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pwd:thiscommandshowingandmeansthepresentworkingdirectory. System:administrator:rootpassword:thispathisusedforgivingtherootpassword. System:preferences:aboutme:thiscommandisusedfor. passwd:thiscommandusetochangetherootpassword. passwdroot/rr:thiscommandusetochangethepasswordbyspecifyingthenameofrootor anyusernameafterpasswdcommand. 6. surr:thiscommandusetoswitchoneusertoanotherheresumeansswitchuserandrristhe username. 7. sulrr:thiscommandusetoswitchoneusertoanotherherelshowingtheuserhomedirectory andrristheusername.Thiscommandisusedtologouttheuserrr. 8. startx:thiscommandusetochangethecommandpromptinterfacetographicalinterface.When ourinstanceisstartedfromcommandpromptinterface. 9. mancal:thiscommandisusedforhelp,heremanisacommandandcalisawordforwhich wearetakinghelp. 10. makewhatis:thiscommandisusedformakingawhatishelpfile.Thisfileismadeafter10 minutesoffreshinstallationoflinux. 11. whatiscal:thiscommandisusedforhelp,herewhatisacommandandcaliswordforwhich wearetakinghelp. 12. calhelp:thiscommandisusedforhelp,herecaliswordforwhichwearetakinghelpand helpiscommand. 13. ls:thiscommandisusedforshowingthedirectoryandfilesystem. 14. lsa:thiscommandisusedforshowingthedirectoryandfilesincludinghidden. 15. lsl:thiscommandisusedforshowingthedirectoryandfilesystemindetail. 16. lsla:thiscommandisusedforshowingthedirectoryandfilesystemindetailincluding hiddenfiles. 17. lslah:thiscommandisusedforshowingthedirectoryandfilesystemindetailincluding hiddenfileswithsize. 18. lslah:thiscommandisusedforshowingthedirectoryandfilesystemindetailincluding hiddenfileswithsize. 19. cd:thiscommandisusedforreturninghomedirectory. 20. mkdirrr:thiscommandisusedformakingadirectory.Heremkdirisacommandandrrisa directoryname. 21. ll:thiscommandisusedforshowingthedirectoryinlonglisting. 22. ll|less:thiscommandisusedforshowingthedirectory. 23. llh:thiscommandisusedforshowingthedirectoryandfilesinhumanreadableformat suchasKB,MB,GB. 24. cdrr:thiscommandisusedforgoingtherrdirectory. 25. Bluecolorshowsthedirectoryandblackcolorshowsthefile.

26. clearorctrl+l:thiscommandisusedforclearthescreen. 27. aliascls=clear:thiscommandisusedforgivingthealiasnameofclearcommandandthis commandisvalidonlyforthiscurrentsession.Herealiasisacommandandclsisaaliasname ofclearcommand. 28. cat>raj.txt:thiscommandisusedformakingarajfileherecat>isacommandandraj.txtis afilenamewithextension.txt.Afterthiscommandwewriteanythingandpressctrl+dfor savingthisfile. 29. cat>raj.txt:ifyouappendthisfileandyouwriteanythingandpressctrl+dforsavingthis filethenitsreplaceyourexistingcontents. 30. cat>>raj.txt:ifyouappendthisfileandyouwriteanythingandpressctrl+dforsavingthis filethenitsappendyourexistingcontents.Here>>meansappend. 31. cd/:thiscommandisusedforenteringanydirectory. 32. cd:thiscommandisusedforreturningonepreviousdirectory. 33. cd..:thiscommandisusedforreturningonepreviousdirectory. 34. lsr:thiscommandisusedforwherewearepresentforexampleweareinhomedirectorythen itsprovidetheinformationabouthomedirectory. 35. cpraj.txtraja.txt:thiscommandisusedforcopythefile.Herecpiscommandandraj.txtis filewhichwewanttocopy. 36. cpraj.txt/home:thiscommandisusedforcopythefile.Herecpiscommandandraj.txtis filewhichwewanttocopyand/homeisaplacewherewewanttocopy.Orwecansaycopythe fileonedirectorytoanother. 37. mvraja.txtmanu.txt:thiscommandisusedforrenamingthefile.Heremviscommandand raja.txtisfilewhichwewanttorenamelikemanu.txt. 38. rmcat:thiscommandisusedfordeletingthefileanditsaskingforconfirmationfor deletingthefile.Herermiscommandandcatisfile. 39. rmfcat:thiscommandisusedfordeletingthefileforcefullyanditsnotaskingfor confirmationfordeletingthefile.Herermfiscommandfmeansforcefullyandcatisafile. 40. rmf/jojo/*:thiscommandisusedfordeletingeverythinginjojodirectorywithout confirmation.herermfiscommandandjojoisdirectoryand*meansall. 41. mvmanu.txtshyam/ass:thiscommandisusedformovingthefilemeanscutthefileand pestinanotherdirectory.Heremviscommandandmanu.txtandshyamisfileandassis directorywherewewanttopestthisfile. 42. rmrdata:thiscommandisusedfordeletingthedatadirectorywithconfirmation.Hererm riscommandanddataisdirectorywhichwewanttodelete. 43. rmrfdata:thiscommandisusedfordeletingthedatadirectoryforcefullywithout confirmation.Herermrfiscommandanddataisdirectorywhichwewanttodelete. 44. rmdirkk:thiscommandisusedfordeletingonlytheemptydirectory. 45. System:administration:usersandgroups:thisisgraphicalpathforaddingtheusers.

46. systemconfigusers:thiscommandisusedforopeningthegraphicalinterfaceforaddingthe users. 47. useraddram:thiscommandisusedforaddingtheuser.Hereuseraddiscommandandram isthenameofuser. 48. passwdram:thiscommandisusedforgivingthepasswordtotheuserram.Herepasswdis commandandramistheusername. 49. cd/etc/passwd:forshowinguserinformation.Thearrangementofanyinformationinthisfile is1.username,2.password,3.userid,4.groupid,5.forcomment,6.root/home/.Wecanopen thisfileby(cat/etc/passwd) 50. cd/etc/shadow:thiscommandisusedforshowingthepassword(cat/etc/shadow). 51. Bydefaulttherearetwogroups.1.Primarygroup:isbydefault.2.Secondarygroup:ifyou assignthispermissionanyotherpersonthenitissecondarygroup. 52. chownramass:thiscommandisusedforchangingtheownerofassdirectoryfromrootto ram.Herechowniscommandandramisusernameandassisdirectory. 53. chownRramass:thiscommandisusedforchangingtheownershipofuserincludingthefile anddirectory. 54. groupaddmkt:thiscommandisusedforaddingthegroup.Heregroupaddiscommandand mktisthegroupname. 55. chgrpmktass:thiscommandisusedforchangingthegroup.Herechgrpiscommand,mktis groupnameandassisdirectory. 56. chgrpRmktass:(explainletter) 57. useraddmghrram:whenwemakeauserthenbydefaulthisprimarygroupisram.By usingthiscommanduserramcreatedbythedefaultprimarygroupasahr. 58. cat/etc/group:thiscommandisusedforshowingthegroupinformationinthesystematic orderthatis1.groupname,2.password,3.groupid. 59. usermodgshyamram:thiscommandisusedforchangingtheprimarygroup.Afterthis commandshyamistheprimarygroupoframandshyamisthegroupmemberofram.Here usermodgiscommandgmeansprimarygroup. 60. usermodGshyamram:thiscommandisusedforassigningthesecondarygroup. 61. userdelram:thiscommandisusedfordeletingtheuserram.Hereuserdeliscommandand ramisuser. 62. userdelrshyam:thiscommandisusedfordeletingtheusershyamwiththedirectory.Here userdelriscommandandshyamisuser. 63. groupdelmkt:thiscommandisusedfordeletingthegroup.Heregroupdeliscommandand mktisgroup. 64. Ctrl+Dorlogoutorexit:thiscommandisusedforlogouttherootoranyuser. 65. init6/reboot:thiscommandisusedforrestartthesystem. 66. gdmrestart:thiscommandisusedforrestartthe(explainletter)

67. init0/poweroff:thiscommandisusedforshutdownthesystem. 68. System:administration:loginscreen:thispathisusedforchangingthebackground. 69. nano/etc/issue:afterissuethiscommanddeletethecominglineandwriteanythingwhatyou want,thenpressCtrl+OthenpressenterforsavingthefilethenpressCtrl+Xforcomingout thenanoeditor.(iwriteindetailletter) 70. date:thiscommandisusedforshowingdate. 71. date090917332008:thiscommandisusedforchangingthedateformat. 72. cal:thiscommandisusedforshowingcalender. 73. cal2008:thiscommandisusedforshowingthefullcalenderofyear2008. 74. cal2008|lessorcal2008|more:thiscommandisusedforshowingthefullcalenderstepby step. 75. nano:thiscommandisusedforcreatingthefilebynanoeditorafterwritingthenanopress enterandthenwriteanythingandpressCtrl+OforsavingthefileandthenpressCtrl+Xfor comingoutthenanoeditor.Foropeningthefilewritenanowithfilename. 76. ifconfig:thiscommandisusedforshowingIPaddress. 77. vncviewer192.168.0.254:thiscommandisusedforshowingtheotheruserdesktop.Firstlywe aredoingsomesettingforaccessingthatsystemwhichyouwanttoaccessweareopenthe System:preferences:Remotedesktop,thenRemoteDesktopPreferencesinterfaceisopen clickonallowotheruserstoviewyourdesktop,youcanalsoclickontheallowotherusersto controlyourdesktop,ifyouclickonthissettingthenyoucontrolotheruserdesktopbyyour desktop,undertheheadingSharing.AfterthatundertheheadingsecurityyoucanclickonAsk youforconfirmation,sowhenyouaccesstheotheruserdesktoptheyvalidateyouafterthenyou accessthemdesktop,youcanalsoclickonRequiretheusertoenterthispassword,thatisgiven byotheruser,sowhenyoutrytoaccesstheotheruserdesktopyouwritethepasswordthenyou accessthemdesktop.Herevncvieweriscommandand192.168.0.254istheIPaddressofthat systemwhichyouwanttoshowingonyourdesktop. 78. Opencomputer:Edit:Preferences:Behavior:clickonAlwaysopeninbrowserwindow: close:thispathandsettingisusedforopeningthewindowinonemode. 79. Openterminal:clickonEdit:Currentprofile:Effects:clickontransparentbackground :thispathandsettingisusedfortransparenttheopenterminal. 80. e2fsck:Requirecheckforconsistencywhensystemisnotproperlyshutdown. 81. cat/proc/cpuinfo:thiscommandisusedforseeingthecpuinformation.Heretwoword1. pae,2.svm.Areexistthenitssupportthevirtualisationotherwisenot. 82. cat/proc/partitions:thiscommandisusedforfindingthepartitionsonyoursystem. 83. find/nameraj:thiscommandusedtofindanythingifyoudon'tknowthedestination.Here wefindtherajfile. 84. find/perm222:thiscommandusedtofindanythingaccordingtothepermission. 85. find/size1024k:thiscommandusedtofindanythingonbehalfofthesize.Herewefindthe

filewhichsizeis1024k. 86. find/size+10k:thiscommandusedtofindanythingwhichsizeismorethan10k. 87. find/size10k:thiscommandusedtofindanythingwhichsizeislessthan10k. 88. findperm0=x:thiscommandisusedforfindingthepermission. 89. linkswww.google.com:thiscommandusedforopeningthewebsiteonthecommandprompt. 90. System:preferences:desktopeffect:thiscommandusedforenablingthetogglingof desktop. 91. last|less:thiscommandusedforshowingwhichuserwhenloginandlogout. 92. lli:thiscommandusedforshowingtheinodenumber.Inodenumberisuniqueidentify number.Thatsrepresenttheuniqueidentificationofanythinginthelinux. 93. vi/etc/inittab:intheinittabfilewechangetherunlevel. 94. whichbash:thiscommandisusedforshowingwhichbashweareworking. 95. host192.168.1.7:thiscommandshowsthenameoftheothercomputerwhichIPaddressis givenafterthehost. 96. hostserver1.example.com:thiscommandshowstheIPaddressofthatcomputerwhichname isgivenafterthehost. 97. duh/etc:thiscommandisusedforshowingthespacestatusofourfolderordisk. 98. dfh:thiscommandisusedforshowingtheharddiskspacestatus. 99. swapons:thiscommandisusedforshowingthewhichpartitionisswappartitionandabout spacestatus. 100./installcorssoverpro5.0.0.sh:thiscommandisusedforinstallanypackagethatis executable. 101.shinstallcrossoverpor5.0.0.sh:thiscommandisusedforinstallinganypackagethatis executable. 102.mount/dev/cdrom/mnt:heremntdirectoryintherootthatisemptyanditiscreatedfor mountinganyremovabledevice 103.pstree|less:thiscommandisusedforshowingthestepsofthesystembootingprocess. 104.psx|less:thiscommandisusedforshowingtheprocess. 105.runlevel:thiscommandisusedforshowinginwhichrunlevelyouare. 106.whor:thiscommandisusedforshowinginwhichrunlevelyouarewithsomeadditional information. 107.startxorinit5:thiscommandisusedforchangingtheCLImodetographicsmode. 108.rc.sysinit:thisfilecontaintheinformationaboutallthesystem. 109.rc.local:itsastartupscript 110.chkconfignfson/chkconfiglevel35nfsonoroff:thiscommandisusedforstartingthe nfsserviceonlyintherunlevel3and5.(thisiscominginexam) 111.chkconfiglist|less:thiscommandisusedforcheckingthelistofchkconfig. 112.systemconfigservices:thiscommandisusedforgraphicallystartandstoptheservices.

113.initrd:meansinitialramdisk 114.killall5:thiscommandshutdownyoursystem. 115.lspci:thiscommandisusedforshowingwhichmoduleisloadedbykernel. 116.lsusb:thiscommandisusedforshowinghowmuchusbdetected. 117.lsmod:thiscommandisusedforshowinghowmuchmoduleisinstalled. 118.grepusb:thiscommandisusedforshowinganythingrelatedtousb. 119.modproberusbstorage:thiscommandisusedforremovingtheusbdrive.Usbstorageis thenameofusb. 120.modinfousbstorage|less:thiscommandisusedforshowingdetailinformationfora particularmodule. 121.cd/lib/modules:thiscommandisusedforshowingtheallexistmodule. 122.cd/dev:thedevdirectorystoredthedevicefile. 123.mknode:thiscommandisusedformakeanewdevicefile. 124.haldevice:thiscommandisusedforshowingthedevicefiles. 125.haldevicemanager:thiscommandisusedforshowingthedevicefilesgraphically. 126.vmstat:thiscommandisusedforshowingthevirtualmemorymeansswap. 127.top:thiscommandisusedforshowingtheprocessinformationitslikeataskmanagerin window. 128.gnomesystemmonitor:thiscommandisusedforshowingtheprocessinformation graphically. 129.cat/var/log/dmesg:inthiscommandlogisaeventviewerlikeinwindow.Alllogfilesare storefiles. 130.cat/var/log/secure:herethesecurityrelatedlogfileisexist. 131.cat/var/log/maillog:thiscommandisusedforshowingwhichmailisgoingorcomeorfail. 132.cat/var/log/message:thiscommandisshowsthegeneralmessage. 133.cd/etc/syslog.conf:thisfilecontaintheinformationaboutdifferenttypesofloginformation isstoredinwhichlogfile. MAKINGAMYCOMPUTERICONINKDEENVIORNMENT

Inkdedesktoppressrightclick:createnew:linktolocation mycomputer:writeinthefirstline System:/:writeinthesecondline INITRDFILE

cd/boot/initrd:ifthisfileisdeletedorremovethenifwerestartthesystem,thensystemwill