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Chapter 10: Link-State Routing Protocols

Chapter 10: Link-State Routing Protocols CCNA Exploration version 4.0

CCNA Exploration version 4.0

Chapter 10: Link-State Routing Protocols CCNA Exploration version 4.0

Objectives

Objectives • Describe the basic features & concepts of link-state routing protocols. • List the benefits

Describe the basic features & concepts of link-state routing protocols.

List the benefits and requirements of link-state routing protocols.

Link-State Routing H ọ c vi ệ n m ạ ng Bach Khoa - Website:

Link-State Routing

Link-State Routing Protocols

Link-State Routing Protocols • Link state routing protocols – Also known as shortest path first algorithms

Link state routing protocols

Also known as shortest path first algorithms

Built around Dijkstra’s SPF

path first algorithms – Built around Dijkstra’s SPF H ọ c vi ệ n m ạ

Introduction to the SPF Algorithm

Introduction to the SPF Algorithm • Dikjstra’s algorithm also known as the shortest path first (SPF)

Dikjstra’s algorithm also known as the shortest path first (SPF) algorithm. This algorithm accumulates costs along each path, from source to destination.

Each router determines its own cost to each destination in the topology.

Introduction to the SPF Algorithm

Introduction to the SPF Algorithm H ọ c vi ệ n m ạ ng Bach Khoa
Introduction to the SPF Algorithm H ọ c vi ệ n m ạ ng Bach Khoa

Introduction to the SPF Algorithm

Introduction to the SPF Algorithm • The shortest path to a destination is not necessarily the

The shortest path to a destination is not necessarily the path with the least number of hops

is not necessarily the path with the least number of hops H ọ c vi ệ
is not necessarily the path with the least number of hops H ọ c vi ệ

Link-State Routing Process

Link-State Routing Process • How routers using Link State Routing Protocols reach convergence 1 E h
Link-State Routing Process • How routers using Link State Routing Protocols reach convergence 1 E h

How routers using Link State Routing Protocols reach convergence

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Link state routers exchange hello packet to “meet” other directly connected link state routers.

3.

Each router builds its own Link State Packet (LSP) which includes information about neighbors such as neighbor ID, link type, & bandwidth.

4.

After the LSP is created the router floods it to all neighbors who then store the information and then forward it until all routers have the same information.

5.

Once all the routers have received all the LSPs, the routers then construct a topological map of the network which is used to determine the best routes to a destination.

1.Learning about Directly Connected Network

1.Learning about Directly Connected Network • Link : this is an interface on a router •
1.Learning about Directly Connected Network • Link : this is an interface on a router •

Link: this is an interface on a router

Information about the state of those links is known as link- states.This information includes:

The interface's IP address and subnet mask.

The type of network, such as Ethernet (broadcast) or Serial point-to-point link.

The cost of that link.

Any neighbor routers on that link.

2.Sending Hello Packets to Neighbors

2.Sending Hello Packets to Neighbors • Routers with link-state routing protocols use a Hello protocol to

Routers with link-state routing protocols use a Hello protocol to discover any neighbors on its links. A neighbor is any other router that is enabled with the same link-state routing protocol.

2.Sending Hello Packets to Neighbors

2.Sending Hello Packets to Neighbors H ọ c vi ệ n m ạ ng Bach Khoa
2.Sending Hello Packets to Neighbors H ọ c vi ệ n m ạ ng Bach Khoa
2.Sending Hello Packets to Neighbors H ọ c vi ệ n m ạ ng Bach Khoa

2.Sending Hello Packets to Neighbors

2.Sending Hello Packets to Neighbors • When 2 link-state routers learn that they are neighbors, they

When 2 link-state routers learn that they are neighbors, they form an adjacency.

These small Hello packets continue to be exchanged between two adjacent neighbors which serve as a "keepalive" function to monitor the state of the neighbor. If a router stops receiving Hello packets from a neighbor, that neighbor is considered unreachable and the adjacency is broken.

3.Building the Link-State Packet

3.Building the Link-State Packet • Each router builds its own Link State Packet (LSP). • Contents

Each router builds its own Link State Packet (LSP).

Contents of LSP:

1 State of each directl

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connected

link 2. Includes information about neighbors such as neighbor ID, link type, & bandwidth.

3.Building the Link-State Packet

3.Building the Link-State Packet H ọ c vi ệ n m ạ ng Bach Khoa -
3.Building the Link-State Packet H ọ c vi ệ n m ạ ng Bach Khoa -
3.Building the Link-State Packet H ọ c vi ệ n m ạ ng Bach Khoa -

4.Flooding Link-State Packets to Neighbors

4.Flooding Link-State Packets to Neighbors • Each router floods the LSP to all neighbors , who

Each router floods the LSP to all neighbors, who then store all LSPs received in a database.

Each router floods its link-state information

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area. Whenever a router receives an LSP from a neighboring router, it immediately sends that LSP out all other interfaces except the interface that received the LSP.

4.Flooding Link-State Packets to Neighbors

4.Flooding Link-State Packets to Neighbors • LSPs are sent out under the following conditions 1. During

LSPs are sent out under the following conditions

1. During initial startup of the router or of the routing protocol process on that router

2. Whenever there is a change in the topology, including a link going down or coming up, or a neighbor adjacency being established or broken

4.Flooding Link-State Packets to Neighbors

4.Flooding Link-State Packets to Neighbors H ọ c vi ệ n m ạ ng Bach Khoa
4.Flooding Link-State Packets to Neighbors H ọ c vi ệ n m ạ ng Bach Khoa

4.Flooding Link-State Packets to Neighbors

4.Flooding Link-State Packets to Neighbors • Unlike distance vector routing protocols that must first run the

Unlike distance vector routing protocols

that must first run the Bellman-Ford algorithm to process routing updates before sending them to other routers, link-state

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rotocols calc late the SPF

algorithm after the flooding is complete. As a result, link-state routing protocols reach convergence much faster than distance vector routing protocols.

5.Constructing a link state database

5.Constructing a link state database • Each router uses the database to construct a complete map

Each router uses the database to construct a complete map of the topology and computes the best path to each destination network.

and computes the best path to each destination network. H ọ c vi ệ n m

5.Constructing a link state database

5.Constructing a link state database • Each router in the topology determines the shortest path from

Each router in the topology determines the shortest path from its own perspective.

determines the shortest path from its own perspective . H ọ c vi ệ n m

5.Constructing a link state database

5.Constructing a link state database H ọ c vi ệ n m ạ ng Bach Khoa
5.Constructing a link state database H ọ c vi ệ n m ạ ng Bach Khoa

Shortest Path First (SPF) Tree

Shortest Path First (SPF) Tree ignore • Building a portion of the SPF tree: Process begins
ignore •
ignore

Building a portion of the SPF tree:

Process begins by examining R2’s LSP information R1 ignores 1st LSP: R1 already knows it’s connected to R2

Shortest Path First (SPF) Tree

Shortest Path First (SPF) Tree • Building a portion of the SPF tree: R1 uses 2nd
•

Building a portion of the SPF tree:

R1 uses 2nd LSP Reason: R1 can create a link from R2 to R5. This information is added to R1’s SPF tree

Shortest Path First (SPF) Tree

Shortest Path First (SPF) Tree • R1 uses 3rd LSP Building a portion of the SPF
• R1 uses 3rd LSP
R1 uses 3rd LSP

Building a portion of the SPF tree:

Reason: R1 learns that R2 is connected to 10.5.0.0/16. This link is added to R1’s SPF tree.

Reason: R1 learns that R2 is connected to 10.5.0.0/16. This link is added to R1’s SPF

Shortest Path First (SPF) Tree

Shortest Path First (SPF) Tree • Determining the shortest path – The shortest path to a

Determining the shortest path The shortest path to a destination determined by adding the costs & finding the lowest cost

by adding the costs & finding the lowest cost H ọ c vi ệ n m

Shortest Path First (SPF) Tree

Shortest Path First (SPF) Tree • Once the SPF algorithm has determined the shortest path routes,

Once the SPF algorithm has determined the shortest path routes, these routes are placed in the routing table.

path routes, these routes are placed in the routing table . H ọ c vi ệ
Implementing Link-State Routing Protocols H ọ c vi ệ n m ạ ng Bach Khoa

Implementing Link-State Routing Protocols

Advantages of a Link-State Routing Protocol

Advantages of a Link-State Routing Protocol Routing Builds map A periodic/ event driven routing updates Use
Routing Builds map A periodic/ event driven routing updates Use protocol Topological Router can independently
Routing
Builds
map
A periodic/
event driven
routing updates
Use
protocol
Topological
Router can
independently
determine the
Convergence
of
shortest path to
LSP
ever
y network
Distance
No
No
Slow
Yes/Yes
No
vector
Link State
Yes
Yes
Fast
No/Yes
Yes

Advantages of a Link-State Routing Protocol

Advantages of a Link-State Routing Protocol H ọ c vi ệ n m ạ ng Bach
Advantages of a Link-State Routing Protocol H ọ c vi ệ n m ạ ng Bach

Requirements for using a link state routing protocol

Requirements for using a link state routing protocol • Memory requirements – Typically link state routing

Memory requirements

Typically link state routing protocols use more memory

Processing Requirements

More CPU processing is required of link state routing protocols

Bandwidth Requirements

Initial startup of link state routing protocols can consume lots of bandwidth

Requirements for using a link state routing protocol

Requirements for using a link state routing protocol • Modern LSR protocols are designed to minimize

Modern LSR protocols are designed to minimize the effects on memory, CPU, and bandwidth. Multiple areas can reduce the size of the link-state databases. It limits the amount of link-state information flooding in a routing domain and send LSPs only to those routers that need them.

Requirements for using a link state routing protocol

Requirements for using a link state routing protocol • 2 link state routing protocols used for

2 link state routing protocols used for routing IP

Open Shortest Path First (OSPF)

Intermediate System-Intermediate System (IS-IS)

(OSPF) – Intermediate System-Intermediate System (IS-IS) Multi-areas OSPF and IS-IS are discussed in CCNP H ọ

Multi-areas OSPF and IS-IS are discussed in CCNP

Summary

Summary H ọ c vi ệ n m ạ ng Bach Khoa - Website: www.bkacad.com 33
Summary H ọ c vi ệ n m ạ ng Bach Khoa - Website: www.bkacad.com 33
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H ọ c vi ệ n m ạ ng Bach Khoa - Website: www.bkacad.com 34
H ọ c vi ệ n m ạ ng Bach Khoa - Website: www.bkacad.com 34
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H ọ c vi ệ n m ạ ng Bach Khoa - Website: www.bkacad.com 34
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