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Petta Lab Raith EBL Guide

Bart H. M c Guyer July 9, 2007

This document is a guide for performing elec- tron beam lithography (EBL) with the PRISM Raith e LiNE system, and is primarily aimed for making small devices on GaAs. The majority of this docu- ment is adapted from “Jeff’s (Fairly Comprehensive) Raith Usage Notes” by Jeff Miller from the Marcus Group at Harvard. Jump to the end of this document for a condensed, single-page overview.

Important Rules

Always handle your chip with carbon tipped tweezers–even on hot plates.

Never let solvents dry on a chip, otherwise it will be ruined.

Use a teflon beaker for quick transfer between solvents.


1 Pre-Raith Preparation

Device Design

Use DesignCAD or LayoutEditor to design your de- vice. Make sure all polygons are closed, and that they surround the areas you want exposed. In gen- eral, make two EBL layers in your device: one layer (“Gates”) that includes all the smallest features in- side one 100 µm x 100 µm write field, and another layer (“Connector”) that connects the first layer to the photolithography features and spans multiple write fields. See figure 1 for an example. This way the

smallest features can be written with optimal beam settings for their size, and then the larger surround- ing features can be written quickly with a larger aper- ture and more beam current. In addition, separate the smallest features inside a 10 µm x 10 µm write field from the rest of the Gates layer by breaking the polygons in two; this allows the smallest features to be exposed quickly in succession, preventing stage drift error. For DesignCAD, save as DXF. Use either LayoutE- ditor or LinkCAD on PRISM’s mask computer in the J-wing atrium of the E-Quad to convert the DXF file to GDS II. A USB stick is very handy. I keep one in my orange tote-box. For LayoutEditor, just save as GDS II.

my orange tote-box. For LayoutEditor, just save as GDS II. Figure 1: EBL layers in the

Figure 1: EBL layers in the author’s Spin Shuttle de- vice. The Gates layer is the black pattern in the cen- ter with alignment marks spaced 90 µm apart. The Connector layer is the black surrounding layer. The outer gold and green layers are for photolithography (metal and mesa-etch, respectively). REDO THIS WITH MORE IMAGES!!!!





Preparing the Chip

To prepare your chip, first get all your supplies in order in your orange clean room tote-box. At a min- imum you will need tweezers (carbon, wafer, and metal fine-tip), a timer, and a sample carrier box. You’ll also need five labeled small plastic beakers for chip processing; one each for trichloroethylene (TCE), acetone, isopropanol (IPA), PMMA devel- oper (MIBK:IPA 1:3), and liftoff (dirty acetone and metal). To make chip processing both easier and safer for your chip, use a small white 5mL Teflon beaker to hold the chip. Drill small holes in the beaker for easy transferring into liquid, and cut the beaker height at least in half. You will also need your own short-term supply of EBL resist. We use 950K molecular weight poly- methyl methacrylate (PMMA), 4% in anisole. Soni- cate a small vial in acetone and IPA, and let it dry completely. Label it with the date and fill it 3/4 full with PMMA. Store this bottle upright in your tote-box, and keep it wrapped with parafilm. Keep PMMA off the threads of this bottle, otherwise it will create gunk that will fall inside. You should make a new bottle when you begin a new device. For 50nm and smaller sized gates, its best to use a single layer of PMMA. Here is the recipe for reliably depositing a single 200 nm layer of PMMA:

200 nm PMMA Recipe

3 Solvent Clean: If this is the first EBL layer, per- form a three solvent clean with the chip in your Teflon beaker:

1. Sonicate 5 minutes in trichloroethylene (TCE)

2. Sonicate 5 minutes in Acetone

3. Sonicate 5 minutes in Isopropanol (IPA)

4. Blow dry with N 2

NEVER let TCE or acetone dry on the chip! Rapidly transfer the chip between beakers. When blowing dry, do not let any puddles of solvent evapo- rate on the chip surface. If you contaminate your chip

rate on the chip surface. If you contaminate your chip Figure 2: Spin speed versus film

Figure 2: Spin speed versus film thickness curve for Microchem 950k MW PMMA in Anisole. We use A4, or 4% PMMA in Anisole. For 4000 rpm, the film thickness is 200 nm.

at any time later in this recipe, you have to start all over again with the three solvent clean. Prebake: Bake the chip at 170 C for 2 minutes on a hot plate next to a spinner. Set the hot plate temperature in advance to save time. Spin PMMA: Program a spinner with the following


1. 5 seconds at 500 rpm, 500 rpm/s spinup. Apply PMMA during this step.

2. 60 seconds at 4000 rpm, 1000 rpm/s spinup.

Find a good chuck, preferably with an o-ring seal to hold the chip. Clean out the spinner if the last user left a horrible mess (if your chip comes loose during the spin, it will become contaminated with that mess). Use a junk chip to test the spinner! Now is the time to find out if spinner is going to be troublesome. If you real chip comes loose during a spin, you have to start all over again with cleaning the chip. Use a plastic pipette from our lab to administer the PMMA. Blow it off with nitrogen, and inspect for cleanliness. Try to only take PMMA from your bottle, and do not return any unused PMMA from the pipette into the bottle. Get rid of bubbles by


making a few sacrificial drops into the spinner bowl right before putting a drop on your chip. Spin your chip and put on the PMMA during the 500 rpm cycle. Be nice and clean the spinner when you are finished. Bake: Immediately bake the chip at 170 C for 15 minutes on the hot plate next to the spinner. This sets the resist layer by removing the anisole.

Now you have a chip prepared with a single 200nm layer of PMMA, ready for EBL. As a final step, if your chip does not have any small features to focus on, place a small amount of silver paint (SEM quality) on the corners of your chip. Do not dilute it, and wait at least 15 minutes for it to dry before loading into the Raith. I use a sharp wooden dowel fragment to apply the paint. Use parafilm to seal the silver paint bottle after it is closed, as it is very volatile.

2 Raith Procedures

Raith Overview

The Raith system is a modified Leo SEM, and is con- trolled by the two computers in figure 3. The moni- tor on the right (“Leo” or “SEM”) controls the SEM. The monitor on the left (“Raith”) controls everything else, such as the laser stage, and also steals control of the SEM as needed, such as during exposure. Both computers should always be on, though PRISM asks that we turn the monitors off when the machine is not in use. If at any time the Raith soft- ware crashes, you can safely restart the Raith com- puter. However, do not restart or shut down the Leo computer; if you have trouble with it, contact an ad- ministrator. The Windows XP account for both com- puters is the same: username “User” and password “eLiNE.” To use the Raith computer, login to the e LiNE program with your account and open the Raith Pro- tocol HTML file with the shortcut on the desktop. For the Leo computer, Smart SEM and RemCon32 should always be running. To start or restart Smart SEM, login with the XP username and password. If RemCon32 is off, contact an administrator.

and password. If RemCon32 is off, contact an administrator. Figure 3: Raith e LiNE and Leo

Figure 3: Raith e LiNE and Leo SEM monitors.

Figures 4 and 5 highlight the most commonly used features in the e LiNE and Smart SEM software.

There are three additional mask design computers in the outer Raith room. Their Windows XP logon is “User” with no password. They each have a copy of the Raith e LiNE software, including the GDS II editor for working with device designs. Login with your account or the training account with password “raith.” Please note that these computers, like the Raith and Leo computers, have no internet access. When you are finished with the Raith, don’t for- get to turn off the gun EHT with the Leo computer. NEVER turn off the gun itself; it should always re- main on. Log off the e LiNE program, but leave the SEM software running. Turn off both monitors, and finish filling out the logbook.

Loading a Design on the Raith

It is best to load your design on the Raith computer and setup positionlists in advance. Reserve some time before your exposure to use the Raith computer for this purpose. First, inspect your GDS II file with a mask design computer in the Raith room. Fix any conversion er- rors as needed. Use the USB hub next to the Raith monitor to load your GDS II file in your e LiNE directory (C:\e LiNE\User\username\GDSII\filename). Lo-




4 2 RAITH PROCEDURES Figure 4: Raith e LiNE program main screen (with Template 1280), including

Figure 4: Raith e LiNE program main screen (with Template 1280), including zoom of the top menu.

gin to the e LiNE software and open the GDS II Database window. Load your device file, and select only the EBL layer(s) to be exposed. Edit the file as needed. Save, close, and re-open the file in-between steps. Click Set Dose under Dose in the Modify menu, and set the dose factor to 1.0 for all gates. Set the write-order of your gates as you want them to be exposed. In the Raith GDS II editor, push O to view the current ordering and then click on the gates in the order you would like them to be written. This way, the gates that are most sensitive to stage drift can be written consecutively. Setup the working area, which is the portion of the design you would like to expose. If you want to ex- pose less than the write field size, such as a dose test, then just set the working area to be the area you want exposed. If you want a working area larger than one write field, then it simplifies the position calculation if you specify a working area that is an integer mul- tiple of write fields. Make sure that the critical area of your pattern is not divided between different write fields. NEEDS WORK: I will understand this more after I make a trial “real exposure.” *Positioning of working area For a dose test, create a new positionlist. Edit your device to include diagnostic parallel lines and dots.

your device to include diagnostic parallel lines and dots. Figure 5: Leo Smart SEM program main

Figure 5: Leo Smart SEM program main screen.

Drag your device into the positionlist. Edit it and set (U,V) to (2,2) mm. Set the working area to (-50, 50) µm in both U and V. Set the dose factor to 1.00. Matrix copy the entry to create a duplicate entry at (U,V) = (2.1, 2) mm. Set this entry’s dose factor to 1.04, and reduce the working area to (-5, 5) µm in both U and V. Matrix copy this entry, creating a 31 item array spaced by 25 µm in U and with incremen- tal steps of 0.04 in the dose factor. This will create exposures with dose factors of 1.00 to 2.20 in steps of 0.04. Save this positionlist in your directory. For the real exposure, create a new positionlist and

fill it

NEEDS WORK: I will understand this

more after I’ve given it a try. Need details about working area vs. write field size, Connector vs. Gates exposure, correct positioning of exposures Beware that if you make a positionlist on another computer, it will look for your file in the directory it used on that computer. Now you’re ready to use the Raith for an exposure.

Load Sample

Use your carbon tweezers to place your chip on the Raith sample holder. See figure 6 for chip orientation. Gently clip it in place, and make sure the sample is lying flat on the holder. Use the nitrogen gun on the


5 Figure 6: Raith e LiNE general purpose sample holder. This is the orientation of the

Figure 6: Raith e LiNE general purpose sample holder. This is the orientation of the holder as viewed with the Leo CCD camera inside the Raith.

wall to generously blow off the sample holder, and insert it in the loadlock. The holder should lie flat on the two supporting rods, and the holder’s tab should rest well on the spike when pushed down. Inspect the loadlock door o-ring, and close the loadlock door. Screw it tightly closed, but don’t over-tighten. Log on to the e LiNE software on the Raith com- puter. Click the second stop light to open the Naviga- tor Loadlock window. Click Load Sample, then Via Load Lock. A series of pop-up windows will guide you through the loading procedure, which should take about 8 minutes. Please note that the load lock turbo pump will start after you click Ok on the window ask- ing if the Loadlock gate valve is closed. The miniature load lock turbo pump will ramp up quickly over a few minutes. You should always be able to hear it, and it steadily increase in pitch during pump down. If the turbo becomes silent for several minutes, then it is probably having a hard time due to dirt on the load lock door’s o-ring. If this happens, abort the loading procedure and inspect the o-ring. If you still have trouble, contact an administrator. A window will eventually ask you to open the load lock gate valve. Please double-check that the green Vac Ready light at the load lock is on before opening the gate valve. Be gentle when inserting and remov-

ing the transfer rod, using only the handle to push or pull. At the end of the loading procedure the Raith com- puter will ask you some questions: Reset UV Adjust- ment: No. Enter Voltage: 30 kV. Enter Aperture Size: 10 µm. Enter Working Distance: (doesn’t mat- ter). No values for stigmation or aperture found in database: Wait before clicking Ok! PRISM asks that we wait until the system vacuum is below 2 x 10 6 Torr before turning on the EHT. Once you click Ok the Raith computer will set up the column and turn on EHT. So wait, and then click Ok. The ramp up time is about 1 minute for 30 kV. Write down the time in your notebook, so that you will know how long the beam has been on before your exposure. Two more windows will appear: Load pro- cedure finished successfully: Ok. Please specify sam- ple name: Cancel. Close the Navigator Load Lock window. Jeff Miller’s instructions recommend using “Find Home” at this moment to reduce stage drift. Open the Find Home window and click the two lightning bolts to find home in the X and Y directions. The stage will drive to the end of its range and back in the X and then the Y direction, which will take about 1 minute. You could also find home in the Z direction, which takes longer.

Initial Setup and Focusing

Drive the stage to the Faraday Cup by opening the Command tab in Stage Control. Select Faraday Cup on Holder and click Go.

by opening the Command tab in Stage Control. Select Faraday Cup on Holder and click Go.

Figure 7: Stage Control window.




Set Z for your desired working distance with the Destination tab in Stage Control. Select XYZ coor- dinates and Absolute, and enter 30.5 mm for Z and click Go. The stage will drive up from 18.0 mm to 30.5 mm, which happens to be the maximum allowed Z. This sets the working distance to about 6.4 mm. This is what we use for our 30kV exposures. For a different working distance, drive Z to another

value. If needed, fine tune the working distance later

by focusing the SEM on the sample, reading the work-

ing distance from the SEM computer, and adjusting

Z as necessary. Turn on the Joystick with the Motor Control win- dow. Set the high speed to 9 and the low speed to 2. Use this window to turn the joystick back on if the Raith software disables it, such as after write field alignment. Toggle between high and low speed with the upper left button on the joystick. Turn off the lights for easy viewing; it’s time to use the SEM. Switch to SEM on the Leo computer and un-blank the beam on the Raith computer, if neces- sary. Adjust brightness and contrast to the mid 40’s %. Zoom out until you see the Faraday cup. If the image is still blank, double-check that the detector is set to SE2 and not in-lens. Open the SEM Control Panel in the Tools menu, or with Crtl-G. This window is incredibly useful for adjusting the beam and changing the SEM scanning mode; I keep it open all the time. Select the Aperture tab and click Beam Shift (figure 8). Click the “0” where the sliders intersect. This ensures that there is no SEM beam shift. Note that Fine/Coarse will change how much the sliders move per click in the SEM Control Panel. Make sure to click Mag/Focus after changing beam parameters, so that using the Leo mouse later will not change your beam settings. Adjust focus, aperture alignment, and stigmation on the Faraday cup. This will save time during fo- cusing on your chip. Toggle focus wobble in the SEM Control Panel for aperture alignment. Write down the aperture and stigmation values; this will help if you accidentally change them later, or if the Raith software crashes. MORE HERE ? ———– By now the beam has been on for a good amount of time, so we can measure the current. Zoom inside

amount of time, so we can measure the current. Zoom inside Figure 8: SEM Control Panel,

Figure 8: SEM Control Panel, Aperture tab. To zero a setting, click the “0” where the X and Y sliders intersect.

the Faraday cup to at least 200 kX. Open the Current window and measure the current a few times, until you land on a representative value. Write this down in the Log and your notebook.

value. Write this down in the Log and your notebook. Figure 9: Exposure window. Now setup

Figure 9: Exposure window.

Now setup the exposure parameters. Doing this step here will help minimize the time between focus- ing and exposure. In the Microscope Control window, set Magnification to 1 kX and Field Size to 100 µm. Open the Exposure window (figure 9) and click the check boxes to enable Lines and Dots if needed. Click Calculator to open the Exposure Parameter Calculation window (figure 10). Flip through the Area, Line, and Dot tabs. Set the area dose to 250


7 Figure 10: Exposure Parameter Calculation window. µ C/cm 2 , line dose to 1500 pC/cm,

Figure 10: Exposure Parameter Calculation window.

µC/cm 2 , line dose to 1500 pC/cm, and dot dose to (???). Set the step sizes to 0.0064 µm, and click the middle calculator icons to update the dwell times. Check that the beam speed is less than about 4 mm/s to avoid breaks and other problems. Click Ok. Now drive to your chip while watching the SEM image. Follow the sample holder’s structure all the way to the sample clip. If your sample is far away and you cannot do this, then blank the beam and drive by CCD to a point close to the chip. Then un-blank the beam, zoom in, and proceed slowly to the chip. Once you reach the chip, stay near the edge and zoom in to at least 1kX to avoid exposing the chip. Blank the beam when you’re not using it. Travel along the chip’s edge to find the three corners you will use for 3-point focus. Save these locations in the 3 Points tab of the Adjust UVW window, to save time later. Afterwards use an XY lightning bolt to drive back to the lower left corner of your chip, and un-blank the beam. Zoom in on silver paint or an alignment mark and adjust focusing, aperture, and stigmation as best you can. Write down your new aperture and stigmation values when you’re done. Tips for focusing and adjusting the beam: Open

the SEM Control Panel and play with noise reduc- tion and scan speed. Continuous averaging with scan speed 3 or 4 usually works well. Reducing the scan window size sometimes helps. Make sure to select Fine control. When making adjustments, hold down the mouse button and slide the mouse slowly from side to side. Find the end-points of motion where you know the image is worse, and then

of motion where you know the image is worse, and then Figure 11: Raith e LiNE

Figure 11: Raith e LiNE joystick with axes.

move to the center. Move slowly to find the sweet spot. Note that the higher the magnification, the more fine your adjustments become. Be careful to switch back into mag/focus mode before zooming or focusing, otherwise you will change your aperture or stigmation values. Also be careful about accidentally switching between Fine and Coarse adjustment.

Coordinate System Setup

Before you can write your pattern, you need to setup the Global UVW coordinate system for your chip. Open the Adjust UVW window. Make sure that “–> Local” is displayed in the lower left of the win- dow, otherwise toggle the button until it is. If you don’t see “Focus correction!” in red at the bottom of the window, open Options in the Edit Menu, enable automatic focus correction, and click the “correct by working distance” radio button. For a blank chip, the coordinates setup isn’t very

precise. Turn on crosshairs in the SEM, and position the lower left corner of your chip in the center. Open




8 2 RAITH PROCEDURES Figure 12: Angle Correction tab of the Adjust UVW window. Note that

Figure 12: Angle Correction tab of the Adjust UVW window. Note that “–> Local” and “Focus correc- tion!” are displayed in the lower left corner.

the Origin Correction tab in the Adjust UVW win- dow. Click Adjust to set the current location as the origin. Move to the Angle Correction tab (figure 12). Position the lower edge of your chip in the crosshairs, and click Read in the first line. Drive to the lower right corner of the chip. (If you saved that location in the 3 Points tab, then click the lightning bolt next to the XY coordinates for the corner. Un-blank the beam after driving.) Position the lower edge of the chip in the crosshairs again, with the same magnifi- cation. Click Read in the second line, and then click Adjust. The UV coordinate system is now rotated such that the U axis points to the right along the bottom edge of your chip. Double-check that the ori- gin is still correct by clicking the Origin Correction lightning bolt, and then re-adjusting as necessary. For a patterned chip, focus on an alignment mark

as best you can. Zoom in and center it in the crosshairs. Click Adjust under Origin Correction to set this as your origin. In the Angle Correction tab, Read this location into the first line. Drive to an- other alignment mark that you would like to be in the positive U direction from your origin, say in the lower right corner of the chip. Center the alignment mark in the crosshairs, and Read this location into the second line. Press Adjust to update the UV co- ordinate system. Double-check that the origin is still correct by clicking the lightning bolt under Origin Correction, and re-adjust as necessary. Now that the UV coordinate system is setup, tt should be possible to drive to other locations on your

tt should be possible to drive to other locations on your Figure 13: 3-Points tab of

Figure 13: 3-Points tab of the Adjust UVW window. Note the two columns of lightning bolt, one for XY and the other for UV coordinates.

chip, such as alignment marks, using UV coordinates

in the Destination tab of the Stage Control window.

If at any time you drive the stage away from the chip, for example, to the Faraday Cup to re-measure current, make sure that you double-check and correct any origin shift. QUESTION: Coordinate system scaling errors?

Focus Correction

Good focus is critical for small features and repro- ducible exposures. To achieve good focus, we use 3-point focus correction. This method yields three results: (1) The working distance will be set to the PMMA surface to within 1 µm. (2) You will see the size and shape of the beam before you expose, which will let you know when to stop focusing and help to verify consistency between sessions. (3) Finally, you will reliably correct for the tilt of your chip surface, so that the focus is correct anywhere you write on the chip. If instead we focused on silver paint or on align- ment marks 200 nm below the PMMA surface, our accuracy would be only around 50 µm or worse. Such

a large error would increase the beam spot size to

around 100 nm, and prevent exposure of any small features! So, let’s begin. QUESTION: Focusing with mesa-etched sample? Open the 3-Points tab in Align UVW (figure 13). Double-check that “Focus correction!” is displayed in red at the bottom of the window. Choose three non-


colinear points for focusing. If this is a blank chip, then three corners with silver paint will suffice. For a patterned sample, choose the center of three distant alignment marks. During initial setup you may have saved XY coor- dinates for three corners of your chip in the 3-Points tab. If so, click the lightning bolt next to the XY coordinates of the first location you want to focus at. This drives the stage to that location. Zoom in, un-blank the beam, and begin focusing. For chip cor- ners, make sure to drive in as far as possible towards the middle of the chip to focus, so that you avoid the thicker resist layer near the edge. If you did not save locations before now, then ei- ther drive to a location with the joystick, or enter approximate UV coordinates, zoom in, and click the lightning bolt next to the UV coordinates to drive the stage. In either case, when you reach an area and start focusing, save the XY coordinates in the Adjust UVW window so that you can come back at a later time. At the first location, fine tune focus, aperture, and stigmation. Write down the new values for aperture and stigmation. Once you have tuned as much as pos- sible, drive away from any features to a blank PMMA patch and zoom in to around 300 kX. Wait a few sec- onds for the stage to settle, then burn a dot. This first dot will probably need to burn for 30 second to 1.5 minutes to be visible due to poor focus. Once burned, zoom out to around 150 kX and focus on the dot. PICTURE of out of focus dot! PICTURE of in focus small dot! The dot is in focus when it looks more like a dough- nut, with a darker region in the center. Drive the stage away again, zoom in to around 300 kX, and burn another dot for a shorter amount of time. Focus on this dot. It should be smaller and sharper. Zoom in to fine focus more if needed, but beware that look- ing at a dot with high magnification will change the dot over time. Continue this process of moving and burning dots. You should be able to burn dots in 5 to 10 seconds or less. When the 5 second dot diameter is around 20-30 nm, then the working distance is correct for this location. However, if you have trouble making

the dot smaller, or if the dot is not circular, then fine-adjust aperture and stigmation on a new series of burned dots. If necessary, turn on the crosshairs to help check if the dots are circular. Write down the new values for stigmation and aperture. Once satisfied, read the XY coordinates into an en- try of the 3 Points window. Type in the UV coordi- nates exactly as they are in the Coordinates window, otherwise you will modify the UV coordinate system. Click the check box for that line. Write down the coordinates and working distance (from the Leo com- puter) in your notebook, in case the Raith computer crashes. Repeat this procedure of burning dots at two other focusing locations, and save their coordi- nates. Once all three entries are full and checked, click Adjust. Unfortunately, you need to double-check the focus correction. Click the lightning bolt next to a UV coordinate. You should see some of your previously burned dots. Burn a new dot, and check focus. If everything is ok, then move to the next focusing lo- cation. Otherwise, uncheck the box for this location, repeat the burning dot procedure, update its entry, and re-check its box. Do this for the other two focus- ing locations. If you made changes, then click Adjust and double-check the focus correction again.

Write Field Alignment

The final step before exposing your chip is to calibrate the beam deflection with stage movement, known as write field alignment. Open the Microscope Control window and check that the magnification is set to 1000 X and the Field Size is set to 100 µm. Open the Align Write Field window, which displays the alignment parameters and has a Reset button in case you need to start the alignment procedure over again. Open the Raith Protocol HTML file, and navigate to your account, the current date, and write field alignment. Update this page to keep track of the changes you make to the write field parameters, and to check for convergence of the parameters. Under File select New Positionlist. Open the Scan Manager window (figure 14), and expand Align Write Field Procedures and then Manual. Turn on the crosshairs in the SEM, and position a small detail




10 2 RAITH PROCEDURES Figure 14: Scan Manager window. in the crosshairs. Zoom in to double

Figure 14: Scan Manager window.

in the crosshairs. Zoom in to double check that the feature is centered in the crosshairs. Freeze the image on the SEM. Drag the Manual ALWF 25 µm marks entry in Scan Manager into the positionlist. The position will be set to the current UV coordinates. Right click and choose Scan. The Raith will take over the SEM and make a slow scan. Position your cursor to match the crosshairs in the slow scan. When the crosshairs turn purple to indicate alignment, press and hold Ctrl and then click and drag the cross to the feature you cen- tered in the SEM. Click Continue, and repeat two more times. The Raith will ask if you want to ac- cept the changes. Click yes if everything went ok. If successful, repeat this alignment to double-check that the crosshairs line up in all three slow scans, and make fine adjustments if needed. After you are done, delete the entry in the positionlist. You will need to un-blank the beam and switch back to In- ternal to use the SEM. You may need to turn the joystick back on in Motor Control. If for some reason the feature in the SEM image does not show up in the slow scans, then right click the Manual ALWF 25 µm marks entry in Scan Man- ager and select Duplicate. Right click the duplicate entry and select Properties. Under the Mark Proce- dure tab, reduce the Placement from WF center from 30 µm in U & V to a smaller value, like 10 µm. Click ok. Drag and scan this entry into the positionlist, and proceed like normal. If this doesn’t fix the prob- lem, try reducing the Placement again. Once you are done, delete the new entry in the Scan Manager.

Then retry the normal Manual ALWF 25 µm marks, and continue to the next step. Repeat the alignment procedure for the 5 and 1 µm Manual ALWF entries in Scan Manager. Drive the SEM to a smaller feature before dragging these en- tries into the positionlist. Ideally, use burned dots for the final 1 µm step. In between ALWF steps, double check that the write field alignment parameters are converging in the Raith Protocol file. As a final step, use 1 µm Automatic ALWF with Images. (For a patterned sample, you can also use 1 µm Automatic Align Write Field with GDS II.) Double check that the changes to the write field parameters were small in the Raith Protocol file. More specifically, the zoom factor should be between 0.99975 and 1.00025, corresponds to an acceptable zoom error of 25 nm or less for a 100 µm writefield. The shift error should be just a few nm, and the ro- tation error should be a few 0.001’s of a degree. Write down the Align Write Field window’s param- eters in your notebook. The values for zoom should be around 0.9197 for U and 0.9156 for V. The values for shift should be in the 10’s of nm or less, and the values for rotation should be a few degrees or less off of 0 or 90 . At this point you can choose to re-measure the cur- rent at the Faraday Cup and update the exposure dwell times. If you do, be sure to double-check the UV origin after returning to the sample, since the large stage movement may cause an offset. If neces- sary, fix any origin offset.


Now it’s time to expose a pattern. Before writing on a real 2DEG chip, expose a dose test on a junk chip of the same material. Once you demonstrate that your pattern works repeatably for some range of dose factors, then it’s time to write the real device on a 2DEG chip. Load the saved positionlist for your first exposure. Make any last minute modifications as needed. Dou- ble check the layer(s), dose factors, working area, UV coordinates, and exposure parameters. If everything checks out, then click Scan All in the Scan menu to expose all entries in the positionlist. The Raith


will take over from here until the exposure is fin- ished. You can pause or stop the exposure at any time with the buttons in the pop-up window. If you want to make sure that the Raith is exposing, double-check that the X and Y-Deflection bar-graphs on the High Speed Pattern Processor are moving, that the DMM current reading is fluctuating, and that the Beam light in the Beam Blanking Controller is slightly flashing. A dose test exposure should take around 45 minutes, and a Gates layer exposure should take only a few minutes. If this is your real chip, then you’ve just exposed the Gates layer. Before exposing the Connector layer, change aperture size to 120 µm. Measure current at the Faraday Cup, and roughly focus on an alignment mark. Double-check that the UV origin is correct; the rotation and scaling should still be ok. ALIGN WRITE FIELD AGAIN? Load the positionlist for the Connector layer, double-check, and expose just like the Gates layer. NEEDS WORK: I will better understand the Connector layer exposure once I’ve done it.

Unload Sample

Once your exposure is finished turn off EHT on the Leo computer, but leave the gun on! Open the Nav- igator Loadlock window and click Via Loadlock and then Unload Sample. Follow the pop-up instructions. In about 8 minutes, your chip will be unloaded. Make sure you close the load lock door. Place the sam- ple holder in its protective case on the prep table. Use your carbon tweezers to remove your sample, and close the sample holder case. Log off the e LiNE software but leave the SEM software running. Close any miscellaneous windows you left open. Turn off both monitors, and finish filling out the Log.

3 Post-Raith Processing

These next steps need to be performed in immediate succession. You can wait before developing, but once developed, you need to finish processing.

Develop your chip in MIBK:IPA 1:3 for 60 seconds,

rinse in IPA for 30 seconds, and gently blow dry with nitrogen. Use your Teflon beaker and labeled plastic beakers. Do not swirl or sonicate. Set the nitrogen flow rate with the regulator in our hood to a gentle speed. If you want, now is a good time for a quick optical inspection under the microscope. UV/Ozone Cleaning: Expose the chip in UV for

60 seconds in the Samco UV-1 in B4. Please see the QMM UV/Ozone Cleaner instruction sheet for more information. Immediately load in the evaporator af- ter this step. Evaporate 50 A of titanium at 0.5 A/s followed by



150 A of gold at 0.5 A/s. Do degas your sources, with

Ti last, and wait for the evaporator pressure to drop before the real evaporation. Keep and reuse your own evaporator boats. Please see the QMM Sharon Vacuum Evaporator instruction sheet for more infor- mation. Liftoff: Place your chip in your liftoff beaker, and fill with a good amount of acetone. Cover tightly with aluminum foil and let it sit for over two hours (preferably overnight). After two hours, it may help to break up the metal layer by spraying your chip with acetone from the dispenser bottle. Do not let acetone dry on the chip, or it will be ruined. Do not use your Teflon beaker during liftoff, as it may become contaminated with metal flakes. Once you are sure that the extra metal is removed, spray your chip with IPA and gently blow dry with nitrogen. After Liftoff: Your chip should now have gates. If you exposed a dose test, go image the chip in the SEM, take pictures, and choose appropriate dose fac- tors for your features. If you made a device, then–as Jeff says–measure, publish, and graduate.






Quick Outline

3 Solvent Clean the chip for the first EBL layer:

1. Sonicate 5 minutes in TCE

2. Sonicate 5 minutes in Acetone

3. Sonicate 5 minutes in IPA

4. Blow dry with N 2

Prebake for 2 minutes at 170 C.

Spin on a 200 nm layer of 950k PMMA A4:

1. 5 seconds at 500 rpm, 500 rpm/s spinup. Apply PMMA during this step.

2. 60 seconds at 4000 rpm, 1000 rpm/s spinup.

Bake for 15 minutes at 170 C. Apply silver paint to chip corners, if needed.

Raith EBL: Load sample and set Z to 30.5 mm (WD 6mm). Tune up the Raith. Expose at 30 kV, with area dose 250, line dose 1500, and dot dose XXX. Use a 10 µm aperture and 0.0064 µm for gates, and 120 µm and 20 nm step size for the connector layer. For gates, focus on burnt spots. For the connector layer, just roughly fo- cus on alignment marks. Expose a dose test to determine appropriate dose factors.

Develop for 60 seconds in 1:3 MIBK:IPA.

Rinse for 30 seconds in IPA.

UV/Ozone Clean for 60 seconds.

Evaporate 50 A of Ti and 150 A of Au at 0.5 A/s.

Degas your sources, with Ti last, then wait for the pressure to recover before evaporating.

Liftoff in acetone for at least 2 hours, preferably overnight. Spray with IPA and blow dry with N 2 .




Raith EBL Steps

Load Sample

Initial Setup and Focusing: Turn on joystick. Focus and adjust beam on Faraday Cup. Mea- sure current, set zoom to 1 kX and Field Size to 100 µm in Microscope Control, and set exposure parameters. Drive to chip and focus.

Coordinate System Setup: Set Origin and adjust Angle Correction. Double-check origin.

Focus Correction: Perform 3 Point Focus Correc- tion for Gates layer, but just focus on alignment marks for Connector layer. Double-check focus and origin.

Write Field Alignment: Perform 25, 5, and 1 µm manual write field alignment, followed by 1 µm automatic write field alignment with images. Check convergence in Raith Protocol file.

Exposure: Load positionlist. Double-check layers, working area, write-ordering, UV coordinates, dose factors, and exposure parameters. Select Scan All.

Unload Sample

This column doesn’t look as helpful as the other one (?!?!).



-Don’t know where to put these notes yet. -minimum step size is 0.0016 µm, but this creates communication problems for the Raith -If you have trouble with the SEM software, say for example you tried auto stigmation and canceled

it, which nukes the working distance, then try clicking the Emission button in the SEM Control Panel. -If the SEM image is rotated, Tools ¿ Goto Panel ¿ Rotate/Tilt – leave all entries unchecked and set to


-To save aperture and stigmation values, use the first stop light (Navigator Column) which allows you to store the values