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Employees Satisfaction level of Peshawar Development authority

Chapter-1 INTRODUCTION TO REPORT


Human Resource plays a central role in the advancement of every organization. Human Resource in an Development sector is of great significance, the need to train the manpower from time to time and taking action towards the development of the Human Resource with a view to help the Industry to achieve its predetermine goals and vision on the basis to improve or take this industry up to the advance level internationally.
Job satisfaction has also been defined by Mullins (2005) as being 'more of an attitude, an internal state. It could, for example, be associated with a personal feeling of achievement, either quantitative or qualitative.' Mullins further stated that concept of job satisfaction is regarded as complex and multifaceted. (Mullins, 2005) Spector, (1997), Kinneman et al,

(1997) have also explained Job satisfaction as 'a complex construct and is often measured as a global attitude of an employee toward his or her work'. That is, the employee is either satisfied or dissatisfied with the job. Cook et al (1981) and Spector (1997) have expressed the belief that an employee's level of satisfaction can differ with specific aspects of the job. They have projected a number of elements (variables) that underlie this construct. These elements have been classified into 5 distinct dimensions: satisfaction with work attributes (the nature of the work, autonomy, responsibility), rewards (pay, promotion, recognition), other people (supervisors, co-workers), the organisational context (policies, promotion opportunities, procedures, working conditions), and self or individual differences (internal motivation, moral values), Locke (1976), Spector (1997), Cook et al, (1997).

Linking Employee Satisfaction with Productivity and Performance.

The links between employee satisfaction and customer satisfaction, productivity, and financial performance began in 1980 with Benjamin Schneiders survey of satisfaction levels of bank customers and employees.

Employees Satisfaction level of Peshawar Development authority

Studies such as Frederick Reichhelds The Loyalty Effect, (1996) and James Heskett,W. Early Sasser, and Leonard Schlesingers The Service Profit Chain (1997) producedthe first sets of hard data quantifying these links. Both studies conclude that there are direct and quantifiable links between custom

Service variables (such as satisfactionand loyalty), employee variables (such as satisfaction, enthusiasm, loyalty, commitment,capability, and internal service quality), and financial results.

In 1997, Development Dimensions International (DDI) conducted focus groups, customer interviews, literature reviews, and surveys to determine drivers of an

effective service environment. DDI found evidence of a circular relationship between employee satisfaction and retention, and customer satisfaction and loyalty, and increases in company profitability. In addition, employee satisfaction was strongly related to employee commitment and loyalty, and both measures have proven relationships toretention and productivity. y In The Service Profit Chain (1997), the authors proposed a model that workforce capability, satisfaction, and loyalty would lead to customers perceptions of value.Value perception would lead to customer satisfaction and loyalty, which would lead to profits and growth. The study found that employees perceptions of their capabilities, satisfaction, and length-of-service were correlated with customer satisfaction.

Its common sense. When people feel great about the place where they workthey provide better customer service. -Dick Clark, Group Leader of FinancialServicesatMonsanto

Employees Satisfaction level of Peshawar Development authority

Employee Satisfaction & Customer Satisfaction: Is There a Relationship? Numerous empirical studies show a strong positive relationship between employee satisfaction and customer satisfaction (e.g., Band, 1988; George, 1990; Reynierse & Harker, 1992; Schmitt & Allscheid, 1995; Schneider & Bowen, 1985; Schneider, White, & Paul, 1998; Schneider, Ashworth ,Higgs, & Carr, 1996 Johnson, 1996; Ulrich, Halbrook, Meder, Stuchlik, & Thorpe, 1991; Wiley, 1991). As suggested by this wealth of findings, positive changes in employee attitudes lead to positive changes in customer satisfaction. Some investigations have provided explicit measures of this relationship. For example, a study at Sears Roebuck & Co. showed that a five-point improvement in employee attitudes led to a 1.3 rise in customer satisfaction which, in turn, generated a 0.5 increase in revenues. Brooks (2000)reviewed the relationship between financial success and customer and employee variables (e.g.,customer satisfaction, employee satisfaction, etc.) and found that, depending on market segment and industry, between 40 and 80 percent of customer satisfaction and customer loyalty was accounted for by the relationship between employee attitudes and customer-related variables. Similarly, Vilares and Cohelo (2000) found that perceived employee satisfaction, perceived employee loyalty, and perceived employee commitment had a sizable impact on perceived product quality and on perceived service quality. Job Satisfaction and Motivation.

Organisations have been described as a social arrangement for the controlled performance of collective goals (Stewart, 1973). They exist basically for two reasons: to maximize profit or share holder value, (Huczynski and Buchanan, 1991). Latest trends in management encourage the integration of the needs of employees with that of organisations. Maximising profit through growth/expansion and increased share value should not be the only motivation

Employees Satisfaction level of Peshawar Development authority

for organisations. Investment in people should be at the fore of business strategy and in developing human resources which invariably benefits the respective organisations. The role and effective use and management of human resources in enhancing organisational performance therefore cannot be over emphasized.

Job Satisfaction and Motivation needs are vital in the work place particularly in the twentyfirst century as workers have become more knowledgeable through education about their rights in the work place. According to Fredrick Hertzberg's Job Satisfaction model, there are factors within and outside an organisation that affects the extent to which employees of an organisation are satisfied. These include the structure of the organisation, the organisational culture and the internal politics that pertains in the organisation (Mullins, 2005).

A satisfied and motivated work force can undoubtedly help sustain productivity. Locke (1976) lists some individual characteristics of workers which can affect their level of satisfaction. They include demographic factors like: age, sex, education, position occupied and length of service. He added that job satisfaction plays an important role in employee commitment and in reducing employee absenteeism and boredom at work. Smith (1992) believed that job satisfaction could lead to cost reduction by reducing absences, errors and turnovers which leads to greater productivity and economic and industrial growth which is a major drive of most organisations.

During the 1900s organisations were encouraged to deskill their work force by theorist like Fredrick Taylor and others, (Daft, 2003). Taylor in Daft (2003) advocated scientific management allowing people to specialise in the task they are assigned to. Workers in recent times have become more knowledgeable and sophisticated that they are able to multi-task through training themselves or training from their organisations. Workers irrespective of their level would rather like to enjoy what they do. Furthermore workers see organisations according to Huczynski and Buchanan (1991) as a source of:

Employees Satisfaction level of Peshawar Development authority

y y y y y y

Money and physical resources Meaning, relevance and purpose Order and stability Security, support and protection Status, prestige, self-esteem and self-confidence Power, authority and control.

It is worth mentioning that although collectively members of an organisation may have a goal as a result of strategies that may have evolved from the top; the individual members pursue a variety of different goals on their own. Senior managers may decide on objectives and attempt to get others to agree with them by calling them organisational goals. However employees' individual aspirations inclinations and training are likely to affect these goals, (Stewart, 1973). In view of this it is important that organisations are aware of the individual needs that exist within their organisations and to strive to integrate these needs or find a middle ground which addresses these needs that employees have. Organisations that ignore this may to do well in the short to medium term but could have severe problems with staff performance long-term as a result of lack of commitment and staff dissatisfaction.

Varied definitions have been given in literature for job satisfaction. Nevertheless, 'there appears to be a general agreement that job satisfaction is an affective (that is emotional) reaction to a job that results from the incumbent's comparison of the actual outcomes with those that are desired (expected, deserved, and so on).' (Cranny, Smith and Stone 1992). Job satisfaction is a positive feeling an individual has towards his or her job, (Daft, 2003). An employee who is satisfied feels fulfilled doing the job. It is an inherent feeling that one's talents are being fully utilized and that one's contribution is impacting society, while at the same time, personal growth-needs are being met.

Employees Satisfaction level of Peshawar Development authority

"Employee satisfaction" helps the company to maintain a standard & increase productivity by motivating the employees. "Human resource" is the most important resource for any organization, so to study employees satisfaction helps to know the working methods Employee job rotation, employees training, employees problem solving and employee goal settings. Are the things that affect them to work effectively. Thus, to study on employee satisfaction is necessary

RESEARCH QUESTION
Are the employees of Peshawar Development Authority satisfied with their jobs?

RESEARCH OBJECTIVES
1. To find out whether the employees of Peshawar Development Authority are satisfied with their jobs. 2. To find out the reasons for satisfaction or dissatisfaction of employees of Peshawar Development Authority at their jobs.

IMPORTANCE OF RESEARCH
The main objective of my project report will be helpful for Peshawar development authority, that what steps should be taken to increase the productivity of their employees. The satisfaction of employees is very crucial for success of the company or organization, thus studying the satisfaction level and findings ways to improve the satisfaction of employees is very important as it has an effect on the overall productivity. I believe that my efforts for this report will somehow bring the light to the path of success as a nation.

SCOPE OF PROJECT
The scope of the study is confined to Peshawar Development Authority; it will provide sufficient information regarding employees satisfaction level in respect to their working method, employees job rotation, employees training, employees problem solving and employee goal settings

Employees Satisfaction level of Peshawar Development authority

CHAPTER 2: LITERATURE REVIEW


INTRODUCTION:
Of all the advances in management thinking, which transpired during the twentieth century, perhaps none has been as important as those that have occurred within the domain of what we now call human resource management. These advances have come in two basic forms. First, it has been learned that all business organizations (indeed, all organizations of any purpose) depend on their people for success. Second, it has been observed, that by proper coordination, the people of an organization can achieve more by working together as a teem, than they can by working singly. The development of concepts such as the learning organization, human capital and knowledge capital are the building blocks of the new styles of organization are now emerging. To get the best from the people who make up an organization, it is first necessary to manage them in the most efficient and effective manner. Exaactly what constitutes efficiency and effectiveness in this regard has been and continues to be a matter for debate. At one extreme, there is the view that employees are simply a resource, to be pressed for the maximum possible output. At the other end of the spectrum, the view obtains that employees are first and foremost human beings and that the employer has a duty to care for their human aspirations and needs. Pragmmatically, of course, most employers fit somewhere between these two extremes; exactly where depends on their own outloaok and inclination.

THE RISING INFLUENCE OF HUMAN-RESOURCE:


Effectively managing human resources improves the performance of both employee and employer. Local companies are beginning to value good personnel management and are turning to Western HR methodss, while Western companies rely on their HR managers to make sure that the company complies with all the labor laws. The result is improved employee morale and effectiveness, and a greater role for HR.

Employees Satisfaction level of Peshawar Development authority

Western experience proved long ago that effective human resource management influences the overall profitability of a company. The last couple of years have seen a rapid increase in the number of Russian companies paying serious attention to the development and implementation of HR strategies. And they are absolutely right to make this a priority, as the right people will create the right policy, according to HR directors.

SURVIVE

THE

BETTER

ECONOMY:

START

MANAGING

TURNOVER WHILE YOU CAN:


Turnover of employees is more expensive than you think.Employee tuhrnover has a number of expenses including lower productivity of dissatisfied employees; disruption of the work group; attracting, acquiring and training replacement personnel; mistakes made by new-hires; lower productivity of new-hires; lower prodouctivity of employees whose work is affected by new-hires; and the loss of competitive advantage as your work methods, technology and management techniques are shared with your competitors who hired your ex-employeess. For most organizations, reducing turnover even a few percent represents a significant return on investment.

START NOW: Employee turnover is a "lagging indicator." Factors that cause employees to leave will be present in your organizationn for a long time before you actually see an increase in turnover. Once employees start to quit, they will continue to do so, beyond any hasty improvements. Employees mistrust positive overtures from organizations that suddenly become interested in employee satisfaction when turnover is a problem. All turnovers are not equal: Termination is beneficial when you cull poor performing employees from the company. When good, long-term employees quiit, their loss is the most expensive and the most disruptive to the organization. They take with them training, skills; experience, productivity and the social bonds that help other empployees come to work.

Organizations fail to manage turnover because they try to manage turnover:

Employees Satisfaction level of Peshawar Development authority

This is not a trick. Consider the problem of losing weight. People who try to lose weight typically experience some success for a period of tiime, and then return to their previous weight. Why? In part, because they are trying to manage a sympptom. If you try to eliminate a symptom, you really would like to continue your life asfor it is, but just not experience the natural consequences of that lifestyle.

Trying to lose weight is fundamentally different from simply adopting a healthier lifestyle and, as a natural consequence, you happen to lose some weeight.

Organizations are the same way. If you try to reduce turnover, this is fundamentally different from making your organizatioan a stronger, better place to work and, as a natural consequence, more people stay with your organization because it is a better place to work.

Glue can backfire: Some organizations have created forms of "super glue" that bind employees to the organiization. Some hospitals use exceptional health care benefits; some corporations use stock options that offer exceptional weaalth. The problem is that these techniques can work so well, they can bind unhappy employees to the organization. Organizations cant see how negatively their environment is affecting employees. Poor work environments inhibit company growth; produce unhappy, unmotivated workers; and increase the chance that employees will resort to collective bargaining to solve their problems.

Avoid excuses: "If only we could hire better people" or "They leave for better money" or "This level of turnover is normal for our business." Each of these makes someone outside the organization responsible for your problems and prevents you from making effective changes. In an analysis of organizations to ideentify the underlying causes of a variety of symptoms including turnover. With the right information, turnover can be managed at a lower cost than most people think is possible. Employee satisfaction Employee satisfaction is the terminology used to describe whether employees are happy and contented and fulfilling their desiires and needs at work. Many measures purport that

Employees Satisfaction level of Peshawar Development authority

employee satisfaction is a factor in employee motivation, employee goal achievement, and positive employee morale in the workplace. Employee satisfaction, while generally a positive in your organization, can also be a downer if mediocre employees stay because they are satisfied with your work environment.

Redefining Satisfaction Employee satisfaction means different things to different people. While we intuitively believe that employee satisfaction is necessary for the high performance, studies in the past have not supported this belief. Several years ago, Wilson Learning Worldwide began asking why, and concleuded that the problem was in the definition of satisfaction. The dictionary defines satisfaction as gratification of an appetite and pleasure. In general, people most often associate satisfaction with happiness and comfort. It is likely that in most of the previous studies, people responded to the question Are you satisfied? by interpreting the question as Are you comfortable in your work? Do you feel secure and content? While this may not have been the intent of the question, this understanding of the question does suggest why organizational Redeefining Employee Satisfaction performance has not been linked statistically to employee satisfaction. We dont often associate high performance with contentment, security, and comfort. However, we do tend to associate high performance with enjoyment of the work, fulfillment in accomplishment, and effective work relationships. Therefore, the researchers at Wilson Learning Worlldwide decided to explore a new definition of satisfaction, one that taps the elements of fulfillment, empowerment, and

engagement. In the process, we have identified a powerful tool for creating a highperformance, high-fiulfillment work environment.

Satisfaction with the job: To be fulfilled, people need to value their day-to-day work activities. People need to have a sense of accomplishment or pleasure from the work itself. Satisfaction with relationships: People also need to value the relationships they have on the job to be fulfilled. People want to liike working with their coworkers. While people know that conflicts will arise, they want to be assured that the focus is not on the interpersonal differences, but the task differences. Satisfaction with leadership: If people do not think that they are being managed or led effectively, it is hard to have fulfillmennt in the work.

Employees Satisfaction level of Peshawar Development authority

Knowing that others are satisfied in their work: One of the key findings from our research is the importance of the open expression of fulfillment in the workplace. Knowing that others gain fulfillment in their work is a powerful motivator. Knowing that others are satisfied with the organizations leadership: It is difficult to be fulfilled if there is not open trust and support for leadership. Equally, when that open trust and support is present, it helps create an environment where people feel empowered and willing to give their full engaggement.

Employees Training:
In order to see the impact of employees training first we need to know that what is Training. As Penny Hackett (introduction to training, 1997) say that within most work organizations the task of bringing people to the deesire of standard efficiency or helping them to learn to do things to the way they need to be done is shared. In some, every employee is expected to be helped by training others or themselves. In others, just team leaders, supervisor, manager may be explicitly involved. Now after understanding the training we also need to know the basic difference between training & education to avoid confusion. As Penny Hackett (introduction to training, 1997) say that the distinction between education & training used to be a good deal greater than it now. Training was particular to each type of work. Education was seen as more broadly based Training of life. Training was a mean of ensuring specific task were carried out in accordance with the predetermine procedures. Education was intended to open peoples mind to enable them to work from first principles & question predetermined procedures. Training creates impact on employees performance, training increases confidence & can change peoples attitudes. David Curtis/Healthlink Worldwide, EXPLORING THE TRAINING PROCESS Bishop (1994) studies whether current productivity of individual employees depends on schooling, work experience and formal training obtained at previous employers. Using dummy variables on the incidence of formal training he finds that employees who received formal off-the-job training at previous employers are on average 16% more productive than otherwise comparable employees without previous training.

Employees Satisfaction level of Peshawar Development authority

An increase in knowledge or human capital can affect both level and growth of productivity. The Impact of Firm-provided Training on Production:Testing for Firm-size Effects Jan M. P. De Kok, Tinbergen Institute, Netherland, 2000

Education and training are indispensable instruments for improving labour mobility, adaptability and productivity, thus contributing to enhancing firms competitiveness and redressing labour market iimbalances [Cailods (1994)]. Impact of Training on Earnings: Evidence from Pakistani Industries Zainab Javied, Asma Hyder, Islamabad, Vol 5, 2009

If we want to enhance the employee performance & in this regard, if we able to enhance the level of motivation of the employee by traaining. So indirectly we are enhancing the employee performance by the help of training. For example, if I have no computer literacy, then no matter how much you motivate me it will not enhance my performance, so, I will give training to you regarding computer literacy which will enhance your motivation & ultimately it will enhance the employee performance. Training is one of the crucial strategies for organizations to assist employees to gain those necessary knowledge and skills needed to meet the challenges (Goldstein and Gilliam, 1990; Rosow and Zager, 1988)

JOB ROTATION:
Definition of job rotation Job rotation is a part of career development. Job rotation involves assigning employees to various jobs, so that they acquire a wide base of knowledge and skills. Benefits of Job Rotation It determines the areas where improvement is required. Assessment of the employees who have the potential and caliber for filling the position. It provides the employees with oopportunities to broaden the horizon of knowledge, skills, and abilities by working in different depts, business units, functions Identification of Knowledge, skills, and attitudes (KSAs) of each employee required. Job rotation can lead directly to the accelerated development of new members of staff. Cross-functional job rotation can be a powerful way of developing organizational highfliers.

Employees Satisfaction level of Peshawar Development authority

Application of job rotation For lower management levels job rotation has normally one of two purposes: promotion or skill enhancement. This approach aallows the manager to operate in diverse roles and understand the different issues that crop up. Many Japanese firms are well-known for their practice of job rotation, which assigns each worker not to a single and specific task but to a set of several tasks among which he or she rotates with some frequency. This practice clearly limits the degree of specialization, suggesting the possibility that the rotation of jobs produces certain benefits that outweigh lost productivity from reduced specialization. In fact, job rotation is generally identified to be so beneficial to have contributed greatly to the successes of Japanese firms. For example, in an influential study, Ouchi [1981] identifies non-specialized career paths as one of the fundamental properties of Japanese firms from which American firms can learn, and he details blueprints for implementing what he calls a Type Z Organization. There is also evidence that some American firms have started to experiment with job rotation as one of the innovative transformations of the workplace (Appelbaum and Batt [1994], Osterman [1994]).

Perhaps the best known examples of job rotation can be seen in the case of Japanese firms. As Ouchi [1981, 32] notes, lifelong job rotation holds true for all employees in many Japanese firms. An electrical engineer may go from circuit design to fabrication to

assembly,a technician may work on a different maachine or in a different division every few years, and all managers will rotate through all areas of the business. Based on case studies of various large steel plants, Koike [1984, 63-5] argues that job rotation was practiced in Japan as earlyy as the late 1950s. Studies show that job rotation has become wide-spread in other Japanese industries as pursued regularly in, for example, some of the well-known companies such as Toyota (Monden [1983]). Possibly inspired by the economic success of Japanese firms, there has also been a growing interest in job rotation in the U. S. The literature aimed at managers features essays that promote job rotation, and recent research on work practices finds that many businesses have instituted workplace transformations that include some form of job rotation.

Employees problem solving:


Problem solving is a mental process and is part of the larger problem process that includes problem finding and problem shaping. Considered the most complex of all

Employees Satisfaction level of Peshawar Development authority

intellectual functions, problem solving has been defined as higher-order cognitive process that requires the modulation and control of more routtine or fundamental skillss. Problem solving occurs when an organism or an artificial intelligence system needs to move from a given state to a desired goal state. PROBLEM SOLVING TECHNIQUES:
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Abstraction: solving thee problem in a model of the system before applying it to the real system

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Analogy: using a solution that solved an analogous problem Brainstorming: (especially among groups of people) suggesting a large number of solutions or ideas and combining and developing them until an optimum is found

Divide and conquer: breaaking down a large, complex problem into smaller, solvable problems

Hypothesis testing: assuming a possible explanation to the problem and trying to prove (or, in some contexts, disprove) the assumption Lateral thinking: approaaching solutions indirectly and creatively Means-ends analysis: choosing an action at each step to move closer to the goal Method of focal objects: synthesizing seemingly non-matching characteristics of different objects into something new

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Morphological analysis: assassing the output and interactions of an entire system Reduction: transforming the problem into another problem for which solutions exist Research: employing existing ideas or adapting existing solutions to similar problems Root cause analysis: eliminaating the cause of the problem Trial-and-error: testing possible solutions until the right one is found

GOAL SETTING

Goal Setting involves setting specific, meaasurable and time targeted objectives. Work on the theory of goal-setting suggests that it is an effective tool for making progress by ensuring that participants are clearly aware of what is expected from them, if an objective is to be achieved. On a personal level, setting goallls is a process that allows people to specify then work towards their own objectives most commonly with financial or career-based goals. Goal setting is a major component of Personal development literature.

Employees Satisfaction level of Peshawar Development authority

The business tecchnique of Management by objectives uses the principle of goal setting. In business, goal setting has the advantages of encouraging participants to put in subsstantial effort; and, because every member is aware of what is expected of.... him or her (high role perception), little room is left for inadequate effort going unnoticed.

To be most effective goals should be tangiible, specific, and realistic and have a time targeted for completion. There must be realistic plans to achieve the intended goal. For example, setting a goal to go to Mars on a shoe string buudget is not a realistic goal while setting a goal to go to Hawaii as a backpacker is a possible goal with possible, realistic plans. Setting unrealistic goals can be very harmful, especially to teenagers, because if a goal is not achieved it may lower one's self-esteem. Over time this setting of unrealistic goals can lead to depression and, in extreme cases, suicide.

One drawback of goal setting is that implicit learning may be inhibited. This is because goal setting may encourage simple focus on an outcome witthout openness to exploration, understanding or growth. "Goals provide a sense of direction and purpose" (Goldstein, 1993, p.96). Locke et al. (1981) examiined the behavioral effects of goal-setting, concluding that 90% of laboratory and field studies involving specific and challenging goals led to higher performance than easy or no goals.

While some managers would believe it is sufficient to urge employees to do their best, Locke and Latham have a clear contradicting view on this. The authors state that people who are told to do their best will not do so. Doinng your best has no external referent which implies that it is useless in eliciting specific behavior. To elicit some specific form of behavior from others, it is important that this person has a clear view of what is expected from him/her. A goal is thereby of vital impportance because it facilitates an individual in focusing their efforts in a specified direction. In other words; goals canalize behavior (Cummings & Worley p. 368). However when goals are established at a management level and thereafter solely laid down, employee mottivation with regard to achieving these goals is rather suppressed (Locke & Latham, 2002 p.705). In order to increase motivation the employees not only need to be allowed to participate in the goal setting process but the goals have to be challenging as weell (Cummings & Worley p. 369).

Employees Satisfaction level of Peshawar Development authority

Managers cannot be constantly able to drive motivation and keep track of an employees work on a continuous basis. Goals are thaerefore an important tool for managers since goals have the ability to function as a self-regulatory mechanism that acquires an employee a certain amount of guidance (Shalley, 1995 p. 401). Locke and Latham (2002) have distilled four mechanisms through which goal setting is able to affect individual performance:

1) Goals focus attention towarrds goal-relevant activities and away from goal-irrelevant activities. 2) Goals serve as an energizer; higher goals will induce greater effort while low goals induce lesser effort. 3) Goals affect persistence; constraints with regard to resources will affect work pace. 4) Goals activate cognitive knowledge annd strategies which allows employees to cope with the situation at hand. Through an understanding of the effect of goal setting on individual performance organizations are able to use goal setting to benefit organizational performance. Locke and Latham (2002, p. 707-709) have therefore indicated three moderators which indicate the success of goal setting: I. Goal commitment people will perform bettaer when they are committed to achieve certain goals. Goal commitment is dependent of : a. The importance of the expected outcomes of goal attainment and; b. Self-efficacy; ones belief that (s)he is able to achieve the goals.

II. Feedback keep track of performance to allow empployees to see how effective they have been in attaining the goals. Without proper feedback channels it is impossible to adapt or adjust to the required behavior.

III. Task complexity more difficult goals reequire more cognitive strategies and well developed skills. The more difficult the tasks ahead, a smaller group of people will posses the necessary skills and strategies. From an orrganizational perspective it is thereby more difficult to successfully attain more difficult goals since resources become more scarce.

IV. Employee motivation - The more employees are motivated, the more they are stimulated and interested in accepting goals.

Employees Satisfaction level of Peshawar Development authority

V. Macro-economical characteristics. The position of the economy in the conjecture puts pressure or simply releases the organization. This means that somee goals are easier set in specific macro-economical surroundings. Depression is for instance the least successful conjectural phase for goal setting.

These success factors are not to be seen independently. For example the expected outcomes of goals are positively influenced when employees are involved in the goal setting process. Not only does participation increase commitment in attaining the goals that are set, participation influences self-eefficacy as well. In addition to this feedback is necessary to monitor ones progress. When this is left aside, an employee might (s)he is not making enough progress. This can reduce self-efficacy and thereby harm the performance outcomes in the long run (Bandura 1993 p.119-120).
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LONR TERM GOAL. A long-term goal is an achievement set to be reached over a long period of time. The period of time defined for reaching the goal can be almost any length of time; although most long-term goals tend to bbe measured in years. It would be appropriate to define a long-term goal for this week, month, year, lifetime, etc. The definition of a long-term goal usually involves setting short-term goals to divide the timeline of achieving the long-term goal.

Short-term and long-term goals are important tools in measuring success. They are used in a variety of areas financial, personal and business to name a few. Setting and tracking goals is an important step in achieving success in almost any endeavor.

SHORT TERM GOAL: A short-term goal is something to be accomplished in a short period of time, such as trying to get a bill paid in the next few days. There is noo specific length of time related to the definition of a short-term goal. That is to say, a short term goal may be achieved in a day, week, month, year, etc. The time framee for a short-term goal is related to its context in the overall timeline that it is being applied to. For instance, a short-termof goal for a month long projject may be measured in days where as a short-term goal for someones life might be measured by months or years. Short-term goals are usually defined in relation to a long-term goal or goals.

Employees Satisfaction level of Peshawar Development authority

WORK METHODS: The conditions in which an individual or staff works, including but not limited to such things as amenities, physical environment, stress and noise levels, degree ofsafety or danger, and the like. A positive working environment for employees is the common goal of all good owners and managers. Such an environment encommpasses favorable working conditions, good air quality, timely management feedback and an understanding of job goals and priorities. Studies have shown that employees are also willing to make some wage concessions in order to work in better environments and in a job they enjoy. Hiring extra labor for weekends or extra time off, upgrading facilities to make them safer and more pleasant to work in, and the mere availability of dust masks are examples of good investments to ensure employee satisfaction and retention rates.

Corporate and Individual Responsibility


Responsibility rests with each eemployer to provide and promote a good and harmonious working environment. To create and sustain such an environment there is a need to build practical working procedures on a foundation of sound policies. These policies and procedures should operate hand-in-hand to promote equality of opportunity, and are best underpinned by corporate equal opportunities and antiharassment statements and policies to this effect, together with a Joint Declaration of Protection signed by both management and employees representatives.

Along with corporate responsibilities, each individual employee must also carry personal responsibility for making these policies and procedures come to life. With this in mind, where an employer has taken all reasonably practiccable steps to prevent actions occurring, including the impllementation of these policies through ongoing communication and training strategies, but they still happen then it is right and proper that those who choose to engage in unwanted and unreasonable conduct should expect to bear personal responsibility for their actions.The Tribunal has acknowledged both corporate and individual

Employees Satisfaction level of Peshawar Development authority

responsibility,extending not only to those who work for the organisation but also to third parties and including those who engage with it, for example, by using or delivering services, or as clientss or customers.

CHAPTER # 3

RESEARCH METHADOLOGY

Employees Satisfaction level of Peshawar Development authority

This chapter explains the overall methodology required to collect data to examine the research issue of the study. It deals with the universe of the study, sampling size, tools of data collection and its analysis.

Universe of the study:


The scope of the study is confined to Peshawar Development Authority; it will provide sufficient information regarding employees satisfaction level in respect to their working method, employees job rotation, employees training, employees problem solving and employee goal settings.

SAMPLING:
The employees of PDA constitutes the population for this study, the sample size was 100.

Data Collection: The data will be collected from both primary and secondary sources. These include:

Questionnaire development: Data collection is the most important step in a primary research; and the authenticity of a study is measured in terms of the data collected, and how it is collected. For this purpose, Questionnaire technique will be used for collection of primary data.

Measurement Respondents were asked about their income, work activities, working environment, training, leadership support different questions regarding their job responsibilities were asked. Likert scale of measuring was used in questionnaire. Statistical Package for Social Scientist (SPSS) was then used for interpretation of data.

Secondary data: Secondary information will be collected from different sources including journals, former research papers.

Employees Satisfaction level of Peshawar Development authority

CHAPTER #4 RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS Analysis

Employees Satisfaction level of Peshawar Development authority

In this chapter a detailed analysis of the questionnaire is done using SPSS. The answers of all 100 respondents were entered into the SPSS and different statistical tools like frequency and percentile were applied to each and every question. The answers for each question were recorded and then tables and pie chart were drawn using SPSS. A detailed summary with table and pie is given with every table given below.

Table 1: Respondents perception about employees satisfaction Employees satisfaction Respondents 1 2 3 Care Profession Professional position Income Professional advancement Skills utilization Customer care Total Percentage Strongly agree 69 68 47 20 54 50 55 363 51.85 Agree 09 25 53 64 46 43 39 279 39.85 Neutral 07 00 00 11 00 00 06 24 3.42 Disagree 15 07 00 05 00 07 00 34 4.85 Strongly disagree 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 Total 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 700 100

4 5 6 7

Source: Field Survey, 2011

This table shows the respondents perception about employees satisfaction level; it indicates that 51.85% of the respondents were strongly agreed and they are satisfied with their jobs 3.42 % were neutral about it .The respondents were asked about the questions ,That does company cares about their people or not, their professional positions,their income,their professional advancements ,their skill utilization and customer care.This table reveals that majority of PDA employees are satisfied from their jobs.

Employees Satisfaction level of Peshawar Development authority

Table 2: Respondents perception about employees job rotation Employees Job Rotation Respondents 1 2 3 Work activities interest Job training Job skills Strongly agree 57 51 26 57 191 47.5 Agree 39 38 66 39 182 45.5 Neutral 00 04 08 04 16 4 Disagree 04 00 00 00 04 1 Strongly disagree 00 00 08 00 08 2 Total 100 100 100 100 400 100

Total Percentage

Source: Field Survey, 2011 This table shows the respondents perception about employees Job rotation ; it indicates that 47.5% of the respondents were strongly agreed and they are satisfied with their jobs 4 % were neutral about it . The respondents were asked about the questions about their current working activities,their interest in work, their job rotation,and job skills.

Table 3: Respondents perception about employees Work method Respondents Employees Work Method Total

Employees Satisfaction level of Peshawar Development authority

Strongly agree 1 2 3 Current job satisfaction potentials Working condition improvement Team spirit Total Percentage 48 51 33 54 42 228 45.6

Agree 37 38 63 38 51 227 45.4

Neutral 11 11 04 08 00 34 6.8

Disagree 04 00 00 00 00 04 0.8

Strongly disagree 00 00 00 00 07 07 1.4 100 100 100 100 100 500 100

4 5

Source: Field Survey, 2011 This table shows the respondents perception about employees Job rotation ; it indicates that 45.6 % of the respondents were strongly agreed and they are satisfied with their work methods 0.8 % employees disagreed that they are not satisfied with the working conditions.

Table4: Respondents perception about employees Training

Employees Satisfaction level of Peshawar Development authority

Employees Training Respondents Strongly agree 42 36 27 56 23 184 36.8 Agree 54 49 54 29 73 259 51.8 Neutral 04 00 07 15 04 30 6 Disagree 00 15 04 00 00 19 3.8 Strongly disagree 00 00 08 00 07 15 3 Total

1 2 3

training Extra training Benefits received distinguishes participation Total Percentage

100 100 100 100 100 500 100

4 5

Source: Field Survey, 2011 This table shows the respondents perception about employees Job Training ; it indicates that 51.8 % of the respondents were agreed and they are satisfied with their work training programs 3 % of the employees were strongly Disagreed about their Training programs.In this table the respondents were asked whether thay were received adequate training,The extra training thay require to do thir job,Benefits received from the training programs,their distinguished postion due to training and their willingness to participate again in training programs.

Table 5: Respondents perception about employees Problem Solving Employees Problem solving Respondents Strongly agree Agree Neutral Disagree Strongly disagree Total

Employees Satisfaction level of Peshawar Development authority

1 2 3

Competent mgt External problems support Leadership response Internal problems Total Percentage

47 34 43 23 13 160 32

53 36 35 57 68 249 49.8

00 08 00 00 12 20 4

00 22 14 13 07 56 11.2

00 00 08 07 00 15 3

100 100 100 100 100 500 100

4 5

Source: Field Survey, 2011 This table shows the respondents perception about employees problem solutions ; it indicates that 49.8 % of the respondents were Agreed and they are satisfied with their work management decision regarding to the employees problem solution.about 4% employees have neutral response.In this table respondents were asked about management competency to tackle the problems.Their external problems, their company support and the employees internal problems.

Table6: Respondents perception about employees Goal Setting: Employees Goal settings Respondents Strongly agree Agree Neutral Disagree Strongly disagree Total

Employees Satisfaction level of Peshawar Development authority

1 2 3

goals Employees goals Job understanding Challenging goals Dead lines explained Total Percentage

34 31 23 28 08 19 143 23.83

43 53 42 56 37 30 261 43.5

12 00 18 16 48 51 145 24.1

04 16 17 00 07 00 44 7.33

07 00 00 00 00 00 07 1.16

100 100 100 100 100 100 600 100

4 5 6

Source: Field Survey, 2011 This table shows the respondents perception about employees Goal settings ; it indicates that 43.5 % of the respondents were Agreed and they are satisfied with their goals and directions.decision ,about 1.16% of employees strongly disagreed.The respondents were asked about their company goals,Employees personal goals,Their job understanding challenging goals,Deadlines for the proposed goals.and their clear goal understandings.

CHAPTER #5 RECOMMENDATIONS

Employees Satisfaction level of Peshawar Development authority

PROJECT ANALYSIS:

Although the PDA is very broad but my project is specifically based on the Human Recourse issues in the PDA . As I discussed earlier that this project deals with issues of human resource practices regarding employee satisfaction which HR of PDA is facing. All findings are listed earlier in the report by questionnaire sequence which shows very clear picture of the research findings, here I will discuss on broad bases that what are the recommendations for improving the condition of HR in employee satisfaction case. Employee satisfaction with in the organization is very important because satisfy employee help organization to increase more efficiency in the organization. The output which I get by search is that the employees are satisfied to some extent in the organization where they work. In many organizations the employees are not satisfied with there jobs. But on the other hand the employees also work sincerely for the organizations in which they work.

RECOMMENDATIONS
The following are a few measures which improves employee satisfaction. Some of them are being taken by some PDA departments but, more emphasis on them will make the condition even better.

Working hours should be flexible. As the PDA employees already have a tough job and the work is tiring for the mind. The organization should assign the employees to work for a specified number of hours, say 8 hours a day, employees that they should work in 8 hours of the day.

Salary of the employees should be good. Sometimes the pay is not satisfactory which makes the overall morale of the employees low and the commitment with

the organization goes down which is not good for the employees themselves and also to the organizations as shifting from one to other is not good.

Sometimes the employees are not happy with their project team, as they may not be able to work properly with them, sometimes they may not understand each other. Sometimes, the overall team may not be a composed one having a complete mix of all types of specialists required for a certain project.

Employees Satisfaction level of Peshawar Development authority

Sometimes the professionals may want acknowledgement for certain projects or services that they render to the industry. If not provided, it may effect their own morale as well as of others in the industry and they may not become motivated to work for the organization.

The organizations should make the employees aware of and make arrangements to tell them about every new projects or programs or anything other that is required to wok in it, they should be trained in its usage.

Sometimes starting pay is very less and it effects the employee commitment in an organization, the employee shifts from one organization to other. It not only affects the employee career but also effects the organizations. Survey results may show an overall satisfaction of employees but respondents may be those on project or teamleader designation or an engineer or programmer, but those who have newly entered face such problems.

Vacations, say Sunday or any holiday is also sometimes not available to the new ones. With time, condition gets good but requires really to b hardworking. Its the need of every job but if hard work done with own will, its really good to the organization. Flexibility I this area should be done.

HR manager is not available in each software-house, as they are small in size. Government should take efforts on its own. One HR manager for say, a group f software-houses or area should be assigned proposing policies to keep HR happy and also keeping a check. This may make their condition even better.

Overall, the satisfaction level is good, but working on the satisfaction measures a little more may make it a happy and developing sector for the country.

QUESTIONNAIRE ON EMPLOYEE SATISFACTION:


I am a student of KPK AGRICULTURAL University Peshawar. For my Mba project, I am doing the survey on Employee Satisfaction in PDA (Peshawar Development Authority).

Employees Satisfaction level of Peshawar Development authority

Please take a few minutes to complete this survey. Your specific answers will be completely anonymous, but your views in combination with those of others are extremely important and will be confidential.

PERSONAL INFORMATION:
Name: ___________________________________________ Age: ____________________________________________ Qualification: _____________________________________ Organization: _____________________________________ Working Since: ___________________________________ Department: ______________________________________ Designation: ______________________________________

QUESTIONS

EMPLOYEE SATISFACTION
Q1: Do you feel that the company cares about its people? 1) Strongly agree 2) Agree 3) Neutral 4) Disagree 5) Strongly disagree Q2: Do other people view your job as a valuable profession? 1) Strongly agree 2) Agree 3) Neutral 4) Disagree 5) Strongly disagree Q3: Do you believe that your position at work is a professional position? 1) Strongly agree 2) Agree 3) Neutral 4) Disagree 5) Strongly disagree Q4: Are you satisfied with your income? 1) Strongly agree 2) Agree 3) Neutral 4) Disagree 5) Strongly disagree Q5: Have you ample opportunities for advancement in this profession 1) Strongly agree 2) Agree 3) Neutral 4) Disagree 5) Strongly disagree Q6: Are you fully able to use your skills in this position? 1) Strongly agree 2) Agree 3) Neutral 4) Disagree 5) Strongly disagree Q7: Do you believe that your supervisors care deeply for you and for our clients? 1) Strongly agree 2) Agree 3) Neutral 4) Disagree 5) Strongly disagree

JOB ROTATION

Employees Satisfaction level of Peshawar Development authority

Q8: Your work activities are personally meaningful to you? 1) Strongly agree 2) Agree 3) Neutral 4) Disagree 5) Strongly disagree

Q: You believe that your position at work is a professional position? 1) Strongly agree 2) Agree 3) Neutral 4) Disagree 5) Strongly disagree Q: You are fully able to use your skills in this position? 1) Strongly agree 2) Agree 3) Neutral 4) Disagree 5) Strongly disagree Q9: The work you do is interesting? 1) Strongly agree 2) Agree 3) Neutral

4) Disagree 5) Strongly disagree

Q10: Have you received the appropriate training for the job that you rotate? 1) Strongly agree 2) Agree 3) Neutral 4) Disagree 5) Strongly disagree

WORK METHOD
Q11: Are you generally satisfied with the kind of work you do in this job? 1) Strongly agree 2) Agree 3) Neutral 4) Disagree 5) Strongly disagree

Q12: Are you satisfied with your current job and your current position? 1) Strongly agree 2) Agree 3) Neutral 4) Disagree 5) Strongly disagree

Q13: Do you think that your current job has explored your potential to the full? 1) Strongly agree 2) Agree 3) Neutral 4) Disagree 5) Strongly disagree

Q14: How do you rate the working condition at your job? 1) Strongly agree 2) Agree 3) Neutral 4) Disagree 5) Strongly disagree

Q15: How would you want your management to improve the working condition? 1) Strongly agree 2) Agree 3) Neutral 4) Disagree 5) Strongly disagree

Employees Satisfaction level of Peshawar Development authority

Q16: Are you satisfied with the team spirit in your working environment? 1) Strongly agree 2) Agree 3) Neutral 4) Disagree 5) Strongly disagree

TRAINING
Q17: Did you receive adequate training to do your job well? 1) Strongly agree 2) Agree 3) Neutral 4) Disagree 5) Strongly disagree

Q18: If you feel that you needed extra training, it would be made available for you? 1) Strongly agree 2) Agree 3) Neutral 4) Disagree 5) Strongly disagree

Q19: Are you getting benefits from this training and development program? 1) Strongly agree 2) Agree 3) Neutral 4) Disagree 5) Strongly disagree

Q20: What would you consider to be your area of expertise, and your particular skill set that distinguishes you from your colleagues? 1) Strongly agree 2) Agree 3) Neutral 4) Disagree 5) Strongly disagree

Q21: Would you be willing to participate in such a program again? 1) Strongly agree 2) Agree 3) Neutral 4) Disagree 5) Strongly disagree

PROBLEM SOLVING
Q22: Are you sure that your management is competent enough to tackle the problem? 1) Strongly agree 2) Agree 3) Neutral 4) Disagree 5) Strongly disagree

Q23: Do you feel that external problems are usually more complicated than internal problems? 1) Strongly agree 2) Agree 3) Neutral 4) Disagree 5) Strongly disagree

Q24: Have your management supported you in problems faced by you? 1) Strongly agree 2) Agree 3) Neutral 4) Disagree 5) Strongly disagree

Q25: Are you satisfied with the Company leadership response to the important external problems? 1) Strongly agree 2) Agree 3) Neutral 4) Disagree 5) Strongly disagree

Employees Satisfaction level of Peshawar Development authority

Q26: Are you satisfied with the Company leadership response to the important internal problems? 1) Strongly agree 2) Agree 3) Neutral 4) Disagree 5) Strongly disagree

GOAL SETTING
Q27: Are you satisfied with your understanding of the direction and goals of the company? 1) Strongly agree 2) Agree 3) Neutral 4) Disagree 5) Strongly disagree

Q28: Are you satisfied with your understanding of how your goals are linked to the goals of the company? 1) Strongly agree 2) Agree 3) Neutral 4) Disagree 5) Strongly disagree

Q29: Do you agree that members of the organization should understand exactly what they are supposed to do on their jobs? 1) Strongly agree 2) Agree 3) Neutral 4) Disagree 5) Strongly disagree

Q30: Do you think that Goals should be challenging but reasonable (neither too hard nor too easy)? 1) Strongly agree 2) Agree 3) Neutral 4) Disagree 5) Strongly disagree

Q31: Do you feel that there should be deadlines for accomplishing goals? 1) Strongly agree 2) Agree 3) Neutral 4) Disagree 5) Strongly disagree

Q32: Either Goal should be clearly explained to everyone in the organization or not? 1) Strongly agree 2) Agree 3) Neutral 4) Disagree 5) Strongly disagree