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COMMUNICATIONS

1. Introduction 1) The word Communication' is derived from the Latin word 'Communis' which means `common' that stands for sharing of ideas in common. 2) The term `Communication' refers to various means of transmitting information from one person to another or from one place to another. 3) It is the act of inducing the others to interpret an idea in the manner intended by the writer or the speaker. 4) Communication is the process for transmission of ideas, thoughts, feelings, behaviour from one person to another. 5) The first executive function is to develop and maintain communication system in an organisation. 6) Communication is a management skill and it is an indispensable part of any management. 7) The management succeeds through effective and purposeful communication. 8) Communication plays the same role in a business organisation as the nervous system in a human body. 9) The communication is one of the fundamental aspects of all human interaction. 10) The ability to communicate effectively has enables human beings to build organisations, societies and other social groups that make for survival and better living.

2. Definitions 1) M.W.Cumming: "Communication is the process of conveying messages (facts, ideas, attitudes and opinion) from one person to another so that they are understood." 2) Newman-Summer: "Communication is an exchange of facts, ideas, opinion or emotions by two or more persons" 3) Charles E.Redfield: Communication is, "The broad field of human interchange of facts aaad Opinion and not the technologies.of telephone; telegraph, radio and the like"

4) Theo haimann: "Communication, fundamental and vital to all management process of imparting ideas and making oneself understood by others." 3. Interpersonal communication 1) Communication is the transmission of information and meaning from one party to another through the use of shared symbols. 2) The sender initiates the process by conveying information to the receiver; the person for whom the message is intended. 3) The sender has a meaning he or she wished to communicate and encodes the meaning into symbols (the words chased for the message). 4) Then the sender transmits or sends the message through same channel, such as a verbal or written medium. 5) Then the receiver decodes the message (reads it) and attempts to interrupt the sender's meaning. 6) The receiver may provide feedback to the sender by encoding a message in response to the S. sender's message. 7) The communication process often is hampered by noise or interference in the system that blocks perfect understanding. 8) Noise could be anything that interferes with your intention to the conversation (ringing telephones, thoughts about other products, simple fatigue or stress etc.) 9) A model of the interpersonal communication. Signal Source SENDER Message Channel Signal RECEIVER Destination Message

Source of noise 10) The sender's intended message does not always "get across" to the receiver. 11) Errors can occur in all stages of the communication process. 12) In the encoding stage, words can be missed, decimal-points typed in the. wrong places, facts left out, or ambiguities phrases inserted. 13) In the transmission stage, a memo gets lost on a lettered desk, the words on an over head transparency are too small to read from the back of the conference room, or words are spoken

with unappropriate inflections. 14) Decoding problems arise when the receiver doesn't listen carefully or reads too quickly and overlooks a key point. 15) Receivers can misinterpret the message, as a reader draws the wrong conclusion from an unclear menio, a listener takes a general statement by the boss too personally, or a sideways glance is taken the wrong way.
Message Source Sender Channel Receiver Destination The Idea, thought The Brain The transmitting device, the mouth The medium the message travels over, air The receiving device, the ear The brain

4. Effective communication Considering the importance of communication, it is necessary to take steps to overcome the barriers and make communication effective. The following are some of the suggestions in this regard. 1) Clarity in Idea: The communicator should be clear about the message he wants to communicate. 2) Use Simple Language: The communicator should use the language which is understandable by the receiver. Use of simple language with appropriate words, avoiding ambigous words and complicated jargon (terminology) will make the communication effective. 3) Choose Media and Channel Carefully: The communication channel should be selected and employed carefully. For important messages, more than one channel may be send. A judicious combination of formal and informal communication will help in achieving effective communication. 4) Empathy in communication: `Empathy' refers to projecting oneself into the view point of the other person. When the sender looks from the point of view of the receiver, much of the problems will be avoided. The sender should be sensitive to the needs, feelings and perception of the receiver so that communication can be effective. 5) Regulating the flow of Information: Regulating the flow of communication ensures an

optimum flow of information. The messages may be condensed or edited and arranged in the order of merit. 6) Good Listeniug: Hearing is passive and listening is active and is an intellectual process. Good listening removes communication barriers. Keith Davis has suggested 10 principles to improve listening: y y y y y y y y y y Stop talking. Put the listeners at ease. Show the talker that you want to listen. Remove -distraction Empathise with the speaker, Be Patient. Hold your temper. Do not argue Ask questions and Stop.

7) Provide adequate provisions for Feedback: It is imperative that always promote a two way communication for the full understanding of the message. 8) Providing communication Training: Effective communication can be achieved by providing communication training facilities to people working in the organization. It aims at improving speaking skill, listening skill, hearing skill and writing skill. It will give effective communication.