. The diaphragm contracts. d. The epiglottis closes. e. The rib cage expands. ____ 36. Which of the following lung volumes would be different in a person at rest compared with when the person exercises? a. tidal volume b. vital capacity c. residual volume d. total lung capacity e. All of the above would be different. ____ 37. A person with a tidal volume of 450 mL, a vital capacity of 4,000 mL, and a residual volume of 1,000 mL would have a potential total lung capacity of a. 1,450 mL. b. 4,000 mL. c. 4,450 mL. d. 5,000 mL. e. 5,450 mL. ____ 38. Air flows in only one direction through the lungs of which animals? a. frogs b. birds c. mammals d. crocodiles e. flying insects ____ 39. Why is the respiratory system of a bird more efficient than the human respiratory system? a. The bird respiratory system does not mix exhaled air with inhaled air. b. A bird lung contains multiple alveoli, which increases the amount of surface area available for gas exchange. c. The human respiratory system ends in small parabronchi, which reduce the amount of surface area available for gas exchange. d. Only B and C are correct. e. A, B, and C are correct. ____ 40. The blood level of which gas is most important in controlling human respiration rate? a. nitric acid b. nitrogen c. oxygen d. carbon dioxide e. carbon monoxide ____ 41. Breathing is usually regulated by a. erythropoietin levels in the blood. b. the concentration of red blood cells. c. hemoglobin levels in the blood. d. CO2 and O2 concentration and pH-level sensors.

e. the lungs and the larynx. ____ 42. At an atmospheric pressure of 870 mm Hg, what is the contribution of oxygen? a. 100 mm Hg b. 127 mm Hg c. 151 mm Hg d. 182 mm Hg e. 219 mm Hg ____ 43. At sea level, atmospheric pressure is 760 mm Hg. Oxygen gas is approximately 21% of the total gases in the atmosphere. What is the approximate partial pressure of oxygen? a. 0.2 mm Hg b. 20.0 mm Hg c. 76.0 mm Hg d. 160.0 mm Hg e. 508.0 mm Hg ____ 44. At the summit of a high mountain, the atmospheric pressure is 380 mm Hg. If the atmosphere is still composed of 21% oxygen, what is the partial pressure of oxygen at this altitude? a. 0 mm Hg b. 80 mm Hg c. 160 mm Hg d. 380 mm Hg e. 760 mm Hg ____ 45. Which one of these statements about lungs is false? a. Gas exchange takes place across moist membranes. b. The gases move across the exchange membranes by diffusion. c. The total exchange surface area is relatively large. d. The lining of the alveoli is only one cell thick. e. The concentration of CO2 is higher in the air than in the alveolar capillaries. Use the data shown below to answer the following questions. Blood entering a capillary bed of a vertebrate was measured for the pressures exerted by various factors. Arterial End of Capillary Verous End of Bed Capillary Bed Hydrostatic pressure 8 mm Hg 14 mm Hg Osmotic pressure 26 mm Hg 26 mm Hg 100 mm Hg 42 mm Hg 40 mm Hg 46 mm Hg ____ 46. Which of the following is false concerning the hemoglobin molecule? a. It contains amino acids. b. It contains iron. c. It is composed of four polypeptide chains. d. It can bind four O2 molecules. e. It is found in humans only. ____ 47. Which of the following is a characteristic of both hemoglobin and hemocyanin? a. found within blood cells b. red in color c. contains the element iron as an oxygen-binding component d. transports oxygen e. occurs in mammals ____ 48. The Bohr shift on the oxygen-hemoglobin dissociation curve is produced by changes in a. the partial pressure of oxygen.

b. c. d. e.

the partial pressure of carbon monoxide. hemoglobin concentration. temperature. pH.

____ 49. How is most of the carbon dioxide transported by the blood in humans? a. bicarbonate ions in the plasma b. CO2 attached to hemoglobin c. carbonic acid in the erythrocytes d. CO2 dissolved in the plasma e. bicarbonate attached to hemoglobin ____ 50. Hydrogen ions produced in human red blood cells are prevented from significantly lowering pH by combining with a. hemoglobin. b. plasma proteins. c. carbon dioxide. d. carbonic acid. e. plasma buffers.