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Cultural Manifestation 2008

by Liljana Popovska

e Year of the Macedonian Language

Macedonian Information Centre

December 2008
Vol.VII, No. 1

Analyses of Macedonian Politics, Economy and Society

Skopje, December 2008 Vol. VII, No. 1

Macedonian Information Centre

MACEdonIAn AffAIrS Analyses of Macedonian Politics, Economy and Society december 2008, Vol. VII, no. 1 Please, send manuscripts and letters to the editor to: The Macedonian Affairs Editor, Address: Macedonian Information Centre, Naum Naumovski Borce 73 1000 Skopje, Republic of Macedonia Tel./Fax: + 389 (0)2 311-78-76 + 389 (0)2 311-78-34 + 389 (0)2 322-18-42 Internet: www.micnews.com.mk e-mail: contact@micnews.com.mk, mic@mt.net.mk Submission guidelines available on request. For subscription inquiries or resolving subscription problems call: +389 (0)2 322-18-42

Macedonian Information Centre

Dragan Antonov, Director Mircela Dzuvalekovska-Casule, Editor-in-Chief Zora Atanasova, Translator Design: MIC & Simco Sandulovski I Print: Maring Skopje I Circulation 500

ISSN 1857-5412

Copyright by MIC, 2008. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced or distributed in any form or by any means, or stored in a database or a retrieval system, without the prior written permission of the publisher. MIC is an independent news agency with complete editorial independence. The attitudes presented in this publication do not necessarily represent those of MIC. They belong only to the authors. The articles do not represent any consensus of beliefs and they may be different from one author to another.

IntroductIon About the MAcedoniAn LAnguAge 1. SpeAking RAdio Skopje! SpeAking RAdio Skopje!

Kole Casule........................................................................................... 5

Marko IlKosKI ...................................................................................... 7


the MAcedoniAn poetRY in the 19th And 20th centuRY

Rade sIljan ......................................................................................... 33


jelena luzIna ................................................................................. 47

MAcedoniAn theAteR LAnguAge eXpeRience

4. 5.

MAcedoniAn pReSS deveLopMent

zaneta TRajKosKa .............................................................................. 59

the MAcedoniAn LAnguAge AS oneS oWn identitY And bReAching With otheRS Motif: Cultural Manifestation 2008 The Year of the Macedonian Language

liljana PoPovsKa ............................................................................... 69

Kole Casule



Kole Casule On many occasions I have written that the Macedonian penetration through history, as a lasting standing, has been founded on the language, too. The insight of the facts undeniably confirms that the history of the Macedonian language is one of the most impressive ones of our time. Exposed to continual attempts for its annulment or assimilation, the Macedonian language has affirmed itself as a centuries-long resurrection that, similarly to all resurrections, had its casualties. Henceforth, what I once said: To write in Macedonian means to wage a battle is equally a confirmation and a legalization of the standing as rebellion. The literature born in the Macedonian language, in the past as well as today, is a shot fired at all those who are designing genocide for the Macedonian people even today and threatening to rescind our right to existence. The Macedonian language is spoken by over two million people, most of them scattered all over the world, from the most forlorn places in Canada to the Fire Land, from the coasts of the American Pacific to Australia, wherever the Macedonian was forced to look for a shelter to be himself. However, the Macedonian language is a daring and open language. It is capable to endure all encroachments against it but also to be imbued with everything that is valuable in the other close and distant languages. And all this is in the service of the truth and literature.

Academician, doyen and living legend of Macedonian drama. One of the founders of modern Macedonian literature.

Marko Ilkoski


Marko IlKosKI These three words are not just related to a pure identification of a radio station. They are history and truth and realization of fantasies that, finally, the foundations of the future state, whose creation had started with many resurrections and rebellions, are consolidating. These words are listened to and uttered with joy and tears and faith in the future of the Macedonian people: And in it a free life, and for the first time freedom to expression in ones own, mother, Macedonian language. The dream of the dukes, the komitadji (guerrillas against the Ottoman Empire), the partisans, the revolutionaries heroes from Ilinden (Macedonian resurrection day on St. Elias Day in 1903), via the National Liberation War and ASNOM (Anti Fascist Assembly of the National Liberation of Macedonia), became the reality. The oath was fulfilled the Republic was born. The first session of ASNOM, in the presence of the then representatives of the new, national authority, decided, among the rest, that the Macedonian language is official of the then Republic of Macedonia as an equal member of the Yugoslav Federation. On 28 December 1944, in the ether over the Macedonian free sky, at about 10 a.m., for the first time, from the big hall of the Assembly the Macedonian, words swam over the air waves and the following words were heard: Speaking Radio Skopje! This meant that the Macedonian language, mercilessly persecuted as traitor, renegade, language-renegade officially started to be applied in the everyday life in Macedonia. The words were uttered for the first time by the then Director of Radio Skopje Vlado Maleski, who was appointed to this office in October 1944 upon the decision of ASNOMs Presidium. In reference to these exciting moments, Maleski said the following in
Marko Ilkoski editor in Macedonian Radio Radio Macedonia, Satellite program Voice from the Fatherland

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his memoirs: I cant remember a single word that I sent to the microphone, but I am sure that what was said, which was normally nave, clumsy, uneducated, was rooted out from the heart. I was thrilled throughout the time of the broadcasting, and my nerves grew with horns not because of the famous fear from the microphone or because of the responsible task to present truly the atmosphere in the Assembly. The thrill was probably coming from vlado Maleski, the awareness about the historical moment in first director of Radio skopje which Radio Skopje was born. Technical conditions were needed to give birth to Radio Skopje, to transmit the Second ASNOM Assembly, and put the Macedonian language in practice. And they were practically none. Technical materials and spare parts were missing because in Skopje, together with the other facilities in the city, the Radio Station was also destroyed, which had been built just before the war, the technical broadcasting facilities were destroyed, the discotheque fund of the former Radio Station was destroyed, and the building was operationally disabled. In the immediate vicinity of Skopje, in Madzari, the pole, the building, and the transmitting technique were fully destroyed. Then the fighters, radio amateurs, and technicians came onto the scene, led by Vasko Petkovski, officer in charge of technique of the Headquarters of the National liberation Army of Macedonia. The vlado Maleski speaks experiments started with a French military radio station in short waves. The radio technicians Krsto Ristevski, Aleksandar Grkov, Eftim Mitovski, Marko Plavevski, Todor Dzartov, and Stojan Kjosevski somehow managed to enable a radio transmitter of American origin, SCR of 20 watts. Regarding this daring exploit, engineer Krsto Ristevski in the series Fonoplov dedicated to the 60th Jubilee of the Macedonian Radio, said as follows: From the ruined building of Radio Skopje we took a relatively well kept mixer that we put in operation. We posted condensation microphones

speaking Radio skopje! speaking Radio skopje! - 9

for tone control in the Hall of the Assembly, we placed an appropriate apparatus on the roof, and instead of earphones we used a loud-hailer and this is how we followed the occurrences among the delegates. For mutual communication we used a military field telephone. In order to avoid noises in the transmission, we established a cable link from the mixer on the roof to the Radio station. During the two days of the Assembly the connections and the tone operated excellently. We protected the technique installed on the roof of the building with canvas covers and blankets. We were all sorry for not having technical possibilities to tape and make documents of the three and a half hours work of the Assembly. Only the European super powers had these possibilities in those warring days. In his memoirs, engineer Ristovski also adds that before the transmission big checks had been made concerning the audibility of the tone. The range reached about ten kilometers before Tetovo. In Skopje, we informed the owners of the houses in which we knew there had been radio receivers that they should follow the Radio Skopje program on short, and not like before on medium waves. The shopkeepers in the Old Market were placing their radio devices on the windows or in front of the doors in order to let the citizens, passers-by listen. In those preparatory days, only Russian music was broadcast from the studio of record players and from time to time there was the information about drifting the frequency. The audibility in the city was excellent. The introduction of the Macedonian language in the ether, through the successful transmission of the Second ASNOM Session on 28 December 1944 and the phoenix like rising of Radio Skopje from the ruins, announced the soon regular operation of the first Macedonian Radio Radio Skopje. This happened on 28 January the next year, 1945,

The tenth jubilee of Radio skopje 1954

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with a daily program that lasted for three and a half hours, broadcast in the Macedonian language for the first time. Due to the historical dimension and the importance of 28 December 1944, at the celebration of its 10th Jubilee, the then Director of Radio Skopje Veselinka Malinska accepted the suggestion of the employed to mark 28 December as the Day of Radio Skopje each year. This was going on until the official beginning of the Skopje Television operation on 14 December 1964, after which this day is celebrated as the Day of the Macedonian Radio and Television. The chroniclers of Macedonian historiography register the use of the Macedonian language through the ether on two occasions in the period 1941-1944. In spring 1944, Radio Station Free Yugoslavia broadcast the information that a speaker in Macedonian is needed. Immediately after the information the then young artist Ilija Dzuvalekovski was sent to Moscow by plane. He translated, edited, and read news in the Macedonian language through the ether every day, until the end of the Second World War. Dzuvalekovski is the first promoter of the Macedonian language through the ether Ilija Dzuvalekovski, in worlds frameworks. first promoter of the The same year, on the liberated territory Macedonian language on in the village Gorno Vranovci near Veles, the air between 20 and 25 October, the partisan radio station Free Macedonia was heard in the ether. Radio technician Boro Dimitrovski spoke with the words Speaking Radio Free Macedonia with the help of a captured French radio station SARAM of 200 watts and a small range of several kilometers. According to personal testimonies about the Macedonian Radio presented by the commander of the General Headquarters Mihajlo Apostolski and his co-fighters Veselinka Malinska, Vasko Petkovski, and Boro Dimitrovski, this radio station was operating on medium waves, the program went on for thirty minutes each day, and mainly news taken from Free Yugoslavia were broadcast, as well as the decisions made by ASNOM, information from the Headquarters to the units and to the Central Committee of the Communist Party of Macedonia. In the thirty-minute program satirical supplements called little sparrows

speaking Radio skopje! speaking Radio skopje! - 11

were present, some poetical works with patriotic contents and live music produced by talented fighters. The signal of the Free Macedonia Radio Station stopped radiating after 20 days of operation because the people from the technical department had been ordered to transfer to Skopje and start the preparations for the transmission of the Second ASNOM Session. The Macedonian history and the memories of the Macedonian people know that the Macedonian Radio space used to be abused for political-propaganda and assimilation goals long time ago. First of all in the period from 1930 to 1941 by the then authorities from Belgrade, in service of the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats, and Slovenians, and later from May 1941 to 13 November 1944 and the liberation of Skopje. In the then Vardar Regional Unit, Radio Skopje is operating as a relay of Radio Belgrade, broadcasting programs only in the Serbian language, until 6 April 1941 when Skopje was bombed and when German military units and their Bulgarian allies entered the city. They also used the building of that Radio Station for their own purposes. However, even under such abnormal, military conditions, the Macedonian language was heard in the ether. During those days of general panic and fear, the citizens of Skopje gathered in front of the Radio with messages written on simple sheets of paper, trying to inform their relatives, friends, and neighbors that they were alive and sound and where their whereabouts were after the bombing. According to the testimony of engineer Todor Dzartov, many-a-year Director of the technique and performance of the Macedonian Radio program, on 6 April 1944, he was held at work as the only Macedonian and young radio technician, because all the Serbs that had been working until then had been fired. A German officer allowed him to transmit by Radio, in the ether, in the Macedonian language, the contents of the messages in handwriting. He did this for several hours, a little clumsily, unskillfully, but usefully and at the pleasure of the citizens of Skopje. According to his testimony, the people rejoiced, addressed words of gratitude, and people from various parts of the city were coming in front of the building at 17 Marksova St. to make sure whether the messages that they had been listening to were really transmitted from that studio. For Europe and the world the year 1945 was the end of the war and victory over fascism. The territory of Macedonia was nearly entirely liberated in January of the same year. At the very beginning, on 28 January, after a one-month break due to personnel problems, technical consolidation, and definition of the program substances, the first Macedonian Radio Radio Skopje started its regular broadcast from the studio at

12 - Marko IlKosKI

17 Marksova St., in the center of Skopje. For the reporters and technicians the conditions were difficult, the responsibility enormous, and the trust of the audience was at test. It was the time of victory and duty to transmit the so much longed for victory and freedom via the media, but with what words, with what journalist and technical experience? Everything was partisania as Macedonian writer Kole Casule says, the editor-in-chief at that time and one of the cornerstones of the Macedonian Radio. There was fear and engineer Todor Dzartov ignorance in taking the microphone, the technical conditions did not allow corrections via editing, everything was live the texts and the music. However, the witnesses of these developments when the Macedonian ether was in preparation for sustained verbal substances in the Macedonian language for the first time say that their desire to succeed was enormous. They were overcoming the errors and failures through the work, they were gaining experience day after day, and the staff was trained quickly. It was an interesting and burdening time for the then young and inexperienced Macedonian intellectuals. And on 28 January they made a successful start. The small in number team of radio technicians enabled the first professional transmitter of 200 watts on Skopje Airport and Vlado Maleski the director was the first to announce the regular broadcast of the program in the Macedonian language, after which various newspapers were read, announcements and proclamations of the new peoples authorities, as well as information from the front. The selection of the signal of the new Radio Station was then a big problem. Director Vlado Maleski and The first building of Radio skopje

speaking Radio skopje! speaking Radio skopje! - 13

the head of the musical department composer Todor Skalovski were unanimous let it be the militant melody A, bre, Makedonce (Hey, You, Macedonian, trans.). A metal ride cymbal was constructed for broadcasting the signal with 6 wires and nibs that were a metal ride cymbal for broadcasting transmitting the signal while moving the cymbal. This unusual device of the technicians and musicians was also used for registering pauses in the program. The most touching was its permanent transmission in the days of the disastrous earthquake in Skopje on 26 July 1963 when the names of the killed and wounded citizens were informed. The journalists from the then generation, most of whom are today unfortunately deceased, assess the first year of the operation of the Macedonian Radio and the most important task of spreading the Macedonian language as a year in which not everything was glory, beauty, and joy, but also pathetic in celebration, sometimes greater than really necessary, with errors in using the words, troubles with the diction while reading the texts, and so on. The feeling that they were making a miracle soon contributed for Radio Skopje to become the mass, open school for the Macedonian language among the people and the listeners. The number of the radio sets in Macedonia in 1945 was very small. The journalists were repeating the anecdote we are working for the Radio, but we do not have a radio. In order to listen to the program, several families would gather in one place, at the neighbors or relatives, and they were monitoring with delight the information broadcast by the then Radio, filled with the exalted patriotic feeling because they were listening to it in their mother, Macedonian language, for the first time in their long history. However, only 6 years later, the number of radio sets grew to 300,000, as did its popularity and national pride. The Macedonian Radio, being of the same age as the Republic, played an extremely big and extremely important role in the first years after the war, first of all for spreading, enriching, and applying the Macedonian language, and thus for its popularization and affirmation, particularly among the pupils, the students, the professors, and the popular teachers. The people who became literate through the National Front, by visiting

14 - Marko IlKosKI

courses for the illiterate, by listening to the program and upon the appeal from the studio for cooperation, applied for participation in the speeches or the musical broadcasts in letters written by them, which was until the first half of the 50s made only in live. The first team that formed the Macedonian Radio had a modest experience while making the first program and organization scheme and there was the need for new personnel, for more departments. Regarding their selection Kole Casule says as follows: Their selection was mostly related to their ability to manage the speech, people with no speaking defects were selected, those who were not slaves to their dialects and who were capable of managing in different situations. In this recruitment of reporters, speakers, and lecturers, talented and with love for the radio, the newly created University was of great help because a large number of students came from there, especially from the Faculty of Philology, who were learning the Macedonian language and who later became the cornerstones of the Macedonian Radio. In the post-war years, known as the years of the overall revival of the Republic, meaning in the culture, too, the use of the Macedonian language had a high national priority in all these processes because the language was and it still is the identification of the Macedonian nation. This high national awareness among the employed in the Macedonian Radio Radio Skopje imposed the seriousness in the approach to the use and the development of the Macedonian language through the Radio program. And the possibilities for doing this were enormous. There came many broadcasts for children, housewives, dealing with economic problems, music, sports radio report was developing, as well as broadcasts from the area of the history of the Macedonian people and so on. However, in these post-war turbulent years, on the internal and on the international plan (the years of the Inform Bureau and the First Five-Year Plan) the greatest attention was turned to the News. All these program substances imposed the need for proof readers, speakers, and translators. During those years the information was received from Tanjug, which was in the Serbian language. The translation in the Macedonian literary language needed to be checked. The rich history of the Macedonian Radio writes that in 1950 the first lector-translation department was formed, led by the just graduated student from the Faculty of the Macedonian Language Trajko Stamatovski, who had been working as proof reader and translator with the Radio since 1947 and today, the oldest linguist, Macedonianist and Slavist in the Republic of Macedonia, lived to read the Opening Report at the 14th World Congress of Slavists in Ohrid. In his memoirs about the care for the rules in using the Macedonian language in the

speaking Radio skopje! speaking Radio skopje! - 15

programs of the Macedonian Radio, in the series Fonoplov, Stamatov says: We worked in 24 hours shifts. In a way, we were a kind of a language workshop, discussing every new word or expression. We used to read everything that was written in the Macedonian language, especially the texts by Blaze Koneski, from which we gained experience. We reacted to neologisms or to newly coined words because the language is a living matter. This confirmed our care for the specific features of the Macedonian language. It was the period of living with the language, a mass, shared joy for every newly discovered, nice Macedonian word, especially when it was heard through the ether, appropriately, clearly, soundly uttered in the radio broadcasts. From 1950 to 1962 we introduced the 15-minute broadcast The Macedonian Language through History and Practice in which a part of the historical review was dedicated to the Cyril-Methodius period until modern times, and another part was used for practical solutions to the incorrectly used words and expressions. At the beginning of the 60s (1961), with the aim of making popular the Macedonian orthography with practical advices, we formed a Radio Skopje magazine dominated by the column entitled Not Like That, Like This, which was distributed by all the employed in the Radio, from the Director to the doorman. The memoirs of Ph.D. Trajko Stamatovski are precious as regards the purity of the Macedonian language and its correct speech. The purity of the Macedonian language was a duty then, but it is not any less important now. If at the beginning of the 50s of the 20th century the Macedonian linguists were fighting against the use of Turkish words, now, at the beginning of the 21st century, this struggle should be directed against the influx from the Anglo-Saxon region. As regards the correct speech through the ether, I must point out the excellent cooperation of the speakers in the Macedonian Radio who respected all our advices in relation to the diction, intonation, and accentuation. The intonation is one of the most characteristic features of the Macedonian language, which makes it different from many of the languages spoken in the neighborhood. In reviewing the past, I can fully responsibly evaluate that the importance of Radio Skopje in the language education of the Macedonian people is extremely great not only in the Republic of Macedonia, but also among the Macedonians in Pirin and Aegean Macedonia and Albania. The letters arriving from our co-patriots living in these countries are the best illustration for this. The proof reading is another very important segment in the development, the fostering, and the correct use of the Macedonian language in the printed and electronic media. A good proof reader is

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equal to a pure language. This comes to special expression when texts are heard via the ether, because the attention of the listener is oriented to the voice and the uttered word or sentence, no matter whether it is a drama text, a poem, a radio narration or news or information. The good journalists and speakers have learned the Macedonian language, its orthography, and correct speech from the lectured texts with corrections in the punctuations or foreign language isms. In everyday work, the Macedonian proof readers and journalists in all electronic and printed media are still using the three-volume dictionary published between 1961 and1966. The dictionary is a living matter, as is the language, new words appear and that is the reason why the Institute for Macedonian Language Krste Misirkov is now preparing a new, expanded, voluminous edition, which will encompass all the interpretations of the words in the Macedonian language. The program was expanding, the program substances as well. The most important segment from the program was and it still is the daily information, as the core of the basic activity of the Radio to keep you informed. In the first years the employed were making really daring exploits. The news used to arrive from Belgrade via the Morse device and the texts were decoded via an earphone. The work became easier with the so-called HEL device because the news could be received via the air and be printed on a tape. With the purchase of telex-printers, the security was greater because then the news arrived via the telephone line. In this race for fast information, the translators, the proof readers, the speakers,

Daily editorial crew of Macedonian Radio, early 1990s

speaking Radio skopje! speaking Radio skopje! - 17

the journalists, and the cameramen worked as one team, one organism for the news to begin on time and for clearing the text from language errors and illogical meanings, so that the news could be short and clear. This is why they say today that the one who has not passed through this department cannot be a good reporter, and the confidence of the listeners is still expressed in their words like the radio said, the radio informed, or they said it on the radio. The first expanded contents came from the area of culture as a yearning need of the young Macedonian state for the affirmation of its national identity. The Macedonian Radio became the gathering place of the most outstanding names among the writers, the artists, the reporters, and the musicians who, faced with this historical responsibility, tried to foster a new, modern radio expression in their writing and interpretation. What was offered in the ether - was actually the mirror of the achievements in the development and the application of the Macedonian literary language. In the sector of culture, the reporters, poets, and prose writers were competing in a greater and better incorporation of the new words, new coined words and expressions, which also meant evaluation of their efforts in following-up the modern language trends. The good interpreters gave their verses a new spirit and sense, which was new for the listeners, something that had not been experienced before, a spiritual pleasure, thanks to the softness and melodiousness of the Macedonian language and the richness of words that were used to present the desired idea or message.

live radio program performance

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From todays distance, we can freely say that the crown of all these efforts is the Festival of Struga Poetry Evenings that was born upon the initiative of the top Macedonian writers who had spent a part of their lives as reporters, editors, and directors in Radio Skopje, where they achieved their affirmation as authors and became extraordinary good connoisseurs of the Macedonian literary language. Many of them contributed to the translation of the Macedonian poetry in all the international languages, while thanks to them the radio dramas for children and adults and musical broadcasts with specific radiophone expressions got high European prizes in prestigious radio festivals. By fostering the Macedonian literary language via the ether, the radio artists made close the Macedonian language to the ordinary listener with their excellent interpretations in dramas, radio narrations, poetical verses, and folk creations, while many citizens corrected their former incorrect speech either in the intonation or the diction, eliminating at the same time the influences of the languages spoken in the neighboring countries. One of the most important elements of the radio expression was and it still is the education, equally for students and adults, via educational and historical-documentary broadcasts. The broadcast dedicated to the young population from the beginning to the middle of the 80s had a recognizable brand in the Macedonian Radio programs. Its authors and executors were young reporters, enthusiasts, who used their youth and vanguard views towards modern life to bring freshness, new ideas, and a competitive spirit with the other. YU Radio centers. The Waves of the Youth Program was the nursery of talents who were the first to launch live broadcasts, which were later practiced in morning, evening, and afternoon program belts. This was the new, the modern, and contemporary radio that reached its culmination in the rich program contents, new radio speaking expression, and technical innovations in the first years of the independence of the Republic of Macedonia. Following-up the transformation of the socio-political and economic establishment of the country, the reporters from the Macedonian Radio did not omit the opportunity to raise their professionalism to the highest level so that all such ideas could find a place and be elaborated in the programs. In this period, the three programs of the Macedonian Radio experienced a complete transformation and openness to the listeners via the 24-hour open contacts. According to the research of the Institute for Sociological and Political Legal Researches and the Galup Institute, the Macedonian Radio enjoyed the full confidence of the listeners with 68%. For the author of this text this rise implied that his professional and life motto every telephone - microphone, every listener - interlocutor

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and collaborator came true. It is important to emphasize that with the permanent presence of the open, contact programs, the listeners went through an experienced transformation in accepting the responsibility for the uttered word, and the everyday use of the popular speech was gradually, but successfully, replaced with the use of the modern Macedonian literary language. This program and educational achievement is still in process and superstructure. With the mid-wave transmitter of 1,200 kilowatts in Ovce Pole broadcasting in Macedonian, the long-planned concept for permanent contacts with our co-patriots living in European countries came to be fulfilled. So, on 29 November 1970 the broadcast Voice from the Fatherland began its broadcast, which is still on the program of the Macedonian Radio 38 years later, now as a special Satellite Service Program- Radio Macedonia heard in every corner of the globe. The idea is not changing, which is as follows: to foster the mother Macedonian language in new milieus and to preserve and renew the language that the third and the fourth generation of young Macedonians have started to forget. Furthermore, the attention is focused on fast transmission and information about the life and events in the country, with a special emphasis on the direct communication in Macedonian with contents available to all the ages of migrants and cooperation with about 40 radio stations broadcasting in the Macedonian language throughout the world. The educational function for preserving and fostering the Macedonian language is fulfilled via direct involvement of our co-patriots in the program, too. The Voice from the Fatherland has now a new, modern contact approach in its realization via the internet and satellite connection. In the second half of the 60s, with the development of the speaking and musical program, the international cooperation started to be developed, first with short addendums in Macedonian, then with information broadcasts, radio drama, and musical shows. The first breakthrough with regular broadcasts in Macedonian was made with the Swedish National Radio, then with the Australian Radio in Melbourne and Sydney. We have the longest and the most fruitful cooperation with Deutsche Welle Voice of Germany from Cologne. The first ten-minute broadcast was realized on 11 May 1969, the Agreement for permanent cooperation with the Macedonian Radio was signed in October of the same year, and this cooperation is still continuing. The Deutsche Welle broadcasts in Macedonian are transmitted every day on the Macedonian Radio program, which is then distributed by several private local radio stations in Macedonia.

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Macedonian radio folk orchestra

The Macedonian language had its worlds promotion and affirmation with the introduction of the daily information service of the BBC, which is broadcast on the Second Program of the Macedonian Radio. During the war crisis in SFRY, the Radio Station Free Europe from Prague, the Czech Republic, showed interest to broadcast in the Macedonian language. All these information broadcasts have a large number of regular listeners throughout the world, equally among the Macedonians and the people who understand or speak the Macedonian language, which they have learned either in seminars or during their longer stay in the Republic of Macedonia. The Macedonian language was the motif and inspiration for musical authors, too. From the beginning of 1945 to 1954 the musical part of the program was going live. Musical orchestras and performers of Macedonian folk songs and dances were changing places in the studio. The improvement of the technical possibilities led to the taping of the first works in folk, pop, and classic music, and today the sound archive of the Macedonian Radio has over 250,000 musical units. The authors started writing their creations in the Macedonian language. It was not easy to find the real expression, verse, rhyme, and short text with few words because of the cadence and the tonality. The first tapes of foreign songs translated in Macedonian were made in 1954. Those were the melodies Kazi zosto me ostavi (Tell Me Why You Left Me, trans.) performed by Nikola-Bobi Avtovski and Ljubov, ti nezen son (Love, You Tender Dream, trans.) performed by Ljupka Apostolova and Nikola-Bobi Avtovski.

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In 1955 the first taped Macedonian melodies made by Macedonian authors are Indiana by Dragan Gjakonovski and Ohrid sin (Ohrid Blue, trans.) by Slobodan Nikolovski-Bode. New orchestras were created, and new authors-scriptwriters appeared in the folk and pop music, prizes were received in festivals in former Yugoslavia, but festivals were also organized in the Republic of Macedonia, like in: Skopje, Stip, Ohrid, Bitola, Valandovo, as a continuity of a rich historical tradition in fostering the musical tradition among the Macedonian people. Top performers from former Yugoslavia were taking part in all these musical festivals, singing songs by Macedonian authors and in the Macedonian language. All this contributed to the musical and cassette production of original musical works then, as well as today, on the selective Balkan market. Via the musical broadcasts, a new, expressive style in the use of the Macedonian language was profiled at the general satisfaction of the young population. With the arrival of new professionals, on 15 September 1962 the Second Program was introduced, which was specialized in the life of the Capital of the Republic of Macedonia Skopje. On 18 December 1978 the Third Program was launched with the aim of turning to modern events, new originals, knowledge and ideas through a scientific and cultural approach that were offering explanations for the current phenomena and tendencies by indicating to their consequences. There is always a first time, and this goes for the Radio programs as well. Let us mention just two curiosities: on 12 June 1946 the first Radio transmission took place from the City Stadium in Skopje from the football match between the teams of Makedonija and Pobeda. The reporter was the editor-inchief Kole Casule. This event is marked as the day of sport radio-operating in Macedonia. As a specific expression, the radio reporting since that year, 1946, until today has been accepted by numerous young reporters who, after adequate training, developed their specific, recognizable style of speaking and using The first sport event radio broadcast

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the Macedonian language. The severe critics are merciless when they are dealing with the intonation and the dynamic of the speech, the purity of the word, and the meaning of the sentence. According to the color of the voice, the eloquent and professional manners in the commentaries, every listener could recognize and make a selection among the Macedonian sport radio operators. The many-a-year experience showed that they covered very successfully all the events from worlds European, Balkan, and Mediterranean championships with their professional approach, including Winter and Summer Olympic Games. In the history of the Macedonian Radio the transmission has been stopped only twice. The first time it was connected with the flood in Skopje in November 1962 when the Studio was dislocated from 17 Marksova St. near the transmitter in Madzari and after a period of 50 minutes Radio Skopje was again in program from the improvised studio. The second time the reason for a five-hour break in the program was the disastrous earthquake on 26 July 1963 at 5.30 a.m. that ruined Skopje to the grounds. With the super efforts of the technicians, engineers, reporters, and speakers, the signal of Radio Skopje sounded loudly again

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The first trademark signal of Tv skopje in 1963

from the transmitter in Madzari and news was constantly disseminated to the world about the consequences of the earthquake, but also about the assistance and solidarity from all over the world, after which Skopje became the city of worlds solidarity that the citizens will never forget. At the end of the 50s in the last century plans were being made in the facilities of Radio Skopje about conquering the new world information challenge the Television, although the world was already obsessed with the phenomenon of the century moving picture receiving. In 1958 preparations were made for receiving the TV picture and on 22 October of the same year the Council of Radio Skopje brought the decision to form a team that would examine the possibilities for receiving the TV signal, for technical equipment, and normally, for program substances. Only a year later the first experimental transmission of the Italian Television started in Bitola and Prilep. At that time there were only 10 TV sets in these towns, and the program was most watched in Bitola Hotel Central. The work for the construction of repertoires continued, as well as the installation of the equipment that was also financed by the state, and in September 1961 the first core of people working on Television was

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formed. Dimce Bozinovski was the leader. Cameramen, reporters, directors, and so on were employed with the task to shoot and prepare substances and broadcasts that would be transmitted via Television Belgrade, normally in the Macedonian language.The reporters were sometimes in live shows in TV Belgrade News with their own commentaries. Reporters, cameramen, and technicians were constantly sent for trainings in Yugoslav TV enters, and later in Rome and Paris. The great enthusiasm of the emThe first Tv transmitter on Crn vrv ployed was crowned with a full program on 13 May 1963. Due to absence of its own studio and technique, the caravan was hosted in the Belgrade Studio with its complete team and it performed in live the ballet Concert with the solo performers from the Macedonian National Theater Elpida Pakovska and Jovan Pasti. On 8 September 1962 Skopje Radio The pioneers of Tv skopje Television was constituted, and its first elected director was Liljana Maneva. The continual efforts of the technical teams for the construction of their own transmitter came to realization on 8 April 1964 with the transmitter on Crn Vrv with 5 kilowatts power. On 5 June there followed the first live transmission. There was great joy and delight after the success. After the

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difficult beginnings, super efforts, initial experiences, and important achievements, the cornerstone date in the history of the Macedonian Television was laid. The counting officially started on 14 December 1964 with the first TV News from its own studio. Years of growth and maturation followed, including personnel, technical, and program improvement. The goal was only one: to create a national Television in Macedonian and with the clear stance that all programs, with the exception of childrens, entertainment, and sport broadcasts to be titled in the Macedonian language. The Tv news logos TV Skopje was slowly entering competition with the powerful TV centers in Belgrade, Zagreb, and Ljubljana, and in the meantime it was also developing cooperation with Eurovision and Intervision. The personnel profile of the reporters contributed to the realization of broadcasts from all genres, terms were conquered, ones own TV program was created as the fruit of the creative forces and collective work. The first acknowledgement started to arrive from TV festivals in SFRY for documentaries, reportages, childrens and musical broadcasts, TV series, dramas, and compound broadcasts in live from the field. All these accomplishments were professionally assessed by the European cultural public. Roads for program exchange were opened. On 2 August 1975 the casting of TV Skopje appeared from the worlds white-water kayaking championship on the river of Radika in Macedonia. In May 1978 TV Skopje got the highest prize that YU centers have ever won Silver Rose, in the international festival of entertaining broadcasts in Montr (Switzerland) with Darko Markovik, a caricaturist, as the author. The only goal was never abandoned in all these developments to im-

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shooting of the Tv series Macedonian Folk stories

prove the Macedonian language and its affirmation via various expressive forms and programs, first of all among the young generations of school and pre-school age. In this direction it is worthwhile mentioning the TV series Busavata azbuka (Shaggy Alphabet, trans.) that played an extraordinary educational role in function of fast learning of the letters from the Macedonian alphabet, similar and yet different from those in the neighboring countries, with the aim of correct pronunciation and easier writing of the letters, followed by a correct sentence construction and its loud interpretation. Another TV series deserves attention: it is Macedonian folk stories that reminds the adults of the different dialects in various regions in Macedonia, as well as of the rich national traditions, customs, and original folk music and folklore, which is for the children the first meeting and intimate, spiritual experience with this many-acentury long cultural wealth and heritage of the Macedonian people. In the history of Skopje TV, 6 March 1968 is a special day. The Second Program started operating on that day, and on 7 January 1991 the third channel began work Kanal-3. In brief, Skopje TV became the mirror of the Macedonian time: it was equally the church and the school, an alphabet and a passport with visa for the world, and a gratis ticket for cultural and sport manifestations. Skopje TV gave meaning to the life of the spectator and it became an irreplaceable segment of his everyday life, in one word it brought the world closer. In the era of computing technology, the Macedonian Radio and Television are now accomplishing

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the national strategy for links with the Macedonian citizens living in the Diaspora and their information about the current events in the country via the open Satellite Channel and broadcasts Migrants Juke-box and Connected. On the other hand, the reporters still have the duty to send the spectators a short but clear message by using the correct Macedonian language and speaking in the style of narrow to the words large to the thoughts showing in their direct addresses a strong concentration and top memory. After the independence of the Republic of Macedonia, as in the other countries from South-East Europe, there came an information revolution, supported by an appropriate legislation, normally. With the increased number of all means for public and mass communication, many goals for democratization of the society were achieved. Until 1997, before the adoption of the Law on Radio Diffusion, a real influx of registered private radio and TV stations and TV studios occurred, most of them without the necessary space, program, technical, and first of all professional conditions for radio diffusion activities. There was an absence of state control and thus most of the radio and television diffusers were operating without professionally sustained program schemes for a week, without 70% of proper, original program, without sufficiently trained technicians, in improvised studios without the necessary acoustic, without sufficient number of reporters, speakers, presenters, and so on. With the Law on Radio Diffusion activity and the beginning of the operation of the Council for Radio Diffusion the conditions were changed in the positive direction. At the beginning, there operated 140 radio and TV studios, and with the changes to the Law on Radio Diffusion in 2005, over half of them had their licenses taken away. At the moment, according to the latest data of the Council for Radio Diffusion, there are 61 radio stations and 50 commercial TV channels. Three radio stations and 5 TV channels have received national concessions, in which the Republic of Macedonia is unique in the Balkans. In such a competition, the public service of the Macedonian Television, first of all due to the transition period that has been going on for a long time, faced with financial difficulties and transfer of capable reporters and technicians, untimely collection of public taxes as the only source for existence, lost its breadth and is in the situation of being incapacitated for the technical and technological development in the program production. Moreover, the new rehabilitation program has not yet started to give the expected results. The employed, with discipline and incredible enthusiasm, are making their best to keep in pace with the challenges in the newly created situation hoping that with the help of the

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Government, the Parliament, and the other state institutions, the public service of the Macedonian Radio and Television will soon return to its feet and be completely at the service of the interests of the citizens and the Republic of Macedonia. On the other hand, the use of the Macedonian language has normally been faced with some difficulties and problems, first of all in the public address of the speakers in Macedonian. The lack of educated professionals has decreased the quality, the level of the use of the Macedonian problem, which is a problem that was not there in the past because language and style processed texts used to be transmitted. The democratization of the Macedonian ether implied increase and development of all the possible styles of the Macedonian language: the speaking language, the language of the young, the language in the street, and the language of official communication. All this has contributed to positive and negative occurrences in nearly all the electronic media. The negative ones refer to breaking-up the system of the standard language, that is to say the cultural idiom, because there were also material obstacles because of which proof-readers were laid off and this hole in the protection and correct use of the language remained unresolved. With the purpose of obtaining a clear picture about the use of the Macedonian literary language and its presentation in the Macedonian ether by the electronic media in Macedonia, the Council for Radio Diffusion formed a commission composed of professors from the department for Macedonian Language at the Blaze Koneski Faculty and from the Krste Misirkov Institute for Macedonian Language. The commission is headed by Prof. Ljudmil Spasov, who is giving the following assessment: These were the initial sicknesses in the process of the democratization of the Macedonian ether in the country that are slowly overcome with the development of the language communication, with awareness building for the use of the cultural idiom, not only of the strictly regulated standard, literary language, but also of the cultural level of speaking, with its own rules as a characteristic of the educated class of the society. The development of the awareness for the language is, among the rest, owed to the numerous campaigns conducted from different places and levels. In order to succeed in this, we need a more systematic approach to the affirmation of the care of the society, but also a developed awareness of those using the Macedonian language, especially in the educational segment of the society. On the other hand, we are aware that the slang and the over-dialect language, or the language composed of a mixture of several dialects, have their place in the drama facilities, parties, and

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happenings. However, we must never lose the awareness that we are speaking Macedonian, that it is our native language and that we cannot replace it with any other, for instance the English. This is the period in which the awareness for the use of the Macedonian language should consolidate, including the one for the rules of the normative language, its orthography, its alphabet, its letters, its Cyrillic. It is necessary to learn foreign languages more because this is the ticket to the European Union, but we must also be aware that the Macedonian language is spoken here. The so-far partial expert analyses on the use of the Macedonian language in the ether via the programs of all the radio and TV stations indicate that it is indispensable for the reporters who have been educated in Europe or the United States to avoid the English reporting intonation in their everyday communication with the listeners and viewers and thus evade the de-concentration among the consumers of the news, and most importantly, not to let the news lose its primary intention: to inform. These are the reasons why the entire ether must be cleansed from the influx of influences from the Anglo-Saxon region and it is the time for the Macedonian electronic media to reaffirm their past, extremely important and useful speaking courses and correct speaking, which were once, for which we already spoke at the beginning of the text, a regular practice in the Macedonian Radio and Television. Today, the Macedonian literature is keeping pace with the worlds literature in all genres: poetry, prose, dramas, while the best works, processed in poetical mosaics, drama narrations, and radio dramas, are presented via the ether as a worlds cultural wealth and heritage because with the successful many-a-year long exchange they have become accessible to all the listeners in the world via the national and public radio services, of course. This simply confirms the Macedonian national identity and deep roots of the Macedonian language as special, original, and authentic. The foundation of the modern Macedonian language lies in the folk literature, in the rich poetry, stories, proverbs, fables, and riddles, which means that the tradition is as long as the life of the Macedonian people is. This is the only way in which one can explain the development of the Macedonian literature. In the past 65 years, since the establishment of the Macedonian free and independent Macedonian ether, all the Radio and Television houses in the Republic of Macedonia have given and they are still giving an enormous contribution to the worlds cultural and scientific public with this wealth, which best supports the truth that Macedonia is not a language province. The numerous Radio, Television,

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and Film awards and acknowledgements received by Macedonian authors in international festivals are another confirmation for this. The audience that is monitoring these events, listening to and watching the creations offered by Macedonian authors is closer to the mellifluous Macedonian language as one of the oldest worlds languages. Blaze Koneski, the most outstanding Macedonian figure of the postwar period and of a scientific and cultural view, stated the following on one occasion: I do not consider myself to be provincial, not in science, less in literature. I had strong predecessors in these activities. What a figure was Krste Misirkov! Nothing happens by chance in life. Everything has its mainstream, but the question is how objective a person wants to be and how objectively he will see the facts. And even Gods keep quiet in front of facts. Henceforth, it is not difficult to deduce that only the uninformed and the bad-intentioned people in the world can dispute today a factual situation. Ph. D. Trajko Stamatovski adds to this thesis and comments: Since 60 years back, until up-to-date, top Slavists from all over the world have spoken affirmatively about the existence of the Macedonian language, literature, and culture via the programs of the Macedonian Radio and they still do. Nobody in the Republic of Macedonia ever asked them to recognize the Macedonian language. On the contrary: It was enough for them to come, to see Macedonia, and to make their own conclusion as to whether here lives a separate people, whether they have a separate language, culture, and traditions. Experience says that upon their first visit in the 50s none of them ever hesitated as regards the autonomy of the Macedonian people and its language. The greatest among the Slavists Roman Jacobson, the French Slavists Andr Rouillant and Andr Mason wrote between the First and the Second World Wars about the particularities of the Macedonian language. This question was once and for all closed down at the Fourth Congress of Slavists in Moscow in 1958, when Slavists from Macedonia participated in all the Congress commissions and when Academicians Blaze Koneski and Haralampie Polenakovik presented their reports. Since then, the number of Macedonian Slavists has been rising at every following congress, and at the latest one, the 14th in row, held in Ohrid from 10 to 16 September 2008, 30 Slavists- Macedonianists presented their papers. As an illustration for the penetration of the Macedonian language in the ether today I will indicate Stamatovskis statement given for the Voice from the Fatherland program intended to our compatriots in the Diaspora after his latest visit to Poland: I had Macedonia in Poland: In the evening via the radio, during the day via the satellite signal,

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and with the press via the internet connections in the morning. The communication technology gives us this pleasure, but it is the duty and responsibility of our journalists what substances will be presented via the ether, with what language and correct speech.


Rade siljan



Rade sIljan Activists in the Macedonian national Revival Movement Dimitar Miladinov is the first cultural advocate and zealot of the spiritual processes in the Macedonian 19th century Renaissance. The work of this stirrer in the fields of education, culture, nation, and creation is followed and continued with great success by his disciples: Partenie Zografski, Konstantin Miladinov, Rajko Zinzifov, Grigor Prlicev, Kuzman Sapkarev, Marko Cepenkov, and others. With his creative accomplishments they will gave a great contribution to the development of the national-cultural and historical processes of the Macedonian people. As a matter of fact, in their individual creative accomplishments they will resurrect the idea about the spiritual wealth of our people and its consistent national aspirations for freedom and independent social, spiritual, and national development. In the years of national ascension, Partenie Zografski will become the first Bishop of Macedonian origin, while Konstantin Miladinov, Rajko Zinzifov, Grigor Prlicev, Kuzman Sapkarev, and Marko Cepenkov will literally grow into leaders of the awakening of the centuries-long oppressed Macedonian creative and national spirit and identity. In the letter sent to the residents of Kukus (kept by Rajko Zinzifov), Dimitrije Miladinov the teacher is openly expressing his joy because soon the churches will be giving services in the Macedonian language. In this important document he is revealing the bitter truth about the Greek expansionism and barbarianism in concluding that the Greek archpriests have burnt the parchment Slavic books everywhere thus mutilating the Slavic clergy.
Rade Siljan Writer and literature critic, President of the Association of Macedonian Writers and laureate of the greatest award for literature Brakja Miladinovci (Miladinovci brothers trans.)

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Throughout their lives the brothers Dimitar and Konstantin Miladinov had firmly stuck to their basic determinations regarding the clergy and the education. In reference to their life and steady on-going Odyssey, Rajko Zinzifov will note Partenie zografski Konstantin Miladinov as follows: if they had agreed with the proposal of the Catholics, they might have been saved from execution. However, the brothers did not change their views and beliefs, neither in relation to their nationality, nor as regards the national confession and they preferred to die As a person with great talent and high education, with profound initiatives and national ideas, direct and firm in the enlightening inventiveness and determinations, Dimitar Miladinov is the leader and the most outstanding fighter for our enlightenment and development of the cultural tradition and national thought. He is suggestive and convincing in elucidating the problems with a clear message and thought. So, Grigor Prlicev will write the following about him: His word was flowing out of his mind like honey. Holy fire was burning from his eyes. In his address to the editor of the Bulgarian newspaper in Constantinople Alexander Egzarh, our spiritual herald openly wrote about his discomfort in expressing his Slavic feelings in the Greek language. In his confession he bitterly describes the big misunderstandings and the obstacles to the spiritual progression of the Macedonian people. The founder of the modern Macedonian literature Koco Racin, in the study The Development and the Significance of a New Literature of Ours, writes that the members of the Macedonian national revival movement are writers deeply committed to the national ideals, firmly grounded on their real, vigilant, and only friends from the most progressive segment of their people So, the Miladinov brothers were the first among the members of the Macedonian national revival movement who express the importance of the use of the Macedonian language in the enlightenment of the people. In his plea from 1856 Konstantin Miladonov also writes about the goal of his schooling in Russia, especially about his desire to expand his knowledge about the Slavic philology. He repeats the same desires and intentions three years later, in his letter to Georgi Rakovski, in which

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he calls the language spoken in Struga our dialect. In this letter, he calls himself and the other students-Macedonians with their real names, and he also informs him that he has collected many Macedonian songs. According to Blaze Koneski, the activity of the members of the Macedonian national revival movement is characterized by the active relationship towards the questions of the national development and the vivid feelings for the people who were under very unfavorable conditions. Their leading idea throughout life is the strong desire for the enlightenment of the people and their liberation from foreign influences. However, in the approach and in the practical application of their ideals they are particularly distinguished for their understanding of the specific treats of the literary language. In this sense Konstantin is tracing the best road by using the vernacular in his creative work. On the other hand, Rajko Zinzifov is obsessed by ideas about Slavophilism and he is aspiring to the Bulgarian-Macedonian language variant, while Grigor Prlicev tried, on the grounds of the old Slavic language, to develop a literary language that might be common for all the Slavs. The general impression is that the works of the members of the Macedonian national revival movement are dominated by the poetic expression. Rare are the works like Autobiography by Prlicev and Prosedba by Zinzifov, which are memoirs and biographies of a reportertravel notes character. The characteristics regarding their works are directly connected with verbal lyricism (Konstantin Miladinov) and borrowing motives from the epic (Grigor Prlicev). The eminent writers from the Macedonian national revival movement are writing their works under the direct influence of the verbal literature and outstanding names from other literatures. So, Prlicev is under the direct influence of Homer, and Zinzifov of Nekrasov and Shevchenko. However, according to the indications made by Hristo Georgievski, there also appear some stylistic controversies: In his poetry, Konstantin Miladinov has kept the beauty and functionality of the intimate and descriptive-social verbal lyrics. Prilicevs translations of the Ulysses and his verses from Greek seem anachronous and rather pale. Zinzifovs experiment in introducing a kind of a medium language, that is to say an artificial synthesis, made his verses slow and expressively verbal. A balance of the poetical results is also missing. The tragic experiences of Prlicev and Zinzifov indicate the complex situation of the time in which they created and uncover the difficult struggle for introducing the vernacular and the great resistance to the creation of the literary language. There is a general conclusion in our science of literature that the members of the Macedonian national revival movement introduced

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autonomy in literature and a recognizable national identity. Their poetic accomplishments represent a basis and a foundation for the later directions in the development of the Macedonian literature. Konstantin Miladinov, through the beauties of the vernacular, has established clear thematic and artistic relations; he elevated the national spirit to a high level. In his poems, he openly and precisely indicates the characteristics of the Macedonian climate. This was particularly accomplished on a high and creative way in the cult poem Taga za jug (Sorrow for the South, trans.) in which the poetic inventiveness and the national versification values are interwoven. With this poem, Konstantin Miladinov turned the first sod in the Macedonian artistic poetry. As a matter of fact, the long-lasting battle for the emancipation of the language and of the original Macedonian creative work started with his poems, especially with the Collection. The Collection of the Miladinov brothers is our Bible, because thanks to this work the achievements of our national genius come to a particular expression in the national frameworks and at large. The appearance of this work is considered a triumph for the progressive Macedonian revolutionary and intellectual forces. The great illumination of the language and the essence of the Macedonians came to the expression with it. Konstantin Miladinov writes his first verses in cold Moscow. According to Haralampie Polenakovic, his work around the folk songs has significantly contributed to his creative activity. Konstantin Miladinov is a poet of a pure and direct sensation. His verses are musical and fused with the poets internal drama. He introduced lyrical emotionality and sensation; he overcame the insufficiently reanimated non-symmetric decasyllable expression and laid the basic points towards creativity and high poetical goal. He published most of his poems in Bratski trud, Blgarski kniznici and Dunavski lebed. There is not a brisk border between the folk singing and the individual feeling for lyrical expression in Miladinovs poems. In Taga za jug the poet affirms the originality of the poetical voice and the subject; he deeply experiences the light and the heat of the atmosphere in his native region. He affirms the principles of love for justice and truth with sincere feelings, which overgrow into his life and poetic attitude. Via the lyrical high spirits and beautifully prompted verses he describes the drama of solitude and nostalgia for the sunny native landscapes. So, for Konstantin Miladinov the poem is an act of survival; it is the true picture of the young spiritual restlessness. Actually, the poet is making confession through the poems. Thus, he is skillfully defending himself from human temptations and troubles in life in distant and cold Moscow. His message is

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thrilling and touching. It is shaped in strong emotions and soaked with the excitement of direct reality and the beauty of the folk lyrics. Rajko Zinzifov was also educated and active in Russia. He is one of the first biographers of Rajko zinzifov Grigor Prlicev Miladinov. He is the author of thirty six poems in which he stresses the romantic individual rebellion in the relationship towards the Slavic brotherly alliance and the past of his people. Dimitar Miladinovs views will have a specific influence on his determinations. His utopian language represents a great obstacle to expressing clearly and concisely the poetical thoughts of love for the Fatherland, its beauty, but also human injustices. His best work Krvava kosulja (Bloodstained Shirt, trans.) was created under the direct influence of the Ukrainian poet Taras Shevchenko. As a matter of fact, the work of this great author was his challenge and thus he embarked on translating it in Macedonian. Grigor Prlicev is the brightest point and the most important representative of the Macedonian national revival movement. High literature criteria will be always applied in the evaluation of his capital works Serdarot (The Sirdar, trans.) and Skender-beg (Skender-bey, trans.). Actually, our second Homer is a unique literature figure not only in the 19th century but up-to-date. He is a real pattern for the developed literatures, too. He remained faithful to his national ideals until the end of his life, consistently following the example of Dimitrija Miladinov. After the execution of the Miladinov brothers, he tried to breakup with his mistakes, especially with the Greek influence. The idea for a common Slavic language will prevail with him. However, by becoming distant from the Greek influence, he will silence the poet in himself and he will sing like an owl rather than like a nightingale. He will give up the privileges offered to him after his success in a competition in Athens when he won the first prize for his poem Serdarot in 1860, when he received the laurel wreath. Prlicevs affiliation to the high ideals is directed to legendary persons. His ideals are Skender-bey and Kuzman Kapidan. While singing of their daring exploits and heroic deeds, the poet is linking the national ideals with a strong artistic impulse. He takes Homers poetics

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as the starting point singing with inspiration for the heroes and their daring exploits. The epic harmony occupies the central place in shaping high aesthetic messages. The poet believes in the strength of the artistic word, developing his own artistic entity with strong and unique messages. He particularly emphasizes the relations between the historical processes and the tragic experiences of his people. For the accomplishment of the artistic messages, he takes over the values from the rich folk creativity that is in correlation with his poetics. So, the stressed presence of mourners inSerdarot is exciting and important for the composition of the work itself. In relation to the formation of the daring exploits and the tragic essence of his heroes, the Skenderbeg epic has a vivid reflexivity, too. All this has been based on a historical foundation, and the activity is taking place in a recognizable place. The hero, originating from the peoples plains, is artistically and epically devised in the ultimate creative form. The poet makes the literature message universal, and he emphasizes to an expressively burning point the immaculate heroic spirit of the hero. So, in Serdarot Grigor Prlicev synthesizes the contradictions of the internal and the external world, and he emphasizes and separates the epic action. The poets of the Macedonian national revival movement elaborate kindred subjects and motives in their works. Their ideological principles are also identical. Konstantin Miladinov and Zinzifov are merged in their nostalgia, while Grigor Prlicev is merged in the lyrical-epic genre. The ilinden period After the brilliant literary accomplishments of the members of the Macedonian national revival movement a vacuum follows until the stormy and revolutionary events of the Ilinden (St. Elias Day, Anniversary of the uprising of the Macedonians on 2nd August 1903) period. In this crucial time for the Macedonian historic survival, our literature does not have an outstanding literary representative. As a matter of fact, there are some creative outbursts that are under the direct influence of the folk poetry, but they are not typical and lack literary autonomy. The writers are fighting on the front and creating on the battle fields, thus becoming unhesitating and real witnesses of the bloody events and heroic deeds. This is particularly expressed in the works of Lazar Poptrajkov (Lokvata i Vinjari), (The Puddle and the Vintner trans.), of Atanas Razdelov (in his poems about Macedonia), and of Arsenie Jovkov (in his poems Prokletina, Jasnogrejci, and Lule Burgas, as well as in his voluminous work, the novel in verses Ilinden), who are describing with sincere

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emotions and laud the sufferings of the Macedonian people and the daring exploits of the Macedonian heroes. Thanks to their nave modest, but from the historical point of view very important works, today we have literary testimonies about Goce Delcev, Pitu Guli, Jane Sandanski, Damjan Gruev, and many other heroes, who are largely accepted by the popular masses. Marko Cepenkov also belongs to this group of authors as the most famous collector of folk wit creations. Namely, he is creating in the pre-Ilinden, the Ilinden, and the post-Ilinden period by giving his literary contribution to the individual artistic work. In this chapter of the Macedonian history and literature the work of Nikola Kirov Majski is definitely occupying an important and nonsurpassed place, especially the historical-memoirs Epopeja na Krusevo (The Epos of Krusevo) and Manifestot na Krusevskata Republika (The Manifest of the Krusevo Republic). The works of the representatives of the Ilinden period, although without greater artistic value, represent an unsurpassed chapter in the developing processes of the Macedonian literature. Actually, they are the connective tissue between the high thematic and aesthetic values accomplished by the members of the Macedonian national revival movement and the top creative accomplishments of the writers between the two world wars incorporated in the works of Koco Racin, Venko Markovski, Nikola Jonkov Vapcarov, Mite Bogoevski, and Kole Nedelkovski. The Macedonian Literary Society in Sofia The formation of the Macedonian Literary Society in Sofia in 1938 represents an important chapter in our literature. Its members are outstanding writers, like: Nikola Jonkov Vapcarov, Angel Zarov (Mihail Smatrakalev), Anton Popov, Gjorgji Abadziev, Todor Janev, Kiril Nikolov, Asen Surdov-Vedrov, Anton Velikov-Belomorski, Ivan Kereziev, and Vasil Aleksandrov. This group of literary public figures was later joined by Venko Markovski and Kole Nedelkovski. Some top intellectuals have also participated in and given contribution to this Society, especially Todor Pavlov who held a lecture on social realism as a guest member. We can note the organized activities of this Society until 1941. According to Gane Todorovski, the Macedonian literary Society is the only Macedonian illegal writers association between the two world wars, an extremely illuminating chapter in the development of the new Macedonian literature, a brave and necessary association of the young, progressive, and enterprising people, completely aware of their high mission in the ideological, national-political and cultural

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enlightenment and qualification of their people bereft of their rights for centuries, fully prepared to imprint their seal, their share, and their vision during the crucial years of the liberation struggle. During their every-day socializations, the young enthusiasts were discussing about the literary, the social, and the national challenges of the time. The report of Nikola Vapcarov, which was read at the constitutional assembly of the Macedonian Literary Society, is of testimonial significance for their activity. The role of Anton Popovs texts is of special importance for the literary processes. As an author with a shrewd spirit and clear critical thought, he is describing at large the poetical creations of Angel Zarov, Koco Racin, Nikola Vapcarov, and Kole Nedelkovski. This unavoidable chapter in our literature is a subject of expanded, supported, and thorough analyses of several Macedonian literary critics and historians of literature, among who we will in particular mention the names of Dimitar Mitrev, Gane Todorovski, Blaze Ristovski, Miodrag Drugovac, Done Panovski, Hristo Georgievski, Vasil Tocinovski, and so on. koco Racin The Man of our time and Future Racin is the most outstanding figure in the Macedonian literature in the period between the wars. He is the prime mover of freedom and of the free thought; a revolutionary and a poet, not only for his time filled with contradictions, but also for the present day time, for the modern era. He was born to become a popular tribune and the leading star of our poetical thought. The importance of his work is unique, special, and universal. He was writing poems about the worker, never reducing him to a pure date in his poems, but raising him to the level of a creative and portent personality, giving him a large anthropological dimension, elevating the morning to the level of an important daily routine. That was his vision for the present and the future: this simply represented his sincere view about the new, the insurmountable, and the unrepeatable. As Academician Aleksandar Spasov puts it nicely, the collection of verses Beli Mugri (White Daybreak, trans.) developed on the tradition is now a tradition itself . It is a tradition on which a new modern poetry in Macedonian is created. With the appearance of Beli mugri there came to a meeting between the tradition and the modern sensibility. It was the accomplishment of an act that had, it still has, and it will have for a long time to come, extraordinary resulting consequences for the Macedonian poetical tradition. This is exactly why whenever we go back to the name and work of Racin, we go back to the inexhaustible source of our folk and artistic word accomplished through centuries.

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Racin is an epoch, marked with his name and poetry. His work links the Macedonian poetry with the worlds mainstreams. He is not just a follower of Hegel, but also a sincere associate and follower of Konstantin Miladinov and Koco Racin Blaze Koneski Grigor Prlicev. In the ideas and the emancipation of the Macedonian poetical word he defended, and succeeded in doing so, the dignity of life and arts. He united his mastership in writing verses and the ascension of the progressive ideas. And as we know, he transformed slavery into a real university, tragic in direct practice, especially in poetry as the real house of those bereft of their rights. The verses in Beli mugri are imposing as an artistic ideal, as the life of the language and the national genius are. This is why Racin is the man of our time and future. This is why the name of Koco Racin is the abbreviation for the name of all of us, as Blaze Koneski noted. His work is an unusual challenge and it represents a creative break-up with the Macedonian underdeveloped but interesting literature before that. It represents an exclusive historical event, a synthesis of the national and individual spirit. Thanks to Racin, the Macedonian literature was included in the important mainstreams of the Balkan and European literatures on an equal footing. Unlike Kole Nedelkovski, Mite Bogoevski, Aco Karamanov and some others, Koco Racin accomplished some demarcations between the real criticism and socio-political comment, between the needs of the time and poetry. He profiled himself as a poet in the contradictions and thus outlived his time. He copied the spirit of the Macedonians and the Macedonian land. Through its touch with the land, as Academician Georgi Stardelov notes, poetry gains a mythical dimension in which we most directly feel the land as the mother, the one giving birth, the suffering one. Racin is the first Macedonian writer who clearly understood the language of the worker and of the intellectual. Thanks to his work, he became a poet a legend for the Macedonian literature and the Macedonian national reality in general.

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general Marks about the Macedonian Literature At the time of the National Liberation War poetical works appeared in the Macedonian literature that, in a very simple way, I would say in a very popular and ballad-like way, sang of the revolution and the military daring exploits and heroism of the fighters. Their basic characteristic involved the generally accepted principle to express belief in the victory over the infamous fascist enemy. And all these poems were interwoven with a romantic fervor and with an outburst of sadness for the tragic experiences of the people that was stoically getting killed in opposing the aggressor. The poets of that time, basing their poetry on a more general relation, immortalized the aspiration to liberal ideals very authentically, with an expression of belief in the big deed of the Macedonian people. The associative-ballad poem in those years of desires, ideals, and aspirations appeared as a continuation of the folk poetical thread based on the tradition of the Macedonian folk song. In this regard the patriotic tune with clear ingredients of a very expressive, and we could say stressed singing of the Revolution, occupied a dominating place in the general trends of the literature created on our soil. As a matter of fact, the modest tradition of the 19th century, the pre-Ilinden and the post-Ilinden period, as well as the tradition in the period between the two world wars, was of immeasurable importance for the faster, more expressed, and more emphasized trend of the poetic understanding. From todays point of view we can clearly say that the artistic singing in this stormy period was based on a very authentic and insurmountable poetical plights created in the past period, which used as their base the emphasized national element with ingredients of a neatly profiled mark of the proletarian poetry present in the more developed European cultural centers. During these years of ascension and national aspirations, of impeccable heroism and endless ideals, the Macedonian poets started the longest road to victory with a clear vision and determination for final victory and free thought and unbreakable national entity. Having in front of them first of all the poetical achievements of Konstantin Miladinov, Grigor Prlicev, Rajko Zinzifov, Koco Racin, Nikola Jonkov Vapcarov, Venko Markovski, Kole Nedelkovski, Mite Bogoevski and some others, the first creations of Blaze Koneski, Slavko Janevski, Aco Sopov, Gogo Ivanovski, and Lazo Karovski appeared in the whirlpool of the war, and together with the prose writers Jovan Boskovski, Gjorgji Abadziev, and Kole Casule, as well as the play writers Risto Krle, Vasil Iljoski, and Anton Panov they mark the beginning of the modern Macedonian literature. In that period, and later, just after the liberation,

The Macedonian Poetry in the 19th and 20th Century - 43

at the time of the collectivization and construction of the state, they bore the biggest burden in the codification and in the standardization of the literary Macedonian language. The presence of romantic tunes, interwoven with elements of popular folklore, is dominating in the poetry created at the beginning of this period. The authors, in establishing their literary ideal on a broad relation, will sing of the revolution with idyllic fervor as an expression of the centuries-long aspirations of the Macedonian people, a fervor that was in many ways, and according to many elements, the main characteristic in the freedom-loving singing of our fatherland for a long period of time. Nevertheless, in the first years following the war, we can see the transitional steps from romantic ideal and constructing passion; on the one side, immediately after the National Liberation War, the great achievements of the Revolution were sung of, and on the other side the construction successes of the youth and of the entire Macedonian people were sung of with creative enthusiasm. In that period appeared the first creative announcements of Gane Todorovski, Mateja Matevski, Srbo Ivanovski, Genadi Bolinovski, Ante Popovski, and so on, who are in direct accord with the environment and the literature created among us. Any more detailed analysis of the creative work from the first post-war years will clearly indicate that the poetical achievements do not correspond with higher aesthetic standards seen and commented from the present day aspect. However, the act of creating, the exciting set of motives, no matter that they may not be on the height of the real profile and the stressed aesthetic form, remain authentic, unrepeatable, and acceptable due to their humane message even from a greater time distance. So, we can conclude that the creation of literature at that time is equally an act of aesthetic and construction it is an act of the great victory of the Macedonian people, of the Macedonian culture and language. The reviewers and commentators of the modern Macedonian literature nearly always give the priority to poetry in their range of interest. Obviously, the achieved results in the period of more expressed development of this literary kind since liberation up-to-date impose the need for a more comprehensive interpretation, presentation, involvement, and analysis. Until the second half of the 60s, this had to do with predominantly expressed poetical layers. This is the reason why the poetry was more emphatically presented and legitimized in the Macedonian cultural space as well as in broader frameworks. So, the more important poetical achievements and streams, which were caught and accepted directly, and established in union with the rich national tradition, contributed

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for the poetical word to be realized with greater comprehension, very impressively, and originally. The presence of new poetical tendencies and values in our region was expressively felt during the sixth and the seventh decade of the last century the period when the so-called third creative wave appeared. The results offered by the new names are already evident and insurmountable in the mainstreams of the modern Macedonian literature. During those years of particular development of the Macedonian poetry, aside the works of Slavko Janevski, Aco Sopov, Blaze Koneski, Gogo Ivanovski, Lazo Karovski, Gane Todorovski, Mateja Matevski, Srbo Ivanovski, Ante Popovski, the poetical books of Jovan Koteski, Radovan Pavlovski, Petre M. Andreevski, Bogomil Gjuzel, Ljuben Taskovski, Petar T. Boskovski, Mihail Rendzov, Jovan Pavlovski, Vlada Urosevik, Trajan Petrovski, Ivan Capovski, and Cedo Jakimovski flashed with their thematic originality and aesthetic freshness. If we speak of thematic and aesthetic achievements of the poets of the new literary wave, we can certainly conclude that their poetical announcements occupy an important place and it is a fact that their appearance established more rigid criteria in the critical assessments of our literature. Thanks to the openness of the literary periodic, and in any case of the rising interest of the publishers, there are a large number of capital and insurmountable titles from the members of the first generations of Macedonian writers in the library funds today. Carefully accepting the tradition of the Macedonian poetical word and following the trends of the European ones, and even the worlds literary mainstreams with a refined taste, the authors from the new poetical wave introduced in the artistic expression in our spiritual space quite a large number of innovative elements, original motif determinations, insurmountable aesthetic results, and clear views about art. There is no doubt that the poetical books of Svetlana Hristova Jocik, Gordana Mihajlova Bosnjakoska, Todor Calovski, Sande Stojcevski, Vele Smilevski, Pande Mihajlov, Risto Lazarov, Eftim Kletnikov, Olga Arbuljevska, Katica Kjulafkova, Petre Bakevski, Ivan Vasilevski, Vasile Dimeski, Liljana Dirjan, Slave Gjorgjo Dimovski, BrankoCvetkovski, Vera Cejkovska, Milovan Stefanovski, Kire Nedelkovski, and so on, occupy important places in this circle. We could not place their results under a common name, but there is no doubt that with their works they uncover new artistic spaces; they give the verse an emphasized intellectual dimension, at the same time tracing down unusual motives that are communicating in general and universal relations. It seems as though the images in their songs have been extracted from an outside world full of prejudices, unusual travels, unrealized dreams, visions, and dilemmas. Their creative pulsations often

The Macedonian Poetry in the 19th and 20th Century - 45

lack emphasized lyrical digressions and they nearly always accept the higher artistic goal. As a matter of fact, contrary to the already affirmed poetical tendencies, which were regularly in union with the immediate reality and national generic ambience, they often prefer the adventure in pursuit of the word and the subject. They have the feeling for a compound pursuit for new expressive tools that are not briskly separated from the tradition, which need an expressively reflexive meaning of the poetical thought. The poetical messages of the representatives of the fourth generation are expressed with a language that is rich, often with philosophical nuances. Henceforth, there is the impression that most of the authors in their works aspire to making a subject out of the poem, to giving the everyday and eternally present subjects a specific significance, in one word, they tend to include the messages from a different angle, with a special accent on the metaphor and on the new versification structure.


jelena luzina



jelena luzIna That evening, even before the curtain was raised at all, the audience gathered in the dazzling hall of Slavjanska beseda (Slavic Oration, trans.), the most beautiful and the biggest hall in all Sofia at the moment, was primarily touched by the melody and the words of the old and mournful song: sarakino, varaj, varaj, malka mome. ovcar sviri varaj, vdolno pole. (Beautiful, hear and listen, little lass. shepherds playing listen, in lower field.) Since that distant evening, which the Macedonian theatrical practice has recorded and commented as crucial for the history of our theater in the evening of 20th November 1900, the opening night of Makedonska krvava svadba (Macedonian Bloody Wedding, trans.) by Vojdan Pop Georgiev Cernodrinski 45 years had to pass before the historical dates of the codification of the Macedonian alphabet, the definition of the initial regulations of the Macedonian orthography and the edition of the first Macedonian Grammar came true. During this time, as we know, many things happened And they all led to the one that is of the outmost importance: The ASNOM (Anti Fascist Assembly of the National Liberation of Macedonia) Macedonia was defined/constituted as a state, committed to and capable of protecting its identity and language.
D-r Jelena Luzina (1950, Dubrovnik, Republic of Croatia), Theatrologist, Full Professor at the Faculty of Dramatic Arts in Skopje, founder and head of the Institute of Theatrology in Skopje.

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In which language did then, on 20 November 1900, sing and act the actors of Vojdan Pop Georgiev Cernodrinski, performing in Sofias Slavjanksa beseda the mythical tragedy in five acts from the Macedonian life, a performance after which nothing was the same in the Macedonian drama and the Macedonian theater? What do the words sarakino, varaj, varaj, malka mome mean at all? Where do they come from? vojdan Cernodrinski The extensive Dictionary of Koneski (Dictionary in three volumes edited in 1961) says that sarakino is dialectal and, depending on its syntactic position, it can be either a noun (it then means: pole, long stick) or an adjective (it then means: dear, loveable, beautiful, handsome). The next word, the archaic one, the style-indicative and for todays urban Macedonian speaker totally enigmatic varaj, is an interjection. The quoted verse symptomatically repeats/doubles that interjection. Koneskis Dictionary determines the word varaj as a traditional sign, standard for the folk poetry, explaining it as an interjection used when someone is called to be told something sad, strange, terrible. varaj simply means: hear, listen. Therefore, the first verse those first words uttered/sung at the moment the Macedonian theater was still gathering forces for symbolically (and not only factually) raising the curtain to start its performing century if we pre-code from the Macedonian dialect used by Cernodrinski in 1900 into the recent Macedonian literary language in which I am trying to write this text, says more or less the following: Beautiful, hear and listen, little lass. shepherds playing, listen, in lower field. Normally, this attempt for translating the statement, which on top of that is poetical, from one of the Macedonian dialects into the standard/literary language is not just superfluous but also totally meaningless. However, in this case, the meaning of the experiment of this kind has a didactic purpose: it is an effort to indicate the striking difference between the language and the dialect (or, in the indicated case between the dialect and the language), a difference that is of extreme importance for the direct drama/theater discourse. The Macedonian theatrical practice, not only the recent one, has always been and it still is extremely sensitive to the famous language/

Macedonian Theater language experience - 49

v. Cernodrinski Macedonian Bloody Wedding , 1928

dialect (langue/parole) doublet that the theatrical practice has evidently taken over from the conceptual apparatus of the structural linguistics, where it was introduced and commented for the first time by Ferdinand de Saussure. Following this Saussure paradigm, the essential notions language and dialect can be differentiated fully explicitly: the first (langue = language) implies/indicates a system of contracted signs and the way in which they are mutually connected; the second (parole = dialect) indicates the individual communication act that can be accomplished on the basis of the language. The language is, therefore, a general medium in our case it is the Macedonian literary language. The dialect, however, is the way in which some parts/segments from the general Macedonian literary language system are used in some specific speaking situations; in our case: in specific drama texts in a drama by either Dejan Dukovski or Vojdan Cernodrinski, there is no difference. Considering the specific features of the theatrical act whose substance is the action, actions of the most different types, including the one implying the act of speaking (because, as we know, speaking is also an action) every drama discourse is also additionally individualized via the acting interpretation that it inevitably passes through. In practice, this means that the actor who is supposed to pronounce the once individualized dialect of Dukovski cannot but individualize it once again by interpreting it in live. What is happening with the Macedonian literary language with its written norms and standards, with its precisely codified material -

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when and while it is thus transformed twice: first in the drama discourse, and then in the live and direct/individual act of speaking that the actors are translating in action? I dare say that in the Macedonian theatrical case the striking language/dialect (langue/parole) difference makes a whole range of historical and cultural (let us not mention the political) circumstances even more striking. Why? Most, but also first of all because unlike the other national theaters, not only the neighboring, but also the European the Macedonian theater has not, for nearly half a century, been able to articulate its stage dialect in compliance with the previously harmonized/canonized language norms, and it had to be exclusively oriented in conformity with the colloquial standards of the several dialects permanently used equally by its dramatists and its actors. In simple words: the Macedonian theater was skillfully using several Macedonian dialects which it successfully transposed into its stage dialect, which is, beyond any dispute, Macedonian according to its etiology! at least for half a century before the Macedonian literary language was standardized and made official. In other words: the Macedonian drama and the Macedonian theater were officially speaking Macedonian half a century before the Macedonian literary language acquired its official status.

v. Cernodrinski Macedonian Bloody Wedding , MnT, 1953

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Namely, in this indicative gap of 45 years from November 1900, the opening night of Macedonian Bloody Wedding (after which Cernodrinski started his long- traveling, absolutely pro-Macedonian theatrical mission), to May and June 1945 when the Macedonian language finally got its alphabet and orthography, and some time later (in 1946) its first Grammar as well - the Macedonian drama and theater pioneers managed to squeeze, through all kinds of troubles, a range of autochthonous plays transformed into a range of performances that gained enormous popularity with the speed of a lightning. And to introduce spontaneously some without any conscious intention, other less defined or militant strategies in the collective memory, thus promoting the Macedonian way of life and the Macedonian dialects first as facts and then as qualities, without which it is not possible. The dramatization of the Macedonian way of life, founded and supported by the tectonic force of the Macedonian dialects, resulted into a series of real, even emblem-like theatrical successes. Nearly every citizen of the Republic of Macedonia, including the one who has never seen a single stage-theater performance of this kind, or has not read a single drama of these scores, can today identify himself with these mythical titles. The Macedonian Bloody Wedding of Cernodrinski the forebear (1900), Lence Kumanovce (Lence From Kumanovo, trans.) or Begalka (The Eloping Girl, trans.) of Vasil Iljoski (1926), Pecalbari (Fortune Seekers, trans.) by Anton Panov (1936), Corbadzi Teodos (Master Teodos, trans.) by the same Iljoski (1837), Parite se otepu-

v. Iljoski Corbadzi Teodos , MnT, 1965

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vacka (Money Spells Ruin, trans.) by Risto Krle (1938)are the titles that provided the cultural memory with a meaning that is substantially surpassing the real literary and theater meaning of the prepositional that they are envasil Iljoski anton Panov titling. These titles are undoubtedly overgrowing the theater medium itself by contributing very essentially! to the affirmation of the national identity, but also by marking this identity without any ambiguity. Aside from Cernodrinski himself and the popularity of most of his theaters with which the founder of the Macedonian acting environment (and one of the most experienced managers in all its history) traveled to his numerous emigrant audience behind the border for nearly three decades, the Macedonian dialects were gradually also conquering the theater stages on the soil of Vardar Macedonia in an extremely interesting and incredibly shrewd way. In the period that official history most frequently (and quite not inventively) calls between the two wars in the years between 1918 and 1941, when the territory of present Republic of Macedonia figured as a part of unitary First Yugoslavia (the Kingdom of Yugoslavia), with a status of an administrative unit under the name Vardar District ruled by a ban in which the official communication language was the (state) Serbian language the Macedonian dialects remained restricted, almost in ghettos, only to the private communication of the population. The schools, the courts, the state administration, the police, the cultural institutions, the newspapers, the books, the overall cultural production - everybody uses only the official Serbian language. Nevertheless, even in such a rigid situation, some Macedonian dialects managed to get through onto the stage of the then professional theater in Skopje, which as an even greater paradox in this getting through was named narodno pozoriste Kralj aleksandar! (national Theater King aleksandar, trans. from serbian). How did the Macedonian dialects succeed to outwit the strict language codex under which a state (royal) theater was managed?

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Today, from this eight-decade safe distance, it may not look as dramatic as it has been stated in memoirs and similar reviews of the participants in these events - the actors performing in the folklore plays. Nevertheless, their contribution, as well as the contribution that the theater had invested in the affirmation and the development of the Macedonian language, must not be reduced to the minimum in spite of the best intentions. What is all this about? It is about a special trend that started conquering the Balkan theaters some time at the beginning of the 20th century, when the stages were gradually occupied by the so-called plays from the folklore, with singing and dancing. These plays, mimetic and (very often) didactic by character, actually showed or, with the help of the stage signs re-narrated anecdotes from the everyday life of the ordinary people. It was not just about any ordinary people; it was about a definite people that had to go through very complicated changes in its civil habits and customs at that time. Or, in other words, to transform its proper rural standards that it simply brought along while moving from the village to the town into civil and to develop/foster them as urban. The theaters that were then so persistently opening in many towns in the Kingdom of Yugoslavia, including the one in Skopje, bore in mind this specific audience. In those decades the theaters, cinemas, and circus tents were still operating as the nearly only

v. Cernodrinski Macedonian Bloody Wedding , MnT, 1953

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places where the so-called mass cultural communication could be established. Normally, the language was used as a mighty medium. The Macedonian folklore dramas not just the already mentioned Macedonian Bloody Wedding by Cernodrinski (1900), Lence from Kumanovo The Eloping Girl by Vasil Iljoski (1926), Fortune Seekers by Anton Panov (1936), Master Teodos by the same Iljoski (1937), Money Spells Ruin by Risto Krle (1938) - in their communication with the audience started using a. Panov Pecalbari, MnT, 1969 the Macedonian dialects almost legally. As a matter of fact, this use of the dialects was consistently written down on billboards announcing these performances. Normally, the billboards were printed in the Serbian language and in the Serbian Cyrillic, and even the original titles of the performed plays were translated into Serbian for instance: Master Teodos was translated on the billboard as Nagazio covek (The Man Rushed, trans. from Serbian), and Money Spells Ruin like Novac je ubistvo (Money Kills, trans. from Serbian) - but it was always written down that the play was performed in this or that dialect used in Skopje, Kumanovo, or StrugaWith Cernodrinski, whose theaters are mainly performing throughout Bulgaria and thus his billboards are also printed in the Bulgarian language and alphabet, the following was always written down under the titles: A play from the Macedonian life or A play in the Macedonian dialect. A few years ago I came across the so-called theater excerpt from the play Lence from Kumanovo by Vasil Iljoski, according to which its premier was played in 1926. At that time the plays were still rewritten in handwriting, typewriters were not used until some time later at least not in Skopje. This manuscript is extremely interesting because it confirms

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the described principle of the operation of the language/dialect in the then state theater in Skopje. Namely, the person who had re-written the text had put it on paper exactly in conformity with the rules that were in force at that moment: all titles and playwright remarks were in Serbian, but all replicas mutually exchanged by the protagonists were in the Kumanovo dialect. Normally, since the remarks are not spoken on the scene but are performed in practice, the stage language of the then and of all the later performances of Lence from Kumanovo was and remained in the Kumanovo dialect. It was done in exactly the same way as the billboard said. During the anti-fascist war waged on the soil of Macedonia in the period 1941-1945 separate partisan theater groups were gradually formed, which performed their plays exclusively in the Macedonian dialects. The intensity of this production became stronger in1944 and it culminated after the liberation. Towards the end of the same year (1944) the former partisans became actors in two professional theaters created in Bitola and Skopje. In the plays performed in these theaters and they both started with modest productions mainly as one-act plays with agitation and propaganda substances the language used on stage was exclusively Macedonian. It is worth mentioning that the initial theater life in Macedonia had started long before the famous Language commission completed its work, that is to say before the Macedonian alphabet became official and before the Macedonian orthography came into force. In January 1945 the Macedonian National Theater was officially formed in Skopje as the most important Macedonian theater institution, an institution of national and state, and not only cultural character. A few months later, on 3 April 1945, the drama ensemble of this theater had its first full-length performance with the drama Platon Krecet by the Ukrainian writer Alexander Korneychuk. This play was being performed for nearly three months before the Macedonian alphabet and orthography became official, but of course, its stage language was Macedonian. The preserved theater excerpt from Platon Krecet is today of extreme importance not because of its theater-graphic or literary value (the latter is totally minor it is a fully trivial soc-realistic text!), but because of the record about its stage language. The translator of the text is the then proof-reader and playwright of the Macedonian National Theater and a member of the Language Commission Blaze Koneski in person. While reading this valuable material on 96 pages this time rewritten on a typewriter with Bulgarian letters one can see the birth pangs that the Macedonian language was experiencing at this initial phase

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Macedonian national Theater, 1960

of its codification. The famous uenje that was later abandoned was still in force (Ne bidue says Krecet in one of the first replicas). Actually, in the first drama text printed in Macedonia at the very beginning of 1945 printed in the still not officially codified Macedonian language and with a not yet official Macedonian alphabet the famous uenje is in the title. It goes as follows: Gladna kokoska proso sonue (A Dream Grants What One Covets When Awake, trans.). The author of the text is - Blaze Koneski! Blaze Koneski was the one who translated Platon Krecet and he wrote his first comedy at the moment the Macedonian language did not yet have its orthography, alphabet, or grammar His literary translation was spoken by the actors before it had become legal via the form of their own alphabet. Thanks to the extreme knowledge and efforts of Blaze Koneski (as a translator, proof-reader, playwright, and most of all - a language prophet with a strong professional instinct), the Macedonian theater SPEAKS in what will later be WRITTEN DOWN. And regulated: with alphabet, orthography, and Grammar.

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It was exactly with Platon Krecet that the Macedonian theater practice proved the exclusive specific features of the Macedonian theater: By making it possible for the (future?) literary language to be permanently transformed into a dialect with the help of the stage, the Macedonian Theater played the capital role in the constitution of the orthoepic and orthographic norms that today determine that same Macedonian literary language. While speaking, the Macedonian post-war theater was checking its stage language on a daily basis, allowing it a constant proper new checking as regards its own growth with the purpose of over structuring, over regulating, and over codifying itself. By working as a translator, playwright, and proof-reader in the Macedonian National Theater although only during the first six months of his rich professional career it is beyond any doubt that Blaze Koneski did the CORRECT and REAL work, thus contributing as he himself had written down later to the victory of our vernacular on an important field as is the stage art (in The Theater and the Macedonian Language, Nova Makedonija, 7 .4.1950).


zaneta Trajkoska



zaneta TRajKosKa Boaster of light and knowledge Partenij zografski, 1858 a1 When I was asked to write a text on the Macedonian press development, I first tried to find out, or to determine the main characteristic of the modern press in Macedonia. I had decided to start depicting the Macedonian press from that point because this seemed to be the easiest way. However, I was wrong in thinking that the set task was simple, although I had a different opinion at first sight. In 2008 there are over eleven national dailies in Macedonia and at least the same number of weeklies. Unfortunately, our state does not have an official number and we will be dealing with the number of editions sold at stands as counted by the author of the text and checked at least at three sale places. Nevertheless, the figures are not the most important for our story about the development of the press in Macedonia, because we will be dealing here with the substance, the circumstances, and the period in which the first and the most influential newspapers and the first Macedonian reporters who are known in national history as members of the Macedonian national revival movement and fighters for the Macedonian independence and separateness operated. For Macedonia, a state with barely two million inhabitants, eleven national dailies are many, even too many. This is the first characteristic of the modern Macedonian press and the one that is the most obvious. There are many newspapers, many reporters, but not so many readers judging by the circulations. There are several reasons for this situation, one of them being that the Television in Macedonia is the most influential
Zaneta Trajkoska Director at Faculty of Journalism and Public Relations (e-mail: zanat@vs.edu.mk)

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medium. In this area the number of the media is even greater over 50 local and national TV channels. The second characteristic of the Macedonian modern press are the different languages in which the dailies are printed. In Macedonia, there are three dailies in the Albanian language, one in Turkish, and newspapers in Roma and Serbian are also printed. This wealth of newspapers in different languages reflects our state Macedonia is a multi-cultural state that respects the particularities of every ethnic group and it tries, in continuity, to foster their cultural traditions and their languages as a base for safeguarding their identities. Macedonia has been cultivating the press of the minorities for decades. Within the former SFRY state dailies of the smaller ethnic groups were also printed the Albanian Flaka e vlazerimit and the Turkish Birlik. These editions started almost simultaneously with the first post-war newspaper in Macedonian Nova Makedonija. All this testifies about the variety of the Macedonian press in the past sixty years or so. The pluralism in Macedonia in the 90s of the last century at first introduced quantity in the media. The number was enormous, about four hundred media. Most of them were Radio and TV stations, but the most serious in the approach to journalism, which is not surprising, was the press. The roles that the first private daily Dnevnik and the weekly Fokus had in transitional Macedonia were enormous. The citizens gained a new opinion about everyday life, a different angle of information, and a braver approach to uncovering subjects of importance for the political and economic situation in Macedonia. However The story about the development of the Macedonian press and the first reporting pens started a long time before, nearly a century ago, at the time Macedonia was under the Turkish Empire, fighting against the propaganda of the neighboring countries in the attempt to realize the basic rights of the Macedonian population. The press is Mightier than the cannon The emergence of the Macedonian press is a reflection of the struggle for affirmation of the national individuality. In the first printed works, in an obscure form, the political word for the Macedonian originality appeared, because in the general movement and the cultural awakening of the Macedonian people journalism was developing as well. The Macedonian press came into existence after the Berlin Congress in 1878. The Berlin Congress drew the new borders in the Balkans, but Macedonia remained in

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the frameworks of Turkey. The extremely important events for Macedonia after this Congress were the changes that Turkey had committed to introduce and the fact that, for the first time, Macedonia was treated as a special ethnic community and territorial entity. This agreement, which represented a state act of international character, recognized Macedonia its autonomous status. Unfortunately, the reformation of Turkey and its Empire never came true, and thus Macedonia did not get its autonomy. However, in the following decades the autonomy of Macedonia became the ideal to which the Macedonian people aspired. So, when we speak of the press in this period, we point out and we understand the special features and conditions in which it appeared, but first of all its importance for the Macedonian originality. The first Macedonian newspapers appeared on foreign territory, that is to say in Bulgaria and Turkey. On the other hand, journalism emerged on Macedonian soil from the pen of the members of the Macedonian national revival movement. They, beside their regular daily duties of priests and teachers, were also engaged in journalism. Their articles present the life of the Macedonian people under the Ottoman rule and they are a valuable testimony for its language, history, and ethnography. Their deliberations about the cultural revival of the Macedonian people are immeasurable and clearly stated regardless of the fact that the newspapers were most often published in Bulgaria. For the first reporters, the newspapers served as tools in the struggle for survival and for informing the European public about the Macedonian question, as well as for protecting the language and the identity of the Macedonian population. According to historical facts, the first newspaper dedicated to Macedonia was launched by a Bulgarian. The newspaper Makedonec (Macedonian, trans.) appeared on 1 November 1880 and its founder was the Bulgarian public figure Nikola Zhivkov. The Bulgarian state of that time was trying to present Macedonia, which was still under the Turkish rule, as a part of the Bulgarian territory, for which purpose it was using various mechanisms, particularly the press as the main tool for propagating its goals. This is exactly why these newspapers cannot be taken as representatives of the beginnings of the Macedonian press, but we should look at them in a historical sense as a part of the phases in which the first Macedonian newspaper was born. In Bulgaria in this period there were many Macedonian intellectuals. As a part of the emigration, they publicly posed the Macedonian question as independent from the Bulgarian state, strongly asking for the fulfillment of the articles from the Berlin Congress related to the reforms in Macedonia. Under these circumstances there appeared the first newspaper of a part of the

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Makedonski Glas (la vox Macedonienne) Macedonian emigration Makedonski glas (La vox macedonienne), founded and edited by Dimitar Rizov and Ilija Gjorgov. The first edition of Makedonski glas was issued in Sofia on 5 January 1885. It specified that the realization of articles 23 and 62 of the Berlin Congress is the modus vivendi for preserving the Macedonian people from total extermination. Makedonski glas was printed for two years and it opened numerous subjects of importance for the originality of the Macedonian people in criticizing all those who wanted to obstruct the struggle for liberation. Three years after the first Macedonian newspaper, on 21 October1888, the newspaper Makedonija (Macedonia, trans.) started to be published in the edition of Kosta Shahov, a Macedonian public figure. In the Editorial, Shahov writes that he will be using the newspaper to present his thoughts and to help his fatherland. Today the press is mightier than the cannon and all the peoples in the world are using it except us, says Shahov. In all its 122 editions, Makedonija is dealing with different aspects of the Macedonian question in spreading the idea about autonomous Macedonia. Macedonian national Revival Movement Members Founders of Macedonian journalism In the years to come a number of newspapers appeared, which were soon extinguished and nearly all of them were connected with the Macedonian question. However, the emergence of the newspaper Loza (Descent, trans.) represents the peak of these aspirations because Loza writes with its own alphabet and in Macedonian. The most progressive part of the Macedonian intelligence is linked with the edition of Loza. The young Macedonian literary company gathering the public figures like Krste Petkov Misirkov, Petar Pop Arsov, Dame Gruev, Kliment Karagjulev and others will be the founder of Loza whose first edition

Macedonian Press Development - 63

loza (no.1, january 1892) was issued in January 1892. The Editorial, instead of a title, has the motto of Sophocles: Miserable is the one who has a better friend than his fatherland. The bitter quarrel and the separatist spirit in the articles published in Loza contributed to its closing down in June 1894 and the company was dispersed. Although they did not last long, these three newspapers are the basis of the Macedonian press that defined the importance of the printed word for the Macedonians of that time. In the later period and after Ilinden (St. Elias Day, Anniversary of the uprising of the Macedonians on 2nd August 1903), but also after the Bucharest Agreement, in Macedonia and for the Macedonians there are many newspapers that are repeatedly going back to the difficult life of the Macedonian people and its aspirations for liberation and independence. After the division of Macedonia in 1913, with the Bucharest Agreement and the signed Peace Accord by which Macedonia was divided into three parts, the propagandas of Serbia, Bulgaria, and Greece became even stronger, and normally, the written word was used for erasing the identity of the Macedonian people. This is exactly why in this period, too, there appear many newspapers that use the veil Macedonia to try to transmit the official politics of the three countries in which there is a part from the territory of Macedonia. The depiction of the Macedonian press development will not be complete if we do not dedicate a few lines to the first journalists and fighters for Macedonia. Jordan Hadzi Konstantinov Dzinot, Rajko Zinzifov, Dimitar Miladinov, Grigor Prlicev, and Arsenije Jovkov are among the founders of the Macedonian journalism. They all had broad democratic understandings and they were top intellectuals who, through their activities, stressed the necessity for independence of the Macedonian people and its originality. No matter whether they wrote from Turkey, Russia, or Bulgaria, in their articles they referred to the Macedonian everyday life, transmitting to the public the situation in Macedonia and the pressures over the population. On the other hand, their works are of extreme value for the future generations, because aside from the political word, they s

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also show segments from the life in that period, but most importantly their works preserve many factual data, a part of the cultural creative work and heritage. As a part of the history of the Macedonian press we can point out many editions with deep justification and undisputable importance for the written word development in Macedonia. However, on this occasion we will skip them over and we will say that in the period between the two world wars the first socialist press appeared in Macedonia and during the Second World War bulletins that were in close connection with the liberation movement were the most often edited. nova Makedonija newspaper as the herald of the First Macedonian State The first daily in the Republic of Macedonia is Nova Makedonija (New Macedonia, trans.) whose first edition was issued on 29 October 1944. Later, the Editing House Nova Makedonija issued other dailies and weeklies. The following is a fact: the modern press in Macedonia actually started with the edition of the newspaper of the National Youth of Macedonia Mlad Borec (Young Fighter, trans.) on 22 March 1944. Mlad Borec continued to be issued for nearly half a century and with its activities it confirmed to be the newspaper of the so-called Macedonian spring. In the period 1989-1992 Mlad Borec was the herald of the civil democracy in the Republic of Macedonia and the first newspaper with a civil conception and orientation. It published the first interviews with Macedonian dissidents. Mlad Borec stopped its edition in1992 due to financial reasons, but the middle-aged generation in Macedonia remembers it as the newspaper of progressive ideas and journalists who moved the boundaries of journalism at that time, not respecting

nova Makedonija (no.1, 29 october 1944)

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Mlad Borec (no.1, 22 March 1944) the politically correct socialist journalism. Nova Makedonija and its editions failed to outlive the transition and the beginnings of the first private newspapers and it surrendered to the competition. Although all the editions from the time of socialist Macedonia continued for years, their influence over the public and over the development of the public opinion was insignificant by the end of the 90s. The poor situation in the oldest daily in the Republic of Macedonia was resolved when its brands were sold to private property. Nova Makedonija is today edited with a new image and with respect for the old traditions and it is struggling to regain the place on the media scene that it once used to occupy. And if we go back to the beginning of the story about the development of the Macedonian press and journalism in Macedonia, we will stress that the newspapers that are published today in Macedonia are miscellaneous in regard to the type, the style, and the way of informing. They are all trying to conquer a part of the market and to inform the readers with respect for the professional standards of journalism. Normally, there are less good and professional newspapers and Macedonia is faced with the same challenges that are characteristic for the press on a global level. With the entering of the first foreign capital in the printed media and in general in the media in Macedonia, some matters changed, particularly those related to the economic aspects regarding the work of the journalists. A few years ago the German WAC (Westdeutsche Allgemeine Zeitung) bought the three biggest dailies Dnevnik (Journal, trans.), Vest (News, trans.), and Utrinski Vesnik (Morning News, trans.) and now this corporation owns a larger part of the printed media. After a few years work in Macedonia, we can conclude that although the newspapers are fully or mostly owned by one company, they have different editing politics, which is extremely good for the media pluralism. In following the modern trends, a year ago the first free of charge daily Spic (Rush Hour, trans.) appeared in Macedonia, which is trying to present daily political subjects, thus breaking the global trend according to which the free of charge newspapers most frequently write about easy city topics or topics from the field of culture.

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Macedonia is also characteristic for the fact that in the last decade there has not been an influx of yellow pages, and this type of journalism has become visible as of this year, but without any spectacular success. The possible reason may be the fact that Macedonia is even today on the crossroad, profoundly faced with challenges to its development and survival, as well as to its integration in the Euro-Atlantic organizations. The audience, that is the Macedonian society, is strongly politicized, because of which the most often watched and read are the programs and texts broadcasting news. The journalists are faced with the challenge of being professional and objective on a daily basis, trying to offer the readers a different point of view and new information. The Macedonian press is aware of the dilemmas concerning the survival as regards the new media platforms and integrated desks that bring the audience sound, picture, and word. However, the classic or the printed journalism has an advantage in the tradition, the habits of the reader, and his analytical approach. Henceforth, the following questions are raised: Do we wish to read only about easy matters that will not make us think, which do not have an analytical review of the everyday life, lacking a clearly stated view about the present? How far are we ready to go over the surface of the events consciously swallowing the beautiful and scandalous things concerning other peoples lives refusing to be burdened by the different aspects of developments

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affecting our own lives? If we do not wish and are not ready to accept the global tendency to simplification, and even to making the news and information foolish, then the press offers us the real alternative and has the chances to survive. The technology is different, the global village is around us, the information travel in a bit of a second, but the questions asked in the Macedonian newspapers are the same as those of a century ago and are in deep connection with the protection of the Macedonian identity and the preservation of the Macedonian language. Jordan Hadzi Konstantinov Dzinot, member of the Macedonian national revival movement, wrote the following about the need and the importance of the newspaper at this inopportune moment: Even if we find ourselves in great meagerness, let us not be left without a newspaper.

Zbor, peat, vreme Boro Mokrov Pregled na makedonskiot peat (1885-1992) Boro Mokrov, Tome Gruevski MI-ANOVA Enciklopedija - opta i makedonska Sovremeniot peat vo Makedonija Tome Gruevski


liljana Popovska


liljana PoPovsKa The Macedonian language got a year dedicated to it, the Year 2008. For a person who does not know the Macedonian situation in the country and in the world this may impose the dilemma: is this celebration and glorification of the Macedonian language owed to its importance in the society, or is it the illumination of a forgotten problem requiring attention for its resolution? Vividly speaking, is this an event like, for instance, The Year of the European Union or The Year of the Hungry in Africa? Or, is it about something completely different? Now, before the expiration of 2008 The Year of the Macedonian Language (further referred to as The Year), it is the right time to make a review over the entire Manifestation, starting from the idea to the goals, via the methods of action to the expected results. These reviews represent an excellent foundation for opening a public debate about the larger social and political context that is definitely imposed considering the situation regarding the Macedonian language. The reason is because The Year is only a paradigm for the language politics in the Republic of Macedonia and the politics towards the smaller languages. The languages make a part of the worlds cultural mosaic and intangible heritage protected by conventions and other acts of the United Nations and other organizations. According to the UNESCO, there are about 6,700 languages spoken in the world, out of which only 250 are spoken by over one million speakers. Lately, the so-called small languages are of
Liljana Popovska Initiator and President of Program-Organization Board of 2008 the Year of the Macedonian Language

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a special concern in order to prevent their disappearance or make them merge in the process of globalization and thus take away a part of the collective memory and cultural heritage of our civilization. This is exactly why UNESCO proclaimed the year 2008 as the Year of the Languages. This was one of the arguments for proclaiming the year 2008 as The Year of the Macedonian Language. Which Were the Goals of the Year of the Macedonian Language? The strategic goals were to attract the interest of the worlds and the European public in becoming familiar with and studying thoroughly the Macedonian language, its alphabet, and the Macedonian culture, as well as to affirm them as a special identity and achievement for the modern European civilization. The concrete goals were the following: - Improvement of the use of the Macedonian literary language and its Cyrillic alphabet in the public communication in the Republic of Macedonia; - More foreigners studying the Macedonian literary language, as well as Macedonians from the Diaspora and the neighboring countries; - Affirmation of the Republic of Macedonia in Europe and the world. Which methods and substances did the Year anticipate? The Year anticipated activities with various forms and substances, like scientific meetings, editorial and translation projects, rostrums, and public debates (the Macedonian language in the education, the literature, the translation, as a foreign language, the toponyms, computing communication, political communication, translations of the Bible and the Koran, inscriptions, mass media), courses and seminars for teaching Macedonian, reinforcement of the existing and opening new lectureships, competitions, contests, scholarships, internet activities, days of the Macedonian language and literature, creative projects, promotions, and similar numerous activities in the country and abroad. Which are the results accomplished with the Year? Changes and annexes were made to the Law on the use of the Macedonian language, incorporating punishment mechanisms for the offenders and a network of inspectors was formed in the culture for monitoring this set of problems. A process of lecturers licensing is in process, who will then be employed in all the institutions communicating

The Macedonian language as ones own Identity and Breaching with others - 71

with the public as proscribed by the Law. For the first time after its adoption over ten years ago the Law began to be applied and the first fines have been charged, but some time has to pass before evident effects in the form of an improved use of the language are reached. There have been printed, but more capital editions are in preparation for printing, which are dealing with the history of the language, the most important foreign Macedonian language scholars, comparative analyses with other Slavic languages, dictionaries (explanatory and of toponyms), electronic internet editions (bibliographies, the most important historic texts and so on), as well as schoolbooks for the Macedonians in the Diaspora. Some of them have been waiting on the list for over a decade. There are some translated editions and others will be translated in the future, in order to make them accessible to all who are interested. It is the first time that we are informing the world about some interesting matters about us on the Internet, which means that we are present in the world of the global communication. An informative-promotional material book and film (in several languages) has been prepared under the title The Macedonian Language in the Global World that is presented and distributed in various meetings at home and abroad. The first meeting of Macedonianists was held in Ohrid with over 150 participants from all over the world, which was unanimously assessed as a strong provocation for the renown and for a large number of Macedonianists from abroad. The public debates and rostrums are attracting great attention not only with the professional public, but also with the widest categories of our co-citizens. This is probably the first time that so much is said and written about the correct and incorrect use of the language in various places and in various areas. Every event is accompanied by a series of contributions in the printed and electronic media with the purpose of changing the situation. Macedonian language competitions for students have been organized, we follow hints on the language in language corners and broadcasts of electronic media, many manifestations are held under the umbrella of the Year, including an even larger number of independent projects that attracted the interest of the public. The campaign I Am Writing in Cyrillic, in which professionals and public persons from different areas participated, will be probably long remembered. The program for promotion abroad has been the weakest. Aside from a limited number of diplomatic representation offices, it seems as if there is not enough capacity or political will for making this a notified event

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in these milieus. There lacks a logistical support from the institutions, and this was considered an extremely important pillar of the program, extremely connected with our struggle for the name and identity. Why was the Year of the Macedonian Language necessary? As a preparation for making the Macedonian language one of the official languages in the European Union so that we may enter Europe with pride and dignity. This language has deep roots thousands of years back, it is the fourth language in which the Bible was translated (immediately after the Hebrew, the Greek, and the Latin), the language in which literacy was spread in Europe. For the sake of preserving the Macedonian language in the process of globalization now that the influence of several greater languages is so strong, first of all the English. Under these circumstances a large number of nations are taking special care for their languages. The same is related to the so-called great languages with multi-million speakers as is the French and the Russian and there has been a whole movement of the Francophone for years or the Year of the Russian Language 2007. We find the example of Latvia as more appropriate for us, which started the Ten Years of National Program for learning the Latvian language in 1995 with the support of the UNDP. They did this for the sake of their 1.4 million citizens. Due to the inappropriate language speaking situation around us, considering the general degradation in the language culture, blurred speech blurred thoughts and bad messages, including a rising number of less literate young generations who speak better English than Macedonian. This was demonstrated in the first school-leaving examinations in 2008, when the public was taken aback from the figures. There have been noted some extreme cases of autism developed from alienation of the children from their relatives and their uncontrolled cartoons watching and video games in English. Due to the narrowed circle of speakers in Macedonian in the Republic of Macedonia, caused by the mass economic migrations of entire regions to other countries. There is also language assimilation of some Macedonians and other citizens of Muslim confession speaking the Macedonian language via political manipulations as a result of which the Macedonian language is not spoken in schools and mosques and another language is imposed instead. The number of the Macedonian speakers is also decreasing in some separate ethnic communities whose mother tongue is not the Macedonian, where they are consciously led to ghettos,

The Macedonian language as ones own Identity and Breaching with others - 73

which is again politically motivated due to more efficient enumeration and control. Due to the denial of the Macedonian language and identity by some circles outside the Republic of Macedonia that has, and it still is threatening with a great political damage to the country. It is particularly reflected on our Euro-Atlantic aspirations that will let us enter a different reality as regards the economy and the security. The attempt to prohibit our self-identification internationally via the adjective Macedonian is monstrous and against any civilization achievements even if as just an idea. This implies that everything that is Macedonian would be cancelled, like: the Macedonian language and the Macedonian people, but also some banal things like the Macedonian wine and cheese. I wonder how, in that case, could we translate Krste Petkov Misirkovs epochal work About the Macedonian Matters? Is there a chare (solution, remedy in Turkish) for the Macedonian language? Of course there is. First, let us not be ashamed of words like chare that is a Turkish word accepted a long time ago, which has enriched our language and we have now adopted it and we are now using it with an article as we do for all the Macedonian general nouns (in the Macedonian language Dictionary this word is translated as help, solution, remedy, cure, way out). Because, as Blaze Ristovski used to teach me, we should not tend to purity of the language or its cleanliness. We should foster the Macedonian vocabulary with all its dialect riches, but we should also adopt some words broadly accepted in the international communication, or a loan-word from another language, because the language is a living matter that is enriched and changing in its lifetime(a part from the report during the public debate in the Assembly of the Republic of Macedonia on the topic The Macedonian language in the political communication, October 2008). However, concrete actions are necessary in several fields: The professional public, linguists and authors, connoisseurs of the Macedonian language and those using it in their creativity need to be activated. This process has already begun and it has demonstrated a great capacity among different generations. There may be some restraint and some ex cathedra work when the profession is only taken as a source of survival and not as a challenge for mission work in an insufficiently cleansed terrain. However, to some point this may be understandable considering that the Macedonian language has been neglected in the society and the state has allowed this to be happening for years. So, instead of

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contemplating about rationalization of national institutes, institutions, and lectureships, the state should invest a lot more in the consolidation of their capacities by employing new generations of professionals, with appropriate labor evaluation, and giving them specified tasks. These processes imply engagement of proof-readers in all institutions communicating with the public. To improve the teaching in Macedonian language, particularly in the elementary schools. This implies new teaching programs and schoolbooks prepared with a good method, with expression, style, and language adapted to the age of the children. Let us not allow this subject to become one of the least liked and be a problem for the teaching staff because the program is simply too bulky, not selected and blurrily narrated for the childrens little heads to understand. This also implies improvement of the institutional capacities of the professional services in the Ministry of Education and Science by a large involvement of the professional public in defining the programs, including psychologists, sociologists, and so on beside linguists and teachers (comments from the public debates on the subject The Macedonian language in the education in Skopje and Tetovo, February 2008). To arise interest among the politicians who are the authors of the language politics in the country and direct participants in the creation of the language situation regarding the Macedonian language at home and abroad. To increase the interest among the Macedonian citizens and the Macedonians in the neighboring countries where they live as a minority, but also among the Macedonians in the Diaspora. Without the interest for improving the situation among the direct speakers of the Macedonian language, there will not be anybody to do all this for. To show more respect and appreciation for the foreigners speaking Macedonian out of their own interest or for business because they can serve as the best method for enlarging the circle of foreign speakers. To improve the international position of the country and to gain new friends of Macedonia who will help us affirm the Macedonian language and culture. Who needs the Macedonian language? The Macedonian language is, first of all, necessary to all of us speaking it, thinking and dreaming in it. This is exactly why we, its speakers, should be the flag carriers in the struggle for the life and vividness of the Macedonian language.

The Macedonian language as ones own Identity and Breaching with others - 75

The Macedonian language is indispensable to the Macedonian state as well because it is one of the identity pillars of the state: For the survival of the state and for preventing the state from becoming a territory without a name and identity. And a territory can be easily divided. The Macedonian language is also important for the Macedonian citizens whose mother tongue is not the Macedonian. The reason is because the Macedonian language is the connecting tissue in Macedonia, the way the English is in the United States. It unites all of us who are different and it enables us communicate and understand each other. Without it we would be lost in the translation, distant and aliens. Knowing it, we all have equal chances to advance in the society and it gives us the possibility for a fair competition. However, the Macedonian language is also valuable for the worlds intangible heritage as a collective memory of all that has happened in this region throughout the centuries, as a part of the wealth of the cultural diversity of the world. The Macedonian language will also be a test for democracy and consistency in the international legal order that is suffering from the unprincipled pressure of an anachronistic national strategy. What is the future of the Macedonian language in the global world? The Year of the Macedonian Language will end-up as a one-year action, but the activities should continue for a longer period of time, perhaps throughout the next decade, the way the Latvians did it. The world still does not know enough about the Macedonian language and identity. As long as it tells us: Come on, finish it up with the name and everything will be open for You!- the world is actually offering us an open door to the abyss. We the Macedonians have not always done the wisest, but we are definitely not the people that do the most stupid. The process of globalization is a giant river that directs the world to its stream. You cannot go against it. The question is whether you will let yourself be drowned or whether you will learn how to float with the main stream, but with your own ship and flag. Let us float!


Index of some

previous articles

Analyses in June Issue, 1996 (Vol. 1, No. 1) Military Cooperation - Macedonia & the USA Quicker to NAto through the PArtNershiP Succession to the Former SFRY tedious LegAL-PoLiticAL & ProPerty NegotiAtioNs High Education in the Albanian Language Positive treNds desPite existiNg ProbLems The Organization of Trade Unions in Macedonia the trANsitioNs of trAde uNioNs duriNg times of trANsitioN Analyses in the July Issue, 1996 (Vol. I, No. 2) How the Macedonian Banks Are Being Reformed bANkiNg betweeN the eAst ANd the west Drug Addiction in the Republic of Macedonia mAcedoNiA iN the kiNgdom of NArcotics Draft-law on Radio-diffusion good iNteNtioNs iN A bAd PAckAge? Constitutional Court of the Republic of Macedonia A Lot of work iN ProtectiNg the coNstitutioNALity Analyses in the October Issue, 1996 (Vol. I, No.3) Macedonian-Russian Relations 1992-1996 AwAitiNg the russiAN AmbAssAdor Some Aspects of National and Religious Tolerance in the Frameworks of the Elementary Education System in Macedonia iNstructioN without educAtioN Codification of Macedonian Criminal Law substANtiAL chANges iN crimiNAL LAw Results and Technology in Macedonian Privatization PrivAtizAtioN At ANy cost

77 Analyses in the February Issue, 1997 (Vol. II, No. 4) Macedonian Political Scene PoLiticAL PArties, ELectioN TreNds ANd MAcedoNiAN INdePeNdeNce Following the Local Elections ON ELectioN Figures ANd ELectioN MessAges Political Parties of Albanians Following Local Elections in Macedonia INevitAbLe RAdicALizAtioN - To Which Degree? Analyses in the April Issue, 1997 (Vol. II, No. 5) The events in Albania and possible Balkan repercussions Low fLight over the LANd of eAgLes Southeastern Europe -- Geostrategic Analyses the historicALLy Limited sovereigNty of the PeoPLe iN southeAst euroPe Paradigm Unbound u.s. grANd strAtegy iN the wAke of iNterveNtioN iN former yugosLAviA Analyses in the June Issue, 1997 (Vol. II, No. 6) Macedonia in the Balkans the uNfAvorAbLe turbuLeNce is Not over! Bulgarian dilemmas in the dispute with Macedonia stuck betweeN eNthusiAsm, tActics ANd threAts Macedonian-German relations A stroNg fouNdAtioN with AccessibLe PeAks Reforms in the Macedonian banks oNLy Profit receives recogNitioN Analyses in the August Issue, 1997 (Vol. II, No. 7) Inter-ethnic relations in Macedonia retrosPective view (Dr. Emilija Simovska) Macedonia-Slovenia highLy deveLoPed biLAterAL PoLiticAL reLAtioNs behiNd which the ecoNomic cooPerAtioN stAgNAtes (Todor Pendarov) Non-Governmental Organisations the LoNg wAy to reAL PLAce iN society (Vladimir Petreski) New Books LeAdershiP As A substitute for domiNAtioN Dr Ljubomir Frckovski democrAtic modeLs with A touch of exPerieNced AutheNticity Guner Ismail

78 AN eNcycLoPedic disPute About the miNorities Dr. Natasa Gaber Statement so fAr the situAtioN Looks good Richard Schifter Analyses in the July Issue, 1998 (Vol. II, No.8) combiNAtioN of eLectorAL modeL iNdisPeNdAbLe Natasa Gaber and Aneta Jovevska eLectorAL modeL ANd PoLicy dyNAmics iN mAcedoNiA Ljubomir D. Frckovski eLectioNs - mobiLizAtioN of Prejudices Ferid Muhic disPositioN dimeNsioNs of democrAtic trANsitioN iN mAcedoNiA Ilo Trajkovski and Mihajlo Popovski PANdorAs box remAiNed cLosed Vlado Popovski seLf-destructioN syNdrome Atanas Vangelov Reviews and Criticisms civiL democrAcy without citizeNs To the book Civil Association by Dr. Ilo Trajkovski, Dimitar Mircev Analyses in the February Issue, 1999 (Vol. II, No. 10) Macedonian Parliamentary Elections in 1998 mANy reAsoNs to rePLAce those iN Power Vladimir Petreski The Balkans Nation-States NothiNg bAd oN the bALkANs is A surPrise Meto Jovanovski Environmental Policy ProtectioN of the LiviNg eNviroNmeNt & NAture, At PreseNt & iN the future Miroslav Balaburski Europe and Macedonia roots ANd deveLoPmeNt

euroPeAN commuNity


euroPeAN uNioN

79 Analyses in Vol. II, No.11 exPected chANges iN the coNstitutioN of the rePubLic of mAcedoNiA Cvetan Cvetkovski imf wiLL wAit for the goverNmeNt to fiNd strAtegic iNvestors for 12 Loss mAkers Ljupco Zikov betweeN PreveNtive diPLomAcy ANd coNfLict resoLutioN: the mAcedoNiAN PersPective oN the kosovo crisis Biljana Vankovska - Cvetkovska LegAL AsPects of the use of A ProvisioNAL NAme for mAcedoNiA iN the uNited NAtioNs system Igor Janev Analyses in Vol. III, No.1 mAcedoNiAN foreigN PoLicy fAciNg New chALLeNges Dimitar Mircev reforms of the defeNse system of the rePubLic of mAcedoNiA M.I.C. staff LegAL resPoNsibiLity of the uNited NAtioNs for uNLAwfuL AdmissioN of mAcedoNiA to uN membershiP Igor Janev some AsPects of PoLiticAL cuLture with the ALbANiANs iN the rm Emilija Simovska ecoNomic iNdicAtors Zoran Jovanovski mAcedoNiAN teLecom system - AN overview Zdenka Pavkovik Analyses in Vol. IV, No.1 the modeL of democrAcy iN the text of the frAmework AgreemeNt of August 13, 2001 Dr. Gjorge Ivanov the PoLiticAL ANd LegAL AsPects of the eu-mAcedoNiA reLAtioNs: AN ever cLoser uNioN? Karolina Ristova- Aasterud mAcedoNiA: bANkruPtcy ANd iNvestmeNts Judge Dejan Kostovski, Vladislav Tamburkovski, MBA ProPosAL for recoNstructioN of the co-ordiNAtioN iN the uN system Igor Janev

80 Analyses in Vol. IV, No.3 westerN civiL-society emPowermeNt & LessoNs LeArNed from the bALkANs Prof. Biljana Vankovska mAcedoNiAs crisis viewed iN regioNAL coNtext Pande Lazarevski, Ph.D. seArchiNg for eLectioN modeL AdeQuAte for the rePubLic of mAcedoNiA Natasa Gaber-Damjanovska, Ph.D., Aneta Jovevska, Ph.D. Post-biPoLAr worLd ANd roLe of democrAcy iN the New coNditioNs Viktor Gaber Analyses in Vol. IV, No.4 the kosovo syNdrome - revisited Andon Anin, Independent Analyst mAcedoNiA obedieNt chiLd or A sickLy chiLd? Wolfgang Oschlies, FR Germany ANALysis of eLectioN resuLts Ivica Bocevski, Executive Director, Institute for Democracy Analyses in Vol. IV, No.6/7 the foreigN PoLicy ANd diPLomAcy of the rePubLic of mAcedoNiA 1998-2002 CONTRIBUTION OF THE MINISTRY OF FOREIGN AFFAIRS history of the mAcedoNiAN orthodox church & ProbLems of AutocePhALy Prof. Dimitar Belcovski coNfLict - 2001: LessoNs LeArNed? Stevo Pendarovski security coNseQueNces of sePtember 11 terror AttAcks: New NAtorussiA reLAtioNs Nano Ruzin, Ambassador time for reALity iN the foreigN PoLicy of the rePubLic of mAcedoNiA Tihomir Ilievski, Ambassador Need of reform iN judiciAry for estAbLishiNg ruLe of LAw ANd reAchiNg high efficieNcy iN fight AgAiNst corruPtioN Dragan Tumanovski, LL.M., Judge sociAL determiNANts of vuLNerAbiLity of the risk grouPs ANd chANges iN the heALth stAtus of the PoPuLAtioN iN mAcedoNiA Prof. Donco M. Donev, Ph.D. and Prof. Ulrich Laaser, Ph.D.

81 Analyses in Vol. IV, No.8 the security of iNdePeNdeNt mAcedoNiA Rizvan Sulejmani, Deputy Minister of Defense of the RM chALLeNges for ecoNomic recovery Bisev Gligor, Ph.D., First Gen. Manager Stopanska banka AD - Skopje reProductive ProfiLes of resideNt ANd refugee romA womeN iN mAcedoNiA, 2000 Arne N. Gjorgov, Md, Ph.D., Vladimir Lazarevik, Md Analyses in Vol. IV, No.9 the societAL security diLemmA: the cAse of the rePubLic of mAcedoNiA Stojan Slaveski, Ph.D. gLobALizAtioN ANd deveLoPmeNt PersPectives of the rePubLic of mAcedoNiA Natalija Nikolovska, Ph.D. Professor at the Faculty of Economy stock mArket of the rePubLic of mAcedoNiA Mr. Milco Kjupev, Macedonian Stock Exchange some AsPects of the LegAL stAtus of mAcedoNiA iN the uN orgANizAtioN Igor Janev, Ph.D. Analyses in Vol. IV, No.10 surveiLLANce roLe of the securities ANd exchANge commissioN over the mAcedoNiAN cAPitAL mArket Vesna Pendovska, Dr.Juris bAsic ecoLogicAL ProbLems of the city of skoPje Sonja Jordanovska PLANt ProtectioN iN the rePubLic of mAcedoNiA Filip Pejcinovski, D.Sc. the NAtioNAL security of the rePubLic of mAcedoNiA ANd the euro-AtLANtic iNtegrAtioN Stojan Slaveski, Ph.D. Analyses in Vol. IV, No.11 the roLe of the stAte iN the heALth cAre reforms iN westerN euroPe ANd rePubLic of mAcedoNiA Vladimir Lazarevik M.D., M.P.H. stAff PoteNtiALs iN the rePubLic of mAcedoNiA Stojance Mitrovski, M.D.

82 reform of Arm ProvidiNg oPtimAL Number ANd structure of QuALified miLitAry ANd civiLiAN PersoNNeL Marina Stojanovska does the mAcedoNiAN LegAL ANd fiscAL frAmework eNhANce the growth of the civic sector? Vesna Pendovska, Dr.Juris Analyses in Vol. V, No.1 LegaL aspects f he fight against corruption n he iNterNAtioNAL ANd NAtioNAL LeveL Dr. Nikola Tupanceski, Assistant Professor euroPeAN uNioN-westerN bALkANs reLAtioNs cArefuL, coNfused, eNcourAgiNg Dobrinka Taskovska boris trAjkovski (1956-2004): PAstor iN the LANd of the dukes Saso Ordanoski, Nevena Angelovska reALity PuzzLe ANd iNverted sock Liljana Mazova Analyses in Vol. V, No.3 muLticuLturAL societies betweeN coNseNsus ANd disAgreemeNt: sociAL iNtegrAtioN ANd PoLiticAL discourse Dr. Petar Atanasov fourth geNerAtioN of reforms iN the defeNce Saso Kuzmanovski, M.A. how cLose is the rePubLic of mAcedoNiA to NAto membershiP? Saso Kuzmanovski, M.A. mAcedoNiA Needs eLectioN code Zoran Tanevski Analyses in Vol. V, No.4 diAsPorA cuLtures beNefit both the couNtries of origiN & settLemeNt Eleonora Petrova-Mitevska, M.P. kosovo, A joiNt veNture of democrAcy Slobodan Casule, MP mAcedoNiA joiNs euroPeAN eNergy commuNity Vesna Borozan, Ph.D. the rePubLic of mAcedoNiA - LAst chANce for iNterNAL LegitimAcy Stevo Pendarovski

83 Analyses in Vol. V, No.5 crisis mANAgemeNt: Necessity for A stAbLe & secure rePubLic of mAcedoNiA Professor Doctor Marina Mitrevska how do comPANies iN mAcedoNiA set their AdvertisiNg ANd PromotioN budgets Irena Jakimova-pelgren the mediA iN southeAsterN euroPe ANd the roLe of wAz Srgjan Kerim, Ph.D. heALth: reforms At crossroAds Spase Jovkovski, Ph.D. Analyses in Vol. VI, No.1 kokiNo hoLy mouNtAiN ANd ANcieNt observAtory Jovica Stankovski, Gjore Cenev ArAbic mANuscriPts iN mAcedoNiA Marijana Kavcic restorAtioN of st. cLemeNts uNiversity iN ohrid Pasko Kuzman Prehistoric mAcedoNiAN figuriNes Irena Kolistrkoska Nasteva goLem grAd iN PresPA (from orestiANs to romANs) Vera Bitrakova - Grozdanova cuLturAL heritAge: A bridge towArds A shAred future Lidija Topuzovska who were the Authors of the trebeNiste cuLture ANd the goLd fuNerAL mAsks? Nade Proeva Analyses in Vol. VI, No.2 oN the wAy to euroPeAN uNiversity educAtioN chANges iN the uNiversity educAtioN At the ss. cyriL ANd methodius uNiversity iN skoPje Gjorgji Martinovski trANsformAtioN of higher educAtioN iN the rePubLic of mAcedoNiA As PArt of its Process of . iNtegrAtioN iNto the euroPeAN uNioN Alajdin Abazi

84 the euroPeAN educAtioN ANd reforms comPAred to the u.s. educAtioN, oPeNed sPAce for PrivAte educAtioN iN the rePubLic of mAcedoNiA Aleksandar Nikolovski, Gjorgji Tonovski, Mirko Tripunoski higher educAtioN of the rePubLic of mAcedoNiA iN the Process of chANge Zlat Milovanovic reforms iN higher educAtioN Pero Stojanovski