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Assessment of Basic Chemistry Concepts

This instrument is based on the Chemical Concepts Inventory developed by Doug Mulford (2002). It was modified by staff at the Modeling Instruction Program in the Summer of 2009 for use with high school students. The test consists of 28 multiple choice questions. Question 29 serves to indicate that you are taking the updated version of this instrument. Carefully consider each question and indicate the one best answer for each. Several of the questions are paired. In these cases, the first question asks about a chemical or physical effect. The second question then asks for the reason for the observed effect.

Record your answers on the answer sheet.

DO NOT write on this copy of the test.

ABCC-v2.6

2010

1. Which of the following must be the same before and after a chemical reaction? A. B. C. D. E. The sum of the masses of all substances involved. The number of molecules of all substances involved. The number of atoms of each type involved. Both (a) and (c) must be the same. Each of the answers (a), (b), and (c) must be the same.

2. Assume a beaker of pure water has been boiling for 30 minutes. What is in the bubbles in the boiling water? A. B. C. D. E. Heat. Air. Oxygen gas and hydrogen gas. Oxygen gas. Gaseous water.

3. A glass of cold milk sometimes forms a coat of water on the outside of the glass (often referred to as 'sweat'). How does most of the water get there? A. Water molecules from the air condense onto the outside of the glass. B. Water molecules from the milk pass through the glass and condense on the outside of the glass. C. Water molecules evaporate from the milk and condense on the outside of the glass. D. The coldness causes oxygen and hydrogen from the air to combine on the glass forming water. 4. What is the weight of the solution when 1 pound of salt is dissolved in 20 pounds of water? A. B. C. D. E. More than 21 pounds. 21 pounds. Between 20 and 21 pounds. 20 Pounds. Less than 20 pounds.

ABCC-v2.6

2010

5. The diagram represents a mixture of sulfur (S) atoms and oxygen (O2) molecules in a closed container.

Which diagram shows the results after the mixture reacts as completely as possible according to the equation: 2S + 3O2 2SO3

6. The circle on the left shows a magnified view of a very small portion of liquid water in a closed container.

What would the magnified view show after the water evaporates?

ABCC-v2.6

2010

7. True or False? When a match burns, some matter is destroyed. A. True B. False 8. What is the reason for your answer to question 7? A. B. C. D. E. This chemical reaction destroys matter. Matter is consumed by the flame. The mass of ash is less than the match it came from. The atoms are not destroyed, they are only rearranged. The match weighs less after burning.

9. Energy is released when hydrogen burns in air according to the equation 2H2 + O2 2H2O

Which of the following is responsible for the release of energy? A. B. C. D. Breaking hydrogen bonds. Breaking oxygen bonds. Forming hydrogen-oxygen bonds. Both (a) and (b) are responsible.

10. A piece of aluminum is cut in half. How does the density of each half compare to the density of the original piece? A. The density of each half is greater than the density of the original piece. B. The density of each half is less than the density of the original piece. C. The density of each half is the same as the density of the original piece. 11. What is the reason for your answer to question 10? A. The mass of each cubic centimeter of aluminum is unchanged. B. Reducing the mass of the sample reduces the density. C. Reducing the volume of the sample increases the density. D. None of these accounts for what happens to the density.

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2010

12. A 1.0-gram sample of solid iodine is placed in a tube and the tube is sealed after all of the air is removed. The tube and the solid iodine together weigh 27.0 grams.

The tube is then heated until all of the iodine evaporates, filling the tube with iodine gas. After heating, the total weight will be: A. B. C. D. E. less than 26.0 grams. 26.0 grams. 27.0 grams. 28.0 grams. more than 28.0 grams.

13. What is the reason for your answer to question 12? A. B. C. D. E. A gas weighs less than a solid. Mass is conserved. Iodine gas is less dense than solid iodine. Gases rise. Iodine gas is lighter than air.

14. What is the approximate number of carbon atoms it would take placed next to each other to make a line that would cross this dot: A. B. C. D. less than 10 1,000 10,000,000 6 x 1023

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2010

15. Figure 1 represents 1.0 liter (L) of a solution of sugar dissolved in water. The dots in the magnification circle represent the sugar molecules. In order to simplify the diagram, the water molecules have not been shown.

Figure 1 Which of the following represents the view after 1.0 L of water was added to the beaker? (Figure 2).

Figure 2 16. Equal volumes of water and alcohol, both at 25C, are heated at the same rate under identical conditions. After 3 minutes the temperature of the alcohol is 50C. It took 5 minutes for the water to reach 50C. Which of the following is true once the water and alcohol have both reached 50C? A. B. C. D. The water received more energy than the alcohol. The alcohol received more energy than the water. Both received the same amount of energy. It is impossible to tell from the information given.

17. What is the reason for your answer to question 16? A. B. C. D. Water has a higher boiling point than the alcohol. For the same temperature change, water requires more energy. Both liquids had a temperature change of 25C. Alcohol has a lower density than water.

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2010

18. Iron combines with oxygen and water from the air to form rust. If an iron nail were placed in a beaker and allowed to rust for a month, one should find that the rusty nail weighs: A. B. C. D. less than the original nail. the same as the original nail. more than the original nail. It is impossible to predict.

19. What is the reason for your answer to question 18? A. B. C. D. E. Rusting makes the nail lighter. The flaky rust weighs less than iron. The nail flakes away. The iron from the nail is destroyed. Rust contains iron and oxygen.

20. Salt is added to water and the mixture is stirred until no more salt dissolves. Some solid salt does not dissolve and settles to the bottom of the beaker, as shown in the figure below. The water is allowed to evaporate until the volume of solution is half the original volume. (Assume the temperature remains constant.)

The concentration of salt in solution A. increases. B. decreases. C. stays the same. 21. What is the reason for your answer to question 20? A. B. C. D. There is the same amount of salt in less water. More solid salt forms on the bottom of the beaker. Salt does not evaporate and is left in solution. The salt evaporates along with the water.

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2010

22. The following describe a sample of solid sulfur: i. ii. iii. iv. Brittle, crystalline solid. Melting point of 113C. Density of 2.1 g/cm3. Combines with oxygen to form sulfur dioxide Which, if any, of these descriptions apply to one single atom of sulfur obtained from the sample? A. B. C. D. E. i only. ii and iii only. iv only. All of these descriptions would apply. None of these descriptions would apply.

An electric heater, which provides a constant rate of heat output, heats a mixture of ice and water from 0C to 5C (32F - 41F) in five minutes. 23. Choose the graph which best describes the change in temperature of the water (T) as a function of time (t), neglecting any heat loss to the environment:

A. The temperature stays constant for a while, then rises (A) B. The temperature rises more slowly at first, then faster (B) C. The temperature rises more rapidly at first, then slower (C) D. The temperature rises at a constant rate (D) 24. What is the reason for your answer to question 23? A. It is hard to warm up something cold; it becomes easier to heat as it warms up. B. At first, the energy supplied goes into overcoming attractive forces in the solid. C. Very cold things absorb heat more quickly. D. The heat output increases the thermal energy of the system at a constant rate. E. The motion of water molecules in ice is restricted.

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2010

A small block of solid aluminum is taken out of the freezer and heated by an electric heater, which provides a constant rate of heat output, from -5C to 5C (23F - 41F). 25. Choose the graph which best describes the change in the average temperature of the aluminum (T) as a function of time (t), neglecting any heat loss to the environment:

A. The temperature stays constant for a while, then rises (A) B. The temperature rises more slowly at first, then faster (B) C. The temperature rises more rapidly at first, then slower (C) D. The temperature rises at a constant rate (D) 26. What is the reason for your answer to question 25? A. It is hard to warm up something cold; it becomes easier to heat as it warms up. B. At first, the energy supplied goes into overcoming attractive forces in the solid. C. Very cold things absorb heat more quickly. D. The heat output increases the thermal energy of the system at a constant rate. E. The motion of the aluminum particles in the solid is restricted.

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2010

A copper cup containing 100 mL of hydrochloric acid, HCl(aq), is placed in a styrofoam cup containing 200 mL of water (see diagram). Both containers are initially at 20C. Copper is a good conductor of heat, whereas styrofoam conducts heat poorly. When baking soda (NaHCO3) is added to the HCl solution in the copper cup, the solution bubbles vigorously, and by the end of the reaction, the temperature of the solution drops to 10C. 27. What is the temperature of the water in the styrofoam cup several minutes after the reaction is completed ? A. Twater < 20C . B. Twater = 20C . C. Twater > 20C . 28. What is the reason for your answer to question 27?

Styrofoa m

Copper

HCl(aq)

H2O(l)

A. A decrease in temperature in one place is compensated by an increase in another place. B. Chemical energy is converted into thermal energy during the reaction. C. In order for the chemical reaction to take place, energy must be transferred from the water in the styrofoam cup to the solution in the copper cup. D. In a heat-releasing reaction, the system gives off energy to the surroundings and the temperature of the system decreases. E. The solution in the copper cup cools during the reaction, causing energy to flow from the outside water through the copper. 29. Please fill in (A) on the answer sheet. That will help us know which test version you are using.

ABCC-v2.6

10

2010