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Power Predictor 2.

0 Technical Specification
This document sets out the detailed technical specification for the Power Predictor v2.0 hardware and software.

Kit contents

Sensor specifications
3 cup, pulse anemometer, accurate to +/- 3% in independently verified tests Assembly built around two low friction bearings (delivering 1.3 m/s start up speed) Balanced potentiometer wind vane for measuring prevailing wind direction Rugged mounting bracket Index of wind turbulence on separate data channel (beta only) Sensor for recording solar energy hours Five metres UV balanced cable included

Power Predictor 2.0 Technical Specification

IP65 rated waterproof cable connectors Requires USB 1.0 or 2.0 port on your computer Minimum 30 days data required before software report generated Rugged UV resistant ABS plastic RoHS compliant and fully CE certified

Instrument type Application Software

Five channel wind and solar data logger kit including sensors analysis software Wind and solar resource assessment for small microgeneration sites Fully featured analysis software including high resolution graphing, summarising and individual wind turbine power output forecasting Twelve months software license included in the kit. Annual renewal if desired costs 45 GBP or local equivalent. Logger: Velcro attachment supplied, user to select appropriate means of fixing according to situation Sensor: bracket supplied with fixing holes. Screws or cable ties can be used to secure to mounting pole Boxed Power Predictor kit including 5m cable: 1.4kg Sensor: 400g; Logger: 200g Vane: 230mm x 120mm Anemometer cups 120mm diameter Bracket: 170mm Logger: 120mm x 100mm x 40mm Bracket: stainless steel Body: ABS plastic Logger enclosure: hinged plastic lid, waterproof rubber O-ring seal

Software licensing Mounting

Weight Dimensions

Materials

Anemometer maximum 50 m/s survival wind speed System Failure per Million Hours Overall System FIT Overall System MTBF 9.7 9707.9 103009.0 hours

Power Predictor 2.0 Technical Specification

Data logger specifications


Overview Digital channels Analogue channels Functions Sampling interval Averaging interval Real time clock Storage medium Maximum data storage Parameters recorded Self contained waterproof data logger engineered for very low power operation One Four Data is collected in time & date stamped, ten minute average samples, which are analysed by the accompanying web software 10 seconds, fixed 10 minutes, fixed User programmable date and time, adjusts for leap years Non-volatile, removable 512MB SD memory card, capable of storing many years of data. USB converter included in pack Data storage equates to only around 3 MB per year so the memory card supplied provides excessive space Date Time / Wind pulses per 10 minute interval / Raw wind direction average / Raw solar average / Raw temperature average / Wind direction variance (beta) Compressed data file is read by web software. Data can then be freely downloaded into Excel or similar. 2 line, 8 character LCD shows 10 second sample of wind speed (m/s), raw solar check and current time. R signal on screen indicates recording is active. Screen sleeps by default to conserve battery life

File format LCD display User Interface

Configurable parameters Time, Date, Screen timeout period Supply voltage Current consumption Battery Nominal 9V DC, minimum 3.3V DC Average of 24uA 9V Alkaline Duracell PP3 battery supplied, estimated lifespan 6+ months depending on operating temperature. Specialist Lithium batteries may be substituted for operating the unit in extreme temperature -10 C to 50 C. Recommended to minimise exposure of logger to extreme environments so reduce deleterious effects on battery life 0 100% RH non condensing

Operating temperature range Operating humidity range

Power Predictor 2.0 Technical Specification

Overview of new solar PV sensor


The polysilicon cell mounted on the Power Predictor V2 is a tool for measuring the levels of insolation at the proposed site The web software converts the raw data collected into a Watts/square meter value which is displayed on the graph Samples are taken every 10 seconds and averaged to a 10 minute data record Version 2 of the Power Predictor software use the measured data from the polysilicon sensor to calculate actual solar output forecasts. Adjustments are made to compensate for the angle of measurement, and the angle of the intended solar panel array. You can see an example screen shot of the software on the next page. Although this approach differs quite a lot from the method of estimating average annual insolation we believe there is significant value in it. Users can test if a certain angle or position is better than another, and they can also determine the effect of shading or cloud cover on their likely daily power outputs. The spectral response of the solar cell is that of a standard polysilicon cell between 280nm and 1100nm. The fact that the cell sensor is polysilicon rather than monosilicon does not limit its application, as we are using it only to determine the W/sq meter, which is then converted into a simulated output using the efficiency characteristics of particular panels. The sensor does not use a cosine corrector, unlike more expensive pyranometers on the market. However we do make azimuth type corrections in the web software to adjust against the known angle of inclination and orientation. The software license that is included with the Power Predictor allows the testing of one primary site, and two nearby secondary sites. Additional software site licenses, to enable the hardware to be used elsewhere, can also be purchased through the web application for a nominal cost

Software application specifications


The Power Predictor web application works through your browser (PC or Mac) Data file is uploaded from the memory card into a user account on powerpredictor.com, which generates instant graphs of the data Once more than thirty days worth of data is collected, a Power report, and Financial report is generated, based on that particular data

Power Predictor 2.0 Technical Specification

Wind speed
The wind speed data collected is presented on an interactive graph (green line). Users can select a particular time period to display. Data can be presented in metres/second or MPH depending on the preference of the user.

Annual modelled mean wind speed data at 10m hub height (blue line) is presented alongside the observed data (green line). The modelled data is supplied by our partners 3TIER and is particular to that latitude and longitude, anywhere in the world. The user also has the opportunity to simulate how the wind speed they have observed would increase at higher elevations, using an assumed wind shear formula (note this is used with caution due to extra inherent assumptions) A data confidence bar at the top left of all screens provides an indication of the confidence associated with the duration of the users measurement sample.

Power Predictor 2.0 Technical Specification

Wind direction
A wind rose displays the prevailing wind direction that has been recorded during the period. Note this requires the user to correctly orientate the Power Predictor during setup using the North arrow sticker. The summary box in the top left corner shows the prevailing wind direction.

Power Predictor 2.0 Technical Specification

Solar data
Solar data collected by the Power Predictors solar sensor is presented in graph form.

This data is presented in Watts / sq metre, illustrating the dramatic difference between sunny and overcast days in terms of available solar energy. For comparison, an annual average irradiance figure (specifically, Global Horizontal Irradiance or GHI) for that site is drawn from 3TIER for comparison with the average irradiation (including night time) as measured for that site.

Power report
The Power Report takes the raw data uploaded and presents a forecast of the kWh (units) that would be produced annually, assuming that sample is representative of the long term data. Other metrics such as the carbon footprint and capacity factory are also calculated.

Power Predictor 2.0 Technical Specification

Methods for calculating the Power Report data


The columns displayed in the Power Report are explained as follows: Capital cost - The capital cost of each turbine or solar panel displayed in the report is the average installed cost of that system, for that territory or country. This information has been gathered through market research and due to the inherent variability of equipment installations; the data here represent typical averages, rather than precise values. kWh this is the estimated power output for that generator in that measurement period only, based on the real wind speed data uploaded. The uploaded data is sorted into wind speed bins and these multiplied against the wind turbine power performance curves we have in our database for each wind turbine system. Note that these power curves are those supplied by the manufacturers and have not been independently verified by Better Generation Ltd. A number of further minor adjustments are made, concerning air density, altitude and likely maintenance downtime, to give a total forecasted power generation figure for that period, in kWh, for each turbine. For solar panels, the estimated output is calculated by multiplying the uploaded Watts per square metre values by the efficiency value stored in our database. The sum of these values is the number of kWh per unit area for the recorded period. When the size of array is selected (currently set at 20m2),
Power Predictor 2.0 Technical Specification

the kWh per unit area is multiplied by the size to give the estimated power output for each panel. kgCO2 this column calculates the amount of CO2 saved by generating that amount of renewable energy compared against the typical carbon intensity of the electricity fuel mix for that country. For example in the UK, based on the mix of coal, nuclear and gas generators, each kWh of electricity represents an emission of 0.544 kg of CO2 equivalent. Capacity factor this indicates at what capacity the wind turbine would be running, compared to its theoretical maximum output. For example if the wind blew at the rated maximum out of the turbine (often 12 m/s), the turbine would operate at a capacity factor of 100%. In the real world, most turbines operate at a capacity factor of 20% or less due to varying wind speeds. Basic value is the basic value of the electricity forecasted, referencing the preset value per kWh or unit of electricity. Carbon footprint illustrates how this relates to the typical household carbon footprint. For example, a value of 100% would indicate that the carbon savings from the electricity generated by that wind turbine or solar panel exactly match the average household carbon footprint for that country.

Financial Report
This new section provides detailed financial analysis of an investment in a selected wind turbine or solar panel. Where information about renewable energy incentives is available for a given territory (for example Feed in Tariffs or tax rebates), the financial presentation can factor this in. In the absence of this information, a more basic financial report is displayed which looks at the simple value of the electricity used or supplanted will be used. A screen capture below illustrates a detailed financial report for illustration.

Power Predictor 2.0 Technical Specification

Future development
Given the logging capabilities of the sensor, there are early indications that there may be a market for solar insolation sensing. In other words, companies selling big solar panels could also sell a Power Predictor logging unit with each solar panel. By measuring the solar insolation alongside the output of the solar panels, the customer or contractor can check that the solar panels are working correctly and producing the expected levels of output.
Power Predictor 2.0 Technical Specification

One of our key strengths is the data logger part of the device. We can record detailed data for a very low cost. With the next version of the PP we will also be able to transmit data via the GPRS/GSM network. We are also working on a new product called the Power Perceiver. That product would plug into the Power Predictor and record the generation output of a solar panel or wind turbine alongside the wind or solar data. That way we can check if the generator is working properly in a certain wind speed or sunlight level.

Pro report upgrade overview


All users will also be given the opportunity to purchase a bespoke upgrade 'benchmarking' report, which present detailed analysis comparing modelled data to observed, wind direction trends, and indicating likely seasonal trends and certainty factors in the yield forecasting. The benchmarking report, or Power Predictor Pro, offers the following methodology: 1. Removing seasonal measurement bias inherent in samples less than 12 months 2. Application of the standard error associated with the measurement duration (one degree of standard deviation) 3. Conversion of the long term wind speed estimate into a P90 estimate 4. Finding out what Weibull shape K factor to use for the wind speed bins, based on the data collected This is scheduled for public launch by August 2010.

Power Predictor 2.0 Technical Specification