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A STUDY ON POST RECESSION EMPLOYEE MORALE AND STRESS WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO TATASKY PRIVATE LIMITED, CHHATTISGARH

INTRODUCTION
1.1 BACKGROUND

The year 2008-09 was a period of uncertainty due to the financial meltdown, which led to decreasing productivity, pricing challenges and uncertainties in the business market that hit many organizations very badly. Though the crisis originated in the USA due to the bursting of the boom in the housing sector, it also affected the Indian economy; it was felt, that the spillover effects of the financial crisis would affect certain sectors of the economy more. For example, Prasad & Reddy (2009) observed that the financial and information technology sectors will be the worst hit followed by sectors that were more exposed to the economy of United States of America. Employees in various industries were nervous and experienced tension consequent to the global recession led slow growth of domestic economy. It is important to understand the impact of the recession on the employees as it has a direct bearing on employee morale and well-being, which may have important consequences for early revival of the industry. The stimulus package provided by the policy makers will be effective when the climate within organizations become conducive for enhanced performance. The economic slowdown also brought the spectre of downsizing and lay-offs. Earlier research suggests that downsizing negatively affects trust (Buch & Aldrige 1991), increase in fear, high level of uncertainty, and chaos (Tombaugh & White 1990). Apart from the adverse changes in work characteristics and a long lasting decline in self rated health it also led to decreased job control, high job insecurity, increased physical demands and the general health of employees (Kivimaki et al. 2001) , negative effect on the affective commitment of employees (Lee & Corbett 2006). Burke and Cooper (2000) observed that organizational restructuring, downsizing, and privatization in developed world have had devastating effect on a large number of employees. The present paper investigates the impact of financial meltdown, which had increased uncertainty, low morale, increased levels of stress due to the fear of downsizing and layoffs affecting organizational health considerably.

1.2

PROBLEM:

Organizational Health: Organizational health implies that an organization is able to optimize the effectiveness and the well-being of its employees, and cope effectively with both internal and external

changes (Lindstrom et al. 2000). Healthy organizations have a congruence of values and rules with everyday practices reflecting these values and rules (Cooper & Cartwright 1994, Cox & Leiter 1992). The healthy organization model has included personal job satisfaction related to the effectiveness of the organization. Lim & Murphy (1997) found two pathways leading to organizational health; organizational climate and values had an influence on organizational effectiveness, and organizational practices explained job satisfaction and stress. Thus, organizational health determines an organization's ability to function effectively within the business environment, to cope adequately with the changes imposed by the external environment, and to grow from within. Shoaf et al. (2004) in their study of improving performance and quality of working life focused on the promotion of worker well being. Contemporary business improvement initiatives have sought to optimize effectiveness through work processes. In a study of small and medium sized organizations, Lindstom et al (2000) found that employees' perception of their job and organizational characteristics and wellbeing was associated with company effectiveness. OrganizationalStress Stress faced by professional workers is always substantial. For many professionals, it is intrinsic to the job itself, where competing demands and pressures cannot be escaped. The sheer volume of work can also be overwhelming at times, whether one is a social worker, teacher, doctor or manager. Anyone in this kind of job knows, either from their own direct experience or from observing colleagues, that stress can have very serious consequences. It can develop into a living nightmare of running faster and faster to stay in the same place, feeling undervalued, feeling unable to say 'no' to any demand but not working productively on anything. The signs of stress can include sleeplessness, aches, pains and often, other physical symptoms of anxiety about going to work. Chronically stressed people do not make pleasurable co-workers (Cordes & Dougherty 1993). They may be irritable, miserable, lacking in energy and commitment, self-absorbed. They may find it hard to concentrate on any one task and consequently lose the trust reposed by co-workers and superiors. Kang and Singh (2006) in their effort to identify frequently reported stress symptoms among employees and to assess the magnitude of various organizational stressors found poor interpersonal relationship as the biggest source of stress, followed by poor organizational structure and climate, work inhibitors, rigid rules, and inconsiderate supervisors. Aziz (2006) found two aspects of the management of occupational stress; one, is coping, which is the individual effort of the employees to manage stress at a personal level; and the other is the organizational intervention--efforts of the organization to manage stress among its employees. Modekurti and Chattopadhayay (2008) studied the relationship between organizational role stress and life satisfaction level among nurses. The result shows that intense work climates contribute to higher stress and lower life satisfaction levels. Organizational interventions in terms of proactive leader behaviour may help developing intrinsic reward system, focusing on personal importance and integrating the individual and organizational goals, which may be the key in changing organizational climate and consequently the perceived stress (Dale & Fox 2008). During the last financial crisis, there was a differential impact on Indian organizations.

Organizations that had exposure to US markets were more vulnerable. The present study aimed at measuring employee morale and stress across sectors during the period of global financial crisis and its impact on the perception of organizational health, commitment across different departments in the Tatasky organization ie Field Services, Sales, Customer Operations, Business Intelligence, Information Technology (IT), Finance,Marketing etc.

1.3

Purpose

In order to be successful, companies need the commitment of employees (Molander, 1996). That includes the commitment to act toward the goals of the company, as well as the commitment to stay in the organization (Dessler, 1986). Highly committed persons expend considerable efforts toward the achievement of a company's goals and values (Lau and Huang,1999) and may represent a corporate strategic advantage (Mak and Sockel,2001), especially in a rapidly changing world. The achievement of organizational commitment, however, is not easy since it may be influenced by personal and organisational factors (Schultz and Schultz,1998). The knowledge about what motivates (prompt employees to put efforts into their work) and satisfies people at work may be essential to generate such commitment. In other words, a company has to be aware of what motivates and satisfies the employees at work in order to stimulate them to perform their job as best as possible and to remain in the company. A person who is satisfied with his/her work may show a higher commitment to put efforts toward the achievement of the company's goals and will not easily change job. However, people differ; they distinguish themselves from each other regarding their needs, backgrounds, expectations, and individual characteristics. In other words, what may satisfy one employee may be different from what will satisfy another, at least in terms of the satisfaction degree. Moreover, some needs may change over time, getting stronger or weaker. How can the company know how to motivate whom in the right way and ensure that their employees are not being victims of stress? The knowledge about similarities and differences in the motivation of employees may make it easier for the company to motivate them and to generate organizational commitment. Thereby, the consideration of individual characteristics such as age, gender, work area, and years a person has been working in the company may provide useful information. General personal features, which can be easily used to distinguish persons from each other, are considered as individual characteristics in this study. These characteristics do not represent very individual traits such as endurance and ambition. They can be recognized easily, and their destination requires no research or personal assessment. A group of employees sharing the same individual features may have the same needs and expectations toward work and may be satisfied in the same way. Information about the extent to which certain factors of motivation and job satisfaction are present at work (evaluation of the actual work situation) and information about the importance, which is attributed to those factors by the employees, may offer valuable clues to the field of motivation. A comparison of this data may reveal factors whose enhancement may cause higher motivation and job satisfaction of the work force.

The following questions will guide the research process in order to gain a deeper knowledge about employee morale and stress.  What are the most critical factors affecting employee morale and stress?  To what extent are these factors present in the selected company?  How important are these factors for the employees and organization as well? The last two issues will be examined regarding certain individual characteristics - age, gender, marital status, work area (blue-collar/white-collar worker), position (leading /non-leading position), and the years a person has been working in the company - in this study. Furthermore, I will identify factors which are valued, but also lacked at the same time by the employees. This knowledge of those factors may be of great value for the selected company i.e. Tatasky, in order to increase the employees' motivation and satisfaction with the work.

COMPANY PROFILE
The TATA Group is one of India's largest and most respected business conglomerates. It comprises 93 operating companies in seven business sectors: information systems and communications, engineering, materials, services, energy, consumer products and chemicals. The TATA Group has operations in more than 40 countries across six continents and its companies export products and services to 140 nations. The Group and its enterprises have been steadfast and distinctive in their adherence to business ethics and their commitment to corporate social responsibility. This is a legacy that has earned the Group the trust of many millions of stakeholders in a measure few business houses anywhere in the world can match Incorporated in 2004, Tata Sky is a 70:20 joint venture between the Tata Group and STAR, offering TSL viewers a world-class television viewing experience through its direct-to-home (DTH) television service. .The Sky brand, owned by the UK-based British Sky Broadcasting Group, has more than 20 years of experience in satellite broadcasting, and is well known for its innovative products and services. With this service, Tata Sky has joined a select international group of DTH businesses that operate in areas as far away as the UK and Italy in Europe, Foxtel in Australia and Mexico and Brazil in Latin America. Tata Sky offers viewers a variety of popular channels in categories ranging from entertainment, sports, movies and music to news and documentaries in DVD-quality picture and CD-quality sound. The service further aims to empower television viewers with choice, control and convenience through a wide range of programming and interactive features, thus becoming a one-stop shop for all the television entertainment needs of customers. With state-of-the-art digital infrastructure and partners that include global leaders in digital technology, Tata Sky provides for hardware installation at the subscribers' homes, as well as after-sales service through an extensive customer service network that provides complete customer care. Tata Sky also retails its hardware and prepaid recharge vouchers through several stores to facilitate easy

consumer access. "Personal Video Recorder" is the hallmark of Tata Sky+ the digicomp of which has MPEG 4 technology, a hard disk and an in-built personal video recorder (PVR). The PVR enables the viewer to pause & rewind live TV as well as record up to 45 hours of live TV.

RATIONALE BEHIND THE STUDY


Employee Morale refers to an attitude of satisfaction with a desire to continue and strive for attaining the objectives of a factory. Morale is purely emotional. It is an attitude of an employee towards his job, his superior and his organization. It is not static thing, but it changes depending on working conditions, superiors, fellow workers pay and so on. Morale may range from very high to very low. High Morale is evident from the positive feelings of employees such as enthusiasm; desire to obey orders, willingness to co-operate with coworkers. Poor or low Morale becomes obvious from the negative feelings of employees such as dissatisfaction, discouragement or dislike of the job. Morale is a fundamental psychological concept. It is not easy to define. Morale is the degree of enthusiasm and willingness with which the members of a group pull together to achieve group goal.

Stress is a dynamic condition in which an individual is confronted with an opportunity, constraint, or demand related to what he or she desires and for which the outcome is perceived to be both uncertain and important. This is a complicated definition. Stress is not necessarily bad in and of itself. Although stress is typically discussed in a negative context, it also has a positive value. What causes stress? What are its consequences for individual employees? Why is it that the same set of conditions that creates stress for one person seems to have little or no effect on another person? Significantly there are three sets of factors environmental, organizational, and individual that act as potential sources of stress. Whether they become reasons for actual stress depends on individual differences as job experience and personality. When stress is experienced by an individual is symptoms can surface as physiological, psychological and behavioral outcomes. Just as environmental uncertainty influences the design of an organization s structure, it also influences stress levels among employees in that organization. Changes in the business cycle create economic uncertainties. When the economy is contracting, for example people become increasingly anxious about their job security.

Employee Morale also plays a vital role in the organization success. High Morale leads to success and enthusiasm among the workers for better performance. High Morale is needed for the manifestation of the employees strength, dependability pride, confidence and devotion. It also contributes to various other advantages to the organization like willing cooperation towards objectives of the organization, loyalty to the organization and its leadership, sound superior subordinate relations, high degree of employee s interest in their job and organization, reduction in absenteeism and labor

turnover, reduction in grievance, reduction in industrial conflict, team building and employee empowerment. At the same time, low morale brings to defeat in its wake. The participation of morale is no less important for an industrial undertaking. The success or failure of the industry much depends up on the morale of its employees. Low Morale indicates the presence of mental unrest that not only hampers production but also leads to ill health of the employees. Low Morale exists when doubt and suspicion are common and when individuals are depressed and discouraged i.e., there is a lot of mental tension. Such situation will have adverse consequences like high rates of absenteeism and labor turnover, decreased quality and productivity, excessive complaints and grievances, frustration among the workers, lack of discipline and increase in errors, accidents or injuries. Tatasky DTH was launched with lots of promises. The sound and picture quality would be far superior, it was claimed. Additional services such as video on demand, music on demand, and multiple viewing options were also promised. The most important was that DTH subscribers would be saved from being victims to the eternal squabbles between channel owners and cable operators. Pay channel owners would hike the channel rate every six or eight months on the pretext that cable operators were under declaring their subscription figures. Cable operators on the other hand, alleged that pay channel owners were including unpopular channels in their channel bouquet depriving viewers of prime content. As a result, when DTH arrived it was seen as a boon for television viewers. However, DTH is at a turning point today. Although DTH registered a compound annual growth rate of over 30 per cent, the growth has been primarily in new areas. In other words, it did not make much of a dent in the cable sector considering the fact that a large section of DTH subscribers came from areas where there was no cable network, in first place. Four years after DTH began operations, cable networks remained the dominant mode of satellite TV distribution. Of the more than 120 million homes watching private satellite television, 75 million are cable TV subscribers. The fact that only one million subscribers receive digital cable service indicates that the bulk of cable TV subscribers use the traditional analog mode. DTH has its own drawbacks. The Ku-band through which it functions experiences problems during heavy rainfall and storms. The add-on services also failed to reach the hyped up expectations. One of the biggest myths exploded was the initial belief that DTH would be cheaper. In the initial phases, the monthly subscription rates of DTH service packages that offered all pay channels were as high as that of cable if not more. The fact that an amount of about Rs 3000 ($62) would have to be invested for the set top boxes deterred cable TV subscribers from moving over to DTH. Cable networks also had a peculiar advantage. Most big networks ran their own TV channel (ground channel) providing hundred percent local content, especially news. The local flavor added to the popularity of the cable networks. Today, as DTH service providers are embroiled in a price war, cable networks have to device a clear cut strategy to stave off the DTH threat. Analysts estimate that DTH, which is out and out digital, will have around 20 million subscribers by 2013. At the present rate of

digitalization, digital cable is estimated to have around 5 million subscribers in the same year. For the DTH, the digital factor is its greatest advantage.

OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY


IN what could be the knock-on effect of intense competition and price wars in the DTH space, Tata Sky had to cut down its work force as part of a restructuring process. While the company said that less than 5% of its work force would be impacted, sources in the know of things proved elimination of significant number of employees. In an e-mail reply to ET, Tata Sky ex- managing director and CEO Vikram Kaushik said, Tata Sky has recently reorganised the company by consolidating operations across India in an effort to maximise the quality and maintain consistency in operations. In respect to the overall objective, the company has initiated reorganising of some functions to bring in efficiencies across all levels. These changes will help streamline operations and optimise performance level, taking advantage of the present DTH industry. Tata Sky respects and operates in accordance with the local law and ensures utmost transparency in its actions at all levels. As part of the reorganising exercise less than 5% of the staff was impacted. However, staff that had the requisite skill sets was provided with opportunities to move to other departments within Tata Sky and/or to other group companies. It is learnt that most of the employees who became victims of recession and this kind of approach by the company were from the company s installation and after-sales service teams which were around 3,000 service engineers basically, entitled with the function of installing set-top boxes and carry out after-sales services. However, according to sources, it was studied that the company felt it is learnt to be saddled with huge losses due to high customer acquisition costs and the price war in the DTH space which led the company to trim down its work force and outsource some of the after-sales functions to third-party providers. Consequently, several people were sacked from across the country including Chhattisgarh. Some of them were able to find employment with other companies while others were left jobless. Apart from recession, redundancy of few positions was considered to be one of the major reasons for the same. Employee morale was badly hit.

Therefore, for the successful functioning of any organization, it becomes extremely important to find out the various factors affecting employee morale resulting in stress and identification of key areas having more influence. This further depends on the age group and their respective functions under which the employee falls so that an unbiased study can be extracted from each group to arrive at something concrete. The final goal is to suggest measures and schemes to increase morale of the employees thereby creating a friendly organization to work with. This will also establish the Tata culture which believes in enhancing shareholder value through good corporate governance, which involves transparency, empowerment, accountability and integrity. The study will also help the management of Chhattisgarh area to determine the factors affecting employee morale manifested by organizational design, personal factors, rewards and recognitions, leadership and supervision, work environment, compatibility with fellow employees

and overall job satisfaction. Evaluation of causes of high stress level and how to devise handling measures to cope these stress levels is also a part of the primary objective.

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
The value of any systematic research lies in its methodology which is a way to systematically solve research problems. Methodology helps the investigator to conduct in a prescribed manner so that after the analytical study of the data collected, vital conclusions can be drawn. For the fulfillment of the objectives and purpose of the study the necessary data has been collected from primary and secondary methods.

DATA COLLECTION: The study of morale and stress is in fact based on nature. This is to be achieved by collecting and analyzing appropriate data. For this purpose, two types of data collection methods shall be used, namely: 1. Primary Data 2. Secondary Data

Primary Data: Primary data required for the study was been collected through interview and questionnaire method. Morale is basically a psychological concept. As such the measurement of morale is a very difficult task to measure it directly. As such, the following methods are also used to study employee morale. 1. Observation Method: Under this method evaluator observes the employees on work and records their behavior, altitude, sentiments and feelings, which have developed in them. The changes in the attitude and behavior of the employee are the indicators of high and low morale. 2. Attitude Surveys: In order to overcome the limitation of the above method attitude survey method is being largely employed in modern days. This method includes conducting surveys through questionnaires and interviews. This relates what the workers are looking in and what step should be taken to improve their approach towards work. While constructing a questionnaire two aspects given below have been considered. 1. Objective of the study. 2. The employees perspective.

Questionnaire and interview of the schedule consists of five steps as follows: 1. specifying the information needed. 2. Determining the types of questions to be asked.

3. Deciding the number and sequence of questions. 4. Preparing the preliminary draft of questionnaire. 5. Revision and presentation of the questionnaire. Justification behind the adopted methods of questionnaire and interviews: 1. Versatality of the method 2. Ideal as relative to the issue and solution can be arrived at by asking the employees engaged in various departments. 3. Knowledge motivation, degree of morale, degree of stress, opinions and intentions of employees involved can be easily determined. 4. It is usually cheaper and faster than other methods of study.

Secondary Data: Secondary data are those which have already been collected by someone else and which have already been passed through the statistical process. The secondary data is collected through published books, journals, company records, files and internet. Data Collection Methods: For the purpose of data collection, permission was sought from the higher authorities of Tatasky Limited, Chhattisgarh area and then a tentative time schedule was developed in consultation with the Senior Manager, Human Resources, Chhattisgarh Division. Subsequent to this, communication was made with the executives of Chhattisgarh area extensively either by phone, email or in person to determine the purpose, scope and objective of the study which was related to them. Personal discussions with the executives, the demographic data and questionnaires will then be distributed with a covering letter stating the purpose of study. The questionnaires further was required to be completed and submitted through e-mail post which it shall be collected, analyzed and a comprehensive report will be published.

SURVEY ANAYLSIS TOOLS: After the collection of data, four assessment tools are used in this research for the purpose of analysis given below: a) Demographic Information Questionnaire: This consists of ten questions used to get information about the employee participants. b) Occupational Stress Index (OSI) : A well developed and widely used in the Indian context ( Srivastava and Singh 1981) to be chosen to asses the occupational stress of the sample. The questionnaire consists of 48 statements with five alternative responses scoring 5 for-strongly agree, 4- mildly agree, 3Agree, 2-Mildly disagree and 1-Disagree. Total score on this scale shall be

considered for the assessment of occupational stress. More score on the scale shall indicate more stress. Total score on this scale shall be considered for the assessment of occupational stress. More score on the scale shall indicate more stress. c) Job Descriptive Index (JDI): Smith and Kendal 1966, developed a questionnaire method used widely in India and internationally to assess the job satisfaction of the sample. It contains a series of statements for each of these five areas and individuals are asked to mark Yes (Y) or No (N) or Cant Say (?) as related to their jobs. Positive statement gets a score of 2 for Yes, cant say get a score of 1 a score of 0 for No. Negative statements get a 2 for No, 1 for Cant say and 0 for Yes. Only the total score obtained for the five areas shall be considered as a measure of job satisfaction. High score is indicative of high job satisfaction. d) Self-structured Questionnaire: Self developed questionnaire shall consist of 100 statements with six factors of stress such as physical & health, environmental, psychological, attitude & performance, managerial problems and external influence. For this purpose, qualitative data, quantitative data and factors affecting stress and morale in the work life of an employee shall be gathered. Since the study is based on psychological perspective, non-parametric tests and parametric tests both shall be used. Parametric tests for general class testing of the hypothesis, analyzing ranks and for arithmetic computations while the nonparametric test restricts assumptions. Statistical and quantitative analysis methods shall be based on facts and figures. Statistical data can be presented in the form of tables and graphs. Tabulation shall be used for summarization and condensation of data. Several types of graphs and charts shall also be used to present statistical data.

METHOD OF SAMPLING: The sample for this study shall consist of 30 to 40% executives hailing from different departments and functions like sales, service, operations, stores etc drawn on basis of random sampling from employees belonging to Tatasky, Chhattisgarh area. All the subjects are educationally well qualified.

DATA ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION


Table 1>Statistical Correlation between Stress and Morale
STANDARD DEVIATION SD1,SD2 13.82 CO-RELATION COEFICIENT

VARIABLE STRESS

SAMPLES (N) 50

MEAN M1,M2 131.56

-0.63

MORALE

50

32.1

8.05

180 160 140 120 100

stress(X)
80

morale(y)
60 40 20 0 1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 17 19 21 23 25 27 29 31 33 35 37 39 41 43 45 47 49

The result of correlation coefficient is found to be -0.63, which is a negative moderate correlation between stress and morale of the employees. This implies that the two factors are inversely proportional to each other i.e. if stress increases, morale of the employee decreases and vice versa.

Table II (Questions>1-11)
FACTORS Work pressures Frequent travel workplace harassment flexible timings Job stress Encourages innovation Stress handling measures Encourages empowerment Realistic deadlines Concerns showcased Conducive workplace Strongly agree 53% 48% 33% 65% 55% 45% 15% 37% 44% 58% 22% Mildly agree 22% 22% 15% 13% 27% 23% 12% 12% 13% 17% 15% Agree 15% 18% 10% 14% 12% 12% 7% 8% 8% 17% 8% Mildly disagree 8% 8% 35% 7% 4% 14% 47% 8% 18% 5% 39% Disagree 2% 4% 7% 1% 2% 6% 19% 35% 17% 3% 16%

70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% Strongly agree Mildly agree Agree Mildly disagree Disagree

INTERPRETATION: The graph clearly indicates that the various factors examined on the employees under study get stressed out due to the work pressures (53%) and expectation of the management to meet the deadlines. Almost all the factors except stress handling measures, have given a score of more than 50% indicating them as stress generating factors. Since the employees have indicated that there are no stress handling measures, it also adds to the generation of stress. Table III (Questions>12-23)
FACTORS Stretch work timings Leave flexibility Work >40hrs / week Job affects health Sought medical counsel Job out of control Proactive work expected Careeer stagnating Firm HR policies 360 degree appraisal Understanding Boss Salary evenly distributed Strongly agree 44% 34% 35% 58% 66% 63% 45% 72% 34% 67% 33% 26% Mildly agree 24% 18% 22% 24% 22% 18% 29% 11% 11% 14% 19% 13% Agree 12% 8% 12% 9% 7% 14% 11% 8% 7% 8% 6% 14% Mildly disagree 18% 28% 24% 7% 4% 3% 13% 6% 33% 7% 30% 24% Disagree 2% 12% 7% 2% 1% 2% 2% 3% 15% 4% 12% 23%

80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0%

Strongly agree Mildly agree Agree Mildly disagree Disagree

INTERPRETATION: The graph and analysis in table III also indicates that more than 80% percentage of employees agrees that stretched work timings, stagnated career, physical implications due to excess work due to which medication is sought and restricted control over ones job area makes the employees more stressful and impacts their overall life cycle.

Table IV (Questions>24-36)
FACTORS Unanticipated circumstances Unfavorable functional area Anticipate unforeseen challenges Face frequent distress Labors to reduce stress Being optimistic Apprehensive against distress Role of Destiny Self-responsibility for stress Face challenges Strongly agree 44% 53% 33% 28% 34% 44% 45% 58% 33% 33% Mildly agree 22% 13% 12% 14% 16% 12% 14% 13% 11% 25% Agree 15% 12% 6% 15% 14% 15% 16% 17% 15% 15% Mildly disagree 11% 17% 36% 26% 27% 24% 22% 6% 22% 14% Disagree 8% 5% 13% 17% 9% 5% 3% 6% 19% 13%

Avoid friction with peers Handles multiple tasking Cautious with organisational change

47% 55% 28%

25% 12% 32%

14% 16% 17%

11% 16% 12%

3% 1% 11%

70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0%

Strongly agree Mildly agree Agree Mildly disagree Disagree

INTERPRETATION: The above table indicates that more than 70% of the employees feel that they get stressed out owing to unanticipated circumstances and functional area although they try to be optimistic and avoid apprehensive situations. They even feel that luck plays an important role in an employees growth to which they have no control. However, they always prefer to be cautious against organizational change and exhibit the qualities of multi-tasking, respecting peers and facing challenges. Table V (Questions>37-48)
FACTORS Balanced Work-life Enojoys work & family Crucial conversations held Manager support Family support Prone to distractions Suffers from excessive load Timely target completion Activitiy calender maintained Favorable environement Freedom to approach Satisfactory HR policies Strongly agree 33% 28% 15% 36% 67% 24% 33% 35% 13% 28% 24% 37% Mildly agree 11% 14% 11% 16% 11% 15% 15% 17% 11% 12% 33% 22% Agree 13% 11% 13% 11% 15% 5% 16% 14% 15% 16% 23% 8% Mildly disagree 25% 23% 28% 22% 5% 26% 25% 26% 27% 27% 19% 15% Disagree 18% 24% 33% 15% 2% 30% 11% 8% 34% 17% 1% 18%

80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0%

INTERPRETATION: The above table strongly highlights that family support and freedom to approach plays important role in handling stress at the work place. Managers support helps in timely fulfillment of targets while satisfactory HR policies assist in observing a balanced work-family life culture.

Questionnaire Part-II

Classification and Interpretation of Job satisfaction data


Table VI (Questions>1-13)
FACTORS Job enrichment followed Reduce employee boredom Team work encouraged YES 63% 13% 78% NO 22% 78% 16% CANT' SAY 15% 9% 6%

Attractive incentive scheme Motivational trainings imparted Trainings for increasing efficiency Employee efforts recognised Attractive wage structure Fair appraisal system Career development opportunities Effective growth system Job security Flexible regulations

19% 32% 21% 28% 77% 11% 13% 8% 77% 38%

69% 55% 68% 63% 13% 88% 76% 83% 15% 59%

12% 13% 11% 9% 10% 1% 11% 9% 8% 3%

YES NO CANT' SAY 100% 88% 83% 90% 78% 78% 77% 77% 76% 80% 69% 68% 63% 70% 63% 59% 55% 60% 50% 38% 32% 40% 28% 22% 21% 30% 16% 19% 15%13% 12% 13% 11% 11% 8% 9% 15% 20% 10% 9% 9% 13% 11% 13% 8% 6% 3% 1% 10% 0%

INTERPRETATION: The above table indicates that an average 74% of employees believe that job enrichment, team work, attractive wage structure and job security enhances job satisfaction. On the other hand, around 75% of employees also believe that minimal efforts are initiated to reduce employee boredom, introduce career development opportunities and periodic trainings to increase work efficieny.

Table VII (Questions>13-25)


FACTORS Autonomy enjoyed Structural change impacted Goals mutually alligned Consistent company image Challenging targets set YES 45% 48% 65% 89% 88% NO 43% 44% 23% 10% 10% CANT' SAY 12% 8% 12% 1% 2%

Employee recognised Promotes team building PDP introduced Values good qualities Succession planning implemented Conflict management assisted Promotes constructive feedback

54% 67% 23% 83% 46% 34% 71%

45% 26% 67% 9% 48% 64% 22%

1% 7% 10% 8% 6% 2% 7%

100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0%

YES NO CANT' SAY

INTERPRETATION: Average 87% of the employees support consistent company image, challenging targets and value good traits which are essential for the companys growth. Average 67% of the employees also strongly recommend that an effective Personal Development Plan(PDP) should be introduced together with the assistance of their reporting boss in assisting conflicts.

LIMITATIONS

1. The study is only limited to the employees of Tatasky Private Limited, Chhattisgarh. Due to geographical constraint, we are unable to cover employees from pan India.

2. Primary data was collected on the basis of random sampling method from each department existing in Chhattisgarh. 3. The study does not provide a comparative analysis to other similar organizations. 4. Employees are always busy in their work. They may not have given clear answer.

5. The study is to taken up for the academic purpose 6. Due to time constraint, we are unable to cover 100% feedback from all the employees.

7. Employees hesitate to provide clear ideas about stress and morale as they are apprehensive of the reaction of the management.

EXPECTED CONTRIBUTION FROM THE STUDY

Conclusion from Analysis : The findings from the study proved that there exists
significant inverse relationship between MORALE and STRESS of employees of Tatasky. The factors that are responsible for increasing the stress have a deep impact on employee morale which affects the organization in the long run. In different functions, the reasons for stress are different. Same situation is challenging for some employees and for others it is not. Not many initiatives are taken to fight stress inducing factors and employee morale is ultimately shattered. Employees do care for each other and have a good opinion about the company on the whole. To sum up, job enrichment, team work, attractive wage structure, recognition and empowerment are the factors which the employees want to witness in the organization.

Suggestions for Improvement:


Several on-the-job techniques may aid in stress reduction and help boost employee morale. While it's important for employees to develop stress management and coping skills, there are several things that managers and business owners can do to help employees decrease their stress levels:

 Adopt reinforcement techniques that will reward workers who excel.  Encourage feedback, especially when faced with new projects or when rolling out new products.  Explore health-related options, including a wellness program and insurance incentives.  Incorporate an outside facilitator or coach into the employee program. Personnel are more willing to provide input to an outside source, and supervisors will gain from receiving anonymous feedback.  Understand limitations. Expecting too much in a limited amount of time produces stress and decreases the quality of employee output.  Employers and employees should keep in mind that some level of stress or pressure is beneficial to achieve success in key result areas . In moderation, stress creates the motivation to perform and be proud of the results. Be wise, however, about what leads to detrimental stress, including unrealistic goals and impossible expectations.  The results of this study also have implications for managing employee attitudes. Given the consistency of employees' job attitudes, the significant relationship between goal-oriented work environments and commitment enhances the case that employers should do more to try to structure work environments in a positive way so that work is a more satisfying and rewarding experience, thus boosting morale.  Research suggests that unfavorable work situations can directly impact employee performance regardless of personality predispositions, whereas the development of encouraging work environments can have a direct and positive effect on employees

Bibliography and References

1) Buch, K. & Aldrige, J. (1991), "OD under Conditions of Organization Decline", Organization Development Journal, 9(1): 1-5. Cook, J. & Wall, T. (1980), "New Work Attitude Measures of Trust, Organizational Commitment and Personal Need Non-fulfilment", Journal of Occupational Psychology, 53(1): 39-52.

2) Cooper, C. L. & Cartwright, S. (1994), "Healthy Mind, Healthy Organization: A Proactive Approach to Stress Management", Human Relations, 47(4): 455-71 Cordes, C. L. & Dougherty, T. W. (1993), "A Review and an Integration of Research on Job Burnout", The Academy of Management Review, 18(4): 621-56. 3) Cox, T. & Leiter, M. (1992), "The Health of Healthcare Organizations", Work & Stress, 6: 219-27. 4) Dale, K., & Fox, M. L. (2008), "Leadership Style and Organizational Commitment: Mediating Effect of Role Stress", Journal of Managerial Issues, 20(1): 109-30.

5) Declercq, D., & Kius, I. B.(2007), "Organizational Commitment in Mexican Small and Medium Sized Farms: the Role of Work Status, Organizational Climate and Entrepreneurial Orientation", Journal of Small Business Management, 45: 46790. 6) Gopalkrishnan, S. (2009), Personal Interview Given to IANS on 16th April, 2009 7) Hair, J. F., Anderson, R. E., Tatham, R. L. & Black, W. C. (1998), Multivariate Data Analysis (fifth edition), New Jersey: Prentice-Hall. 8) Kang, L.S. & Singh, C.R.(2006), "Stress at Work: an Assessment of the Magnitude of Various Organizational Stressors, Indian Journal of Industrial Relations, 42(2): 190-202.

9) Internet: http://www.google.com

ANNEXURE I

QUESTIONNAIRE PART I : STRESS ASSESMENT

Name (optional).Designation DepartmentAgeSex (M/F) ___________________________________________________________________________ Dear Respondent, I seek your valuable time and unbiased opinion on the below given questionnaire. Request you to tick the most appropriate option against the factors described. The questionnaire consists of 48 statements with five alternative responses scoring 5 for-strongly agree, 4mildly agree, 3-Agree, 2-Mildly disagree and 1-Disagree. Total score on this scale shall be considered for the assessment of occupational stress. More score on the scale shall indicate more stress. Total score on this scale shall be considered for the assessment of occupational stress. I thank you for your cooperation. Jayashree Satish ___________________________________________________________________________ _________________________ Q1. Your job involves stress and work pressures 1) Strongly agree 2) Mildly agree 3) Agree 4) Mildly disagree 5) Disagree Q2. Your job involves frequent travel and postings 1) Strongly agree 2) Mildly agree 3) Agree

4) Mildly disagree 5) Disagree Q3. Your colleagues experience workplace harassment 1) Strongly agree 2) Mildly agree 3) Agree 4) Mildly disagree 5) Disagree Q4. Your job provides flexible work timings 1) Strongly agree 2) Mildly agree 3) Agree 4) Mildly disagree 5) Disagree Q5. Your job involves high stress 1) Strongly agree 2) Mildly agree 3) Agree 4) Mildly disagree 5) Disagree Q6. Your job encourages innovation and reward achievements 1) Strongly agree 2) Mildly agree 3) Agree 4) Mildly disagree

5) Disagree Q7. Your job provides for stress handling sessions or seminars in your firm 1) Strongly agree 2) Mildly agree 3) Agree 4) Mildly disagree 5) Disagree Q8. Employee care and empowerment is the main focus of your organization 1) Strongly agree 2) Mildly agree 3) Agree 4) Mildly disagree 5) Disagree Q9. Your job provides for realistic and achievable deadlines and targets. 1) Strongly agree 2) Mildly agree 3) Agree 4) Mildly disagree 5) Disagree Q10. Your job provides enough platforms for concerns to be showcased 1) Strongly agree 2) Mildly agree 3) Agree 4) Mildly disagree 5) Disagree

Q11. Your workplace is not conducive to working 1) Strongly agree 2) Mildly agree 3) Agree 4) Mildly disagree 5) Disagree Q12. Your job expects you to stretch your timings to complete the work 1) Strongly agree 2) Mildly agree 3) Agree 4) Mildly disagree 5) Disagree Q13. You are allowed to avail the allotted leaves to refresh from your tight routine 1) Strongly agree 2) Mildly agree 3) Agree 4) Mildly disagree 5) Disagree Q14. You spend more than 40 hours towards your work in a week. 1) Strongly agree 2) Mildly agree 3) Agree 4) Mildly disagree 5) Disagree Q15. Your work pressures affect your health and body

1) Strongly agree 2) Mildly agree 3) Agree 4) Mildly disagree 5) Disagree Q16. You seek medical consultation for solving your problems 1) Strongly agree 2) Mildly agree 3) Agree 4) Mildly disagree 5) Disagree Q17. You have NO level of control that you can exercise with your work 1) Strongly agree 2) Mildly agree 3) Agree 4) Mildly disagree 5) Disagree Q18. Your occupation demands proactive management. 1) Strongly agree 2) Mildly agree 3) Agree 4) Mildly disagree 5) Disagree Q19. You feel your career and industry is stagnating. 1) Strongly agree

2) Mildly agree 3) Agree 4) Mildly disagree 5) Disagree Q20. Your organizational HR policies firmly deal with work place harassments 1) Strongly agree 2) Mildly agree 3) Agree 4) Mildly disagree 5) Disagree Q21. Your job provides a 360 degree appraisal procedure 1) Strongly agree 2) Mildly agree 3) Agree 4) Mildly disagree 5) Disagree Q22. You have a stable relationship with your reporting manager 1) Strongly agree 2) Mildly agree 3) Agree 4) Mildly disagree 5) Disagree Q23. You have an even distribution of your salary among expenditure, EMI, investments, savings, and others 1) Strongly agree

2) Mildly agree 3) Agree 4) Mildly disagree 5) Disagree Q24. You have often experienced unanticipated circumstances at work place 1) Strongly agree 2) Mildly agree 3) Agree 4) Mildly disagree 5) Disagree

Q25. Your functional area is also responsible for your stress. 1) Strongly agree 2) Mildly agree 3) Agree 4) Mildly disagree 5) Disagree Q26. You find yourself in a position to control unforeseen difficulties 1) Strongly agree 2) Mildly agree 3) Agree 4) Mildly disagree 5) Disagree

Q27. You frequently get upset about things going out of your hand at work place 1) Strongly agree

2) Mildly agree 3) Agree 4) Mildly disagree 5) Disagree Q28. You labor to reduce stress 1) Strongly agree 2) Mildly agree 3) Agree 4) Mildly disagree 5) Disagree

Q29. You feel circumstances will get better in due course of time 1) Strongly agree 2) Mildly agree 3) Agree 4) Mildly disagree 5) Disagree

Q30. You frequently get upset about things going out of your hand at work place 1) Strongly agree 2) Mildly agree 3) Agree 4) Mildly disagree 5) Disagree Q31. You think luck has a major role to play in professional success. 1) Strongly agree

2) Mildly agree 3) Agree 4) Mildly disagree 5) Disagree

Q32. You feel circumstances will get better in due course of time 1) Strongly agree 2) Mildly agree 3) Agree 4) Mildly disagree 5) Disagree

Q33. You approach problems with optimism. 1) Strongly agree 2) Mildly agree 3) Agree 4) Mildly disagree 5) Disagree Q34. You have been good at managing friction with peers at work 1) Strongly agree 2) Mildly agree 3) Agree 4) Mildly disagree 5) Disagree

Q35. You are capable enough to handle multiple tasking

1) Strongly agree 2) Mildly agree 3) Agree 4) Mildly disagree 5) Disagree

Q36. You take every organizational change with caution. 1) Strongly agree 2) Mildly agree 3) Agree 4) Mildly disagree 5) Disagree Q37. You have a good work-life balance 1) Strongly agree 2) Mildly agree 3) Agree 4) Mildly disagree 5) Disagree

Q38. You rarely enjoy your time at work and at home 1) Strongly agree 2) Mildly agree 3) Agree 4) Mildly disagree 5) Disagree

Q39. You believe in crucial conversations to relieve yourself of stressful situations 1) Strongly agree 2) Mildly agree 3) Agree 4) Mildly disagree 5) Disagree

Q40. Your manager helps you to work positively and alleviate your stress 1) Strongly agree 2) Mildly agree 3) Agree 4) Mildly disagree 5) Disagree Q41. You get the support of family, friends, and colleagues while suffering stress 1) Strongly agree 2) Mildly agree 3) Agree 4) Mildly disagree 5) Disagree

Q42. You often get into substances like alcohol, drugs or smoking for mitigating stress 1) Strongly agree 2) Mildly agree 3) Agree 4) Mildly disagree 5) Disagree

Q43. You often suffer from excessive work load 1) Strongly agree 2) Mildly agree 3) Agree 4) Mildly disagree 5) Disagree

Q44. You are able to manage your time to complete your professional requirements 1) Strongly agree 2) Mildly agree 3) Agree 4) Mildly disagree 5) Disagree Q45. You are able to maintain a regular calendar of your activities 1) Strongly agree 2) Mildly agree 3) Agree 4) Mildly disagree 5) Disagree

Q46. You have the right environment to innovate 1) Strongly agree 2) Mildly agree 3) Agree

4) Mildly disagree 5) Disagree

Q47. You have the freedom of visiting your manager any number of times regarding your problems 1) Strongly agree 2) Mildly agree 3) Agree 4) Mildly disagree 5) Disagree Q48. You are satisfied with current HR rules & regulations 1) Strongly agree 2) Mildly agree 3) Agree 4) Mildly disagree 5) Disagree

ANNEXURE II

QUESTIONNAIRE PART II : JOB SATISFACTION ASSESMENT

Name (optional).Designation DepartmentAgeSex (M/F) ___________________________________________________________________________ Dear Respondent, I seek your valuable time and unbiased opinion on the below given questionnaire. Request you to tick the most appropriate option against the factors described. The questionnaire of 25 statements with 3 alternative responses contains a series of statements for which the individuals are asked to mark Yes (Y) or No (N) or Cant Say (?) as related to their jobs. Positive statement gets a score of 2 for Yes, cant say get a score of 1 a score of 0 for No. Negative statements get a 2 for No, 1 for Cant say and 0 for Yes. Only the total score obtained for all the areas shall be considered as a measure of job satisfaction. High score is indicative of high job satisfaction. I thank you for your cooperation. Jayashree Satish ___________________________________________________________________________ _________________________

Q.1 Your Company believes in reducing employee discontent through job enrichment to ensure that he is better motivated 1) Yes 2) No 3) Cant say Q.2 Your Company believes in Job rotation helping to reduce an employee's boredom 1) 2) 3) Yes No Cant say

Q.3 Your Company involves the use of teams of work groups developing social contacts of the employees 1) Yes 2) No 3) Cant say Q.4 1) 2) 3) Your Company provides for a proper incentive system Yes No Cant say

Q.5 Your Company believes in reducing employee discontent through job enrichment to ensure that he is better motivated 1) Yes 2) No 3) Cant say Q.6 Your Company facilitates effective training to the employees for increasing work efficiency 1) 2) 3) Q.7 1) 2) 3) Yes No Cant say Your Company offers recognition of the employee efforts Yes No Cant say

Q.8 Your Company has an attractive wage structure and employee allowance scheme. 1) 2) 3) Yes No Cant say

Q.9 1) 2) 3)

Your Company believes in a fair and just appraisal system Yes No Cant say

Q.10 Your Company management provides for better career development opportunities.

1) 2) 3)

Yes No Cant say

Q.11 Your Company provides for a proper incentive system 1) 2) 3) Q.12 1) 2) 3) Q.13 1) 2) 3) Q.14 1) 2) 3) Yes No Cant say Do you have job security in your company? Yes No Cant say
Do

you find the rules and regulation of your company difficult to follow?

Yes No Cant say Do you enjoy autonomy at your work place Yes No Cant say

Q.15 Has Your Company undergone any recent structural changes that has reduced your motivational level? 1) 2) 3) Q.16 1) 2) 3) Yes No Cant say Are the goals of your Company aligned to your individual goals? Yes No Cant say

Q.17 Is the company's internal image consistent with its external one? 1) 2) 3) Yes No Cant say

Q.18 Does your Company motivate by setting their people challenging targets 1) 2) 3) Yes No Cant say

Q.19 Does your company have an effective employee recognition system which is simple, immediate, and powerfully reinforcing 1) 2) 3) Yes No Cant say

Q.20 Does your company believes in Team building and creating a work culture that values collaboration at work place 1) Yes 2) No 3) Cant say Q.21 Has your Company introduced the Performance Improvement Plan (PDP) facilitating constructive discussion between a staff member and the supervisor and clarifies the work performance to improve? 1) 2) 3) Yes No Cant say

Q.22 Does your Company values traits or qualities that are considered worthwhile 1) 2) 3) Yes No Cant say

Q.23 Does your company implement succession planning ensuring employees fill key roles from within the organization. 1) 2) 3) Q.24 1) 2) 3) Q.25 1) 2) 3) Yes No Cant say Does your reporting boss assist you in conflict management within teams? Yes No Cant say Does your work environment provides you to deliver constructive feedback? Yes No Cant say