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Study guide 1. Life s molecules are __________ compounds, with hydrogen and other elements covalently bonded to carbon atoms. 2. These include carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids. 3. They are used as __________ sources, __________ materials, __________ workers, and__________of hereditary information. 4. Oxygen, hydrogen, and carbon are the most __________ elements in living things. 5. Much of the hydrogen and oxygen are linked as __________. 6. Carbon can form__________covalent bonds with other atoms to form organic molecules of several configurations. 7. The orientations of the atoms attached to a carbon backbone give rise to the __________shapes and functions of biological molecules. 8. A hydrocarbon, which has only __________ atoms attached to a __________ backbone, does not break apart easily; they form very stable, hydrophobic, portions of most biological molecules.

9. __________ groups (such as the OH of alcohols) are atoms or groups of atoms covalently bonded to a carbon backbone; they convey distinct properties, such as solubility, to the complete molecule. 10. __________ speed up specific metabolic reactions by these mechanisms. 11. __________: one molecule gives up a functional group, which another molecule accepts. 12. __________: one or more electrons stripped from one molecule are donated to another molecule. 13. __________: a juggling of internal bonds converts one type of organic compound into another. 14. __________: through covalent bonding, two molecules combine to form a larger molecule. 15. __________: a molecule splits into two smaller ones. 16. In__________reactions, small molecules can combine to form larger ones; for example, sugar monomers combine to form starch polymers. 17. In __________ reactions, one larger molecule is split by the addition of H+ and OH (from water) into its components. 18. In __________ seeps, methane bubbles upward from the ocean floor. 19. Methane gas is produced by __________, which metabolize the rich organic matter.


High water pressure and low temperature __________ the bubbling methane into an icy methane hydrate. 21. __________hydrate deposits are vast and could break apart to release methane gas if the temperature rises. 22. Millions of years ago a huge release of methane might have occurred leading to a resulting increase in __________levels. 23. Indirectly, methane could have been responsible for mass __________ of plants and animals. 24. A carbohydrate is a simple sugar or a larger__________composed of sugar units. 25. Carbohydrates are the most __________ biological molecules. 26. __________ have structural roles and serve as forms of transportable and stored energy. 27. A __________, one sugar unit, is the simplest carbohydrate. 28. Simple sugars are __________ in water and may be sweet-tasting. 29. Ribose and deoxyribose (five-carbon backbones) are building blocks for __________. 30. __________ (six-carbon backbone) is a primary energy source and precursor of many organic molecules. 31. A __________ is a short chain resulting from the covalent bonding of two monosaccharides. 32. __________ (table sugar) is glucose plus fructose.

33. __________ (milk sugar) is glucose plus galactose. 34. __________ may be attached to proteins where they have roles in membrane functions and immunity. 35. A __________ consists of many sugar units (same or different) covalently linked. 36. The most common polysaccharides are chains of __________. 37. __________ (energy storage in plants) and cellulose (structure of plant cell walls) are made of glucose units but in different bonding arrangements. 38. Glycogen is a __________ form of glucose found in animal tissues. 39. __________, which has nitrogen atoms attached to its backbone, is the main structural material in the external skeletons of arthropods. 40. __________ are characterized by their inability to dissolve in water. 41. Lipids are composed mostly of __________. 42. They form the basic structures of __________ and have roles in energy metabolism. 43. A fatty acid is a long, __________ hydrocarbon with a COOH group at one end. 44. __________ fatty acids are liquids (oils) at room temperature because one or more double bonds between the carbons in the tails permit kinks. 45. Saturated fatty acids have only single CC bonds in their tails and are__________at room temperatures.

46. Triglycerides, such as butter, lard, and oils, are rich sources of __________. 47. These lipids have fatty acid tails attached to a molecule of __________. 48. On a per weight basis, triglycerides yield more than __________ as much energy as carbohydrates. 49. __________ have a glycerol backbone, two fatty acids, a phosphate group, and a small hydrophilic group. 50. They are important components of cell __________, where the hydrophilic heads face toward the inner and outer surfaces and the hydrophobic tails face inward. 51. __________ are special molecules with fatty acid chains attached to alcohols. 52. They confer extraordinary __________qualities. 53. Sterols have a backbone of four carbon __________, but no fatty acids. 54. __________ is a component of cell membranes in animals and can be modified to form sex hormones. 55. __________ function as enzymes, in cell movements, as storage and transport agents, as hormones, as anti-disease agents, and as structural material throughout the body. 56. __________are small organic molecules with an amino group, an acid group, a hydrogen atom, and an R group. 57. The twenty different R __________ determine the twenty naturally-occurring amino acids.

58. __________is defined as the chain (polypeptide) of amino acids each linked together in a definite sequence by peptide bonds between an amino group of one unit and an acid group of another. 59. __________is the helical coil or sheetlike array into which the polypeptide chain is formed by the interaction of hydrogen bonds, which join the side groups of the amino acids. 60. __________is the result of interactions among R groups that produce a complex three-dimensional shape, such as is found in globular proteins. 61. __________describes the complexing of two or more polypeptide chains. 62. __________ have side chains of oligosaccharides on the cell surface. 63. __________ bind and transport lipids. 64. __________ is a highly organized protein consisting of four polypeptides, each with a heme group that can bind an oxygen molecule. 65. In the normal beta __________ chain, the sixth amino acid in the sequence is glutamate, but a mutation can sometimes substitute a __________. 66. Most persons inherit two genes that place glutamate in both __________ chains. 67. However, occasionally a __________ gene is inherited that will code for valine in position six; one gene is not a big problem to the individual. 68. If a person inherits two mutated __________ of the gene, the defective __________ will cause the red blood cells to be sickle-shaped, causing

clumping and clogging of the capillaries they must negotiate. 69. High temperatures or __________ can cause the three-dimensional shape to be disrupted. 70. Normal functioning is lost upon __________, which is often irreversible. 71. Nucleotides are small __________ molecules. 72. Each __________ has a five-carbon sugar (ribose or deoxyribose), a nitrogen-containing base (singleor double-ringed), and a phosphate group. 73. Some nucleotides are involved in __________. 74. Adenosine phosphates are chemical messengers (cAMP) or __________ carriers (ATP). 75. Nucleotide coenzymes transport hydrogen atoms and __________ (examples: NAD+ and FAD). 76. In nucleic acids, __________ different kinds of nucleotides are bonded together in large macromolecules. 77. __________ is single-stranded; it functions in the assembly of proteins 78. __________ is double-stranded; genetic messages are encoded in its base sequences.