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COMPUTER SCIENCE SYLLABUS

(Senior 4, senior 5 and senior 6)


Kigali, December 2011
Republic of Rwanda WORKFORCE DEVELOPMENT AUTHORITY WDA

Ministry of Education Empowering people with employable skills and entrepreneurship capacity
P. O. BOX 2707 Tel: (+250) 255113365
E-mail: info@wda.gov.rw
Website: www.wda.gov.rw


www.wda.gov.rw






MINEDUC/WDA, December 2011 1
TABLE OF CONTENTS
TABLE OF CONTENTS ............................................................................................................................................................................................... 1
0. Introduction ................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 3
1. The curriculum of IT section as a response to the request on the labor market. ........................................................................................................ 4
2.1. Advanced use of software ....................................................................................................................................................................................... 5
2.2. Design, setting up, maintenance and administration of data bases ......................................................................................................................... 6
2.3. Maintenance and assembly of machines ................................................................................................................................................................. 6
2.4. Design, maintenance and administration of networks ........................................................................................................................................... 6
2.5. Design and installation of the applications or programs ........................................................................................................................................ 7
2.6. Development of the Web sites ............................................................................................................................................................................... 7
3. Program and general time table ................................................................................................................................................................................. 8
3.1. General subjects...................................................................................................................................................................................................... 8
3.2. Professional courses ............................................................................................................................................................................................... 9
4. Teachers Profile ....................................................................................................................................................................................................... 10
5. Required equipment ................................................................................................................................................................................................. 10
6. Pedagogical advice ................................................................................................................................................................................................... 10
7. Hands on activities and internship ........................................................................................................................................................................... 11
8. Subjects to be evaluated by WORKFORCE DEVELOPMENT AUTHORITY (WDA) ........................................................................................ 12
8.1. Theory based exams ............................................................................................................................................................................................. 12
8.2. Practical based exams ........................................................................................................................................................................................... 12
9. General objectives .................................................................................................................................................................................................... 13
10. Evaluation .............................................................................................................................................................................................................. 14
11. Detailed program ................................................................................................................................................................................................... 15
MINEDUC/WDA, December 2011 2
11.1. Microsoft Office .................................................................................................................................................................................................. 15
11.2. Operating systems .............................................................................................................................................................................................. 33
11.3. Data bases ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 42
11.4. C Programming ................................................................................................................................................................................................... 49
11.5. Algorithms .......................................................................................................................................................................................................... 56
11.6. Introduction to Web ............................................................................................................................................................................................ 59
11.7. Web design.......................................................................................................................................................................................................... 66
11.8. Visual Basic ........................................................................................................................................................................................................ 77
11.9. C++ Programming .............................................................................................................................................................................................. 86
11.10. Maintenance ...................................................................................................................................................................................................... 93
11.11. Networking ..................................................................................................................................................................................................... 111
11.12. Introduction to computers ............................................................................................................................................................................... 120
11.13. System analysis ............................................................................................................................................................................................... 129
11.14. Entrepreneurial Competences in Technical Schools ....................................................................................................................................... 133
REFERENCES .......................................................................................................................................................................................................... 138
CURRICULUM DE FRANAIS .............................................................................................................................................................................. 140
PHYSICS CURRICULUM FOR ADVANCED LEVEL .......................................................................................................................................... 194
ENGLISH CURRICULUM ....................................................................................................................................................................................... 235
PROGAMME DE MATHEMATIQUES .................................................................................................................................................................. 277




MINEDUC/WDA, December 2011 3
0. Introduction
A curriculum adapted for a developing society, i.e. a curriculum which meets the needs for the Rwandan society in full socio-economic
change, such could be the essence of National Curriculum Development Centre. For any Curriculum Developer, it is normal that speeches
emphasize commitment of our political decision makers to transform Rwanda into a regional centre for Information and Communication
Technology. Thus, the scientific personnel of CNDP is focused on the establishment of an adequacy between the curriculum contents and
the intentions expressed with through, not only of the overall policy of the government, but also of the policy of the education sector. This
justifies the actions carried out by a team of Curriculum Developers, experts and teachers, in order to provide the secondary schools holding
the COMPUTER SCIENCE section with a syllabus suitable and fulfilling the modern professional requirements.
This document is the product of a rigorous approach taking its source in the determination of the requirements in ICT competences on the
labour market, and leading to the identification of the contents of training necessary for the exercise of the functions of COMPUTER
SCIENCE specialist of A2 level, while passing by the decomposition of these competences in precise tasks constituting the profile of
function, by the determination, for each task, of the preconditions of acquisitions in terms of knowledge, know-how and attitudes leading to
the profile of qualification, and by regrouping these acquisitions to constitute the teaching learning subjects. The advantage of this
approach is that the team that developed this curriculum for COMPUTER SCIENCE section privileges the training and banishes any
tendency to make curriculum heavy by adding contents without practical relevance.
The user of this document will definitely find the elements essential for the execution of the curriculum, namely the time table of general
and professional courses, the recommendations concerning the profile of the teachers, the required equipment, and the evaluation at the end
of the cycle. He will also realize that the objectives, as well general as specific, contents and teaching/learning activities rise from an
approach that consisted in referring to the profiles of functions and qualifications arising from the decomposition of competences in precise
tasks and the determination of the preconditions of acquisition for each task. This curriculum was reviewed by WDA in the workshop
that took place at HVP GS Gatagara, from December 18
th
to 30
th
, 2011. It enters into force in academic year 2012.
MINEDUC/WDA, December 2011 4
1. The curriculum of IT section as a response to the request on the labor market.
The implementation of this curriculum is in the social and economic context which is characterized by the appearance of the increasingly
mondialized economies. The rapid evolution of information and communication technologies as well as the progress of other technologies
requires new and quite complex contributions of knowledge, know-how and competences for more competitiveness in the world economy.
The curriculum of COMPUTER SCIENCE section is prided to answer requirements of a society in full rebuilding and full development,
namely:
The need for the technicians qualified in ICT,
The need to reduce the importation of ICT solutions as far as possible, as they are often expensive,
The need to make students acquire fundamental knowledge,
The need for minimization of the cost, today too high, of employment of IT specialists,
The need to provide local market with enough software developers,
The need to offer to the Rwandan society qualified personnel in the fields of the networking.
The need to provide schools with computer equipment for training.
The good implementation of this curriculum will contribute to the achievement of the will that Rwanda will become the regional
pivot of information and the communication technologies by 2020.
2. Professional profile of the IT specialist of A2 level
Six competences summarize the professional profile of the IT specialist of A2 level:
The advanced use of the software usually used like MS Word, Excel, power point etc
Design, installation, maintenance and administration of the data bases.
The maintenance and assembly of the machines.
Design, maintenance and administration of networks.
Design and installation of the applications or programs.
Designing Web sites,
MINEDUC/WDA, December 2011 5
Hereafter we show again the tasks corresponding to each competence:
2.1. Advanced use of software
To write an official letter
To write a report of several pages
To format a document
To publish a document
To print
Organization of the documents
To protect the documents, data
To type data
To format the data
To use functions and formulas
To create graphs
To sort data
To print
To prepare a presentation





MINEDUC/WDA, December 2011 6
2.2. Design, setting up, maintenance and administration of data bases
To set up a data base for SME
To administrate a data base
To use Access
2.3. Maintenance and assembly of machines
To assemble a computer
To install a computer
To configure a computer
To maintain a computer
To repair a computer
To protect a computer
To update software
2.4. Design, maintenance and administration of networks
To design a network
To set up a network
To configure a network
To maintain a network
To administrate a network
To repair a network
To extend a network
To protect a network
To share an Internet connection

MINEDUC/WDA, December 2011 7
2.5. Design and installation of the applications or programs
To write an algorithm
To write a program using structured language, Object Directed, event Directed.
To create an application in VB
To solve logical problems
2.6. Development of the Web sites
To create a Hosted dynamic Web site
To host a Web site
To search information
To communicate
To download files








MINEDUC/WDA, December 2011 8
3. Program and general time table
3.1. General subjects


Senior 4 Senior 5 Senior 6
1 Religion/Morale 1 1 1
2 Political Education 1 1 1
3 French 2 2 2
4 English 2 2 2
5 Mathematics 4 4 4
6 Physics 3 3 3
Total Hours( General courses) 13 13 13





MINEDUC/WDA, December 2011 9
3.2. Professional courses
Senior 4 Senior 5 Senior 6
1 Ms Office 4
2 Operating system (OS) 2 3
3 Data bases (DB) 3 3
4 C Programming 4
5 Algorithm 3
6 Introduction to Web 3
7 Web design 3 3
8 Visual Basic Programming 3 3
9 C++ Programming 3 4
10 Maintenance 4 4
11 Networking 3 5
12 Introduction to computers 2
13 System analysis 2
MINEDUC/WDA, December 2011 10
14 Entrepreneurial Competences in Technical Schools 2
Total Hours( Professional courses) 22 22 22
Total Hours( Professional and General courses) 35 35 35

4. Teachers Profile
A0 degree in COMPUTER SCIENCE and related fields with specialization in the field of education.
A0 degree COMPUTER SCIENCE and Training in pedagogy
A1 in COMPUTER SCIENCE and leveling training as well as in pedagogy
5. Required equipment
The availability of one or more data-processing laboratories (computers, projectors LCD, printers, scanners etc), at least one computer for
two pupils
The availability of the suitable didactic material (suitable software for each course)
Provided Library and Internet connection for documentation and research
6. Pedagogical advice
Even though the COMPUTER SCIENCE section is registered among the technical sections in Rwanda, it presents a characteristic which
makes of it a field of the learner based teaching. Indeed, the teaching sessions should aim only the acquisition of practical competences
corresponding to the professional profile. This supposes that teacher focuses on practical exercises in the laboratory. In other words, the
MINEDUC/WDA, December 2011 11
teaching process starts from the practice, then the theory is deduced, and the latter illuminates a reflected, fixing and mobilizing practice of
the so psychomotor and emotional assets.
Of course the success of professional course of the COMPUTER SCIENCE section lies in the achievement of the specific objectives of the
curriculum and the Operational objectives of the lessons, but it are important to bear in mind that the curriculum of COMPUTER SCIENCE
section should be integrated. Any situation of learning must be the reflection of the professional field reality. This means that for didactic
reasons, the development of this syllabus led to 13 disciplines. Therefore the National Curriculum Development Centre highly recommends
to the teachers of the professional courses of COMPUTER SCIENCE Section to organize moments of integration of the assets of several
disciplines through practical activities.
More than ever, the Rwandan Curriculum must absolutely adapt to the fast evolution of science and technology, and that is possible only if
the education system keeps Permanent contact with the professional environment.
7. Hands on activities and internship
Hands on activities and internship aim to allow learners to practice the knowledge acquired during the cycle. Where it is possible, the
maximization of opportunities of contact of students with situations that are similar to those from their future profession predisposes them to
more performance in the career. Thus, promoters and school Directors will create within their respective schools an environment favorable
to practices and professional tasks that are complex and mobilizing of resources. Moreover, the tradition of our education system would like
that the school and learners search for a place of training course.


MINEDUC/WDA, December 2011 12
8. Subjects to be evaluated by WORKFORCE DEVELOPMENT AUTHORITY (WDA)
8.1. Theory based exams
1. Web design and Data bases
2. Programming( Algorithm, C, C++ and Visual Basic)
3. Architecture(Operating Systems, introduction to computer and Maintenance )
4. Networking
5. Mathematics
6. English
8.2. Practical based exams

A2 final Project (Focus on practical) supervised by their teachers.
N.B Topics must be discussed before to be approved.






MINEDUC/WDA, December 2011 13
9. General objectives
At the end of the cycle, student should be able to:
Edit MS Word documents;
Manage data using a spreadsheet;
Prepare a PowerPoint presentation.
Explain functionality of various operating systems.
Create and manage a database.
Design and build a network of two or more computers;
Install and configure a network of two or more computers.
Assemble a Computer;
Make a diagnosis and troubleshoot a computer;
Configure, update and upgrade a computer;
Organize and manage files in folders.
Build an algorithm leading to a program.
Produce terms of reference for computerization of a company.
Write a program using C, C++ or Visual Basic language.
MINEDUC/WDA, December 2011 14
Browse the Internet.
Design a Web site.
10. Evaluation
During day to day evaluation and after each chapter, practical exercises will be done to help learners understand the lesson. After a certain
number of chapters, teachers will organize situations with experience integration. At the end of a term, a year or even a cycle, there will be a
general evaluation which will include practical exercises and some theoretical concepts. All these forms of evaluation should focus on
practices that relate to professional situation.










MINEDUC/WDA, December 2011 15
11. Detailed program
11.1. Microsoft Office
General objectives:
At the end of this course, Student should be able to:
Edit MS Word documents
Manage data using a spreadsheet
Prepare a PowerPoint presentation
SENIOR 4
Specific objectives Contents Learning Activities

Recognize the titles bar, the menus bar,
the toolbars bar and the ruler





Create, to save, to close a new document
Microsoft Word
Word environment
The title bar
The menu bar
Toolbars
- The standard tools bar
- The Formatted tools bar


The ruler
Ms Word
Start Menu
Buttons
File name
Extension


To give examples of how to use the toolbars

To use the menu bar, ruler

To ask the Student to create a text document
and save it with the name of his choice
MINEDUC/WDA, December 2011 16

Specific objectives Contents Learning Activities
Open an existing document

Type a text

Make the necessary modifications

Process the text formatting






Localization of a file
Folder, File, Extension
Keyboard Keys
Keys Combination
Correcting and deleting/inserting text
Copying and moving text
Text formatting : Bold, Underline, Italic
Font , Size, Paragraph, Column, Tabulation
Paragraph alignment, Paragraph spacing
Text indentation, Paragraph alignment:
justify, right, centre, left
Inserting symbols: Special characters, bullet
and numbering
Borders and shading
Page numbers, headers and footers.
To ask Students to open a document as
indicated by the teacher.



To type a text and to format it
To reproduce document already formatted








MINEDUC/WDA, December 2011 17
Specific objectives Contents Learning Activities
To edit a text









Use the correction command



Insert the table of contents

Text Selecting, Copying, Pasting, Cutting
Search/Find, Replace
Short cut keys
Deleting a range of text
The undo command
Spelling and Grammar
Synonymous
Autocorrect
Spelling check
Grammar check

Automatic Table of contents
Applying Style
Titles hierarchy
Page number

Automatic page numbering
Total number of pages
Automatic inserting of date
Automatic inserting of Authors name
Give to students a document file, and ask
them to edit it without typing.
Give student time to familiarize with the
mouse and the keyboard
To give practical exercises on the various
tips.





To perform in the laboratory, the auto
correction within an existing document

To create a document containing several
pages with elements such as the page
number, date automation etc.

MINEDUC/WDA, December 2011 18
Specific objectives Contents Learning Activities
Insert the head and footer
Insert office object like(Clip Art
Word Art)

Create and edit a table





Print a document



Draw an object


Clip Art, Word Art, Symbols
Inserting date and time
Inserting comments

Inserting a table, Inserting a column,
Inserting a row, Deleting table, Deleting
row, Deleting column
Merging cells, Splitting cells, Drawing a
table
Table auto format
Formula
Print preview, Print dialog box, Print options
Printing of a copy or several copies
Printing in white /black or color
Drawing tools Bar
AutoShapes


To insert objects office such as Clip Art,
Word Art, Symbols, etc

To create, modify and handle a table using
MS Word





To print one or more copies of a colored
document, then in black and white


To draw by using the drawing tools Located
in the Drawing tools bar

MINEDUC/WDA, December 2011 19
Specific objectives Contents Learning Activities

Send one document to many recipients (Mail
Merge)

Mail Merge
Mail merge assistant
List of standard models
Data source


To make exercises on mail merge












MINEDUC/WDA, December 2011 20
Specific objectives Contents Learning Activities

Explain the usefulness of spreadsheet


Start Ms Excel





Create, to save, to close a new excel
workbook



Open an existing excel work book

Microsoft Excel
- Concept of spreadsheet
- Introduction

Microsoft Excel Environment
- Titles Bar
- Menu Bar
- Tool Bar
- Worksheets
- Formula bar
- Ms Excel
- Start menu
- Buttons
- Menu
- File name
- Extension
Locating files
- Folder
- File
- Extension









ask students To create, save and close a
new Excel workbook




To ask student To open an existing Excel
workbook
MINEDUC/WDA, December 2011 21

Specific objectives Contents Learning Activities
Work within excel workbook












Come back on command


Worksheet
Rows, columns
Locating Cells
Contents and format of the cell
Active Cell
Selecting cells
Selecting a range of cells
Selecting multiple range of cells
Selecting a whole sheet
Data input
Edition of cell
Closing of ms Excel

Command to cancel and to repeat


















MINEDUC/WDA, December 2011 22
Specific objectives Contents Learning Activities
Insert or delete lines, columns and cells


Arrange the column width

Use the sheet in excel book





Copy a cell or range of cells

Inserting and suppression of the lines,
columns
Inserting and suppression of cells or group of
Cells
Column width

Selecting a sheet
Re-selecting a sheet
Inserting new sheets
Moving a sheet in a workbook
Deleting a sheet

Copying and pasting

To practice on how to delete cells












To erase the contents of a group of cells,
then to restore it without having to repair


MINEDUC/WDA, December 2011 23
Specific objectives Contents

Learning Activities
Protect cells



Split worksheet



Delete the content of the cell




Use graphs



















Locking
cells Protection
Password

Horizontal splitting,
vertical splitting
Horizontal and vertical splitting

To erase
To delete all
To delete the format
To delete the contents

Graphs
- Creating chart
- Chart Assistant
- Modification of the chart elements
- Inserting data table in the chart
- Modification of the chart title
- Modification of the legend













































MINEDUC/WDA, December 2011 24
Specific objectives

Contents Learning Activities
Format a text Formatting of text
- Font Choice, size, color
- Adjustment Column width
- Alignment of cell
- Formatting of the numbers
- Inserting of columns
- Inserting of rows
- Creating borders
- Merging cells
- Background color
- Saving a file


To lock a group of cells by using a password


To practice the three types of splitting on
three different worksheets










MINEDUC/WDA, December 2011 25


Specific objectives


Contents

Learning Activities

Start Power point
Create a new presentation











Create, to insert a slide




Change the size and the color of the text




Insert images
PowerPoint
- PowerPoint Environment
- Titles Bar
- Menu Bar
- Tool Bar
- Formatting Bar
- Title
- Sub title
- Creation of new presentation
- Blank presentation
- Design template
- Auto-content wizard

- To create a slide
- To insert a slide
- To modify a slide

- Font,
- Size
- Color
- Style (Bold, Italic, underlined)

- Inserting of images:
- Clip art
- Library Images
- Inserting image from a file
- Word Art

To launch PowerPoint and observe the
screen
To Create presentations by using the various
Methods









To create, insert and modify a slide




To change the size, the color and the style
of the font in a slide




To make exercises on the image insertion in
the slides

MINEDUC/WDA, December 2011 26

Specific objectives

Contents

Learning Activities

Explain the importance of each presentation
View


Animate a presentation



Print a presentation
Outline view
Slide sorter view
Slider show

Animation
To set an animation
Slide transition

Printing a presentation
Print preview
Printing a copy or several copies
Printing all the presentations
To balance between the views in order to
improve the presentation


To animate a presentation



Printing in black and white or in colored

To print one or more copies of a
presentations











MINEDUC/WDA, December 2011 27
DISTRIBUTION OF LESSONS: SENIOR 4
TERM 1
Week Specific objectives Contents Timing
(periods)

1
Recognize the titles bar, the menus bar, the toolbars
bar and the ruler
Word environment 2
Create, to save, to close a new document The ruler
Ms Word
Start Menu

2

2-3
Open an existing document Localization of a file 2
Type a text Keyboard Keys 6


4-6
Make the necessary modifications Correcting and deleting/inserting text 2
Process the text formatting Text formatting 4
To edit a text Text Selecting, Copying and Pasting 4
Use the correction command Autocorrect 2
7 Insert the table of contents Automatic Table of contents 2
Insert the head and footer Automatic page numbering 2
8 Insert office object like(Clip Art
Word Art)
Clip Art
Word Art
Symbols
4

9
Create and edit a table Inserting a table
Inserting a column and row
4
10 Print a document Print preview
Print dialog box
Print options
2
Draw an object Drawing tools Bar
AutoShapes
2
11 Revision 2
12 Exams 2
48

MINEDUC/WDA, December 2011 28
TERM 2
Week Specific objectives Contents Timing
(periods)
1 Send one document to many recipients (Mail
Merge)
Mail Merge 4
Explain the usefulness of spreadsheet Concept of spreadsheet
Introduction
2
Start Ms Excel Microsoft Excel Environment 2
3 Create, to save, to close a new excel workbook Ms Excel
Start menu
Buttons
2
Open an existing excel work book Locating files 2
4 Work within excel workbook Worksheet 4
5 Come back on command Command to cancel and to repeat 2
Insert or delete lines, columns and cells Inserting and suppression of the lines,
columns
2
6 Arrange the column width Column width 2
Use the sheet in excel book Selecting a sheet 2
7 Copy a cell or range of cells Copying and pasting 2
Protect cells Locking, cells Protection and Password 2
8 Split worksheet Horizontal splitting,
vertical splitting
2
Delete the content of the cell To erase
To delete all
To delete the format
To delete the contents
2
9-10 Use graphs Graphs 8
11 Format a text Formatting of text 4
12 REVISION 4
13 EXAMS 4
52

MINEDUC/WDA, December 2011 29
TERM 2
Week Specific objectives Contents Timing
(periods)
1-2 Perform mathematical calculations Numbers and mathematical
Calculations
8
3 Merge cells Merging cells within a cell 2
Sort a list Ascending Order
Descending Order
2
4 Edit a worksheet Selecting
Copying
Pasting
2
Print an excel workbook Page setup
Print preview
Printing dialogue box
2
5-7 Start Power point PowerPoint Environment 2
Create a new presentation Creation of new presentation 4
Create, insert a slide To create a slide, To insert a slide
To modify a slide
4
Change the size and the color of the text Font, Size, Color
Style (Bold, Italic, underlined)
2
8 Insert images Inserting images: 4
Explain the importance of each presentation view Outline view, Slide sorter view and Slider
show
2
9-10 Animate a presentation Animation, To set an animation
Slide transition
4
Print a presentation Printing a presentation, Print preview
Printing a copy or several copies
Printing all the presentations
2
11 REVISION 4
12 EXAMS 4
48
11.4. Operating systems
MINEDUC/WDA, December 2011 30
General objective
At the end of this course, Student should be able to:
Explain functionality of various operating systems
SENIOR 4
Specific objectives

Contents Teaching/Leaning Activities
A student should be able to:
give a general definition of the
Operating System

Explain the origin and the evolution
of the OS


Identify the most popular OS
Definition of a software
Two great Software classifications:
system software and application
software.
Definition of an OS
History and evolution of the O.S: -
Automatic
Loading of programs OS
(Bootstrapping),
operation of the old printers and
terminals, the era
of the punch cards (Punched cards),
Multiprogramming, Spooling.
A Short introduction to the Unix OS
Characteristics of the Unix
A Short history of DOS
Characteristics of Windows (Windows
3.11, Windows9x, Windows base NT)
Command DOS: DIR, MD, DEL , CD,
EXIT
Command UNIX: ls, Cd, WHOIS, man,
exit
Explain the bootstrap from a computer in
starting process.


Show that all application programs such as
Word, Excel, Etc are loaded, organized and
managed by OS.


Ask the students to use some command



In the computer lab the student should interact
with DOS, Windows and Linux







MINEDUC/WDA, December 2011 31
Specific objectives Contents Teaching/Leaning Activities

Define the most used OSs
concepts



Explain different user interfaces








Use different interface (DOS,
Windows)





Give the functions and the main
roles of OS
Process
- System Call
- Resource (in general)
- Interruptions
- DMA
Introduction
- Classes of users (Programmers,
operators, End-To use)
- The System call interface
- The process control language
interface
- Job Control language interface
- The graphic user interface (GUI)
Shell
System Call in Unix, MS-DOS, system
NT.
The process control language in general,
with Unix, Ms-DOS.
The Batch files, the starting of MS-DOS
The graphic interface
memory Management
Input and Output Management
Files Management
Rights(permission) Management
Define these new concepts by giving examples
from a functioning computer.



In front of a functioning computer, students will
have to notice differences between the DOS
interface and Windows interface.






Try out different interfaces from the command:
Edit, Copy, Autoexec.bat, etc.





Explain OS as an example of Modular system
and to compare it to a way of managing a
company by breaking it in various departments
(Accountancy, personnel, logistics etc).




MINEDUC/WDA, December 2011 32
Specific objectives Contents Teaching/Leaning Activities

Explain process management



Give advantages and disadvantages
of different
planning methods in the lower level



Explain why the OS needs a
planning method
Processes Management


Basic concepts: The process, interruption
and context switch.

Introduction to the process
planning (Scheduling).
The life Cycle of a process
Definition of threads
Process in UNIX, Windows.
Basic principle of scheduling
policies: methods of
planning: pre-emptive, co-
operative method and
methods such as FCFS, SJF, RR,
SRT, HRN and
MFQ
Concept of resource
Condition that causes an endless
loop (Dead lock)
To notice a loop without end
(Dead lock), in windows
Draw a DOS memory partition


Explain the difference in the DOS; Windows
and Unix achieve memory management,
process management.


Give a example of a process cycle starting
from an example of everyday life.

Demonstrate a thread through a Web page


Write a small program to immulate the DMA
and swapping using programming language C
or C++.

Point out that when the message the program
does not answer that is a sign of a loop
without end (dead lock).
Show active processes in a computer in
function and time spent by the processor on
each one.






MINEDUC/WDA, December 2011 33
11.2. Operating systems
SENIOR 5
Specific objectives Contents Learning Activities

explain the memory management methods Concepts on memory management:
Loading and swapping of process
Method of memory allocation: The
fixed partitions, the variable partitions,
the overheads, the simple pagination
and the establishment of the
pagination.
Virtual memory: Replacement of
pages,comparison between the virtual
memory
and the real memory
Management of memory under
MSDOS:
Overlaying extended memory
Conventional memory and memory
allocation under MS-DOS.
Concept of management of memory
under Windows: Real mode, standard
mode improved mode (enhanced).
Memory management under Unix:
Model of memory model, Swapping,
pagination.
To improve the performance of disks
(Method of blocks memory, of mask,
RAM disc, Reorganization of files
(defragmentation)).
Show the fragmentation of the files using the
WINNT utility fragmentation.
show the existence of the virtual memory
quantity by using the utility of the control
panel
Use the mem command.


MINEDUC/WDA, December 2011 34

Specific objectives

Contents

Learning Activities

Explain the input and output management











Manage files









Manage the permissions on computers

Determine the OS which support the
multiprocessor and multitask.
Input and Output Management:
General Objectives of systems i/o
Structures of the i/o systems (i/o control
system, drives, controllers, transmissions in
block or bytes, concept of abstraction layer,
the buffer memories.
Peripherals of i/o under Unix, under DOS
and Windows
Main I/O components : A:, C: , prn: , lpt1,
lpt2, com1.FDD, hda1, lpr, echo, <, ws
Concept of plug and play and hot plug and
play.
File management (types of file,
identification, system of nomination, in
Unix and Windows).
Limits of the filing systems
Repertories. (Concepts of bases)
Some system services on the files
(Creation, suppression, to copy to
re-elect, post.).
Principle index file operation

- The access Limit of resources
- Right (administrator, user, etc)

Advantage of the operating systems
supporting the multiprocessor and
multitask
The operating system supporting the
multitask and multiprocessor
Print using the DOS command. Configure
the keyboard using DOS and UNIX
command.













Exercise how to List, find, create, copy,
erase, re-elect, moving a file by DOS
command.



Create various accounts with different rights


Load many processes or programs and
explain
that their execution is carried out by virtual
processors

MINEDUC/WDA, December 2011 35
DISTRIBUTION OF LESSONS: SENIOR 4
TERM 1
Week Specific objectives Contents Timing
(periods)
1-2 A student should be able to:
give a general definition of the Operating System
Definition of a software
Two great Software classifications: system
software and application software.
Definition of an OS
4
3-5 Explain the origin and the evolution of the OS History and evolution of the O.S: - Automatic
Loading of programs OS (Bootstrapping),
operation of the old printers and terminals, the era
of the punch cards (Punched cards),
Multiprogramming, Spooling.
6
6-10 Identify the most popular OS A Short introduction to the Unix OS
Characteristics of the Unix
A Short history of DOS
Characteristics of Windows (Windows 3.11,
Windows9x, Windows base NT)
Command DOS: DIR, MD, DEL , CD, EXIT
Command UNIX: ls, Cd, WHOIS, man, exit
10
11 Revision 2
12 Exams 2
24





MINEDUC/WDA, December 2011 36
TERM 2
Week Specific objectives Contents Timing
(periods)
1-3 Define the most used OSs concepts Process
- System Call
- Resource (in general)
- Interruptions
- DMA
6
4-5 Explain different user interfaces Introduction
- Classes of users (Programmers, operators,
End-To use)
- The System call interface
- The process control language interface
- Job Control language interface
- The graphic user interface (GUI)
4
6-8 Use different interface (DOS, Windows) Shell
System Call in Unix, MS-DOS, system NT.
The process control language in general, with
Unix, Ms-DOS.
The Batch files, the starting of MS-DOS
The graphic interface
6
9-11 Give the functions and the main roles of OS memory Management
Input and Output Management
Files Management
Rights(permission) Management
6
12 REVISION 2
13 EXAMS 2
26



MINEDUC/WDA, December 2011 37
TERM 3
Week Specific objectives Contents Timing
(periods)
1-10 Explain process management



Give advantages and disadvantages of different
planning methods in the lower level



Explain why the OS needs a planning method
Processes Management
Basic concepts: The process, interruption and
context switch.

Introduction to the process planning
(Scheduling).
The life Cycle of a process
Definition of threads
Process in UNIX, Windows.
Basic principle of scheduling policies:
methods of
planning: pre-emptive, co-operative
method and
methods such as FCFS, SJF, RR, SRT,
HRN and
MFQ
Concept of resource
Condition that causes an endless loop
(Dead lock)
To notice a loop without end (Dead lock),
in windows
20
11 REVISION 2
12 EXAMS 2
24




MINEDUC/WDA, December 2011 38
SENIOR 5

Specific objectives


Contents

Learning Activities
explain the memory management methods

























Explain the input and output management



Concepts on memory management:
Loading and swapping of process
- Method of memory allocation: The
fixed partitions, the variable
partitions, the overheads, the simple
pagination and the establishment of
the pagination.
- Virtual memory: Replacement of
pages, comparison between the
virtual memory and the real memory
Management of memory under MS-
DOS:
Overlaying extended memory conventional
memory and memory allocation under
MSDOS.
Concept of management of memory under
Windows: Real mode, standard mode
improved mode (enhanced).
Memory management under Unix: Model of
memory model, Swapping, pagination.
To improve the performance of disks
(Method of blocks memory, of mask, RAM
disc, Reorganization of files
(defragmentation)).
Input and Output Management:
General Objectives of systems i/o
Structures of the i/o systems (i/o control
system, drives, controllers, transmissions in
block or bytes, concept of abstraction layer,
the buffer memories.






























MINEDUC/WDA, December 2011 39
Specific objectives

Contents

Learning Activities










Manage files









Manage the permissions on computers


Determine the OS which support the
multiprocessor and multitask.

Peripherals of i/o under Unix, under DOS
and windows
Main I/O components: A:, C: , prn: , lpt1,
lpt2, com1.
FDD, hda1, lpr, echo, <, ws
Concept of plug and play and hot plug and
play.

File management (types of file,
identification, system of nomination, in
Unix and Windows).
Limits of the filing systems
Repertories. (Concepts of bases)
Some system services on the files
(Creation, suppression, to copy to
re-elect, post.).
Principle index file operation

- The access Limit of resources
- Right (administrator, user, etc)

Advantage of the operating systems
supporting the multiprocessor and
multitask
The operating system supporting the
multitask and multiprocessor




MINEDUC/WDA, December 2011 40
DISTRIBUTION OF LESSONS: SENIOR 5
TERM 1
Week Specific objectives Contents Timing
(periods)
1-3 explain the memory management methods Concepts on memory management:
Loading and swapping of process
6
4-6 explain the memory management methods Management of memory under MS-DOS 6
7-8 explain the memory management methods
9-10

explain the memory management methods

Memory management under Unix 4
11 Revision 2
12 Exams 2
24
TERM 2
Week Specific objectives Contents Timing
(periods)
1-3

explain the memory management methods

To improve the performance of disks
4-6

Explain the input and output management Input and Output Management:
General Objectives of systems i/o
Structures of the i/o systems

7-8 Peripherals of i/o under Unix, under DOS and
Windows Main I/O components

9-10 Peripherals of i/o under Unix, under DOS and
Windows Main I/O components

11 Manage files File management
12 REVISION 2
13 EXAMS 2
26

MINEDUC/WDA, December 2011 41
TERM 3
Week Specific objectives Contents Timing
(periods)
1-3

Manage files

File management: Repertories, Some system
services on the files, Principle of index file
operation
6
4-6

Manage the permissions on computers The access Limit of resources, Right (administrator,
user, etc)
6
7-10 Determine the OS which support the multiprocessor and
multitask.
Advantage of the operating systems supporting the
multiprocessor and multitask; The operating system
supporting the multitask and multiprocessor
8
11 REVISION 2
12 EXAMS 2
24











MINEDUC/WDA, December 2011 42
11.3. Data bases
General objective:
At the end of this course, Student should be able to:
Create and manage a database
SENIOR 5
Specific objectives Contents Teaching/learning Activities
define a database



To give the importance of the databases.




Definition
Example from the real world
(the Company)

Data independence and Data access
Data Integrity and safety
Data Recovery after a breakdown
Concurrent Transactions.

Describe and give all kind of information
flowing in company and why they should be
kept in drawers, cupboard.Example of a
school.
Compare the traditional way of information
storage to the computer model.
compare different ways of storage
(traditional versus current) showing the need
for a DBMS
To explain the level or the steps to
make a good data bases














Conceptual Level: Entity,
Association, Property (attribute),
Identifier, Occurrence, Cardinality.
Weak entities.
Hierarchy of the entities and Role
Logical Level: Relations.
Two parts of a relation:
Instance which is a table having
Columns (cardinality) and fields
(Degree).
Diagram to specify the name of
column, the field names and each
type.
Constraint of integrity and Primary
key.

From a real world example explain an entity
as a category, a class of objects, individuals
etc.

From a given number of occurrences explain
how to choose the most qualified property to
be identifier using a student list









MINEDUC/WDA, December 2011 43
Specific objectives

Contents Teaching/ learning activities


Use the interrogation languages theory :
to formulate relational algebra and
relational calculus
Foreign key.
A view

Projection
Selection
The difference
Union
The Cartesian product
Intersection
Division
Joint
DRC ( Domain relational calculus)
TRC (Tupple relational calculus)
Triggers (definition)


Exercise on formula drafting










MINEDUC/WDA, December 2011 44
DISTRIBUTION OF LESSONS: SENIOR 5
TERM 1
Week Specific objectives Contents Timing
(periods)
1-2 define a database Definition, Examples 6
3-4

To give the importance of the data bases Data independence, access, Integrity and safety,
Recovery after a breakdown, Concurrent
Transactions.
6
5-7 To explain the level or the steps to make a good databases

Conceptual Level: Entity, Association, Property
(attribute), Identifier, Occurrence, Cardinality,
Weak entities, Hierarchy of the entities,
9

8-10 Role, Logical Level, two parts of a relation 9
11 Revision 3
12 Exams 3
36
TERM 2
Week Specific objectives Contents Timing
(periods)
1-2 To explain in the level or the steps to make a good
data bases
Two parts of a relation:
Instance which is a table having Columns
(cardinality) and fields (Degree).
6
3-4 Diagram to specify the name of column, the field
names and each type.
6
5-6 Constraint of integrity, Primary key, Foreign key. 6
7-8 A view 6
9-11 use the interrogation languages theory : to formulate
relational algebra and relational calculus
Projection 9
12 REVISION 3
13 EXAMS 3
39

MINEDUC/WDA, December 2011 45
TERM 2
Week Specific objectives Contents Timing
(periods)
1-3

use the interrogation languages theory : to formulate
relational algebra and relational calculus

Selection, The difference, Union 9
4-6

The Cartesian product, Intersection, Division, Joint

9
7-10 DRC ( Domain relational calculus), TRC (Tupple
relational calculus), Triggers (definition)
12
11 REVISION 3
12 EXAMS 3
36











MINEDUC/WDA, December 2011 46
SENIOR 6

Specific objectives

Contents

Teaching/learning Activities
use the QBE(Queries by example)






use SQL on the data bases












secure a data base





Manage and to administrate a data
Bases

Make a project of computerizing a
service
- And / Or queries
- Junction
- Aggregation (avg, count, min max sum. )
- Tupples inserting.
- To remove
and validate

- To create a table
- To add and remove tupples
- To program a primary key
- A condition (where)
- Aggregation
- A foreign Key in SQL
- To reinforce the integrity
- Creation of views
- Query on a table
- Query on multiple tables
- Nested queries

- Integrity
- The Privacy
- The availability
- Command GRANT and REVOKES
- Backup
- Concept of transaction
- Concurrent access
- Remote access
- Project - practical Work on knowledge
- Acquired
Exercise on aggregations






Exercise on how to formulate basic sql
Expressions










Exercise on how to formulate safety or
security
in SQL






Computerize one of the services of the
school
MINEDUC/WDA, December 2011 47
DISTRIBUTION OF LESSONS: SENIOR 6
TERM 1
Week Specific objectives Contents Timing
(periods)
1-2 use the QBE(Queries by example) And /Or queries
Junction
6
3-4 Aggregation (avg, count, min max sum. ) 6
5-6 Tupples inserting.
To remove and validate
6
7-8 use SQL on the data bases To create a table 6
9-10 To add and remove tupples
To program a primary key
6
11 Revision 3
12 Exams 3
36

TERM 2
Week Specific objectives Contents Timing
(periods)
1-3 use SQL on the data bases A condition (where)
Aggregation
A foreign Key in SQL
9
4-6 To reinforce the integrity
Creation of views
9
7-10 Query on a table
Query on multiple tables
Nested queries
12
11 secure a data base Integrity 3
12 REVISION 3
13 EXAMS 3
39
MINEDUC/WDA, December 2011 48
TERM 3
Week Specific objectives Contents Timing
(periods)
1-2

secure a data base The Privacy
The availability
6
3-4 Command GRANT and REVOKES
Backup
6
5-8 Manage and to administrate a data bases
Concept of transaction
Concurrent access
Remote access
12
9-10

make a project of computerizing a service Project - practical Work on knowledge acquired 6
11 REVISION 3
12 EXAMS 3
36









MINEDUC/WDA, December 2011 49
11.4. C Programming
General objective:
At the end of this course, Student should be able to:
Write a program using C language
SENIOR 4
Specific objectives Contents Teaching/learning activities
Use assignment operators


Declare Variables and their type










Define the function main()

Include Precompiler expressions
what the operator does
The difference between = and ==

Variables and their type
Definition and initialization of a variable
Assignment of value to variables char, int,
long, float, double, double long, near, far,
unsigned, signed.
Variable limit
The difference in memory space taken by
each type
The use of printf ()


Execution of the function main()

#include
#define
#if, #else, #endif
#ifdef, #ifndef
Use of the precompiler instructions for
debugging
Student to declare a variable and assign with
= then with ==












Write a small program that displays for
instance Hello class



Familiarize with Including the header files

MINEDUC/WDA, December 2011 50

Specific objectives Contents Teaching/learning activities

Declare Constants




Write Instructions



Use arithmetic operators







Use comparison operators



Use Logical operators



Use Bitwise Operators
The difference between a constant and a
variable
Use of a constant
Declaration of a constant with const

Definition
Types of instructions.

Arithmetic operators +, - , *,/, %,
+=, - = ", /=, *=, %= and their use.






comparison operators
<, >, <=, >=, ==,! = " and their
use

Logical operators
&&, ||,! and their use
Priority of AND versus OR

Bitwise Operators
&, |, ~, ^, <<, >> and their use.
Priority between AND, OR and NOT
student to reassign a value to a constant




Practical exercises on writing instructions


After some examples, ask the student to find
the effect of arithmetic operators.
Writing programs using arithmetical
operators.
Writing programs using arithmetical
operators.
To let the student look for a documentation
on the function of relational operators.





Write programs using the logical operators
and to replace them by the bitwise operators
so that the students realize the difference


MINEDUC/WDA, December 2011 51
Specific objectives Contents Teaching/learning activities

Use Incrementing/decrementing Operator




Use Typecasting Operator



Use Conditional operator


Use I/O Instructions





Use Loops and bifurcation instructions







Write Procedures and functions
Incrementing/decrementing Operator
++,-- and their operation
the difference between preffix (a++) and
postfix (++a)

Typecasting Operator
(<Type>) and its use
Rules of changing type

Conditional operator
"?", (ex : (a<b)?printf"1":printf"h";)
Functioning of Conditional operator
I/O Instructions:
Printf()
Scanf()
Getch()
Role of I/O Instructions
Parameters of I/O Instructions
loops
While
Do...while
For
Bifurcation instructions
Continue
Break
Name and syntax of a function
Function without parameter.
function with parameter
functions call
return function
Creation of function





Give the student a program where there is an
error and that needs typecasting for
correction












Write programs using loops
Write programs including bifurcation
instructions



Write a program including functions and
Procedures

MINEDUC/WDA, December 2011 52
Specific objectives Contents Teaching/learning activities

Show ranges of the variables






Pass arguments by value, reference,
addresses


Create arrays




Structures









Comment
Global variables
Local variables
Static variables
Global Variables Declaration local Variables
Declaration
Static Variables Declaration

pass by values
pass by reference
pass by address
unidimensional array
bidimensionaal arrays
Pointers
*p, &a operators

Structures interest
Instruction struct
Use of the instruction struct
The accessibility of the elements of
a structure by - > and. according
to whether it acts access by pointer
or variable
Field of bits
Instruction union

Code comment interest
The use of comment to desactivate one part
of the code.
To comment ,we use /, /*, *
















To ask the student to invent a structure of
object having a direction


MINEDUC/WDA, December 2011 53
DISTRIBUTION OF LESSONS: SENIOR 4
TERM 1
Week Specific objectives Contents Timing
(periods)
1-2 Use assignment operators what the operator does
The difference between = and ==
8
3-4

Declare Variables and their type Variables and their type: Definition, Assignment of
value, variable limit, The difference in memory space
taken by each type, The use of printf ()
8
5-6

Define the function main() Execution of the function main() 8
7-8 Include Precompiler expressions #include, #define, #if, #else, #endif, #ifdef, #ifndef,
Use of the precompiler instructions for debugging
8
9 Declare Constants The difference between a constant and a variable
Use of a constant
Declaration of a constant with const
4
10 Write Instructions Instruction
Definition, Types of instructions.
4
11 Revision 4
12 Exams 4
48






MINEDUC/WDA, December 2011 54
TERM 2
Week Specific objectives Contents Timing
(periods)
1

Use arithmetic operators Arithmetic operators +, - , *,/, %,
+=, - = ", /=, *=, %= and their use.
4
2-3

Use comparison operators Comparison operators
<, >, <=, >=, ==,! = " and their use
8
4-5

Use Logical operators Logical operators
&&, ||,! and their use
Priority of AND versus OR
8
6-7

Use Bitwise Operators

Bitwise Operators
&, |, ~, ^, <<, >> and their use.
8

Priority between AND, OR and NOT
8

Use Incrementing/decrementing Operator Incrementing/decrementing Operator
++,-- and their operation
the difference between preffix (a++) and
postfix (++a)
4
9

Use Typecasting Operator Typecasting Operator
(<Type>) and its use
Rules of changing type
4
10-11

Use Conditional operator Conditional operator

Functioning of Conditional operator
8
12 REVISION 4
13 EXAMS 4
52




MINEDUC/WDA, December 2011 55
TERM 3
Week Specific objectives Contents Timing
(periods)
1

Use I/O Instructions I/O Instructions: Printf(); Scanf(); Getch(); Role of
I/O Instructions Parameters of I/O Instructions
4
2

Use Loops and bifurcation instructions Loops (While, Do...while; For)
Bifurcation instructions (Continue; Break)
4
3 Write Procedures and functions Name and syntax of a function; function without
parameter; function with parameter; functions call;
return function; Creation of function
4
4 Show ranges of the variables Global variables; Local variables; Static variables;
Global Variables Declaration local Variables
Declaration; Static Variables Declaration
4
5-6

Pass arguments by value, reference, addresses pass by values; pass by reference; pass by address 8
7-8


Create arrays unidimensional array; bidimensionaal arrays;
Pointers *p, &a operators
8
9 Structures Structures interest; Instruction struct; Use of the;
instruction struct ; The accessibility of the
elements of a structure by - > and. according
to whether it acts access by pointer or variable;
Field of bits
Instruction union
4
10 Comment Code comment interest ; The use of comment to
deactivate one part of the code; To comment ,we
use /,
/*, *
4
11 REVISION 4
12 EXAMS 4
48

MINEDUC/WDA, December 2011 56
11.5. Algorithms
General objective:
At the end of this course, Students should be able to:
Build an algorithm leading to a program
SENIOR 4
Specific objectives Contents Teaching/learning activities
Convert from one base to another.











Distinguish the functions from Reading
(entered) and those of writing (left).


Give the situation of the use of GOTO


give the situations of the use of various
tests




Introduction to coding
Boolean logic gates
Decimal Base
Binary Base
Hexadecimal base
- Binary operations
- Decimal to binary conversion
- Decimal to binary conversion
- Hexadecimal to binary conversion
- Binary to hexadecimal conversion
- Converting to
any base

Reading and Writing
Reading function (input)
Writing function(output)

Go to (go to)

TESTES
Structure of a test
Conditions (if, if. .else, switch)
Nested Ifs


Exercises on base conversion.












write an algorithm using i/o functions in
pseudo code and flow chart




write an algorithm using the tests with
pseudo code and flow chart




MINEDUC/WDA, December 2011 57

Specific objectives


Contents

Teaching/learning activities


give the situations where we use various
loops


Handle a table




Describe the systematic programming in
a structured way.


Create a program starting from an
algorithm


write a program starting from a flow
chart

LOOPS
Loops (do while, until)
Iterative Loops
Loops in Loops

Use of the Tables in Algorithm
Dynamic Tables



STRUCTURED PROGRAMMING
Structured Programming
Hierarchical Block

Switch from the pseudo code to a
defined programming language
The symbols representing the condition,
actions, loop, input/output
The difference between a algorithm and a flow
chart
give examples of loop and iterative loop
write an algorithm using loops in pseudo
code and flow chart


Exercise on how to draw flowchart with
Tables (to sort, search, fill, average, etc).
Exercise on how to write algorithms
having
tables in pseudo code and flow chart

Give an example of structured program.



From a previous structured program, draw
a flowchart and write a pseudo code.

From a previous structured program, draw
a flowchart and write a pseudo code.
From a flow chart containing the main
studied elements, convert it into a C
program



MINEDUC/WDA, December 2011 58
DISTRIBUTION OF LESSONS: SENIOR 4
TERM 1
Week Specific objectives Contents Timing
(periods)
1-4 Convert from one base to another. Introduction to coding
Boolean logic gates
Decimal Base
Binary Base
Hexadecimal base
8
5 define an algorithm Definition of an algorithm
Importance of an algorithm
2
6-7

Explain the advantage of a variable in an algorithm. Variables 4
8-10

Explain operators to be used in an algorithm Expressions and Operators 6
11 Revision 2
12 Exams 2
24
TERM 1
Week Specific objectives Contents Timing
(periods)
1-3 Distinguish the functions from Reading (entered) and
those of writing (left).
Reading and Writing 6
4-5 Give the situation of the use of GOTO Go to (go to) 4
6-7
give the situations of the use of various tests TESTES
TESTES 4
8-11 give the situations where we use various loops LOOPS 8
12 REVISION 2
13 EXAMS 2
26
MINEDUC/WDA, December 2011 59
11.6. Introduction to Web
General objective:
At the end of this course, Student should be able to:
Browse the Internet
SENIOR 4

Specific objectives Contents

Teaching/learning activities
Identify the components of an internet
address










use the hypertext links for browsing



download a file
Explain the advantage of using a
downloading program
Parts an IP address
The address IP and DNS and their
relations
URL
HTTP
WWW
FTP
SMTP
POP
IMAP
Hyperlink

Types of hyperlink (Page, email, file)
The form of a hyperlink (text, image)
Use of hypertexts links

To save link as
Downloading program and their
advantages (Net transport, gozilla or other)
show several addresses and to ask the
student to identify their elements






To make small groups which will have a
subject of their choice and to give a starting
site and to let them browse



MINEDUC/WDA, December 2011 60
Specific objectives Contents

Teaching/learning activities
use the search engines to find information







explain the Internet dangers








fill an electronic form




Principal existing search engines
(Google, AltaVista,)
Operation of a search engine
Choice of the key words to find
desired information.
The rules and signs associations of
the key words (+ AND, -
EXCEPT)
Unsecured pages on the internet.
Site with insecure pages.
Pop up or dialogue box coming from
Internet
Reaction during an appearance of
popup or dialogue box during
browsing
Lack of anonymity on Internet

Role of the Form
Types of fields which compose a
form

To ask the student to find information on a
subject of his choice










To fill a form on Internet






MINEDUC/WDA, December 2011 61

Specific objectives Contents

Teaching/learning activities
configure Outlook









write and send an email




use the contact address


Attach files


Necessary information to be connected to the
server To know the element to be
configured:
Name
Pop, SMTP, IMAP servers
Identification
password
encoding
to leave the messages on the server
or not ports to be used
recipient address
address for a copy : c, bcc
Email Subject
The email text
- Priority
- Sending Button
- To remove an email
The utility of an address book
how to add, to modify, to remove
one contacts
role of attachment
advantage of compressing an
attachment
The limits of sending attached files
(size/time)
The procedure to attach a file
The difference between email management










To ask the students to send emails between
Them




Give the students time to create an address
book of their friends

Redo the exercise of sending emails between
student, but this time with attachment.

MINEDUC/WDA, December 2011 62

Specific objectives Contents

Teaching/learning activities
use Web mail to send an email





identify and avoid the spams



software and the use of a web mail:
Time of longer connection
possibility of having the same environment
whatever the computer used
Obligation to be connected to the internet for
writing its message

What does spam mean
Rules to avoid receiving spams
Principle of operation of a filter anti
spam filter


To send an email by web mail






Give some examples of spams
















MINEDUC/WDA, December 2011 63
Specific objectives Contents Teaching/learning activities

communicate by Internet



E-commerce
What does e-commerce mean?
Advantages of e-commerce
Speed
Economy
No need of moving
The risk of use
Web Site which are not sure
Difficulties in case of problems
Forum
What does forum mean?
Advantages and disadvantages of the
forum
Uncertain result for the search
Response time
When problems are resolved, it let
sign in the net
Chat
what allow the chat to be done
Creation of the chat account
existence of ICQ
Voip
What does voip allow to do
Creation of a voip account
Existence of Skype
The possibilities to phone using voip







MINEDUC/WDA, December 2011 64

Week Specific objectives Contents Timing
(periods)
1-2

explain the Internet dangers Unsecured pages on the internet; Site with insecure pages;
Pop up or dialogue box coming from Internet
4
3

fill an electronic form Form : Role, Types of fields 2
4

use the favourites to browse

Favourites
Inclusion of the favourites
2
5


create an email account Necessary information for the creation of an email
account ; The address of the desired email ; Access with
Password
2
6-7

configure Outlook Necessary information to be connected to the server To
know the element to be configured:
4
8

write and send an email recipient address; address for a copy : c, bcc ; Email
Subject ; The email text
2
9

use the contact address The utility of an address book
how to add, to modify, to remove one contacts
2
Attach files role of attachment
advantage of compressing an attachment
The limits of sending attached files (size/time)
The procedure to attach a file
2
11

use Web mail to send an email The difference between email management software and
the use of a web mail
2
REVISION 2
EXAMS 2
26



MINEDUC/WDA, December 2011 65
Week Specific objectives Contents Timing
(periods)
1-2

identify and avoid the spams Spam 4
3-4

communicate by Internet E-commerce 2
5-6

use the favorites to browse

Forum 2
7-8


create an email account Chat 2
9-10

configure Outlook Voip 4
11

REVISION 2
12 EXAMS 2
24












MINEDUC/WDA, December 2011 66
11.7. Web design
General objective:
At the end of this course, Student should be able to:
Design a Web site
SENIOR 5
Specific objectives Contents

Teaching/learning activities

use HTML language to create linked Web
pages



use suitable file standard
















Tags and their effects
Tags properties
Text editor
Internet browser


Types of file images and sounds
- Bmp
- Jpg
- GIF
- Png
- wav
- asf
- mp3
Types of image file Characteristic
Types of sounds file characteristic
Image processing software recording
parameters
Treatment sounds software recording
parameters.



Ask the student to create an HTML site of
several page of a subject of his choice.




Let the student discover the effects on
quality and the size of the file when it
modifies the parameters of recordings.














MINEDUC/WDA, December 2011 67
Specific objectives Contents Teaching/learning activities

manipulate the sound and the images















create a Web site in HTML
Program enabling to apply the sound and
image
Effects
Filters
Tools for selections (magic
wand, _)
Incrustation of text
Drawing tools
Copies
Program which allow to apply
the effects on the sound
Fade in
Fade out
Copy
Mixer

Rules of design of J.Nielsen
the stages of design
Objective of the site
Planning (distribution of the
spots, journalist, computer
graphics expert)
Ergonomics

To ask the student to create an image made
up of several images in order to represent a
topic.
To ask the student to create a sound
Composition










To ask the students to create a Web site by
group.

The students must plan and design their own
web site.




MINEDUC/WDA, December 2011 68
Specific objectives Contents Teaching/learning activities


create a Web site in HTML










use the style sheets to format Web pages

Choice of the colors, button, bars
navigation.
- Structure of the site (principal
page, page of history,)
- harvest of information,
images
Weight of the site
Customer satisfaction
Compression of a file
Integration of images and files in
the site

Utility of the style sheets
Modifiable beacon
Properties
Class
Selector of beacon
Style Declaration
To incorporate a style sheet in
line,external and imported
Class and ID
Pseudo class
Positioning using SPAN and
DIV and the style sheets

The students must plan and design their own
web site.










MINEDUC/WDA, December 2011 69
Specific objectives Contents Teaching/learning activities

improve site research using the search
engines
Utility of the metas
How to choose the key words to
include the metas.
Operation principle for the robots of
the search engines

The student will have to choose the key
words of an already existing site and to place
them in the search engine














MINEDUC/WDA, December 2011 70
DISTRIBUTION OF LESSONS: SENIOR 5
TERM 1
Week Specific objectives Contents Timing
(periods)
1-3


use HTML language to create linked Web pages Tags and their effects 6
4-7


use suitable file standard Types of file images and sounds
Types of image file Characteristic
Types of sounds file characteristic
Image processing software recording parameters
Treatment sounds software recording parameters.
8
8-10

manipulate the sound and the images Program enabling to apply the sound and image effects

6
11 Revision 2
12 Exams 2
24








MINEDUC/WDA, December 2011 71
TERM 2
Week Specific objectives Contents Timing
(periods)
1-4 manipulate the sound and the
images


Program which allow to apply
the effects on the
sound
8
5-11

create a Web site in HTML

Rules of design of J.Nielsen
the stages of design

14
12 REVISION 2
13 EXAMS 2
26










MINEDUC/WDA, December 2011 72
SENIOR 6
Specific objectives Contents Teaching/learning activities

Show the possibility and the constraints in
hosting a web site.

















Explain the advantages and disadvantages
of various hosting possibilities.

A site on Internet must be hosted by a
server
The various possibilities which can be
offered by a hoster
PHP
Email (pop, IMAP, web mail)
bases data
FrontPage
Cgi
ASP
Hosting Capacity (disk space,
adulterates, a number of connection,
speed)
The type of hosting and their
constraints
free
divided
dedicated

Type of hosting
To host its own site
Use of a FAI


Ask student to search for some sites offering
free hosting and to list their facilities.

























MINEDUC/WDA, December 2011 73

Specific objectives Contents Teaching/learning activities

check the availability of a domain name





manage files by using the ftp




Launch the web site through the Internet

To go on a site giving the possibility of
having a domain name.
To propose a domain name
To make sure that it is available
Recording of a domain name

Types of necessary data to connect to an
ftp server.
To be able to send, modify, take
again files on a waiter ftp

To reserve a domain name
To establish the link between the
domain name and the Web server
To send the structure of a Web site
on the Web server

Ask students to choose a domain name for
their site and to ensure it is available


Sen. the web site to an ftp server






Launch the web site through a web server.
Ensure the existence of the web site on the
internet








MINEDUC/WDA, December 2011 74
DISTRIBUTION OF LESSONS: SENIOR 6
TERM 1
Week Specific objectives

Contents Timing
(periods)
1-5

create dynamic Web pages linked to the
data base
The use of PHP in a Web site; Advantages and
disadvantages of an interpretor language on the server;
Possibilities that PHP language offers ; Types and syntax
of variables writing
Operators
If, switch, for, while, do while
Function of posting (echo, printf)
Receptions variables of transmitted data by the forms
($_POST, $_GET)
Functions of connection, basic selection, sending of
requests of a data base

10
6-10

choose a domain name

Utility of the domain names; Rules of use of domain name; Need
for being recorded in order to be able to use a domain name
10
11 Revision 2
12 Exams 2
24




MINEDUC/WDA, December 2011 75
TERM 2
Week

Specific objectives Contents Timing
(periods)
1-5

Show the possibility and the
constraints in hosting a web site.

The various possibilities which
can be offered by a hoster;
Hosting Capacity ; types of
hosting and their constraints
10
6-8

Explain the advantages and
disadvantages of various hosting
possibilities.

Type of hosting

6
9-11

check the availability of a
domain name
To go on a site giving the
possibility of having a domain
name
Recording of a domain name

6
12 REVISION 2
13 EXAMS 2
24







MINEDUC/WDA, December 2011 76
TERM 3
Week

Specific objectives Contents Timing
(periods)
1-4

manage files using the ftp Types of necessary data to
connect to an ftp server.
8
5-10 Launch the web site through the
Internet
To reserve a domain name ; To
establish the link between
the domain name and the Web
server
To send the structure of a Web
site on the Web server
12
11 REVISION 2
12 EXAMS 2
24










MINEDUC/WDA, December 2011 77
11.8. Visual Basic
General objective:
At the end of this course, Student should be able to:
Write a program using Visual Basic language

SENIOR 5
Specific objectives Contents Learning Activities
Define an events oriented language




Use Visual BASIC environment



Present the Form object (Control) as the
main interface in VB development.










Introduction to the event oriented
language
Objects Concept
Events Concept

Visual BASIC
visual BASIC Icon
Integrated visual basic environment

Elements of the IDE
Menu bars
Contextual menu
Object explorer
Tools Bar
Toolbox
project explorer
properties window
Code editor
Environment options (SDI, MDI)
Describe an event in data processing.
Generate events of simple type
Click, double click, right click


Insert a form object in a project, save it and
exit.















MINEDUC/WDA, December 2011 78
Specific objectives Contents Teaching/learning activities

Use various Controls in Visual BASIC.




Open an existing project





Describe the Properties, Syntax, Methods
and Procedures of events.



Compile a simple application in Visual
BASIC
Use the variables, Operators, Test and Loops
in Visual BASIC

Controls
Form
Command buttons
Labels
Text Box

Localization of the project
launch the project



Object Properties(Control)
Syntax
Methods and events
Event-driven Procedures


Compilation and execution in VB



Insert various controls on an Application.





Open projects in various ways.




launch visual BASIC, insert an objects and
to identify the event-driven properties,
Syntax, Methods and Procedures


Launch an application and to compile it.
VB errors identification and correction.

Create an application proposed by the
teacher or of their own choice under the
supervision of their teacher




MINEDUC/WDA, December 2011 79
Specific objectives Contents Teaching/learning activities
use the objects (Controls) which cause the
utilization of tests





Write the functions in Visual BASIC
The code elements
Declaration and variable types
Operators
Tests
The objects Combo box, List,
Options box and Check box.
Loops (For Next, Do While)

Input Box, Msgbox Functions.
Functions sqr (), val (), str ()
Use inputBox (), msgBox (), val () functions
in a simple VB program












MINEDUC/WDA, December 2011 80
DISTRIBUTION OF LESSONS: SENIOR 5
TERM 1
Week

Specific objectives Contents Timing
(periods)
1-3 Define an events oriented
language
Introduction to the event
oriented language
6
4-5 Visual BASIC environment Use Visual BASIC
environment


4

6-10
Present the Form object (Control)
as the main
interface in VB development
Elements of the IDE 10
12 REVISION 2
13 EXAMS 2
24








MINEDUC/WDA, December 2011 81
TERM 2
Week Specific objectives Contents Timing
(periods)
1-4 Use various Controls in Visual
BASIC
Controls 8
5-7 Open an existing project Localization of the
project launch the project
6
8-11 Describe the Properties, Syntax,
Methods and
Procedures of events.
Object Properties(Control)
Syntax
Methods and events
Event-driven Procedures
8
12 REVISION 2
13 EXAMS 2
26
TERM 3
Week Specific objectives Contents Timing
(periods)
1-3 Compile a simple application in Visual BASIC Compilation and execution in vb 6
4-6 Use the variables, Operators, Test and Loops in
Visual BASIC.
The code elements 6
7-8 use the objects (Controls) which cause the utilization
of tests
Declaration and variable types 4
9-10 Write the functions in Visual BASIC. Input Box, Msgbox Functions.
Functions sqr (), val (), str ()
4
11 REVISION 2
12 EXAMS 2
24

MINEDUC/WDA, December 2011 82
SENIOR 6
Specific objectives Contents Teaching/learning activities
insert Lists Controls and to write the
corresponding code





Create Menus



Write various graphic elements in Visual
BASIC.





Connect to a local data base.









Lists
ListBox
ComboBox
DriveListBox
DirListBox
FileListBox


Creation and insertion of the menus
and Submenus


Elements of Graphs
Colors
Co-ordinates
Shape
Line
Frame


Access to the data bases:
Inserting t DATA Access Object
ADO(Activex data Object)
Connection to an Access database
base.
Inserting of the Grids
Reading, Editing, suppression,
validation, search for recordings
starting from VB.
Creation of reports in VB.
insert list control on an application in Visual
BASIC.




Insert Menus and submenus on a Form



Use some graphic elements on an application
in Visual BASIC.








Exercise on connecting an Access, SQL data
base from VB
MINEDUC/WDA, December 2011 83
Connect to a remote database
Creation of reports in VB.
ODBC (Object Database
Connectivity)
Connecting to SQL Server or Oracle
database
Reading, adding, deleting, validation,
searching records from VB.
DSN (Data Source Name )














MINEDUC/WDA, December 2011 84
DISTRIBUTION OF LESSONS: SENIOR 6
TERM 1
Week Specific objectives Contents Timing
(periods)
1-4 insert Lists Controls and to write the corresponding
code
Lists 12
5-6 Create Menus Creation and insertion of the menus and
submenus
6
7-10 Write various graphic elements in Visual BASIC Elements of Graphs
Colors
Co-ordinates
12
11 Revision 3
12 Exams 3
36
TERM 2
Week Specific objectives Contents Timing
(periods)
1-3 Write various graphic elements in Visual BASIC Elements of Graphs 9
4-11 Connect to a local data base. Access to the data bases
Inserting t DATA Access Object ADO
Connection to an Access database base; Inserting
of the Grids; Reading,
Editing, suppression, validation, search for
recordings starting from VB;
Creation of reports in VB.
24
12 REVISION 3
13 EXAMS 3
39
MINEDUC/WDA, December 2011 85
TERM 3
Week Specific objectives Contents Timing
(periods)
1-10 Connect to a remote database ODBC (Object Database Connectivity)
Connecting to SQL Server or Oracle
database
Reading, adding, deleting, validation,
searching, records from VB.
DSN (Data Source Name )
30
11 REVISION 3
12 EXAMS 3
36


















MINEDUC/WDA, December 2011 86
11.9. C++ Programming
General objective:
At the end of this course, Student should be able to:
Write a program using C++ language
SENIOR 5
Specific objectives Contents Teaching/learning activities
define the C++ language






use conditions



Define the object oriented language.
The existing relationship between C
and C++
Particularities of C++
differences between C and C++
passage from C to C++
Cout and Cin instructions

Conditional Structures (If else, switch)
Repetition Structures (for, do
while, While)

Definition of:
Classes and Object
Encapsulation
Inheritance
Polymorphism


Exercise on rewriting simple previously
written in C by introducing new C++
particularities.





Exercise on how to use conditions and
loops
Replace the nested if by Switch
construction
Find an example of a class and an object
from the everyday life and in computer
science
To ask the students to differentiate the
characteristics of an OOP




MINEDUC/WDA, December 2011 87
Specific objectives Contents Teaching/learning activities

explain the advantages and the
characteristics of the OOP












use the functions


Advantages of a OOP:
program reusability
Facilitates to write, maintain and
modify long
programs
Facilitates to create the objects
representing entities from real world.
The possibility of creating a special
functions called constructors and
destructors
The possibility of overloading the
operators

Functions without parameters
Global variables and local variable
Predefined Functions
Passing arguments by reference
Passing arguments by value
Passing arguments by address
Overloading of a function


Point out the limits of the C language
and the structured languages in general












Exercise on how to write previous
programs using functions






MINEDUC/WDA, December 2011 88
TERM 1
Week Specific objectives Contents Timing
(periods)
1-6

define the C++ language The existing relationship between C and
C++
Particularities of C++
differences between C and C++
passage from C to C++
Cout and Cin instructions

18
7-10

use conditions Conditional Structures (If else, switch)
Repetition Structures (for, do while, While)

12
11 Revision 3
12 Exams 3
36









MINEDUC/WDA, December 2011 89
TERM 2
Week Specific objectives Contents Timing
(periods)
1-4 Define the object oriented language. Definition of:
Classes and Object
Encapsulation
Inheritance
Polymorphism
13
5-11

explain the advantages and the characteristics of the
OOP

Advantages of a OOP:
program reusability
Facilitates to write, maintain and modify
long
programs
Facilitates to create the objects
representing entities from real world.
The possibility of creating a special
functions called constructors and
destructors
The possibility of overloading the operators
21
12 REVISION 3
13 EXAMS 3
40






MINEDUC/WDA, December 2011 90
SENIOR 6
Specific objectives Contents Teaching/learning activities

Use classes and Objects
Encapsulation


use the Constructors and destructors



use the inheritance





use polymorphisms


use arrays of objects




carry out a C++ project



class creation
object creation
function call

Definitions of the terms
Writings of the Constructors
Writing of the destructors

Basic classes and derived classes
Hierarchy of the classes
Collection of objects
Multiple inheritance


Virtual functions
Friend functions

Arrays of objects
Address of arrays
Pointers
pass an array to a function

use all the acquired concepts

describe the syntax of a class
exercise on how to write programs with
classes

Exercise on how to rewrite old
programs each one with a constructor
and a destructor

Exercise on writing programs
showing inheritance
show the difference between declaring
data or function as private, public and
protected

Exercise on how to write programs
with virtual functions


Exercise on arrays
write programs to sort the array
elements

write a program which includes the
acquired knowledge like, programs
which takes the names of the students
and sorts them alphabetically

MINEDUC/WDA, December 2011 91
DISTRIBUTION OF LESSONS: SENIOR 6
TERM 1
Week Specific objectives Contents Timing
(periods)
1-4

Use classes and Objects
Encapsulation

class creation
object creation
function call

14
5-10


use the Constructors and destructors Definitions of the terms
Writings of the Constructors
Writing of the destructors
24
11 Revision 4
12 Exams 4
46









MINEDUC/WDA, December 2011 92
TERM 2
Week Specific objectives Contents Timing
(periods)
1-6


use the inheritance Basic classes and derived classes
Hierarchy of the classes
Collection of objects
Multiple inheritance
24
7-11

use polymorphisms Virtual functions
Friend functions
20
12 REVISION 4
13 EXAMS 4
52

TERM 3
Week Specific objectives Contents Timing
(periods)
1-4

use arrays of objects _ Arrays of objects
_ Address of arrays
_ Pointers
_ pass an array to a function
16
5-10 carry out a C++ project use all the acquired concepts 24
11 REVISION 4
12 EXAMS 4
48



MINEDUC/WDA, December 2011 93
11.10. Maintenance
General Objectives:
The student will be able to:
Assemble a Computer
Make a diagnosis and troubleshoot a computer
Configure, update and upgrade a computer

SENIOR 4
Specific objectives Contents Teaching/learning activities

Connect a computer
















Identify the connectors for:
Keyboard (PS/2, DIN)
Mouse (PS/2, DUB9)
Screens (VGA, DVI)
Printer (USB, SUB25, Centronics)
Loudspeaker
Electrically connect a computer with
or without UPS
Power necessary for the UPS
What the inverter makes it possible
to protect
Power necessary for a regulator
What the regulator makes it possible
to protect
The power which delivers an
electrical connector is limited
Connect the computer to make it fully
Functional.


MINEDUC/WDA, December 2011 94
Specific objectives Contents Teaching/learning activities

Identify mother Board elements













identify the type and the characteristics of
the power supply


Configure and maintain the mouse and
keyboard

AT, ATX, BTX format
Identification and role of the
following elements: chipset northern
and southern
Crush system BIOS
CPU
jumpers, switches
Connector: PS/2, port series, Parallel
port, USB, VGA
IDE
SIMM, DIMM
Power supply connector
CPU socket (CPU slot)


Difference between AT, ATX power
supply housing.


Principles of mechanical and optical
mice.
When and how to clean the mouse
and the keyboard
The existence of keyboard adapted to
each country.
Keyboard configuration

List the elements found on a specific mother
board .
Draw a mother board












Write elements which make the
difference between the two power supply
housing.

Carry out a cleaning of the mouse and to
point out the difference between the
Optical mouse and the mechanical mouse.
Exercise on how to change keyboard
configuration



MINEDUC/WDA, December 2011 95
Specific objectives Contents Teaching/learning activities

Configure the display and identify its type
and point out its limits




identify and maintain a printer









install a scanner


identify and configure a modem


Identify the characteristics and the
possibilities of CD, DVD-ROM and writer
drives.

Type of screens: cathodic, LCD,
plasma.
The difference between the colored
displays and others (VGA and
inferior).

identify and maintain a printer
dot-matrix printer, jet of ink, Laser
Their advantages and disadvantage
Their principle of operation
Printer with cartridge colour, black,
yellow cyan, separate magenta.
Printer Cleaning

Les scanners.
The principle of Scanners

What a modem can do
internal modems and external
modems


modify the configuration
CD, DVD drive speed
The difference between a DVD
driver of simple and double layers.
Concept of combo
What does cash memory do?

Exercise on how to modify the configuration
of the screen and notice the effects.



Open the printer to observe its typical
components.








Scan a text and a photograph.
Install and use a scanner

install and configure a modem



Find the characteristic of a CD or DVD
drive.
Exercise on how to burn a CD


MINEDUC/WDA, December 2011 96
Specific objectives Contents Teaching/learning activities

Identify the type and the characteristics of a
hard disk






identify the format ,the type and
characteristics of RAM memory



identify the generation of the processor and
its characteristics

the hard disk components
Cylinder
Platters
Track
Sector
Configurations advised to put several
peripherals IDE.
Limitation of the BIOS and the
capacity of the discs.

Format SIMM, DIMM,
Contrary to the SIMMs, DIMMs
must be put in pairs.

Definition
Description and function
Generations of Processors
Role of a processor fan and sink
The use of cache memory (L1-L3)
The advantage and disadvantage of
the processors with big cache
memory.

Exercise on how to install discs or drives in a
computer.


Exercise on how to calculate the hard
disc capacity





To show RAM memory and to ask the
format or type of them



To show the difference in format
between the generations of processor

install a processor with its ventilator






MINEDUC/WDA, December 2011 97
Specific objectives Contents Teaching/learning activities

identify possibilities, formats and the
functions of the extension cards

Format AGP, PCI, ISA,VESA
Graphic cards
Sound card (sampling rate,
resolution, treatment processor of the
sound)
Network card (connectors, speed,
awakes by
chart network)
Video card acquisition
Ports (parallel and serial port
additional)
IDE Card (with RAID or not)
Multi-media card
Extension card request the limited
resources
IRQ, DMA, i/o
Driver Installation

To circulate different cards and ask the
students the function and the format of each
cards.








MINEDUC/WDA, December 2011 98
DISTRIBUTION OF LESSONS: SENIOR 4
TERM 1
Week Specific objectives Contents Timing
(periods)
1-2

Connect a computer Identify the connectors
Electrically connect a computer with or
without UPS

6
3-7

Identify mother Board elements elements of the mother Board 15
8-10

identify the type and the characteristics of the power
supply

Difference between AT ,ATX power supply
housing
9
11 Revision 3
12 Exams 3
36








MINEDUC/WDA, December 2011 99
TERM 2
Week Specific objectives Contents Timing
(periods)
1-2

Configure and maintain the mouse and keyboard Principles of mechanical and optical
mice.
Keyboard configuration
6
3-4

Configure the display and identify its type and point
out its limits

Type of screens: cathodic, LCD, plasma.
The difference between the colored displays and
others (VGA and inferior).

6
5-6

identify and maintain a printer


dot-matrix printer, jet of ink, Laser Their
advantages and disadvantage
Their principle of operation
Printer with cartridge colour, black,
yellow cyan, separate magenta.
Printer Cleaning
6
7-8 Install a scanner Les scanners
The principle of scanners
6
9

identify and configure a modem

What a modem can do
internal modems and external modems
modify the configuration
3
10-11

Identify the characteristics and the possibilities of
CD, DVD-ROM and writer drives.

CD, DVD drive speed 6
12 REVISION 3
13 EXAMS 3
39



MINEDUC/WDA, December 2011 100
TERM 3
Week Specific objectives Contents Timing
(periods)
1-3

Identify the type and the characteristics of a hard
disk

the hard disk components
Cylinder, Platters, Track and Sector
Configurations advised to put several peripherals
IDE.
Limitation of the BIOS and the capacity of the discs.

9
4


identify the format ,the type and characteristics of
RAM memory

Format SIMM, DIMM 3
5-6


identify the generation of the processor and its
characteristics
Define and describe Processors
Role of a processor fan and sink
The use of cache memory (L1-L3)
The advantage and disadvantage of the processors
with big cache memory.
6
7-10

identify possibilities, formats and the functions of
the extension cards

Format AGP, PCI, ISA,VESA
Graphic cards
Sound card (sampling rate, resolution, treatment
processor of the sound)
Network card (connectors, speed, awakes by
chart network)
Video card acquisition
Ports (parallel and serial port additional)
IDE Card (with RAID or not)
Multi-media card
Extension card request the limited recourses
IRQ, DMA, i/o, Driver Installation
12
11 REVISION 3
12 EXAMS 3
36
MINEDUC/WDA, December 2011 101
SENIOR 5

Specific objectives

Contents

Teaching/learning activities
Assemble and disassemble a computer




















Configure a BIOS elements (CMOS)

ESD (Electrostatic discharge)
effects.
The existence of protection material
ESD .
- Set the mother board inside
the case
- Set the hard disks and CD
drive,
DVD drive in the case.
Insert the extension cards
Connect the power supplier to the
motherboard
Connect the panel (POWER
SWITCH, HD LED)
Insert the processor and jumpers
configuration
Set up of RAM memory
Connect the hard disks , CD driver,
DVD driver and the diskette drivers
on the motherboard
Configure the hard disk drives in
master and Slave

What does computer do when it
starts
Possibility of updating the BIOS
Why update the BIOS
Main parameters of the BIOS: hour
and date
Hard disk configuration
To mount and dismount a computer




















Change BIOS parameters and observe
effects.
Launch the CMOS setup utility
MINEDUC/WDA, December 2011 102

Specific objectives Contents Teaching/learning activities

configure the computer by using the
possibilities offered by the control panel











Computer maintenance

System icon
Peripherals configuration
IRQ, DMA, I/O main operation
Configuration of:
mouse
keyboard
modem
network
printer
scanner
video and sound cards
fire wall
add/delete programs

Preventive maintenance:
Regular cleaning
Properly shut down the computer
Use of maintenance tools
(scandisk,)
Maintenance tools

Configure computer peripherals via the
windows control panel












Clean outside and inside the computer.
Launch scandisk, defragmentation tools.





MINEDUC/WDA, December 2011 103
Specific objectives Contents Teaching/learning activities

install an OS and other software













update the operating systems and software






protect a computer






How to launch the installation
Bootable diskette
Boot from a CD
Installation of win98, win2k, winXP,
Linux
Partitioning and formatting
Installation of a peripheral which is
not recognized (drivers)
Multiboot
Installation of an office and other
software.
Destination File
Licences to install an OS
Required resources to install and use
a software (RAM, Disc, CPU)

The reason to update
resolution of bug
problem of safety
new functionality
lack of compatibility
Update using service pack
update via internet

That does virus mean?
Use of an antivirus
Why and how to update an antivirus
understand the options repair,
remove, quarantined and when to use
them
danger of an infected diskette when
you are starting a Computer
Exercise on how to Install the operating
system and application software (OS +
office)














Exercise on how to update an operating
system by a service pack.
Update office using its high version of office
(e.g. Office 97 at 2000)


Run an anti virus and detect, remove and put
a virus in quarantine.



MINEDUC/WDA, December 2011 104

Specific objectives


Contents

Teaching/learning activities









use various of maintenance tools,


Vectors of transmission (media,
network, Internet, email)
The type of damage create by the
viruses Macro virus
Spyware, the danger of these
programs

Protection:
Antivirus
Anti spyware
Fire wall
Concept of encoding
password (OS, BIOS)

Scandisk
Doctor disc
Defragmentation, Disc speed
Msconfig
Information system
Disc Cleaning
System Restoration











Execute some maintenance tools and check
its effect.





MINEDUC/WDA, December 2011 105
Specific objectives

Contents Teaching/learning activities
Diagnose a computer problem



Repair with good methodologies.





Recover and restore data













Assemble a server

Means of diagnosing:
Internet
OS messages
Peripheral manager

How to avoid
endanger oneself (electricity)
lose the data of the customer
destroy the material of the customer
the most efficient methodology

Technique:
transfer the hard disk on another PC
Bootable CD and bootable diskette
Mode without failures
Restoration CD
Company specialized in the recovery of
information on damaged hard disks.
Possible support for the saving, their
advantages and their disadvantages:
diskette, CDR, CDRW, DVD, flash disc,
JAZ, ZIP, hard disk.

Specific Material of the server:
RAM Memory with error correction
high safety of the Memory (bar kingstone)
SCSI
RAID 0,1,5
Dimensioning RAM, hard Disk

Create a realistic computer problem and
detect to be fixed.

Exercise on how to save data before any
maintenance work





Exercise on how to restore saved data from
the back up media











Define a server as a powerful computer


MINEDUC/WDA, December 2011 106
Specific objectives Contents

Teaching/learning activities
use and maintain CD-ROM, DVD, Diskette











repair and maintain a laptop







What we should not do with CD,
DVD, Disquette
Approximate value of capacity of
these various supports
The difference between CD-ROM,
CDR,CD-RW
The difference between simple and
double DVD, layer, face
Various types of diskettes
Advantages and disadvantages of
these various media
That various technologies of support
are incompatible between it
(impossible to read a DVD on a
reader CD)
Concept of zone for the DVD

Exchangeable Elements (battery, hard Disk,
RAM) PCMCIA
tools
type of chart
Consumption according to the processor,
screen

burn a copy of a software to show the
consequences of the scratch and to point out
that if there is little scratch, the CD
nevertheless functions but that after a certain
number CD become unusable








Exercise on how to insert a PCMCIA cards.




MINEDUC/WDA, December 2011 107
DISTRIBUTION OF LESSONS: SENIOR 5
TERM 1
Week Specific objectives Contents Timing
(periods)
1-3

Assemble and disassemble a computer Assembling a computer 12
4-5

Configure a BIOS elements (CMOS) Configuration of BIOS 8
6-8

configure the computer by using the possibilities
offered by the control panel

Control panel 12
9-10

Computer maintenance Preventive maintenance 8
11 Revision 4
12 Exams 4
48








MINEDUC/WDA, December 2011 108
TERM 2
Week Specific objectives Contents Timing
(periods)
1-3

install an OS and other software

Installation of OS and other software 12
4-5

update the operating systems and software The reason to update

8
6-8

protect a computer Virus, antivirus, spyware, Anti spyware
Fire wall
Concept of encoding
password (OS, BIOS)
12
9-11

use various of maintenance tools, Maintenance tools:
Scandisk
Doctor disc
Defragmentation, Disc speed
Msconfig
Information system
Disc Cleaning
System Restoration
12
12 REVISION 4
13 EXAMS 4
52





MINEDUC/WDA, December 2011 109
TERM 3
Week Specific objectives Contents Timing
(periods)
1-2

Diagnosise a computer problem Means of diagnosing 8
3

repair with good methodologies How to avoid 4
4-5

Recover and restore data Technique 8
6

Assemble a server Specific Material of the server 4
7-8
















use and maintain CD-ROM, DVD, Diskette What we should not do with CD, DVD,
Disquette
Approximate value of capacity of these
various supports
The difference between CD-ROM, CD-
R, CD-RW
The difference between simple and
double DVD, layer, face
Various types of diskettes
Advantages and disadvantages of these
various media
That various technologies of support are
incompatible between it (impossible to
read a DVD on a reader CD) Concept of
zone for the DVD






8
MINEDUC/WDA, December 2011 110
Week Specific objectives Contents Timing
(periods)
9

repair and maintain a laptop Exchangeable Elements (battery, hard Disk,
RAM)
PCMCIA
tools
type of chart
Consumption according to the processor, screen
4
10 set up network material Switch and hub Connections 4
11 REVISION 4
12 EXAMS 4
48












MINEDUC/WDA, December 2011 111
11.11. Networking
General objectives:
At the end of this course, Student should be able to:
Design and build a network of two or more computers
Install and configure a network of two or more computers

Senior 5
Specific objectives Contents

Teaching/learning activities
List the means of transport of information







Describe network Architecture



Identify connections material and define it
utility






Wired
Optical Support
Fiber optic
Copper (UTP-STP): straight, cross over
Console
Serial
Coaxial
Hertzian support (wireless)
LAN: Infrared, Bluetooth, Wifi, Line
sight
WAN: Satellite, Line sight
Satellite
Transmitting terrestrial
Peer to peer
Client Server architecture

Hub
Switch
Bridge
repeater
Router





















MINEDUC/WDA, December 2011 112
Specific objectives Contents

Teaching/learning activities

Identify with each layer of OSI model, the
elements of the network


OSI Layers model
- Physical
- Data link
- Network
- Transport
- Session
- Presentation
- Application
Make a cable UTP/STP
To proceed in the
observation and the manipulation
To make cross and normal network cables





To involve the students in building a peer to
peer network and a client-server network

To proceed to the extension and the
Segmentation of the networks using a Hub, a
router, a switch


To justify the implementation of model OSI
To Conduct in identifying the elements of
the network according to their layer OSI





MINEDUC/WDA, December 2011 113
DISTRIBUTION OF LESSONS: SENIOR 5
TERM 1
Week Specific objectives Contents Timing
(periods)
1-2

Define a network Introduction to the networks 6
3-7

Describe the facilities of the Network To share the files
To share information
To share Printer
To communicate (Sending and Receiving of the
messages).

15
8

Describe the Types of networks LAN (local area network)
WAN (wide area network)
MAN (Metropolitan Area Network).
3
9-10

Describe and Explain the network topologies Star topology
Bus topology
Ring topology
Mesh topology
6
11 Revision 3
12 Exams 3
36





MINEDUC/WDA, December 2011 114
TERM 2
Week Specific objectives Contents Timing
(periods)
1-7

List the means of transport of information
Make a cable UTP/STP

Optical Support
Hertzian support
21
8-11

Describe network Architecture Peer to peer
Client Server architecture
12
12 REVISION 3
13 EXAMS 3
39
TERM 3
Week Specific objectives Contents Timing
(periods)
1-4

Identify connections material and define it utility Hub; Switch; Bridge; repeater; Router 12
5-10

Identify with each layer of OSI model, the elements
of the network

OSI Layers model (Physical; Data link;
Network;
Transport; Session; Presentation; Application
18
11 REVISION 3
12 EXAMS 3
36




MINEDUC/WDA, December 2011 115
SENIOR 6
Specific objectives Contents

Teaching/learning activities
Define the Protocols in computer




Configure a network with protocol TCP/IP
and class addresses
Configure a DHCP server, DNS server,
Router server, Proxy server

Protocol Definition
Protocol Roles
Classes of the protocol
Some example of the protocols
usually used

The comparison between TCP and
OSI MODEL
IP addresses
Mask
Various Classes of networks
IP addresses Creation
Addresses of the sub-networks
Static Configuration of the IP
addresses
Automatic Configuration (dynamic)
of IP addresses (DHCP)
Configuration of DHCP
Configuration DNS
Configuration of Router
Configuration of proxy

Using examples of the adapted contexts, for
example : an international conference, to
explain the need for speaking a language
(protocol) common


To configure a LAN network with IP
addresses and mask
To point out the difference between a logic
network and a physics by modifying the
network configuration





MINEDUC/WDA, December 2011 116
Specific objectives Contents

Teaching/learning activities
Use the network tools







Make the difference between Intranet,
Internet



Connect to Internet







Manage Server
The Ping tool
The Tracert tool
The Netstat tool
Winipcfg
Ipconfig
WHOIS tool
The Nslookup tool

Intranet Definition
Internet Definition
Difference between Intranet and
Internet

Internet service provider (ISP)
Connections to the Internet by
Modem (user name, password, phone
number)
Connections to the internet by
wireless connections (SAT, wireless)
xDSL (DIGITAL Subscriber Lines)

Management of :
- Users, Account and Password
- Permissions
- Network security
- The back up


student to use the network tools





students to make a Intranet network


students to connect the PC to the Internet by
telephone modem




students to manage the server


MINEDUC/WDA, December 2011 117
DISTRIBUTION OF LESSONS: SENIOR 6
TERM 1
Week Specific objectives Contents Timing
(periods)
1-3

Define the Protocols in computer Protocol Definition
Protocol Roles
Classes of the protocol
Some example of the protocols usually
used
15
4-10

Configure a network with protocol TCP/IP and class
addresses
Configure a DHCP server, DNS server, Router
server, Proxy server

The comparison between TCP and OSI
MODEL
IP addresses
Mask
Various Classes of networks
IP addresses Creation
Addresses of the sub-networks
Static Configuration of the IP addresses
Automatic Configuration (dynamic) of IP
addresses (DHCP)
Configuration of DHCP
Configuration DNS
Configuration of Router
Configuration of proxy
35
11 Revision 5
12 Exams 5
60



MINEDUC/WDA, December 2011 118
TERM 2
Week Specific objectives Contents Timing
(periods)
1-4

Use the network tools The Ping tool
The Tracert tool
The Netstat tool
Winipcfg
Ipconfig
WHOIS tool
The Nslookup tool
20
5-7

Make the difference between Intranet, Internet Intranet Definition
Internet Definition
Difference between Intranet and Internet
15
8-11

Connect to Internet Internet service provider (ISP)
Connections to the Internet by Modem
(user name,password, phone number)
Connections to the internet by wireless
connections (SAT, wireless)
xDSL (DIGITAL Subscriber Lines)
20
12 REVISION 5
13 EXAMS 5
65






MINEDUC/WDA, December 2011 119
TERM 3
Week Specific objectives Contents Timing
(periods)
1-10

Manage Server Management of :
Users, Account and Password
Permissions
Network security
The back up
50
11 REVISION 5
12 EXAMS 5
60












MINEDUC/WDA, December 2011 120
11.12. Introduction to computers
General objective:
At the end of this course, Student should be able to:
Organize and manage files in folders


Specific objectives

Contents

Teaching/learning activities
Relate the history of computer science


Give the impacts of computers









Identify the main components of a computer

Definition of computer related concepts
(IT,ICT, COMPUTER SCIENCE,)
History of computers

Impact
social
economic
communication
crime
security
privacy

Computer description
Description of the computer
Computer components
Hardware (screen, keyboard,
mouse, CPU, printer)
Software (System and application
software)










Demonstrate computers components in the
laboratory.



MINEDUC/WDA, December 2011 121

Specific objectives


Contents

Teaching/learning activities
List the different families of computers





Families of computers
Mainframes
Micro-computers (PC)
Desktop computers
Portable Computers (Laptop or
notebook)
Show computers of each family mentioned













MINEDUC/WDA, December 2011 122

Specific objectives

Contents

Teaching/learning activities

Differentiate type of memories










Recognize various connectors and ports

Memory
Definition
Role of the memory
Features
Capacity
Speed
Non volatility
Types of memories
ROM memory
RAM memory

Connectors
Definition
I/O ports and connectors
Serial ports
Parallel port
USB
Keyboard , Mouse Connectors
VGA Connector

Explain the advantages and disadvantages of
each type of memory






observe the different connectors as well as
the input and output ports







MINEDUC/WDA, December 2011 123
Specific objectives Contents Teaching/learning activities

Use different peripherals


explain the role of different peripherals







Explain the role of the hard disk



Use the keyboard





Use the mouse

Connect a mouse

Peripherals
Definition

Categories of peripherals
Input peripheral (mouse, keyboard,
scanner, CD/DVD-ROM and
Diskette drives)
Output peripheral (monitor,
Diskette, CD/DVD-ROM
writer, Printer)

The hard disk
Role of the hard disk


The keyboard
- Definition
- keyboard connector
- Keyboard AZERTY
- Keyboard QWERTY
- Shortcut keys
Mouse
- Definition
- Mouse CONNECTOR
- Type of mouse
- Optical mouse
- Mechanical mouse
- wireless mouse

connect the mouse, the keyboard, screen etc


Explore the CD, DVD







Learn about the role and the contents of the
hard disk


Switch between AZERTY and QWERTY
To connect the keyboard on the central
processing unit






Observe and use different types of mouse
available to the school

MINEDUC/WDA, December 2011 124

Specific objectives Contents Teaching/learning activities

Use external memories (diskette, flash disk,
CD)


use the help function

print a help content




Use desktops elements






Use text editors


External Memory
Definition
Role
Advantage and disadvantage Help

Help
Definition
Use of the help
Index
Help Headings
Printing of help content

Windows and its components:
desktop
Task bar
Start menu
Minimize, maximize , Restore and
Close buttons
My Computer


Text Editor functions
Selection
copy/cut /paste
standard toolbars
Formatting toolbars
Save /save as
print command

Transfer a file from one computer to another
using a diskette, flash, CD...



Display and print the help contents
When and how to use help





Use the desktop, the tasks bar and the menu
bar
start or launch Microsoft Word






Practical exercises on copy/cut /paste
Save/Save as

MINEDUC/WDA, December 2011 125

Specific objectives Contents Teaching/learning activities

Manage and use files











File management
New folder
Copy/move of folder from one
location to Another
Move and drop objects.
Creating files by changing the
extension
Creating shortcuts.
Managing files and disc drives.
Renaming/deleting files and folders.
Recycle Bin
File compression



create files and folders to copy/move from
one folder to another
Create a hierarchy of file/Folder

















MINEDUC/WDA, December 2011 126
DISTRIBUTION OF LESSONS SENIOR 4
TERM 1
Week Specific objectives Contents Timing
(periods)
1-4 Relate the history of computers
Give the impacts of computers

Definition of computer related concepts
Impact (social, economic, communication,
crime, security, privacy
8
5-7 Identify the main components of a computer


List the different families of computers
Computer description (Hardware, Software )

Families of computers
6
8-10

Differentiate type of memories Memory

Definition
Role of the memory
Features
Types of memories
6
11 Revision 2
12 Exams 2
24







MINEDUC/WDA, December 2011 127
TERM 2
Week Specific objectives Contents Timing
(periods)
1-2

Recognize various connectors and ports

Connectors
I/O ports and connectors

4
3-5

Use different peripherals
explain the role of different peripherals


Peripherals
Input and Output peripheral

6
6-7

Explain the role of the hard disk

The hard disk
Role of the hard disk

4
8-9

Use the keyboard

The keyboard

4
10-11

Use the mouse
Connect a mouse


Mouse
Definition
Mouse CONNECTOR
Type of mouse

4
12 REVISION 2
13 EXAMS 2
26




MINEDUC/WDA, December 2011 128
TERM 3
Week Specific objectives Contents Timing
(periods)
1-2

Use external memories (diskette, flash disk, CD)

External Memory
Definition
Role
Advantage and disadvantage Help

4
3-4

use the help function
print a help content

Help
Definition
Use of the help and Index
Help Headings
Printing of help content
4
5-6

Use desktops elements Windows and its components: 4
7

Use text editors Text Editor functions

2
8-10 Manage and use files

File management 6
11 REVISION 2
12 EXAMS 2
24





MINEDUC/WDA, December 2011 129
11.13. System analysis
General objective
At the end of this course, Student should be able to:
Produce terms of reference for computerization of a company
SENIOR 6
Specific objectives Contents

Teaching/learning activities
define an information system
give examples of information systems


Determine elements of information
system of a company
determine the programmed actions of a
company
identify the automated information
determine sub systems in an information
system



Identify different relationships in a
Company
Definition of information system



Information system of a company
elements of information system of a
company
services and functions of a company
programmed actions of a company
Information system that can be
automated
Automated information system
Functional sub system of an
information System
Concept of relationship
Definition
Classification of entities
Permanent entities
Movement type entities
Classification of relationships
Permanent relationship
movement type relationship
pupils to describe the operation of their
school or their family


Students to answer questions such as who
does what? When and how? etc. (for some
companies)
Group discussions on role and
responsibilities from their class and families





use diagram to describe the hierarchy of
communication and relation in the everyday
life

MINEDUC/WDA, December 2011 130
Specific objectives Contents

Teaching/learning activities
identify the techniques of collection of
information to be used for a given case
differentiate the various techniques
from collections of information


To explain the steps of computerization
of an organization
Tools to collect information
Interview
Document analysis
Enquiries by questionnaires
Observation

Steps of the computerization plan
Preliminary studies
Analysis of what exists
Definition of the objectives
Schedule of conditions
Invitation to tender
Choice
Computerization
Functional Analysis
Structural Analysis
Programming (development of the
solution)
Establishment of the solution
Test decks
Starting
Maintenance
Documentation
pupils to make investigation and specify the
techniques of data-gathering used




pupils to make a study of computerization of
a company and present specifications and
conditions




MINEDUC/WDA, December 2011 131
TERM 1
Week Specific objectives Contents Timing
(periods)
1-2 define an information system
give examples of information systems
Definition of information system 4
3-6 Determine elements of information system
of a company
Information system of a company
elements of information system of a
company
services and functions of a company
8
7-10 Determine the program actions of a
Company
programmed actions of a company 8
11 Revision 2
12 Exams 2
24

TERM 2
Week Specific objectives Contents Timing
(periods)
1-3 identify the automated information Automated information system 6
4-6 determine sub systems in an information system Functional sub system of an information 6
7-11 Identify different relationships in a
company
Concept of relationship
Classification of relationships
10
12 REVISION 2
13 EXAMS 2
26


MINEDUC/WDA, December 2011 132
TERM 3
Week Specific objectives Contents Timing
(periods)

1-3
identify the techniques of collection of
information to be used for a given case
Tools to collect information: 3
differentiate the various techniques from collections
of information
Tools to collect information: 3
4-10 To explain the steps of computerization of an
Organization
Steps of the computerization plan
Preliminary studies
Computerization
Documentation
14
11 REVISION 2
12 EXAMS 2
24







MINEDUC/WDA, December 2011 133
11.14. Entrepreneurial Competences in Technical Schools
MODULE 1 Skill element aimed at: STUDENTS GET A PRECISE IDEA OF WHAT IS MEANT BY SELF-EMPLOYMENT,
THE CONTRACTOR AND HIS COMPANY BASED ON THE FACT THAT THEY HAVE EXPERIENCED BOTH
OPPORTUNITIES AND DRAWBACKS OF AN ENTREPRENEURIAL LFE.

Terminal objective: At the end of this workshop, students will have done the course of the entrepreneurial life basic notions in relation to
the entrepreneur, his environment, market mechanisms as well as notion of product..

Duration of training Theory: 20 H Practice: 20 H
N Vocational skills Vocational activities to be carried out Necessary
theoretical
knowledge in
mathematics
Necessary
theoretical
knowledge in
physics
Necessary
theoretical
knowledge in
chemistry
Resources
1.1 To explain basic notions
of supply and demand
To be able to distinguish the 5 P
(product, price, place, promotion,
person), and to explain their
importance;
To understand that any product
has to be oriented towards the
client need and that it is
advantageous to discover niches
(mainly in personal specialties)
To discover the necessity to
produce goods/services
different from the ones
available on the market




MINEDUC/WDA, December 2011 134
N Vocational skills Vocational activities to be carried out Necessary
theoretical
knowledge in
mathematics
Necessary
theoretical
knowledge in
physics
Necessary
theoretical
knowledge in
chemistry
Resources
1.2 To develop an
individual evaluation
basis concerning a
professional career
(entrepreneur or
employee).
To explain entrepreneurial
needs
To define certain skills that if
deepened play, an important
role in professional experience.
To set up a personal
characteristic
To define an entrepreneur
typical feature of someone who
in general has been successful.












MINEDUC/WDA, December 2011 135
MODULE 2 Skill elements aimed at: STUDENTS DEEPEN THEIR ENTREPRENEURIAL SKILLS

Terminal objective: At the end of this workshop, students will have elaborated marketing strategies for their mini-projects taking into
account their professional abilities.
Duration of training Theory 20 H Practice 20 H
N Vocational
skills
Vocational activities to be carried out Necessary
theoretical
knowledge in
mathematics
Necessary
theoretical
knowledge in
physics
Necessary
theoretical
knowledge in
chemistry
Resources
2.1 To elaborate a
marketing
strategy
for a mini-
project
To carry out an auto-diagnosis on their
marketable skills
financial resources
objectives and other important abilities for
the entrepreneurial life (savings , projects
preparation);
To generate hundreds of ideas of projects
from which a rigorous selection follows.
To select three best project ideas that are
feasible in the area, keeping in mind certain
important environmental factors.
To identify the best project taking into
accounts proper strengths and weaknesses
from one side and opportunities and threats
in the environment on the other side.
To elaborate a marketing strategy for a mini-
project basing oneself on the 5 P.
To set up a planning that covers the three
coming months in order to gather missing
information in formulating a final marketing
strategy.



MINEDUC/WDA, December 2011 136
MODULE 3 Skill element aimed at: STUDENTS WILL PUT INTO PRACTICE THE FIRST TWO MODULES CONTENT
WITH THE HELP OF MINI-PROJECT CARRIED OUT IN GROUPS AND BETESTED OUT ON KEY ELEMENTS OF
ENTREPRENEURIAL LIFE. THEY WILLGIVE THEMSELVES MID-TERM ENTREPRENEURIAL OBJECTIVES.

Terminal objective: At the end of this workshop, students will have experienced key elements of entrepreneurial life through carrying
out mini-project in groups
Duration of training: Theory 20 H Practice 20 H
N Vocational
skills
Vocational activities to be carried out Necessary
theoretical
knowledge in
mathematics
Necessary
theoretical
knowledge in
physics
Necessary
theoretical
knowledge in
chemistry
Resourc
es
3.1 To discover
vocational and
entrepreneuri
al
skills as well
as
current
financial
states
To identify and analyse mini-projects that
correspond to their skills and their financial
state
To prepare and carry out a market study for
mini-projects
To develop and to improve a marketing
strategy
To acquire financial management principles
and techniques as for example the calculation
of cost price, selling price and cashbook
keeping
To manufacture certain goods or develop
certain services benefits in order to market
them on the city market
To experience market mechanisms (the 5 P:
product, price, place, promotion, person) in
selling a good or a service on the market
To analyze marketing results of their product
(concerning marketing technique, management
and finance);


MINEDUC/WDA, December 2011 137
DISTRIBUTION OF LESSONS: SENIOR 5; SENIOR 6
SENIOR 4 SENIOR 5 SENIOR 6
Module 1 Students get a precise idea of what is meant by self
employment, the contractor and his company, based on
the fact that they have experienced both opportunities and
drawbacks of an entrepreneurial life.


x

Module 2 Students deepen their entrepreneurial skills. x
Module 3 Students will put into practice the first two modules
content with the help of mini-project carried out in group
and be tested out on key elements of entrepreneurial life.
They will give themselves mid-term entrepreneurial
objectives.


x










MINEDUC/WDA, December 2011 138
REFERENCES
1. BRINDLEY K., Word 2002 Made Simple, Made Simple Books, Woburn, 2002
2. BURROWS T, Creating presentations, Dorling Kindersley Ltd, London, 2000
3. COOPER B., Searching the Internet, Dorling Kindersley Ltd, London, 2002
4. DINWIDDIE R., Excel: Formulas & Functions, Dorling Kindersley Ltd, London, 2002
5.http ://www.bced.gov.ca/
6. http://www.dmoz.org/Computers/Hardware/Peripherals/
7. http:/www.ltscotland.org.uk
8. MINEDUC, Secretarial Studies Syllabus, Secretarial option, Kigali, December, 2005
9. MORRIS S., Excel 2000 Made Simple, Made Simple Books, Woburn, 2000
10. www.commentcamarche.com
11. gts teaching materials,1999
12. Cisco academy documentations. 1999.
13. Robert Lafore, Object Oriented programming in Turbo C++, The waite Group Press, 1991 .
14. Cisco academy documentations, 1999.
15. Donald avec James Chellis, Lisa, Windows 2000 Server, MCSE, second edition, BPB PUBLICATIONS.
16. Raghu Ramakrishnan et Johannes Gehrke, Database Management Systems second edition, Mc Graw Hill.
17. Collins Ritchie, Modern Operating systems
18. ROBERT LAFORE, Object-oriented programming in turbo C++, The wait Group, Inc. Calfonia 1991.
19. DAVID I. SCHNEIDER, Essentials of visual basic 6.0
20. PRENTICE HALL, Programming, upper Saddle River, New Jersey 0 7458, 1999.
21. CLAUDE DELANNOY, Programmation en C, eyrolle





MINEDUC/WDA, December 2011 139
PARTICIPANTS TO THE DEVELOPMENT REVIEW OF THIS SYLLABUS

1. Eng. HABIMANA Theodore, Director of TVET Training, WDA
2. MPAMO Aim, Senior Curriculum Developer, WDA
3. KARAMUTSA Gerard, WDA Facilitator
4. HATEGEKIMANA Gratien, WDA Facilitator
5. TURATSINZE Pacifique, WDA Facilitator
6. MUKANGARAMBE Judith, WDA Facilitator
7. NDAHIRO Andre, WDA Facilitator
8. Esperance NDAYISENGA, Trainer at Ecole Technique S
t
Kizito SAVE
9. Jean Claude UWAYEZU, Trainer at College S
t
Emmanuel/IT de HANIKA
10. Nathan SEMABUMBA, Trainer at College S
t
Emmanuel/IT de HANIKA
11. UWUMUREMYI Dominique Savio, Teacher at PSVF
12. NDAGIJIMANA Jerome, Trainer at SOS-THS KIGALI
13. NIYONSENGA Alex, Trainer at KABUGA High School




MINEDUC/WDA, December 2011 140


















CURRICULUM DE FRANAIS

OPTION : COMPUTER SCIENCE
LEVEL : A2



MINEDUC/WDA, December 2011 141
0. INTRODUCTION

Le programme de lenseignement de la langue franaise dans la filire Menuiserie a t conu de manire
rendre cohrent le systme ducatif rwandais et rpondre aux impratifs lis au statut du franais dans notre pays.

Le franais, lune des langues officielles de notre pays, jouit du statut spcial de langue enseigne et administrative.
C'est une langue de communication qui permet aux Rwandais d'entrer en contact avec le monde extrieur. Le franais permet aussi aux jeunes
d'tudier, de s'informer et aux intellectuels de faire des recherches dans les diffrents domaines du savoir.

Dans le contexte du multilinguisme d la situation politique et socioconomique du pays, le franais est une
langue enseigne en concordance avec dautres. Lapplication de la langue franaise au Rwanda et ailleurs exige qu'elle soit profondment
enseigne et parfaitement matrise par le menuisier car elle lui servira d'outil de communication et d'instrument de travail dans diverses
activits quotidiennes.

Au premier cycle, il tait question de faire acqurir llve, de faon explicite et dtaille, le maximum de
contenus de base. Au second cycle, il s'agira davantage de dvelopper, d'amliorer, de consolider et de fixer les acquis antrieurs. C'est ce
niveau que l'apprenant s'exercera travailler mthodiquement dans une langue de spcialit en faisant preuve d'esprit d'observation, d'analyse,
de synthse, de critique et de discrtion.

Pour ce faire, le choix des supports didactiques et notamment celui des textes et des illustrations sera effectu
suivant l'option de l'apprenant pour le prparer embrasser les diverses orientations de sa vie professionnelle.

MINEDUC/WDA, December 2011 142
L'laboration de ce programme sera centre sur les points suivants :

- Les orientations gnrales
- Les objectifs gnraux
- Les objectifs spcifiques
- Les contenus notionnels
- Les notes mthodologiques
- Lvaluation
- Les facteurs particuliers
- Les recommandations
- La bibliographie.

1. LES ORIENTATIONS GENERALES

Outre le perfectionnement permanent des capacits de comprhension et d'expression orales et crites
acquises aux niveaux infrieurs, l'apprentissage de la langue franaise dans les coles de menuiserie doit dvelopper chez l'lve la capacit de
raisonnement, d'analyse, de critique et de synthse.

Dans cette optique, la diversit des supports textuels suivant l'option doit lui permettre d'accder aux
diffrentes formes d'informations utiles et de s'imprgner de la culture scientifique et technologique.

Ce programme dans ces dtails, permettra aux professeurs de mieux enseigner le franais de spcialit et
d'exploiter les contenus grammaticaux jugs fondamentaux.

MINEDUC/WDA, December 2011 143
2. LES OBJECTIFS

2.1 Objectifs gnraux

A la fin de la filire de menuiserie A
2
, l'apprenant devra tre capable de :

- S'exprimer correctement en franais oral et crit.
- Comprendre et analyser diffrents types de messages oraux et crits.
- Travailler mthodiquement en faisant preuve d'esprit d'observation, d'analyse, de critique et de synthse.
- Transmettre correctement les connaissances acquises dans la langue de spcialit.
- Analyser, juger et expliquer les situations-problmes et tude de cas.










MINEDUC/WDA, December 2011 144
2.2 Objectifs spcifiques

A la fin du programme de la 4
me
anne de menuiserie llve sera capable de :

Comptences Objectifs spcifiques


1. Comprhension orale et crite


- Interprter sans difficult un message sonore, visuel ou crit
- Dceler la structure et l'enchanement des ides d'un support oral ou crit.
- Identifier les thmes, les sous-thmes, les ides gnrales d'un message lu ou crit
- Reprer diffrents lments d'un message oral ou crit (personnages, circonstances, lieu chronologie
des faits).
- Identifier diffrents types de messages crits.
- Identifier la typographie d'un texte (pauses, longueur de vers, de paragraphes, ponctuation,
articulateurs principaux).
2. Expression orale et crite


- Produire un message personnel cohrent et consistant dans une langue correcte et cela avec
aisance.
- Expliquer et dcrire une situation, partir d'un support visuel, audio-visuel, sonore et crite
- Dfendre oralement et par crit son point de vue et son opinion.
- Restituer fidlement les ides en rsumant dans ses propres termes un message donn et selon
les consignes.
- Rdiger une lettre, un rapport, un C.V, un mmo suivant les techniques appropries.


MINEDUC/WDA, December 2011 145
A la fin du programme de la 5
me
anne de Menuiserie llve sera capable de :

Comptences Objectifs spcifiques
1. Comprhension orale et crite

- Interprter sans difficult un rapport argumentatif
- Reprer la structure et les ides essentielles du document original (crit ou sonore).
- Suivre un expos et retenir les ides
principales.
- Conjuguer convenablement les verbes suivant leurs groupes
- Identifier les lments situationnels importants dans leur contexte spatio-temporel et socioculturel.
- Identifier les types de messages crits.
- Analyser les personnages et leurs
relations dans le rcit.
- Interprter sans difficult un message
sonore, visuel ou crit.

2. Expression orale et crite

- Etayer solidement son argumentation manire persuader, convaincre son auditoire.
- Reformuler et condenser clairement, avec concision les ides rnatresses du document original dans
ses propres termes.
- Animer un expos dans le but d'informer, d'intresser, de convaincre et de susciter l'agrment de son
auditoire.
- Ecrire rapidement et parfaitement un texte quelconque suivant les rgles de lorthographe
- Rdiger un rapport et un compte rendu suivant les techniques appropries.
- Rdiger un texte publicitaire avec ou sans lgende
- Prendre des notes claires et concises
- Mener convenablement une enqute par questionnaire

MINEDUC/WDA, December 2011 146
A la fin du programme de la 6
me
anne de Menuiserie llve sera capable de :

Comptences Objectifs spcifiques
1. Comprhension orale et crite

- Interprter, discerner et hirarchiser diffrents messages sa porte.
- Lire et comprendre un rapport, un P.V et y recueillir des informations essentielles et
utiles.
- Commenter sur un message radiodiffus ou tlvis ou tlphonique
- Lire et interprter un message crit (dans un journal, une affiche, sur une
banderole (sur une pancarte...)
- Interprter une affiche et un texte publicitaire.
- Suivre ou lire un expos, en retenir les
ides principales, dceler les liens logiques et le poids des arguments.
- Lire et interprter un discours solennel.
2. Expression orale et crite

- Accepter, rfuter, amender lopinion d'autrui et proposer son point de vue.
- Etayer solidement son argumentation de manire persuader, convaincre son
auditoire
- Prsenter convenablement son curriculum vitae
- Rdiger correctement une lettre officielle, un rapport, un P.V, un compte-rendu, un
texte publicitaire, un
communiqu relatif son domaine.
- Animer un expos en vue d'informer et de convaincre son auditoire.
- Mener une enqute l'aide d'une interview.
- Rdiger et prsenter un discours solennel.



MINEDUC/WDA, December 2011 147
3. CONTENUS NOTIONNELS

3.1 Contenu notionnel : 4
me
anne de Menuiserie

ACTIVITES

CONTENUS NOTIONNELS

1. .Explication et description











Le vocabulaire technique propre une spcialit
L'explication par des exemples prcis
Types d'explication :
- progressive
- logique
- amplifie
- Organisation et la structure d'un support
conformment aux diffrentes tapes
d'explication
- Enumration et caractrisation ordonnes des
lments d'un support
- Le vocabulaire prcis li.au champ lexical de la
MINEDUC/WDA, December 2011 148
chose dcrite
- Concrtisation d'une ide abstraite
- Description objective et subjective
- Situation de l'vnement dcrit dans le temps et
dans l'espace
- Articulation de diffrentes parties d'une
Description
2.Mode d'emploi

- Conseils et indications donner
- Contre-indications
- Risques, prcautions
- Effets ou rsultats
- Effets indsirables
- Caractristiques et proprits
- Mode d'utilisation

3. Lexpos Les caractristiques d'un bon expos
- un plan explicite et vident
- formulation avec vigueur des ides principales
- doit tenir compte de l'auditoire (registre,
- vocabulaire, ge...)
- doit tre clair, vivant, intressant (gestes, regard,
- voix, sourire, ton, conviction, dynamisme, rythme, intonation...)
Structuration du temps de prise de parole.

MINEDUC/WDA, December 2011 149
4. Le texte publicitaire Les caractristiques des textes publicitaires
- images bien choisies
-texte attrayant en rapport avec l'image
- le slogan
- la signature de la firme
- Les titres appropris et qui ressortent
5. LArgumentation

Disposition convenable des arguments

- Les tapes de largumentation (introduction
dveloppement, conclusion).
- Les types de raisonnement (dductif, concessif
et analogique)
- Types d'arguments

Des assertions : ce sont des affirmations d'ides,
des dfinitions, des jugements de valeur plus ou
moins subjectifs donc contestables.


MINEDUC/WDA, December 2011 150
Des arguments d'autorit : ce sont des chiffres,
des citations de spcialistes ou de personnages
clbres, des rfrences scientifiques ou
historiques qui impressionnent le lecteur.

Des anecdotes : ce sont des petits rcits fictifs
ou non qui sous entendent une vrit, une loi, une
ide gnrale.

Des exemples: ce sont toujours des faits rels
qui sous entendent une ide gnrale.
- Les lments de l'argumentation :
- l'ide directive (thse) ou point de vue que l'auteur va dvelopper
- les arguments : lments abstraits, ordonnes selon un ordre.
- Les preuves (exemples) faisant appel l'exprience personnelle ou des vnements
prcis
- L'ordre des phrases:
- progression grammaticale: usage des
connecteur logiques de Largumentation
MINEDUC/WDA, December 2011 151
(conjonction, disjonction, cause, consquence,
opposition, progression thmatique)
6. La prise de notes

Les notes sont prises rapidement en respectant :
- une bonne mise en page (paragraphe, alinas, marge, espacements, majuscules, abrviations...)
- la propret et la lisibilit du texte (continue, slective en diagonale)
- lenchanement logique des ides, des parties (sectionner les informations principales synthtises, les ides)
- Lordre (numrotation des pages, titres, sous- titres, chapitres, soulign, et encadr,... ordre de classement


MINEDUC/WDA, December 2011 152
3.2 Contenu notionnel : 5
me
anne de Menuiserie

ACTIVITES

CONTENUS NOTIONNELS

1. Mode d'emploi

- Conseils et indications donner
- Contre-indications
- Risques, prcautions
- Effets ou rsultats
- Effets indsirables
- Caractristiques et proprits
- Mode d'utilisation

2. Lexpos Les caractristiques d'un bon expos
- un plan explicite et vident
- formulation avec vigueur des ides principales
- doit tenir compte de Lauditoire (registre,
- vocabulaire, ge...)
- doit tre clair, vivant, intressant (gestes, regard,
- voix, sourire, ton, conviction, dynamisme, rythme, intonation...)
Structuration du temps de prise de parole.


MINEDUC/WDA, December 2011 153
3. Le rapport et Le compte rendu Les caractristiques d'un bon rapport
- introduction
- un plan dtaill
- Titre
- Sous-titre
- Chapitres
- Sous - chapitre
- Une bonne mise en page
- La cohrence et Lobjectivit des ides
Types de rapport
- rapport gnral (activit d'une dure
dtermine, d'un sminaire, d'une session
de travail...)
-rapport de stage

Les caractristiques d'un compte - rendu
Comment rdiger un compte - rendu
(Plan, mise en page, cohrence des ides, fidlit aux faits et aux vnements, Style clair)
MINEDUC/WDA, December 2011 154
4. La correspondance prive,
officielle et Curriculum vitae
Diffrents types de lettres
La disposition d'une lettre
Une lettre un ami
Une lettre officielle et administrative
Les formules d'appel et les formules finales
Prsentation d'un C.V
Contenu d'un C.V:
5. Le texte publicitaire Les caractristiques des textes publicitaires
- images bien choisies
-texte attrayant en rapport avec Limage
- le slogan
- la signature de la firme
- Les titres appropris et qui ressortent
6. LEnqute Questionnaire
- Motif de l'enqute
- Questions prcises et adaptes au public
- Types de questions (questions choix multiples,
questions fermes, questions ouvertes)
- Thmatisation du questionnaire

MINEDUC/WDA, December 2011 155
3.3 Contenu notionnel : 6
me
anne de Menuiserie

ACTIVITES

CONTENUS NOTIONNELS


1. L'expos Les caractristiques d'un bon expos
- un plan explicite et vident
- formulation avec vigueur des ides principales
- doit tenir compte de Lauditoire (registre,
- vocabulaire, ge...)
- doit tre clair, vivant, intressant (gestes, regard,
- voix, sourire, ton, conviction, dynamisme, rythme, intonation...)
Structuration du temps de prise de parole.
2. Mode d'emploi

- Conseils et indications donner
- Contre-indications
- Risques, prcautions
- Effets ou rsultats
- Effets indsirables
- Caractristiques et proprits
- Mode d'utilisation

MINEDUC/WDA, December 2011 156
3. Le texte publicitaire Les caractristiques des textes publicitaires
- images bien choisies
-texte attrayant en rapport avec Limage
- le slogan
- la signature de la firme
- Les titres appropris et qui ressortent
4. Le communiqu Les caractristiques dun communiqu
- Prciser l'objet et le destinataire
- Contenu descriptif selon les types de communiqu (runion, manifestation, ...)
- prciser la date, le lieu, la dure et l'heure
- indiquer l'metteur
5. Interview 1. Types de linterview :
- Oral
- Ecrit (par questionnaire)
2. Caractristiques de linterview

6. Note de service

Caractristiques
- Prciser l'objet et le destinataire
- Le contenu est descriptif, clair, prcis et complet
- Langue adapte au niveau du destinataire.


MINEDUC/WDA, December 2011 157
4. NOTES METHODOLOGIQUES

4. 1 Pour les activits gnrales

4.1.1 La grammaire conjugaison

Pour mieux asseoir certaines notions enseignes au cycle infrieur et juges fondamentales pour l'apprentissage de la
langue, il a t rpertori et propos pour la classe de 4
me
, une srie de contenus de grammaire - conjugaison, que normalement un lve
candidat aux classes terminales, est cens avoir acquis et matris pour ensuite aborder avec assurance les exercices d'argumentation et de
manipulation morphosyntaxiques complexes.

En classes de 5
me
et 6
me
, la grammaire ne sera plus dsormais normative et systmatique comme au tronc commun, ou
elle ne constituera dans ces classes qu'une rfrence occasionnelle certes prcieuse, pour mieux faire passer le message, issu des diffrentes
activits d'tude de langues. Aussi, ce programme ne prescrit- il plus de contenus notionnels pour lactivit grammaire -conjugaison. Nanmoins
toute rencontre, travers les textes, d'une notion grammaticale non encore matrise, fera l'objet dune tude dtaille, d'un remploi et d'une
fixation systmatiques.
Ainsi, il est ncessaire que les lves de 5
me
et 6
me
reviennent souvent sur les points-ci aprs, pour mieux les matriser progressivement.

1. La syntaxe des propositions
- Concordance de temps
- Discours direct et indirect.
2. La valeur stylistique des temps et modes
MINEDUC/WDA, December 2011 158
3. La transformation des subordonnes et transformation de l'infinitive en subordonne et l'inverse
4. Les niveaux de langues
5. Le futur simple, le futur du pass et le conditionnel prsent.
6. Les aspects du verbe :
- L'accompli et le non- accompli.
- L'inchoatif
- Le progressif
- L'immdiat
7. Les voix du verbe et ses transformations
8. Les mots outils en gnral
- La syntaxe des diffrentes prpositions dans les transformations
9. La drivation savante

4.1.2 L'orthographe

Mme si un contenu notionnel sur le plan orthographique a t propos la classe de 4
me
anne pour permettre
l'lve de ce niveau de fixer efficacement, aussi bien en situation de lecture, les mcanismes grammaticaux et syntaxiques dj abords pour
Lessentiel au tronc commun, il est apparu que l'approche de l'orthographe en classe de 5
me
et de 6
me
de l'enseignement secondaire doit
trouver sa place dans chaque activit d'apprentissage de la langue franaise.
Ainsi conue, cette activit, primordiale dans la matrise de l'utilisation d'une langue correcte, doit permettre lamlioration du
perfectionnement orthographique :

MINEDUC/WDA, December 2011 159
- par l'imprgnation permanente en lecture.
- par la prise de notes dans les cours dont le franais est la langue, denseignement
- de faon occasionnelle dans les activits de comprhension et d'expression orales qui ne peuvent cependant se passer de rfrences
l'crit.

Surtout de faon fonctionnelle quand il s'agit de langue crite, notamment travers les activits d'analyse textuelle,
de grammaire et de lexique de textes abords en classe de lexicologie, ainsi qu'a travers toutes les activits relatives aux diffrents travaux
d'valuation (dicte, rdaction ou composition, rmdiation de l'crit, etc.)

De faon spciale, puisque l'lve a subi un entranement intensif en orthographe d'usage au cours des niveaux
infrieurs, une attention particulire sera porte l'orthographe grammaticale en classe de 5
me
et de 6
me
anne de menuiserie.

En effet, elle reste lie la grammaire et la conjugaison. L'lve devra observer, dcouvrir un phnomne
orthographique, l'intrioriser, le manipuler, l'appliquer tout en formulant une rgie de fonctionnement.

4.1.3. Le lexique

Au cycle infrieur, l'lve avait besoin de sances de lexique systmatique ou taient approfondis et remploys les
mots et les expressions nouvelles dans des exercices de grammaire, dorthographe, de conjugaison. Au cycle suprieur, l'attention sera plutt
tourne vers les choix du terme propre, le traitement du lexique soutenu rencontr dans des textes classiques ou des crits ayant un registre
particulier comme les pomes, les textes littraires, les pices, de thtres.


MINEDUC/WDA, December 2011 160
L'lve devra donc acqurir:

- Un vocabulaire abstrait ncessaire l'argumentation
- Un vocabulaire technique indispensable a l'exploitation d'un texte, d'un uvre.

Pour y arriver, beaucoup d'activits lui sont proposes, entre autres :

- La drivation
- La formation de mots (populaire ou savante)
- Les exercices portant sur les emprunts, les archasmes, les nologismes, la dnotation / la connotation
- Les doublets
- Les homonymes
- Les antonymes
- Les homophones
- Les homographes
- Les paronymes
- Les activits portant sur la famille des mots
- Les procds mtonymiques et mtaphoriques
- La comparaison de supports textuels,

Bref, l'lve sera plac dans une dynamique de crations lexicales, toujours en rapport avec les situations de
communication, ainsi il devra chaque occasion, diffrencier le sens contextuel et le sens lexical du mot. Il va sans dire que toutes ces activits
seraient vaines et sans profit si elles ne s'inscrivaient pas dans une ambiance nourrie de lectures riches et diversifies. Lectures diriges, en
conformit avec le thme en cours d'tude et lecture personnelles de l'lve. En situation extra- scolaire, l'lve peut acqurir un autre bagage
lexical issu de son entourage socio-conomique, sportif etc. des diffrents mdia (radio, T.V, vido, journaux). C'est un vocabulaire dont il faut
tenir compte. Le professeur aidera Llve intgrer sciemment et adquatement dans son bagage lexical de tous les jours, tout en tenant
compte des niveaux de langue et des aspects techniques ou argotiques de ce nouvel acquis.
MINEDUC/WDA, December 2011 161
4.1.4. Lecture

A la fin du tronc commun, l'lve est dj habitu la fois la lecture silencieuse et la lecture haute voix. Au
second cycle, cette activit sera renforce en crant chez l'apprenant le got de lire.

Pour le faire, lon insistera sur:
- La lecture libre et autonome
- La lecture obligatoire

II s'agit de toutes sortes de lectures faites en dehors des devoirs scolaires. L'apprenant se choisit une uvre de
sa prfrence en tenant compte de sa capacit de comprhension. Toutefois, le professeur tchera de facilit, l'accs aux livres par le biais de
bibliothques scolaires et publiques.

a) La lecture libre et autonome

La lecture libre et autonome portera sur n'importe quel document et n'importe quel type d'crit : texte
littraire, scientifique technique, informatif, religieux, etc.
Loin d'tre un simple passe - temps , la lecture libre et autonome doit tre prise comme un moyen prcieux d'acqurir et d'enrichir la
connaissance de lapprenant, ici llve devra tablir une fiche de lecture personnelle, prendre note de certaines expressions la langue franaise
ou de certains adverbes et autres constructions d'lgance de la langue.


MINEDUC/WDA, December 2011 162
b) Lecture obligatoire

La lecture obligatoire porte sur les ouvrages choisis et tris compte tenu des thmes tudis en classe et du
niveau des lves. Les textes ou livres choisis seront orients vers les aspects aussi varis que possibles : littraires, scientifiques, techniques,
informatifs, etc. .

Pour la lecture d'une uvre complte, l'lve choisira les livres de la littrature
ngro- africaine, franaise et ceux appartenant d'autres littratures.

Les rsums, les fiches de lecture obligatoires, exposs individuels ou en groupes (sous forme de dbats ou de
table - ronde) doivent toujours couronner ce deuxime aspect de lecture au cours du second cycle.

Tout bien pes, ces aspects de l'activit lecture en quatrime, en cinquime et en sixime doivent amener l'lve:
- A l'observation et la comparaison des textes par le dveloppement des capacits d'analyse, de synthse et de rflexion critique.
- A la dcouverte du milieu de la culture proche des adolescents, ainsi que des milieux et cultures diffrents, par la comparaison, la
rflexion et la rfrence lenvironnement.
- A llargissement des champs d'investigation et de la rflexion par l'imitation diverses techniques de la lecture et par la promotion
persvrante de la lecture libre et individuelle
- A la dcouverte de la force de l'argumentation
- A l'enrichissement du lexique et de la syntaxe
- A l'autocorrection
- A l'acquisition du got et de la beaut littraire d'un texte.


MINEDUC/WDA, December 2011 163
4. 2. Pour les activits spcifiques

La partie Notes mthodologies de ce programme prsente la dmarche et les procds mthodologiques spcifiques chaque activit.

4. 3. L'explication

Expliquer : c'est donner 3 quelqu'un les moyens de comprendre un vnement, un phnomne, un processus.

4. 3. 1 La prparation

Choisir le type d'explication (description, interprtation et explication logique)
Bien prparer son explication :
- Cerner avec prcision le sujet expliquer : se poser une srie de questions :
Qui ? Quoi ? Comment ? Pourquoi ?
- Dfinir le phnomne, Lvnement, le processus
- Dcrire en montrant les rapports de cause




MINEDUC/WDA, December 2011 164
4. 3.2 La prsentation

- Tenir compte du destinataire (ses connaissances, niveau de langues...)
- Respecter les rgies de la lisibilit : paragraphes, alinas, termes de liaison (mais, donc, aussi...)
- Faire la mise en tableau des informations
- S'aider de schmas et de graphiques.

4.4. La description.

Dcrire : c'est prsenter, de peindre un objet, un personnage (portrait) donner les traits physiques et moraux : un paysage, une scne, la
description facilite la mmorisation d'une ide.

4.4.1 Comment faire une description

La description exige une slection :
- Choisir les lments dcrire (les dtails impressionnants).
- Choisir Lordre de prsentation pour restituer (lmotion).

Ordonner la ralit suivant trois plans :
Le premier plan (prs de lorateur, lobjet est vu dans ses dtails)
L'arrire plan (prs de l'orateur)
MINEDUC/WDA, December 2011 165

On distingue les formes gnrales de l'objet
Le second plan (intercal entre le premier et larrire plan).
On distingue les dtails les plus importants, les plus saillants)
- Prciser l'impression avec les images (mots vocateurs qui donnent voir)
- Bien utiliser le vocabulaire de description

4.4.2. Le vocabulaire de la description

Verbes

Voir, apercevoir, entrevoir, discerner, distinguer, deviner, observer, pier, contempler, examiner, surveiller, scruter, suivre du regard, jeter un
coup d'il se tenir, s'tendre, se drouler, apparaitre, se dresser Immense, dmesurer,

Adjectifs

Ample, spacieux, exigu, troit, imposant, grandiose, norme, gigantesque excessif, monstrueux, colossal



MINEDUC/WDA, December 2011 166
Adverbes et prpositions

Ailleurs, alentour, dedans, dehors, dessus, dessous, ici, l -bas, loin, partout...
Alors, ensuite, aujourd'hui, hier, demain, aussitt, longtemps, aprs, avant, dans, entre, depuis, derrire, gauche, droite, parmi, ct de,
Labri de, travers, autour de, au-dessus de, au-dedans de, au bas de...

4.5. Argumentation

L'argumentation est lart de justifier une opinion, une thse que l'on veut faire adopter. On cherche convaincre, persuader: montrer qu'une
ide ou un comportement s'impose. L'argumentation se fait en trois parties : introduction, dveloppement, synthse ou conclusion.

4.5.1. Introduction
- Enonc ou rappel du problme
- Introduction d'une prise de position
- Annoncer les diffrentes parties de l'argumentation

Remarque:

- Eviter d'annoncer un plan qui ne sera pas suivi dans le dveloppement
- Eviter de commencer traiter le sujet dans lintroduction
- Eviter d'oublier d'annoncer le plan

MINEDUC/WDA, December 2011 167
4.5.2. Dveloppement

Cest lappui de la prise de position par des arguments et des preuves solides, irrfutable (technique persuasive). Pour faire un bon
dveloppement il faut :
- Suivre le plan du dveloppement
- Associer les ides et les exemples
- Suivre un raisonnement logique (succession des parties avec une progression logique.)
- Soigner l'expression
- Mettre en page son essai

4.5.3. Conclusion

La conclusion est laffirmation de la prise de position qui dcoule de largumentation. Dans la conclusion il faut viter de :

- Dvelopper de nouvelles ides
- Bcler notre conclusion en une phrase
- Rdiger une conclusion passe - partout
- Emettre un jugement personnel sans nuance ni justification
- Proposer une conclusion qui contredise le dveloppement

4.7. La prise des notes

On prend des notes pour ne pas charger sa mmoire de matriaux que le papier conservera avantageusement. En mme temps la prise de note
est un moyen et une mthode de rflexion.
MINEDUC/WDA, December 2011 168
4.7.1. Technique de prise des notes

- Noter sur le vif les points essentiels du message : ides secondaires et ides gnrales selon les types de documents (confrence,
cours, texte...) sans se proccuper de leur structure.
- Distinguer l'essentiel de l'accessoire
- Prendre des notes structures
- Noter directement les ides essentielles dans leur plan (notes non rdiges)
- Emploi des abrviations & symboles
- Respect de la mise en page (marge, paragraphe, recto...)
- Relecture et correction des fautes
- Rdiger pour prsenter un rsume de la communication

4.7.2. Utilisation et classement des notes

- Numrotation des feuilles
- Classement (par anne, par thme, par ordre alphabtique etc.)
- Exploitation
- Indication de rfrences (provenances, dates...)

4.8 Expos

Lobjectif de Lexpos est de transmettre des informations de faon efficace en tant clair, vivant et intressant


MINEDUC/WDA, December 2011 169
4.8.1. Prparation d'expos :

Analyse de l'expos de la situation de dfinition de l'ide matresse
Prparation des aides (matriel) et connaissance de l'auditoire
Elaboration du plan :
- Introduction : annonce du sujet
- Prsentation du plan
- Dveloppement: diffrentes parties
- Conclusion : rappel des points essentiels et largissement

4.9. Le rapport

Dans un rapport on fait la description de l'enchanement logique et chronologique des faits. II s'agit pour chaque vnement d'analyser les
causes et de dmontrer les justesses de l'analyse. En fait, le rapport est une synthse crite d'une runion, d'une session de travail, confrence,
sminaire...
Le rapport doit dboucher sur la recommandation d'une action ou d'une srie d'actions.
Le rapport implique son rdacteur.\




MINEDUC/WDA, December 2011 170
4.9.1. Prparation d'un rapport

- Prise de notes
- Consulter les aides:
- Enregistrement (magnto - vido)
- Les documents divers en relation avec le sujet trait
- Les procs verbaux des secrtaires

4.9.2. Rdaction du rapport

Un prambule :
- Il renseigne sur lobjet d'un rapport
- Il attire lattention sur la problmatique
- Il doit tre clair, net et prcis
- Une introduction qui constate et expos la situation
- Un dveloppement qui interprte chaque fait et argumente en faveur d'une thse peut comporter plusieurs parties.

Chaque partie constate un fait, examine ses consquences et tire une conclusion partielle. La conclusion gnrale indique des propositions et
suggre la dcision prendre.




MINEDUC/WDA, December 2011 171
4.10 La correspondance

4.10.1. La lettre officielle

Dans les relations professionnelles et administratives, la lettre officielle, genre trs codifi, conserve son importance. Elle obit des rgies
rigoureuses de prsentation et mme de rdaction.

Les rgles de la disposition

Elments codifis Rgles observer Place des lments
Format et papier

21 x 29,7, papier blanc non rgie


Coordonnes de l'expditeur Mentionner : Monsieur,
Madame, suivis du nom et du prnom, de la fonction et de
Ladresse, code postal, tlphone

En haut, gauche

Coordonnes du destinataire Mentionner : Monsieur,
Madame, suivi du nom, du prnom, de la fonction et de
l'adresse.
En haut, droite, sous la date

MINEDUC/WDA, December 2011 172
Date et lieu d'mission

Ecrire par exemple : Kigali, le 08/1 1/2011

En haut, droite

Autres mentions den- tte L'objet, la rfrence, le nom du responsable du dossier.

En haut, gauche, sous lexpditeur


La formule d'appel

Cas gnral:

Monsieur, Madame

Exemple:
Monsieur le Directeur, Matre ou cher Matre (Avocat, notaire), Monsieur le
Maire, Docteur ou Madame, Monsieur, Mon Gnral, Mon Pre (clerg).




MINEDUC/WDA, December 2011 173
La rdaction de la lettre

Bannir toute effusion, dire lessentiel, simplement, clairement. Au dbut, utiliser une formule de politesse adapte la situation de
communication.

Demandes, Commandes Je vous prie de ... je vous prie de bien vouloir ...
Accuss de rception J'ai bien reu... Comme suite votre lettre du ... Rf
Rclamations, refus J'ai le regret de vous signaler que ... Je me permets
Informations, envois Vous voudrez bien trouver ci- joint ... j'ai Lhonneur de...


La formule finale

Elle varie en fonction des rapports hirarchiques entre l'expditeur et le destinataire.

1. D'infrieur suprieur
Je vous prie d'agrer l'expression : de mon profond respect de mon dvouement respectueux
2. De suprieur infrieur
Je vous prie d'agrer l'expression de ma parfaite considration
MINEDUC/WDA, December 2011 174
3. D'gal gal
Je vous prie de recevoir l'assurance de : mes salutations distingues et mes sentiments les meilleurs.

4.10.2 La lettre amicale

La lettre amicale obit un minimum de rgles codifies

a) Formules d'appel: exemples : Chers parents, Ma chre Maman, Mon petit
Christophe, Cher ami, Mon vieux copain etc..,.


b) Formule finale, exemples : Mon meilleur souvenir, Amicalement, Bien cordialement, Sincrement votre, Trs amicalement avec mes
sentiments les plus affectueux.
Dans la rdaction, on demande les nouvelles, on donne des informations, des opinions, des sentiments, avec un registre familier (souvent avec
humour)

c) Disposition dune enveloppe

Elle exerce une influence sur le destinataire
- la feuille est prie en 2, 3 ou 4 selon le format
- la pliure est introduite la premire, elle doit se trouver au fond de Lenveloppe
MINEDUC/WDA, December 2011 175
- le timbre : on colle le timbre dans langle suprieur droit de Lenveloppe. Elle doit tre lisible.
- L'adresse: elle est inscrite dans la moiti infrieure de lenveloppe. Elle doit tre lisible
- L'expditeur: - on l'inscrit au dos de Lenveloppe - adresse complte + pays Etranger

4.11. Demande d'emploi

La lettre de demande d'emploi complte le curriculum vitae dont elle dveloppe certains aspects.
- Prsentation :
- Envoyer toujours l'original
- Soigner son criture
- La lecture de la lettre doit tre agrable : quilibre le texte dans la page (respect de la marge gauche et droite)
- Arer le texte (utiliser un paragraphe pour chaque point dvelopp) Lorthographe doit tre parfaite
- Rappeler en haut et droit ladresse complte de l'expditeur
- Indiquer en haut et droite l'adresse complte du destinataire
- Indiquer l'objet de votre lettre
- Le corps de la lettre doit contenir:
- La nature de Lemploi pour lequel on est candidat
- Dvelopper les points importants du C.V. en rapport avec la demande
- Exprimer votre disponibilit
MINEDUC/WDA, December 2011 176
- Formule de politesse
- Joindre le C.V la lettre

4.12. Le curriculum vitae

Le C.V prsente votre vie scolaire et professionnelle, il doit tre une bonne image de ce que vous tes.
Prsentation :
- ne jamais utiliser le verso
- arer le texte en faisant des paragraphes
- Lorthographe parfaite est indispensable.

La prsentation du contenu d'un C.V

1. Identit complte (en haut et gauche de la page)
- Nom et prnom
- Date et lieu de naissance
- Nom du pre
- Nom de la mre
- Etat civil.


MINEDUC/WDA, December 2011 177
2. Formation (Etudes faites)
- Mentionner les tudes faites
- les diplmes obtenus et leurs dates d'obtention.

3. Exprience professionnelle
- fonctions exerces ou emplois tenus (date &priodes)
- stage de formation effectue

4. Langues pratiques
- indiquer le niveau de comprhension pour chaque langue
5. Rfrence (ventuelle)
Citer les noms de 3 personnalits qui vous connaissent trs bien.

6. Divers (ventuellement)
- Circonstances particulires
- Association, sport, permis de conduire, connaissances en informatique


MINEDUC/WDA, December 2011 178
4.13. Note & Note de service

4.13.1 Note

Cest un crit trs court sous forme fixe. On y communique des renseignements ou des avis entre des services ou chelons de la hirarchie.

La note comprend :
-Lentte : -la date
-Lorigine : nom du rdacteur et son service
-Le corps : -destinataire
-Motif objet

4.13.2. Note de service

Elle contient un ordre simple, diffus tous les membres d'un service ou d'un atelier.
Elle comprend les lments de la note (voir plus haut) et doit porter la signature du rdacteur.


MINEDUC/WDA, December 2011 179
4.14. Texte publicitaire

Le texte de publicit marque la combinaison entre le texte et Limage.
II comprend :
- le titre qui doit se rfrer Limage pour crer un suspense. Le destinataire aura envie d'aller plus loin, d'analyser Limage et le texte pour en
savoir plus.
- Limage
- le texte:
- (place variable: sous l'image, ct, dans limage...)
Il a pour fonctions de rfrer Limage, de dsigner, prsenter, mettre en scne et vanter le produit.
- le slogan : - rsum l'argumentation publicitaire, caractrise le produit et apostrophe le lecteur.
- il doit tre court, original, spcifique et facile retenir.
- la signature : nom de la firme qui prsente un produit.

4.14. Communiqu

C'est un texte trs court de stricte information rdige par un service, une organisation pour diffusion un large public.


MINEDUC/WDA, December 2011 180
Prsentation :
-objet en grand caractres
-corps : - le nom & les coordonnes des organisateurs
-destinataire
- date, lieu, heure
-dure
- autres directives (ordre du jour) suivant les types de communiqu.

4.18. Le compte rendu

1. Dfinition : le compte - rendu est un rapport fait sur un vnement, une situation, une sance de travail, une runion...
2. Comment rdiger un compte rendu
- Prendre les notes en rapport avec Lvnement, la situation...
- Rester fidele aux faits, aux tnements en respectant leur chronologie
- Rdiger dans un franais clair, simple, comprhensible, avec des termes adquats et expressifs.



MINEDUC/WDA, December 2011 181
5. APPROCHE D'EVALUATION

Lvaluation des lves de la filire menuiserie se fera trois niveaux au cours de lapprentissage :
1. Au dbut de lapprentissage le test de niveau permettra au professeur de vrifier le pr requis des lves provenant des diffrents
tablissements et remettre le niveau leurs connaissances.

2. Au cours de lapprentissage lvaluation formative et progressive portera rgulirement sur les devoirs, les interrogations et les exposs et
sera suivie d'une rmdiation au cours du trimestre suivant.

3. A la fin du cycle le franais est lun de cour de lexamen national

6. FACTEURS PARTICULIERS

L'enseignement du franais au second cycle du secondaire complte et approfondie.
Les connaissances dj acquises au tronc commun. Cependant il devra surmonter un bon nombre de problmes notamment:
- Les prs requis des lves au tronc commun
- Le bilinguisme
- Les classes surpeuples
- La qualification des enseignants au 2
me
cycle
MINEDUC/WDA, December 2011 182
- Le manque de matriel didactique et des laboratoires des langues
- L'environnement linguistique

1. Les niveaux des lves provenant des diffrentes coles du pays htrognes compte tenu de certains facteurs dterminants comme le
manque de professeurs comptents et qualifis; celui du matriel didactique. C'est pourquoi au dbut de la 4
me
anne, une remise niveau
visant harmoniser les connaissances des lves sera indispensable.
2. Le bilinguisme: nous prsumons qu'en 4
me
anne, llve a dj matris les chapitres de la grammaire, qu'il n'prouve aucune difficult dans
la conjugaison et lorthographe du franais, qu'il dispose d'un lexique riche et qu'il est suffisamment outill pour couter, lire et comprendre
n'importe quel message en franais. Mais il est probable que la mise en application d'un bilinguisme quilibr au 2
me
cycle du secondaire, ne se
ralise pas surtout faute de professeurs qualifis.
3. Des classes surpeuples constituent aussi un srieux obstacle un travail de qualit tant du cot des lves que de la part du professeur. II est
difficile d'assurer le suivi des lves et la frquence des travaux dvaluation. De tels groupes sont difficiles manier au cours des exercices
pratiques.
4. Le manque d'un personnel qualifi et comptent subsiste dans les coles secondaires. Il faudrait des sessions des recyclages d'enseignants
non qualifis.

5. Le manque de matriel didactique en gnral et non-existence des laboratoires de langues en particulier constituent un srieux handicap
lapprentissage des langues trangres. II faut des bibliothques bien fournies et des moyens audio- visuels (tlviseurs-vidothques).

6. L'environnement linguistique: les lves connaissent une influence ngative du milieu familial ou scolaire, qui ne favorise pas linfluence du
franais. II faut multiplier les exercices d'expression orale (expos et les occasions extra scolaires d'usage du franais)

MINEDUC/WDA, December 2011 183
7. REPARTITION DES HEURES
Tableau rsum de distribution des chapitres : Allocation des priodes et contenu par trimestre 4
me
anne de menuiserie.
NOMBRE DE PERIODES PAR SEMAINE : 1 HEURE.
TRIMESTRE CONTENU NOTIONNEL PERIODE/HEU
RES
PREMIER
TRIMESTRE



CHAPITRE SOUS CHAPITRE


4
I. EXPLICATION ET DESCRIPTION 1. Types dexplications
2. Explication par des vocabulaires techniques avec des
exemples prcis
3. Description objective et subjective
II. MODE DEMPLOI

1. Conseils et indications donner
2. Contre-indications
3. Risques, prcautions
4. Effets ou rsultats
5. Effets indsirables
6. Caractristiques et proprits
7. Mode d'utilisation


4
MINEDUC/WDA, December 2011 184

Priode de rvision

Rvision sur toute la matire du premier trimestre 1
Examen et confection des bulletins

Examens de fin du trimestre 1
DEUXIEME
TRIMESTRE

III. EXPOSE 1. Les caractristiques dun bon expos
2. Comment faire un bon expos

4
VI. LE TEXTE PUBLICITAIRE 1. Les caractristiques dun texte publicitaire 4
Priode de rvision

Rvision sur toute la matire du deuxime trimestre 1
Examen et confection des bulletins

Examens de fin du trimestre 1


TROISIEME
TRIMESTRE

V. LARGUMANTATION
1. Disposition convenable des arguments
2. Types darguments
3. Les lments de largumentation
4. Lordre des phrases : usage des connecteurs logiques
3
MINEDUC/WDA, December 2011 185





VI. LA PRISE DE NOTES - Mise en page
- Propret et la lisibilit du texte
- Lenchainement logique des ides et des parties
4. Lordre et classement
3
Priode de rvision

Rvision sur toute la matire du deuxime trimestre
1
Examen et confection des bulletins

Examens de fin du trimestre 1









MINEDUC/WDA, December 2011 186
Tableau rsum de distribution des chapitres : Allocation des priodes et contenu par trimestre 5
me
anne de menuiserie.
NOMBRE DE PERIODES PAR SEMAINE : 1 HEURE.
TRIMESTRE CONTENU NOTIONNEL PERIODE/HEURES


PREMIER
TRIMESTRE





CHAPITRE SOUS CHAPITRE

4
I.MODE DEMPLOI

1. Conseils et indications donner
2. Contre-indications
3. Risques, prcautions
4. Effets ou rsultats
5. Effets indsirables
6. Caractristiques et proprits
7. Mode d'utilisation


II. EXPOSE 1. Les caractristiques dun bon expos
2. Comment faire un bon expos

4
Rvision Rvision de la matire du premier trimestre 1
Examen et confection des bulletins Examen de fin du premier trimestre 1
MINEDUC/WDA, December 2011 187
DEUXIEME
TRIMESTRE
III. LE RAPPORT ET LE COMPTE RENDU 1. Les caractristiques dun bon rapport
2. Type de rapport
3. Les caractristiques dun compte rendu
4. Comment rdiger un compte rendu


4
IV .LA CORRESPONDANCE PRI VEE ,
OFFICIELLE ET
C.V
1. Type de lettres
2. La disposition dune lettre
3. Les formules dappel et finales
4. Les formules dun C.V
4
Rvision Rvision de la matire du deuxime trimestre 1
Examen et confection des bulletins Examen de fin du deuxime trimestre 1
TROISIEME
TRIMESTRE
V. LE TEXTE PUBLICITAIRE 1. Les caractristiques dun texte publicitaire 3
VI. ENQUETE 1. Type de lenqute
2. Motif de lenqute
3
Rvision Rvision annuelle

1
Examen et confection Examen annuel 1
MINEDUC/WDA, December 2011 188
Tableau rsum de distribution des chapitres : Allocation des priodes et contenu par trimestre 6
me
anne de Menuiserie.
NOMBRE DE PERIODES PAR SEMAINE : 1 HEURE.
TRIMESTRE CONTENU NOTIONNEL PERIODE/HEURES


PREMIER
TRIMESTRE





CHAPITRE SOUS CHAPITRE

4
I.MODE DEMPLOI

1. Conseils et indications donner
2. Contre-indications
3. Risques, prcautions
4. Effets ou rsultats
5. Effets indsirables
6. Caractristiques et proprits
7. Mode d'utilisation


II. EXPOSE 1. Les caractristiques dun bon expos
2. Comment faire un bon expos

4
REVISION Rvision de la matire du premier trimestre 1
Examen et confection des Examen du premier trimestre 1
MINEDUC/WDA, December 2011 189
bulletins
DEUXIEME
TRIMESTRE
III. LE TEXTE PUBLICITAIRE 1. Les caractristiques dun texte publicitaire 4
IV. LE COMMUNIQU 1. Caractristiques dun communiqu
2. Comment faire un communiqu
4
Rvision de la matire du
deuxime trimestre
Rvision trimestrielle 1
Examen et confection de
bulletin
Examen de fin du second trimestre 1
TROISIEME
TRIMESTRE
V. INTERVIEW 1. Types de linterview

2. Caractristique
4
VI. NOTE DE SERVICE Les caractristiques de note de service 4
Rvision Rvision annuelle 1
Examen et confection des
bulletins
Examen annuel 1




MINEDUC/WDA, December 2011 190
8. RECOMMANDATIONS

1. La charge horaire hebdomadaire du professeur de franais de lenseignement technique ne devrait pas dpasser 35h pour lui permettre de
travailler efficacement.

2. Rdaction des nouveaux manuels de franais conforme au programme de chaque anne d'tude.

3. Descente sur terrain des agents du WDA pour valuer les besoins de professeurs en matire de recyclage.

4. Formation, recyclage et encadrement des professeurs de franais.

5. Equipement des bibliothques scolaires.

6. Equipement des tablissements scolaires en matriels audio-visuels

7. Cration des inspecteurs de branche au niveau de lenseignement technique et professionnel.



MINEDUC/WDA, December 2011 191
9. BIBLIOGRAPHIE

A. Manuel
1. R. Charles, C. William ; La communication orale, Nathan, 1988.
2. Claude PEYROUT ET ; La pratique de lexpression crite, Nathan, 1991.
3. Sylvie GERARD, Philippe LIEVRE MONT ; Viviane LADKA. LA, La correspondance, Nathan, 1992.
4. Guy JUCQUOIS. Rdiger, prsenter, composer ; De Bock; 1996.
5. Francois OTT; Pierre ; VAAST; Lire, Ecrire, parler, russir, Hatier, 1992.
6. Felix N.BIKOI, Franoise C.NAYROLLES, Paul-Marie KOSONOU ; Racine ,SENGHOR. Le francais en seconde, Edicef, 1998.
7. Claire CHARNET ; Jacqueline ROBIN-NIPI; Rdiger un rsume, un compte Rendu, une synthse, Hachette1997.
8. Odile CHANTELAUVE ; Ecrire, Hachette, 1995.
9. Grard VIGNER. Ecrire pour convaincre, Hachette, 1996.
10. Denis BARIL ? Jean GUILLET ; Techniques de ('expression crite et orale,
(9me edition), Dalloz, 1996.
11. La nouvelle meihode de francais 36me, Paris, 1998.
12. Enseigner le Franais au Collge et au Lyce, Edicef, 1996.
13. Henri BOER, Nouvelle Introduction la Didactique du franais langue trangre, International, 1990.
14. Agnes Renard et Cie, Frangais Lecture et Expression 56 Belin, 1997
MINEDUC/WDA, December 2011 192
15. Michel Danilo & Beatrice TAUZIN ; le Franais de la communication Professionnelle, CLE. Int
16. M. DANILO & J.LPENFORNIS, Le franais de la communication Professionnelle, CLE. International.
17. Francais colmez & M.L. ASTRE & Marc Defradas; L'Acte d'crire, vocabulaire, grammaire, Expression crites BORDAS, 1997.
18. Bescherelle, L'orthographe pour tous, Hattier Paris; 1997.
19. Franoise COLMEZ, M.L. ASTRE, M. Defradas. L'Art de lire, Bordas, 1997.
20. G. NIQUET & R. Coulon - L. VARLET - J.P BECK; grammaire des collges (3d, 46, 5me) 1996.
21. Y. DELATOUR, D. JENNEPIN& Cie; grammaire du franais ; cours de Civilisation franchise de la Sorbonne, Hachette, Paris;1991.
22. C. CADET - Brigitte CHEVALIE - Jean PRUUOST - Marie France SCULFORT, francais 56me, Textes et Mthode ; Nathan, Paris, 1997.
23. Ghislaine BOULEVEERT - E. GIOVINEAU - N. LAURENT - H. TILLY, grammaire 6me, Mignard, Paris, 1996.

B. Documents

1. MINEPRISEC, DERP, Anthologie I, II, III, IV.
2. Programme de franais au T.C, 1996.
3. Programme de franais de lenseignement secondaire gnral et pdagogique, 1996.

4. Dictionnaires de franais.
5. Programme de franais pour les coles techniques -Agri - Vet- Forts- Inf. Labo, Hygine & Assainissement - Mcanique ...
MINEDUC/WDA, December 2011 193
Ce programme a t rvis par :

1. Eng. HABIMANA Theodore, Director of TVET Training, WDA
2. MPAMO Aim, Supervisor Curriculum Development, WDA
3. KARAMUTSA Gerard, WDA Facilitator
4. HATEGEKIMANA Gratien, WDA Facilitator
5. TURATSINZE Pacifique, WDA Facilitator
6. MUKANGARAMBE Judith, WDA Facilitator
7. NDAHIRO Andre, WDA Facilitator
8. MUDAHINYUKA SYLVAIN : ESS/HAMDAN KIMISANGE
9. MUKANYANDWI JANVIERE : G.S GATAGARA
10. NYIRAKURADUSENGE DIANE : G.S GATAGARA




MINEDUC/WDA, December 2011 194





PHYSICS CURRICULUM FOR ADVANCED LEVEL

Option: Computer Science









MINEDUC/WDA, December 2011 195


5
1. INTRODUCTION
Rwanda intends to build a knowledge based economy, with particular emphasis on science and technology as an engine of
development. In this regard, the Ministry of education undertook the 2009 education system reform in which the system of combinations at advanced
level was introduced. In this context, the NCDC found it wise to review Physics curriculum, the 1999 edition. In this revision, the emphasis was
put on the structure of the curriculum, content and methodology in order to equip learners with enough and appropriate knowledge, skills and
attitudes.
To meet this pedagogical orientation/need, the curriculum is presented in a three column table. The content suggested in the second
column of the curriculum, has specific objectives to be attained in the first column as well as a methodological note in the third column
which suggests the appropriate teaching/ learning activities to be done.
Physics is a science subject and directly linked to our everyday life activities thus its mastery requires scientific research and
experiments. The curriculum strongly emphasises on the student practical work (laboratory experiments), project work (research work) as well as study
tours. All these learning activities should give learners the opportunity to apply Physics in different contexts, and appreciate the relevance of Physics
in our daily life.
This curriculum also helps learners to use ICT (Information and Communication Technology) tools to support the mastery and
achievement of the desired learning objectives. Technology used in the teaching and learning of Physics, for example simulation on computer, is to be
regarded as a tool to enhance the teaching and learning process and not to replace teachers.
At the end of detailed content of each grade, there is a proposal of lesson distribution to be taught per term.
2. GENERAL OBJECTIVES BY THE END OF A LEVEL
After the completion of Physics course in Advanced Level Secondary Education, the learner should be able to:
a) Apply acquired knowledge, skills and attitudes in daily life problem solving;
b) Express him/herself fluently in teaching language: written and spoken;
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6
c) Analyze situations scientifically;
d) Analyze, explain facts and practical applications of phenomena relating to daily life;
e) Identify scientific problems;
f) Collect, evaluate and interpret scientific data;
g) Present results and draw appropriate conclusions;
h) Possess knowledge and skills that would enable him /her to access studies in Physics and related courses in universities and higher
institutions of learning;
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4. LEARNERS SKILLS TO BE IMPROVED
Skills Main learning activities
Use ICT knowledgably and effectively Writing report using computer
Studying Physics using interactive multimedia material
Using experiments simulations
Doing research using available technological facilities of information
accessibility
Work independently and in a team with minimum
supervision
Doing individual work
Participating actively in team group discussion
Time management skills Doing his/her own planning
Following and respecting the timetable and scheduled activities.
Think logically, creatively and critically Thinking logically in problem solving,
Being creative in concept application
Thinking critically about an observation
Having scientific reasoning.
Communicate effectively Demonstrating scientific report writing skills
Writing a good report on experiment performed in class/laboratory
Leading group discussions
Participating actively in group discussions
Communicating clearly a scientific concept
Demonstrate an organizing ability Organizing and planning activities
Explaining the plan
Leading group discussions
Leading group activities
Following-up the realization of the planned activities
Adjusting the plan depending on the results and remarks from the
follow-up
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Skills Main learning activities
Demonstrate knowledge of basic laboratory skills (lab
precautions and hands on activities)
Paying much attention on lab safety rules and precautions,
Reading the experiment guideline,
Select the required lab materials,
Reading the notice and tags of lab materials before using it,
Using the right lab equipment in experiment,
Doing experiment and interpret the results,
Rearranging the lab materials in the right place.
Make a presentation on a given science related topic Doing a research
Doing a report
Calling out and explaining clearly the results from the research
5. METHODOLOGICAL NOTES
The use of teaching resources is crucial in enabling learners to understand Physics concepts.
Teachers should encourage learners handson activities using real or concrete materials to help them gain experience, construct
abstract ideas, obtain scientific findings, build self confidence, be independent and inculcate the spirit of cooperation.
In order to assist learners in having positive attitudes towards Physics, confidence and thinking systematically, students have to be
involved into the teaching and learning process. Good moral values can be cultivated through suitable contexts. Learning in groups should be
emphasized to help learners to develop social skills, encourage cooperation and build self confidence. Environment awareness and conservation skills
should also be developed through the teaching and learning process in the classroom by using various examples. Various teaching strategies and
approaches such as direct instruction, discovery learning, investigation, guided research or other methods must be incorporated. Among the approaches
that should be taken into consideration, we can say:
Learner-centered learning;
Different learning abilities and styles of learners (individualization);
Use of relevant, suitable and effective teaching materials;
Formative evaluation to determine the effectiveness of teaching and learning process.
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9
The choice of a suitable approach will stimulate the teaching and learning environment inside or outside the classroom. The
considered suitable approaches include the following:
Cooperative learning;
Contextual learning;
Mastery learning;
Constructivism.
In this curriculum, suggested various exercises in all chapters may be done in groups or individually.
6. EVALUATION APPROACH
Evaluation or assessment has to be planned and carried out as a part of the classroom activities. Different methods of assessment can
be conducted. These may be in the form of assignments, oral questioning and answering, observations and interviews. Based on the given responses,
teacher can rectify learners misconceptions and weaknesses and also improve his/her own teaching skills. Teacher can then take subsequent
effective measures in conducting remedial and enrichment activities in upgrading learners performances.
The teacher should organise practical tests to verify whether students have indeed acquired the basic skills suggested in this
curriculum: He/she should set standards of passing these tests. It is not recommended to evaluate students on the basis of technical terms; it is the
student's reasoning that matters.
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10
7. PROGRAMS
7.1 . PROGRAM FOR SENIOR 4
GENERAL OBJECTIVES BY THE END OF S4
At the end of senior 4, the learner should be able to:
Demonstrate the working of various optical instruments,
Solve problems related to geometrical optic, electricity and kinematics,
Draw and interpret diagrams and graphs related to geometrical optic, electricity and kinematics,
Analyze the problems and explain the phenomena of geometrical optic, electricity and kinematics,
Collaborate with colleagues in order to develop a team spirit,
Demonstrate the awareness of the nature of science, the structure and objectives of the physics course.
PART.I : GEOMETRIC OPTICS
CHAPTER I: REFLECTION AND ITS APPLICATIONS
General objectives: At the end of this chapter, the learner should be able to:
Use different types of mirrors and apply the laws of reflection in daily life situations
Specific objectives Content Learning activities
At the end of this chapter, the learner should
be able to:
- Recognise the phenomenon of
reflection
- Use a plane mirror to solve specific
practical problems
1.1 Review on Light propagation in straight line
1.2 Light reflection
- Laws of light reflection
- Reflection of light on plane mirror
- Regular reflection and diffusion of light
- The law of reversibility of light

Answer questions about linear propagation


of light

Observe reflection of light on plane mirrors

Construct graphically images of objects in


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11
Specific objectives Content Learning activities
- Solve some problems relating to light
propagation in straight line
- State the effects of translation and
rotation of a plane mirror
- Use Fermat principle to obtain the
laws of reflection and refraction
- Perform experiments of multiple
reflection of light from plane mirrors
- Interpret experimental results of
multiple reflection
- Solve problems related to reflection of
light from plane mirrors
- Describe a spherical mirror
- Determine the image formed by
graphical method
- Establish the formula of spherical
mirrors
- State the sign convention
- Solve problems related to reflection of
light in spherical mirrors
- Utilise a spherical mirror to solve
specific practical problems
- State the defects of spherical mirrors
- Use cylindrical and parabolic mirrors
to solve practical problems
- Formation of real and virtual image of an
object
- Translation and Rotation of plane mirror
- Inclined mirrors and multiple images
- Spherical mirrors:
- Curved mirrors description
- Properties of Reflection on spherical
mirrors (concave and convex)
- Graphical construction of images of
objects in spherical mirrors
- The mirror formula
- Practical application of curved mirrors
- Spherical aberrations
1.3 Other types of curved mirrors:
- Cylindrical mirrors
- Parabolic mirrors
plane mirror

Deduce properties of the formed image

Establish experimentally the laws of


reflection

Establish experimentally the formula of


rotation of plane mirror

Observe multiple images formed by inclined


mirrors

Give a description of convex and concave


mirrors specifying geometrical elements and
construct images geometrically (homework)

Perform experiments and establish the


formulae mathematically

Observe cylindrical and parabolic mirrors

Discuss in group work the use of cylindrical


and parabolic mirrors

State instruments which use curved mirrors


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CHAPTER II : REFRACTION
General objectives: At the end of this chapter, the learner should be able to:
demonstrate knowledge and understanding of the phenomenon of refraction and its laws
Specific objectives Content Learning activities
- State the laws of refraction
- Recognise the phenomenon of
refraction
- Explain the phenomenon of total
internal reflection
- Explain apparent depth
- Solve problems involving refraction
- Describe the parallel plan surfaces
- Determine the displacements of rays
through the parallel plan surfaces
- Solve problems involving parallel
plane surface
- Describe a prism
- State prism formulae
- Utilise a prism for: -measuring
refractive index
o analysing a beam of light
- Solve problems related to a prism
- Describe a lens
- Give the properties of lenses
- State types of lenses
2.1. Description of the phenomena of refraction
2.2. Laws of refraction and its applications
- Laws of refraction
- The real and apparent depth
- The critical angle
- Total internal reflection and its practical
application
- Refraction through the Parallel plane
- surfaces
2.3. Refraction through prisms
- Terms associated with refraction through
a prism
- Deviation of a ray of light by a glass prism
- Angle of minimum deviation and the
measurement of refractive index
- Dispersion of light by a prism
- Application: Total reflecting prism
2.4 Spherical lenses
- Types of lenses
- Geometrical terms of spherical thin lens

Observe refraction of light

Establish experimentally the laws of


refraction

Determine the refractive index of medium

Determine experimentally the critical angle


of refraction

Observe and describe a prism

Measure refractive index using a prism

Analyse a beam of light using a prism

Observe and describe different types of


lenses

Observe the action of lenses on a parallel


beam of light

Find experimentally the image position by a


lens

Construct geometrically images formed by


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Specific objectives Content Learning activities
- Determine experimentally the focal
length and the position of focal point
of lens
- Establish the lens formulae
- State the sign convention of lenses
- State the defects of lenses and how
they occur
- Images formed by converging and
diverging lenses
- Graphical construction of images formed
by converging and diverging lenses
- The lenses formula
- Magnification in lenses
- The power of lenses
- Defects of lenses: chromatic and spherical
aberration
different lenses

Establish experimentally the formulae of


lenses.

Determine experimentally the focal length of


a lens.
CHAPTER III : SOME OPTICAL INSTRUMENTS
General objectives: At the end of this chapter, the learner should be able to:
Use and explain the operational principle of some optical instruments
Specific objectives Content Learning activities
- Draw a diagram of an eye,
photographic camera, slide projector,
microscope and astronomical
telescope to show how they function
- Calculate magnification and power of
a microscope
3.1. Simple optical instruments:
Human eye, Magnifying glass, Camera and
slide projector
3.2.Compound optical instruments:
- Microscope and Telescope
- Magnifying power of these instruments

Use a microscope to observe cells on a


permanent slide

Use a magnifying glass to observe small


objects

Simulate the correction of the myopia and


hypermetropia by associating lenses
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PART II : ELECTROSTATICS AND DIRECT CURRENT ELECTRICITY
CHAPTER I : ELECTROSTATICS
General objectives: At the end of this chapter, the learner should be able to:
demonstrate knowledge and understanding of static electricity
describe and use capacitors in electric circuits
Specific objectives Content Learning activities
- Describe electrostatic charging of
materials
- State the two types of charges
- State coulombs Law
- Draw electric field patterns
- Distinguish between conductors and
insulators
- Explain charge distribution on
conductors of various shapes
- State the principle of superposition
- Define flux of an electrical field
through a surface
o Deduce Gausss theorem
- Define electrostatic potential and
1.1. Electrification by: Friction ; contact and
induction
1.2. Distribution of charge on the surface of a
conductor
1.3. Electric charge and coulombs Law
1.4. The concept of electric field
1.5. Electric field patterns of lines of force
- Isolated charges
- Unlike charges
- Like charges
- Uniform electric field
1.6. Electric field due to the distribution of
electric charge
1.7. Flux and Gausss Theorem
1.8. Electrostatic potential
- Electric potential energy
- Potential difference
- Electric potential due to point charge
- Electric potential due to system of

Perform experiments of charging a body by


friction

Observe the action between two like


charges and two unlike charges

Charge an electroscope by induction

Charge an electroscope by contact

Observe the action of points

Draw field lines for a point charge

Draw field lines for two like charges

Draw field lines for two unlike charges

Find experimentally the electric fields


between two parallel plates

Perform exercises on calculation of flux


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15
Specific objectives Content Learning activities
bring the idea of potential difference
- Establish relation between
electrostatic field and potential
difference
- Explain how lightning arrestors work
- Define capacitance
- Explain the charging and discharging
of a capacitor
- State the factors affecting the
capacitance of a paralleled plate
capacitor
- Determine the effective capacitance
for the series and parallel arrangement
- State applications of capacitors in
everyday life
charges
- Relationship between electrostatic field
and potential difference
- Lightning and lightning arrestor
1.9.Capacitors
- Capacitance of capacitor
- Types of capacitors
- Parallel plate capacitor
- Variable air capacitor
- Electrolytic capacitor
- Arrangement of capacitors (series and
parallel)
- Qualitative treatment of charging and
discharging capacitors
- Energy of charged capacitor

Calculate electric potential

Observe and describe different types of


capacitors

Arrange the capacitors in series and parallel

Establish formulae of capacitors in series


and in parallel
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CHAPTER II : DIRECT CURRENT ELECTRICITY
General objectives: At the end of this chapter, the learner should be able to:
Draw and interpret diagrams and graphs related to direct current electricity
set up electrical arrangements
Solve problems related to direct current electricity
Specific objectives Content Learning activities
- Draw simple electric circuits.
- Set up simple electric circuits.
- Define electric potential difference.
- Define the intensity of electric
current.
- State some sources of electric current.
- Set up electric circuits involving
ammeters and voltmeters.
- Define electromotive force; potential
difference and the internal resistance.
- Apply Ohms Law to solve problems.
- Determine the effective resistance of
resistors in series and in parallel.
- Measure resistance.
- Measure the resistivity of a material.
- State Kirchoffs Laws
- Determine the e.m.f; resistance;
internal resistance potential difference
of a combination of cells.
- Define back e.m.f; internal resistance
A.
- Identify the charge carrier or ion and
give some examples in electrolysis
2.1 Review of elements of simple electric
circuits and their respective role
2.2 Potential difference :
- Measurement of potential difference : The
Voltmeter
2.3 Electric current ( I )
- Mechanism of metallic conduction:
- I = nevA
The ammeter
2.4 Ohms Law
2.5 Pouillets Law
2.6. Rheostat and potential divider
2.7 Combination of resistances (series; parallel
and mixture)
2.8. Electric energy and power
2.9. Sources of electric current
- e.m.f; internal resistance and potential
difference a cross a Cell
- combination of cells: series; parallel and
Mixture
2.10. Electrical receptors
- Backs e.m.f internal resistance and
potential difference across a receptor

Realize a simple electrical circuit

Measure the electric intensity in a circuit

Measure the voltage at the terminals of a


resistor

Realize a potential divider

Establish experimentally the Ohms law

Establish experimentally the Pouillets law

Measure the voltage across a source of


electrical energy with and without load

Establish mathematically Kirchoffs laws


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17
Specific objectives Content Learning activities
and discharge lamps
- Determine the mass deposit
on cathode or on anode.
- Describe a cell
- Give the different types of cells and
accumulator
- Determine the efficiency of
accumulator(in energy and in charge)
- Explain how electric current flows in
liquids and gases
- Arrangement of receptors in series and
Parallel
2.11. Kirchhoffs Laws
2.12. Electric current in liquids and gases
- Electrolysis,
- Faradays law
- Cells and Electrical accumulator ;
- Discharge lamps

Realize an electrolysis of H SO
2 4

Use Faradays law to determine the mass


deposited on cathode or anode
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7.2 . PROGRAM FOR SENIOR 5
GENERAL OBJECTIVES BY THE END OF S5
At the end of senior 5, the learner should be able to:
Solve problems related involving conservation laws ( linear momentum, angular momentum and energy)
Establish the relationship between linear quantities and angular quantities
Solve problems related to heat expansion and heat transfer
Solve problems related to ideal gas laws and kinetic theory of matter
Determine the characteristics of magnetic field created by magnet and current-currying conductors
Collaborate with colleagues in order to develop a team spirit,
Demonstrate the awareness of the nature of science, the structure and objectives of the physics course.
PART I: MECHANICS
CHAPTER I : DYNAMICS OF A POINT
General objectives: At the end of this chapter, the learner should be able to:
Solve problems involving Newtons laws of motion, linear momentum, power and energy
Specific objectives Content Learning activities
- State Newtons laws of motion.
- Distinguish between the internal and
external forces acting on a system.
- Define inertia: centripetal and
centrifugal forces.
- State universal gravitational law.
Definition of Dynamics
1.1 Newtons laws of motion
- Introduction : mass and inertia
- Newtons first law of motion : the principle
of Inertia
- Definition of Galilean reference frames
- Newtons second law of motion
- Net force
- Relationship between the net force and

Determine experimentally the acceleration


of linear motion on an inclined plane

Solve problems related to each of the three


Newtons laws of motion

Determine experimentally the centripetal


acceleration
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Specific objectives Content Learning activities
- State the Keplers laws.
- Solve problems involving
Newtons laws of motion.
- Define: work; energy and power.
- State the principle of conservation of
mechanical energy.
- Give examples of transformation of
K.E . to P.E. and vice versa.
- Solve problems involving; work
energy, power and conservation of
mechanical energy.
- Define linear momentum.
acceleration ( a m F

. = )
- Newtons third law: Principle of action
and reaction
1.2.Applications of Newtons laws of motion
- Motion on a horizontal plane with or
without frictional forces
- Motion on an inclined plane with or
without friction
- Force of inertia
- Uniform motion in a circle: centripetal
and centrifugal forces
- Weightlessness
- Universal gravitation law
- Planetary motion and Keplers laws
1.3. Work, Energy and Power
- Concepts of work and energy
- Kinetic and potential energy
- Gravitational potential energy
- Elastic potential energy
- Conservation of mechanical energy
- Power: Definition, formula
1.4. Linear momentum
- Definition of linear momentum
- Conservation of linear momentum
- Generalization of Newtons second law:

Solve problems involving work, energy


(potential and kinetic) and power

Discover the vector nature of linear


momentum

Illustrate experimentally the conservation


of linear momentum
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Specific objectives Content Learning activities
- Define impulse.
- Give examples of propulsion by
reaction.
- Distinguish between elastic and
inelastic collisions.
- Solve problems involving the
law of conservation of linear
momentum.
F
dt
dp


=
- Definition of impulse
- Applications : Propulsion by reaction,
recoiling gun, lawn spray
- Elastic collision (head-on)
- Elastic collision ( not head-on)
- Inelastic collision (head-on)
- Explosion and defragmentation

Solve problems on collisions

Establish relationship between linear and


angular quantities
CHAPTER II: ROTATION OF RIGID BODIES ABOUT A FIXED AXIS
General objectives: At the end of this chapter, the learner should be able to:
Solve problems involving moments and energy in a rotational motion
Specific objectives Content Learning activities
- Define: moment of a force; moment
of a couple; moment of inertia.
2.1. Concept of rotational motion
2.2. Moment of a force
2.3. Moment of a couple of forces
- The concept of a couple
- Moment of a couple
- Moment of inertia (sphere, cylinder,
Uniform rod, disc, ring)

Solve problems involving rotational motion


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25
Specific objectives Content Learning activities
- Calculate: work done by a couple.
- Relate linear quantities to angular
quantities.
- Define: moment of a force; moment
of a couple; moment of inertia.
2.4. Work done by a force acting on a rotating
body
2.5. Work done by a couple
2.6. Angular momentum and its conservation
2.7. Kinetic energy of a rolling object
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26
PART II: HEAT AND THERMODYNAMICS
CHAPTER I: THERMAL EFFECTS
General objectives: At the end of this chapter, the learner should be able to:
Solve problems related to heat measurement and thermal expansion
Describe the different modes of heat transfer
Specific objectives Content Learning activities
- Describe a thermometer.
- State the materials whose physical
properties varies with temperature.
- Determine experimentally the specific
heat capacity of a substance by:
electrical method and method of
mixtures.
- Define linear expansion; superficial
and cubic expansions.
o Solve problems related to
expansion.
o Distinguish different modes of
heat transfer
o Describe the thermal energy
transfer processes of
conduction, convection and
radiation
1 .1 Difference between Heat and Temperature
1.2 .Me asurement of heat:
- Measurement of heat capacity and
specific heat capacity by:
o Electrical method
o Method of mixtures
1.3 .T hermal expansion :
- Linear expansion
- Area expansion
- Volume expansion (solid and liquid)
1.4. Modes of heat transfer
- Radiation
- Convection
- Conduction

Measure the heat capacity of a liquid using


the electrical method

Measure the heat capacity of a liquid using


the method of mixtures

Observe the linear expansion of an iron rod


and a copper rod

Observe the volume expansion of a liquid


contained in a balloon

Realize experiments showing the transfer of


heat by conduction

Realize experiment showing the transfer of


heat by convection
Realize experiment showing the transfer of
heat by radiation
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28 29
CHAPTER II : LAWS OF THERMODYNAMICS
General objectives: At the end of this chapter, the learner should be able to:
explain different applications of the first and second laws of thermodynamics
Specific objectives Content Learning activities
- Define internal energy and the total
energy
- Determine the work done by an
expanding gas
- State the first law of thermodynamics
- Apply the first law to gases
- Explain isothermal change
- Explain adiabatic change
- State the second law of
thermodynamics
- Describe the Carnot cycle
- Determine the efficiency of a heat
engine
. F irst law
- Internal energy
- Total energy
- Work done by an expanding gas
- Applications (isothermal process, isochore
process, isobare process etc.)
3.2. Second law
- Adiabatic change
- Carnot cycle
3.3. Applications: heat engines (Carnot engine,
Diesel engine, refrigeration)
- Efficiency of a heat engine

Visit and observe nearby heat engines

Solve problems involving efficiency of heat


engines

Observe and describe the functioning of a


fridge

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7.3 . PROGRAM FOR SENIOR 6
GENERAL OBJECTIVES BY THE END OF S6
At the end of senior 6, the learner should be able to:
Apply Amperes law, Faradays law, Lenzs law to solve various problems related to electromagnetic phenomenon.
Describe the characteristics of alternating voltages and currents
Solve problems related to periodic phenomena and waves
Determine the characteristics of Force on a current in magnetic fields
Explain the concept of modern physics
Collaborate with colleagues in order to develop a team spirit.
General Objectives: The aim of the lesson and experiment is to help the student investigate how the principle of electromagnetic
induction.
PART I: ELECTROMAGNETISM
CHAPTER I: FORCE ON A CURRENT IN MAGNETIC FIELD.
GENERAL OBJECTIVE: By the end of this chapter students will be able to show that the magnetic force on a wire is proportional to
the current in the wire and to use that force to calculate the magnetic field strength.
Specific objectives Content Learning activities
- Describe the motion of a charged
particle in a uniform magnetic field
- Determine the electron specific charge
- Describe and explain a mass
spectrograph
- Describe and explain the cyclotron
- Describe the action of a
- magnetic field on a current carrying
conductor
- Calculate a moment of a couple acting
1.1. Force on moving charge in magnetic field
- Characteristics of vector force
- Trajectory of moving charge in uniform
magnetic field
- Measurement of the electron specific charge
(
m e /
) using Helmholtz coils
- Applications:
- Mass spectrograph,
- Cyclotron

Observe the motion of a current


carrying bar conductor in a uniform
magnetic field

Observe the factors influencing the


orientation of the force

Deduce the mathematical formula


expressing the force

Observe the force of interaction


between two parallel current carrying
conductors

Establish the formula for the force


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36
Specific objectives Content Learning activities
on a rectangular coil in external
magnetic field.
- Define magnetic flux
- Give at least three practical
applications of electromagnetic
forces.
- Explain how those application devices
function.
- Explain magnetic properties of matter
- Define the magnetic permeability
- Explain the hysteresis loop
1.2. Force on a current in magnetic field
- Characteristics of vector force
- Force between parallel currents
- Torque on a rectangular coil in a magnetic
field
1.3 Work of forces on current carrying
conductor and magnetic flux
1.4 Applications :
- Cotton balance
- Barlows wheel
- Moving coil galvanometer
- Electric motor
- Loudspeaker
1.5.Magnetic properties of matter
- Magnetic permeability(

)
- Diamagnetic and Paramagnetic materials
- Ferromagnetic materials
- Magnetization curve
- Hysteresis loop
- Demagnetization
between two parallel conductors
considering the fact that one of them is
placed in a magnetic field created by
the other.

Realize a small motor with a current


carrying rectangular coil in a magnetic
field / (Using Barlows wheel)

Determine mathematically the work of


forces on current carrying conductor in
a magnetic field

Measure the magnetic field in a U-


magnet using the Cotton balance

Observe and operate magneto-electric


measuring devices (galvanometer,
voltmeter, ammeter, )

Illustrate the magnetic permeability of


different substances using a solenoid
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CHAPTER II: ELECTROMAGNETIC INDUCTION
GENERAL OBJECTIVE: By the end of the session students will understand the principle of electromagnetic induction and the basis
of Faradays Law.
Specific objectives Content Learning activities
- Describe Faradays experiment
- Give the conditions of production of
induced current.
- State the factors that influence the
magnitude of induced electromotive
force.
- State Faradays law
- Apply Lenzs law to determine the
direction of induced current or e.m.f
- Calculate the quantity of induced
electric charge.
- Demonstrate that mechanical energy
in a rotating rectangular coil in
magnetic field is transformed into
electrical energy.
- Explain self and mutual induction
phenomena
- Give at least two practical examples
of induced electromotive force.
2.1. Conditions for generation of induced
current
2.2 Faradays law
2.3 Direction of induced current
2.4 Lenzs law
2.5 Magnitude of induced electromotive force
(e.m.f.)
2.6 Induced current
2.7 Flux linkage
2.8 Quantity of induced electric charge
2.9 Transformation of mechanical energy into
electrical energy
2.10 Induced e.m.f. and force on moving
electrons
2.11 Self induction
2.12 Mutual Induction
2.13 Energy stored in a coil
2.14 Applications :
- Dynamo / Alternator
- Transformer
- Foucault currents

Realize Faradays experiment

Determine factors influencing the


induced current / e.m.f

Obtain mathematically the formula


linking the e.m.f to the magnetic flux
change rate

Observe the generation of electric


energy by a dynamo

Observe experimentally effects of a coil


a in a circuit.

Observe mutual induction between two


coils

Observe a transformer and determine its


transformation ratio (turns ratio)
MINEDUC/WDA, December 2011 217

PART II: OSCILLATIONS AND WAVES
CHAPTER I: SIMPLE HARMONIC MOTION
GENERAL OBJECTIVE: By the end of this chapter students will be able to describe simple harmonic motion
Specific objectives Content Learning activities
By the end of this topic the learner should be
able to :
- Describe simple harmonic motion
- Derive the characteristic equation of
simple harmonic motion
- Give examples of systems vibrating
with simple harmonic motion
- Determine the frequency of simple
harmonic oscillators
- Explain energy exchanges and its
conservation in oscillating systems.
- Solve problems related to simple
harmonic motion.
- Establish beats frequency
- Use a stroboscope to determine the
frequency of a vibrating system.
1.1 Kinematics and dynamics of simple
harmonic motion.
1.2Examples of simple harmonic oscillators
- Simple pendulum
- Physical (or Compound) pendulum
- Mass on a coil spring
- Liquid in a U-tube
- Torsional pendulum
1.5 Solution of the equation of simple harmonic
motion
1.6 Energy exchanges and its conservation in
oscillating systems.
1.7Superpositon of harmonic motions with same
frequency
- Parallel harmonic motions
1.8 Superposition of parallel harmonic motions
with slightly different frequencies (beats)
1.9. Using a stroboscope.

Observe the motion of oscillating


systems (simple pendulum, compound
pendulum, etc) and determine its
characteristics

Determine factors influencing the


period of oscillations in different
oscillating systems

Establish the equation of simple


harmonic motion using the second law
of Newton

Establish mathematically the total


energy of oscillating systems

Observe beats using tuning forks on


resonance box

Measure the frequency using a


stroboscope
MINEDUC/WDA, December 2011 218


CHAPTER II: DAMPED AND FORCED OSCILLATIONS
GENERAL OBJECTIVE: By the end of this chapter, students will be able to understand the free oscillations of a mass and spring,
how energy is shared between potential and kinetic energy, the effects of damping on oscillatory motion, how driving forces dominate oscillatory
motion and the effects of resonance in oscillatory motion
Specific objectives Content Learning activities
- Obtain the equation of damped and
forced oscillations
- Analyze suggested solutions
of those equations
- Draw curves of damped and forced
oscillations
- Find the time constant t and the
quality factor of damped oscillating
systems
- Draw resonance curves
- Explain the bandwidth and quality
factor of resonating systems
- Identify types of resonance
- State the advantages and
disadvantages of resonance.
2.1 Damped oscillations
- Equation of damped oscillations and its
solutions
- Damping modes and their curves (lightly,
heavily and critically damped
oscillations)
- Quality factor
2.2 Forced oscillations
- Equation of forced oscillations and its
solutions
2.3 Resonance
- Resonance curve
- Bandwidth and quality factor
- Types of resonance
- Advantages and disadvantages of
resonance

Observe the motion of oscillating


systems with friction

Establish the equation of damped


oscillations using the second law of
Newton (dont forget the friction force!)

Observe the resonance phenomena

Establish the equation of forced


oscillations using the second law of
Newton (dont forget the external force)

Draw experimentally the resonance curve


and determine its characteristics
MINEDUC/WDA, December 2011 219


CHAPTER III: ALTERNATING CURRENT
GENERAL OBJECTIVE: By the end of this chapter students will be able:
To explain the difference between alternating current and direct current, describe the basic principles of alternating current,
Describe the characteristics of alternating current with regard to resistance, inductance and capacitance
Specific objectives Content Learning activities
By the end of this topic, the learner should be
able to :
- Define alternating current.
- Explain the production of A.C
- Explain the meaning of: frequency,
amplitude, and phase of an A.C.
- Explain the meaning of root mean
square and peak values.
- Establish an equation relating root
mean square and peak value for a
sinusoidal A.C.
- Define the impedance of an AC
circuit
- Give the phase relationship between
current and p.d. in an AC circuit
- Find impedance and phase difference
between current and p.d. in various
series AC circuits (using impedance
diagrams).
- Find impedance and phase difference
between current and p.d. in various
parallel AC circuits (using complex
3.1 Properties and production of alternating
current
3.2 The root mean square (r.m.s) and peak values
of alternating current
3.3 Relationship between the r.m.s. and peak
values for a sinusoidal A.C
3.4 Characteristics of an AC circuit
- Impedance
- Phase difference between current and p.d.
3.5 Examples of A.C.Circuits
3.5.1. Simple circuits
- R circuit
- L circuit
- C circuit
3.5.2 Circuit in series
- RL Circuit
- RC circuit
- LC circuit
- RLC circuit
3.5.3 Parallel circuits
- RL Circuit
- RC circuit
- LC circuit

Observe the production of a periodic


e.m.f in a rectangular circuit rotating in
uniform magnetic field.

Measure the p.d, the frequency of an


AC using oscilloscope

Represent alternating current and p.d. in


a phasor diagram (Fresnel Diagram)

Construct a phasor diagram for the


following circuits: R, L, C

Construct a phasor diagram for the


following circuits in series: RL, RC,
LC, RLC
MINEDUC/WDA, December 2011 220



Specific objectives Content Learning activities
number method).
- Calculate the average power in AC
circuit
- Obtain the equation of free electrical
oscillations
- Compare free mechanical oscillations
and electrical oscillations in LC
circuit
- Obtain the equation of damped
electrical oscillations
- Compare damped mechanical
oscillations with damped electrical
oscillations
- Establish the conditions of resonance
- Determine the resonance frequency,
the bandwidth and the quality factor
of RLC circuit
- Use an oscilloscope to measure
amplitude; frequency; and phase of
electrical oscillations.
- Use an oscilloscope to visualize
Lissajous figures
- RLC circuit
3.6 Power in A.C. circuit
3.7 Electrical oscillations
- Circuits L-C.
- Circuit R-L-C
3.8 Resonance in series and parallel RLC circuits
- Resonance curve
- Bandwidth and quality factor
3.9 Using an oscilloscope

Establish mathematically impedance of


the following parallel AC circuits using
complex number method: RL, RC, LC,
RLC

Observe electrical oscillations in AC


circuit using oscilloscope.

Establish the equation of electrical


oscillations in LC and RLC AC circuits
using Kirchhoffs law

Observe resonance curves using


oscilloscope

Observe Lissajous figures using oscilloscope


MINEDUC/WDA, December 2011 221



CHAPTER IV: PROPAGATION OF WAVES
GENERAL OBJECTIVE: By the end of this chapter students will be able to describe the propagation of waves
Specific objectives Content Learning activities
- Describe the wave motion
- Distinguish transverse and
longitudinal waves
- Give the characteristics of waves.
- Explain the phenomena of reflection.
- Explain the phenomena of refraction
of waves.
- Interpret wave patterns of
diffraction.
- Establish progressive wave equation
- Explain the conditions of interference.
- Locate interference fringes
(Constructive interference and
destructive interference).
- Give the conditions of obtaining
4.1 The concept of wave
4.2 Types of waves
- Transverse waves
- Longitudinal waves
4.3 Characteristics of waves
- Speed of waves
- Wavelength
- Frequency
- Phase
- Wave fronts
4.4 Properties of waves
- Reflection
- Refraction
- Diffraction
4.5. Progressive waves
- Progressive wave equation
- The principle of superposition
4.6. Interference of waves
4.7. Standing waves
- Standing wave equations (fixed end and

Observe waves on a string, spring and


in a ripple tank

Observe the properties of waves in a


ripple tank

Establish mathematically the


progressive wave equation
MINEDUC/WDA, December 2011 222

Specific objectives Content Learning activities
stationary waves.
- Find the position of nodes and
antinodes in stationary waves.
free end)
- Position of nodes and antinodes
- Examples of standing waves: vibrating
strings.

Observe interference of waves in ripple


tank
Observe standing waves on a vibrating string
and in a sound waves apparatus
CHAPTER V: SOUND WAVES
GENERAL OBJECTIVE: By the end of this chapter students will be able to describe the sound waves and solve problems related to
sound waves
Specific objectives Content Learning activities
- Give the characteristics of sound.
- Establish relationship between
characteristics of notes and sound
waves
- Explain beats and establish beat
frequency
- Explain Doppler Fizeau effect.
- Give examples of musical pipe
instruments.
- Establish the fundamental frequency
and harmonic 2, harmonic 3, in
vibrating strings and in pipes
5.1The nature and characteristics of sound waves
5.2 Characteristics of notes
- Pitch
- Loudness
- Timbre (or quality)
5.3 Beats
5.4 Doppler Fizeau effect
5.5 Properties of sound waves:
- Reflection, refraction, diffraction,
interference
5.6. Musical instruments
- Musical scales
- Production of stationary sound
waves:
(Waves in strings, waves in pipes)
- Produce sounds with different
vibrating systems (guitar, tuning fork,
drum, hands, )
- Observe different characteristics of
sound
- Observe beats using tuning forks on a
resonance box
- Enumerate situations in which
Doppler effect is encountered in our
daily life (homework)
- Observe sound properties using sound
waves apparatus
- Verify laws of vibration of a fixed
string using a sonometer
MINEDUC/WDA, December 2011 223


CHAPTER VI: ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVES
GENERAL OBJECTIVE: By the end of this chapter students will be able to describe the nature of electromagnetic waves
Specific objectives Content Learning activities
- Explain the nature of light
- Describe light interference
phenomenon
- Describe light diffraction
phenomenon
- Describe the property of light
polarization.
- Explain the nature of electromagnetic
waves.
- Give the characteristics of
electromagnetic waves.
6.1 Light waves:
- Interference
- Diffraction
- Polarization of light
6.2 Electromagnetic waves
- Light and electromagnetic
waves
- Spectrum of electromagnetic waves
- Establish mathematically the position of
light interference and diffraction fringes
(Youngs experiments, Fresnel mirrors,
)
- Establish similarities between light and
electromagnetic waves (homework)
- Draw the electromagnetic waves
spectrum and highlights its different
parts (gamma rays, X rays, UV, Visible,
IR, Radio waves, )
- Discuss the polarization property of
light.
- Distinguish different polarizations of
light
PART III: MODERN PHYSICS
CHAPTER I: THE ATOM
GENERAL OBJECTIVE: By the end of this topic; the learner should be able to describe the structure of the atom
Specific objectives Content Learning activities
By the end of this topic; the learner should be
able to:
1.1 Structure of atom
1.2 Energy levels and formation of spectral lines
- Observe the spectra of radiations (light)
emitted by various substances, using a
spectroscope.
MINEDUC/WDA, December 2011 224


Specific objectives Content Learning activities
- Describe the structure of the atom.
- Explain the spectra of atomic
radiations
- - Explain how C.R.O and T.V. tubes
function.
- Study the electric and
magnetic deflections of
electrons in cathode tubes
- Distinguish fluorescent and
phosphorescent materials
1.3 Thermo electronic emission:
Cathode rays and its applications
(oscilloscope and T.V. tubes)
- Electron motion in electric and magnetic
fields
- Fluorescence
- Phosphorescence
- Discuss Rutherford and Bohr models of
atom (Enumerate similarities and
differences)
- Discuss experimental results on
hydrogen atom spectra of radiations and
show their contradiction with classical
physics (Balmer Series, Pfund Series,
Paschen Series, )
- Discuss Bohrs quantification postulates
and deduce energy levels of a hydrogen
atom
- Discuss thermo electronic emission
(thermionic emission of electrons)
phenomenon and its applications in
CRO and TV tubes
- Establish mathematically the deflection
of electron in electric field
- Establish mathematically the deflection
of electron in magnetic field
- Discuss the phenomenon of
fluorescence / phosphorescence and its
applications
MINEDUC/WDA, December 2011 225


CHAPTER II: LASER
GENERAL OBJECTIVE: By the end of this chapter students will be able to explain the principle of laser and give its applications
Specific objectives Content Learning activities
- Define a laser
- Give laser properties
- Explain the stimulated emission of
light
- Explain the spontaneous emission of
light
- Explain the principle and uses of
Laser.
2.1 Properties of laser
2.2 Spontaneous emission of light
2.3 Stimulated emission of light
2.4 Main functions and uses of Laser
2.5 Dangers of misuse of a laser light
- Observe light laser and give its
properties
- Discuss spontaneous and stimulated
emissions and their role in the
production of laser.
- Discuss applications of lasers
- Discuss the potential dangers of misuse of
lasers
MINEDUC/WDA, December 2011 226



CHAPTER III: X-RAYS
General objective: By the end of this chapter students will be able to explain the production of x-rays, as well as the operation,
purpose, materials, designs, and components of x-ray tubes
Specific objectives Content Learning activities
- Explain the production of X-rays
- State the properties of X-rays.
- Explain the uses and dangers of X-
rays.
3.1 Production of X-rays ; X-rays tubes
3.2 Properties of X-rays ; uses and dangers soft
and hard X-rays
3.3 X-rays as part of the electromagnetic
spectrum
3.4 X rays spectra
- Draw the experimental set up for the
production of X rays (X ray tube)
- Discuss the properties of X rays
- Compare X rays with
electromagnetic waves
- Discuss X rays emission spectra
- Discuss the effects and uses of X
rays
47
CHAPTER IV: THE PARTICLE NATURE OF LIGHT
General objective: By the end of this chapter students will be able to describe evidence for the particle nature o f light.
Specific objectives Content Learning activities
- Describe the photoelectric effect.
- Explain the factors affecting the
photoelectric emission.
- Explain the application of the
photoelectric effect.
- Apply the equation: hf E = to
calculate the energy of the
photoelectrons.
- Apply the Einsteins formula of
photoelectric effect
(
2
0
2
1
mv hf hf + = )
- Explain why Compton effect cannot
be understood if light is only
considered as a wave
4.1 Photoelectric effect :
- Experimental setup and results
- Factors affecting photoelectric emission;
photocurrent and kinetic energy of the
photoelectron
- photons ; work function and Plancks
constant
- Applications : Photocells
4.2 Compton effect
- Compton experiment
- Interpretation of results
- Compton wavelength
- Read the description of the
photoelectric emission experiments
and discuss the explanation of results
(What should be the expected results
if light was considered as wave? What
if light is a particle?)
- Discuss factors affecting photoelectric
emission
- Establish the formula for electrons
kinetic energy using the energy
conservation law
- Discuss how photocells or solar cells
function
- Discuss the experiment consisting in
scattering of light by electrons and
highlight the Compton effect
- Interpret the Compton effect
considering light as a wave or a
particle
- Establish the Compton wavelength
using the laws of conservation of
linear momentum and energy
MINEDUC/WDA, December 2011 227


48
CHAPTER V: ELECTRONICS
General objectives: By the end of this chapter students will be able to
- Explain the principle and state different applications of semiconductor-based components
- Explain the transmission and reception of information in telecommunication
Specific objectives Content Learning activities
- Distinguish between conductor,
insulator and semiconductor through
energy bands
- Describe a semiconductor.
- Distinguish between p and n types of
semiconductors.
- Describe voltage current
characteristics of diodes and
transistors.
- Explain the everyday use of junction
diode and transistors.
- Give practical applications of the
diodes and transistors.
- Give an idea of the basic terminology
of communication
- (using the principle of radio)
- Explain the block diagram of
communication
5.1. Semiconductors
5.1.1 Energy bands in solids
5.1.2 Intrinsic and extrinsic Semiconductors
- Charge carriers and electron-hole
- The P and N types of semiconductors
formation; majority charge carriers
5.1.3 Electronic components
- Junction diodes :
- Junction transistors
- Applications of diodes and transistors:
Electric rectification; amplification;
transistor as a switch, integrated circuits
5.2.Telecommunication
- Representing information
- Transmission of information
- Amplitude modulation
- Frequency modulation (FM)
- Simple radio receiver and transmitter
o block diagram for transmitter.
o block diagram for receiver.
- Discuss energy bands in solids and
characterize the conductors,
semiconductors and insulators
- Distinguish a semiconductors of type N
and type P
- Realize a circuit with junction diode
and observe different phenomena when
a diode is forward-biased and when a
diode is reverse-biased
- Realize a circuit with a diode and plot
the voltage current characteristics of a
diode
- Realize a circuit with a transistor and
draw its characteristics.
- Realize different experiments to
illustrate the applications of transistors
and diodes (bridge rectifier circuit,
amplifier circuit).
- Discuss the components used to carry
electrical signals along cables in
telecommunications
- Participate in a study tour (Field visit)
MINEDUC/WDA, December 2011 228


49
CHAPTER VI: INTRODUCTION TO SUBATOMIC PHYSICS
General objectives: By the end of this chapter students will be able to :
Describe fundamental and composite particles and related radiations
Explain the fundamental interactions
Specific objectives Content Learning activities
- Explain the properties of different
radiations
- Establish the rate of decay
- Give the precautions and applications
of radioactivity in the life.
- Explain the concept of particle wave
duality
- Establish the relationship between
wave and particle properties
- Distinguish between fundamental
particles and composite particles
- Distinguish between particles and
antiparticles
- State some applications for
elementary particles
- Compare matter and antimatter
- Describe how antimatter can be used
as a source of energy
6.1. Radioactivity:
- Properties of _, _ and _ radiations
- Detecting the radiations
- Activity and half-life
- Safety precautions
- Applications
6.2. Introduction to particle Physics

Particle-wave duality
o Relationship between energy and
frequency: E = hf
o Relationship between linear
momentum and wave vector

Fundamental particles :
o Quarks; Leptons; quanta of
interactions (interaction carriers)

Composite particles: protons, neutrons,

Forces of interaction
o Gravitation
- Establish the characteristics of
radiations
- Establish the exponential decay rate
- Discuss ways of detecting radiations
- Discuss ways of protection against
radiations
- Discuss the nature of a particle
- Establish the linear relationship
between energy impulse of a particle
and its associated wave frequency and
vector
- Discuss characteristics of fundamental
building blocks of matter
MINEDUC/WDA, December 2011 229


50
Specific objectives Content Learning activities
o Electromagnetic
o Weak
o Strong

Classification of particles:
o Leptons (which dont feel strong
interactions: electrons, muon, tauon,
neutrinos )
o Hadrons (which feel strong
interactions: mesons, baryons)

Antiparticle and Antimatter


- Discuss the forces which bind different
fundamental particles into different
structures
- Distinguish fundamental and composite
particles (Please use with precaution the
term Elementary Particles)
- Enumerate main properties of particles
and give corresponding classification
- Discuss the concepts of matter and
antimatter
MINEDUC/WDA, December 2011 230


51
CHAPTER VII: ENERGY PROBLEMS IN THE WORLD AND HOW PEOPLE TRY TO SOLVE THEM
General objective: By the end of this chapter students will be able to:
Explain different energy transformations and suggest solutions to energy problems.
Specific objectives Content Learning activities
- Give different forms of energy.
- Give the chain of transformation of
energy in different power generation
plants
- Explain how different power
generation plants function
- Explain the relationship between mass
and energy E=mc
2
- Assess energy needs of the world
population and how they are met
- Assess energy needs of the Rwandan
population and suggest how they can
be met

Sources of energy
o Classical sources
o Renewable sources

Transformations of energy into different


forms
o A hydro-electric power plant
o A digester
o Solar installation for cooking and
lighting
o Windmill
o Geothermal installation
o Tidal installation
o A nuclear power plant
o Thermal power plant
o Biofuel

Energy problems in the world

Energy problems in Rwanda


- Discuss different forms and sources of
energy
- Discuss the chain of transformations of
energy in different power generation
plants.
- Visit some power generation plants
Discuss energy problems in the world/
Rwanda and suggest the solutions.
MINEDUC/WDA, December 2011 231




9. BIBLIOGRAPHY
1. Advanced Physics, Tom Duncan, John Murray (2000).
2. Fundamentals of Physics, David Halliday, Robert Resnick and Jearl Walker, 7th Edition John Wily (2004).
3. Atkins, K. R., 1972, Physics--Once Over Lightly: New York, John Wiley and Sons.
4. Blight, A. R., 1976, Undulatory swimming with and without waves of contraction: Nature.
5. Calder, N., 1979, Einstein's Universe: New York, Viking Press.
6. Crease, R., and Mann, C. C., 1986, The Second Creation: Makers of the Revolution in Twentieth-Century Physics: New York,
Macmillan. 7. Davies, P., 1983, God and the New Physics: New York, Simon and Schuster.
8. Fenn, J. B., 1982, Engines, Energy, and Entropy: New York, W.H. Freeman.
9 . Physics Advanced Level, Jim Breithampt, Stanley Thornes Publishers (2000).
10. Physics, Patrick Fullick, Heinemann (2000
11. J. Bruce Brackenridge, The Key to Newton's Dynamics: The Kepler Problem and the Principia, Berkeley: University of California
Press, 1995.
12. S. Chandrasekhar, Newton's Principia for the Common Reader, New York: Oxford University Press, 1995.
13. R. Hooykaas, Robert Boyle: A Study in Science and Christian Belief, Lanham, MD: University Press of America, 1997.
14. Alan Michette and Slawke Pfauntsch, X-rays: The First Hundred Years, New York: Wiley, 1997
15. Gordon, J. E., 1978, Structures, or Why Things Don't Fall Down: Middlesex, Penguin Books.
16. Hastings, R. J., 1987, "Creation Physics" and the speed of light; Unpublished manuscript.
17. Heisenberg, W., 1958, Physics and Philosophy: New York, Harper and Brothers.
18. Hoffman, B., 1972, Albert Einstein: Creator and Rebel: New York, New American Library.
19. Lemaitre, G., 1950, The Primeval Atom: New York, Von Nostrand.
20. Morse, P., 1974, Thermal Physics: New York, Benjamin.
21. Trefil, J. S., 1983, The Moment of Creation: Big Bang Physics From Before the First Millisecond to the Present Universe: New York,
Scribner's.
22. Tryon, E. P., 1989, Cosmic Inflation, in Meyers, R. A., ed., Encyclopedia of Astronomy and Physics: San Diego, California,
Academic Press.
23. Wahr, J., 1985, The earth's rotation rate: American Scientist, v. 73
24. Weidner, R. T., and Sells, R. L., 1975, Elementary Physics: Boston, Mass., Allyn and Bacon.
25. Weinberg, S., 1977, The First Three Minutes: A Modern View of the Origin of the Universe: New York, Basic Books.
MINEDUC/WDA, December 2011 232


10
56
. ANNEX: LEAVERS PROFILES
10 . 1 . Common Leavers Profile for all Combinations:
After the completion of advanced level secondary education student should have acquired knowledge, skills and attitudes that enables
him/her to:
1) Use ICT basic knowledge and skills in his/her day to day activities;
2) Express him/her self fluently in teaching language: written, speaking;
3) Show time management skill and being organised;
4) Know and correctly use the rights given by the law;
5) Carry out and help in carrying out a scientific research related to his/her education field,
6) Work in a team, have same vision and contribute towards the attainment of the intended objectives;
7) Be well oriented and very well know what he/she intends to be in the future;
8) Show good habits that protects his /her health and others health especially against HIV/ AIDS and other diseases;
9) Develop self confidence in what he/she does and presentation skills;
10) Be self motivated and work without supervision;
11) Understand Rwandans politics and contribute to resolution of political problems in a spirit of tolerance, liberty and justice;
12) Posses general knowledge and be realistic;
13) Contribute reasonably to the economic growth;
14) Posses knowledge, skills and attitudes that enables him/her to adapt to the changes in the Rwandan society;
15) Know and respect the human rights related to the freedom of speech;
16) Posses knowledge that would enable him/her to access studies in Universities and Higher Learning Institutions;
MINEDUC/WDA, December 2011 233



17) Develop him/her self and contribute to the development of his/her country, creating and managing small/ micro income generating
projects adapted to local realities.

18) Avoid segregation, discrimination, genocide ideology and other bad
ideologies;
19) Posses self evaluation and self confidence in the work he/she does;
20) Understand and ability to explain the relationship between person and his environment hence residing among them in appropriate way;
21) Apply learnt knowledge, skills and attitudes in daily life problem solving.
MINEDUC/WDA, December 2011 234

PARTICIPANTS







- FLORENCE NYIRARUGWIRO, Kabusunzu Secondary School


- HILAIRE HATANGIMBABAZI, G.S. Indangaburezi


- FELIX GASHUGI, ESAPAG Gitwe







MINEDUC/WDA, December 2011 235






ENGLISH CURRICULUM











MINEDUC/WDA, December 2011 236
1.0. Introduction

As an official and international language, English is to be taught in Rwanda so as to facilitate national and world
communication for personal development and for the sharing of information, knowledge, skills, experiences
between Rwanda and the rest of the international community.
In more specific terms, with its current status in Rwanda as one of the official languages, English serves different
interests and purposes, the most prominent being the following ones:
1. It is a vital means of communication in national and international worlds of politics, diplomacy, business,
science and technology, etc
2. It is one of the mediums of teaching and learning in the present Rwandan education system that caters for both
the French-speaking and English-speaking Rwandan communities.
3. It is an integrating factor for the present Rwandan society, which is made up of people coming from a wide
range of cultural and linguistic backgrounds.
4. It contributes to a better understanding of other peoples cultures.
5. It should bring about an understanding and appreciation of technical achievements, their impact upon the
environment, their relation to human needs, and their special implications.

The present programme builds upon three years of General English taught at the Ordinary Level, and is intended
for students who need to understand scientific and technical subjects through English. The emphasis is not
however on teaching highly specialised language but rather on presenting a general technical language common
to crafts and technologies. Specifically the programme aims at presenting the language found in basic texts on
building and building associated trades and technologies, maintenance and repair work, metal work, tailoring,
carpentry and the fundamentals of computer and electrical technology.
MINEDUC/WDA, December 2011 237
Oral/aural work should be an essential part of the course, but the students special/contextual needs are to be
stressed rather than exclusive oral/aural communicative competence at the expense of other skills/ competences.
Reading and writing are not to be neglected, as part of the students work load will include also the reading and
writing of texts. With regard to grammar, only a small amount of coverage of essential grammar points is provided,
as most users of the programme will not be required to demonstrate a full command of English grammar. Pattern
practice is to be presented in relation to technical context and not simply as an exercise, in making sentences and
paragraphs for them.
This curriculum was reviewed by WDA in the workshop that took place at HVP GS Gatagara, from December
18th to 30th, 2011. It enters into force in academic year 2012.

2.0 General Orientation: Learners Needs
In language training, learners need to learn particular sets of specific language skills which should reflect the
following:
1. Understanding of factual information in texts related to learners subjects
2. Understanding the vocabulary of the subject including symbols, abbreviations, as well as words not necessarily
recognized as technical terminology
3. Understanding diagrams, tables etc, and are able to relate them to a text, a situation, etc.
4. An ability to identify main points, definitions, formulas, classifications, descriptions of properties, processes,
machines, etc.
MINEDUC/WDA, December 2011 238
5. An ability to discover the meaning of unfamiliar words from context
6. An ability to read, listen to and understand or write a text of more than one paragraph without any problem
7. An ability to write a simple personal and / or official letter, their own C.V., simple notices, advertisements, etc.


3. 0. General Programme Objectives
After careful analysis of the language needs of the target learners, the following broad and general language
programme objectives have been set. These objectives, therefore, do reflect and are in keeping with learner needs
as well as the language teaching policy in current Rwanda. However, they do not replace the specific objectives of
each syllabus or lesson.
By the end of the three-year programme, the learner should be able to:
1. Express himself/herself correctly in spoken and written English
2. Analyse and understand information in oral, written or graphic form
3. Work methodically, demonstrating a sense of careful observation, critical thinking, analysis and synthesis
4. Competently and fluently apply orally and in writing knowledge and skills learnt in his/her field of study
5. Analyse, describe and explain tools and their functions, situations, phenomena and case studies.

4.0 Technical English Syllabuses
In this publication the terms curriculum, programme and syllabus carry different, but interrelated, and sometimes
overlapping, meanings. Curriculum and programme are used interchangeably to refer to the general objectives
and the broad content areas that are meant for attaining those objectives. Thus, all the narrower programmes (or
syllabuses) for the seventeen options in Forms 4, 5 and 6 constitute an English language curriculum for the 5
sections/streams. This curriculum is also referred to as an English language programme for the three-year
advanced level. Syllabus, on the other hand, is employed to refer to the more specific objectives and content
areas to be covered in order to attain those objectives in three separate years: Forms 4, 5and 6.
MINEDUC/WDA, December 2011 239
Syllabus is also used here to refer to each document that guides the teacher for each of the three forms. Clearly,
therefore, curriculum or programme is term that mean more than one syllabus put together. That is why each
teaching schedule for each of the forms is referred to as syllabus.

4.1 Being Clear on Objectives, Goals and Content

The main components of a syllabus are objectives and content, and any well managed teaching and learning
process ought to have objectives and content that are clearly mapped out. In this context, the term general
objectives refer to those broad aims of putting the language programme in place. They define and describe in
general terms what kind of educational outcome (i.e. competent learner) the programme is meant to lead to. The
general objectives also represent both the underpinning educational philosophy and the language teaching policy in
current Rwanda. It is on these objectives that more specific objectives of each syllabus are based.
Specific objectives refers to the measurable linguistic and educational behaviour that the learner is expected to
exhibit after being exposed to each syllabus for each year. Here the principal role of the teacher is to facilitate the
learner towards the achievement of the objectives. It is not however easy for the curriculum developer to design
MINEDUC/WDA, December 2011 240
and prescribe any objective, cut-and-dried content, materials and methods, which the teacher should follow to the
mark. Language learning and teaching is such a complex process that it is only best to trust the teachers
professional judgement to decide what is best for his/her learners at any given time. It is for this reason that
objectives and content set out in this programme should be regarded as suggestive rather than prescriptive. The
setting of very specific objectives with measurable outcomes and the designing of tasks/activities are integral
aspects of lesson planning. Nevertheless, the teacher should exercise accountability and transparencies in setting
lesson objectives, as these should never be in conflict or inconsistent with syllabus objectives. It is essential that
inter-relationship is clearly reflected between general programme objectives, specific syllabus objectives and the
specific/operational objectives for each lesson.
The term goals is used to refer to what the individual teacher plans to achieve in order to move the learners towards
achieving the national language teaching aims and the specific syllabus objectives or the specific/operational lesson
objectives. For instance, the teacher can set his/her goal on facilitating his/her learners to have mastered the sub-
skill of note-taking by the end of five consecutive hours. What actually differentiates goals from objectives is that
the former are set from the teachers perspective, while objectives are set from the perspective of the learners.
MINEDUC/WDA, December 2011 241
Lack of core materials like course books makes it rather impractical for the curriculum developer to design
materials that exhaustively cover learning activities/tasks and the way they should be conducted. The fact that each
group of learners and each learning time is different from one another compounds the difficulty of predicting
content that is appropriate for a population like the one in question . What is indicated in the content column in the
present syllabuses, therefore, constitutes generalisations about notions, functions, concepts, knowledge, skills,
situations, etc. It is expected that each individual teacher will base himself/herself on these generalisations in
finding his/her own way to design tasks/activities and materials that are most accessible and appropriate for the
teaching-learning situation.

4.2 Receptive and Productive Skills

The syllabuses for Forms 4, 5 and 6 are presented in a series of competences/skills that the learner is to
demonstrate at the end of each years instruction. Language being a two-way system made up of reception and
production, the competences, which are sketched below in the form of objectives, have been divided into receptive
MINEDUC/WDA, December 2011 242
skills and productive skills, encompassing listening and reading activities, on the one hand, and speaking and
writing activities, on the other.
Examples of content items which might contribute to the attainment of objectives for each syllabus are listed across
in the content column on the basis of each objective. The individual teacher is invited to use his/her professional
judgment in order to make any additions, subtractions, adaptation, modifications, etc, to the content, with regard to
his/her respective class.
ENGLISH SYLLABUS FOR FORM 4
SPECIFIC OBJECTIVES CONTENT TIME ALLOCATION
By the end of the year, the
learner should be able to:
- Effectively receive
instructions in
different capacities in
his/ her professional
domain

- Attentive listening to
recorded materials: audio
and video tapes, radio, films
etc. In order to distinguish
various accents, intonation,
stress, tone etc.

5 hrs
- Handle the salient
elements of discussion
by acquainting himself
/herself with
appropriate verbal and
non-verbal
conversations and
habits of arguing out
- Salient elements of discussion
/argument: introduction,
defining terms, constructing
supporting statements,
distinguishing facts from
opinions, values, beliefs and
attitudes.

6hrs







MINEDUC/WDA, December 2011 243
facts, opinions etc.
from the perspective
of the interlocutor










- Demonstrate
understanding of
standards
- Reading : Texts dealing with
standards in the learners
respective technical fields
2hrs
- Demonstrate
understanding of
properties


- Reading: Texts dealing with
natural or inherent qualities
of materials/substances in the
learners respective technical
fields under given conditions.

2hrs
- Demonstrate
understanding of
various specifications
in his /her respective
technical fields

- Presentations dealing with
exact requirements of
qualities and quantities
established for specific
technical conditions.

4hrs
- Effectively give out
instructions in
different capacities

- Commands, instructions,
directions, requests, wishes.

2hrs
- Adopt appropriate
verbal and non - verbal
conventions and habits
- Techniques of debate :
parliamentary procedure,
argument between a
5hrs


MINEDUC/WDA, December 2011 244
of arguing out facts,
opinions, feelings,
beliefs, etc
technician and a client or
his/her employer, etc





- Write clear and
effective summaries
- Summary writing:
signposting principal ideas
and thoughts, paraphrasing,
condensing etc.

2 hrs
- Effectively express
orally and in writing
properties of
substances/materials

- Presentation: conductivity,
amplitude, temperature,
gravity,
- Acidity ,humidity, metal
behaviour, soils, sands,
corrosion, wood qualities,
texture, history of motor
engines, satellites, lamps,
radio and telecommunication,
computer uses, water and
sanitation, infrastructure,
animal product, clothing
fashions, etc.
5hrs













- Demonstrate both
orally and in writing
mastery of relevant
lexical and syntactical
- Noun phrases : nouns as
modifiers
- Connecting words: because,
where, though, how,
22hrs
MINEDUC/WDA, December 2011 245
















structures that make up
a sentence, a paragraph,
text, etc
nevertheless
- Transition words
- Tense review: past , present
perfect, past perfect, future
perfect
- Reported speech : indirect
speech, indirect questions,
indirect commands
- Passive voice : review of all
tenses
- Subordinate clauses : manner,
time, cause, place, degree,
concession, purpose, result,
condition
- Use of gerund
- Conditionals : review of if
clauses
MINEDUC/WDA, December 2011 246
ENGLISH SYLLABUS FOR FORM 5
SPECIFIC OBJECTIVE CONTENT TIME ALLOCATION
By the end of the year, the
learner should be able to :
- Effectively receive
information/ message in
different capacities in his/her
professional domain


- Attentive listening: pronunciation in
various accents, intonation, dialects,
registers on tapes, radio, TV,
teachers model, etc.
3hrs
- Listen to and understand
information and requests
given orally

- Giving and receiving instructions,
commands, requests, complaints,
wishes, etc
2hrs
- Handle the salient elements
of discussion by acquainting
himself /herself with
appropriate verbal and non-
verbal conventions and
habits of arguing out facts,
opinions, feelings, beliefs,
attitudes , etc. from the
perspective of the
interlocutor

- Listening to recorded arguments:
- Decoding facts from attitudes,
opinions, beliefs, values
- Detecting evidence, cause, effects
- Drawing conclusions
- Stress, intonation, tone of voice
- Discourse markers
- Connectives
- Body language
- Persuasion
- Explanation
- Illustration
3hrs
- Read data for - Reading : Texts dealing with 2hrs
MINEDUC/WDA, December 2011 247
comprehension, enjoyment,
sharing information and
acquisition of knowledge in
a wide variety forms and
identify the main points and
supporting details from a
given text

batteries, satellites, aerials, animal
products, climate change, art and
culture, traditional and modern
clothing materials, traditional
economics, etc.
- Read , understand ,then
answer orally questions and
requests

- Questionnaires, direct and indirect
questions, requests, etc.
1hrs
- Effectively explain various
operations in his/her technical
domain
- Group presentations about various
technical fields:
- network installation, wiring a
house
- surface coating, ceilings
- sharpening a handsaw
- printing colours, pattern cutting

5hrs
- Speak freely, fluently and
accurately when addressing
an interlocutor

- Oral forms of address

1hr
- Speak fluently and
accurately / distinctly when
addressing big audience

- Public speech: Techniques of
preparing and delivering a speech



7hrs
MINEDUC/WDA, December 2011 248
- Handle the salient elements
of a debate and adopt
appropriate verbal
conventions and habits of
arguing out facts, opinions,
feelings , beliefs, attitudes

- Debate:
- Main steps of a debate
- Techniques of debate

3hrs
- Write clear and effective
summaries

- Summary writing

1hr
- Write and present a clear and
effective report
- Report writing:
- The terms of reference
- Collecting information
- Arranging the material
- Drafting the report
- The final report

3hrs
- Make use of appropriate
strategies and techniques in
order to take meaningful
notes in a variety of
situations

Note- taking:
- Making notes from a reading
- Taking notes from lectures, oral
orders , conferences, talks, on
visits, etc.

1hr
MINEDUC/WDA, December 2011 249
- Find and use information
from a variety of given
sources, including
information sources

- Looking up information in :
- Dictionnaries
- Catalogue,
- Indexe,
- Encyclopaedias, etc.

1hr

- Fill in forms correctly
- Filling in a form:
- driving license applications
- Job applications
- Insurance claims
- Travel documents etc.
1hr

- Compose various forms of
correspondence


- Writing:
- Informal and formal letters
- Invitations
- Notices
- Announcements
- Advertisements

3hrs
- Make use of techniques of
conducting an interview

- Interview: Practice in conducting and
being given an interview

4hrs


- Demonstrate both orally
and in writing mastery of
relevant lexical and
syntaxical structures that
- Grammar ,conjugation and
vocabulary:
- Connectors
- Transition words
15hrs
MINEDUC/WDA, December 2011 250
make up a sentence, a
paragraph and a full text
- Use of the gerund
- Phrasal nouns
- Review of all tenses
- Review of adverbial clauses:
concession purpose, result,
condition.
- Review of reported speech
- Appropriate field jargon











MINEDUC/WDA, December 2011 251
ENGLISH SYLLABUS FOR FORM 6
SPECIFIC OBJECTIVE CONTENT

TIME ALLOCATION
By the end of the year, the learner
should be able to:

- Demonstrate qualities of a
good listener


- Listening with concentration
and attention: lectures,
audio tapes, video tapes,
films, radio, T.V, etc.

2hrs
- Appreciate the interlocutors
facts, feelings, opinions,
attitudes, beliefs, etc.

- Body language: facial
expressions, gestures
- Compromise
- Patience, etc.
2hrs
- Generalise and classify
information from listening,
viewing and reading

- Data collection and
classification according to
gender, genre, mode,
behavioral trends, etc.


2hrs


- Demonstrate appropriate
communication and social
skills in attending interviews



- Interview:
- Rapport with
interviewees,
- Patience, politeness
expressions, clarity of
speech, choice of
effective words, body
language, voice
7hrs
MINEDUC/WDA, December 2011 252
projection.
- Exercises
- Read data for enjoyment,
information and acquisition of
knowledge in a wide variety
forms and identify the main
points and supporting details
from a given text

- Reading, understanding and
sharing main interesting
information and ideas from
textbooks, newspapers and
other written materials.
- Text dealing with:
- Construction industry
- Radio and telecommunication
- Greenhouse effects
- Trains and locomotives
- Wood technology
- Car industry in Japan
- Sources of energy
- animal species
- nutrition ,painting and
decoration, the history of
banks and banking, etc.



4hrs














- Be able to distinguish facts
from opinion, identify
emotive and ambiguous
statements and identify
instances where expert
advice is relevant to a matter
of opinion
- Tone, intonation, stress
- Sales literature
(advertisements...)
- Political speeches
- medical opinion
- technical radio
programmes
3hrs
MINEDUC/WDA, December 2011 253
- Speak freely, fluently and
accurately when addressing an
interlocutor
- Oral forms of address

1hr
- Speak fluently and accurately /
distinctly when addressing big
audience

- Public speech: Techniques of
preparing and delivering a
speech

- 3hrs



- overcome psychological
barriers
( e.g. stage fright) that might
interfere with his / her fluent
and competent expression
while addressing an
interlocutor or/ an audience


- Public speech:
- Body language
- Strategic use of audio-visual
aids, eye contact, voice
projection, etc.
- Continuous oral practice :
debates, dialogues, group
discussions, expos etc.
- Accepting and
responding to others
view
- 10hrs
- Compose intelligible and
various forms of
correspondence for public
consumption
- Writing:
- Advertisements,
announcements, notice,
etc.
- Purchasing orders,
proformas
- Formal letters
- 3hrs
- Organize content, write
effectively and with observation
of the conventions of legibility,
- Report writing
- The terms of reference
- Collecting information
- 3hrs


MINEDUC/WDA, December 2011 254
spelling, punctuation and
grammar

- Arranging the material
- Drafting the report
- The final report




- Demonstrate both orally and in
writing mastery of lexical and
syntaxical structures that make
up a sentence, a paragraph
and a full text


- Grammar and conjugation
- Review of the
conditional
- Review of reported
speech : difficult
forms
- Review of subordinate
clauses
- Special constructions:
e.g. the perfect
infinitive
- Vocabulary:
appropriate field
jargon

- 15hrs
- Use the telephone effectively Telephone messages,
conversations

1hr



MINEDUC/WDA, December 2011 255
Teachers Notes

1. Preamble
Looking at the language needs already signposted in this programme, one can conclude that the main
purpose of teaching in the target context is to enable learners to communicate effectively with each
other, with their teachers, with other people in their respective technical fields and with the general public
using English as a medium. The ability to communicate competently and effectively (frequently referred
to in this literature as communicative competence or skills) does not come by automatically or through
learning the theory of the target language (i.e. metalanguage). Recent research on second language
acquisition and learning is replete with evidence that successful language learning is enhanced by the
learner immersing himself/herself in practising language skills (i.e. listening, speaking, reading, writing,
vocabulary and grammar) within a relevant social context. The central role of the teacher in such a case
is, therefore, that of setting learning activities/tasks and of managing the learning process in such a way
that the learners are facilitated to acquire and learn technical language relevant to their respective
trades..
2. Which methods?
It is not easy for any syllabus designer to prescribe a single method for the teacher or learner. The best
strategy is for the teacher to acquaint himself/herself with the various language teaching
approaches/methods to be able to decide which one/ones is/are appropriate to his/her teaching context.
He /she should employ his/her own intuition and professional experience to formulate, select, adopt and
adapt methods that are most suitable to the teaching - learning environment, which is normally
influenced by such variables as learning styles/preferences/characteristics of each class, available
material resource to aid teaching-learning activities and tasks, time constraints, administrative/
MINEDUC/WDA, December 2011 256
institutional constraints, etc. It is impossible for any programme to predict what each teaching - learning
environment will look like.
It has already been suggested that the target learners need to develop efficiency and
effectiveness/competence in communication skills (especially reading and writing), with the assumption
that they have a sound basis in listening and speaking. It is nonethe- less, safer for the individual
teacher to treat this generalisation carefully by analysing the peculiar needs of his/her particular class so
that he/she can set more specific goals and objectives as well as prepare specific content and determine
the most appropriate methods, according to arranged priorities. In current English language research
and practice communicative language teaching is in vogue, but this is not without challenges. The
approach has come under fire due to its overemphasis on such things as speaking at the expense of
other skills. Another weakness of the approach is that it objectifies all language learning contexts,
disregarding specific needs of certain specific contexts.
Furthermore, the concept of being communicative is itself open to subjective interpretation, hence
subjective implementation of the so - called communicative syllabuses. Apparently, the purpose to
communicate in each context influences the relative emphasis on any one of the language skills. This is
why the teacher is conceived as having an upper hand in identifying the specific needs and priorities of
his/her class than a remote, detached syllabus designer.




MINEDUC/WDA, December 2011 257
3. Methodological guidelines
3.1. Language skills
The following guidelines are only an indicative sketch to stimulate the individual teacher to engage in
critical reflection of his/her professional practice. The so-called guidelines should not be regarded as
absolute gospel to be followed to the mark.
3.1.1. Listening

Most listening takes place in very unstructured, unexpected and unpredictable ways, especially outside
class time. It is feasible and viable for the teacher to prepare and conduct more structured listening
activities/tasks for the learners, such as audio and video tapes, records/songs, films, etc. The most
spontaneous listening opportunity, however, is listening to the teacher as well as to colleagues inside
and outside the classroom. Good listening practice should expose the learner to a variety of English
accents, dialects and registers (especially those pertinent to the respective technical and professional
fields).
3.1.2. Speaking

Many ELT researchers often advance the view that competence / fluency in speaking a language is a
sure indication that someone knows that language. Much as there is a lot of truth in such a claim, it is
contended that it is insufficient to be able to listen, comprehend and produce fluent speech in the
second / foreign language but be deficient in reading, writing, grammar and vocabulary. Besides, in
some specific contexts like the technical fields in question, using the language most meaningfully
MINEDUC/WDA, December 2011 258
means the learners ability to fully integrate all the language skills and adapt them to the respective field.
The following strategies and techniques might lead to successful speaking practice:
i). Asking the teacher questions
ii). Answering the teachers questions
iii). Dialogue between the teacher and the learner or role-plays among learners,
iv) . Discussions / debates between the learner and another learner in pair or small groups,
v). Classroom presentations / exposs in topics related to respective teaching fields: Here the learner
selects a topic from a wide range of topics, or formulates his / her own topic related to his / her
respective technical field and then prepares a presentation on it. The teacher might intervene only by
spelling out specifications of that presentation (e.g. length, duration, broad theme, etc)
3.1.3. Reading

Like listening, most reading is unstructured, unpredictable and carried out by learners outside class time
(e.g. reading lecture notes, texts books, journals, newspapers, letters, signposts, notices, reports,
novels, etc). The teacher should strive to stimulate the learners interest in both intensive and extensive
reading, which they can efficiently and effectively carry out outside class time. Structured opportunities
for reading can be designed by the teacher. Here are a few examples:
(i) Intensive reading of short passages to sort and extract main ideas or thoughts and supporting
details
(ii) Intensive reading of reference texts aiming at fast and analytical reading for information and
data. This aims at building confidence and familiarising the learner with the language used in
their respective fields (electricity, electronics, mechanics, construction, carpentry, tailoring,
MINEDUC/WDA, December 2011 259
public works, telecommunication, accountancy, computer science, veterinary, forestry, arts,
sculpture , sewing, agriculture).
(iii) Extensive and methodical reading of prescribed readers (i.e. simple story books) to gain
experience of language use in respective technical fields.

3.1.4. Writing
Writing, both as a skill and an exercise, is a recursive process which involves progressive stages. The
progress begins with thinking out ideas and thoughts, through noting these down in a sketchy point form,
to making a rough draft, to reviewing, correcting and revising, to producing a final draft. Tests and
examinations, however, do not cater for all the stages due to time pressure; this fact should be made
known to the learners so that they may differentiate process writing in the daily practice of writing and
writing for examination purposes.
Very often, learners privately carry out writing activities outside class time, so they thus do self-directed
writing practice (e.g. friendly letters, e-mail, articles, etc). Structured and supervised forms of writing may
be organised by the teacher in the following ways:
(i) Guided composition (including all forms of writing, e.g. letters, reports, announcements,
advertisements, etc). The teacher should aim at striking a balance between formative writing
(i.e. writing activities which train the learner how to write meaningfully and evaluative writing
(i.e. writing tasks which focus on the finished product, with an intention of assessing the
learners competence or accuracy in that skill, e.g. composition in tests and examination).
(ii) Note -taking and note-making : These are very invaluable strategies for developing writing
competence in the learners. In such situations as lectures, the learners learn over a period of
time how to write fast and correctly, while putting their listening skill to full use. Also, the
learners develop such techniques as paraphrasing , summarising, classifying data, etc. The
MINEDUC/WDA, December 2011 260
learners in the target context have to grape with the academic requirements of their courses in
which making notes is one of the main learning activities they are continuously engaged in.
They read on their own relevant materials and compile their own notes, which they then utilise
for revision purposes as they prepare for tests and examinations. Here again, the learners
make use of summarising and paraphrasing, among other techniques.

4. Technical/professional language skills

As stated in the introduction, this programme aims at enabling the student to use English functionally
and to allow him/her to express him/herself clearly and lucidly within his/her own specialised trade and in
subjects closely allied to it. Within that context and in view of the limited number of hours allocated to
the subject matter, the programme puts emphasis on seven topics around which the technical language
is to be organised:
1. Description and explanation
2. Giving instructions
3. Comprehension and interpretation
4. Note- taking
5. Summarizing
6. Letter writing
7. Reports



MINEDUC/WDA, December 2011 261
4.1. Description and Explanation

These are the two basic forms of exposition. They answer the questions WHAT? HOW? and WHY ?
- What is insurance?
- How does a computer work?
- Why is an insurance necessary for a car owner?

The important task in describing and explaining is to make sure that your students obtain as clear an
idea as possible of the object or process and that they fully understand what they read or see. To do
this, you should:
a) know the capabilities and back ground of your students
b) be aware of the purpose and limits of the description or explanation
c) select and arrange the material in the best way
d) choose your words correctly
e) be concise in expression
f) be free from ambiguity
g) 0present the material in an interesting way





MINEDUC/WDA, December 2011 262
4.2. Giving instructions

Giving instructions is not as easy as many teachers think. Some credit their students with the power of
mind - reading.
When giving instruction always consider the following points:
a) What is the back-ground of yours students? Have they the ability to understand all that you are
saying?
b) Are you giving the instructions at a suitable time?
c) Are the instructions so worded that they are not only easy to remember?
d) Have you allowed sufficient opportunity for the student to question and confirm?
e) Are you bothering to confirm that your instructions have been received and understood?

Effective instructions may include demonstrations and illustrations and the technique of careful repetition
to ensure complete understanding and absorption of the information.
4.3. Comprehension and interpretation

Understanding what the students read is not an automatic process. It involves hard work and demands
intense concentration, particularly if the writer is not helpful in his presentation of the material. They must
be able to read and take the ideas from the page with speed and accuracy.


MINEDUC/WDA, December 2011 263
Reading efficiently depends upon:
a) Good reading ability
b) Concentration
c) Sound back-ground knowledge
d) Wide vocabulary
e) Good knowledge of English
f) Taking into account what they are looking for.

4.4. Note- taking

When taking notes the students should
a) Have a definite purpose
b) Be aware of the limits of that purpose
c) Keep the overall subject in mind as they select facts
d) Keep their notes in neat order, using headings, subheading and enumeration
e) Be prepared to amend their division suddenly if the lecture or book is boldly organised

4.4.1. Making notes from a reading:
Make notes in the following way:
a) Skim the passage or book to discover :
- the theme
- the scope
- the line of development
b) Note down the main divisions and construct suitable headings. Use existing headings if they can
help.
MINEDUC/WDA, December 2011 264
c) Under each heading make brief but clear notes of the main points, or those points which they
wish to retain

4.4.2. Taking notes from lectures

A typical well organized lecture will probably have such a framework as this:
- The introduction of subject
- Explanation
- The repetition of the main points to ensure it has gone home
- The summing-up and practical conclusion

When taking notes, the following pieces of advice may help:
a) To be prepared by giving some thought to the topic before hand
b) To listen carefully for the key introductory phrases
c) To space their notes reasonably. Use of proper notebook, or sheets of paper, etc
d) To number their notes, especially sequence and lists.
e) To keep awake





MINEDUC/WDA, December 2011 265
4.5. Summarizing

The process of summarizing is not an easy one and there is no quick and easy way to develop the
technique. It involves
h) the ability to read efficiently
i) the ability to understand
j) the skills of judgment and selection
k) the art of interpretation and representation

Much of the work in the sections dealing with comprehension and interpretation and the art of note -
taking serves as a preparation to making summaries.
Remember that a summary should be:
a) a selection of the main facts or ideas, or the facts required by the students
b) their representation of these ideas
c) a connected, grammatical piece of writing









MINEDUC/WDA, December 2011 266
5. Monitoring, Assessment and Evaluation

Monitoring refers to the following up of the process of teaching and learning by the teacher. It entails
such actions as knowing to what extent the learners are interested in a lesson, checking whether the
objectives set for a given lesson have been achieved, or whether the content prepared for the lesson
has been covered. Assessment is used here to refer to the measurement of how successful the
individual learner has achieved the learning objectives set for him/her. It is treated differently from
evaluation, which in this context means the measurement of how successful or effective the teaching-
learning process has been, or how efficient and successful the teacher has been in pursuing his/her
teaching goals. Despite the semantic distinctions, nevertheless, assessment (e.g. quizzes, tests, exams)
and evaluation (e.g. . appraisal sheets, observation schedules, questionnaires) are meant for measuring
whether teaching and learning have been effective and efficient enough, and whether the objectives the
teacher has set for his/her learners have been achieved. They serve as quality control measures for
standards monitoring and maintenance or improvement. It also promotes accountability and motivation
on the part of the teacher and the learners. When assessment or evaluation policies and procedures are
MINEDUC/WDA, December 2011 267
effective, remedial work, aversion of problems and strategies for further learner motivation are easy to
attain.
The world of assessment and evaluation is a very contested, controversial and complex one. Part of its
complexity is to do with the existence of variables or outcomes which are not easily measured. For
instance, what is good or bad teaching? ; Is there any foolproof way of measuring the extent to which
teaching and learning have taken place? ; Is there any single most reliable assessment or evaluation
instrument? How much is the demarcation between the learners incidental or self-directed learning and
the learning directed by the teacher? ; Etc. These and other unanswered questions give a glimpse of
what assumptions are usually made about testing and measuring, and how it is not easy to attain
reliability when only one form or procedure of assessment/evaluation is employed.
Monitoring the teaching-learning process, assessing the learners progress and evaluating the quality of
teaching are part of the teachers professional responsibility as manager of his/own class. In reality there
are those assessment and evaluation tasks and procedures which the teacher designs and conducts.
MINEDUC/WDA, December 2011 268
However, there are others which are designed by the school, regional authority or the Ministry of
Education. The focus of this programme is on the classroom-based type of assessment and evaluation.

Assessment or evaluation can be formal / structured (e.g. marked homework exercises, quizzes, tests,
examinations, graded oral or aural exercises, appraisal sheets, questionnaires, etc) or informal (e.g.
unmarked essay writing, learner-directed grammar and vocabulary exercises, oral questions and
answers, teacher self-observation, casual and unrecorded observation of learners, etc). Assessment
and evaluation can also be formative/continuous (e.g. continuous assessment tests and quizzes during
the term) or sommative (e.g. examinations at the end of the term or year). Also, assessment/evaluation
can be either norm-referenced (aiming at achieving certain standards of performance, e.g.
formal/structural accuracy, high grades or marks, etc) or criterion-referenced (aiming at meeting certain
conceded criteria, e.g. communicative effectiveness, wholesomeness of content rather than accuracy of
form, etc). Whatever form is chosen by any teacher at any one time, the triangulation through a variety
of them should be seen to contribute to the improvement of language learning and teaching.
MINEDUC/WDA, December 2011 269

The nature of the programme under review is such that the syllabuses that comprise it are to be followed
by students pursuing seventeen different options. It is up to the individual teacher to set lesson
objectives and teaching goals pertinent to his/class needs and interests. This will provide him/her the
basis for devising assessment and evaluation procedures and tools most relevant to his/her teaching-
learning context, e.g. oral questions, written exercises, quizzes and tests, examinations, etc.
The art of test construction, administration and analysis cannot be discussed in a scope like the present
one. Where applicable, each teacher should be self-reliant in knowing what is best to measure, how to
measure it, when to measure it and what best can be done with the results. On the whole, however,
excessive and frequent testing has often been censured partly for its association with learner
intimidation. It has also been criticised for its tendency towards the washback effect (i.e. the teachers
propensity for prompting his/her students to rote-learn only the content he/she will assess them on, thus
limiting their learning opportunities). In addition to principles already mentioned above, that the teacher
should provide the learner with support, understanding, guidance and advice is an underlying principle of
MINEDUC/WDA, December 2011 270
any good assessment policy. Furthermore, the teacher should make use of his/her evaluation results to
improve his/her teaching.
6. Assessment and Evaluation Formats

(a) Class-based and school-based assessment (i.e. heavily dependent on each individual school
policy)

1. strategic questioning techniques monitoring and short-term learner assessment, whereby the
teacher makes remedial adjustments, provides correct answers, stimulates further learning,
provides further guidance or reinforces motivation.

2. Continuous oral and written presentations, exercises, quizzes, tests, etc
3. Formal trimly examinations
4. End-of-syllabus or end-of-year examination (for promotion to the next year in Forms 4, 5 and 6 )

(b) Assessment at national level
1. English examination from Workforce Development Authority (WDA) at the end of Form 6.

(c) Class-based and school-based evaluation (i.e. heavily dependent on each individual school policy)
MINEDUC/WDA, December 2011 271
1. Strategic questioning techniques employed in evaluation tools( e.g. teachers self-appraisal sheets,
appraisal schedules on teachers teaching from the learners or colleagues in observation
sessions ; questionnaires filled out by students to evaluate the teachers teaching, progress reports
from students at the end of the term or year, etc.),
2. Continuous oral and written presentations, exercises, quizzes, tests, etc (but this is only to some
extent, as one cannot be absolutely sure if apparently successful performance measured with
grades/marks is a true indicator of the teachers or learners competence)
3. Formal term and yearly examinations
4. End-of-year or end-of-programme examination at the end of Form 6

N.B.
+ The trend of most assessment and evaluation policies and systems is to assume that marks or
grades for language tests and examinations are clear indicators that the teacher has done his/her job
well or badly and that the learners have or have not attained relative communicative competence.
What undermines this assumption is the fact that many assessment instruments like tests and
examinations focus on certain skills, while other skills are neglected or overlooked. Consequently, it is
not uncommon to come across students with high scores or grades in written sommative assessment
who cannot communicate effectively in speech or even in continuous writing. A major deficiency in
such an assessment instrument is likely to be over-concentration or over-weighting of vocabulary and
grammar structures at the expense of the other four skills. Therefore, the most effective instrument for
measuring communicative competence is seen as one which rotationally focuses and
weights listening, speaking , reading, writing and vocabulary and grammar competences.

MINEDUC/WDA, December 2011 272
+ In most school-based and national formal assessment situations, existing logistics make it practically
difficult to assess certain skills, e.g. lack of recorders and tapes for testing listening ; lack of other
aspects of technology and qualified manpower for recording and analysing students spoken
discourse ; time pressure ; etc. That is why most language tests and examinations might find it only
practicable to concentrate on reading comprehension and writing at the expense of listening and
speaking. The classroom teacher should, therefore, lay strategies to make up for this shortcoming.
For example, he/she can stipulate in his/her scheme of work and lesson plan listening and speaking
tasks which are meant for assessment. However, the biggest constraint is that this form of
assessment must be in harmony with the assessment policies and procedures recommended by the
respective school as well as by the Ministry of Education. In other words, it is desirable that grades
accrued through continuous assessment of that nature should have a place in each students entire
performance profile.

(d) Evaluation at school level and at national level

Ideally, in addition to external inspection, each school should have its own internal strategies, policies
and procedures for evaluating to what extent it is implementing syllabuses and curricula from Workforce
Development Authority. Usually learners, teachers, educationalists in the Government and the general
public use students performance grades to measure the success of education programmes. Current
MINEDUC/WDA, December 2011 273
research on assessment and evaluation is challenging all the interested parties to review the policies,
criteria, procedures and instruments in use; but this is outside the scope of this publication.

Specifications for class-based and school-based assessment

+ Each teacher will give out regular oral and/or written quizzes.
+ Each teacher will give out regular quizzes or presentations/exposs of about 5 minutes on well
defined language points.
+ Each class will do one supervised test plus at least two graded homework each term.
+ Each class will do various upgraded homework exercises.
+ Each class will do at least one test each term, with focus on content that has already been covered.
+ Each class will do at least one examination each year, with focus on content that has been covered
so far.




MINEDUC/WDA, December 2011 274
Recommendations

For this programme to be successfully implemented in the Technical Secondary Schools of Rwanda
(TSS), some requirements should be met:
1. Availability of qualified, competent and motivated teachers ;
2. In-service training seminar/workshop for English language teachers for the purpose of orientating
them before they begin to teach the present programme - this is in addition to regular in-service
programmes ;
3. Provision of core textbooks and other teacher and student support materials;
4. Government investment in and promotion of materials development carried out in Rwanda and
targeting English Language Teaching (ELT) in the Technical Secondary Schools (TSS), in
particular, motivating teachers who are interested in writing ELT materials ;
5. Provision of audio-visual teaching aids such as cassette players and tapes, radio, TV sets
,newspapers, periodicals, etc ;
6. Monitoring and evaluation by Workforce Development Authority (WDA) ,the institution , should
make follow-up visits to the classes after introducing the present programme in order to be able to
monitor and evaluate the programme implementation ;
7. Setting up extracurricular activities in schools with the aim of promoting the practice of English
language skills (e.g. the English and drama clubs, film clubs, etc.)
8. Promotion of research in the field of ELT, in general, and in the sub-field of English for Academic
Purposes/English for Specific Purposes ;
9. Taking into account the discrepancies with regard to the weekly time allocated to this course in
English, Workforce Development Authority (WDA) should set two different national examinations:
one should be designed for Secretariat, Tourism, Hotel Operations and Graphic Arts, and the other
for the rest of the Technical Secondary Schools (TSS).

MINEDUC/WDA, December 2011 275
7. Bibliography

i. English in Electrical Engineering and Electronics by Eric Gledinning, Publ. Oxford
University Press.
ii. Basic Technical English by Jeremy Comfort, Steve Hick and Allan Savage Publ.
Oxford U. Press
iii. A First Course in Technical English by B. Wood, H. Templeton, M. Webber, publ.
Heinemann Educational Books.
iv. English for Technical Students by David Bonamy, publ. Longman .
v. English for Motor Vehicle Technology by H. Templeton, publ. H.E.B.
vi. English for Mechanical Science by H. Templeton, publ. H.E.B.
vii. A Dictionary of Electronics by E.C. Young, publ. New Penguin Books.
viii. The Use of English for Technical Students by R.A. Kelly, pul. Hazzap.

Designed by: NSABIMANA Justin
KANA F. Xavier
MWUNGERI Evariste





MINEDUC/WDA, December 2011 276
Participants in the curriculum review
1. Eng. HABIMANA Theodore, Director of TVET Training, WDA
2. MPAMO Aim, Supervisor Curriculum Development, WDA
3. KARAMUTSA Gerard, WDA Facilitator
4. HATEGEKIMANA Gratien, WDA Facilitator
5. TURATSINZE Pacifique, WDA Facilitator
6. MUKANGARAMBE Judith, WDA Facilitator
7. NDAHIRO Andre, WDA Facilitator
8. Filius UZAMUGURA, Trainer at E.S. NKOMERO
9. Hilarie NIYOTWAGIRA, Trainer at G.S GATAGARA
10. Laetitia USABYIMBABAZI, Trainer at ESAPAG








MINEDUC/WDA, December 2011 277




PROGAMME DE MATHEMATIQUES











MINEDUC/WDA, December 2011 278
Introduction

Les programmes de mathmatiques des sections techniques niveau A2 renforcent les notions acquises au tronc commun et
ont la double mission suivante : permettre lapprenant de mieux comprendre les notions techniques et prparer ce dernier
lenseignement suprieur spcialis.

Ces programmes abordent les notions de gomtrie plane, gomtrie de lespace, gomtrie descriptive, algbre et statistique
descriptive.

Le programme de la 4
me
anne aborde les lments de gomtrie plane, gomtrie de lespace, trigonomtrie, quations et
inquations du 1
er
et du 2
me
degr, puissances et logarithmes, nombres complexes, matrices, dterminants et rsolutions des
systmes linaires.

Le programme de la 5
me
anne aborde les notions danalyse (tude complte dune fonction numrique dune variable relle)
la gomtrie descriptive et achve ltude des nombres complexes.

Quant au programme de la 6
me
anne, il aborde le calcul intgral, ltude des fonctions logarithmiques et exponentielles, la
gomtrie descriptive et la statistique descriptive.

Les programmes dvelopps pour le niveau A2 comprenant :
- les orientations gnrales
- les objectifs gnraux
MINEDUC/WDA, December 2011 279
- les objectifs spcifiques, les contenus notionnels et les rfrences bibliographiques par niveau dtude
- lapproche dvaluation par cycle
- les facteurs particuliers relatifs ces contenus

















MINEDUC/WDA, December 2011 280
Orientations gnrales

Les programmes de mathmatiques proposs pour les sections techniques niveau A2 renferment des contenus notionnels
indispensables lassimilation des contenus des cours techniques.

Le technicien A2 doit tre performant, cratif et comptitif sur le march de lemploi comme employ ou comme employeur.
De plus le technicienA2 doit tre mme de suivre lenseignement suprieur spcialis.
Les dveloppements thoriques seront allgs, limportance sera attache aux exercices varis choisis dans les thmes des
cours techniques de chaque spcialit.

Objectifs gnraux

1. Dvelopper une pense claire, logique et cohrente
2. Dvelopper lesprit de rigueur, dorganisation et de synthse
3. Dvelopper les qualits de soin, ordre, prcision et clart travers le trac des figures gomtriques, lexcution et la
prsentation des tches
4. Reconnatre le rle doutil jou par les mathmatiques dans diffrents domaines de la vie pratique.
5. Dvelopper les capacits dobservation et de schmatisation par la reprsentation plane des figures de lespace.
6. Dvelopper lesprit de jugement et de prise de dcision fonde sur une argumentation logique.




MINEDUC/WDA, December 2011 281
4
me
Anne

Objectifs spcifiques Contenus notionnels
A la fin de ce programme, lapprenant devra tre capable de :
1. Identifier et construire les figures gomtriques du plan ;
reconnatre leurs proprits et calculer leurs aires



2. Matriser les techniques de construction des courbes du
second degr.


3. Raccorder des arcs avec soin et prcision



4. Appliquer le calcul vectoriel la rsolution des problmes
des cours techniques



Chap. 1. Rappels : Formes gomtriques planes

1.1. Figuras gomtriques du plan, Triangles, quadrilatres,
polygones rguliers et cercle.
- Dfinitions et proprits
- Constructions et calculs daires

1.2. Constructions des courbes du second degr : (Parabole,
hyperbole, ellipse, ovale, etc.)
- Mthodes de construction

1.3. Raccordement darcs
- Mthodes de construction

Chap2. Calcul vectoriel

2.0. Rappels
- Oprations sur les vecteurs du plan (Addition, soustraction,
multiplication par un rel)
- Norme dun vecteur

MINEDUC/WDA, December 2011 282



5. Appliquer la notion du produit scolaire la rsolution des
problmes des cours techniques











6. Reprsenter les lments de lespace et dterminer leurs
positions relatives


2.1. Produit scolaire
Dfinition et proprits
2.2. Distance
- Proprits






Chap 3. Gomtrie de lespace

3.1. Elments de lespace ; points, droites et plans
3.2. Positions relatives de droites et de plans :
- Intersection de 2 droites
- Intersection dune droite et dun plan
- Intersection de 2 plans
- Droites gauches

3.3. Projections parallles et thorme de Thals
MINEDUC/WDA, December 2011 283

7. Dfinir les projections paralllles et leurs applications

8. Identifier , dessiner et caractriser les principaux solides
gomtriques, en calculer laire latrale, laire totale et le
volume.

9. Dfinir le cercle trigonomtrique et convertir les diffrentes
mesures dangles.


10. Reprer laide du cercle trigonomtrique le sinus, le
cosinus, la tangente dun angle quelconque ; vrifier des
identits remarquables

11. Utiliser les nombres trigonomtriques des angles
remarquables et des angles associs.
12. Acqurir la capacit de lire les nombres trigonomtriques
dun angle donn dans une table.

13. Reprsenter graphiquement les fonctions circulaires

14. Appliquer les notions de trigonomtrie la rsolution des
triangles et/ou des problmes de topographie

15. Utiliser les formules de transformation dans les calculs et
dans la vrification des identits.

3.4. Solides gomtriques :
- Reprsentations et projections
- Calculs daires et des volumes


Chapitre 4. Trigonomtrie

4.1. Cercle trigonomtrique
- Dfinition et proprit

4.2. Nombres trigonomtriques dun angle :
- Dfinitions et relation fondamentales
4.3.Nombres trigonomtriques des angles remarquables et des
angles associs(opposs,complmentaires, supplmentaires,)
4.4. Tables des nombres trigonomtriques : (Information)
4.5. Reprsentation graphique point par point des fonctions
circulaires

4.6. Relations trigonomtriques dans un triangle rectangle,
relations trigonomtriques dans un triangle quelconque ;
rsolutions des triangles rectangles et quelconques, problmes de
MINEDUC/WDA, December 2011 284




16. Rsoudre les quations du 1
er
degr une inconnue ;
reprsenter graphiquement une fonction du 1
er
degr ;
rsoudre algbriquement et graphiquement les systmes






17. Rsoudre les quations et inquations du second degr
une inconnue ainsi que des problmes se ramenant au
second degr et interprter graphiquement leurs solutions





topographie

4.7. Formules de transformation


Chapitre .5. Algbre

5.1. Rappels : Equation, inquation, fonction du 1
er
degr et
systmes dquations linaires.
- Dfinitions, rsolution, dans R, des quations et
inquations du 1
er
degr une inconnue
- Reprsentation graphique point par point dune fonction du
1
er
degr.
- Systmes dquations linaires ;
- Systmes de 2 quations 2 inconnues
- Systmes de 3 quations 3 inconnues
- Dfinitions et rsolutions
5.2. Equations et inquations du second degr une inconnue ;
- Dfinitions, rsolutions, dans R, de lquation

- Rsolution et discussion de lquation gnrale du second
degr
- Proprits des racines dune quations du second degr
- Factorisation de
MINEDUC/WDA, December 2011 285






18. Reprsenter graphiquement le fonction




19. Utiliser les proprits des puissances et des radicaux
dindice n (n 2) dans les calculs.


20. Appliquer les notions de progressions arithmtiques et
gomtriques dans la rsolution des problmes



5.2.2. Inquations du second degr :
- Dfinition, rsolution et reprsentation des solutions sur une
axe.
- Equations paramtriques avec contraintes sur nombre et le
signe des racines,
- Rsolution, dans R, dquations rductibles au second
degr (Equations rciproques, quations irrationnelles
simples)
- Rsolution des problmes du second degr

5.3. Fonction du second degr
- Dfinition
- Reprsentation graphique dune fonction du second degr
- Reprsentation de Y= ax
2

- Reprsentation de Y= ax
2
+ bx + c

5.4. Puissance exposants rationnels et radicaux dindice n (n 2)
- Dfinitions, proprits, oprations

5.5. Progressions arithmtiques et gomtriques :
- Dfinitions,
- proprits,
- recherche dun terme quelconque,
- calcul de la sommes des termes

MINEDUC/WDA, December 2011 286


21. Utiliser les proprits des logarithmes dcimaux dans la
rsolution des quations




22. Utiliser les formes algbriques et trigonomtriques dun
nombre complexe non nul dans la rsolution des problmes
du domaine technique









5.6. Logarithmes dcimaux ;
- Dfinitions
- proprits;
- Oprations ;
- rsolution des quations logarithmiques





Chap.7. Dterminants et systmes dquations linaires

7.1. Matrices
- dfinitions, criture et terminologie
Notamment : lment dune matrice, lignes, colonnes, ranges,
types de matrices, matrices m x n , matrices carres (dordre 2
et 3), matrices lignes, matrices, colonnes, criture gnralise
dun lment dune matrice :, transpose dun matrice
- galit de deux matrices de mme type
- oprations sur les matrices
* addition de deux matrices de mme type
* multiplication dune matrice par un nombre rel
MINEDUC/WDA, December 2011 287








23. Appliquer les proprits des matrices et des dterminants
la rsolution des systmes de n quations n inconnues (n
s 3 )
* multiplication de deux matrices
7.2. Dterminants
- dterminant dune matrice carre dordre 2, calcul du
dterminant dune matrice carre dordre 3 par la rgle des
mineurs ; calcul de dterminants dordre 3 par la rgle de
Sarrs
- proprits des dterminants

7.3. Rsolution de systmes n quations n inconnues (n s 3) ;
mthode de Cramer


Chap.8.Logique mathmatique

8.1. Proposition et table de vrit
8.2. Conjonction, Disjonction, negation
8.3. Implication et quivalence
8.4. Quantificateur



MINEDUC/WDA, December 2011 288
5
me
anne

Objectifs spcifiques. Contenus notionnels






A la fin de ce programme, llve doit tre capable de :
Utiliser les proprits des limites et drives la
rsolution des problmes techniques faisant appel la
notion dtude des fonctions numriques et leurs
reprsentations graphiques.





Chapitre I Analyse

1.1. Gnralits sur les fonctions numriques dune variable relle
1.1.1 Dfinitions et exemples
- Fonction
- Fonction paire, fonction impaire
- Fonction priodique
- Fonction croissante
- Fonction dcroissante
- Domaine (ensemble ) de dfinition

1.2. Limites
1.2.1 Approche intuitive de la notion de limite dune fonction en un
point (appartenant ou pas au domaine de dfinition)
1.2.2 Limite gauche et limite droite
1.2.3 Proprits des limites finies
1.2.4 Extension de la limite lorsque les valeurs de la variable ou
celles de la fonction tendent vers linfini : Rgles de calcul
1.2.5 Cas dindtermination
(

, , . 0 ,
0
0
)
1.3. Continuit
1.3.1 Continuit en un point, discontinuit en un point
1.3.2 Continuit sur un sous ensemble de R
MINEDUC/WDA, December 2011 289















Dterminer les asymptotes au graphe dune fonction
numrique donne

- Proprits des fonctions continues
- Oprations sur les fonctions continues
- Thorme de valeurs intermdiaires
1.3.3 Fonction rciproque dune fonction strictement monotone
1.3.4 Fonction bornes
1.4 Asymptotes
1.4.1 Dfinitions
1.4.2 Dtermination des asymptotes horizontales, verticales, et
obliques
1.5 Drives
1.5.1 Drive dune fonction en un point ou nombre driv en un point
1.5.2 Drivabilit et continuit
1.5.3 Interprtation gomtrique du nombre driv en un point
1.5.4 Fonctions drive
1.5.6 Oprations sur les fonctions drivables
1.5.7 Proprits des drives
1.5.8 Applications des drives
1.6 Tableau de variation dune fonction numrique
1.7 Plan dtude dune fonction et trace de sa courbe reprsentative
Types de fonction tudes :
- Fonction rationnelles

- c bx ax x + +
2
( 0 = a )
MINEDUC/WDA, December 2011 290


Calculer la drive dune fonction donne en un point
donn et interprter graphiquement et physiquement
les rsultats






Etudier les fonctions numriques et faire la
reprsentation graphique de manire propre et prcise







- d cx bx ax x + + +
2 3
( 0 = a )

-
d cx
b ax
x
+
+
( 0 = c )

-
e dx
c bx ax
x
+
+ +

2
( a 0 = d )

-
f ex
d cx bx ax
x
+
+ + +

2
2 3
(a 0 = e )

- Fonctions irrationnelles

px x 2 (Parabole)

2 2
x a
a
b
x ( Ellipse)
2 2
a x
a
b
x (Hyperbole)

- Fonctions trigonomtriques
MINEDUC/WDA, December 2011 291


















- Fonctions avec expressions contenant des valeurs absolues.
MINEDUC/WDA, December 2011 292
Objectifs spcifiques Contenus notionnels
Etablir les quations des droites et des plans dans
lespace










Utiliser les proprits du produit scalaire dans des
situations techniques tires des cours techniques.




Chapitre II Gomtrie
2.1 Calculs vectoriels dans lespace
2.2 Equations des droites de lespace
- Equation vectorielle
- Equations paramtriques
- Equation cartsienne
2.3 Equations de plan dans lespace
- Equation vectorielle
- Equations paramtriques
- Equation cartsienne
2.4 Produit scalaire dans lespace
- Dfinition
- Proprits du produit scolaire
- Norme dun vecteur
- Cessants dun couple de vecteurs
- Orthogonalit de vecteurs
- Repre orthonorm
- Expression analytique du produit scolaire
2.5 Orthogonalit
- Droites orthogonales
- Droite perpendiculaire un plan
- Plans perpendiculaires
- Plans parallles
- Distance dun point un plan
- Angles de droites et de plans
- Distance commune de 2 droites gauches
2.6 Intersection de plans
MINEDUC/WDA, December 2011 293










Dterminer analytiquement les positions relatives des
lments de lespace

Utiliser les proprits du produit vectoriel et mixte dans
la rsolution des phnomnes physiques




- Intersection de deux plans
- Intersection dune droite et dun plan
2.7 Le produit vectoriel dans lespace
- 2.7.1 Dfinition du produit vectoriel
- 2.7.2 Proprits du produit vectoriel
- 2.7.4 Produit mixte dans lespace

Chapitre III Gomtrie descriptive

3.1 Construction des courbes
- Ovale
- Ensemble de panier
- Ellipse
- Parabole
- Hyperbole
- Dveloppante du cercle
3.2 Projections de points, droites et plans
- Projections dun point
- Projections dune droite quelconque, de droite particulires
- Positions relatives de 2 droites
- Projections dun plan quelconque
3.3 Projections de polydres
- Projections de prismes et pyramides
Rguliers dont les bases sont parallles
lun des plans de projection
- Section plane dans un prisme rgulier vu dans une pyramide
rgulire lorsque le plan rencontre toutes les latrales
3.4 Sections du cne
MINEDUC/WDA, December 2011 294
Construire avec soin et prcision certaines courbes
planes






Reprsenter les projections planes des figures de
lespace









- Cne de rvolution
- Construction des sections : deux mthodes
- Section elliptique du cne
- Section hyperbolique du cne
3.5 Mthode de Monge
1. Etude de la droite
2. Etude du plan
3. Intersection de 2 plans
- Intersection dune droite et dun plan
- Droites et plans perpendiculaires
- Perpendiculaire commune 2 droites gauches
- Problmes classiques

Chapitre IV Nombres complexes

6.1. Ensemble C des nombre complexe :
- Dfinition et proprits
- oprations dans C
- forme algbrique dun nombre complexe
- module dun nombre complexe,
- conjugu dun nombre complexe ;
6.2. Calculs dans le corps des nombres complexe
- racines carres dun nombre complexe
- quation du second degr dans C
6.3. Reprsentation gomtrique dun nombre complexe.
- Affixe dun point ; affixe dun vecteur
6.4. Formes trigonomtriques dun nombre complexe
- arguments dun nombre complexe non nul
- forme trigonomtrique arguments dun produit et dun
MINEDUC/WDA, December 2011 295

Dterminer lintersection dun cne avec un plan dans
diffrentes positions et excuter les constructions qui sy
rapportent.




Appliquer la mthodes de Monge dans les constructions
des droites, plans et dans lexcution des problmes
classiques.





Utiliser les nombres complexes pour rsoudre les
problmes techniques faisant appel au calcul
trigonomtrique et les nombres complexes.



4.1 Rappel : Forme trigonomtrique dun nombre complexe
4.2 Racines dun nombre complexe
- Racines de lunit, reprsentation graphique
- Racines dun nombre complexe
4.3 Applications des nombres complexes
- Calculs des nombres trigonomtriques
Dangles multiples dun donn
- Etablissement des identits trigonomtriques par le formule de
MOIVRE
- Rsolution des quation et inquations trigonomtriques simples
- Construction des polygones rguliers de cts et dterminations de
la longueur des cts et de lapothme en fonction du rayon

MINEDUC/WDA, December 2011 296
6
me
anne
1. Objectifs spcifiques Contenues notionnels
A la fin de ce programme, llve doit tre capable de :
Utiliser les fonctions cyclomtriques dans les cours
techniques








Utiliser les fonctions logarithmes et exponentielles dans
la rsolution des problmes rencontrs dans les cours
techniques



Chapitre I. Analyse

1.1. Fonctions
1.1.1. Rciproque dune fonction strictement monotone
1.1.2. Dfinition des fonctions cyclomtriques
x arcsin x
x arccos x
x x arctan
anx ar x cot
1.2. Fonctions logarithmes et exponentielles
1.2.1. Fonction logarithme nprien
- Dfinitions : f : x x ln
- Proprits
- Valeur approche du nombre e
- Etude et reprsentation graphique
- Equations logarithmiques
- Fonctions contenant des logarithmes
1.2.2. Fonction exponentielle de base e
- Dfinition, notation f :
x
e x
- Proprits
- Etude et reprsentation graphique
- Equations exponentielles
- Fonctions contenant des exponentielles de base e.
MINEDUC/WDA, December 2011 297


















1.2.3. Fonctions logarithmes de base (a o et a = 1)
- Dfinition : f : x x
a
log
- Proprit
- Drivation
- Etude et reprsentation graphique
- Logarithmes de base a
- Changement de base
- Equations logarithmiques

- 1.2.4. Fonctions exponentielles de base a (a o et a = 1)
- Dfinition f :
x
a x
- Proprits
- Relation entre
- Drivation
- Etude et reprsentation graphique
- Equations exponentielles

1.3. Notion de diffrentielle
- Dfinition
- Proprits
- Diffrentielle des fonctions usuelles
- Interprtations gomtrique de la diffrentielle
- Application : calculs appropris
1.4. Fonctions primitives
- Dfinition
- Proprits

1.4.1. Primitives immdiates
MINEDUC/WDA, December 2011 298






Utiliser la diffrentielle dans la rsolution des problmes
rencontrs dans les cours techniques




Calculer les primitives et les intgrales des fonctions
usuelles et les appliquer la rsolution des problmes
des cours techniques




Formules de primitives des fonctions dj tudies
1.4.2. Mthodes de primitivation
- Primitivisme par dcomposition
- Primitivisme par parties
- Primitivation par changement de variable

1.4.3. Primitivation de certaines classes de fonctions
- Fonctions rationnelles
- Fonctions irrationnelles
- Fonctions trigonomtriques





1.5.Intgrale dune fonction continue
- Dfinition :
}
b
a
dx x f ) (
- Proprits
- Mthodes dintgration : calcul dintgrales
- Applications : calcul de longueur, calcul daires dune surface plane
et dun volume dun solide de rvolution

MINEDUC/WDA, December 2011 299


















1.6. Equations diffrentielles (1
er
degr, 2
e
degr)

Chapitre II. Gomtrie descriptive

2.1. Etude des plans bissecteurs des plans de projection
- Elments du second bissecteur
- Elments du premier bissecteurs

2.2. Polydres
- Dtermination des artes visibles et caches dun corps opaque
reprsent en double projection orthogonales
2.3. Rabattements
- Problmes du relvement
2.4. Mthodes des rotations
2.5. Mthodes des changements des plans de projection

Chap III. Statistique des descriptive

1.1. Rappel : Paramtres de position dune srie statistique
1.2. Caractristiques de dispersion dune srie statistique :
- tendue,
MINEDUC/WDA, December 2011 300

Rsoudre les quations diffrentielles simples se
ramenant aux problmes techniques ( circuit lectrique
etc.. .)


Dterminer les projections planes des figures situes
dans les plans bissecteurs



Reprsenter le vu et le cach et appliquer les
techniques apprises dans la rsolution des problmes
de dessin technique






- intervalle interquartile,
- cart moyen,
- variance et cart- type,
- coefficient de dispersion
1.3. Comparaison de deux sries statistiques
1.4. Sries statistiques doubles
- Sries statistiques 2 variables
- Ajustements linaires
- Mthodes graphiques
- Mthode des moyennes mobiles et chelonnes
- Mthode des moindres carrs
- Droite de rgression

- Corrlation linaire


MINEDUC/WDA, December 2011 301
A partir des exemples construits ou donns, reprsenter
graphiquement une srie double et dterminer le cas
chant, un ajustement linaire main leve ou par la
mthode des moindres carrs.





Dterminer lefficacit de cet ajustement linaire en
fonction du contexte.









MINEDUC/WDA, December 2011 302
Proposition de rpartition de la matire du programme de 4
me
anne, Niveau A2.


Contenu Nombres dheures
Formes gomtriques 10
Calcul vectoriel 8
Gomtrie de lespace 18
Trigonomtrie 24
Algbre 20
Puissances et logarithmes 10
Nombres complexes 15
Dterminants et systmes linaires 15
TOTAL : 120





MINEDUC/WDA, December 2011 303
Bibliographie (non exhaustive)

1.DPES - RWANDA : Gomtrie de lespace, 1
re
et 2 partie, Livre de llve, Imprisco-Kigali, Octobre 1988, Octobre 1989
.
2. CONDAMINE M : Algbre linaire et gomtrie, 1
re
CDE , Delagrave, 1970
3. GAUTIER C et al : Aleph, Mathmatique, 1
re
AB, Hachette, Paris,1974
4. GARNER H et al : Mathmatiques, Terminale D, Bordas, Paris, 1989
5. DPES RWANDA : Complexes 5 anne, Livre de llve, Imprisco- Kigali, Fvrier 1990
6. BOUTRIAN E et al : Savoir et savoir faire en mathmatiques, 4
me
anne niveau B, H. Dessain, Lige
7. GUION : Trigonomtrie rectiligne, A.De Boeck Wesmael, Bruxelles
8. MAS - GALANP Anne et al : Mathmatiques 2
me
scientifique, Collection Inter Africaine de mathmatiques EDICEF 58,
Rue Jean Blenzen 92178 Vanves CEDEX
Notes mthodologiques

Les dveloppements thoriques dans le cours de gomtrie de lespace seront limites au strict minimum. Le professeur veiller
donner de nombreux exercices.
Pour les constructions des courbes, le professeur veillera au soin et la prcision des travaux des apprenants
Lintroduction des nombres complexes se fera partir de la rsolution de ax
2
+ bx + c = 0 dans R avec D < 0
Les proprits des matrices seront nonces et on veillera donner plusieurs exercices sur les matrices dordre 2 et 3.

MINEDUC/WDA, December 2011 304
Proposition de rpartition de la matire du programme de 5me anne, Niveau A2

Contenu Nombre dheures

Analyse I 40

Gomtrie de lespace 30

Gomtrie descriptive 30

Nombres complexes 20

Total 120
Bibliographie (nom exhaustive)

1. VERSCRAGER R, : Dessin scientifique II Ed, J..Van In S.A -Lierre
2. DPES-RWANDA, : Complexes 5
e
, livre de llve, impresco-Kigali, 1990
3. GAUTIER C et al : Aleph 1 Analyse, terminale D, Hachette, Paris, 1976
4. GAUTIER C et al : Aleph 1 Gomtrie, Terminale CE,Hachette,Paris,1974
5. GAUTIER C et al : Aleph 1 Algbre / Gomtrie 1re CDE, Hachette, 1974
6. ADAM A et al : Mathmatique 6B,A de Boeck, Bruxelles 1991.
MINEDUC/WDA, December 2011 305
Notes mthodologiques

1. Le professeur insistera graphiquement les dfinitions de limites et continuit les thormes seront noncs mais non
dmontrs le professeur insistera sur des exercices diversifis.
2. Pour le chapitre sur les nombres complexes, le professeur insistera sur les exercices puiss dans les cours techniques.
3. Les cours techniques de gomtrie de lespace sera essentiellement analytique.




Proposition de rpartition de la matire du programme de la 6
me
anne, Niveau A2


Contenu Nombres dheures
Analyse II 52
Gomtrie descriptive 42
Statistique descriptive 26
Total :120


MINEDUC/WDA, December 2011 306
Bibliographie (non exhaustive)

1.VERSCHRAGEN R : Dessin scientifique II ,Ed J. Van In SA - Lierre
2. DESLOOVERE : Cours de gomtrie descriptive, A De Boeck - Wesmael, Bruxelles, 1986
3. DPES - RWANDA : Cours de statistique. Livre de llve, Imprisco - Kigali, dcembre1988
4. GANTIER C et al : Aleph 1 Analyse Terminale D, Hachette, Paris, 1976
5. GAUTIER C, TERRAL : Mathmatiques, Terminales2, Hachette, Paris, 1983
6. AUDIGIER M.N. et al : Mathmatique, Terminale C/E
7 .DPES - RWANDA : Analyse 6
e
, Livre de llve, Imprisco - Kigali, Dcmbre 1986

Notes mthodologiques

1. La fonction exponentielle de base e sera introduite avant la fonction logarithme nprien

2. Le professeur insistera plus sur les exercices que sur les dveloppements thoriques.




MINEDUC/WDA, December 2011 307
Approche dvaluation


1. Ncessit dune valuation rgulire

Un contrle rgulier du travail des apprenants est absolument indispensable tous les niveaux dtudes.
Il permet au professeur de :
- sassurer de lefficacit des stratgies utilises
- apprcier le progrs ralis par les apprenants
- soccuper individuellement ou en petits groupes des apprenants qui prouvent des difficults.

Pour lapprenant, lvaluation rgulire est un stimulant important qui lui permet deffectuer une srie dactivits qui fixent les
notions apprises.

2. Type dvaluation

2.1. Le travail des apprenants en classe.
Une premire valuation doit avoir lieu pendant le cours. Aprs la comprhension de la squence dapprentissage, les
apprenants font des exercices dapplication.
Chaque apprenants doit avoir un cahier dexercices rserv cet effet.
Les cahiers dexercices seront rgulirement contrls et viss par le professeur.

MINEDUC/WDA, December 2011 308
2.2. Les devoirs

a) Devoirs surveills en classe
b) Devoirs domicile

Les devoirs surveills en classe seront corrigs par les apprenants sous la supervision de leur professeur.
Les devoirs domicile seront faits dans un cahier et le professeur devra sassurer si tous les exercices ont t faits.

2.3. Les interrogations crites

Les interrogations courtes et frquentes habituent les apprenants travailler rgulirement.
Elles permettent aussi au professeur de juger du degr dassimilation de la matire prcdente avant davancer dans le
programme.
Les interrogations gnrales averties portant sur une matire plus vaste seront organises.

2.4. Les examens crits

Les examens crits seront organiss la fin de chaque trimestre.
Un examen de fin de trimestre doit tre minutieusement prpar selon les suivantes :
a) dterminer les objectifs valuer
b) formuler plusieurs questions par objectif valuer et ce de manire graduelle.
c) Fixer la rpartition des points par question et/ou par tape de rsolution
MINEDUC/WDA, December 2011 309
d) Couvrir toute la matire vue au cours du trimestre.
La grille de correction doit tre la plus complte possible pour assurer une correction uniforme. Lexamen crit doit tre corrig
ultrieurement en classe par le professeur.

Facteurs particuliers

1. Le professeur de mathmatiques doit dployer des effets particuliers pour montrer lapprenant le bien fond de
lenseignement des mathmatiques et le relation troite entre la matire enseigne et les problmes pratiques de la vie.
2. Compte tenu des difficults particulires que rencontrent les professeurs de mathmatiques des coles techniques, il
est recommand une concertation rgulire des enseignants dune mme cole ou des coles voisins.
3. Pour une bonne exploitation des programmes labors, il est recommand dorganiser des sminaires de formation des
professeurs de mathmatiques des coles techniques. Il est aussi recommand de rendre disponible les moyens
matriels et humains pour la rdaction des manuels adapts aux programmes proposs.
4. Le professeur doit crer chez lapprenant une certaine motivation qui le conduira considrer les mathmatiques
comme un outil indispensable lexercice de sa profession.
5. Les horaires des cours ne devraient pas placer les cours de mathmatiques des heures chaudes de la journe ou
des moments o les apprenants sont fatigus. Les heures de mathmatiques devraient se suivre.
6. Lapprenant devrait disposer dune calculatrice pour certains calculs qui exigent une grande prcision. Le professeur
devra former lapprenant lutilisation de la calculatrice.