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SUMMER TRAINING PROJECT REPORT ON

RECRUITMENT AND SELECTION POLICY AT BHARAT SANCHAR NIGAM LIMITED Submitted to Mahamaya Technical University, Noida for the partial fulfillment of the requirement for the award of the degree of Master of Business Administration.

Under the guidance of :Mr. YATENDRA SINGH

Submitted By:Name- DANISH KHAN Roll No-1027870005 MBA III Sem

ARYAN INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT & COMPUTER STUDIES AGRA (U.P.) Code- 278

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
India is one of the growing economies among all the World. It is growing at the average growth rate about 8-8.5% in different sectors of the economy, In Particular Service Sectors and manufacturing sectors, the growth rate registered service sectors between 2007-2010 was about 35- 45%. BSNL was established in year 2000. BSNL is worlds 7th largest Telecommunication Company in the World. Which provides a Comprehensive range of Telecomm Service in India? This project attempt to understand the Recruitment and Selection procedure/practices of BSNL Organizational Efficiency depends upon the kind of people working for the Organization. According to FLIPPO, apply for jobs in an Organization. Selection means, It is a process of Choosing the Most Suitable Person out of all the Applicants. In this Process, Relevant Information about Applicants is collected through a Series of Steps so as to evaluate their Suitability for the job to be filled. In short, we can say that Right People at Right Place and Right Time for Right work is required. This project is an attempt to understand Recruitment and Selection process of BSNL for the purpose of Data collection; Organizational records and for Continuous Improvement. Personal Interviews of all t h e Concerned persons Responsible for Recruitment and Selection was conducted. Primary data was used as well for the purpose of data collection and analysis. On the basis of collected data conclusion was done at certain points have been recommended which is present in the conclusion and recommendation part is respectively. As a part of the curriculum of our MBA, I have undergone through our final project in BSNL. This project I analyze work provides various me an Opportunity affecting to understand the Companys process adopted by the
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Recruitment is the

Process of Searching for Prospective Employees and Stimulating and encouraging them to

Recruitment policy and its necessary requirements etc. detriments recruitment

company ,discover sources of manpower to meet the requirement of the staffing schedule and to employ them attracting that manpower in adequate numbers facilities effective selection for right kind of jobs. Therefore I have chosen this topic to Evaluate whether recruitment is actually necessary for the Organization and if so then up to what extent.

CERTIFICATE

This is to certify that summer training project report entitled RECRUITMENT AND SELECTION POLICY OF BSNL submitted By DANISH KHAN is an independent original

research work done by him/her under my supervision and guidance.

Place: . Date: ...

S.D.E (BSNL) ASHOK VERMA (TAR GHAR BSNL AGRA)

Acknowledgement
My sincere gratitude to Mr. YATENDRA SINGH, H.R person, tar ghar Agra, who gave necessary directions on doing this project to the best of my abilities. I am highly indebted to Mr. ASHOK VERMA, S.D.E (sub division engineer), who provided me with the necessary information and also for the support extended out to me in the completion of this report and his valuable suggestion and comments on bringing out this report in the best way possible.

Later on I would like to thanks MR.GOVIND NARAYAN and other faculty members who taught me that how to do project through appropriate tools and techniques.

Signature DANISH KHAN

DECLERATION
I Danish khan This project report is my original work and has not been submitted in any form as a part of any other project. Information derived from the published and unpublished work of other has been acknowledgement in the bibliography.

DANISH KHAN

CONTENT
CHAPTER 1 .. An overview of Indian telecom industry

CHAPTER 2 .. An introduction of BSNL

CHAPTER 3.. Project profile Recruitment and selection policy

CHAPTER 4. Research methodology

CHAPTER 5 Data analysis and interpretation

CHAPTER 6 Findings

CHAPTER 7.Suggestions and conclusion

Appendices Questionnaire Bibliography

CHAPTER-1

INDUSTRY PROFILE

TELECOM INDUSTRY

INDUSTRY PROFILE

Telecom industry in India has a big market potentiality and is a fast growing sector. Government of India is eager to reconstitute this telecom industry by enacting effective policies for more investments from foreign companies, which results in a very competitive and deregulated market in the world.

Policies of telecom industry in India


Government of India implemented the unified access licensing regime, which enables basic and cellular mobile service to use any modern technology. In 1997, Telecom Regulatory Authority of India (TRAI) was formed to facilitate the growth of the telecom sector in India.

Major services and market potentiality of Telecom industry in India

Telecommunication sector in India is primarily subdivided into two segments, which are Fixed Service Provider (FSPs) and Cellular Services. Telecom industry in India constitutes some essential telecom services like telephone, radio, television and Internet. Telecom industry in India is specifically emphasizing on latest technologies like GSM( Global System for Mobile Communications), CDMA(Code Division Multiple Access), PMRTS(Public Mobile Radio Trunking Services), Fixed Line and WLL(Wireless Local Loop ). India has a prospering market specifically in GSM mobile service and the number of subscribers is growing very fast.

Economic perspective of telecom industry in India


Telecom industry in India has a major role in Indian economy. The Indian government is also

enforcing some effective telecom policies and regulations for the infrastructural growth of this industry. Indian telecom market provides a tele-density of 8.5 percent as registered in the year 2004. A number of leading multinational telecommunication companies are approaching and showing their interest to invest for the telecom industry in India. Telecommunication industry of India ranked sixth among all the telecommunication sectors in the world. In the year 2004, the total number of telephone subscriptions were US$93.2.

Leading telecommunication service providers of telecom industry in India

Bharat Sanchar Nigam Limited, Mahanagar Telephone Nigam Limited (MTNL), Videsh Sanchar Nigam Limited (VSNL), Bharti Airtel, Tata Teleservices, SIFY Ltd. are the major telecommunications service providers in India.

Telecommunication
The Indian telecommunication network is the third largest in the world and the second largest among the emerging economies of Asia. The Indian telecommunication sector has continued to record noteworthy success throughout the year and has emerged as one of the key sectors that have been accountable for resurgent growth of the Indian economy. The rapid growth of the sector has been coupled with proactive polices and decisions taken by the Indian Government and dynamic involvement of the private sector. The liberal policies in the telecommunication sector have facilitated easy access to telecom companies and a fair regulatory framework offers services to the Indian consumers at affordable prices

Market size
Over 20.2 million new subscribers were added in the month of February, thereby raising the total mobile phone subscription in the country to 791.38 million.

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Moreover, the statistics for February state that the rate of growth (2.82 per cent) in the number of rural mobile phone subscribers surpassed than those of the urban areas (2.52 per cent) across the country. The broadband subscription in February, 2011 was 11.47 million as compared to 11.21 million in January, 2011. The Indian telecom sector is largely dominated by private operators that control a share of 87.9 per cent share of the entire sector. Among the top players in the telecom sector, Bharti Airtel owns the largest share at 20.09 per cent, followed by Reliance (16.7 per cent), Vodafone (16.54 per cent), state-owned BSNL (11.41 per cent), Tata (11.08 per cent) and Idea (10.97 per cent). Vodafone has recorded the fastest growth rate in the month of February, at 17.61 per cent in its subscription base. Reliance (16.36 per cent), Bharti (15.85 per cent), Idea (12.43 per cent), Aircel (8.26 per cent) and Tata (7.93 per cent) have also recorded decent growth rate figures for the month of February, 2011, according to Telecom Regulatory Authority of India (TRAI) database. As per statistics, the total number of mobile phone base in the country will rise to 900 million by the end of 2012 and it is further expected that this figure will steadily rise to 1.25 billion by 2015. It has also been projected that the users for the broadband base are going to reach 100 million mark by 2014, particularly after the telecom companies roll out their 3G services as per the research study conducted by Crisil.

Indian Telecommunication - Major Investments


telecom managed services globally have been growing at a rate of 14 per cent on an yearly basis, with revenues aggregating up to US$ 190 billion, while in India, the growth rate of the telecom managed services is 19 per cent per year with revenues pegged at US$ 8-9 billion as stated by Arpita Pal Agrawal, Executive Director Telecom KPMG at the 3rd International conference organised by Bharat Exhibitions on Managed Services. Companies outside the telecom sector have shown interest in the sector investment and the Pharma company, Piramal Healthcare has decided to buy a 5.5 per cent stake in Vodafone's India unit for Rs 2,856 crore (US$ 640 million). With this deal, Vodafone has allotted over

26 per cent of the company shares to Indian investors in accordance to the foreign direct investment (FDI) guidelines for the telecom sector. Nokia, a US$ 12.7 billion telecom company intends to set up the companys largest manufacturing hub in Asia, overtaking the China facility centre. As of now, the China centre has a larger infrastructure than the Chennai centre, but going by the plans here, Chennai could possibly be the biggest in a year or so, said Herbert Merz, Global Head of operations and Executive Board Member, Nokia Siemens Networks, a US$ 12.7 billion telecom infrastructure manufacturer. Indian Telecommunication - Policy Initiatives In view of the widespread ramifications of the Indian economy, the government recognizes the significance of a comprehensive and forward looking telecommunications policy that assists in building a performance oriented framework for the development of the Indian telecom industry. The main features of the New Telecom Policy 1999 include:

Strengthening of Regulator. National long distance services opened to private operators. International Long Distance Services opened to private sectors. Private telecom operators licensed on a revenue sharing basis, plus a one-time entry fee. Resolution of problems of existing operators envisaged. Direct interconnectivity and sharing of network with other telecom operators within the service area was permitted. Department of Telecommunication Services (DTS) corporatized in 2000. Spectrum Management made transparent and more efficient.

The government intends to introduce a new Telecom Policy, 2011 which will be drafted and reviewed by eight different committees set up by the Department of Telecom (Dot). The new Telecom Policy is also expected to further ease out the stringent merger and acquisition

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policies and the committee reviewing the issue has also endorsed the subject to Dot. This is aimed at initiating higher consolidation in the telecom market. Telecom licenses should be renewed for 10 years compared with 20 years currently, and companies must submit applications for new permits at least 30 months prior to the expiry of their licenses, as stated by Mr Kapil Sibal, Minister of Communications and Technology. Restating his earlier comments, the Minister stated that the new policy will work to delink the allocation of telecom licenses from mobile spectrum.

Indian Telecommunication - The Road Ahead


The telecom sector in India is a major contributor to the economy and is a vital employment generating industry for thousands of professionals. With a direct impact on the socio economic structure of the country, the sector has been able to successfully surpass the targets set up by the policy makers. The dynamism displayed by the government and the private sector for uplifting the telecom sector has been recommendable and speaks volumes about the efforts behind the success story.

CHAPTER-2

COMPANY PROFILE

BHARAT SANCHAR NIGAM LIMITED

COMPANY PROFILE PROFILE OF THE COMPANYS BUSINESS


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1. BASIC AND LIMITED MOBILE TELEPHONE SERVICES


BSNL is the leading service provider in the country in the Basic Telephone Services. As of now more than 35 million Direct Exchange Lines & more than 2.2.Million telephones in the Limited Mobile telephone Services are existing. BSNL has provides a number of attractive tariff packages & Plans which shall further strengthen its subscriber base.

2. CELLULAR MOBILE TELEPHONE SERVICES


BSNLs GSM Technology based Cellular Network reached a long way, covering 20,836 cities/towns with a subscriber base of over 4.67 Crores as on 31st March 2009 out of which 4.31 crores cellular telephone are in pre-paid segment

3. INTERNET SERVICES
BSNL offers Dialup Internet services to the customers by Post-paid service with the brand. name Net one, and pre-paid service with the brand name Sancharnet. The post-paid service is a CLI based access service, currently operational in 100 cities. Sancharnet is available on local call basis throughout India to ISDN and PSTN subscribers. The Internet Dhaba scheme of the Company aims to further promote Internet usage in rural and semi urban areas To keep pace with the latest and varied value added services to its customers, BSNL uses IP/MPLS based core to offer world class IP VPN services. MPLS based VPNs is a very useful service for Corporate, as it reduces the cost involved as well as the complexity in setting up VPNs for customers networking. As on 31.03.2005, your Companys total Internet customer base was 17,98,089 and total Internet Dhabi were 4143. A total of 708594 dial up Internet connections have been given during 2004-2005, against a target of 7 lakhs. BSNL plans to give 1215980

more dial up connections during the year 2005-06. As on 31.1.2006, there were 2367404 internet subscribers working in BSNL net work

4. Intelligent Network
Intelligent Network Services is a service that incorporates several value added facilities, thoroughly designed to save time and money, and enhance productivity. At present, your company offers Free Phone (FPH),Premium Rate Service (PRM), India Telephone (VPN), Card (ITC), Universal Account Card Calling (ACC), Virtual Private Network Access Number (UAN) and Tele voting In-services. With the

commissioning of five provided throughout the country. Activation of these new In platforms had increased the sale of ITC Cards taking the figure to Rs.265 crores in2004-05 alone.

BROADBAND SERVICES
BSNL has launched its broadband services under brand name BSNL BROADBAND on 14-01-05. This offers High Speed Internet Access with speed ranging from 256 Kbps to 8 Mbps. Ever since its inception BSNL is Continuously expanding its broadband network in response to ever Growing demand of broadband service throughout India Present customer base is 3.56 million, with equipped capacity of 6.1 million. BSNL Broadband service is available in more than 3800 cities &83000 villages. The services provided are High Speed Internet Connectivity (up to 8 Mbps) Demand (planned) Virtual Private Network (VPN) service over broadband Dial VPN services to MPLS VPN customers IPTV services (at present available in 66 cities Games on Demand Service Video tutoring service VOIP Video Surveillance service Entertainment portal.

Employees Welfare Activities

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Commitment towards the principles of corporate social responsibilities is Inbuilt w i t h i n the corporate philosophy of BSNL. A very wide range Welfare Board of the Company. of welfare programmers, with a focus on the employees welfare is continuously implemented by the Staff

Assistance during natural calamities


BSNL always Remains awake of its responsibility as a Corporate citizen. When

the destructive Tsunami waves struck the Indian shores, BSNL Company swung into action immediately for providing relief to those Affected in the coastal areas. Communication networks at the Coastal areas of Tamil Nadu, Kerala and the Andaman and Nicobar Islands worst hit in the Tsunami - were promptly restored within the shortest Possible time. BSNL along with the employees contributed an amount of Rs. 2,207 lakhs to the Prime Ministers Relief Fund. Telephone Services were restored in record time in the flood- hit areas of Gujarat and Maharashtra.

VISION
To become the largest telecom Service Provider in Asia

M I SSI O N
*To provide world class State-of-art technology telecom services to its customers on demand at competitive prices. *To Provide world class telecom infrastructure in its area of operation and to contribute to

the growth of the country's economy. Financial Position Bharat Sanchar Nigam Limited, the largest Public Sector Undertaking of the Nation, is certainly on a financial ground that's sound. The Company has a net worth of Rs. 88,128 crores (US$ 22.02 billion), authorized equity capital of Rs. 10,000 crores (US $ 2.50 billion), Paid up Equity Share Capital of Rs. 5,000 crores (US $ 1.25 billion) and Revenues is Rs. 38053 crores (US $ 9.51 billion) in 2009-10.Headquarters Delhi Area, India Industry Type Status Company Size Founded Top Locations Chandgarh Area, India (35) Delhi Area, India (75) Bangalore Area, India (34) Telecommunications Public Company Operating 10,001 or more employees 2000

Basic and Limited Mobile Telephone Services:


Bsnl Is The Leading Service Provider In The Country In The Basic Telephone Services. As Of Now More Than 35 Million Direct Exchange Lines & More Than 2.2.Million Telephones In The Limited Mobile Telephone Services Are Existing. Bsnl Has Provides A Number Of Attractive Tariff Packages & Plans Which Shall Further Strengthen Its Subscriber Base.

Cellular Mobile Telephone Services :


BSNLS GSM Technology Based Cellular Mobile Network Has Reached A Long Way,
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Covering More Than 6400 Towns, With A Subscriber Base Of Over 1.54 Crore As On 31St Jan. 2006 Out Of Which 1.16 Crore Cellular Telephones Are In The Prepaid Segment.

Internet Services:
BSNL Offers Dialup Internet Services To The Customers By Post-Paid Service With The Brand Name Netone, And Pre-Paid Service With The Brand Name Sancharnet. The PostPaid Service Is A Cli Based Access Service, Currently Operational In 100 Cities. Sancharnet Is Available On Local Call Basis Throughout India To Isdn And Pstn Subscribers. The Internet Dhaba Scheme Of The Company Aims To Further Promote Internet Usage In Rural And Semi Urban Areas.

To Keep Pace With The Latest And Varied Value Added Services To Its Customers, Bsnl Uses Ip/Mpls Based Core To Offer World Class Ip Vpn Services. Mpls Based Vpns Is A Very Useful Service For Corporates, As It Reduces The Cost Involved As Well As The Complexity In Setting Up Vpns For Customers Networking. As On 31.03.2005, Your CompanyS Total Internet Customer Base Was 17,98,089 And Total Internet Dhabas Were 4143. A Total Of 708594 Dial Up Internet Connections Have Been Given During 2004-2005, Against A Target Of 7 Lakhs. Bsnl Plans To Give 1215980 More Dial Up Connections During The Year 2005-06. As On 31.1.2006, There Were 2367404 Internet Subscribers Working In Bsnl Net Work.

Intelligent Network:
Intelligent Network Services Is A Service That Incorporates Several Value Added Facilities, Thoroughly Designed To Save Time And Money, And Enhance Productivity. At Present, Your Company Offers Free Phone (Fph), Premium Rate Service (Prm), India Telephone Card (Itc), Account Card Calling (Acc), Virtual Private Network (Vpn), Universal Access Number (Uan) And Tele Voting In Services. With The Commissioning Of Five Numbers Of New Technology In Platforms (Four General Purpose And One Mass Calling) At Kolkata, Bangalore, Ahmadabad And Hyderabad, The India Telephone Card Facility And New Value Added Services Are Being Provided Throughout The Country. Activation Of These New In

Platforms Had Increased The Sale Of Itc Cards Taking The Figure To Rs.265 Crores In 2004-05 Alone.

Broadband Services:
Bsnl Has Launched Its Broadband Services Under The Brand Name Dataone On 14/1/2005. This Offers Services Like High Speed Internet Access With Speed Ranging From 256 Kbps To 8 Mbps. Other Services Like Streaming Video, Video On Demand, Bandwidth On Demand Etc., Have Also Been Planned. As On 31.12.2005, There Were More Than 356000 Broad Band Connection Provided By The Bsnl. There Are Plans To Give 2 Million And 3 Million Connections In 2006 And 2007 Respectively.

SHARE HOLDING
Pattern Government of India is holding 100% of the share capital of the Company Listing with Stock Exchanges Not applicable, as the BSNL is an unlisted company. Share Capital Authorized Capital Rs.17,500 crores, divided into1,000,00,00,000[One Thousand Crores] Equity Shares of Rs.10/- each; and 750,00,00,000 [Seven Hundred and Fifty Crores] Preference Shares of Rs. 100 each Paid Up Share Capital - Rs.5,000/- crores of Equity Shares and Rs.7,500/- crores of Preference Share Capital.

Particulars of Organization
Incorporated on 15.9.2000, vide Registration No. 55-107739,dated the 15th Date of incorporation: September,

2000 and became entitled to commence business with effect from 19th September, 2000.

The Company (BSNL) took over the business of providing

telecom

services

and
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network management throughout the country except the metro cities of Delhi and Mumbai of the erstwhile service providing departments of the Govt. Of India service providing departments of the Govt. of India i.e., the Departments of Telecom Services and Telecom Operations i.e. 1.10.2000 pursuant to a Moue signed between the BSNL and the Govt. Of India

Type of Company
(Government Company under Section 617 of the Companies Act, 1956) Administrative Ministry-: Govt. of India, Ministry of Communication and Information Technology, Department of Telecommunications.

CHAPTER-3

PROJECT PROFILE

RECRUITMENT AND SELECTION

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LITERATURE REVIEW

The scope of my on recruitment and selection procedure of BSNLis to provide a framework which will assist manager to ensure that the company attracts, selects and retains the most suitable candidates by using the most appropriate efficient, fair, open and effective methods. Our study committed to achieving equal opportunities is clearly defined throughout the recruitment and selection procedure.

THEORETICAL BACKGROUND :-Introduction


Recruitment is defined as a process of searching for prospective employees and stimulating them to apply for jobs in the organization. Recruitment is defined as, a process to discover the sources of manpower to meet the requirements of the staffing schedule and to employ effective measures for attracting that manpower in adequate numbers to facilitate effective selection of an efficient workforce.

Objectives Of Recruitment

1. To attract people with multi dimensional skills and experiences that suits the present and future organizational strategies. 2. To induct outsiders with a new perspective to lead the company. 3. To infuse fresh blood at all levels the organization. 4. To develop an organizational culture that attracts competent people to the company. 5. To search or head hunt/head pouch people whose skills fit the companies values. To devise methodologies for assessing psychological traits. 6. To seek out non conventional development grounds of talents. 7. To search for talent globally and not just within the company. 8. To design entry pays that competes on quality but not on quantum 9. To anticipate and find people for positions that does not exist yet.

SUB-SYSTEMS OF

RECRUITMENT
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The recruitment process consists of the following four sub-functions: Finding out and developing the sources where the required number and kind of employees will be available. Developing suitable techniques to attract the desirable candidates. employing the techniques to attract candidates. stimulating as many candidates as possible and asking them to apply for jobs irrespective of the number of candidates require. Management has to attract more candidates in order to increase the selection ratio so that the most suitable candidate can be selected out of the total candidates available. Recruitment is positive as it aims at increasing the number of applicants and selection is somewhat negative as it selects the suitable candidates in which process; the unsuitable candidates are automatically eliminated. Though, the function of recruitment seems to be easy, a number of factors make performance of recruitment a complex one.

FACTOR AFFECTING RECRUITMENT


The following are the 2 important factors affecting Recruitment:-

1) INTERNAL FACTORS:Recruiting policy Temporary and part-time employees Recruitment of local citizens Engagement of the company in HRP Companys size Cost of recruitment Companys growth and expansion

2) EXTERNAL FACTORS:Supply and Demand factors Unemployment Rate Labor-market conditions Political and legal considerations Social factors Economic factors Technological factors

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RECRUITMENT POLICY
Recruitment policy of any organization is derived from the personnel policy of the same organization. In other words the former is a part of the latter. However, recruitment policy by itself should take into consideration the governments reservation policy, policy regarding sons of soil, etc., personnel policies of other organizations regarding merit, internal sources, social responsibility in absorbing minority sections, women, etc.

Recruitment policy should commit itself to the organizations personnel policy like enriching the organizations human resources or servicing the community by absorbing the retrenched or laid-off employees or casual/temporary employees or dependents of present/former employees, etc. The following factors should be taken into consideration in formulating recruitment policy. They are: Government policies Personnel policies of other competing organizations Organizations personnel policies

Recruitment sources Recruitment needs Recruitment cost Selection criteria and preference

IMPACT OF PERSONNEL POLICIES ON RECRUITMENT POLICIES:-

Recruitment policies are mostly drawn from personnel policies of the organization. According to Dale Yoder and Paul D. Standohar, general personnel policies provide a wide variety of guidelines to be spelt out in recruitment policy. After formulation of the recruitment policies, the Management has to decide whether to centralize or decentralize the recruitment function.

CENTRALISED V/s RECRUITMENT:-

DECENTRALISED

Recruitment practices vary from one organization to another. Some organizations like commercial banks resort to centralized recruitment while some organizations like the Indian Railway resort to decentralized recruitment practices. Personnel department at the central office performs all the functions of recruitment in case of centralized recruitment and personnel departments at unit level/zonal level perform all the functions of recruitment concerning to the jobs of the respective unit or zone.

MERITS OF CENTRALISED RECRUITMENT:Average cost of recruitment per candidate/unit should be relatively less due to economies of scale. It would have more expertise available to it. It can ensure broad uniformity among human resources of various units/zones in respect of education, skill, knowledge, talent, etc. It would generally be above malpractices, abuse of powers, favoritism, bias, etc. It would facilitate interchangeability of staff among various units/zones. It enables the line managers of various units and zones to concentrate on their operational activities by relieving them from the recruiting functions. It enables the organization to have centralized selection procedure, promotional and transfer procedure, etc. It ensures the most effective and suitable placement to candidates.
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It enables centralized training programmes which further brings uniformity and minimizes average cost of staff.

MERITS

OF DECENTRALISED RECRUITMENT:-

The unit concerned concentrates only on those sources/places wherein normally gets the suitable candidates. As such the cost of recruitment would be relatively less. The unit gets most suitable candidates as it is well aware of the requirements of the job regarding culture, traditional, family background aspects, local factors, social factors, etc. Units can recruit candidates as and when they are required without any delay. The units would enjoy freedom in finding out, developing the sources, in selecting and employing the techniques to stimulate the candidates. The unit would relatively enjoy advantage about the availability of information, control and feedback and various functions/processes of recruitment. The unit would enjoy better familiarity and control over the employees it recruits rather than on employees selected by the central recruitment agency. SOURCES OF RECRUITMENT:The sources of recruitment may be broadly divided into two categories: internal sources and external sources. Both have their own merits and demerits. Lets examine these. Internal Sources:Persons who are already working in an organization constitute the internal sources. Retrenched employees, retired employees, dependents of deceased employees may also constitute the internal sources. Whenever any vacancy arises, someone from within the organization is upgraded, transferred, promoted or even demoted.

External Sources:External sources lie outside an organization. Here the organization can have the services of: (a) Employees working in other organizations; (b) Jobs aspirants registered with employment exchanges; (c) Students from reputed educational institutions;

(d) Candidates referred by unions, friends, relatives and existing employees; (e) Candidates forwarded by search firms and contractors; (f) Candidates responding to the advertisements, issued by the organization; and (g) Unsolicited applications/ walk-ins.

Merits and Demerits of Recruiting people from Within:Merits:1) Economical:


The cost of recruiting internal candidates is advertising. minimal. No expenses are incurred on

2) Suitable:
The organization can pick the right candidates having the requisite skills. The candidate can choose a right vacancy where their talents can be fully utilized.

Demerits:1) Limited Choice:


The organization is forced to select candidates from a limited pool. It may have to sacrifice quality and settle down for less qualified candidates.

2) Inbreeding:
It discourages entry for talented people, available outside an organization. Existing employees may fail to behave in the knowledge about suitability of a candidate for a position. Known devils are better than unknown angels!

3) Inefficiency:
Promotions based on length of service rather than merit, may prove to be a blessing for inefficient candidate. They do not work hard and prove their worth.
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4) Bone of contention:
Recruitment from within may lead to infighting among employees aspiring for limited, higher level positions in an organization. As years roll by, the race for premium positions may end up in a bitter race.

Merits and Demerits of External sources of Recruitment :Merits Demerits 1.Wide Choice:
The organization has the freedom to select candidates from a large pool. Persons with requisite qualifications could be picked up.

2. Infection of fresh blood:


People with special skills and knowledge could be hired to stir up the existing

3. Expenses:
Hiring costs could go up substantially. Tapping multifarious sources of recruitment is not an easy task either.

4. Time consuming:
It takes time to advertise, screen, to test and test and to select suitable employees. Where employees and pave the way for innovative ways of working.

5. Motivational force:
It helps in motivating internal employees to work hard and compete with external candidates while seeking career growth. Such a competitive atmosphere would help an employee to work to the best of his abilities.

6. Long term benefits:


Talented people could join the ranks, new ideas could find meaningful expression, a competitive atmosphere would compel people to give out their best and earn rewards, etc. suitable ones are not available, the process has to be repeated.

7. De-motivating:
Existing employees who have put in considerable service may resist the process of filling up vacancies from outside. The feeling that their services have not been recognized by the organization, forces then to work with less enthusiasm and motivation.

8. Uncertainty:
There is no guarantee that the organization, ultimately will be able to hire the services of Suitable candidates. It may end up hiring someone who does not fit and who may not be able to adjust in the new setup.

METHODS OF RECRUITMENT:The following are the most commonly used methods of recruiting people.

INTERNAL METHODS: 1. Promotions and Transfers This is a method of filling vacancies from within through transfers and Promotions.
A transfer is a lateral movement within the same grade, from one job to another. It may lead to changes in duties and responsibilities, working conditions, etc., but not necessarily salary. Promotion, on the other hand, involves movement of employee from a lower level position to a higher level position accompanied by (usually) changes in duties, responsibilities, status and value. Organizations generally prepare badly lists or a central pool of persons from which vacancies can be filled for manual jobs. Such persons are usually passed on to various departments, depending on internal requirements. If a person remains on such rolls for 240 days or more, he gets the status of a permanent employee as
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per the Industrial Disputes Act and is therefore entitled to all relevant benefits, including provident fund, gratuity, retrenchment compensation

2. Job Posting:Job posting is another way of hiring people from within. In this method, the organization publicizes job opening on bulletin boards, electronic method and similar outlets. One of the important advantages of this method is that it offers a chance to highly qualified applicants working within the company to look for growth opportunities within the company to look for growth opportunities within the company without looking for greener pastures outside.

3. Employee Referrals:Employee referral means using personal contacts recommendation to locate job opportunities. It is a working in the

from a current employee regarding a job applicant. The logic behind

employee referral is that it takes one to know one. Employees

organization, in this case, are encouraged to recommend the names of their friends, working in other organizations for a possible vacancy in the near future. In fact, this has become a popular way of recruiting people in the highly competitive Information Technology industry nowadays. Companies offer rich rewards also to employees whose recommendations are accepted after the routine screening and examining process is over and job offers extended to the suggested candidates. As a goodwill gestures, companies also consider the names recommended by unions from time to time.

External (direct) Methods:1. Campus Recruitment


It is a method of recruiting by visiting and participating in college campuses and their placement centres. Here the recruiters visit reputed educational institutions such as IITs, IIMs, colleges and universities with a view to pick up job aspirants having requisite technical or professional skills. Job seekers are provided information about the jobs and the recruiters,

in turn, get a snapshot of job seekers through constant interchange of information with respective institutions. A preliminary screening is done within the campus and the short listed students are then subjected to the remainder of the selection process. In view of the growing demand for young managers, most reputed organizations (such as Hindustan Lever Ltd., Proctor & Cable, Citibank, State Bank of India, Tata and Birla group companies) visit IIMs and IITs regularly and even sponsor certain popular campus activities with a view to earn goodwill in the job market. Advantages of this method include: the placement centre helps locate applicants and provides resumes to organizations; applicants can be prescreened; applicants will not have to be lured away from a current job and lower salary expectations. On the negative front, campus recruiting means hiring people with little or no work experience The organizations will have to offer some kind of training to the applicants, almost immediately after hiring. It demands careful advance planning, looking into the placement weeks of various institutions in different parts of the country. Further, campus recruiting can be costly for organizations situated in another city (airfare, boarding and lodging expenses of recruiters, site visit of applicants if allowed, etc.). If campus recruitment is used, steps should be taken by human resource department to ensure that recruiters are knowledgeable concerning the jobs that are to be filled and the organizations and understand and employ effective interviewing skills.

Guidelines for campus recruiting:


Companies using college campuses as recruitment source should consider the following guidelines: Identify the potential candidates early: The earlier that candidate with top potential can be identified, the more likely the organization will be in a position to attract them. Employ various means to attract candidates: These may include providing research grants; consulting opportunities to faculty members, funding university infrastructural requirements, internships to students, etc. in the long run these will enhance the prestige of the company in the eyes of potential job seekers. Use effective recruitment material: Attractive brochures, films, computer diskettes,
34

followed by enthusiastic and effective presentations by companyofficials, correspondence with placement offices in respective campus in a friendly way will help in booting the company image in the eyes of the applicants. The company must provide detailed information about the characteristics of entry level positions, especially those that have had a major positive impact on prior applicants decisions to join the company. Offer training to campus interviews: Its better to devote more time and resources to train on campus interviewers to answer specific job related questions of applicants. Come out with a competitive offer: Keep the key job attributes that influence the decisions of applicants such talking to candidates.

Indirect

methods:-

1.Advertisements:These include advertisements in newspapers; trade, professional and technical journals; radio and television; etc. in recent times, this medium has become just as colorful, lively and imaginative as consumer advertising. The ads generally give a brief outline of the job responsibilities, compensation package, prospects in organizations, etc. this method is appropriate when (a) the organization intends to reach a large target group and (b) the organizations wants a fairly good number of talented people who are geographically spread out. To apply for advertised vacancies lets briefly examine the wide variety of alternatives available to a company as far as ads are concerned: Newspaper Ads: Here it is easy to place job ads without much of a lead time. It has flexibility in terms of information and can conveniently target a specific geographic location. On the negative side, newspaper ads tend to attract only those who are actively seeking employment at that point of time, while some of the best candidates who are well paid and challenged by their current jobs may not be aware of such openings. As a result, the company may be bombarded with applications from a large number of candidates who are marginally qualified for the job - adding to its administrative burden. To maintain secrecy for various reasons (avoiding the rush, sending signals to competitors, cutting down

expenses involved in responding to any individual who applies, etc.), large companies with a national reputation may also go in for blind-box ads in newspapers, Especially for filling lower level positions. In a blind-box ad there is no identification of the advertising organization. Job aspirants are asked to respond to a post office box number or to An employment firm that is acting as an agent between the job seekers and the organization. Television and radio ads: These ads are more likely to each individual who are not actively seeking employment; they are more likely to stand out distinctly, they help the organization to target the audience more selectively and they offer considerable scope for designing ads creatively. However, these ads are expensive. Also, because the television or radio is simply seen or heard, potential candidates may have a tough time remembering the details, making application difficult.

2.Third Party Methods: Private Employment Search Firms:As search firm is a private employment agency that maintains computerized lists of qualified applicants and supplies these to employers willing to hire people from the list for a fee. Firms like Arthur Anderson, Boble and Hewitt, ABC consultants, SB Billimoria, KPMG; Ferguson Associates offers specialized employment-related services to corporate houses for a fee, especially for top and middle level executive vacancies. AT the lower end, a number of search firms operate providing multifarious services to both recruiters and the recruitees.

Employment Exchanges:AS a statutory requirement, companies are also expected to notify(wherever the Employment Exchanges Act, 1959, applies) their vacancies through the respective Employment Exchanges, created all over India for helping unemployed youth, displaced persons, ex-military personnel, physically handicapped, etc. AS per the Act all employers are supposed to notify the vacancies arising in their establishments form time to time with certain exemptions to the prescribed employment exchanges before they are filled. The Act covers all establishments in public sector and nonagricultural establishments
36

employing 25 or more workers in the private sector. However, in view of the practical difficulties involved in implementing the provisions of the Act (such as filing a quarterly return inrespect of their staff strength, vacancies and shortages, returns showing occupational distribution of their employees, etc.) many organizations have successfully fought court battles when they were asked to pick up candidates from among those sponsored by the employment exchanges.

Gate Hiring and Contractors:Gate hiring (where job seekers, generally blue collar employees, present themselves at the factory gate and offer their services on a daily basis), hiring through contractors, recruiting through word-of-mouth publicity are still in use despite the many possibilities for their misuse in the small scale sector in India.

Unsolicited Applicants / Walk-ins:Companies generally receive unsolicited applications from job seekers at various points of time; the number of such applications depends on economic conditions, the image of the company and the job seekers perception of the types of jobs that might be available etc. Such applications are generally kept in a data bank and whenever a suitable vacancy arises, the company would intimate the candidates to apply through a formal channel. One important problem with this method is that job seekers generally apply to number of organizations and when they are actually required by the organizations, either they are already employed in other organizations or are not simply interested in the position.

Alternatives to Recruitment:Since recruitment and selection costs are high (search process, interviewing agency fee, etc.) firms these days are trying to look at alternatives to recruitment especially when market demand for firms products and services is sluggish. Moreover, once employees are placed on the payroll, it may be extremely difficult to remove them if their performance is marginal. Some of the options in this regard may be listed.

Evaluation of Alternative Sources:Companies have to evaluate the sources of recruiting carefully looking at cost, time, flexibility, quality and other criteria before earmarking funds for the recruitment process. They cannot afford to fill all their vacancies through a particular source. To facilitate the decision making process in this regard, companies rely on the following:

Time lapse data:


They show the time lag between the dates of requisition for manpower supply from a department to the actual date of filling the vacancies in that department. For example, a companys past experience may indicate that the average number of days from application to interview is 10, from interview to offer is 7,from offer to acceptance is 10 and from acceptance to report for work is 15. Therefore, if the company starts the recruitment and selection process now it would require 42 days before the new employee joins its ranks. Armed with this information, the length of the time needed for alternative sources of recruitment can be ascertained before pinning hopes on a particular source that meets the recruitment objectives of the company.

Yield ratios:
These ratios indicate the number of leads / contacts needed to generate a given number of hires at a point at time. For example, if a company needs 10 management trainees in the next six months, it has to monitor past yield ratios in order to find out the number of candidates to be contacted for this purpose. On the basis of past experience, to continue the same example, the company finds that to hire 10 trainees, it has to extend 20 offers. If the interview-to offer is 3:2, then 30 interviews must be conducted. If the invites to interview ratios are 4:3 then, as many as 40 candidates must be invited. Lastly, if contacts or leads needed to identify suitable Trainees to invite are in 5:1 ratio, and then 200 contacts are made.

38

Surveys and studies:


Surveys may also be conducted to find out the suitability of a particular source for certain positions. For example, as pointed out previously, employee referral has emerged as popular Way of hiring people in the Information Technology industry in recent times in India. Correlation studies could also be carried out to find out the relationship between different organizational positions. Before finally identifying the sources of recruitment, the human resource managers must also look into the cost or hiring a candidate. The cost per hire can be found out by dividing the recruitment cost by the number of candidates hired.

SELECTION
Introduction
Selection is the process of picking individuals who have relevant qualifications to fill jobs in an organization. The basic purpose is to choose the individual who can most successfully perform the job from the pool of qualified candidates.

Purpose:The purpose of selection is to pick up the most suitable candidate who would meet the requirements of the job in an organization best, to find out which job applicant will be successful, if hired. To meet this goal, the company obtains and assesses information about the applicants in terms of age, qualifications, skills, experience, etc. the needs of the job are matched with the profile of candidates. The most suitable person is then picked up after eliminating the unsuitable applicants through successive stages of selection process. How well an employee is matched to a job is very important because it is directly affects the amount and quality of employees work. Any mismatched in this regard can cost an organization a great deal of money, time and trouble, especially, in terms of training and operating costs. In course of time, the employee may find the job distasteful and leave in frustration. He may even circulate hot news and juicy bits of negative information about the company, causing incalculable harm to the company in the long run. Effective election, therefore, demands constant monitoring of the fit between people the job.

THE PROCESS:Selection is usually a series of hurdles or steps. Each one must be successfully cleared before the applicant proceeds to the next one. The time and emphasis place on each step will definitely vary from one organization to another and indeed, from job to job within the same organization. The sequence of steps may also vary from job to job and organization to

organization. For example some organizations may give more importance to testing while others give more emphasis to interviews and reference checks. Similarly a single brief selection interview might be enough for applicants for lower level positions, while applicants for managerial jobs might be interviewed by a number of people.

Steps in Selecting Process Reception


A company is known by the people it employs. In order to attract people with talents, skills and experience a company has to create a favorable impression on the applicants right from the stage of reception. Whoever meets the applicant initially should be tactful and able to extend help in a friendly and courteous way. Employment possibilities must be presented honestly and clearly. If no jobs are available at that point of time, the applicant may be asked to call back the personnel department after some time.

Screening Interview
A preliminary interview is generally planned by large organizations to cut the cost of selection by allowing only eligible candidates to go through the further stages in selection. A junior executive from the Personnel Department may elicit responses from the applicants on important items determining the suitability of an applicant for a job such as age, education, experience, pay expectations, aptitude, location, choice etc. this courtesy interview as it is often called helps the Department screen out obvious misfits. If the department finds the candidate suitable, a prescribed application form is given to the applicants to fill and submit.

Application Blank
Application blank or form is one of the most common methods used to collect information on the various aspects of the applicants academic, social, demographic, work related background and references. It is a brief history sheet of employees background, usually containing the following Things:

P personal data (address, sex, telephone number)

Marital data

Educational data Employment Experience Extra-curricular activities References and Recommendations

Selection Testing
In this section let examine the selection test or the employment test that attempts to asses intelligence, abilities, personality trait, performance simulation tests including work sampling and the tests administered at assessment centers- followed by a discussion about the polygraph test, Graphology and integrity test .A test is a standardized, objective measure of a persons behavior, Performance or attitude. It is standardized because the way the tests is carried out, the environment in which the test is administered and the way the individual scores are calculated- are uniformly applied. It is objective in that it tries to measure individual differences in a scientific way giving very little room for individual bias and interpretation. Over the years employment tests have not only gained importance but also a certain amount of inevitability in employment decisions. Since they try to objectively determine how well an applicant meets the job requirement, most companies do not hesitate to invest their time and money in selection testing in a big way.

Environment factor affecting selection: Selection is influenced by several factors. More prominent among them are supply and demand of specific skills in the labor market, unemployment rate, labor- market conditions, legal and political considerations, companys image, companys policy, human resources planning and cost of hiring. The last three constitute the internal environment and the remaining form the external environment of selection process.

PRELIMINARY INTERVIEW
The applicants received from job seekers would be subject to scrutiny so as to eliminate unqualified applicants. This is usually followed by a preliminary interview the purpose of which is more or less the same as scrutiny of application, that is, eliminate of unqualified applicants. Scrutiny enables the HR specialists to eliminate unqualified jobseekers based on the information supplied in their application forms. Preliminary interview, on the other hand, helps reject misfits for reason, which did not appear in the application forms. Besides, preliminary interview, often called courtesy interview, is a good public relation exercise.

SELECTION TEST:
Job seekers who pass the screening and the preliminary interview are called for tests. Different types of tests may be administered, depending on the job and the company. Generally, tests are used to determine the applicants ability, aptitude and personality.

The following are the type of tests taken:


4

1). Ability tests: Assist in determining how well an individual can perform tasks related to the job. An excellent illustration of this is the typing tests given to a prospective employer TESTS. It for is secretarial concerned job. with Also what called one as has ACHEIVEMENT

accomplished. When applicant claims to know something, an achievement test is taken to measure how well they know it. Trade tests are the most common type of achievement test given. Questions have been prepared and tested for such trades as asbestos worker, punch-press operators, electricians and machinists. There are, of course, many unstandardised achievement tests given in industries, such as typing or dictation tests for an applicant for a stenographic position.

2). Aptitude test: Aptitude tests measure whether an individuals has the capacity or latent ability to learn a given job if given adequate training. The use of aptitude test is advisable when an applicant has had little or no experience along the line of the job opening. Aptitudes tests help determine a persons potential to learn in a given area. An example of such test is the general management aptitude tests (GMAT), which many business students take prior to gaining admission to a graduate business school programme. Aptitude test indicates the ability or fitness of an individual to engage successfully in any number of specialized activities. They cover such areas clerical aptitude, numerical aptitude, mechanical aptitude, motor coordination, finger dexterity and manual dexterity. These tests help to detect positive negative points in a persons sensory or intellectual ability. They focus attention on a particular type of talent such as learning or reasoning in respect of a particular field of work.

Forms of aptitude test:


1.

Mental

or

intelligence

tests:

They

measure

the

overall

intellectual ability of a person and enable to know whether the person has the mental ability to deal with certain problems.

2. Mechanical aptitude tests:


They measure the ability of a person to learn a particular type of mechanical work. These tests helps to measure specialized technical knowledge and problem solving abilities if the candidate. They are useful in selection of mechanics, maintenance workers, etc.

3. Psychomotor or skills tests:


They are those, which measure a persons ability to do a specific job. Such tests are conducted in respect of semi- skilled and repetitive jobs such as packing, testing and inspection, etc .

3). Intelligence test:


This test helps to evaluate traits of intelligence. Mental ability, presence of mind (alertness), numerical ability, memory and such other aspects can be measured. The intelligence is probably the most widely administered standardized test in industry. It is taken to judge numerical, skills, reasoning, memory and such other abilities.

4). Interest Test:


6

This is conducted to find out likes and dislikes of candidates towards occupations, hobbies, etc. such tests indicate which occupations are more in line with a persons interest. Such tests also enable the company to provide vocational guidance to the selected candidates and even to the existing employees. These tests are used to measure an individuals activity preferences. These tests are particularly useful for students considering many careers or employees deciding upon career changes.

5). Personality Test:


The importance of personality to job success is undeniable. Often an individual who possesses the intelligence, aptitude and experience for certain has failed because of inability to get along with and motivate other people. It is conducted to judge maturity, social or interpersonal skills, behavior under stress and strain, etc. this test is very much essential on case of selection of sales force, public relation staff, etc. where personality plays an important role. Personality tests are similar to interest tests in that they, also, involve a serious problem of obtaining an honest answer.

6). Projective Test:


This test requires interpretation of problems or situations. For example, a photograph or a picture can be shown to the candidates and they are asked to give their views, and opinions about the picture.

7). General knowledge Test:

Now days G.K. Tests are

very common to find general awareness of the

candidates in the field of sports, politics, world affairs, current affairs.

8). Perception Test:


At times perception tests can be conducted to find out beliefs, attitudes, and mental sharpness.etc.

9). Graphology Test:


It is designed to analyze the handwriting of individual. It has been said that an individuals handwriting can suggest the degree of energy, inhibition and spontaneity, as well as disclose the idiosyncrasies and elements of balance and control. For example, big letters and emphasis on capital letters indicate a tendency towards domination and competitiveness. A slant to the right, moderate pressure and good legibility show leadership potential.

10). Polygraph Test:


Polygraph is a lie detector, which is designed to ensure accuracy of the information given in the applications. Department store, banks, treasury offices and jewellery shops, that is, those highly vulnerable to theft or swindling may find polygraph tests useful.

11). Medical Test:


It reveals physical fitness of a candidate. With the development of technology, medical tests have become diversified. Medical servicing helps measure and monitor a candidates physical resilience upon exposure to hazardous chemicals.

CHOOSING TESTS:
The test must be chosen in the criteria of reliability, validity, objectivity and standardization. They are: -

1. RELIABILITY: It refers to standardization of the procedure of administering and scoring the test results. A person who takes tests one day and makes a certain score should be able to take the same test the next day or the next week and make more or less the same score. An individuals intelligence, for example, is generally a stable characteristic. So if we administer an intelligence test, a person who scores 110 in March would score close to 110 if tested in July. Tests, which produce wide variations in results, serve little purpose in selection.

2. VALIDITY: It is a test, which helps predict whether a person will be successful in a given job. A test that has been validated can be helpful in differentiating between prospective employees who will be able to perform the job well and those who will not. Naturally , no test will be 100% accurate in predicting job success. A validated test increases possibility of success.

There are three ways of validating a test. They are as follows: -

1). Concurrent Validity: - this involves determining the factors that are
characteristics of successful employees and then using these factors as the yardsticks.

2). Predictive Validity: - it involves using a selection test during the


selection process and then identifying the successful candidates. The characteristics of both successful and less successful candidates are then identified.

3). Synthetic Validity: - it involves taking parts of several similar jobs


rather than one complete job to validate the selection test .

3. OBJECTIVITY: When two or more people can interpret the result of the same test and derive the same conclusion(s), the test is said to be objective. Otherwise, the test evaluators subjective opinions may render the test useless.

4. STANDARDRIZATION: A test that is standardized is administered under standard condition to a large group of person who are representatives of the individuals for whom it is intended. The purpose of standardization is to obtain norms or standard, so that a specific test score can be meaningful when compared to other score in the group.

INTERVIEW:
The next step in the selection process is an interview. Interview is formal, in-depth conversation conducted to evaluate the applicants acceptability. It is considered to be excellent selection device. It is face-to-face exchange of view, ideas and opinion between the candidates and interviewers. Basically, interview is nothing but an oral examination of candidates. Interview can be adapted to unskilled, skilled, managerial and profession employees.

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Objectives of interview: Interview has at least three objectives and they are a follows: 1) Helps obtain additional information from the applicants 2) Facilitates giving general information to the applicants such as company policies, job, products manufactured and the like 3) Helps build the companys image among the applicants.

Types of interview: Interviews can be of different types. There interviews employed by the companies. Following are the various types of interview: -

1) Informal Interview:
An informal interview is an oral interview and may take place anywhere. The employee or the manager or the personnel manager may ask a few almost inconsequential questions like name, place of birth, names of relatives etc. either in their respective offices or anywhere outside the plant of company. It id not planned and nobody prepares for it. This is used widely when the labor market is tight and when you need workers badly.

2) Formal Interview:
Formal interviews may be held in the employment office by he employment office in a more formal atmosphere, with the help of well

structured questions, the time and place of the interview will be stipulated by the employment office.

3) Non-directive Interview:
Non-directive interview or unstructured interview is designed to let the interviewee speak his mind freely. The interviewer has no formal or directive questions, but his all attention is to the candidate. He encourages the candidate to talk by a little prodding whenever he is silent e.g. Mr. Ray, please tell us about yourself after your graduated from high school. The idea is o give the candidate complete freedom to sell himself, without the encumbrances of the interviewers question. But the interviewer must be of higher caliber and must guide and relate the information given by the applicant to the objective of the interview.

4) Depth Interview:
It is designed to intensely examine the candidates background and thinking and to go into considerable detail on particular subjects of an important nature and of special interest to the candidates. For example, if the candidate says that he is interested in tennis, a series of questions may be asked to test the depth of understanding and interest of the candidate. These probing questions must be asked with tact and through exhaustive analysis; it is possible to get a good picture of the candidate.

5) Stress Interview:
It is designed to test the candidate and his conduct and behavior by him under conditions of stress and strain. The interviewer may start with Mr. Joseph, we do not think your qualifications and experience are adequate for this position, and watch the reaction of the candidates. A good candidates
12

will not yield, on the contrary he may substantiate why he is qualified to handle the job. This type of interview is borrowed from the Military organization and this is very useful to test behavior of individuals when they are faced with disagreeable and trying situations.

6) Group Interview:
It is designed to save busy executives time and to see how the candidates may be brought together in the employment office and they may be interviewed .

7) Panel Interview:
A panel or interviewing board or selection committee may interview the candidate, usually in the case of supervisory and managerial positions. This type of interview pools the collective judgment and wisdom of the panel in the assessment of the candidate and also in questioning the faculties of the candidate.

8) Sequential Interview:
The sequential interview takes the one-to-one a step further and involves a series of interview, usually utilizing the strength and knowledgebase of each interviewer, so that each interviewer can ask questions in relation to his or her subject area of each candidate, as the candidate moves from room to room.

9) Structures Interview:
In a structured interview, the interviewer uses preset standardized questions, which are put to all the interviewees. This interview is also called as Guided or Patterned interview. It is useful for valid results, especially when dealing with the large number of applicants.

10) Unstructured Interview:


It is also known as Unpatented interview, the interview is largely unplanned and the interviewee does most of the talking. Unguided interview is advantageous in as much as it leads to a friendly conversation between the interviewer and the interviewee and in the process, the later reveals more of his or her desire and problems. But the Unpatterned interview lacks uniformity and worse, this approach may overlook key areas of the applicants skills or background. It is useful when the interviewer tries to probe personal details of the candidate it analyses why they are not right for the job.

14

11) Mixed Interview:


In practice, the interviewer while interviewing the job seekers uses a blend of structured and structured and unstructured questions. This approach is called the Mixed Interview. The structured questions provide a base of interview more conventional and permit greater insights into the unique differences between applicants.

12) Imprompt Interviews:


This interview commonly occurs when employers are approached directly and tends to be very informal and unstructured. Applicants should be prepared at all times for on-the-spot interviews, especially in situations such as a job fair or a cold call. It is an ideal time for employers to ask the candidate some basic questions to determine whether he/she may be interested in formally interviewing the candidate.

13) Dinner Interviews:


These interviews may be structured, informal, or socially situated, such as in a restaurant. Decide what to eat quickly, some interviewers will ask you to order first (do not appear indecisive). Avoid potentially messy foods, such as spaghetti. Be prepared for the conversation to abruptly change from friendly chat to direct interview questions, however, do not underestimate the value of casual discussion, some employers place a great value on it. Be prepared to switch gears rapidly, from fun talk to business talk.

14) Telephone Interviews:


Have a copy of your resume and any points you want to remember to say nearby. If you are on your home telephone, make sure that all roommates or family members are aware of the interview (no loud stereos, barking dogs etc.). Speak a bit slower than usual. It is crucial that you convey your enthusiasm verbally, since the interviewer cannot see your face. If there are pauses, do not worry; the interviewer is Likely just taking some notes.

15) Second Interviews:


Job seekers are invited back after they have passed the first initial interview. Middle or senior management generally conducts the second interview, together or separately. Applicants can expect more in-depth questions, and the employer will be expecting a greater level of preparation on the part of the candidates. Applicants should continue to research the employer following the first interview, and be prepared to use any information gained through the previous interview to their advantage.

REFERENCE CHECK:Many numbers of and perhaps, employers gaining request additional names, addresses, and telephone on an

references for the purpose of verifying information background information

applicant. Although listed on the application form, references are not usually checked until an applicant has successfully reached the fourth stage of a sequential selection process. When the labor market is very

16

tight,

organizations

sometimes

hire

applicants

before

checking

references. Previous employers, known as public figures, university

professors, neighbors or friends can act as references. Previous employers are preferable because they are already aware of the applicants performance. But, the problem with this reference is the tendency on the part of the previous employers to over-rate the applicants performance just to get rid of the person. Organizations normally seek letters of reference or telephone references. The latter is advantageous because of its accuracy and low cost. The telephone reference also has the advantage of soliciting immediate, relatively candid comments and attitude can sometimes be inferred from hesitations and inflections in speech. It may be stated that the information gathered through references hardly influence selection decisions. The reasons are obvious: 1. The candidate approaches only those persons who would speak well about him or her. 2. People may write favorably about the candidate in order to get rid of him or her. 3. People may not like to divulge the truth about a candidate, lest it might damage or ruin his/her career.

SELECTION DECISION:After obtaining information through the preceding steps, selection decision- the most critical of all the steps- must be made. The other stages in the selection process have been used to narrow the number of the candidates. The final decision has to be made the pool of individuals who pas the tests, interviews and reference checks.

The view of the line manager will be generally considered in the final selection because it is he/she who is responsible for the performance of the new employee. The HR manager plays a crucial role in the final selection.

PHYSICAL EXAMINATION: After the selection decision and before the job offer is made, the candidate is required to undergo a physical fitness test. A job offer is, often, contingent upon the candidate being declared fit after the physical examination. The results of the medical fitness test are recorded in a statement and are preserved in the personnel records. There are several objectives behind a physical test. Obviously, one reason for a physical test is to detect if the individual carries any infectious disease. Secondly, the test assists in determining whether an applicant is physically fit to perform the work. Thirdly, the physical examination information can be used to determine if there are certain physical capabilities, which differentiate successful and less successful employees. Fourth, medical check-up protects applicants with health defects from undertaking work that could be detrimental to them or might otherwise endanger the employers property. Finally, such an examination will protect the employer from workers compensation claims that are not valid because the injuries or illness were present when the employee was hired.

JOB OFFER: The next step in the selection process is job offer to those applicants who have crossed all the previous hurdles. Job offer is made through a letter of appointed. Such a letter generally contains a date by which the appointee must report on duty. The appointee must
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be

given

reasonable

time

for

reporting.

Thos

is

particularly

necessary when he or she is already in employment, in which case the appointee is required to obtain a relieving certificate from the previous employer. Again, a new job may require movement to another city, which means considerable preparation, and movement of property. The company may also want the individual to delay the date of reporting on duty. If the new employees first job upon joining the company is to go on company until perhaps a week before such training begins. Naturally, this practice cannot be abused, especially if the individual is unemployed and does not have sufficient finances. Decency demands that the rejected applicants be informed about their non-selection. Their applicants may be preserved for future use, if any. It needs no emphasis that the applications of selected candidates must also be preserved for the future references.

CONTRACT OF EMPLOYMENT: After the job offer has bee mad and candidates accept the offer, certain documents need to be executed by the employer and the candidate. One such document is the attestation form. This form contains vital details about the candidate, which are authenticated and attested by him/her. Attestation form will be a valid record for the future reference. There is also a need for preparing a contract of employment. The basic information that should be included in a written contract of employment will vary according to the level of the job, but the following checklist sets out the typical headings: 1. Job title

2.

Duties, including a parse such as The employee will perform such duties and will be responsible to such a person, as the company may from time to time direct.

3. Date when continuous employment starts and the basis for calculating service. 4. Rate of pay, allowance, overtime and shift rates, method of payments. 5. Hours of work including lunch break and overtime and shift arrangements. 6. Holiday arrangements: i.) ii.) iii.) iv.) v.) vi.) vii.)
viii.)

Paid holidays per year. Calculation of holiday pay. Qualifying period. Accrual of holidays and holiday pay. Details of holiday year. Dates when holidays can be taken. Maximum holiday that can be take at any one time. Carryover of holiday entitlement. Public holidays.

ix.)

7. Length of notice due to and from employee. 8. Grievances procedure (or reference to it). 9. Disciplinary procedure (or any reference to it). 10. Work rules (or any reference to them). 11. Arrangements for terminating employment. 12. Arrangements for union membership (if applicable). 13. Special terms relating to rights to patent s and designs, confidential information and restraints on trade after termination of employment.
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14. Employers right to vary terms of the contract subject to proper notification being given.

Alternatively called employment agreements or simply bonds, contracts of employment serve many useful purposes. Such contracts seek to restrain job-hoppers, to protect knowledge and information that might be vital to a companys healthy bottom line and to prevent competitors from poaching highly valued employees. Great care is taken to draft the contract forms. Often, services of law firms (prominent firms in this category include Mulla, Craigie, Blunt and Caroe, Crawford Bailey, Amarchand Mangaldas Hiralal, etc.) are engag4d to get the forms drafted and finalized. Most employers insist on agreements being signed by newly hired employees. But high turnover sectors such as software, advertising and media are more prone to use contracts. The drawback with the contracts is that it is almost to enforce them. A determined employee is bound to leave the organization, contract or no contract. The employee is prepared to pay the penalty for breaching the agreement or the new employer will provide compensations. It is the reason that several companies have scrapped the contracts altogether.

CONCLUDING THE SELECTION PROCESS: Contrary to popular perception, the selection process will not end with executing the employment contract. There is another step amore sensitive one reassuring those candidates who have not selected, not because of any serious deficiencies in their personality, but because their profile did not match the requirement of the organization. They

must be told that those who were selected were done purely on relative merit.

EVALUATION OF SELECTION PROGRAMME: The broad test of the effectiveness of the selection process is the quality of the personnel hired. An organization must have competent and committed personnel. The selection process, if properly done, will ensure availability of such employees. How to evaluate the effectiveness of a selection programme? A periodic audit is the answer. People who work independent of HR department must conduct audit. The table below contains an outline that highlights the areas and questions to be covered in a systematic evaluation.

Selection Interview:
Interview is the oral examination of candidates for employment. This is the most essential step in the selection process. In this step the interviewer matches the information obtained about the candidates through various means to the job requirements and to the information obtained through his own observations during the interview. Interview gives the recruiter an Opportunity

To size up the candidate personally;

To ask question that are not covered in the tests;

To make judgments on candidates enthusiasm and intelligence;

To assess subjective aspects of the candidate facial expressions, Appearance, nervousness


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and so forth; To give facts to the candidates regarding the company, its policies, etc. and promote goodwill towards the company.

EVALUATION:Evaluation is done on basis of answers and justification given by the applicant in the interview.

PHYSICAL EXAMINATION:
After the selection decision and before the job offer is made, the candidate is required to undergo a physical fitness test. A job offer is often contingent upon the candidate being declared fit after the physical examination.

Medical examination:Certain jobs require physical qualities like clear vision, perfect hearing, unusual stamina, tolerance of hard working conditions, clear tone, etc. Medical examination reveals whether or not a candidate possesses these qualities.

Reference Checks:Once the interview and medical examination of the candidate is over, the personnel department will engage in checking references. Candidates are required to give the names of 2 or 3 references in their application forms. These references may be from the individuals who are familiar with the candidates academic achievements or from the applicants previous employer, who is well versed with the applicants job performance and sometimes from the co-workers. In case the reference check is from the previous employer, information in the following areas may be obtained. They are job title, job

description, period of employment, pay and allowances, gross emoluments, benefits provided, rate of absence, willingness of previous employer to employ the candidate again, etc. Further, information regarding candidates regularity at work, character,

progress, etc. can be obtained. Often a telephone call is much quicker. The method of mail query provides detailed information about the candidates performance, character and behavior. However, a personal visit is superior to the mail or telephone methods and is used where it is highly essential to get a detailed, first hand information which can also be secured by observation. Reference checks are taken as a matter of routine and treated casually or omitted entirely in many organizations. But a good reference check, when

used sincerely, will fetch useful and reliable information to the organization.

Hiring decision:The line manager has to make the final decision now whether to select or reject a candidate after soliciting the required information through different techniques discussed earlier. The line manager has to take adequate care in taking the final decision because of economic, behavioral and social implications of the selection decisions. A careless decision of rejecting a candidate would impair the morale of the people and they suspect the selection procedure and the very basis of selection in a particular organization. A true understanding between line managers and personnel managers should be established so as to facilitate good selection decisions. After taking the final decision, the organization has to intimate this decision to the successful as well as unsuccessful candidates. The

organization sends the appointment order to the successful candidates either immediately or after sometime depending upon its time schedule.
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CHAPTER-4

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

OBJECTIVES OF STUDY

The main Objective of our Study is to Insure the quality of Companys Selection and Recruitment process. Along with it we consider the following points as a object during our studies:

1: To identify companys sources of recruitment.

2: To take Feedback from Employees on present Recruitment Scenario.

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RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
To conduct any research a scientific method must be followed the universe of study is very large in which is difficult to collect information from all the employees. so the sampling method has been followed study ,the analysis is based on primary as well as secondary data.

PRIMARY SOURCES:Primary data was collected using an appropriate questionnaire and observing it

SECONDARY SOURSES:The secondary data was collected from companies Training policy Documents & Official records. from

QUESTIONNAIRE:It is the set of question which is to be filled up by the respondents for their Answers. We have also prepared during our study for the purpose of collection of primary data. Questionnaire designed were of multiple choice and of open ended nature.

METHOD OF ANALYSIS :The Tool of analysis adopted by us is the Column ChartsandPie Charts which We have prepared on the basis of Questionnaire. Methodology can be defined as a systemic way of approaching a problem to identify the truth and for this certain step should be taken in a systematic order and these steps are called methods. Research Methodology is a process of planning, acquiring, analyzing and disseminating relevant data and information. The use of Right methodology is necessary because if the right methods are not adopted and thoughts are not arrange in a logical order the exact truth might not be expressed. Thus the methodology means correct arrangement of thoughts and knowledge.

WHY RESEARCH IS REQUIRED ?


Conceptually, the purpose of research is to discover the answers for the questions through application of scientific procedures. The main aim of the research is to find out the truth which is hidden and which has not been discovered yet. Through each research study has its own specific purpose, but generally researchers are done:

To gain familiarities with a phenomenon or to achieve new insights into it. To determine the frequency with which something occurs or with which associated

with something else.


To test the hypothesis of casual relationship between To take appropriate decisions.

variables.

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Research is a careful and systematic effort of gaining new knowledge. Research is an original contribute on to the existing stock of knowledge making for its advancement; it is pursuit of true with the help of study, observation, comparison and experiment. In short the search of knowledge through objectives and systematic method of finding solution to problem is research.

RESEARCH DESIGN:
The Research Design is A Plan, Structure and Strategy of Investigation Conceived so as to Obtain answer to Research Questions and to Control Variance.

The definition of three important terms (plan, structure and strategy)


The plan is an outline of the research scheme on which the researcher is to work. The structure of the research is a more specific outline or the scheme and the strategy shows how the Research will be carried out, specifying the methods to be used in collection and analysis of data.

Research design is the specification of methods and the procedure fro acquiring the information needed. It is the operational pattern or framework of the projects that stipulate what information is to be collected from which sources by the procedures. The importance of research design lies in the fact that it makes a statement of what is to be done in order to achieve the research objectives and how it is to be done. It is an

expression of what of the research exercise in terms of results and the analytical input needed to convert data into research findings. A design may be quite suitable in one case but could not fit in some other research problem. One design cannot serve the purpose of all types of research problems. Also most of the research problems are complex in nature and cannot be solved by a specific research design. Hence a combination of research design is used to reach a solution. The research design when chosen correctly prevents deviation in the study. The present study is the cross sectional descriptive type with fields study and partly casual in nature as it seeks to find out consumer behavior with respect to mobile and correlate them with income, age, education, professions etc. and formulate marketing strategies based on the study.

SAMPLING AND SAMPLE DESIGN:


It is not possible to examine every item in the population hence interferences is drawn about a large numbers of items possessing a particular attribute based on based analysis of fraction of such items. It is called a sample. For developing a sampler design following points need to be discussed with regard to the present study

POPULATION:
In Statistical usage the terms population is applied to any finite collection of individuals. It has displaced the orders terms universe. It is aggregate of all elements possessing

certain specified characteristics which need to studied and defined prior to sample. Population can be finite if units can be counted or infinite. Since the present study is done in Bareilly, The population is finite. Population can be defined sampling units, extent and time.
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in terms of elements,

In this study, the specifications will be as follows:

1. 2.

Element Sampling Units

: :

People BSNL office

ELEMENT:

An Element is the unit about which information is collected. It provides the basis for analysis. It identifiable physically. In the present study the element is dealer having a good knowledge about the service. (Regarding Brand)

SAMPLING UNIT:
The sampling unit is the basic unit containing the element of the target population. The sampling may be different from the element. It can be either geographical unit (state,

district etc.) or social unit (Household, family, club etc.) or a construction unit (enclave, house, flat etc.) or it may be an individual. In the present stuffy, a sample of distributor is selected in the three stages. First of all a sample of cities is selected, than a sample of colonies is selected from each selected colony after the entire distributor in it.

SAMPLE FRAME:
A sample frame could be a telephone directory, a list of block and localities of a city, a map or any other list consisting of all the sampling units, each stage of sampling process requires its own sampling frame. Since the present study undergoes two stages sampling process, we would need two sampling frames. First a list of localities, Second a list of distributors within the selected localities.

SAMPLING DESIGN:
Representation of entire universe is only possible through the sampling technique. Considerable care has been taken in selecting the sample so that is Convenient in terms of size and enough to represent the entire universe

SUMMARY
Data source: Primary and secondary Research approach: Survey method Research instrument: Questionnaire Sampling plan: Sample unit (office) Sample size: 50 employees Sample area: Dehradun City Contact method: Personal Contact

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OBJECTIVES

To be a Lead Telecom Services Provider. To provide quality and reliable fixed telecom service to our customer and there by increase customer's confidence. To provide mobile telephone service of high quality and become no. 1 GSM operator in its area of operation. To provide point of interconnection to other service provider as per their requirement promptly. Contribute towards: National Plan Target of 500 million subscriber base for the country by December 2010. Broadband customers base of 20 million in the country by 2010 as per Broadband Policy 2004. Providing telephone connection in villages as per government policy. Implementation of Triple play as a regular commercial proposition.

CHAPTER-5

DATA ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION

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DATA ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION

Employees in Bharat Sanchar Nigam Limited as on

Company payroll Contract

90% 10%

INTERPRETATION Most of the employee are as on company payroll.

How you recruit employee?

Through internal recruitment Through external recruitment

20%

80%

INTERPRETATION Most of the employee, recruit by external recruitment policy.

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If internal, what was the procedure?

Transfer Promotion Re Call

60% 30% 10%

INTERPRETATION They prefer transfer policy to recruit external employee.

Are you satisfied with companys current recruitment policy?

Yes No

90% 10%

INTERPRETATION Most of the employee are satisfied with recruitment policy.

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What was the time duration between interviews regarding selection in Company and getting offer letter ?

One week One month Six month More than six month

0% 0% 40% 60%

INTERPRETATION More than six month is required to final touch.

Do you think that presently number of employees is enough?

Yes No

10% 90%

INTERPRETATION In current position number of employee are less.

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Does company ask you for any recommendation to recruit?

Yes No

15% 85%

INTERPRETATION Company dont required any recommendation to recruit.

Are you satisfy with BSNL selection and recruitment policy? yes no 76% 24%

INTERPRETATION Most of the people are satisfy with BSNL.

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CHAPTER 6

FINDINGS

FINDINGS

After the survey we found the satisfaction level of BSNL employee is very high.

Most of the consumers go for the BSNL services. Youth feel very comfortable with it. BSNL has been covering the entire segment. BSNL technology is very innovative. A very high segment of youth goes for the name and goodwill of the BSNL. BSNL does not believe their employee for participation/sharing their ideas in recruitment

BSNL think that they need more employees because presently number of employees are not enough.

Most of the employees are satisfied with recruitment and selection policy of BSNL.

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CHAPTER 7

SUGGESTION AND CONCLUSION

SUGGESTIONS

The company should increase their service stations. More financing option should be available. The company should provide more customer value. Follow up should be increased. Effort should be done for developing the concept of good relationship with consumers. Special offer should be provided by the BSNL.

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CONCLUSION
The telecomm companies aims to ensure that the best candidate is selected for the job regardless of age, color, origin, religion, gender etc to achieve this objective company ensures that all those who are concerned with the recruitment and selection process have a clear understanding of the job to be filled.

The purpose of this policy is to ensure that the company will attract and retail the most highly qualified workforce available to them.

All the workers of the studied organization felt that this program is beneficial in improving performance, skills, attitude and knowledge effectively and efficiently of doing work.

SIMILARITIES:

1: BSNL follow both external and internal recruitment as other two companies.

2: Selection procedure is same as in other two companies.

3: Satisfaction level regarding recruitment policy is same in all the three companies i.e. highly satisfied.

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APPENDICES
Annexure Bharat Sanchar Nigam Limited
Questionnaire (For Academic Purpose) Department: Designation: Age: Name:

Q.1 Employees in Bharat sanchar limited as on Company payroll Contract Both Q.2 How you recruit employee? Through internal recruitment Through external recruitment Both

Q.3If internal, what was the procedure? Transfer Promotion Recall Q.4 If external, how? Through Ad. Through Consultancy/emp Exchange Through Labour Contractor

Management Level Supervisor Level Workers

Q.5Are you satisfied with companys current recruitment policy? Yes No

Q.6 Employee can get the opportunity in BSNL? After qualifying written and interview Interview only Written only None of them
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Q.7What was the time duration between interview regarding selection in company and getting offer letter? One week One month Six month

More than six month Q.8 what qualification is required at the time of selection? Degree level Diploma /HSC level Management Supervisor Worker SSClevel Below SSC

Q.9Do you ask for any work experience at the time of selection? More than 10 yrs Management Supervisor Worker More than 5 yrs More than 1 yrs Freshers

Q.10 Do you think that presently number of employees are enough? Yes Management Supervisor Workers No

Q.11 What is the criteria to fill up the post? Through promotion Through transfer Through Re Call Through sources

Management Supervisor Worker

Q.12 Does Company ask you for any recommendation to recruit? Yes No Q.13. Yes If Yes, was this helpful? If No, Why not?
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Did you contact the informal contact names in the advertisement? No Yes No

BIBLIOGRAPHY

I have used the following source for finding the data A. Research methodology Literature from the web site www.bsnl.org.document.info.practicescordinal.org www.bsnl.in.office.document.class.infoexe.ogr http://www.bsnlindia.com Http: www.bsnlindia.com http: http: www.wikipedia.org Philip Kotler, Marketing Management, C.R. Kothari