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THE HISTORY AND SCOPE OF PSYCHOLOGY

1) WHAT IS PSYCHOLOGY y Psychology is the scientific study of mind and behaviour y Psychology is more than common sense. a. Why is psychology scientific? y Because it is based on empiricism, which is the notion that all knowledge can be acquired through observation, not on reasoning, tradition or common sense. b. Mind y The contents of subjective experience, sensations, thoughts and emotions c. Behavior y Observable actions, thoughts, and feelings y Activities of cells 2) ROOTS OF MODERN PSYCHOLOGY y In the late 1800s, both physiologists and philosophers were investigating in the mind Philosophy why ; ideas about the acquisition of knowledge Physiology how ; progress in understanding the nervous system, senses, etc. y Both came together to create the idea of applying the methods of science to the study of human behaviour. 3) THE FIRST SCHOOLS: Psychology emerges as a science a. WILHELM WUNDT y Established psychology as an independent science y First psychology lab in Germany (1879) y Defined psychology as the study of conscious experience y Typical questions: 1. How are the sensations turned into mental awareness of the outside world? 2. What are the basic elements of thought? i. Psychology comes to America - Wundt s students start lab across USA (1880 - 1900) - Harvard, Yale, Columbia, Cornell, Stanford - UW Madison Psychology department formed in 1888 Structuralism EDWARD TITCHMER - Analyze consciousness into basic elements and study how they are related - Introspection systematic self- observation of one s own conscious experiences Functionalism WILLIAM JAMES (1842 - 1910) - Investigate the function or purpose of consciousness, rather that its structure e.g. bricks and mortar of a house versus its usefulness - Functionalist activities

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- leaned toward applied work and more natural settings 1. Development in children 2. Educational practices 3. Usefulness of memory techniques iv. Structuralism vs. Functionalism STRUCTURALISM What Analyze consciousness into basic elements FUNCTIONALISM Why Investigate the function, or purpose of consciousness

b. GESTALT PSYCHOLOGY i. MAX WETHEIMER (1880 - 1943) - Phi phenomenon - Reaction against structuralism - Elementary thought particles don t capture experience the whole is different than the sum of its parts v. Behaviourism JOHN WATSON (1878 - 1958) - Attack on introspection - Psychology, as a science, should focus on observable behaviour - Mental processes cannot be studied directly often referred to as stimulus- response psychology B.F. SKINNER (1904 - 1908) - Like Watson, all behaviour can be explained by stimulus- response pairing - emphasized the importance of reinforcement and punishment PSYCHOLOGY (1920s 1960s) Behaviourism John Watson BF Skinner Psychology is the science of observable behaviour Behaviour without reference to thought The rat and SR psychology Behaviourism based on consequences The pigeon and the Skinner Box

4) FREUD AND THE HUMANISTS: The Influence of the Clinic a. FREUD AND PSYCHOANALYSIS i. The Unconscious - Thoughts, memories, and desires exist below conscious awareness and exert an influence on our behaviour ii. Psychoanalytic Theory - Personality, mental disorders and motivation explained in terms of unconscious determinants of behaviour - Unconscious expressed in dreams and slips of the tongue - Emphasis on the role of childhood experienced in shaping adult behaviour

b. THE HUMANISTIC RESPONSE - Rejects pessimistic view of Freud - Potential for self awareness, responsibility and growth i. Carl Roger s client- centered therapy (non- directive) The foundational belief of CCT is that people tend to move toward growth and healing, and have the capacity to find their own answers. This tendency is helped along by an accepting and understanding climate, which the CC therapist seeks to provide above all else. ii. Abraham Maslow s hierarchy of needs and self actualization Self- actualization implies the attainment of the basic needs of physiological, safety/ security, love/ belongingness, and self- esteem.

5) UNDERSTANDING THE FOCUS OF MODERN PSYCHOLOGY a. THE COGNITIVE REVOLUTION (1960S) i. Noam Chomsky and Language ii. Advent of computers (late 1950s) provides a new model for thinking about the mind - A return to the study of learning, memory, perception, language, development, and problem solving iii. Developments in Biology - Physiological recording devices - Single cell recording, EEG, CT, PET, MRI - Understanding neurotransmitters iv. Recognizing Culture Before Now Culture Searched for universal principles (psychic unity of mankind) Cross- cultural factors important (child rearing practices vary culturally) Shared values, customs, and beliefs (consciousness and religion/ ritual)

6) WHAT PSYCHOLOGISTS DO TODAY a. RESEARCH PSYCHOLOGISTS - Conduct experiments or collect observations designed to uncover the basic principles of behaviour and mind i. Biopsychologists - Investigate the biological basis of behaviour - Is there a gene for specific behaviour? ii. Personality Psychologists - Study the differences between individuals - What makes identical twins behave similarly and differently? iii. Cognitive Psychologists - Conduct research on memory, language, problem solving - How do individuals decide or solve problems? - Is there a pattern? iv. Experimental Psychologists - Conduct research on sensation, perception, and basic learning - How are geniuses produced?

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Developmental Psychologists Study human, mental, and physical growth from conception to death Is intelligence associated with growth and development? Social Psychologists Study how people influence one another Is personality development associated with socialization?

b. APPLIED PSYCHOLOGISTS - Try to extend the principles of scientific psychology to the practical, everyday problems of the world i. School Psychologists - Assist in children s educational, intellectual, and social development - Designing programs for special need children - Testing and teaching ii. Industrial/ Organizational - Use psychological principles to improve work environment - Predicting job performance, assessing leadership, factors contributing to job satisfaction iii. Human Factors/ Engineering - Design and engineering of new products - How best to design new keyboard or telephone touch pad - Best place to put knobs on stove iv. Environmental - The relationship between the physical environment and physiological processes - Functioning of workers in different environments - People s sense of personal space v. Forensic Psychologists - Interface between psychology and the law assisting victims of crime - Profiling criminals - Selecting jurors for trials c. CLINICAL PSYCHOLOGISTS - Specialize in the diagnosis and treatment of psychological disorders - Clinical psychologists vs. Counselling psychologists - Clinical psychologists vs. Psychiatrists d. What holds it all together? - The desire to describe, predict, understand, and control behaviour

DIFFERENT PERSPECTIVES IN PSYCHOLOGY

DIFFERENT PERSPECTIVES IN PSYCHOLOGY

FOCUS

SAMPLE ISSUES How do evolutions and heredity influence behaviour? How are messages transmitted within the body? How is blood chemistry linked with moods and motives? How do we learn to fear particular objects or situations? What is the most effective way to alter certain behaviours? What are the underlying cause of anxiety disorders, phobic disorders and obsessive- compulsive disorders? How do we use info in remembering and reasoning? How do our senses govern the nature of perspective? (Is what you really see what you get?) How much do infants know when they are born? How are we, as members of different races and nationalities, alike as members of one human family? How do we differ, as products of different social contexts? Why do people sometimes act differently in groups than we are alone?

BIOLOGICAL PERSPECTIVE

How the body and brain create emotions, memories and sensory experiences

BEHAVIORAL/ CLINICAL PERSPECTIVE

How we learn from observable responses How to best study, assess, and treat troubled people

COGNITIVE PERSPECTIVE

How we process, store, and retrieve information

SOCIO- CULTURAL PERSPECTIVE

How behaviour and thinking vary across situations and cultures

TYPES OF SCIENTIFIC METHOD 1. CASE STUDY - In depth observation of one person or the effects of a single event and how it affects behaviour - Helps develop theories or hypotheses 2. SURVEY - A questionnaire about attitudes or behaviour given to a sample of people a. Population - A specific group of interest to the researcher (e.g. all children) - A sample is drawn from a population

b. Good samples i. Representative Sample - A sample that is perfect reflection of a population, only smaller in size ii. Random Sample - A sample that fairly represents a population because each member of the sample had an equal chance of being chosen 3. NATURALISTIC OBSERVATION - Observation and recording behaviour in naturally occurring situations, trying not to manipulate the situation 4. CORRELATION COEFFICIENT A measure that shows the extent to which two variables change together - Good for prediction - Note: Correlation DOES NOT imply causation. CORRELATION and CAUSATION a. Three possible cause-effect relations (1) Low self esteem (2) Depression (3) Distressing events or biological predisposition could cause Depression or could cause Low self - esteem or could cause Low self - esteem and Depression 5. EXPERIMENT - A procedure for identifying the causes of behaviour - All experiment have two variables: Independent Variable Variable manipulated by a researcher Cause Observed consequence of IV on some behaviour or mental processes The variable that is being measured Value of DV depends on value of IV Effect

Dependent Variable

Experimental Group

These participants are exposed to the IV Treatment Control Group These participants do not receive the IV It is a comparison group we use to be able to see the effect of the IV Note: The measure (DV) is taken for both groups. Random Assignment Assigning participants to experimental and control groups by chance Minimizes pre-existing differences between those assigned to the different groups An inert substance (e.g. sugar pill) instead of an active agent (e.g. drug) This is administered to see if it triggers the same reaction as the active ingredient (IV) y Placebo effect y Any effect on behaviour caused by a placebo Research participants don t know if they are getting the placebo or active ingredient Participants don t know if they are getting the placebo or active ingredient Research staffs doesn t know (blind) who is getting the active agent vs. placebo

Placebo

Single- blind procedure Double-blind procedure

COMPARING RESEARCH METHODS RESEARCH METHOD Descriptive (Goal: Describe) Correlation (Goal: Predict) BASIC PURPOSE To observe and record behaviour To detect naturally occurring relationships; to assess how well one variable predicts responses To explore cause and effect HOW CONDUCTED Case studies, surveys, and naturalistic observations WHAT IS MANIPULATED Nothing

Computing statistical Nothing association, sometimes among survey Manipulating one or more IVs and using random assignment to eliminate pre-existing differences among subjects Independent variable(s)

Experimental (Goal: Explain)

WHAT IS ANTHROPOLOGY?
THE DISCIPLINE
y A neglected intellectual, practical resource in nation building y Binabaliwala ba o di masyadong nararamdaman ang presensiya? y Ang tanong ng karamihan: y Ano ba ang antropologo? y Sino at nasaan ang mga antropologo? y Anu-ano ang ginagawa at kontribusyon nila sa sambayanan? y Addresses the question of human being y Who we are, where we come from, what we do, and why we do what we do y Anthropos (man/humans) + logos (study) y Kung saan may mga tao, doon din ang agham-tao.

Paleo-anthropology Primatology Population Genetics Osteology/ Anatomy Anthropometry Forensic

y Human evolution y Human variation

BIO ANTHROPOLOGY

Prehistoric Archeology Historical Archeology Ethnoarcheology Experimental Museology/ Cultural Resource Management

y History, structure, function, physiology of human language

LINGUISTIC ANTHROPOLOGY

ANTHROPOLOGY

ARCHEOLOGY

y Reconstruct human history via remains of the past

Historical Structural/ Descriptive Sociolinguistics Semiotics Hermeneutics

CULTURAL ANTHROPOLOGY

y Extant cultures via ethnohistory, ethnography, ethnology

Medical, Economic, Political, Geography, Psychological, Educational Comparative religion, Folklore & Arts, Gender & Etnicity

y y

Trans-disciplinary in character Draws on the natural and social sciences as well as on the humanities y Bio- anthropology: human evolution and human variation y Archaeology: memories of our distant and not so distant past y Linguistic anthropology: symbolic realm y Cultural anthropology: ways of life Holistic: y Involves biological, social, and cultural aspects of human adaptability y What is it to be human y Anthropology is the most scientific among the humanities and most humanistic among the sciences (Wolf)

Has a tool kit, itself evolving concepts, theories and methodologies y To address questions of human adaptibility at the individual, group, and global level y Taking into account biological, social and cultural dimensions of being human Discursive: y Madaling maging tao (homonization), mahirap magpakatao (humanization)

GRADUATE CURRICULUM y MA/ PhD in ANTHRO: UP DILIMAN

CORE COURSES: 18 units (PhD: 42 units) Anthro 202 Historical Foundations in Physical Anthropology Anthro 212 World Archeology (Prehistory) Anthro 270 Seminar in Anthropological Linguistics Anthro 224 World Ethnography Anthro 292 Seminar in Anthropological Theory Anthro 297 Seminar in Research Design and Methods Anthro 400 Doctoral Dissertation (12 units)

PHYSICAL ANTHROPOLOGY: Anthro 203 Seminar in Primate Behaviour Anthro 205 Readings in Physical Anthropology Anthro 298 Research Design and Methods in Physical Anthropology ARCHEOLOGY: Anthro 215 Philippine Archeology Anthro 216 Fieldwork in Philippine Archaeology Anthro 217 Seminar in Southeast Asian Archaeology LINGUISTIC ANTHROPOLOGY: Anthro 270 Seminar in Anthropological Linguistics CULTURAL ANTHROPOLOGY: Anthro 223 Philippine Culture and Society Anthro 226 Seminar in Comparative Kinship Systems Anthro 232 Seminar in Ecological Anthropology Anthro 235 Seminar in Culture and Population Anthro 236 Seminar in Economic Organization and Cultural Behaviour Anthro 245 Research in Philippine Customary Law and Political System Anthro 246 Seminar in Political Anthropology Anthro 251 Seminar in Religious Systems Anthro 261 Asian Traditions Anthro 262 Seminar in Myths and Rituals Anthro 265 Field research in Philippine Folklore Anthro 266 Seminar in Asian Folk Traditions Anthro 267 Medical Anthropology Anthro 269 Asian Folklore Anthro 273 Seminar in Urban Anthropology System

Anthro 218 Seminar in Philippine Prehistory Anthro 219 Special Problems in Museology

Anthro 274 Village Community Anthro 275 Seminar in Problems of Contemporary Culture Change Anthro 277 Seminar in Development Anthropology Anthro 278 Special Problems in Philippine Cultural Anthropology Anthro 280 Special Problems in Philippine Communities Anthro 282 Seminar in Culture and Personality Anthro 287 Sex and Culture Anthro 291 Special Problems in Asian Anthropology Anthro 293 Seminar in Structural Anthropology Anthro 295 Special Problems in Philippine Studies and Oceanic Anthropology Anthro 299 Independent Studies

y y y

Actual courses cover the disciplines UP curriculum carries the 4 fields (American tradition) Some other higher educational institutions carry the same (Ateneo, University of San Carlos, Siliman, Technological University of the Philippines)

ANTHROPOLOGISTS DO IT IN THE FIELD y y Contribution to research: Field Work The field is where human beings are: y Schools/ universities y Archaeological sites y The laboratory y The village/ local community y Other human groupings y The global village y The virtual community And the field used to be archaeological sites, little villages, usually kin ordered, and relatively isolated from the outside world. Thus, it came to pass that fieldwork, along with its methods of learning the local language, protracted participant observation, photography, etc became the rite of passage of anthropologists. But the field has expanded to wherever there are human groups and that includes the global village and the virtual community of netizens, with new methods that include googling, not to mention ogling.

y y y

ANTHOPOLOGY IS A TRAINING CENTER y y y y y y Trains you to stop, look, and listen Trains you to connect the dots - with the obvious and the taken for granted as well as the hidden Trains you to see the small and the large, the short and the long term, and everything in between Trains you to dig up the past, to understand the present and peer into the puture Trains you to imagine anthropologically and to act realistically and ethically These are large claims, and so it must be made clear that anthropology cannot do these things by itself; it needs to collaborate, as it actually does, with other disciplines.

CODE OF ETHICS IN PHILIPPINE ANTHROPOLOGY y An anthropologist must be scientifically objective (truthful) and relevant to the national and community goals; sincere to the host community and obliged to explain to them the objectives and implications of his research; to listen to criticism by his host community of the research he/she has conducted; and eventually to provide them a copy of his/her work, ideally in their language, for the host community to be the final arbiter of the validity of his/her work. An anthropologist doing research has the obligation to make available the results of research data only to the host community, but also to the larger community. The anthropologist has the right and the obligation to criticize unethical practices of fellow anthropologists and other individuals and institutions that affect the practice of anthropology (Art. 2, sec. 2 UGAT Constitution and By-Laws, 1978)

y y

THE ANTHROPOLOGICAL IMAGINATION y Where human beings are, there shall anthropology be y Kung saan may mga tao, doon din ang agham-tao

THE ANTHROPOLOGICAL SENSE- MAKING SCHOOL/ THEORY Evolutionism MAJOR ASSUMPTIONS All societies pass through a series of stages All societies change as a result of cultural borrowing from one another; culture circles as sources of diffusion (German- Austrian School); Egypt as the origin of all cultural traits (British school) All societies are product of their own particular histories and experiences; The collection of ethnographic facts through direct fieldwork must precede the development of cultural theories Sought to understand how parts of contemporary cultures functioned for the well being of the individual (and society) 3 types of individual needs: y Basic needs (food, sex, protection) y Instrumental needs (education, law, social control) y Integrative needs (psychological security, social harmony and common worldview) The task of anthropologist is to determine how cultural elements function for the well being of society (Social functions rather than individual functions) Used social structure as a unit of analysis (network of relations found within a group of people) Viewed anthropology as comparative sociology Human cultures are shaped by certain pre-programmed codes of the human mind (LS own version of the psychic unity of humankind); Seeks explanations in the human mind y One of the basic tenets of human mind is it is programmed to think in binary opposites; y Directs relationship between culture and cognition; y Draws on a linguistic model; y View human behaviour from a rational perspective. The central task of anthropologist is to show the relationship between psychological and cultural variables; Looked at child- rearing practices and personality from a cross cultural perspective; y Child rearing help shape the personality structure of an individual which in turn influences the culture (interactive relationship between child- rearing practices, personality structure and culture) Material conditions determine human consciousness and behaviour; Study material constraints that arise from the universal needs of producing food, technology, tools and shelter as distinguished from mental constraints (values, ideas, y PRINCIPAL ADVOCATES Tylor, Morgan Smith, Perry, Graebner, Schmidt

Diffusionism

Historicism

Boas, Kroeber

Functionalism

Malinowski

Structural Functionalism

Radcliffe Brown

Structuralism

Levi- Strauss

Psychological Anthropology (Culture and Personality)

Benedict, Sapir, Mead

Cultural Materialism

Harris

Interpretative Anthropology

Neo-evolutionism

Cultural ecology/ Multi-linear Evolution

Ethnoscience

religion, arts); See material constraints as the primary causal factors accounting for cultural variations; Relies heavily on ethic research methodology; Share common ideas with Marx (materialistic interpretation) but rejects the Marxist notion of dialectic materialism which calls for destroying capitalism and empowering the working class; No political agenda but to the scientific study of culture Human behaviour stems from the way people perceive and classify the world around them. At the opposite end of cultural materialism, argues that the way people perceive (and classify) those objective conditions are the most significant factors in human behaviour (satisfaction of human needs vs. ideas, values, satisfaction of social relationships); See cultural anthropology more as a humanistic enterprise rather than a scientific one and finds affinity with art and literature than with biology and psychology; Idiographic in approach not to generate laws but to focus on cultural description, literature, folklore, myths, and symbols. Cultures evolve in direct proportion to their capacity harness energy. White: C = E x T Culture evolves as the amount of energy harnessed per capita per year increases or as the efficiency of the means of putting energy to work is increased (1959: 368 - 369) ; Cultural evolution is caused by advancing levels of technology and a culture s capacity to capture energy Steward: distinguished between 3 different types of evolutionary thought that is uni-linear evolution or stages model (Tylor, Morgan), universal evolution or cultural laws (White), multi-linear evolution (Steward) which focuses on the evolution of specific cultures without assuming that all cultures follow the same evolutionary process. The ethnographer must describe a culture in terms of native categories (emic view) rather than in terms of his/her own categories (etic view) Same approach as structuralism but differ in method Culture is described by how it is perceived, ordered and categorized by the members of that culture rather than by the impositions of the ethnographer

Geertz

White

Steward

Sturtevant, Goodenough

HARVESTS FROM THE FIELD A. RESEARCHES IN: a. Prehistory/ history (Tabon Man, Balangay) b. Material Cultures (lithic, pottery, ceramics) c. Health and Diseases (IKSP, HIV/AIDS, drug abuse, malaria, pranic healing, diet, etc.) d. Development (issues and approaches) e. Environment (biodiversity conservation, climate change) f. Indigenous Peoples Cultures (Aytas/ Agtas/ Ati, Mangyans, Igorots, Lumads, etc.)

g. Comparative religion h. Gender i. Cyber culture B. CONTRIBUTIONS TO NATION BUILDING a. People s Rights (IPs, urban poor, peasants, children and women) b. Nationalism (Anthropologists as revolutionaries, activists, change agents, academicians) c. Policy Reforms (Consultant, trainers, researchers of GOs/ NGOs/ International Organizations) d. Biodiversity Conservation (Protection and management of biological and cultural resources) e. Knowledge Production (Research and publications) C. THE GREATEST CHALLENGE y The Big Picture: the beginning of new geologic age, the Anthropocene Epoch y Precious epoch of the earth primarily affected biological evolution including human evolution and adaptability y In the epoch of Anthropocene, human beings, instead of simply being affected by the way the earth works, are themselves already affecting how the earth works. y This change in the dominance of large- scale and secular changes by human agency, challenges anthropology to continually address the question of bio- cultural change and evolution as an unconscious process and as an intentional human practice y The small picture y The human individual responding as a conscious agent y Everything in between y Dynamics of the varieties of human groupings wherever they are found.

WHAT IS SOCIOLOGY?
Social Change Science Social Structure Social Institutions

VIEWPOINTS SOCIOLOGY

PERSPECTIVES

SOCIAL CONCERN Sociological imagination

Functionalism (Durkheim)

Conflict (Marx)

Interactionist (Mead)

Realm of sociology: Basic Science Critical Sociology Applied Research Public Activism

y y

Sociology is the study of human society. There are three main areas you need to consider: a. Social structures (e.g. the family, education, social stratification, etc.) b. Social systems (e.g. culture and identity, agents of social control, etc.) c. Social issues (e.g. the causes of crime, the impact of unemployment, etc.)

SOCIOLOGY (Barbie, 1994) y Involves the study of human beings y Study of interactions and relations among human beings; y Study of formal organizations, the functioning of whole societies, and even relations among societies; y Study of human beings live together - in both good times and bad (study of rules for living together); y How rules are organized and perpetuated; y How we break rules and how the rules change over time; y Science of social life WHAT IS SOCIOLOGY? (Berger, 2006) I. Sociology focuses on: a. How social relationships influence people s attitudes and behaviour b. How major social institutions affect us c. How we affect other individuals, groups, and organizations II. The Origins of Sociology y Three major social changes during the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries are important to the development of sociology. a. The rise of a factory- based industrial economy.

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b. The emergence of great cities in Europe. c. Political changes, including a rising concern with individual liberty and rights. - The French Revolution symbolized this dramatic break with political and social tradition. Sociology as a discipline (Barbie, 1994; Guareschi, 1989) y Emerged in the 18th century (1822) when the French philosopher - Comte first proclaimed the possibility of studying society scientifically y Combination of 2 words: socius (Latin for companion or associate) and logos (Greek for study) y Root words indicate that sociology has to do with the study of groups of people living together, or of society, or of everything that can be connected to group of people, of societies, of social organizations and of social systems. y It will always have something to say about a reality that involves more than one person. Founders of Sociology (Berger, 2010) a. Aguste Comte - System of Positive Polity, or Treatise on Sociology, Instituting the Religion of Humanity b. Emile Durkheim - The Division of Labour in Society - The Elementary Forms of Religious Life - Suicide c. Karl Marx - Das Kapital d. Max Weber - The Protestant Ethic and the Rise of Capitalism - The Sociology of Religion - The Theory of Social and Economic Organization

1. AGUSTE COMTE (1798 - 1857) - Believed that the major goal of sociology was to understand society as it actually operates - Favoured positivism a way of understanding based on social science - Saw sociology as the product of a three- stage historical development: a. The theological stage, in which thought was guided by religion. b. The metaphysical stage, a transitional phase. c. The scientific stage 2. EMILE DURKHEIM (1858 - 1917) - Influential French sociologist, educator, and public official - Studied the ties that bind society together a. Mechanical solidarity - Traditional societies are united by social similarities b. Organic solidarity - Modern societies are united by interdependence. c. Anomie - Rapid social change leads to a loss of social norms and produces many social problems. 3. KARL MARX (1818 1883) - German philosopher and social critic - Personally involved in social change - Believed social scientists should help to improve society a. Struggle between owners and workers b. Capitalist owners will oppress ordinary people c. Eventually, people become alienated d. People lose control over their lives. 4. MAX WEBER (1864 1920)

German scholar who studied wide variety of topics Like other peers, he studied the impact of industrialization on people s lives Support for value free studies and objective research a. Rationalization - Traditional societies emphasize emotion and personal ties - Modern societies emphasize calculation, efficiency, self control - Personal ties decline and people become disenchanted

How is life treating you? MARX Alienated person I really don t care (because I m detached from my work and from other people). DURKHEIM Anomic person I m distressed by it (because there are no common rules or norms to guide me). WEBER Rational person Let me think about it, and I ll get back to you later (because I need to make some calculations before I know how to answer).

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Other Important Founders 1. Harriet Martineau - Feminist and Methodologist - Studied social life in Britain and US, translated Comte - Studied the impact of inequality 2. Hebert Spencer and Social Darwinism - An evolutionary model of society, known for Social Darwinism but thought that attempts at social reform was wrong. Sociological Meta Theories - Three general theoretical orientations or perspectives for the study of society a. Structural Functionalist perspective b. Conflict perspective c. Interactionist perspective

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a. STRUCTURAL FUNCTIONALIST Perspective y Parts of a social system work together to maintain a balance. - Functions are actions that have positive consequences - Dysfunctions are actions that have negative consequences - Manifest functions are intended - Latent functions are unintended y The structural functional theory is a framework for building theory that sees society as a complex system whose parts work together to promote solidarity and stability a. It asserts that our lives are guided by social structures (relatively stable patterns of social behaviour). b. Each social structure has social functions, or consequences, for the operation of society as a whole. c. Key figures in the development of this paradigm include Auguste Comte, Emile Durkheim, Herbert Spencer, and Talcott Parsons, and Robert Merton. y Robert Merton introduced three concepts related to social function: a. manifest functions, the recognized and intended consequences of any social pattern b. latent functions, largely unrecognized and unintended consequences and c. social dysfunctions, undesirable consequences of a social pattern for the operation of society y The influence of this paradigm has declined in recent decades. It focuses on stability, thereby ignoring inequalities of social class, race, and gender.

b. The Conflict Perspective y Society is held together by who has power at a moment in time. - Power allows some to dominate others - Dominance leads to conflict - Conflict and change are inevitable - Conflict holds society together as new alliances are formed and others fail y The social conflict paradigm is a framework for building theory that sees society as an arena of inequality that generates conflict and change. - Most sociologists who favour the conflict paradigm attempt not only to understand society but also to reduce social inequality. - Key figures in this tradition include Karl Marx, W. E. B. Du Bois, and Wright Mills. y The paradigm has developed rapidly in recent years. It has several weaknesses. - It ignores social unity based on mutual interdependence and shared values. - Because it is explicitly political, it cannot claim scientific objectivity. - Like the structural functional paradigm, it envisions society in terms of broad abstractions. c. The Symbolic Interaction y The symbolic interaction paradigm is a framework for building theory that sees society as the product of the everyday interactions of individuals. - The structural functional and the social conflict paradigms share a macro- level orientation, meaning that they focus on broad social structures that shape society as a whole. In contrast, symbolic interactionism has a micro level orientation; it focuses on patterns of social interaction in specific settings. - Key figures in the development of this paradigm include: a. George Herbert Mead b. Erving Goffman c. George Homans d. Peter Blau y Symbolic interactionism attempts to explain more clearly how individuals actually experience society. However it has two weaknesses: 1. Its micro orientation sometimes result in the error of ignoring the influence of larger social structures. 2. By emphasizing what is unique, it risks overlooking the effects of culture, class, gender, and race.

COMPARISON OF THREE THEORETICAL PERSPECTIVES PERSPECTIVE FUNCTIONALISM VIEW OF SOCIETY AND PROCESSES Sees society as a system of parts that work together to maintain the cohesion of the whole system Sees society as a collection of parts held together by social power KEY CONCEPTS Manifest functions Latent functions Dysfunctions Anomie Conflict Dominance Inequality Alienation Symbols Meaning Significant others Definition of the situations

CONFLICT THEORY

SYMBOLIC INTERACTION

Sees society as socially constructed by everyday encounters between people

FUNCTIONALIST CONCEPTS

a. b. c. d. e.

Functions: actions that have positive consequences for society Dysfunctions: actions that have negative consequences for society Manifest function: functions that are intended or recognized by others Latent function: functions that are unintended or unrecognized others Anomie: a social condition in which social norms are conflicting entirely absent

THREE PERSPECTIVES A SUMMARY PERSPECTIVE FUNCTIONALIST CENTRAL CONCERN How parts contribute to workings of total society or institutions. Social conflict and inequalities; why they arise and how they are maintained Everyday encounters between people and the symbols by which they are interpreted SCOPE OF THEORIZING Macro level TYPICAL CONCEPTS Manifest functions, latent functions, dysfunctions Class struggle, selfinterests, domination of some social group Definition of the situation, looking glass self SOME PROPONENTS Durkeim Parsons Merton Marx Dahrendorf Collins Mead Cooley Goffman

CONFLICT

Macro level

INTERACTIONIST

Micro level

CONTEMPORARY WAYS OF APPLYING SOCIOLOGICAL PERSPECTIVES a. Critical theory which grew out of a dissatisfaction with 20th century sociology in general and Marxism in particular. b. Feminism intellectual movement in the humanities and social sciences that is having a profound impact on the nature and direction of psychology. c. Postmodernism which expresses a deep distrust of science and the principle of objectivity. d. Today s leading theorists: 1. Talcott Parsons 2. Robert Merton 3. C. Wright Mills 4. Paul Lazarsfeld APPLYING PARADIGM OF SOCIOLOGY TO SPORTS y y y The function of sports. A structural functional approach directs attention to the ways sports help society to operate. Sports are conflict. A social conflict analysis points out that sports are closely linked to social inequality. Sports as process interaction. The symbolic interaction paradigm sees sports less as a system that as an ongoing.

SOCIOLOGY s FOUR REALMS 1. Basic Science - Expanding knowledge 2. Critical Sociology - Debate, argument, and controversy 3. Applied Research - Applications of knowledge to real world problems 4. Public Activism - Working for social change PRACTICING SOCIOLOGY

Applied Sociology - Use of the discipline of sociology with the intent of yielding practical applications for human behaviour and organizations USING THE SOCIOLOGICAL IMAGINATION y

Clinical Sociology - Dedicated to facilitating change by altering social relationships or restructuring social institutions

Globalization: worldwide integration of government policies, cultures, social movements, and financial markets through trade and the exchange of ideas - Our lives are more connected with and interdependent upon diverse groups of people Special problems must be addressed before they overwhelm the world

7 MAJOR AREAS OF STUDY IN SOCIOLOGY (Barbie, 1994) 1. Social Organization includes study of social groups, social institutions, social stratification, ethnic relations, bureaucracy and the like including sociology of work, agriculture, economy, industry, religion, politics, and other sub- specialties. 2. Social Psychology focuses on the study of human nature as outcome of group of life, personality formation, social attitudes and collective behaviour 3. Social Change, Social Organization and Social Disorganization includes study of change in culture and social relations and the current social problems in society; studies crime and delinquency, family conflicts, population problems, religious problems, unemployment and poverty, civil liberties, ethnic conflict, health problems, revolutions and wars, etc. 4. Human Ecology studies the behaviour of a given population and its relationship to the group s present social institutions (e.g. incidence of mental illness, crime and prostitution, urban life) 5. Population Studies focuses on population statistics, composition, change and quality and its impact on people s economic, political and social life 6. Sociological Theory and Method concerned with testing the applicability and usefulness of the principles of group life as bases for the regulation of human s social environment 7. Applied Sociology applying pure sociological research to the various fields of criminology, penology, social work, community development, education, communication, propaganda, industrial relations, marketing, ethnic relations, marriage and family counselling WHY STUDY SOCIOLOGY 1. To study society 2. Encourages critical thinking Famous Peter Berger quote: It can be said that the first wisdom of sociology is this things are not what they seem. 3. Knowledge of social forces gives us power over those forces 4. Ultimately, make the world a better place. SOCIETY - Any relatively self contained and self sufficient group united by social relationships - Two central components of society: 1. Social structure - Any characteristics of a group rather than of individuals - % no religion, mobility, population density, % female, age composition are all characteristics of the group - E.g. age composition as a predictor of crime, % teens and young adults as a social structural explanation of crime - Most common, most important is stratification

2. Culture The pattern of living that directs human social life Everything that humans learn and the things they learn to use: language, religions, art, notions of right and wrong, explanations of the meaning of life

What is STRATIFICATION? y Stratification describes the way in which different groups of people are placed within society. y The status of people is often determined by how society is stratified the basis of which can include: - Wealth and income most common basis of stratification - Social class - Ethnicity - Gender - Political status - Religion (e.g. the caste system in India) Society is studied by: 1. Using scientific methods to study: a. Variations in social structures b. Variations in social institutions c. How they are held together d. How the change e. How they affect the people who interact with them f. This is what makes up sociology THE SOCIOLOGICAL PERSPECTIVE y y y y The sociological perspective helps us to see general social patterns in the behaviour of particular individuals. It allows or forces us to look beyond the outer appearances of our social world and discover new levels of reality. It also encourages us to realize that society guides our thoughts and deeds to see the strange in the familiar. Sociology also encourages us to see individuality in social context.

THE SOCIOLOGICAL IMAGINATION y y y The sociological imagination provides the ability to see our private experiences and personal difficulties as entwined with the structural arrangements of our society and the times in which we live. Understand social marginality, the state of being excluded from social activity as an outsider. People at the margins of social life are aware of social patterns that others rarely think about C. Wright Mills described sociological imagination as An awareness of the relationship between an individual and the wider society, and the ability to view our society as an outsider might, rather than relying only on our individual perspective, which is shaped by our cultural biases